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Sample records for phosphorus vapor pressure

  1. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  2. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  3. Vapor Pressure of GB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER U.S. ARMY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING COMMAND ECBC-TR-686 VAPOR PRESSURE OF GB James H. Buchanan...275 °C under a flow rate of 20 seem UHP -grade helium for 5 min and transferred to the ACEM 900 tenax focusing trap maintained at 40 °C. Transfer...a flow rate of 8.0 seem UHP grade helium for 5 min to affect sample transfer to the gas chromatographic column. The 15 m x 0.53 mm i.d. fused silica

  4. Precision ozone vapor pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Mauersberger, K.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure above liquid ozone has been measured with a high accuracy over a temperature range of 85 to 95 K. At the boiling point of liquid argon (87.3 K) an ozone vapor pressure of 0.0403 Torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 0.7 percent. A least square fit of the data provided the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for liquid ozone; a latent heat of 82.7 cal/g was calculated. High-precision vapor pressure data are expected to aid research in atmospheric ozone measurements and in many laboratory ozone studies such as measurements of cross sections and reaction rates.

  5. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  6. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  7. Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method that uses a simple apparatus to measure vapor pressure versus temperature in a closed system, in which the total pressure is the vapor pressure of the liquid sample, is described. The use of this apparatus gives students a more direct picture of vapor pressure than the isoteniscope method and results have generally been quite…

  8. Layered Black Phosphorus as a Selective Vapor Sensor.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-23

    Black phosphorus is a layered material that is sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. This is generally considered as a disadvantage, especially when compared to more stable layered compounds, such as graphite or MoS2. This sensitivity is now turned into an advantage. A vapor sensor that is based on layered black phosphorus and uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as the detection method is presented; the device selectively detects methanol vapor. The impedance phase measured at a constant frequency is used as a distinctive parameter for the selective quantification of methanol, and increases with the methanol concentration. The low detection limit of 28 ppm is well below the approved exposure limit of 200 ppm. The results are highly reproducible, and the vapor sensor is shown to be very selective in the presence of other vapors and to have long-term stability.

  9. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.; Poirier, M.

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  10. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  11. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vapor pressure. 796.1950 Section 796... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a... the vapor pressure of chemical and on environmental conditions which influence diffusion from...

  12. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vapor pressure. 796.1950 Section 796... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a... the vapor pressure of chemical and on environmental conditions which influence diffusion from...

  13. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vapor pressure. 796.1950 Section 796... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a... the vapor pressure of chemical and on environmental conditions which influence diffusion from...

  14. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vapor pressure. 796.1950 Section 796... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a... the vapor pressure of chemical and on environmental conditions which influence diffusion from...

  15. Vapor pressure of water nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damián A

    2014-03-26

    Classical thermodynamics is assumed to be valid up to a certain length-scale, below which the discontinuous nature of matter becomes manifest. In particular, this must be the case for the description of the vapor pressure based on the Kelvin equation. However, the legitimacy of this equation in the nanoscopic regime can not be simply established, because the determination of the vapor pressure of very small droplets poses a challenge both for experiments and simulations. In this article we make use of a grand canonical screening approach recently proposed to compute the vapor pressures of finite systems from molecular dynamics simulations. This scheme is applied to water droplets, to show that the applicability of the Kelvin equation extends to unexpectedly small lengths, of only 1 nm, where the inhomogeneities in the density of matter occur within spatial lengths of the same order of magnitude as the size of the object. While in principle this appears to violate the main assumptions underlying thermodynamics, the density profiles reveal, however, that structures of this size are still homogeneous in the nanosecond time-scale. Only when the inhomogeneity in the density persists through the temporal average, as it is the case for clusters of 40 particles or less, do the macroscopic thermodynamics and the molecular descriptions depart from each other.

  16. Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D. J.; O'Rourke, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

  17. The vapor pressure of iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, A. G.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Vapor pressure measurements have been made on pure iron pentacarbonyl between +31 and -19 C. The experimental results may be expressed by the logarithm of pressure (mm Hg) to the base 10 equals -(2096.7 K/T) + 8.4959, which corresponds to a heat of vaporization for the liquid carbonyl of delta H ? (9.588 plus or minus 0.12) kcal/mole. This result confirms and extends the earlier measurements made by Trautz and Badstuebner between 0 and 140 C. The need for careful purification of commercially available iron pentacarbonyl is emphasized, particularly for establishing the correct vapor pressure below 45 C.

  18. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    several assumptions that are not exact. These are, primarily, that heat of vaporization (the slope of the vapor pressure curve) does not vary with...account the variation in heat of vaporization with temperature, and accurately describes data over broad experimental ranges, thereby enabling...units; however, the fit determined using one unit system will only correspond to that using the same data in another unit system if unrounded values

  19. Vapor Pressure of 2-Chlorovinyl Dichloroarsine (Lewisite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Streams of Compounds for Determining Vapor Pressure 11 3. Vapor Pressure of Lewisite I from Multiple Sources: Conant, Sumner , Lewis , Keyes, Price...of Lewisite I from Multiple Sources: Conant, •; Sumner , +; Lewis , 0; Keyes, •; Price, T; Baxter, A; Redemann, A; Mohler, < Mann, > ; Gibson, *; this...number of publications in the open literature by Green and Price,4 Lewis and Perkins,5 Mann and Pope, Mohler and Polya7 and Gibson and Johnson.8

  20. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Kleinschmidt, P.D.; Haire, R.G.; Brown, D.

    1980-01-01

    Precise vapor pressure measurements by target collection/mass spectrometric Knudsen effusion techniques were combined with crystal entropy estimates to produce self-consistent free-enrgy functions, permitting calculation of heats, entropies and free energies from 298/sup 0/K to the highest temperatures of measurement. The vapor pressures and thermodyamics of vaporization of americium, curium, berkelium, and californium are compared in terms of electronic structure and bonding trends in the trans-plutonium elements. These resuslts are contrasted with the behavior of the early actinides, with attention to energy states and possible effects of f-electron bonding. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Droplet vaporization in supercritical pressure environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Patrick V.; Peters, Bruce D.

    For most liquid-fueled combustion systems the behavior of the fuel as it is introduced to the combustion zone, often by spray injection, will have a significant impact on combustion. The subsequent combustion may be affected to a considerable degree by the initial spread of the liquid, break-up of larger fuel sheets and droplets into droplets of various sizes, droplet vaporization, and diffusion of gaseous fuel. Among the many factors which affect spray break-up and droplet vaporization are the environmental conditions into which the spray is introduced. For both diesel engines and rockets the environment pressure and temperature may be above the critical pressure and temperature of the injected fuel. In a compression-ignition internal combustion engine, the environment consists primarily of air, at pressures from 20 to 100 atmospheres and temperatures ranging from 900 to 1500 K. Even higher pressures are encountered in turbocharged diesels. A typical diesel reference fuel, dodecane, has a thermodynamic critical pressure of about 17 atmospheres, and a critical temperature of 600 K. Fuel is injected into a diesel engine environment in which ambient pressures exceed the critical pressure. While droplet temperatures are subcritical at first, they may rise to the critical temperature or higher. This paper will survey current understanding of supercritical pressure droplet vaporization. Specifically, the topics covered will include: liquid phase behavior; vapor phase behavior; thermodynamic and transport properties; droplet distribution and break-up; micro-explosions; and effects of microgravity.

  2. Vapor pressures of acetylene at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, C. M.; Allen, John E., Jr.; Kraus, G. F.; Khanna, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheres of many of the outer planets and their satellites contain a large number of hydrocarbon species. In particular, acetylene (C2H2) has been identified at Jupiter, Saturn and its satellite Titan, Uranus and Neptune. In the lower atmospheres of these planets, where colder temperatures prevail, the condensation and/or freezing of acetylene is probable. In order to obtain accurate models of the acetylene in these atmospheres, it is necessary to have a complete understanding of its vapor pressures at low temperatures. Vapor pressures at low temperatures for acetylene are being determined. The vapor pressures are measured with two different techniques in order to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures. In the first, the acetylene is placed in a sample tube which is immersed in a low temperature solvent/liquid nitrogen slush bath whose temperature is measured with a thermocouple. The vapor pressure is then measured directly with a capacitance manometer. For lower pressures, a second technique which was called the thin-film infrared method (TFIR) was developed. It involves measuring the disappearance rate of a thin film of acetylene at a particular temperature. The spectra are then analyzed using previously determined extinction coefficient values, to determine the disappearance rate R (where R = delta n/delta t, the number of molecules that disappear per unit time). This can be related to the vapor pressure directly. This technique facilitates measurement of the lower temperatures and pressures. Both techniques have been calibrated using CO2, and have shown good agreement with the existing literature data.

  3. Vapor pressures of the aqueous desiccants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T.W.; Luo, C.M.

    1999-09-01

    The vapor pressures of the aqueous desiccants lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and their mixtures were measured at their typical operating concentrations and at temperatures from 298 K to 313 K. The experimental data were fitted to an Antoine type of equation, ln[P(kPa)] = A {minus} B/[T(K) + C], where A, B, and C are constants and are concentration dependent. Vapor pressure data were further used to predict the effectiveness of dehumidification in liquid desiccant dehumidifiers.

  4. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) “Pascal” (Pa) is the standard international unit of vapor pressure and is defined as newtons per square... transpiration) procedures use a current of inert gas passed through or over the test material slowly enough to... variety of chemical types and structures, EPA has sponsored research and development work at...

  5. Low-pressure, chemical vapor deposition polysilicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B. D.; Crotty, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    The low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of polycrystalline silicon was investigted. The physical system was described, as was the controlling process parameters and requirements for producing films for use as an integral portion of the solar cell contact system.

  6. Vapor pressures of the polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Wania, F.

    1999-05-01

    The vapor pressures of the supercooled liquid P{sub L} for 17 polychlorinated naphthalene congeners were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The method was calibrated with vapor pressure data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which had been measured by other techniques. These data were employed to predict temperature-dependent vapor pressures for all polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from a regression with published retention time indices. Enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub VAP}H and activity coefficients in 1-octanol were calculated for the PCNs and compared with those for polychlorinated biphenyls. Data analysis suggests that the dependence of P{sub L} and {Delta}{sub VAP}H on molecular size, as well as the partitioning behavior into 1-octanol of the PCNs, is very similar to that of coplanar PCBs, i.e., those congeners with no or only one chlorine substitution in the ortho positions. The affinity of these chemicals to 1-octanol increases with the degree of chlorination.

  7. Vapor Pressure, Vapor Composition and Fractional Vaporization of High Temperature Lavas on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Schaefer, L.; Kargel, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Observations show that Io's atmosphere is dominated by SO2 and other sulfur and sulfur oxide species, with minor amounts of Na, K, and Cl gases. Theoretical modeling and recent observations show that NaCl, which is produced volcanically, is a constituent of the atmosphere. Recent Galileo, HST and ground-based observations show that some volcanic hot spots on Io have extremely high temperatures, in the range 1400-1900 K. At similar temperatures in laboratory experiments, molten silicates and oxides have significant vapor pressures of Na, K, SiO, Fe, Mg, and other gases. Thus vaporization of these species from high temperature lavas on Io seems likely. We therefore modeled the vaporization of silicate and oxide lavas suggested for Io. Our results for vapor chemistry are reported here. The effects of fractional vaporization on lava chemistry are given in a companion abstract by Kargel et al.

  8. Nucleation pressure threshold in acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Christopher; Doering, Charles; Kripfgans, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    We combine classical nucleation theory with superharmonic focusing to predict necessary pressures to induce nucleation in acoustic droplet vaporization. We show that linear acoustics is a valid approximation to leading order when particle displacements in the sound field are small relative the radius of the droplet. This is done by perturbation analysis of an axisymmetric compressible inviscid flow about a droplet with small surface perturbations relative to the mean radius subjected to an incoming ultrasonic wave. The necessary nucleation pressure threshold inside the droplet is calculated to be - 9 . 33 +/- 0 . 30 MPa for typical experimental parameters by employing results from classical homogeneous nucleation theory. As a result we are able to predict if a given incident pressure waveform will induce nucleation. This research was supported by the Rackham Merit Fellowship, the University of Michigan Physics department, the University of Michigan's MCubed program, and NSF awards PHY-1205219 and DMS-1515161.

  9. A technique for eliminating white phosphorus deposits in vapor phase epitaxy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A technique of heating the exhaust lines is described whereby phosphorus in the exhaust portion of an organometallic vapor phase epitaxy reactor is encouraged to deposit in the red form rather than the pyrophoric white form. This technique is simple, effective, and does not hinder or limit the conditions under which the reactor may be operated.

  10. 46 CFR 154.451 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.451 Section 154.451 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.451 Design vapor pressure. The Po (kPa) of...

  11. 46 CFR 154.451 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.451 Section 154.451 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.451 Design vapor pressure. The Po (kPa) of...

  12. 46 CFR 154.451 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.451 Section 154.451 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.451 Design vapor pressure. The Po (kPa) of...

  13. 46 CFR 154.451 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.451 Section 154.451 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.451 Design vapor pressure. The Po (kPa) of...

  14. 46 CFR 154.451 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.451 Section 154.451 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.451 Design vapor pressure. The Po (kPa) of...

  15. Large improvement of phosphorus incorporation efficiency in n-type chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Ryota; Yamamoto, Takashi; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping efficiency is about 100 times higher, reaching 10%, and for a very broad doping range, the doping efficiency remains highly constant. It is hypothesized that redesigning the deposition chamber generates a higher flow of active phosphorus species towards the substrate, thereby increasing phosphorus incorporation in diamond and reducing deposition of phosphorus species at reactor walls, which additionally reduces undesirable memory effects.

  16. Large improvement of phosphorus incorporation efficiency in n-type chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtani, Ryota; Yamamoto, Takashi; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2014-12-08

    Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping efficiency is about 100 times higher, reaching 10%, and for a very broad doping range, the doping efficiency remains highly constant. It is hypothesized that redesigning the deposition chamber generates a higher flow of active phosphorus species towards the substrate, thereby increasing phosphorus incorporation in diamond and reducing deposition of phosphorus species at reactor walls, which additionally reduces undesirable memory effects.

  17. Vapor Pressure of Methyl Salicylate and n-Hexadecane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    VAPOR PRESSURE OF METHYL SALICYLATE AND N-HEXADECANE ECBC-TR-1184 David E. Tevault Leonard C. Buettner...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2000-Dec 2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vapor Pressure of Methyl Salicylate and n-Hexadecane 5a...ABSTRACT Vapor pressure data are reported for O-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl ester, more commonly known as methyl salicylate (MeS), and n-hexadecane in

  18. The influence of vapor pressure of chemicals on dermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure is an important route of entry for chemicals in occupational and consumer settings. Key to this exposure is the penetration of the skin's barrier, and key to this penetration is a chemical's vapor pressure. Until now, vapor pressure and its effects on the skin have yet to be widely studied. This review aims to provide some historical background on early work on dermal penetration for volatile materials, which has helped form later research into the effects of vapor pressure on chemical risk assessment for dermal exposures. This review should be the start of an investigation into more in-depth coverage of vapor pressure and current prediction models.

  19. Evaluation of vapor intrusion using controlled building pressure.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Thomas E; Beckley, Lila; Bailey, Danielle; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio; Brock, Samuel; MacGregor, Ian C

    2012-05-01

    The use of measured volatile organic chemical (VOC) concentrations in indoor air to evaluate vapor intrusion is complicated by (i) indoor sources of the same VOCs and (ii) temporal variability in vapor intrusion. This study evaluated the efficacy of utilizing induced negative and positive building pressure conditions during a vapor intrusion investigation program to provide an improved understanding of the potential for vapor intrusion. Pressure control was achieved in five of six buildings where the investigation program was tested. For these five buildings, the induced pressure differences were sufficient to control the flow of soil gas through the building foundation. A comparison of VOC concentrations in indoor air measured during the negative and positive pressure test conditions was sufficient to determine whether vapor intrusion was the primary source of VOCs in indoor air at these buildings. The study results indicate that sampling under controlled building pressure can help minimize ambiguity caused by both indoor sources of VOCs and temporal variability in vapor intrusion.

  20. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  1. 46 CFR 154.438 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.438 Section 154.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type A § 154.438 Design vapor pressure. (a) If the surface of an independent tank type A...

  2. 46 CFR 154.438 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.438 Section 154.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type A § 154.438 Design vapor pressure. (a) If the surface of an independent tank type A...

  3. 46 CFR 154.419 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.419 Section 154.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.419 Design vapor pressure. The Po of an integral tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  4. 46 CFR 154.419 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.419 Section 154.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.419 Design vapor pressure. The Po of an integral tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  5. 46 CFR 154.436 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.436 Section 154.436 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS...-Membrane Tanks § 154.436 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a semi-membrane tank must not exceed 24.5...

  6. 46 CFR 154.419 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.419 Section 154.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.419 Design vapor pressure. The Po of an integral tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  7. 46 CFR 154.445 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.445 Section 154.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type B § 154.445 Design vapor pressure. If the surfaces of an independent tank type B...

  8. 46 CFR 154.419 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.419 Section 154.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.419 Design vapor pressure. The Po of an integral tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  9. 46 CFR 154.438 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.438 Section 154.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type A § 154.438 Design vapor pressure. (a) If the surface of an independent tank type A...

  10. 46 CFR 154.426 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.426 Section 154.426 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.426 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a membrane tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  11. 46 CFR 154.445 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.445 Section 154.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type B § 154.445 Design vapor pressure. If the surfaces of an independent tank type B...

  12. 46 CFR 154.445 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.445 Section 154.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type B § 154.445 Design vapor pressure. If the surfaces of an independent tank type B...

  13. 46 CFR 154.436 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.436 Section 154.436 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS...-Membrane Tanks § 154.436 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a semi-membrane tank must not exceed 24.5...

  14. 46 CFR 154.436 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.436 Section 154.436 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS...-Membrane Tanks § 154.436 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a semi-membrane tank must not exceed 24.5...

  15. 46 CFR 154.445 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.445 Section 154.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type B § 154.445 Design vapor pressure. If the surfaces of an independent tank type B...

  16. 46 CFR 154.426 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.426 Section 154.426 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.426 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a membrane tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  17. 46 CFR 154.436 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.436 Section 154.436 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS...-Membrane Tanks § 154.436 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a semi-membrane tank must not exceed 24.5...

  18. 46 CFR 154.438 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.438 Section 154.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type A § 154.438 Design vapor pressure. (a) If the surface of an independent tank type A...

  19. 46 CFR 154.426 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.426 Section 154.426 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.426 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a membrane tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  20. 46 CFR 154.426 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.426 Section 154.426 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.426 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a membrane tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  1. 46 CFR 154.445 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.445 Section 154.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type B § 154.445 Design vapor pressure. If the surfaces of an independent tank type B...

  2. 46 CFR 154.426 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.426 Section 154.426 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.426 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a membrane tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  3. 46 CFR 154.419 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.419 Section 154.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Tanks § 154.419 Design vapor pressure. The Po of an integral tank must not exceed 24.5 kPa gauge...

  4. 46 CFR 154.438 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.438 Section 154.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Independent Tank Type A § 154.438 Design vapor pressure. (a) If the surface of an independent tank type A...

  5. 46 CFR 154.436 - Design vapor pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure. 154.436 Section 154.436 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS...-Membrane Tanks § 154.436 Design vapor pressure. The Po of a semi-membrane tank must not exceed 24.5...

  6. Thermogravimetric study of vapor pressure of TATP synthesized without recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Mbah, Jonathan; Knott, Debra; Steward, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at characterizing the vapor pressure signatures generated by triacetone triperoxide (TATP) that was synthesized without recrystallization by thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA) for exploitation by standoff detection technologies of explosive devices. The thermal behavior of the nonrecrystallized sample was compared with reported values. Any phase change, melting point and decomposition identification were studied by differential scanning calorimeter. Vapor pressures were estimated by the Langmuir method of evaporation from an open surface in a vacuum. Vapor pressures of TATP at different temperatures were calculated using the linear logarithmic relationship obtained from benzoic acid reference standard. Sublimation of TATP was found to follow apparent zero-order kinetics and sublimes at steady rates at 298 K and above. While the enthalpy of sublimation found, 71.7 kJ mol(-1), is in agreement with reported values the vapor pressures deviated significantly. The differences in the vapor pressures behavior are attributable to the synthesis pathway chosen in this study.

  7. The hysteretic evapotranspiration - vapor pressure deficit relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Yang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal hysteresis between evapotranspiration (ET) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was reported in many ecosystems but justification for its onset and magnitude remain incomplete with biotic and abiotic factors invoked as possible explanations. To place these explanations within a mathematical framework, ';rate-dependent' hysteresis originating from a phase angle difference between periodic input and output time series is first considered. Lysimeter evaporation (E) measurements from wet bare soils and model calculations using the Penman equation demonstrate that the E-VPD hysteresis emerges without any biotic effects due to a phase angle difference (or time lag) between net radiation the main driver of E, and VPD. Modulations originating from biotic effects on the ET-VPD hysteresis were then considered. The phase angle difference representation earlier employed was mathematically transformed into a storage problem and applied to the soil-plant system. The transformed system shows that soil moisture storage within the root zone can produce an ET-VPD hysteresis prototypical of those generated by phase-angle differences. To explore the interplay between all the lags in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and phase angle differences among forcing and response variables, a detailed soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) model was developed and applied to a grassland ecosystem. The results of the SPAC model suggest that the hysteresis magnitude depends on the radiation-VPD lag. The soil moisture dry-down simulations also suggest that modeled root water potential and leaf water potential are both better indicators of the hysteresis magnitude than soil moisture, suggesting that plant water status is the main factor regulating the hysteretic relation between ET and VPD. Hence, the genesis and magnitude of the ET-VPD hysteresis are controlled directly by both biotic factors and abiotic factors such as time lag between radiation and VPD originating from boundary layer processes

  8. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  9. LOX vaporization in high-pressure, hydrogen-rich gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou

    1990-01-01

    LOX droplet vaporization in high-pressure hydrogen-rich gas is analyzed, with special attention to thermodynamic effects which compel the surface to heat to the critical state and to supercritical vaporization processes on heating to criticality. Subcritical vaporization is modeled using a quasi-steady diffusion-controlled gas-phase transport formulation coupled to an effective-conductivity internal-energy-transport model accounting for circulation effects. It is demonstrated how the droplet surface might heat to the critical state, for ambient pressures slightly greater than the critical pressure of oxygen, such that the bulk of propellant within the droplet remains substantially below the critical mixing temperature.

  10. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-59 - Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL. 30.10-59 Section 30.10-59...-59 Reid vapor pressure—TB/ALL. The term Reid vapor pressure means the vapor pressure of a liquid at a....01-3), Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products. This Standard is available...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-59 - Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL. 30.10-59 Section 30.10-59...-59 Reid vapor pressure—TB/ALL. The term Reid vapor pressure means the vapor pressure of a liquid at a....01-3), Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products. This Standard is available...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-59 - Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL. 30.10-59 Section 30.10-59...-59 Reid vapor pressure—TB/ALL. The term Reid vapor pressure means the vapor pressure of a liquid at a....01-3), Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products. This Standard is available...

  14. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  15. Vapor Pressure of N,N’-Diisopropylcarbodiimide (DICDI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    and unpublished data cited in this report. This report includes derived properties, such as volatility, temperature-dependent heats of vaporization...concentrations for quantitative toxicology evaluations and detector testing as well as the prediction of chemical removal efficiency by air filtration... systems . Vapor pressure data can also be useful for estimating the concentration of solution mixtures by quantitative analysis of head space. This

  16. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  17. Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures to Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent

    2007-01-01

    This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid. A predetermined volume of air is injected into a calibrated tube filled with a liquid whose vapor pressure is to be measured. The volume of the liquid displaced is greater than…

  18. The Vapor Pressure of Uranium Hexafluoride,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-04-12

    thermostat and a brass sylphon bellows for the measurement of pressure by a null method. The pressure above an atmosphere was read on a multiple mercury manometer using dibutylphthalate as a piston liquid. p2

  19. A numerical study of high-pressure droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, E. W.; Farrell, P. V.

    1992-08-01

    The evaporation of single, spherical fuel droplets in a high-pressure, high-temperature environment has been studied numerically. The model is fully transient in both the liquid and the vapor phases. Transport properties are functions of temperature, pressure, and composition, and vary throughout the liquid droplet and the vapor boundary layer. Equilibrium at the liquid-vapor interface is calculated using the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and accounts for diffusion of the gas into the liquid droplet. The Peng-Robinson equation of state is also used to calculate the enthalpy of vaporization of the fuel species as well as the liquid and vapor mixture densities. The proposed model is compared with data obtained for a variety of liquids. Transient effects in both the liquid and vapor phases are found to have a large effect on the droplet heatup and vaporization process. At very high temperature and pressure conditions the droplets were found to reach their thermodynamic critical mixing point in a totally transient process.

  20. A vapor pressure thermometer for use in muscle microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Callum M; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Ian W; Taberner, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the energy consumption of isolated cardiac trabeculae requires highly sensitive temperature sensors. In this paper we describe and characterize an initial prototype of a vapor pressure thermometer being designed and built for application to muscle microcalorimetry. The device exploits the change in vapor pressure with temperature of a solvent and the change in pressure with volume of a gas. The sensor achieves a sensitivity of 86 μm/K and a resolution of 3.6 μK. Predictions from a finite element model of the expected displacement compare favorably with the tests performed.

  1. Water-vapor pressure control in a volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The variation with time of the partial pressure of water in a volume that has openings to the outside environment and includes vapor sources was evaluated as a function of the purging flow and its vapor content. Experimental tests to estimate the diffusion of ambient humidity through openings and to validate calculated results were included. The purging flows required to produce and maintain a certain humidity in shipping containers, storage rooms, and clean rooms can be estimated with the relationship developed here. These purging flows are necessary to prevent the contamination, degradation, and other effects of water vapor on the systems inside these volumes.

  2. Pressure sensitivity of the vapor-cell atomic clock.

    PubMed

    Iyanu, Gebriel; Wang, He; Camparo, James

    2009-06-01

    Although atomic clocks have very low levels of frequency instability, they are nonetheless sensitive (albeit slightly) to various environmental parameters, including temperature, power supply voltage, and dc magnetic fields. In the terrestrial environment, however, atmospheric pressure (i.e., the air's molecular density) is not generally included in this list, because the air's density variations near the surface of the earth will typically have a negligible effect on the clock's performance. The situation is different, however, for clocks onboard satellites like Galileo, where manufacturing and testing are done at atmospheric pressure, while operation is in vacuum. The pressure sensitivity of atomic clocks, in particular vapor-cell atomic clocks, can therefore be of significance. Here, we discuss some of the ways in which changes in atmospheric pressure affect vapor-cell atomic clocks, and we demonstrate that, for one device, the pressure-sensitivity traces back to a pressure-induced change in the temperature of the clock's filter and resonance cells.

  3. Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric uranium dioxide at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David W.; Leibowitz, Leonard

    1982-02-01

    Thermodynamic functions of the gaseous species, thermodynamic functions of the condensed phase, and an oxygen-potential model have been combined to calculate the vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with condensed-phase UO 2-x for 1500⩽T⩽6000 K and 0⩽ x ⩽0.5. A method for extending the oxygen-potential model of Blackburn to the liquid region has been derived and evaluated. Results of these calculations show that the oxygen-to-uranium ratio of the vapor is larger than that of the condensed phase with which it is in equilibrium for most of the ranges of T and x of interest. Near 6000 K the vapor is very oxygen-rich so that the composition of the condensed phase would be changed considerably by even a few percent vaporization. In general, the vapor in equilibrium with UO 2-x is poorly approximated at UO 2(g); the species U, UO, UO 3, O 2, and O each have higher partial pressures than UO 2 for some conditions. The calculated total pressures at high temperatures are in good agreement with those recommended by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR).

  4. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  5. Improved Magnus` form approximation of saturation vapor pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Alduchov, O.A.; Eskridge, R.E.

    1997-11-01

    Relative humidity is usually measured in aerological observations and dew point depression is usually reported in upper-air reports. These variables must frequently be converted to other moisture variables in meteorological analysis. If relative humidity is converted to vapor pressure, most humidity variables can then be determined. Elliott and Gaffen reviewed the practices and procedures of the US radiosonde system. In their paper, a comparison of the relative errors was made between the saturation vapor pressure formulations of Tetens (1930), Goff-Gratch (1946), Wexler (1976), and Buck (1981). In this paper, the authors will expand the analysis of Elliott and Gaffen by deriving several new saturation vapor pressure formulas, and reviewing the various errors in these formulations. They will show that two of the new formulations of vapor pressure over water and ice are superior to existing formulas. Upper air temperature data are found to vary from about +50 C to {minus}80 C. This large variation requires a saturation vapor pressure equation to be accurate over a large temperature range. While the errors introduced by the use of relatively inaccurate conversion equations are smaller than the errors due to the instruments, dewpoint coding errors, and dewpoint conversion algorithms (Elliott and Gaffen, 1993); they introduce additional systematic errors in humidity data. The most precise formulation of vapor pressure over a plane surface of water was given by Wexler (1976). The relative errors of Tetens` (1930) formula and one due to Buck (1981) (Buck`s equation is recommended in the Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 3, 1991) are shown. The relative errors in this table are the predicted value minus the Wexler value divided by the Wexler value.

  6. Vapor Pressure of Bis-(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen mustard Vesicant HN1 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...compounds for determining vapor pressures. The arrows indicate the direction of flow of the nitrogen carrier gas ...INTRODUCTION The nitrogen mustards (HN1, HN2, and HN3) are similar to sulfur mustard (HD) in their physical properties and physiological effects. All

  7. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  8. Vapor pressures and gas-film coefficients for ketones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of handbook vapor pressures for seven ketones with more recent literature data showed large differences for four of the ketones. Gas-film coefficients for the volatilization of these ketones from water determined by two different methods were in reasonable agreement. ?? 1987.

  9. Molecular beam source for high vapor pressure materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.H.; Schetzina, J.F.

    1982-02-01

    A molecular beam source for deposition of high vapor pressure materials in MBE systems is described. The source consists of a collimating effusion cell of original design which is heated by a temperature-controlled Radak II oven (Luxel Corporation). Construction details of the source are given along with calibration and performance data.

  10. New class of compounds have very low vapor pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M.

    1967-01-01

    Magnesium hexahydrate tetrachlorometallates are 50-volume-percent water, have a high melting point and possess a low vapor pressure. These new compounds are relatively noncorrosive, thermally stable, and water soluble but not hygroscopic. They may have potential applications as cooling fluids.

  11. A fast low-pressure transport route to large black phosphorus single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nilges, Tom Kersting, Marcel; Pfeifer, Thorben

    2008-08-15

    Black phosphorus, a promising candidate for lithium battery electrodes, can be prepared by a low-pressure transport reaction route representing the first effective and scalable access to this element modification. Crystal sizes larger than 1 cm were obtained at low-pressure conditions in silica ampoules. X-ray phase analyses, EDX, ICP-MS and optical microscopy were applied to characterize the resulting black phosphorus. The present method drastically improves the traditional preparation ways like mercury catalysis, bismuth-flux or high-pressure techniques and represents an easy, non-toxic, fast and highly efficient method to achieve black phosphorus. In contrast to a previously reported low-pressure route the present transport reaction allows an up-scaling to higher masses of starting materials, a larger black phosphorus yield and faster reaction time under retention of the high product crystallinity. - Graphical abstract: A low-pressure transport reaction route representing the first effective and scalable access to black phosphorus.

  12. Dynamic response of vaporizing droplet to pressure oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lei; Shen, Chibing; Zhang, Xinqiao

    2017-02-01

    Combustion instability is a major challenge in the development of the liquid propellant engines, and droplet vaporization is viewed as a potential mechanism for driving instabilities. Based on the previous work, an unsteady droplet heating and vaporization model was developed. The model and numerical method are validated by experimental data available in literature, and then the oscillatory vaporization of n-Heptane droplet exposed to unsteady harmonic nitrogen atmosphere was numerically investigated over a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies. Also, temperature variations inside the droplet were demonstrated under oscillation environments. It was found that the thermal wave is attenuated with significantly reduced wave intensities as it penetrates deep into droplet from the ambient gas. Droplet surface temperature exhibits smaller fluctuation than that of the ambient gas, and it exhibits a time lag with regard to the pressure variation. Furthermore, the mechanism leading to phase lag of vaporization rate with respect to pressure oscillation was unraveled. Results show that this phase lag varies during the droplet lifetime and it is strongly influenced by oscillation frequency, indicating droplet vaporization is only capable of driving combustion instability in some certain frequency domains. Instead, the amplitude of the oscillation does not have very significant effects. It is noteworthy that thermal inertia of the droplet also plays a considerable role in determining the phase lag.

  13. Vapor pressure of perfluoroalkylalkanes: the role of the dipole.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Pedro; Das, Gaurav; McCabe, Clare; Filipe, Eduardo J M

    2015-01-29

    The vapor pressure of four liquid perfluoroalkylalkanes (CF3(CF2)n(CH2)mCH3; n = 3, m = 4,5,7; n = 5, m = 5) was measured as a function of temperature between 278 and 328 K. Molar enthalpies of vaporization were calculated from the experimental data, and the results were compared with data from the literature for the corresponding alkanes and perfluoroalkanes. The heterosegmented statistical associating fluid theory was used to interpret the results at the molecular level both with and without the explicit inclusion of the dipolar nature of the molecules. Additionally, ab initio calculations were performed for all perfluoroalkylalkanes studied to determine the dipole moment to be used in the theoretical calculations. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a dipolar term is essential for describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of perfluoroalkylalkanes. It is also shown that vapor-liquid equilibria in these compounds result from a subtle balance between dipolar interactions, which decrease the vapor pressure, and the relatively weak dispersive interactions between the hydrogenated and fluorinated segments.

  14. Controlling Vapor Pressure In Hanging-Drop Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Smith, Robbie

    1988-01-01

    Rate of evaporation adjusted to produce larger crystals. Device helps to control vapor pressure of water and other solvents in vicinity of hanging drop of solution containing dissolved enzyme protein. Well of porous frit (sintered glass) holds solution in proximity to drop of solution containing protein or enzyme. Vapor from solution in frit controls evaporation of solvent from drop to control precipitation of protein or enzyme. With device, rate of nucleation limited to decrease number and increase size (and perhaps quality) of crystals - large crystals of higher quality needed for x-ray diffraction studies of macromolecules.

  15. Lattice location of phosphorus in n-type homoepitaxial diamond films grown by chemical-vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Masataka; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The lattice location of phosphorus dopant atoms in n-type homoepitaxial diamond {111} films grown by chemical-vapor deposition has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced x-ray emission under ion-channeling conditions. It is found that phosphorus dopant atoms occupy the substitutional sites almost completely in the host diamond lattice. The substitutional fraction of phosphorus was more than 0.9 for <011> and <111> directions. Present observation implies that the deep ground-state energy level of phosphorus in diamond, which is at 0.6 eV below the bottom of the conduction band, is attributed to the relaxation of surrounding carbon atoms.

  16. Low temperature measurement of the vapor pressures of planetary molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretation of planetary observations and proper modeling of planetary atmospheres are critically upon accurate laboratory data for the chemical and physical properties of the constitutes of the atmospheres. It is important that these data are taken over the appropriate range of parameters such as temperature, pressure, and composition. Availability of accurate, laboratory data for vapor pressures and equilibrium constants of condensed species at low temperatures is essential for photochemical and cloud models of the atmospheres of the outer planets. In the absence of such data, modelers have no choice but to assume values based on an educated guess. In those cases where higher temperature data are available, a standard procedure is to extrapolate these points to the lower temperatures using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Last summer the vapor pressures of acetylene (C2H2) hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N) was measured using two different methods. At the higher temperatures 1 torr and 10 torr capacitance manometers were used. To measure very low pressures, a technique was used which is based on the infrared absorption of thin film (TFIR). This summer the vapor pressure of acetylene was measured the TFIR method. The vapor pressure of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was measured using capacitance manometers. Results for H2O agree with literature data over the common range of temperature. At the lower temperatures the data lie slightly below the values predicted by extrapolation of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Thin film infrared (TFIR) data for acetylene lie significantly below the values predicted by extrapolation. It is hoped to bridge the gap between the low end of the CM data and the upper end of the TFIR data in the future using a new spinning rotor gauge.

  17. Solar radiation and water vapor pressure to forecast chickenpox epidemics.

    PubMed

    Hervás, D; Hervás-Masip, J; Nicolau, A; Reina, J; Hervás, J A

    2015-03-01

    The clear seasonality of varicella infections in temperate regions suggests the influence of meteorologic conditions. However, there are very few data on this association. The aim of this study was to determine the seasonal pattern of varicella infections on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Spain), and its association with meteorologic conditions and schooling. Data on the number of cases of varicella were obtained from the Network of Epidemiologic Surveillance, which is composed of primary care physicians who notify varicella cases on a compulsory basis. From 1995 to 2012, varicella cases were correlated to temperature, humidity, rainfall, water vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and solar radiation using regression and time-series models. The influence of schooling was also analyzed. A total of 68,379 cases of varicella were notified during the study period. Cases occurred all year round, with a peak incidence in June. Varicella cases increased with the decrease in water vapor pressure and/or the increase of solar radiation, 3 and 4 weeks prior to reporting, respectively. An inverse association was also observed between varicella cases and school holidays. Using these variables, the best fitting autoregressive moving average with exogenous variables (ARMAX) model could predict 95 % of varicella cases. In conclusion, varicella in our region had a clear seasonality, which was mainly determined by solar radiation and water vapor pressure.

  18. Temperature dependences of saturated vapor pressure and the enthalpy of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnova, S. V.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Levanova, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The saturated vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of linear C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids are determined by the transpiration method in the temperature range of 309.2-361.2 K. The dependences of enthalpies of vaporization on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and on the retention indices have been determined. The predictive capabilities of the existing calculation schemes for estimation of enthalpy of vaporization of the studied compounds have been analyzed.

  19. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Biblarz, Oscar

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  20. Vapor pressure and vapor fractionation of silicate melts of tektite composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Louis S.; Carron, M.K.

    1964-01-01

    The total vapor pressure of Philippine tektite melts of approximately 70 per cent silica has been determined at temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2100??C. This pressure is 190 ?? 40 mm Hg at 1500??C, 450 ?? 50 mm at 1800??C and 850 ?? 70 mm at 2100?? C. Determinations were made by visually observing the temperature at which bubbles began to form at a constant low ambient pressure. By varying the ambient pressure, a boiling point curve was constructed. This curve differs from the equilibrium vapor pressure curve due to surface tension effects. This difference was evaluated by determining the equilibrium bubble size in the melt and calculating the pressure due to surface tension, assuming the latter to be 380 dyn/cm. The relative volatility from tektite melts of the oxides of Na, K, Fe, Al and Si has been determined as a function of temperature, total pressure arid roughly, of oxygen fugacity. The volatility of SiO2 is decreased and that of Na2O and K2O is increased in an oxygen-poor environment. Preliminary results indicate that volatilization at 2100??C under atmospheric pressure caused little or no change in the percentage Na2O and K2O. The ratio Fe3 Fe2 of the tektite is increased in ambient air at a pressure of 9 ?? 10-4 mm Hg (= 106.5 atm O2, partial pressure) at 2000??C. This suggests that tektites were formed either at lower oxygen pressures or that they are a product of incomplete oxidation of parent material with a still lower ferricferrous ratio. ?? 1964.

  1. On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2016-08-23

    Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems.

  2. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration.

  3. A survey and new measurements of ice vapor pressure at temperatures between 170 and 250K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, James; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    New measurements of ice vapor pressures at temperatures between 170 and 250 K are presented and published vapor pressure data are summarized. An empirical vapor pressure equation was derived and allows prediction of vapor pressures between 170 k and the triple point of water with an accuracy of approximately 2 percent. Predictions obtained agree, within experimental uncertainty, with the most reliable equation derived from thermodynamic principles.

  4. Low vapor pressure braze alloys for thermionic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluation of cesium diode electrode materials called for braze fillers with very low vapor pressures and a wide range of melting points. Binary alloys of low vapor pressure refractory metals were chosen to fill this need. These alloys of Th, Zr, Hf, Ru, Nb, Ir, Mo, Ta, Os, Re, and W have reported melting point minima or eutectics from 1,510 K to above 3,000 K. Preliminary data are compiled on the use of several of these braze alloys. Melting points and surface wetting on a Ta base are given. Results of brazing Ir, LaB6, Nb, Re, W, and Zr-22 wt % ZrO2 materials into Ta and Nb-1% Zr bases are presented. Current braze usage is summarized.

  5. Characterization of an ultra-low vapor pressure ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, T.; Raj, K.; Tsuda, S.

    2002-11-01

    A Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) based ferrofluid was characterized. The finished ferrofluid had the magnetization and viscosity values of 450 G and 9625 cP respectively at 27°C. It was found to have low volatility, long life, and stability under combined high temperature and magnetic field. These properties qualify the material for use in bakeable magnetic fluid seals for clean UHV environments. A novel method was used to measure the vapor pressure of the ferrofluid as a function of time and temperature. The room temperature vapor pressure of the subject ferrofluid was measured as 3×10 -10 mmHg after 1 h of exposure to high vacuum. It decayed to 3×10 -11 mmHg after 5 h and 3×10 -12 mmHg after 450 h.

  6. Low vapor pressure braze alloys for thermionic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results in the use of some low-vapor-pressure braze alloys are reported; these are binary alloys of refractory metals (Th, Zr, Hf, Ru, Nb, Ir, Mo, Ta, Os, Re, W) with vapor pressures below 0.1 nanotorr at 1500 K or 10 microtorr at 2000 K. The melting point minima or eutectics of the alloys range from 1510 K to above 3000 K. Melting points and surface wetting on a Ta base are given. Results are presented on brazing of Ir, LaB6, Nb, Re, W, and ZrO2 (with 22 wt % Zr) into a Ta base or a Nb-1% Zr base. The results are applicable in electrode screening programs for thermionic cesium diodes.

  7. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank must be equal to or greater than the MARVS. (b) The Po of a...

  8. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank must be equal to or greater than the MARVS. (b) The Po of a...

  9. 46 CFR 39.2013 - High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T... CONTROL SYSTEMS Equipment and Installation § 39.2013 High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships—T/ALL. Each tankship with a vapor collection system must be fitted with a pressure-sensing...

  10. 46 CFR 39.2013 - High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T... CONTROL SYSTEMS Equipment and Installation § 39.2013 High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships—T/ALL. Each tankship with a vapor collection system must be fitted with a pressure-sensing...

  11. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank must be equal to or greater than the MARVS. (b) The Po of a...

  12. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank must be equal to or greater than the MARVS. (b) The Po of a...

  13. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank must be equal to or greater than the MARVS. (b) The Po of a...

  14. Chemical Vapor Deposition at High Pressure in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, Sonya; Bachmann, Klaus; LeSure, Stacie; Sukidi, Nkadi; Wang, Fuchao

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of critical requirements of organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) at elevated pressure for a channel flow reactor in a microgravity environment. The objective of using high pressure is to maintain single-phase surface composition for materials that have high thermal decomposition pressure at their optimum growth temperature. Access to microgravity is needed to maintain conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for process analysis. Based on ground based observations we present an optimized reactor design for OMCVD at high pressure and reduced gravity. Also, we discuss non-intrusive real-time optical monitoring of flow dynamics coupled to homogeneous gas phase reactions, transport and surface processes. While suborbital flights may suffice for studies of initial stages of heteroepitaxy experiments in space are essential for a complete evaluation of steady-state growth.

  15. Vapor Pressure of Aluminum Chloride Systems. 3. Vapor Pressure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-23

    were all as described previously (10). A .XCp/R log T(1, 2). mercury manometer was used as n additional external piessure The data were least-squares...the use of a mercury manometer and a NMLeod gauge, respectively, for pressure measurement; all other pressure measurements were made with a

  16. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1 - September 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V.; Lilly, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude. This project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal; (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars; and (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. During this quarter we have extended the work on measurements of vapor pressures of coal tars, using the continuous Knudsen effusion technique. These results need further analysis and therefore in this report we describe only the general idea behind the technique, and also show some typical results.

  17. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  18. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices...

  1. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices...

  2. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices...

  6. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices...

  7. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  8. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  9. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  11. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices...

  13. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  14. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  15. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  18. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  19. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  20. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia). When table 1 references...

  1. Precision ozone calibration system based on vapor pressures of ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Hanson, D.; Morton, J.

    1987-01-01

    A precision ozone calibration system for stratospheric research has been developed and evaluated. Vapor pressures above solid ozone are mixed with a carrier gas (N2) to produce stratospheric ozone mixing ratios at total pressures of 1 to cover 20 torr. The uncertainty in the ozone mixing ratios is approximately + or - 1.5 percent, the stability of ozone is + or - 0.3 percent. Experiments to be calibrated may sample the gas mixture over a wide range of flow rates; the maximum throughput of gas with corrections of less than 1 percent to ozone is about 200 torr 1/min. A mass spectrometer system continuously monitors the purity and stability of the N2-O3 gas mixture.

  2. New Nickel Vapor Pressure Measurements: Possible Implications for Nebular Condensates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. M.; Meibom, A.; Ferguson, F. T.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2004-01-01

    Temperatures high enough to vaporize even refractory solids existed in the midplane of the solar nebula during its earliest evolutionary stages and played an important role in the processing of materials that went into the formation of the inner planets and asteroids. A variety of such high-T materials have been identified in primitive chondritic meteorites. These include chemically zoned FeNi metal grains that are generally believed to have formed directly by gas-solid condensation from a gas of approximately solar composition. These FeNi particles provide important information about the times scales of formation and physical transport mechanisms in the nebula, as well as formation temperature, pressure and gas chemistry. Currently, however, the interpretation of the chemical signatures in these FeNi particles rests on less than perfect information about the condensation sequence of siderophile elements. For example much, if not all, of the thermodynamic data for the vapor pressures of moderately refractory metals , such as Fe, Ni and Co, do not cover the desired temperature range. As a result, quite large extrapolations are needed. These extrapolations can be complex and uncertain due to factors such as oxygen fugacity or the presence of hydrogen gas.

  3. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilde, M.; Zardini, A. A.; Hong, J.; Tschiskale, M.; Emanuelsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheric partitioning between gas and condensed phase of organic molecules is poorly understood, and discrepancies exist between predicted and observed concentrations of secondary organic aerosols. A key problem is the lack of information about thermodynamic properties of semi- and low volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar alcohols. These polyols are common in the water soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols. In our experimental system sub-micron particles are generated by nebulization from aqueous solution, and a mono disperse fraction of the aerosol is selected using a differential mobility analyzer. The particles are allowed to evaporate in a laminar flow reactor, and changes in particle size as function of evaporation time are determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. In this work saturation vapor pressures of sugar alcohols at several temperatures have been inferred from such measurements using thermodynamic modeling. Results are presented and discussed in context of atmospheric gas to particle partitioning.

  4. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  5. Investigation on high temperature vapor pressure of UO 2 containing simulated fission-product elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Ohtsubo, A.; Ishii, T.

    1984-06-01

    During the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), the temperature of the fuel would rise above 3000 K. The experimental data concerning the saturated fuel vapor pressure are necessary for the analysis of the HCDA. In this study, the UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn was used to simulate the irradiated fuel in the FBR. The saturated vapor pressure of pure UO 2 and UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn at 3000 to 5000 K was measured dynamically with a pulse laser and a torsion pendulum. The surface of a specimen on the pendulum was heated to eject vapor by the injection of a giant pulse ruby laser beam. The pressure of the ejected vapor was measured by both the maximum rotation angle of the pendulum and the duration of vapor ejection. The saturated vapor pressure was theoretically calculated by using the ejected vapor pressure. The surface temperature of the specimen was estimated from the irradiated energy density measured with a laser energy meter. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 at 3640 to 5880 K measured in this study was near the extrapolated value of Ackermann's low temperature data. The vapor pressure of UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag or Sn was higher than that of UO 2. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 and a solid fission products system was calculated by using these experimental data.

  6. Measuring Vapor Pressure with an Isoteniscope: A Hands-on Introduction to Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenqian; Haslam, Andrew J.; Macey, Andrew; Shah, Umang V.; Brechtelsbauer, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid or azeotropic mixture, and its fluid phase diagram, can be achieved with an isoteniscope and an industrial grade digital pressure sensor using the experimental method reported in this study. We describe vapor-pressure measurements of acetone and n-hexane and their azeotrope, and how the…

  7. 40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The... section, each pressure relief device in gas and vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The... section, each pressure relief device in gas and vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator... section, each pressure relief device in gas or vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  11. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 61.242-4 Section 61.242-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The... section, each pressure relief device in gas and vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  15. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 61.242-4 Section 61.242-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 61.242-4 Section 61.242-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The... section, each pressure relief device in gas and vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The... section, each pressure relief device in gas and vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator... section, each pressure relief device in gas or vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator... section, each pressure relief device in gas or vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  3. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 61.242-4 Section 61.242-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator... section, each pressure relief device in gas or vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  5. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 61.242-4 Section 61.242-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator... section, each pressure relief device in gas or vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas...

  7. Importance of extracting solvent vapor pressure in headspace liquid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Yang, Cui; Ren, Chunyan; Li, Donghao

    2008-09-26

    Of the many parameters that affect the enrichment factors in headspace liquid-phase microextraction, in this study, we systematically investigated the influence of the vapor pressure of the extracting solvent. Seven extracting solvents with different vapor pressures were selected and tested. It was found that the vapor pressure of the extracting solvent dramatically affects the enrichment factor and the factor was increasing by decreasing the extracting solvent vapor pressure under given experimental conditions. The result was validated for volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.

  8. 250W diode laser for low pressure Rb vapor pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvyaznyy, A.; Venus, G.; Smirnov, V.; Mokhun, O.; Koulechov, V.; Hostutler, D.; Glebov, L.

    2010-02-01

    The diode pumped alkali vapor lasers operating at subatmospheric pressure require developing of a new generation of high-power laser diode sources with about 10 GHz wide emission spectrum. The latest achievements in the technology of volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive glass opened new opportunities for the design and fabrication of compact external cavity laser diodes, diode bars and stacks with reflecting VBGs as output couplers. We present a diode laser system providing up to 250 W output power and emission spectral width of 20 pm (FWHM) at the wavelength of 780 nm. The stability and position of an emission wavelength is determined by the resonant wavelength of a VBG which is controlled by temperature. Stability of an emitting wavelength is within 5 pm. Thermal tuning of the wavelength provides maximum overlapping of emitting line with absorption spectrum of a Rb (rubidium)- cell. The designed system consists of 7 modules tuned to the same wavelength corresponding to D2 spectral line of Rb87 or Rb85 and coupled to a single output fiber. Analogous systems could be used for other Rb isotopes spectral lines as well as for lasers based on other alkali metal vapors (Cs and K) or any agents with narrow absorption lines.

  9. Molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids by vapor pressure osmometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular weights of aquatic fulvic acids extracted from five rivers were determined by vapor pressure osmometry with water and tetrahydrofuran as solvents. The values obtained ranged from 500 to 950 dallons, indicating that the molecular weights of aquatic fulvic acids are not as great as has been suggested in some other molecular weight studies. The samples were shown to be relatively monodisperse from radii of gyration measurements determined by small angle x-ray scattering. THF affords greater precision and accuracy than H2O in VPO measurements, and was found to be a suitable solvent for the determination of molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acid because it obviates the dissociation problem. An inverse correlation was observed with these samples between the concentration of Ca++ and Mg++ in the river water and the radii of gyration and molecular weights of the corresponding fulvic acid samples. ?? 1987.

  10. The vapor pressures of solid and liquid ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1986-01-01

    Vapor pressures of solid and liquid ozone have been measured over a temperature range 87 to below 66 K. The experiment was performed under flow conditions, and the gas was analyzed by a precision mass spectrometer system. In the range of solid ozone two forms, supercooled and crystalline ozone, were found. A least-square fit of the data for crystalline ozone resulted in the equation log P(torr) = A + B/T, where A = 10.460 and B = -1021.6. The estimated uncertainty of the data is + or - 1.0 percent. A triple-point temperature of 79.6 + or - 0.3 K was found where supercooled and crystalline ozone data intersect.

  11. Vapor pressure isotope effect in liquid methylene fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, A.; Ishida, T.

    1986-10-01

    The vapor pressures of the isotopic methylene fluorides /sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/, /sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/ have been measured at temperatures between 149 and 244/sup 0/K by differential manometric techniques in a precision cryostat. Over the entire temperature range of the measurements, P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) > P(/sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) < P(/sup 13/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/). The data are best represented by T 1n(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = (632.26 +- 97.62)/T + (19.175 +- 1.016) - (0.0532 +- 0.0025)T for the D/H effect and by T 1n(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = -(31.64 +- 1.97)/T - (0.4069 +- 0.0107) for the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C effect. A series of calculations using Wilson's FG matrix method and a modified Schachtschneider-Snyder program resulted in temperature dependent interactions between the HCF angle bending motions and the molecular rotations about the z and y axes. These interactions in the liquid give satisfactory explanation of the D/H and /sup 13/C//sup 12/C vapor pressure isotope effects, spectroscopic data, and are qualitatively consistent with the structure of CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/ clusters obtained by ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

  12. Vapor-pressure isotope effects in liquid methylene fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The vapor pressures of the isotopic methylene fluorides /sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/, /sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CH''F/sub 2/ have been measured at temperatures between 149 and 244 K by differential manometric techniques in a precision cryostat. Over the entire temperature range of the measurements, P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) > P(/sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) < P(/sup 13/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/). The data are best represented by T ln(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = (632.26 +/- 97.62)/T + (19.175 +/- 1.016) - (0.0532 +/- 0.0025)T for the D/H effect and by T ln(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = -(31.64 +/- 1.97)/T-(0.4069 +/- 0.0107) for the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C effect. A series of calculations using Wilson's FG matrix method and a modified Schachtschneider-Snyder program resulted in temperature dependent interactions between the HCF angle bending motions and the molecular rotations about the z and y axes. These interactions in the liquid give satisfactory explanation of the D/H and /sup 13/C//sup 12/C vapor pressure isotope effects, spectroscopic data, and are qualitatively consistent with the structure of CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/ clusters obtained by ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

  13. The sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite on the surface of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Hong; Fegley, Bruce

    1998-02-01

    The total pressure and molecular speciation of sulfur vapor (dominantly S2) over pyrite at Venus surface temperatures (≈ 390-470°C) are important for modeling atmospheric chemistry and geochemistry of sulfur gases and minerals on Venus. The sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite in CO2 and CO2 gas mixtures, which are relevant to Venus, has not been previously measured. Instead, previous measurements were generally done in closed systems, such as sealed, evacuated silica tubes. We measured the sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite in an open system where carrier gas is flowing through a gas mixing furnace, from 441 to 591°C in He, N2, CO2, and CO2-SO2-CO mixtures using a standard technique, the transpiration method (Merton, U. and Bell, W. E. (1967) The transpiration method. In The Characterization of High Temperature Vapors, ed. J. W. Margrave, pp. 91-114. Wiley, New York). The data show that the sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite is the same in inert gas and in CO2-bearing gases. Our data also agree with literature vapor pressure data. Thermodynamic calculations show that the laboratory vapor pressure data are also valid at Venus surface pressures (≈ 50-100 bar). Finally, we present recommended values for the sulfur vapor pressure and calculate the molecular speciation of sulfur vapor over pyrite at Venus surface temperatures.

  14. The sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite on the surface of Venus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong; Fegley, Bruce

    1998-07-01

    The total pressure and molecular speciation of sulfur vapor (dominantly S 2) over pyrite at Venus surface temperatures (≈ 390-470°C) are important for modeling atmospheric chemistry and geochemistry of sulfur gases and minerals on Venus. The sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite in CO 2 and CO 2 gas mixtures, which are relevant to Venus, has not been previously measured. Instead, previous measurements were generally done in closed systems, such as sealed, evacuated silica tubes. We measured the sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite in an open system where carrier gas is flowing through a gas mixing furnace, from 441 to 591°C in He, N 2, CO 2, and CO 2SO 2CO mixtures using a standard technique, the transpiration method (Merton, U. and Bell, W. E. (1967) The transpiration method. In The Characterization of High Temperature Vapors, ed. J. W. Margrave, pp. 91-114. Wiley, New York). The data show that the sulfur vapor pressure over pyrite is the same in inert gas and in CO 2-bearing gases. Our data also agree with literature vapor pressure data. Thermodynamic calculations show that the laboratory vapor pressure data are also valid at Venus surface pressures (≈ 50-100 bar). Finally, we present recommended values for the sulfur vapor pressure and calculate the molecular speciation of sulfur vapor over pyrite at Venus surface temperatures.

  15. Hydrostatic pressure induced three-dimensional Dirac semimetal in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peng-Lai; Liu, Da-Yong; Yang, Kai-Shuai; Xiang, Zi-Ji; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Shen, Shun-Qing; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2016-05-01

    We present the first-principles studies on the hydrostatic pressure effect of the electronic properties of black phosphorus. We show that the energy bands crossover around the critical pressure Pc=1.23 GPa; with increasing pressure, the band reversal occurs at the Z point and evolves into 4 twofold-degenerate Dirac cones around the Z point, suggesting that pressured black phosphorus is a 3D Dirac semimetal. With further increasing pressure the Dirac cones in the Γ -Z line move toward the Γ point and evolve into two hole-type Fermi pockets, and those in the Z -M lines move toward the M point and evolve into two tiny electron-type Fermi pockets, and a band above the Z -M line sinks below EF and contributes four electron-type pockets. A clear Lifshitz transition occurs at Pc from semiconductor to 3D Dirac semimetal. Such a 3D Dirac semimetal is protected by the nonsymmorphic space symmetry of bulk black phosphorus. These suggest the bright perspective of black phosphorus for optoelectronic and electronic devices due to its easy modulation by pressure.

  16. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 65.111 Section 65.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 65.111 Section 65.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  18. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 65.111 Section 65.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 65.111 Section 65.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 65.111 Section 65.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

    1991-10-15

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

  2. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be

  3. Application of quantitative structure-property relationship analysis to estimate the vapor pressure of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Honarparvar, Bahareh; Ortiz, Erlinda V; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2016-06-01

    The application of molecular descriptors in describing Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) for the estimation of vapor pressure (VP) of pesticides is of ongoing interest. In this study, QSPR models were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to predict the vapor pressure values of 162 pesticides. Several feature selection methods, namely the replacement method (RM), genetic algorithms (GA), stepwise regression (SR) and forward selection (FS), were used to select the most relevant molecular descriptors from a pool of variables. The optimum subset of molecular descriptors was used to build a QSPR model to estimate the vapor pressures of the selected pesticides. The Replacement Method improved the predictive ability of vapor pressures and was more reliable for the feature selection of these selected pesticides. The results provided satisfactory MLR models that had a satisfactory predictive ability, and will be important for predicting vapor pressure values for compounds with unknown values. This study may open new opportunities for designing and developing new pesticide.

  4. Hydrogen bonding and vapor pressure isotope effect of deuterioisomeric methanethiols

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, H.; Szydlowski, J.; Dill-Staffenberger, L.

    1981-04-16

    Wilson parameters, activity coefficients, association constants, and other thermodynamic functions which are derived from isothermal vapor pressure measurements between 223 and 293 K for binary mixtures of CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SD, CS/sub 3/SH, and CD/sub 3/SD with n-hexane show the weakness of the hydrogen and the deuterium bonds of methanethiol. As far as these functions depend on the association model used for the calculation, the relation of their values to those obtained for the corresponding amines and alcohols under the same conditions attests the weak methanethiol association. While for the more strongly associated methylamines and methanols a greater energy of the deuterium bond compared to the hydrogen bond has clearly been observed, the differences between the thermodynamic functions of the systems with the SH compounds and of those with the SD compounds are insignificant. This observation as well as the fact that the vapor pressure ratios P-(CH/sub 3/SD)/P(CH/sub 3/SH) are only slightly greater than unity, that the ratios P(CD/sub 3/SD)/P(CH/sub 3/SH) are even greater than P(CD/sub 3/SH)/P(CH/sub 3/SH), and that the changes of these ratios with temperature and dilution are small in comparison to the strong increase of the corresponding quotients of the methylamines and the methanols are the consequence of the weak methanethiol association. P(CH/sub 3/SD)/P(CH/sub 3/SH), P(CD/sub 3/SH)/P(CH/sub 3/SH), and P(CD/sub 3/SD)/P(CH/sub 3/SH) are represented by equations of the type ln P/sub D/ P/sub H/ = -A/T/sup 2/ + B/T where A and B are nearly additive. The low values of A and B for CH/sub 3/SD/CH/sub 3/SH in comparison to the high values for CH/sub 3/ND/sub 2//CH/sub 3/NH/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/OD/CH/sub 3/OH reflect the weakness of the methanethiol hydrogen bonds. The constants can be related to the thermochemical and the spectroscopic data reported in the literature.

  5. A new ozone standard - The vapor pressure of ozone at liquid argon temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Hanson, D.; Morton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure of ozone has been measured at liquid argon temperatures. At the normal boiling point of argon (-185.9 C) an ozone pressure of 0.0405 torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 1.5 percent. Increases and decreases in liquid argon temperatures raised and lowered the ozone vapor pressure, respectively. During the vapor pressure measurements the purity of ozone was monitored with a mass spectrometer. The proposed ozone standard will considerably improve the calibration of experiments for atmospheric research, the determination of absorption cross sections and other laboratory ozone studies.

  6. Correlation of chemical evaporation rate with vapor pressure.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Donald; van Wesenbeeck, Ian

    2014-09-02

    A new one-parameter correlation is developed for the evaporation rate (ER) of chemicals as a function of molar mass (M) and vapor pressure (P) that is simpler than existing correlations. It applies only to liquid surfaces that are unaffected by the underlying solid substrate as occurs in the standard ASTM evaporation rate test and to quiescent liquid pools. The relationship has a sounder theoretical basis than previous correlations because ER is correctly correlated with PM rather than P alone. The inclusion of M increases the slope of previous log ER versus log P regressions to a value close to 1.0 and yields a simpler one-parameter correlation, namely, ER (μg m(-1) h(-1)) = 1464P (Pa) × M (g mol(-1)). Applications are discussed for the screening level assessment and ranking of chemicals for evaporation rate, such as pesticides, fumigants, and hydrocarbon carrier fluids used in pesticide formulations, liquid consumer products used indoors, and accidental spills of liquids. The mechanistic significance of the single parameter as a mass-transfer coefficient or velocity is discussed.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma-initiated chemical vapor deposition (AP-PiCVD) of poly(diethylallylphosphate) coating: a char-forming protective coating for cellulosic textile.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Florian; Boscher, Nicolas D; Duday, David; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Levalois-Grützmacher, Joëlle; Choquet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An innovative atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method toward the deposition of polymeric layers has been developed. This latter involves the use of a nanopulsed plasma discharge to initiate the free-radical polymerization of an allyl monomer containing phosphorus (diethylallylphosphate, DEAP) at atmospheric pressure. The polymeric structure of the film is evidence by mass spectrometry. The method, highly suitable for the treatment of natural biopolymer substrate, has been carried out on cotton textile to perform the deposition of an efficient and conformal protective coating.

  8. Effect of air pressure differential on vapor flow through sample building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory scale experiments were performed on two small sample composite walls of typical building construction to determine the approximate opposing air pressure difference required to stop or significantly reduce the transmission of water vapor due to a water vapor pressure difference. The experiments used wall section samples between two controlled atmosphere chambers. One chamber was held at a temperature and humidity condition approximating that of a typical summer day, while the other chamber was controlled at a condition typical of indoor conditioned space. Vapor transmission data through the wall samples were obtained over a range of vapor pressure differentials and opposing air pressure differentials. The results show that increasing opposing air pressure differences decrease water vapor transmission, as expected, and relatively small opposing air pressure differentials are required for wall materials of small vapor permeability and large air permeability. The opposing air pressure that stopped or significantly reduced the flow of water vapor through the wall sample was determined experimentally and also compared to air pressures as predicted by an analytical model.

  9. Determination of cadmium vapor pressure over dichromium cadmium tetraselenide by the atomic absorption method

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'skii, N.K.; Ochertyanova L.I.; Zhegalinka, V.A.

    1986-07-01

    By the atomic absorption method one measures the light absorption by the vapor of the investigated element as a function of the temperature of the evaporating surface. To measure vapor pressure the authors use cadmium selenide of the purity grade, which was recrystallized by sublimitation. The optical density of the vapor over cadmium selenide was determined in the temperature range 820-890 K. Using atomic spectroscopy the vapor pressure of cadmium over cadmium selenide was determined in dichromium cadmium tetraselenide with different amounts of deviation from stoichiometry at 790-880 deg. The results are compared with the literature data.

  10. U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vapor Pressure Committee 2009 annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Ray; Eldredge, Lisa; DeLuca, Charles; Mihalik, Patrick; Maldonado, Julio; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith; Berndsen, Gerard

    2010-05-01

    This report comprises an annual summary of activities under the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Vapor Pressure Committee in FY2009. The committee provides guidance to senior project management on the issues of crude oil vapor pressure monitoring nd mitigation. The principal objectives of the vapor pressure program are, in the event of an SPR drawdown, to minimize the impact on the environment and assure worker safety and public health from crude oil vapor emissions. The annual report reviews key program areas ncluding monitoring program status, mitigation program status, new developments in measurements and modeling, and path forward including specific recommendations on cavern sampling for the next year. The contents of this report were first presented to SPR senior anagement in December 2009, in a deliverable from the vapor pressure committee. The current SAND report is an adaptation for the Sandia technical audience.

  11. Pluto's atmosphere - Models based on refraction, inversion, and vapor-pressure equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.

    1989-01-01

    Viking spacecraft radio-occultation measurements indicate that, irrespective of substantial differences, the polar ice cap regions on Mars have inversions similar to those of Pluto, and may also share vapor pressure equilibrium characteristics at the surface. This temperature-inversion phenomenon occurs in a near-surface boundary layer; surface pressure-temperature may correspond to the vapor-pressure equilibrium with CH4 ice, or the temperature may be slightly higher to match the value derived from IRAS data.

  12. Reappraisal of disparities between osmolality estimates by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit methods.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J

    2004-02-15

    As a response to recent expression of concern about possible unreliability of vapor pressure deficit measurements (K. Kiyosawa, Biophys. Chem. 104 (2003) 171-188), the results of published studies on the temperature dependence of the osmotic pressure of aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions are shown to account for the observed discrepancies between osmolality estimates obtained by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit osmometry--the cause of the concern.

  13. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  14. Pressure-induced zigzag phosphorus chain and superconductivity in boron monophosphide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Shiliang; Ma, Mingzhen; Luo, Wei; Liu, Riping; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    We report on the prediction of the zinc-blende structure BP into a novel C2/m phase from 113 to 208 GPa which possesses zigzag phosphorus chain structure, followed by another P42/mnm structure above 208 GPa above using the particle-swarm search method. Strong electron-phonon coupling λ in compressed BP is found, in particular for C2/m phase with the zigzag phosphorus chain, which has the highest λ (0.56–0.61) value among them, leading to its high superconducting critical temperature Tc (9.4 K–11.5 K), which is comparable with the 4.5 K to 13 K value of black phosphorus phase I (orthorhombic, Cmca). This is the first system in the boron phosphides which shows superconductivity from the present theoretical calculations. Our results show that pressure-induced zigzag phosphorus chain in BP exhibit higher superconducting temperature TC, opening a new route to search and design new superconductor materials with zigzag phosphorus chains. PMID:25737341

  15. 46 CFR 39.20-13 - High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS Design and Equipment § 39.20-13 High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships—T/ALL. Each tankship vapor collection system must be fitted with a pressure sensing device that... system; and (3) Alarms at a low pressure of not less than four inches water gauge (0.144 psig) for...

  16. 46 CFR 39.20-13 - High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS Design and Equipment § 39.20-13 High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships—T/ALL. Each tankship vapor collection system must be fitted with a pressure sensing device that... system; and (3) Alarms at a low pressure of not less than four inches water gauge (0.144 psig) for...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7944 - How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vapor pressure of my remediation material? 63.7944 Section 63.7944 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Site Remediation Performance Tests § 63.7944 How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material? (a) You must determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of your...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7944 - How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vapor pressure of my remediation material? 63.7944 Section 63.7944 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Site Remediation Performance Tests § 63.7944 How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material? (a) You must determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of your...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7944 - How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vapor pressure of my remediation material? 63.7944 Section 63.7944 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Site Remediation Performance Tests § 63.7944 How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material? (a) You must determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of your...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7944 - How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vapor pressure of my remediation material? 63.7944 Section 63.7944 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Site Remediation Performance Tests § 63.7944 How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material? (a) You must determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of your...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7944 - How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vapor pressure of my remediation material? 63.7944 Section 63.7944 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Site Remediation Performance Tests § 63.7944 How do I determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of my remediation material? (a) You must determine the maximum HAP vapor pressure of your...

  2. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  3. Apparatus to measure the vapor pressure of slowly decomposing compounds from 1 Pa to 105 Pa

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an apparatus and method for measuring vapor pressures in the range from 1 Pa to 105 Pa. Its three distinctive elements are : (1) the static pressure measurements were made with only a small temperature difference between the vapor and the condensed phase, (2) the sample was degassed in situ, and (3) the temperature range extended up to 200 °C. The apparatus was designed to measure metal-organic precursors, which often are toxic, pyrophoric, or unstable. Vapor pressures are presented for naphthalene, ferrocene, diethyl phthalate, and TEMAH (tetrakisethylmethylaminohafnium). Also presented are data for the temperature-dependent decomposition rate of TEMAH. PMID:27274567

  4. Knudsen vapor pressure measurements on pure materials and solutions dispersed in porous media: molded nitroglycerin tablets.

    PubMed

    Pikal, M J; Lukes, A L

    1976-09-01

    The gravimetric Knudsen method for vapor pressure measurement may be subject to serious systematic errors when the sample: (a) consists of the volatile component dispersed in an inert porous matrix and/or (b) contains a dissolved polymeric solute. Vaporization of water present as an impurity in the matrix may result in an appreciable "background" mass loss, and "nonequilibrium effects" may be present; i.e., The vapor of interest may be unable to escape from the sample rapidly enough to maintain the equilibrium vapor pressure in the Knudsen cell. Methods for eliminating the interference due to background effects are described, and a theoretical analysis of nonequilibrium effects is presented. The essential validity of the theories for nonequilibrium effects and the effectiveness of the methods for circumventing background effects were verified by experimental studies with molded nitroglycerin tablets. With nitroglycerin tablets, accurate Knudsen vapor pressure data may be obtained using the modified procedures and data analysis presented in this report.

  5. New expressions to describe solution nonideal osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, G D; Zimmerman, R J; Cantu, C; Cameron, I L

    1992-12-01

    New empirical expressions for osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure are proposed based on the concepts of volume occupancy and (or) hydration force. These expressions are in general inverse relationships in comparison to the standard ideal expressions for the same properties. The slopes of the new equations are determined by the molecular weight of the solute and known constants. The accuracy and precision of the molecular weights calculated from the slope are identical and approximately 1% for the experiments reported here. The nonideality of all three colligative expressions is described by a dimensionless constant called the solute-solvent interaction parameter I. The results on sucrose have the same I = 0.26 for all three solution properties. The nonideality parameter I increased from 0.26 on sucrose to 1.7 on hemoglobin to successfully describe the well-known nonideal response of macromolecules.

  6. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  7. Accurate determination of the vapor pressure of potassium using optical absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Wang, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The vapor pressure of potassium has been measured in absorption using a CW tunable laser and calibrated against the accurate radiative lifetime of the 4s-4p doublet of potassium. An accurate value of 20,850 + or - 30 cal/mol for the heat of vaporization (from the liquid phase) at the melting point was determined.

  8. Vapor Pressure of Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) Estimated Using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aernecke, Matthew J; Mendum, Ted; Geurtsen, Geoff; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Kunz, Roderick R

    2015-11-25

    A rapid method for vapor pressure measurement was developed and used to derive the vapor pressure curve of the thermally labile peroxide-based explosive hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) over the temperature range from 28 to 80 °C. This method uses a controlled flow of vapor from a solid-phase HMTD source that is presented to an ambient-pressure-ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a secondary-electrospray-ionization (SESI) source. The subpart-per-trillion sensitivity of this system enables direct detection of HMTD vapor through an intact [M + H](+) ion in real time at temperatures near 20 °C. By calibrating this method using vapor sources of cocaine and heroin, which have known pressure-temperature (P-T) curves, the temperature dependence of HMTD vapor was determined, and a Clausius-Clapeyron plot of ln[P (Pa)] vs 1/[T (K)] yielded a straight line with the expression ln[P (Pa)] = {(-11091 ± 356) × 1/[T (K)]} + 25 ± 1 (error limits are the standard error of the regression analysis). From this equation, the sublimation enthalpy of HMTD was estimated to be 92 ± 3 kJ/mol, which compares well with the theoretical estimate of 95 kJ/mol, and the vapor pressure at 20 °C was estimated to be ∼60 parts per trillion by volume, which is within a factor of 2 of previous theoretical estimates. Thus, this method provides not only the first direct experimental determination of HMTD vapor pressure but also a rapid, near-real-time capability to quantitatively measure low-vapor-pressure compounds, which will be useful for aiding in the development of training aids for bomb-sniffing canines.

  9. Determination of Optimal Vapor Pressure Data by the Second and Third Law Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kunihisa

    2016-01-01

    Though equilibrium vapor pressures are utilized to determine thermodynamic properties of not only gaseous species but also condensed phases, the obtained data often disagree by a factor of 100 and more. A new data analysis method is proposed using the so-called second and third law procedures to improve accuracy of vapor pressure measurements. It was found from examination of vapor pressures of cesium metaborate and silver that the analysis of the difference between the second and third law values can result in determination of an optimal data set. Since the new thermodynamic method does not require special techniques and or experiences in dealing with measured data, it is reliable and versatile to improve the accuracy of vapor pressure evaluation. PMID:28101442

  10. The Oxidation Rate of SiC in High Pressure Water Vapor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    CVD SiC and sintered alpha-SiC samples were exposed at 1316 C in a high pressure burner rig at total pressures of 5.7, 15, and 25 atm for times up to 100h. Variations in sample emittance for the first nine hours of exposure were used to determine the thickness of the silica scale as a function of time. After accounting for volatility of silica in water vapor, the parabolic rate constants for Sic in water vapor pressures of 0.7, 1.8 and 3.1 atm were determined. The dependence of the parabolic rate constant on the water vapor pressure yielded a power law exponent of one. Silica growth on Sic is therefore limited by transport of molecular water vapor through the silica scale.

  11. Determination of Optimal Vapor Pressure Data by the Second and Third Law Methods.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kunihisa

    2016-01-01

    Though equilibrium vapor pressures are utilized to determine thermodynamic properties of not only gaseous species but also condensed phases, the obtained data often disagree by a factor of 100 and more. A new data analysis method is proposed using the so-called second and third law procedures to improve accuracy of vapor pressure measurements. It was found from examination of vapor pressures of cesium metaborate and silver that the analysis of the difference between the second and third law values can result in determination of an optimal data set. Since the new thermodynamic method does not require special techniques and or experiences in dealing with measured data, it is reliable and versatile to improve the accuracy of vapor pressure evaluation.

  12. Liquid-propellant droplet vaporization and combustion in high pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor

    1991-01-01

    In order to correct the deficiencies of existing models for high-pressure droplet vaporization and combustion, a fundamental investigation into this matter is essential. The objective of this research are: (1) to acquire basic understanding of physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the vaporization and combustion of isolated liquid-propellant droplets in both stagnant and forced-convective environments; (2) to establish droplet vaporization and combustion correlations for the study of liquid-propellant spray combustion and two-phase flowfields in rocket motors; and (3) to investigate the dynamic responses of multicomponent droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient flow oscillations.

  13. Correcting "static" measurements of vapor pressure for time dependence due to diffusion and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert F

    2015-12-10

    The static method for measuring vapor pressure assumes that the sample is pure and that its temperature is steady and uniform. In practice, the measured pressure may be time dependent due to evaporative cooling after pumping on the sample, transpiration of the sample in a temperature gradient, or diffusion of an impurity out of the sample. An impurity cannot be avoided if the sample is decomposing. This article identifies and quantifies various causes of time dependence, and it includes an analysis that can obtain the vapor pressure from the time-dependent pressure of a decomposing sample. The analysis was applied to measurements of TEMAH (tetrakisethylmethylaminohafnium), whose decomposition continuously generated a volatile impurity. The corrected vapor pressures obtained for three TEMAH samples at 39 °C agreed to within ±1 %, even though the partial pressure of the impurity was as much as 7 times larger.

  14. Determination of vapor pressures for nonpolar and semipolar organic compounds from gas chromatographic retention data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Foreman, W.T.; Tuschall, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vapor pressures for nonpolar and moderately polar organochlorine, pyrethroid, and organophosphate insecticides, phthalate esters, and organophosphate flame retardants were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with known liquid-phase vapor pressures (P??L) (standard compounds) were chromatographed along with two reference compounds n-C20 (elcosane) and p,p???-DDT on a 1.0-m-long poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonded-phase (BP-1) column to determine their vapor pressures by GC (P??GC). A plot of log P??L vs log P??GC for standard compounds was made to establish a correlation between measured and literature values, and this correlation was then used to compute P??L of test compounds from their measured P??GC. P??L of seven major components of technical chlordane, endosulfan and its metabolites, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, mirex, and two components of technical toxaphene were determined by GC. This method provides vapor pressures within a factor of 2 of average literature values for nonpolar compounds, similar to reported interlaboratory precisions of vapor pressure determinations. GC tends to overestimate vapor pressures of moderately polar compounds. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  15. Vapor pressure measurements on low-volatility terpenoid compounds by the concatenated gas saturation method.

    PubMed

    Widegren, Jason A; Bruno, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of monoterpenes plays a central role in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), which have important effects on the weather and climate. However, models of SOA formation have large uncertainties. One reason for this is that SOA formation depends directly on the vapor pressures of the monoterpene oxidation products, but few vapor pressures have been reported for these compounds. As a result, models of SOA formation have had to rely on estimated values of vapor pressure. To alleviate this problem, we have developed the concatenated gas saturation method, which is a simple, reliable, high-throughput method for measuring the vapor pressures of low-volatility compounds. The concatenated gas saturation method represents a significant advance over traditional gas saturation methods. Instead of a single saturator and trap, the concatenated method uses several pairs of saturators and traps linked in series. Consequently, several measurements of vapor pressure can be made simultaneously, which greatly increases the rate of data collection. It also allows for the simultaneous measurement of a control compound, which is important for ensuring data quality. In this paper we demonstrate the use of the concatenated gas saturation method by determination of the vapor pressures of five monoterpene oxidation products and n-tetradecane (the control compound) over the temperature range 283.15-313.15 K. Over this temperature range, the vapor pressures ranged from about 0.5 Pa to about 70 Pa. The standard molar enthalpies of vaporization or sublimation were determined by use of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  16. Contributions to the Data on Theoretical Metallurgy. 3. The Free Energies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Substances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1935-01-01

    1k. Some Properties of Pure HIHSO. Jour. Am. Chem. S5oc., vol. 55, 1933, p. 3057. 226. Lzwie, G. N., AND RANDALL, M. Thermodynamics and the Free Energy... Properties of Pure Hydrogen Per- oxide . V. Vapor Pressure. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 46, 1924. P. 2693. 229. MAins, C.ILNE MAS,0 Sulphur Dioxide and Its...heats at high temperatures (200) of inorganic substances. These earlier papers contain the data necessary for writing the thermodynamic equations for

  17. Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

    2009-07-01

    Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

  18. The Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hao, Y.; Prosperetti, A.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of a superficial similarity with gas bubbles, the intimate coupling between dynamical and thermal processes confers to oscillating vapor bubbles some unique characteristics. This paper examines numerically the validity of some asymptotic-theory predictions such as the existence of two resonant radii and a limit size for a given sound amplitude and frequency. It is found that a small vapor bubble in a sound field of sufficient amplitude grows quickly through resonance and continues to grow thereafter at a very slow rate, seemingly indefinitely. Resonance phenomena therefore play a role for a few cycles at most, and reaching a limit size-if one exists at all-is found to require far more than several tens of thousands of cycles. It is also found that some small bubbles may grow or collapse depending on the phase of the sound field. The model accounts in detail for the thermo-fluid-mechanic processes in the vapor. In the second part of the paper, an approximate formulation valid for bubbles small with respect to the thermal penetration length in the vapor is derived and its accuracy examined, The present findings have implications for acoustically enhanced boiling heat transfer and other special applications such as boiling in microgravity.

  19. Simple Method To Measure the Vapor Pressure of Phthalates and Their Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoxing; Eichler, Clara M A; Chen, Shengyang; Little, John C

    2016-09-20

    Phthalates and alternative plasticizers are semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), an important class of indoor pollutants that may have significant adverse effects on human health. Unfortunately, models that predict emissions of and the resulting exposure to SVOCs have substantial uncertainties. One reason is that the characteristics governing emissions, transport, and exposure are usually strongly dependent on vapor pressure. Furthermore, available data for phthalates exhibit significant variability, and vapor pressures for the various alternatives are usually unavailable. For these reasons, a new approach based on modeling of the evaporation process was developed to determine vapor pressures of phthalates and alternate plasticizers. A laminar flow forced convection model was used in the design of a partial saturator (PS) tube. The mass transfer mechanisms in the PS tube are accurately modeled and enable the determination of vapor pressure even when the carrier gas is not completely saturated, avoiding the complicated procedure to establish vapor saturation. The measured vapor pressures ranged from about 10(-2) to 10(-7) Pa. Compared to the traditional gas saturation method, the model-based approach is advantageous in terms of both predictability and simplicity. The knowledge provides new insight into experimental design and a sound basis for further method development.

  20. Integrated Rig for the Production of Boron Nitride Nanotubes via the Pressurized Vapor-Condenser Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An integrated production apparatus for production of boron nitride nanotubes via the pressure vapor-condenser method. The apparatus comprises: a pressurized reaction chamber containing a continuously fed boron containing target having a boron target tip, a source of pressurized nitrogen and a moving belt condenser apparatus; a hutch chamber proximate the pressurized reaction chamber containing a target feed system and a laser beam and optics.

  1. Integrated rig for the production of boron nitride nanotubes via the pressurized vapor-condenser method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C

    2014-03-25

    An integrated production apparatus for production of boron nitride nanotubes via the pressure vapor-condenser method. The apparatus comprises: a pressurized reaction chamber containing a continuously fed boron containing target having a boron target tip, a source of pressurized nitrogen and a moving belt condenser apparatus; a hutch chamber proximate the pressurized reaction chamber containing a target feed system and a laser beam and optics.

  2. Two-carrier analyses of the transport properties of black phosphorus under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, Kazuto; Miyake, Atsushi; Akahama, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Tokunaga, Masashi

    2017-03-01

    We report on the electronic transport properties of black phosphorus and analyze them using a two-carrier model in a wide range of pressure up to 2.5 GPa. In a semiconducting state at 0.29 GPa, the remarkable nonlinear behavior in the Hall resistance is reasonably reproduced by assuming the coexistence of two kinds of holes with different densities and mobilities. On the other hand, two-carrier analyses of the magnetotransport properties above 1.01 GPa suggest the coexistence of high-mobility electron and hole carriers that have almost the same densities, i.e., nearly compensated semimetallic nature of black phosphorus. In the semimetallic state, analyses of both the two-carrier model and quantum oscillations indicate a systematic increase in the carrier densities as pressure increases. An observed sign inversion of Hall resistivity at low magnetic fields suggests the existence of high-mobility electrons (˜105cm2V-1s-1 ), which is roughly ten times larger than that of holes, in the semimetallic black phosphorus. We conclude that the extremely large positive magnetoresistance that has been observed in the semimetallic state cannot be reproduced by a conventional two-carrier model.

  3. Atmospheric pressure microwave sample preparation procedure for the combined analysis of total phosphorus and kjeldahl nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Collins, L W; Chalk, S J; Kingston, H M

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave digestion method has been developed for the combined analysis of total phosphorus and Kjeldahl nitrogen in complex matrices. In comparison to the digestion steps in EPA Methods 365.4 (total phosphorus) and 351.x (Kjeldahl nitrogen), this method requires less time, eliminates the need for a catalyst, and reduces the toxicity of the waste significantly. It employs a microwave-assisted digestion step, using refluxing borosilicate glass vessels at atmospheric pressure. Traditionally, this method has a time-consuming sample preparation step and generates toxic waste through the use of heavy metal catalysts. These advantages are gained by the combination of a high boiling point acid (sulfuric acid) and the application of focused microwave irradiation, which enhances the digestion process by direct energy coupling. NIST standard reference materials 1572 (citrus leaves), 1577a (bovine liver), and 1566 (oyster tissue) and tryptophan were analyzed to validate the method. Phosphorus concentrations were determined by the colorimetric ascorbic acid method outlined in EPA Method 365.3. Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were determined using EPA Method 351.1. The results of the analyses showed good precision and are in excellent agreement with the NIST published values for both elements.

  4. Potential of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis in the removal of phosphorus for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Leo, C P; Yahya, M Z; Kamal, S N M; Ahmad, A L; Mohammad, A W

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities in developing countries have raised deep concern about nutrient pollution, especially excess phosphorus in wastewater, which leads to eutrophication. NF, NF90, NF450 and XLE membranes were studied to forecast the potential of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis in the removal of phosphorus from aquaculture wastewater. Cross-sectional morphology, water contact angle, water permeability and zeta potential of these membranes were first examined. Membrane with higher porosity and greater hydrophilicity showed better permeability. Membrane samples also commonly exhibited high zeta potential value in the polyphosphate-rich solution. All the selected membranes removed more than 90% of polyphosphate from the concentrated feed (75 mg/L) at 12 bar. The separation performance of XLE membrane was well maintained at 94.6% even at low pressure. At low feed concentration, more than 70.0% of phosphorus rejection was achieved using XLE membrane. The formation of intermolecular bonds between polyphosphate and the acquired membranes probably had improved the removal of polyphosphate at high feed concentration. XLE membrane was further tested and its rejection of polyphosphate reduced with the decline of pH and the addition of ammonium nitrate.

  5. High Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films and Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Rongrui; Day, Todd D; Sparks, Justin R; Sullivan, Nichole F; Badding, John V

    2016-07-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon can be produced at MPa pressures from silane without the use of plasma at temperatures as low as 345 °C. High pressure chemical vapor deposition may open a new way to low cost deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells and other thin film structures over very large areas in very compact, simple reactors.

  6. Assessment of the Accuracy of Pharmacy Students’ Compounded Solutions Using Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of using a vapor pressure osmometer to measure the accuracy of pharmacy students’ compounding skills. Design. Students calculated the theoretical osmotic pressure (mmol/kg) of a solution as a pre-laboratory exercise, compared their calculations with actual values, and then attempted to determine the cause of any errors found. Assessment. After the introduction of the vapor pressure osmometer, the first-time pass rate for solution compounding has varied from 85% to 100%. Approximately 85% of students surveyed reported that the instrument was valuable as a teaching tool because it objectively assessed their work and provided immediate formative assessment. Conclusions. This simple technique of measuring compounding accuracy using a vapor pressure osmometer allowed students to see the importance of quality control and assessment in practice for both pharmacists and technicians. PMID:23610476

  7. Assessment of the accuracy of pharmacy students' compounded solutions using vapor pressure osmometry.

    PubMed

    Kolling, William M; McPherson, Timothy B

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVE. To assess the effectiveness of using a vapor pressure osmometer to measure the accuracy of pharmacy students' compounding skills. DESIGN. Students calculated the theoretical osmotic pressure (mmol/kg) of a solution as a pre-laboratory exercise, compared their calculations with actual values, and then attempted to determine the cause of any errors found. ASSESSMENT. After the introduction of the vapor pressure osmometer, the first-time pass rate for solution compounding has varied from 85% to 100%. Approximately 85% of students surveyed reported that the instrument was valuable as a teaching tool because it objectively assessed their work and provided immediate formative assessment. CONCLUSIONS. This simple technique of measuring compounding accuracy using a vapor pressure osmometer allowed students to see the importance of quality control and assessment in practice for both pharmacists and technicians.

  8. Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes Reproduced with Coarse-Grained Models without Electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damian A

    2016-06-14

    The vapor pressure of water is a key property in a large class of applications from the design of membranes for fuel cells and separations to the prediction of the mixing state of atmospheric aerosols. Molecular simulations have been used to compute vapor pressures, and a few studies on liquid mixtures and solutions have been reported on the basis of the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo method in combination with atomistic force fields. These simulations are costly, making them impractical for the prediction of the vapor pressure of complex materials. The goal of the present work is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the use of the grand canonical screening approach ( Factorovich , M. H. J. Chem. Phys. 2014 , 140 , 064111 ) to compute the vapor pressure of solutions and to extend the methodology for the treatment of systems without a liquid-vapor interface and (2) to investigate the ability of computationally efficient high-resolution coarse-grained models based on the mW monatomic water potential and ions described exclusively with short-range interactions to reproduce the relative vapor pressure of aqueous solutions. We find that coarse-grained models of LiCl and NaCl solutions faithfully reproduce the experimental relative pressures up to high salt concentrations, despite the inability of these models to predict cohesive energies of the solutions or the salts. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that the coarse-grained models achieve the experimental activity coefficients of water in solution through a compensation of severely underestimated hydration and vaporization free energies of the salts. Our results suggest that coarse-grained models developed to replicate the hydration structure and the effective ion-ion attraction in solution may lead to this compensation. Moreover, they suggest an avenue for the design of coarse-grained models that accurately reproduce the activity coefficients of solutions.

  9. Solid vapor pressure for five heavy PAHs via the Knudsen effusion method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2011-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds resulting from incomplete combustion and many fuel processing operations, and they are commonly found as subsurface environmental contaminants at sites of former manufactured gas plants. Knowledge of their vapor pressures is the key to predict their fate and transport in the environment. The present study involves five heavy PAHs, i.e. benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, which are all as priority pollutants classified by the US EPA. The vapor pressures of these heavy PAHs were measured by using Knudsen effusion method over the temperature range of 364 K to 454 K. The corresponding values of the enthalpy of sublimation were calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The enthalpy of fusion for the 5 PAHs was also measured by using differential scanning calorimetry and used to convert earlier published sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure data to solid vapor pressure in order to compare with the present results. These adjusted values do not agree with the present measured actual solid vapor pressure values for these PAHs, but there is good agreement between present results and other earlier published sublimation data.

  10. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  11. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. ); Banerjee, D.D. )

    1993-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  12. Estimation of the vapor pressure of petroleum distillate fractions from gas chromatographic data

    SciTech Connect

    Eggertsen, F.T.; Nygard, N.R.; Nickoley, L.D.

    1980-11-01

    The vapor pressure of petroleum distillate fractions is estimated conveniently by applying ideal gas and solution laws to gas chromatographic data. The vapor pressure is computed as a summation of the partial pressures for carbon number groups in the chromatogram, each partial pressure being derived as the product of mole fraction, determined from the chromatogram, and saturation pressure, calculated using the Antoine equation. A rapid method of computation with a programmable calculator was used. The method assumes approximate conformance to Raoult's and Dalton's laws relating to partial pressures from a solution. The results generally agree well with values obtained manometrically. Advantages of the method are the general availability of suitable gas chromatographic equipment, convenience and speed of the procedure and calculations, applicability over a wide range of volatility, freedom from temperature equilibration problems, and small sample requirement. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Vapor pressure of ionic liquids at low temperatures from AC-chip-calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Ahrenberg, Mathias; Beck, Martin; Neise, Christin; Keßler, Olaf; Kragl, Udo; Verevkin, Sergey P; Schick, Christoph

    2016-08-03

    The very low vapor pressure of ionic liquids is challenging to measure. At elevated temperatures the liquids might start to decompose, and at relatively low temperatures the vapor pressure becomes too low to be measured by conventional methods. In this work we developed a highly sensitive method for mass loss determination at temperatures starting from 350 K. This technique is based on an alternating current calorimeter equipped with a chip sensor that consists of a free-standing SiNx-membrane (thickness <1 μm) and a measuring area with lateral dimensions of the order of 1 mm. A small droplet (diameter ca. 600 μm) of an ionic liquid is vaporized isothermally from the chip sensor in a vacuum-chamber. The surface-to-volume-ratio of such a droplet is large and the relative mass loss due to evaporation is therefore easy to monitor by the changing heat capacity (J K(-1)) of the remaining liquid. The vapor pressure is determined from the measured mass loss rates using the Langmuir equation. The method was successfully tested for the determination of the vapor pressure and the vaporization enthalpy of an archetypical ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][NTf2]). The data set created in this way in an extremely broad temperature range from 358 K to 780 K has allowed the estimation of the boiling temperature of [EMIm][NTf2]. The value (1120 ± 50) K should be considered as the first reliable boiling point of the archetypical ionic liquid obtained from experimental vapor pressures measured in the most possible close proximity to the normal boiling temperature.

  14. Pressure-induced topological phase transitions and strongly anisotropic magnetoresistance in bulk black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hong; Long, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Ling-Xiao; Shan, Lei; Ren, Zhi-An; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Weng, Hong-Ming; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Ren, Cong; Chen, Gen-Fu

    2017-03-01

    We report the anisotropic magnetotransport measurement on a noncompound band semiconductor black phosphorus (BP) with magnetic field B up to 16 Tesla applied in both perpendicular and parallel to electric current I under hydrostatic pressures. The BP undergoes a topological Lifshitz transition from band semiconductor to a zero-gap Dirac semimetal state at a critical pressure Pc, characterized by a weak localization-weak antilocalization transition at low magnetic fields and the emergence of a nontrivial Berry phase of π detected by SdH magneto-oscillations in magnetoresistance curves. In the transition region, we observe a pressure-dependent negative MR only in the B ∥I configuration. This negative longitudinal MR is attributed to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly (topological E .B term) in the presence of weak antilocalization corrections.

  15. Influence of temperature gradients on partial pressures in a low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterlaken, T. G. M.; Leusink, G. J.; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Radelaar, S.; Kuijlaars, K. J.; Kleijn, C. R.; van den Akker, H. E. A.

    1994-09-01

    Measurements and calculations of the influence of temperature gradients on the partial pressures of the gas species in a cold-wall chemical-vapor-deposition reactor are presented. The experiments were performed at low pressures (300-500 Pa total pressure) and gas mixtures consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen, and tetrafluoromethane. The partial pressures were determined by Raman spectroscopy. The Soret effect (or thermal diffusion) has a large influence on the partial pressures of heavy gases in the vicinity of the heated wafer. In some cases a decrease in partial pressure of 20% compared to the inlet partial pressures was observed. Numerical calculations were performed to predict the behavior of the gas mixture. For mixtures under investigation the gas temperatures as well as the changes in partial pressures due to the Soret effect were predicted correctly.

  16. Vapor pressure and freezing point osmolality measurements applied to a volatile screen.

    PubMed

    Draviam, E J; Custer, E M; Schoen, I

    1984-12-01

    This is a report of a rapid and precise screening procedure, developed for the determination of ethanol in serum using osmolality measurements. The osmolality of the patient is determined by freezing point method (freezing point osmometry) and dew point (water vapor pressure osmometry) method. The difference between freezing point osmolality and vapor pressure osmolality (delta osm) is due to the presence of volatiles in the serum, because the volatiles are not measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The amount of ethanol (mg/dL) in serum is estimated by multiplying delta osm by a factor of 4.2. As a comparison method, ethanol also is measured by a spectrophotometric alcohol dehydrogenase method. In addition, a significant difference between an osmometric alcohol assayed value and enzymatic spectrophotometric measurement indicates the presence of volatiles, other than ethanol. In addition to ethanol there is a linear relationship between osmolality and isopropanol or methanol when added in vitro to serum.

  17. Adipic and malonic acid aqueous solutions: surface tensions and saturation vapor pressures.

    PubMed

    Riipinen, Ilona; Koponen, Ismo K; Frank, Göran P; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Vanhanen, Joonas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Bilde, Merete; Kulmala, Markku

    2007-12-20

    The surface tension of adipic aqueous solutions was measured as a function of temperature (T=278-313 K) and adipic acid mole fraction (X=0.000-0.003) using the Wilhelmy plate method. A parametrization fitted to these data is presented. The evaporation rates of binary water-malonic and water-adipic acid droplets were measured with a TDMA technique at different temperatures (T=293-300 K) and relative humidities (58-80%), and the saturation vapor pressures of subcooled liquid malonic and adipic acids were derived from the data using a binary evaporation model. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressures was obtained as least-squares fits to the derived vapor pressures: ln(Psat,l) (Pa)=220.2389-22634.96/T (K)-26.66767 ln T (K) for malonic acid and ln(Psat,l) (Pa)=140.6704-18230.97/T (K)-15.48011 ln T (K) for adipic acid.

  18. Quantitative structure-property relationships for prediction of boiling point, vapor pressure, and melting point.

    PubMed

    Dearden, John C

    2003-08-01

    Boiling point, vapor pressure, and melting point are important physicochemical properties in the modeling of the distribution and fate of chemicals in the environment. However, such data often are not available, and therefore must be estimated. Over the years, many attempts have been made to calculate boiling points, vapor pressures, and melting points by using quantitative structure-property relationships, and this review examines and discusses the work published in this area, and concentrates particularly on recent studies. A number of software programs are commercially available for the calculation of boiling point, vapor pressure, and melting point, and these have been tested for their predictive ability with a test set of 100 organic chemicals.

  19. A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems.

    PubMed

    Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damián A

    2014-02-14

    In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

  20. A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems

    SciTech Connect

    Factorovich, Matías H.; Scherlis, Damián A.

    2014-02-14

    In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

  1. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  2. Pressure-coupled vaporization and combustion responses of liquid-fuel droplets in high-pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Shuen, J. S.; Hsiao, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic responses of liquid-fuel droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient pressure oscillations are examined. The analysis is based on the complete sets of conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates detailed treatments of finite-rate chemical kinetics and variable properties. With a full account of thermodynamic phase equilibrium at the droplet surface, the model enables a systematic examination of the effects of ambient flow conditions on the droplet behavior. The responses of hydrocarbon fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

  3. Vapor Pressures of Anesthetic Agents at Temperatures Below 0°C and a Novel Anesthetic Delivery Device.

    PubMed

    Schenning, Katie J; Casson, Henry; Click, Sarah V; Brambrink, Lucas; Chatkupt, Thomas T; Alkayed, Nabil J; Hutchens, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    At room temperature, the vapor pressures of desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane are well above the clinically useful range. We hypothesized that therapeutic concentrations of these agents could be achieved at temperatures below 0°C, but the vapor pressure-temperature relationship is unknown below 0. Second, we hypothesized that this relationship could be exploited to deliver therapeutic-range concentrations of anesthetic vapor. We therefore set out to determine the low temperature-vapor pressure relationships of each anesthetic agent, thereby identifying the saturated vapor concentration of each agent at any temperature below 0°C. To test our hypothesis, we measured the saturated vapor concentration at 1 atm of pressure for temperatures between -60 and 0°C, thus developing an empiric relationship for each agent. There was consistency in repeated experiments for all 3 agents. To test the empiric data, we constructed a digitally controlled thermoelectric anesthetic vaporizer, characterized the device, and used it to deliver anesthetic vapor to laboratory mice. We report, for the first time, the temperature-vapor pressure relationship at temperatures below 0°C for desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane as well as the TMAC of these agents: the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the minimum alveolar concentration. We describe the construction and limited validation of an anesthetic vaporizer prototype on the basis of this principle. We conclude that clinically relevant concentrations of volatile anesthetics may be achieved at low temperatures.

  4. Microfluidic vapor-diffusion barrier for pressure reduction in fully closed PCR modules.

    PubMed

    Czilwik, G; Schwarz, I; Keller, M; Wadle, S; Zehnle, S; von Stetten, F; Mark, D; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-02-21

    Microfluidic systems for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) should be fully closed to avoid vapor loss and to exclude the risk of contaminating the laboratory environment. In closed systems however, the high temperatures of up to 95 °C associated with PCR cause high overpressures up to 100 kPa, dominated by the increase of vapor partial pressure upon evaporation. Such high overpressures pose challenges to the mechanical stability of microfluidic chips as well as to the liquid handling in integrated sample-to-answer systems. In this work, we drastically reduce the pressure increase in fully closed PCR systems by integrating a microchannel that serves as a vapor-diffusion barrier (VDB), separating the liquid-filled PCR chamber from an auxiliary air chamber. In such configurations, propagation of vapor from the PCR chamber into the auxiliary air chamber and as a consequence the increase of pressure is limited by the slow diffusion process of vapor through the VDB. At temperature increase from 23 °C to 95 °C, we demonstrate the reduction of overpressure from more than 80 kPa without the VDB to only 35 kPa with the VDB. We further demonstrate proper function of VDB and its easy integration with downstream processes for PCR based nucleic acid amplification within centrifugal microfluidics. Without integration of the VDB, malfunction due to pressure-induced delamination of the microfluidic chip occurred.

  5. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that

  6. Real-Time Optical Monitoring and Simulations of Gas Phase Kinetics in InN Vapor Phase Epitaxy at High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Nikolaus; Woods, Vincent; McCall, Sonya D.; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the kinetics of nucleation and coalescence of heteroepitaxial thin films is a crucial step in controlling a chemical vapor deposition process, since it defines the perfection of the heteroepitaxial film both in terms of extended defect formation and chemical integrity of the interface. The initial nucleation process also defines the film quality during the later stages of film growth. The growth of emerging new materials heterostructures such as InN or In-rich Ga(x)In(1-x)N require deposition methods operating at higher vapor densities due to the high thermal decomposition pressure in these materials. High nitrogen pressure has been demonstrated to suppress thermal decomposition of InN, but has not been applied yet in chemical vapor deposition or etching experiments. Because of the difficulty with maintaining stochiometry at elevated temperature, current knowledge regarding thermodynamic data for InN, e.g., its melting point, temperature-dependent heat capacity, heat and entropy of formation are known with far less accuracy than for InP, InAs and InSb. Also, no information exists regarding the partial pressures of nitrogen and phosphorus along the liquidus surfaces of mixed-anion alloys of InN, of which the InN(x)P(1-x) system is the most interesting option. A miscibility gap is expected for InN(x)P(1-x) pseudobinary solidus compositions, but its extent is not established at this point by experimental studies under near equilibrium conditions. The extension of chemical vapor deposition to elevated pressure is also necessary for retaining stoichiometric single phase surface composition for materials that are characterized by large thermal decomposition pressures at optimum processing temperatures.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies on freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit as methods to measure osmotic pressure of aqueous polyethylene glycol and bovine serum albumin solutions.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, Keitaro

    2003-05-01

    For survival in adverse environments where there is drought, high salt concentration or low temperature, some plants seem to be able to synthesize biochemical compounds, including proteins, in response to changes in water activity or osmotic pressure. Measurement of the water activity or osmotic pressure of simple aqueous solutions has been based on freezing point depression or vapor pressure deficit. Measurement of the osmotic pressure of plants under water stress has been mainly based on vapor pressure deficit. However, differences have been noted for osmotic pressure values of aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions measured by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit. For this paper, the physicochemical basis of freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit were first examined theoretically and then, the osmotic pressure of aqueous ethylene glycol and of PEG solutions were measured by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit in comparison with other aqueous solutions such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions. The results showed that: (1) freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit share theoretically the same physicochemical basis; (2) theoretically, they are proportional to the molal concentration of the aqueous solutions to be measured; (3) in practice, the osmotic pressure levels of aqueous NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), glucose, sucrose, and raffinose solutions increase in proportion to their molal concentrations and there is little inconsistency between those measured by freezing point depression and vapor pressure deficit; (4) the osmotic pressure levels of aqueous ethylene glycol and PEG solutions measured by freezing point depression differed from the values measured by vapor pressure deficit; (5) the osmotic pressure of aqueous BSA solution measured by freezing point depression differed slightly from that measured by vapor pressure deficit.

  8. Communication: Dynamical and structural analyses of solid hydrogen under vapor pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji

    2015-11-07

    Nuclear quantum effects play a dominant role in determining the phase diagram of H{sub 2}. With a recently developed quantum molecular dynamics simulation method, we examine dynamical and structural characters of solid H{sub 2} under vapor pressure, demonstrating the difference from liquid and high-pressure solid H{sub 2}. While stable hexagonal close-packed lattice structures are reproduced with reasonable lattice phonon frequencies, the most stable adjacent configuration exhibits a zigzag structure, in contrast with the T-shape liquid configuration. The periodic angular distributions of H{sub 2} molecules indicate that molecules are not a completely free rotor in the vapor-pressure solid reflecting asymmetric potentials from surrounding molecules on adjacent lattice sites. Discrete jumps of librational and H–H vibrational frequencies as well as H–H bond length caused by structural rearrangements under vapor pressure effectively discriminate the liquid and solid phases. The obtained dynamical and structural information of the vapor-pressure H{sub 2} solid will be useful in monitoring thermodynamic states of condensed hydrogens.

  9. Communication: Dynamical and structural analyses of solid hydrogen under vapor pressure.

    PubMed

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji

    2015-11-07

    Nuclear quantum effects play a dominant role in determining the phase diagram of H2. With a recently developed quantum molecular dynamics simulation method, we examine dynamical and structural characters of solid H2 under vapor pressure, demonstrating the difference from liquid and high-pressure solid H2. While stable hexagonal close-packed lattice structures are reproduced with reasonable lattice phonon frequencies, the most stable adjacent configuration exhibits a zigzag structure, in contrast with the T-shape liquid configuration. The periodic angular distributions of H2 molecules indicate that molecules are not a completely free rotor in the vapor-pressure solid reflecting asymmetric potentials from surrounding molecules on adjacent lattice sites. Discrete jumps of librational and H-H vibrational frequencies as well as H-H bond length caused by structural rearrangements under vapor pressure effectively discriminate the liquid and solid phases. The obtained dynamical and structural information of the vapor-pressure H2 solid will be useful in monitoring thermodynamic states of condensed hydrogens.

  10. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor... section, the containment system must have a: (a) Tank pressure gauge at the point where cargo flow...

  11. Vapor pressure measurements by mass loss transpiration method with a thermogravimetric apparatus.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R; Narasimhan, T S Lakshmi; Nalini, S

    2009-06-18

    Thermobalances are used for equilibrium vapor pressure measurements based on both effusion and transpiration methods. In the case of the transpiration method, however, despite the numerous advantages a thermogravimetric apparatus can offer, it is not as widely used as is the conventional apparatus. In this paper, the difference that can exist in the vapor phase compositions in an effusion cell and in a transpiration cell is shown first with two examples. Subsequently, how a commercial thermobalance was utilized to perform transpiration experiments that conform to the basic principle of the transpiration method and yield vapor pressures consistent with the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric method is described. The three systems investigated are CsI(s), TeO(2)(s), and Te(s), each known to vaporize congruently, but in different manner. A critical analysis was performed on the information available in the literature on transpiration measurements using thermogravimetric apparatuses, and the salient findings are discussed. Smaller plateau regions than with conventional transpiration apparatuses and the lack of evidence for perfect transpiration conditions in some transpiration thermogravimetric investigations are shown with a few examples. A recommendation is made for the use of the rate of mass loss versus flow rate plot to ascertain that the usual apparent vapor pressure versus flow rate plot corresponds to a meaningful transpiration experiment.

  12. Impact of Vapor Pressure Deficit on the Performance of Bemisia tabaci: Adult, Nymphal, and Egg Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a serious global pest with varying population dynamics among different ecosystems. An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of adults, nymphs and eggs of B. tabaci. The insects were reared...

  13. Vapor pressure deficit effects on leaf area expansion and transportation of soybean subjected to soil drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) and soil water deficit on transpiration rate (TR) of plants are well understood but their effects on plant leaf area expansion (PLAE) are less defined. Both PLAE and TR are unaffected by soil drying until the fraction transpirable soil water (FT...

  14. Unusual effect of water vapor pressure on dehydration of dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Aditya M; Vangala, Venu R; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2011-04-01

    Dibasic calcium phosphate occurs as an anhydrate (DCPA; CaHPO₄) and as a dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO₄•2H₂O). Our objective was to investigate the unusual behavior of these phases. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate was dehydrated in a (i) differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in different pan configurations; (ii) variable-temperature X-ray diffractometer (XRD) at atmospheric and under reduced pressure, and in sealed capillaries; and (iii) water vapor sorption analyzer at varying temperature and humidity conditions. Dehydration was complete by 210°C in an open DSC pan and under atmospheric pressure in the XRD. Unlike "conventional" hydrates, the dehydration of DCPD was facilitated in the presence of water vapor. Variable-temperature XRD in a sealed capillary and DSC in a hermetic pan with pinhole caused complete dehydration by 100°C and 140°C, respectively. Under reduced pressure, conversion to the anhydrate was incomplete even at 300°C. The increase in dehydration rate with increase in water vapor pressure has been explained by the Smith-Topley effect. Under "dry" conditions, a coating of poorly crystalline product is believed to form on the surface of particles and act as a barrier to further dehydration. However, in the presence of water vapor, recrystallization occurs, creating cracks and channels and facilitating continued dehydration.

  15. Quasi-static vapor pressure measurements on reactive systems in inert atmosphere box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, A. K.

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus makes vapor pressure measurements on air-sensitive systems in an inert atmosphere glove box. Once the apparatus is loaded with the sample and all connections made, all measuring operations may be performed outside the box. The apparatus is a single-tube adaptation of the double-tube quasi-static technique.

  16. Soybean leaf expansion subjected to high and low atmospheric vapor pressure deficits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is considered an important environmental factor that might affect leaf expansion and TR in plants. Two slow-wilting soybean genotypes PI 416937 and PI 471938 along with commercial cultivar Hutcheson were subjected to low (1.2 – 1.6 kPa) and high VPD (2.8 – 3 kPa) enviro...

  17. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  18. SIMPOL.1: a simple group contribution method for predicting vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of multifunctional organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, J. F.; Asher, W. E.

    2008-05-01

    The SIMPOL.1 group contribution method is developed for predicting the liquid vapor pressure poL (atm) and enthalpy of vaporization Δ Hvap (kJ mol-1) of organic compounds as functions of temperature (T). For each compound i, the method assumes log10poL,i (T)=∑kνk,ibk(T) where νk,i is the number of groups of type k, and bk (T) is the contribution to log10poL,i (T) by each group of type k. A zeroeth group is included that uses b0 (T) with ν0,i=1 for all i. A total of 30 structural groups are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary), aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary), peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid, C=C, carbonylperoxynitrate, nitro-phenol, nitro-ester, aromatic rings, non-aromatic rings, C=C-C=O in a non-aromatic ring, and carbon on the acid-side of an amide. The T dependence in each of the bk (T) is assumed to follow b(T)=B1/T+B2+B3T+B4ln T. Values of the B coefficients are fit using an initial basis set of 272 compounds for which experimentally based functions po L,i=fi (T) are available. The range of vapor pressure considered spans fourteen orders of magnitude. The ability of the initially fitted B coefficients to predict poL values is examined using a test set of 184 compounds and a T range that is as wide as 273.15 to 393.15 K for some compounds. σFIT is defined as the average over all points of the absolute value of the difference between experimental and predicted values of log10poL,i (T). After consideration of σFIT for the test set, the initial basis set and test set compounds are combined, and the B coefficients re-optimized. For all compounds and temperatures, σFIT=0.34: on average, poL,i (T) values are predicted to within a factor of 2. Because d(log10 poL,i (T))d(1/T) is related to the enthalpy of vaporization ΔHvap,i, the fitted B provide

  19. SIMPOL.1: A simple group contribution method for predicting vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of multifunctional organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, J. F.; Asher, W. E.

    2007-08-01

    The SIMPOL.1 group contribution method is developed for predicting the liquid vapor pressure pLo (atm) and enthalpy of vaporization ΔHvap (kJ mol-1) of organic compounds as functions of temperature (T). For each compound i, the method assumes log10pL,io(T)=Σkνk,ibk(T) where νk,i is the number of groups of type k, and bk(T) is the contribution to log10 pL,io(T) by each group of type k. A zeroeth group is included that uses b0(T) with ν0,i=1 for all i. A total of 30 structural groups are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary), aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary), peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid, C=C, carbonylperoxynitrate, nitro-phenol, nitro-ester, aromatic rings, non-aromatic rings, C=C-C=O in a non-aromatic ring, and carbon on the acid-side of an amide. The T dependence in each of the bk(T) is assumed to follow b(T)=B1/T+B2+B3T+B4lnT. Values of the B coefficients are fit using an initial basis set of 272 compounds for which experimentally based functions pL,io=fi(T) are available. The range of vapor pressure considered spans fourteen orders of magnitude. The ability of the initially fitted B coefficients to predict pLo values is examined using a test set of 161 compounds and a T range that is as wide as 273.15 to 393.15 K for some compounds. σFIT is defined as the average over all points of the absolute value of the difference between experimental and predicted values of log10pL,io(T). After consideration of σFIT for the test set, the initial basis set and test set compounds are combined, and the B coefficients re-optimized. For all compounds and temperatures, σFIT=0.34: on average, pL,io(T) values are predicted to within a factor of 2. Because d(log10pL,io(T))/d(1/T) is related to the enthalpy of vaporization ΔHvap,i, the fitted B provide predictions of

  20. Transient-pressure analysis in geothermal steam reservoirs with an immobile vaporizing liquid phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, A.F.; Atkinson, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    A finite-difference model for the radial horizontal flow of steam through a porous medium is used to evaluate transient-pressure behavior in the presence of an immobile vaporizing or condensing liquid phase. Graphs of pressure drawdown and buildup in terms of dimensionless pressure and time are obtained for a well discharging steam at a constant mass flow rate for a specified time. The assumptions are made that the steam is in local thermal equilibrium with the reservoir rocks, that temperature changes are due only to phase change, and that effects of vapor-pressure lowering are negligible. Computations show that when a vaporizing liquid phase is present the pressure drawdown exhibits behavior similar to that observed in noncondensable gas reservoirs, but delayed in time. A theoretical analysis allows for the computation of this delay and demonstrates that it is independent of flow geometry. The response that occurs upon pressure buildup is markedly different from that in a noncondensable gas system. This result may provide a diagnostic tool for establishing the existence of phase-change phenomena within a reservoir. ?? 1979.

  1. Effects of FeNi-phosphorus-carbon system on crystal growth of diamond under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Bi, Ning; Li, Shang-Sheng; Su, Tai-Chao; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Hu, Qiang; Jia, Xiao-Peng; Ma, Hong-An

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the crystal growth of diamond from the FeNi-Carbon system with additive phosphorus at high pressures and high temperatures of 5.4-5.8 GPa and 1280-1360 °C. Attributed to the presence of additive phosphorus, the pressure and temperature condition, morphology, and color of diamond crystals change obviously. The pressure and temperature condition of diamond growth increases evidently with the increase of additive phosphorus content and results in the moving up of the V-shape region. The surfaces of the diamonds also become coarse as the additive phosphorus added in the growth system. Raman spectra indicate that diamonds grown from the FeNi-phosphorus-carbon system have more crystal defects and impurities. This work provides a new way to enrich the doping of diamond and improve the experimental exploration for future material applications. Project supported by the Doctoral Fund of Henan Polytechnic University, China (Grant Nos. B2013-013 and B2013-044) and the Research Projects of Science and Technology of the Education Department of Henan Province, China (Grant Nos. 14B430026 and 12A430010).

  2. Thermodynamic properties and vapor pressures of polar fluids from a four-parameter corresponding-states method

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, W.V.; Johnson, J.K.; Rowley, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    A recently proposed extended Lee-Kesler corresponding-states method (ELK) for polar fluids which accurately predicts compressibility factors and departure functions is considered. Tables of polar deviation functions have been generated and values of the shape/size and polar parameters for 52 polar fluids have been calculated, allowing the method to be used for quick hand calculation in addition to the previous, more accurate, computer applications. Additionally, vapor pressures of 44 pure polar fluids were computed using the full version of the ELK and the equality of the Gibbs free energy criterion for phase equilibrium. An ELK vapor pressure correlation is proposed which is essentially numerically equivalent to, but computationally simpler than, the former method. Computed vapor pressures agree with experimental values as well or better than other vapor pressure equations designed exclusively for vapor pressure prediction of polar fluids.

  3. Non-contact measurement technique of the vapor pressure of liquid and high temperature solid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, P.-F.; Ishikawa, T.; Yoda, S.

    2003-05-01

    Here is reported a new scheme to accurately determine the vapor pressure of undercooled, liquid, and high temperature solid materials. The method relies on an imaging technique that measures the time variation of the radius of an electrostatically levitated sample. This scheme, compared to other techniques, offers unique opportunity to explore not only the liquid above the melting point but also the undercooled states of highly reactive materials in a contamination free environment. This was exemplified in this paper with titanium. For the first time, we report the vapor pressure (V_p) of its liquid phase over a large temperature range, covering the undercooled region. Over the 1700 to 2050 K temperature range, it was measured as Log V_p(T) = 9.154 - 17978 T^{-1} (3%). Similarly, for high temperature solid titanium, the vapor pressure could be expressed as Log V_p(T) = 16.634 - 32960 T^{-1} (6%) over the 1770 to 1940 K temperature interval. From these data, the average latent heats of vaporization and sublimation were calculated respectively as 344.8 kJ/kg (8%) and 632.1 kJ/kg (6%) respectively.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo

    1995-09-01

    In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.

  5. Deviations from Ideal Sublimation Vapor Pressure Behavior in Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds with Interacting Heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Jillian L; Suuberg, Eric M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the relatively small atomic fraction of a given heteroatom in a binary mixture of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), the inclusion of heteroatomic substituted compounds can significantly impact mixture vapor pressure behavior over a wide range of temperatures. The vapor pressures of several binary PAC mixtures containing various heteroatoms show varying behavior, from practically ideal behavior following Raoult's law to significant deviations from ideality depending on the heteroatom(s) present in the mixture. Mixtures were synthesized using the quench-cool technique with equimolar amounts of two PAC, both containing heteroatoms such as aldehyde, carboxyl, nitrogen, and sulfur substituent groups. For some mixtures, deviation from ideality is inversely related to temperature, though in other cases we see deviations from ideality increasing with temperature, whereas some appear independent of temperature. Most commonly we see lower vapor pressures than predicted by Raoult's law, which indicates that the interacting heteroatoms prefer the solid mixture phase as opposed to the vapor phase. Although negative deviations predominate from Raoult's Law, the varying mixtures investigated show both higher and lower enthalpies and entropies of sublimation than predicted. In each mixture, a higher enthalpy of sublimation leads to higher entropy of sublimation than predicted, and vice versa.

  6. The vapor pressures of supercooled NHO3/H2O solutions. [in polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure utilizing the Gibbs-Duhem relation is used to extrapolate vapor pressures of supercooled HNO3 mixtures to 190 K. Values of A and B from the equation logP = A - B/T are presented for solutions between 0.20 and 0.25 mole fraction HNO3. In the stratosphere, if sufficient HNO3 vapor is present because it has not come into equilibrium with the nitric acid trihydrate, supercooled nitric acid solutions could condense at temperatures up to 1.5 + or - 0.8 K above the ice point.

  7. Simulation Research of Vaporization and Pressure Variation in a Cryogenic Propellant Tank at the Launch Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Liang, Guo-zhu

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve depiction of pressure variation and investigate the interrelation among the physical processes in propellant tanks, a 2D axial symmetry Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) CFD model is established to simulate a large-sized liquid propellant tank when the rocket is preparing for launch with propellant loaded at the launch site. The numerical model is considered with propellant free convection, heat transfer between the tank and the external environment, thermal exchange between propellant and inner tank wall surfaces, gas compressibility, and phase change modeled under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. Vaporization rate of the vented LH2 tank and prediction of pressure change in the tank pressurized with GHe are obtained through simulation. We analysis the distributions of phase, temperature, and velocity vectors to reveal interactions among the propellant's own convection motion, heat transfer and phase change. The results show that the vaporization rate is mainly affected by heat leaks though the tank wall when the tank is vented, but it does not completely accord with the trend of the leakage because of convection motion and temperature nonuniformity of the liquid propellant in the tank. We also find that the main factors on pressure variation in the pressurized tank are the heat transfer on the tank wall surface bonding the ullage and propellant vaporization which has comparatively less influence.

  8. Phase State and Saturation Vapor Pressure of Submicron Particles of meso-Erythritol at Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, Eva U; Tschiskale, Morten; Bilde, Merete

    2016-09-15

    meso-Erythritol is a sugar alcohol identified in atmospheric aerosol particles. In this work, evaporation of submicron-sized particles of meso-erythritol was studied in a TDMA system including a laminar flow tube under dry conditions at five temperatures (278-308 K) and ambient pressure. A complex behavior was observed and attributed to the formation of particles of three different phase states: (1) crystalline, (2) subcooled liquid or amorphous, and (3) mixed. With respect to saturation vapor pressure, the subcooled liquid and amorphous states are treated to be the same. The particle phase state was linked to initial particle size and flow tube temperature. Saturation vapor pressures of two phase states attributed to the crystalline and subcooled liquid state respectively are reported. Our results suggest a mass accommodation coefficient close to one for both states.

  9. Advanced Computational Modeling of Vapor Deposition in a High-pressure Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; McCall, Sonya D.; Cardelino, Carlos A.; Dietz, Nikolaus; Bachmann, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In search of novel approaches to produce new materials for electro-optic technologies, advances have been achieved in the development of computer models for vapor deposition reactors in space. Numerical simulations are invaluable tools for costly and difficult processes, such as those experiments designed for high pressures and microgravity conditions. Indium nitride is a candidate compound for high-speed laser and photo diodes for optical communication system, as well as for semiconductor lasers operating into the blue and ultraviolet regions. But InN and other nitride compounds exhibit large thermal decomposition at its optimum growth temperature. In addition, epitaxy at lower temperatures and subatmospheric pressures incorporates indium droplets into the InN films. However, surface stabilization data indicate that InN could be grown at 900 K in high nitrogen pressures, and microgravity could provide laminar flow conditions. Numerical models for chemical vapor deposition have been developed, coupling complex chemical kinetics with fluid dynamic properties.

  10. Advanced Computational Modeling of Vapor Deposition in a High-Pressure Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; McCall, Sonya D.; Cardelino, Carlos A.; Dietz, Nikolaus; Bachmann, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In search of novel approaches to produce new materials for electro-optic technologies, advances have been achieved in the development of computer models for vapor deposition reactors in space. Numerical simulations are invaluable tools for costly and difficult processes, such as those experiments designed for high pressures and microgravity conditions. Indium nitride is a candidate compound for high-speed laser and photo diodes for optical communication system, as well as for semiconductor lasers operating into the blue and ultraviolet regions. But InN and other nitride compounds exhibit large thermal decomposition at its optimum growth temperature. In addition, epitaxy at lower temperatures and subatmospheric pressures incorporates indium droplets into the InN films. However, surface stabilization data indicate that InN could be grown at 900 K in high nitrogen pressures, and microgravity could provide laminar flow conditions. Numerical models for chemical vapor deposition have been developed, coupling complex chemical kinetics with fluid dynamic properties.

  11. Development of a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter for the determination of the water vapor pressure curve.

    PubMed

    Mokdad, S; Georgin, E; Hermier, Y; Sparasci, F; Himbert, M

    2012-07-01

    Progress in the knowledge of the water saturation curve is required to improve the accuracy of the calibrations in humidity. In order to achieve this objective, the LNE-CETIAT and the LNE-CNAM have jointly built a facility dedicated to the measurement of the saturation vapor pressure and temperature of pure water. The principle is based on a static measurement of the pressure and the temperature of pure water in a closed, temperature-controlled thermostat, conceived like a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter. A copper cell containing pure water is placed inside a temperature-controlled copper shield, which is mounted in a vacuum-tight stainless steel vessel immersed in a thermostated bath. The temperature of the cell is measured with capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers, calibrated with uncertainties below the millikelvin. The vapor pressure is measured by calibrated pressure sensors connected to the cell through a pressure tube whose temperature is monitored at several points. The pressure gauges are installed in a thermostatic apparatus ensuring high stability of the pressure measurement and avoiding any condensation in the tubes. Thanks to the employment of several technical solutions, the thermal contribution to the overall uncertainty budget is reduced, and the remaining major part is mainly due to pressure measurements. This paper presents a full description of this facility and the preliminary results obtained for its characterization.

  12. Measurements of blast waves from bursting frangible spheres pressurized with flash-evaporation vapor or liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparaza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Incident overpressure data from frangible spheres pressurized with a flash-evaporating fluid in liquid and vapor form were obtained in laboratory experiments. Glass spheres under higher than ambient internal pressure of Freon-12 were purposely burst to obtain time histories of overpressure. Nondimensional peak pressures, arrival and duration times, and impulses are presented, and whenever possible plotted and compared with compiled data for Pentolite high-explosive. The data are generally quite repeatable and show differences from blast data produced by condensed high-explosives.

  13. Lattice-dynamical properties of black phosphorus under pressure studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Akahama, Y.; Endo, S.; Narita, S.; Axe, J. D.; McWhan, D. B.

    1984-09-01

    Acoustic-phonon dispersion relations of black phosphorus in its orthorhombic A11 phase have been measured along three principal directions mainly at 1 bar and 15.4 kbar. An anomalous softening has been observed on the LA[100] branch whose vibrational patterns (eigenvectors) have been analyzed based on a force-constant-model fit by Kaneta et al. It is suggested that this softening is caused through electron-phonon interactions associated with a large change in bonding angles. The TAy[001] mode at the zone boundary, which can be assigned to the atomic displacements relevant to the A11-to-A7 (rhombohedral) structural transition at 45 kbar, does not soften, but at least the hardening shows a tendency to saturate at pressure higher than 15.4 kbar.

  14. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    considered through computations using the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, suggesting a relative minor, but potentially significant, contribution to the regain process. Apparently, gains in gas content can be generated from the oil itself during storage because the salt dome has been heated by the geothermal gradient of the earth. The heated domal salt transfers heat to the oil stored in the caverns and thereby increases the gas released by the volatile components and raises the boiling point pressure of the oil. The process is essentially a variation on the fractionation of oil, where each of the discrete components of the oil have a discrete temperature range over which that component can be volatized and removed from the remaining components. The most volatile components are methane and ethane, the shortest chain hydrocarbons. Since this fractionation is a fundamental aspect of oil behavior, the volatile component can be removed by degassing, potentially prohibiting the evolution of gas at or below the temperature of the degas process. While this process is well understood, the ability to describe the results of degassing and subsequent regain is not. Trends are not well defined for original gas content, regain, and prescribed effects of degassing. As a result, prediction of cavern response is difficult. As a consequence of this current analysis, it is suggested that solutioning brine of the final fluid exchange of a just completed cavern, immediately prior to the first oil filling, should be analyzed for gas content using existing analysis techniques. This would add important information and clarification to the regain process. It is also proposed that the quantity of volatile components, such as methane, be determined before and after any degasification operation.

  15. Ultra-rapid flow-through polymerase chain reaction microfluidics using vapor pressure.

    PubMed

    Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Nagai, Hidenori; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2011-09-15

    A novel flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microfluidic system using vapor pressure was developed that can achieve ultra-rapid, small-volume DNA amplification on a chip. The 40-cycle amplification can be completed in as little as 120 s, making this device the fastest PCR system in the world. The chip device is made of a pressure-sensitive polyolefin (PSP) film and cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) substrate which was processed by cutting-work to fabricate the microchannel. The enclosed structure of the microchannel was fabricated solely by weighing the PSP film on the COP substrate, resulting in superior practical application. The vapor pressure in the denaturation zone of the destabilizing flow source was applied to the flow force, and ultra-rapid, efficient amplification was accomplished with a minimal amount of PCR reagents for detection. The flowing rhythm created by vapor pressure minimized the residual PCR products, leading to highly efficient amplification. For field test analysis, airborne dust was collected from a public place and tested for the presence of anthrax. The PCR chip had sufficient sensitivity for anthrax identification. The fastest time from aerosol sampling to detection was theoretically estimated as 8 min.

  16. High-pressure homogenization lowers water vapor permeability of soybean protein isolate-beeswax films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Guo, Kuan; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2012-03-07

    Soybean-protein isolate (SPI) has excellent film-forming capacity. However, the water vapor permeability of SPI film is high, which will cause the moisture lose of packaged products. The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the water vapor permeability of SPI-beeswax films was evaluated. The HPH was effective at lowering the water vapor permeability of SPI-beeswax films to about 50% of the control. The HPH reduced the particle size of films and made their matrix more compact. The HPH improved the hydrophobicity of SPI-beeswax films. For the first time, we proved that the HPH improved the bound-beeswax content in SPI-beeswax films. The bound beeswax was effective at lowering the water vapor permeability of films rather than the free beeswax in the film matrix. In summary, the HPH lowered water vapor permeability of SPI-beeswax films by reducing their particle size and raising their hydrophobicity and bound-beeswax content.

  17. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-02-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures.

  18. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures. PMID:28090133

  19. Water-vapor pressure in nests of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    1990-01-01

    The water-vapor pressure (PN) in nests of the San Miguel Island race of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia micronyx) averaged 16 torr, but varied considerable between nests and within individual nests during successive days of incubation. Large daily fluctuations occurred throughout the incubation period and did not parallel concurrent changes in ambien vapor pressure (P1). Daily rates of water loss from nest eggs (MH2O) averaged 28 mg day-1, but also varied considerable within and between nests and did not correlate with changes in P1. MH2O increased 6-33% after the third day of incubation. PN was significantly higher and MH2O significantly lower in nests located in sheltered gullies than in nests from a windswept slope. These data suggest that Song Sparrows do not regulate PN to achieve hatching success.

  20. On the critical temperature, normal boiling point, and vapor pressure of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Filipe, Eduardo

    2005-04-07

    One-stage, reduced-pressure distillations at moderate temperature of 1-decyl- and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bistriflilamide ([Ntf(2)](-)) ionic liquids (ILs) have been performed. These liquid-vapor equilibria can be understood in light of predictions for normal boiling points of ILs. The predictions are based on experimental surface tension and density data, which are used to estimate the critical points of several ILs and their corresponding normal boiling temperatures. In contrast to the situation found for relatively unstable ILs at high-temperature such as those containing [BF(4)](-) or [PF(6)](-) anions, [Ntf(2)](-)-based ILs constitute a promising class in which reliable, accurate vapor pressure measurements can in principle be performed. This property is paramount for assisting in the development and testing of accurate molecular models.

  1. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition of niobium coating on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaomu; Zhang, Litong; Cheng, Laifei; Liu, Jinling; Wang, Yiguang

    2009-07-01

    Nb coatings were prepared on a SiC substrate by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using NbCl 5. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the effect of temperature and partial pressure of NbCl 5 on the final products. The as-deposited coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Nb coatings are oriented and grow in the preferred (2 0 0) plane and (2 1 1) plane, at 1173 K and 1223-1423 K, respectively. At 1123-1273 K, the deposition is controlled by the surface kinetic processes. The activation energy is found to be 133 kJ/mol. At 1273-1373 K, the deposition is controlled by the mass transport processes. The activation energy is found to be 46 kJ/mol. The growth mechanism of the chemical vapor deposited Nb is also discussed based on the morphologies and the deposition rates.

  2. Initial Measurement of the Vapor Pressures of Simple Refractory Materials: Cu and Fe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.; Johnson, Natasha; Martinez, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear over the past decade that high temperature processes played important roles in the Primitive Solar Nebula. Unfortunately, basic data, such as the vapor pressures of iron or SiO have not been measured over the appropriate temperature range (near T approximately equal to 2000K), but must be extrapolated from lower temperature measurements often made more than 50 years ago. The extrapolation of the available data to higher temperatures can be quite complex and can depend on other factors such as the oxygen fugacity or the presence of hydrogen gas. Moreover, modern technology has made possible more accurate measurements of such quantities over a wider temperature range. We recently acquired a commercial Thermo-Cahn Thermogravimetric system capable of vacuum operation to 1700 C and measurement of mass change with microgram accuracy in a 100g sample or smaller. In this paper, we will report our progress in learning to make vapor pressure measurements using this system.

  3. Some possible filler alloys with low vapor pressures for refractory-metal brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of eutectics and melting-point minima for binary combinations of metals having vapor pressures below 10 to the minus 10th power torr at 1500 degrees K and .00005 torr at 2000 degree K is presented. These compositions and others near them on their phase diagrams are potential special brazing fillers for refractory metals. Some possible problems and advantages for fusion bonds of such mixtures are indicated. Evaluations of brazing fillers containing refractory metals are reported.

  4. Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: vapor pressure and boiling point.

    PubMed

    Horn, Hans W; Swope, William C; Pitera, Jed W

    2005-11-15

    The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water.

  5. New Micro-Method for Prediction of Vapor Pressure of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    and HNS (20), caffeine (19, 21 both values used in linear regression), naphthalene (22), benzoic acid (23), adipic acid (24), anthraquinone (25...Naphthalene Mettler certified thermometric standard Caffeine Arthur R Thomas Co thermometric standard Acetanilide Arthur R Thomas Co thermometric...materials (energetic and non-energetic). The two data points in red are both for caffeine ; values for vapor pressures measured by two different groups differ

  6. Vapor Pressure Determination of VM Using the Denunder-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY –MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUE ECBC-TR-1278 Amanda L. Jenkins ASK, INC. Hebron, MD 21830-1224 Eric J. Bruni LEIDOS, INC...2012 – Sep 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vapor Pressure Determination of VM Using the Denuder–Liquid Chromatography –Mass Spectrometry Technique 5a...a novel, denuder-based liquid chromatography –mass spectrometry (LC–MS) approach designed specifically for low- volatility and thermally unstable

  7. Apparatus to measure the vapor pressure of slowly decomposing compounds from 1 Pa to 10(5) Pa.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    This article describes an apparatus and method for measuring vapor pressures in the range from 1 Pa to 10(5) Pa. Its three distinctive elements are : (1) the static pressure measurements were made with only a small temperature difference between the vapor and the condensed phase, (2) the sample was degassed in situ, and (3) the temperature range extended up to 200 °C. The apparatus was designed to measure metal-organic precursors, which often are toxic, pyrophoric, or unstable. Vapor pressures are presented for naphthalene, ferrocene, diethyl phthalate, and TEMAH (tetrakisethylmethylaminohafnium). Also presented are data for the temperature-dependent decomposition rate of TEMAH.

  8. Vapor Pressure and Evaporation Coefficient of Silicon Monoxide over a Mixture of Silicon and Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2012-01-01

    The evaporation coefficient and equilibrium vapor pressure of silicon monoxide over a mixture of silicon and vitreous silica have been studied over the temperature range (1433 to 1608) K. The evaporation coefficient for this temperature range was (0.007 plus or minus 0.002) and is approximately an order of magnitude lower than the evaporation coefficient over amorphous silicon monoxide powder and in general agreement with previous measurements of this quantity. The enthalpy of reaction at 298.15 K for this reaction was calculated via second and third law analyses as (355 plus or minus 25) kJ per mol and (363.6 plus or minus 4.1) kJ per mol respectively. In comparison with previous work with the evaporation of amorphous silicon monoxide powder as well as other experimental measurements of the vapor pressure of silicon monoxide gas over mixtures of silicon and silica, these systems all tend to give similar equilibrium vapor pressures when the evaporation coefficient is correctly taken into account. This provides further evidence that amorphous silicon monoxide is an intimate mixture of small domains of silicon and silica and not strictly a true compound.

  9. Methods of Measuring Vapor Pressures of Lubricants With Their Additives Using TGA and/or Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Miller, Michael K.; Montoya, Alex F.

    1996-01-01

    The life of a space system may be critically dependent on the lubrication of some of its moving parts. The vapor pressure, the quantity of the available lubricant, the temperature and the exhaust venting conductance passage are important considerations in the selection and application of a lubricant. In addition, the oil additives employed to provide certain properties of low friction, surface tension, antioxidant and load bearing characteristics, are also very important and need to be known with regard to their amounts and vapor pressures. This paper reports on the measurements and analyses carried out to obtain those parameters for two often employed lubricants, the Apiezon(TM)-C and the Krytox(TM) AB. The measurements were made employing an electronic microbalance and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) modified to operate in a vacuum. The results have been compared to other data on these oils when available. The identification of the mass fractions of the additives in the oil and their vapor pressures as a function of the temperature were carried out. These may be used to estimate the lubricant life given its quantity and the system vent exhaust conductance. It was found that the Apiezon(TM)-C has three main components with different rates of evaporation while the Krytox(TM) did not indicate any measurable additive.

  10. Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure drop is unaffected by large changes in the volume fraction of benzoate drops and their size distribution. Measured power spectra of the static wall pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent water-benzoate flow also revealed that their dynamics is essentially unaltered by the presence of the droplets. These experimental findings, together with the theoretical analysis, led to the conclusion that the pressure drop in fully developed, dispersed liquid-vapor flow in straight ducts of constant cross section at 0-g is identical to that due to liquid flowing alone at the same total volumetric flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture and, therefore, can be readily determined.

  11. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  12. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin K.; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 ºC). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  13. Thermal vapor bubble and pressure dynamics during infrared laser ablation of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Sokolow, Adam; Pearlstein, Robert; Edwards, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Free-electron laser irradiation can superheat tissue water, driving thermal vapor bubbles confined by tissue matrix and leading to mechanical tissue failure (ablation). Acoustic transients propagating from an ablation cavity were recorded with a polarization quadrature, interferometric vibrometer. For 3.0 μm infrared irradiation, the shocklike transients with peak pressures in the megapascal range indicate amplification due to bubble collapse. In contrast, for 6.45 μm irradiation, elastic transients with peak pressures in the 0.1 MPa range indicate tissue failure during bubble growth.

  14. Fast membrane osmometer as alternative to freezing point and vapor pressure osmometry.

    PubMed

    Grattoni, Alessandro; Canavese, Giancarlo; Montevecchi, Franco Maria; Ferrari, Mauro

    2008-04-01

    Osmometry is an essential technique for solution analysis and the investigation of chemical and biological phenomena. Commercially available osmometers rely on the measurements of freezing point, vapor pressure, and osmotic pressure of solutions. Although vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and freezing point osmometry (FPO) can perform rapid and inexpensive measurements, they are indirect techniques, which rely on thermodynamic assumptions, which limit their applicability. While membrane osmometry (MO) provides a potentially unlimited direct measurement of osmotic pressure and solution osmolality, the conventional technique is often time-consuming and difficult to operate. In the present work, a novel membrane osmometer is presented. The instrument significantly reduces the conventional MO measurement time and is not subject to the limitations of VPO and FPO. For this paper, the osmotic pressure of aqueous sucrose solutions was collected in a molality range 0-5.5, by way of demonstration of the new instrument. When compared with data found in the literature, the experimental data were generally in good agreement. However, differences among results from the three techniques were observed.

  15. Status of the CNRS-LCSR program on high pressure droplet vaporization and burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauveau, Christian; Goekalp, Iskender

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the surrounding flow and thermodynamic conditions, a single droplet may experience several gasification regimes, ranging from the envelope flame regime to pure vaporization. In practical situations, such as rocket propulsion or diesel combustion, the size distribution of droplets is, at best, bimodal, so that the possibility exists for the simultaneous presence of various regimes. For example, very small droplets are transported by the gas phase with zero relative velocity. This picture validates then the spherical symmetry hypothesis applied to the droplet and to the diffusion flame enveloping it. On the other hand, for larger droplets, a relative velocity exists due to drag forces. The most important influence of forced convection on droplet burning is the possibility to extinguish globally the envelope flame, or to establish a flame stabilized in the wake region. The burning rates of these regimes differ strongly. The characteristic time of droplet gasification is also influenced by the surrounding pressure and temperature. A parametric investigation of single droplet burning regimes is then helpful in providing the necessary physical ideas for sub-grid models used in spray combustion numerical prediction codes. The CNRS-LCSR experimental program on droplet vaporization and burning deals with these various regimes: stagnant and convective monocomponent droplet burning convective mono and bicomponent droplet vaporization; high temperature convective mono and biocomponent droplet vaporization; burning regimes of hydrazine and hydroxyl-ammonium-nitrate based monopropellant droplets and the vaporization regimes of liquid oxygen droplets. Studies on interacting droplets and on liquid aluminum droplets will start in the near future. The influence of high pressure is a common feature of all these studies. This paper summarizes the status of the CNRS-LCSR program on the effects of high pressure on monocomponent single droplet burning and vaporization, and

  16. Thermochemical and Vapor Pressure Behavior of Anthracene and Brominated Anthracene Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-03-25

    The present work concerns the thermochemical and vapor pressure behavior of the anthracene (1) + 2-bromoanthracene (2) and anthracene (1) + 9-bromoanthracene (3) systems. Solid-liquid equilibrium temperature and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicate the existence of a minimum melting solid state near an equilibrium temperature of 477.65 K at x1 = 0.74 for the (1) + (2) system. Additionally, solid-vapor equilibrium studies for the (1) + (2) system show that the vapor pressure of the mixtures depends on composition, but does not follow ideal Raoult's law behaviour. The (1) + (3) system behaves differently from the (1) + (2) system. The (1) + (3) system has a solid solution like phase diagram. The system consists of two phases, an anthracene like phase and a 9-bromoanthracene like phase, while (1) + (2) mixtures only form a single phase. Moreover, experimental studies of the two systems suggest that the (1) + (2) system is in a thermodynamically lower energy state than the (1) + (3) system.

  17. Thermochemical and Vapor Pressure Behavior of Anthracene and Brominated Anthracene Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The present work concerns the thermochemical and vapor pressure behavior of the anthracene (1) + 2-bromoanthracene (2) and anthracene (1) + 9-bromoanthracene (3) systems. Solid-liquid equilibrium temperature and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicate the existence of a minimum melting solid state near an equilibrium temperature of 477.65 K at x1 = 0.74 for the (1) + (2) system. Additionally, solid-vapor equilibrium studies for the (1) + (2) system show that the vapor pressure of the mixtures depends on composition, but does not follow ideal Raoult’s law behaviour. The (1) + (3) system behaves differently from the (1) + (2) system. The (1) + (3) system has a solid solution like phase diagram. The system consists of two phases, an anthracene like phase and a 9-bromoanthracene like phase, while (1) + (2) mixtures only form a single phase. Moreover, experimental studies of the two systems suggest that the (1) + (2) system is in a thermodynamically lower energy state than the (1) + (3) system. PMID:24319314

  18. Disjoining pressure and capillarity in the constrained vapor bubble heat transfer system.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arya; Plawsky, Joel L; Wayner, Peter C

    2011-10-14

    Using the disjoining pressure concept in a seminal paper, Derjaguin, Nerpin and Churaev demonstrated that isothermal liquid flow in a very thin film on the walls of a capillary tube enhances the rate of evaporation of moisture by several times. The objective of this review is to present the evolution of the use of Churaev's seminal research in the development of the Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) heat transfer system. In this non-isothermal "wickless heat pipe", liquid and vapor flow results from gradients in the intermolecular force field, which depend on the disjoining pressure, capillarity and temperature. A Kelvin-Clapeyron model allowed the use of the disjoining pressure to be expanded to describe non-isothermal heat, mass and momentum transport processes. The intermolecular force field described by the convenient disjoining pressure model is the boundary condition for "suction" and stability at the leading edge of the evaporating curved flow field. As demonstrated by the non-isothermal results, applications that depend on the characteristics of the evaporating meniscus are legion.

  19. Pressure intelligent control strategy of Waste heat recovery system of converter vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xugang; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jiayan; Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The converter gas evaporative cooling system is mainly used for absorbing heat in the high temperature exhaust gas which produced by the oxygen blowing reaction. Vaporization cooling steam pressure control system of converter is a nonlinear, time-varying, lagging behind, close coupling of multivariable control object. This article based on the analysis of converter operation characteristics of evaporation cooling system, of vaporization in a production run of pipe pressure variation and disturbance factors.For the dynamic characteristics of the controlled objects,we have improved the conventional PID control scheme.In Oxygen blowing process, we make intelligent control by using fuzzy-PID cascade control method and adjusting the Lance,that it can realize the optimization of the boiler steam pressure control.By design simulation, results show that the design has a good control not only ensures drum steam pressure in the context of security, enabling efficient conversion of waste heat.And the converter of 1800 flue gas through pipes and cool and dust removal also can be cooled to about 800. Therefore the converter haze evaporative cooling system has achieved to the converter haze temperature decrease effect and enhanced to the coal gas returns-ratio.

  20. Partial Pressures of In-Se from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3 and 61 atomic percent and 673 and 1418K has been measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gage measurements for compositions between 50 and 61 atomic percent but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Torsion-Knudsen cell measurements. The sequiselenide is found to sublime incongruently. Congruent vaporization occurs for the liquid above 1000 K between 50.08 and 56 at. percent Se. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000 and 1300K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 and -38 kJ per gram atomic weight for 50 and 56 percent Se at 1200 and 1300K.

  1. Remote catalyzation for growth of boron nitride nanotubes by low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangjie; Li, Taotao; Ling, Lin; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Yancui; Lu, Huifen; Yao, Yagang

    2016-05-01

    Direct deposition of high purity and quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) on Si substrate were obtained using low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). We find Fe-Mg-O species may act as catalysts for growing BNNTs. This synthesis process conforms to vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. As-grown BNNTs also show a large optical energy band gap of 6.12 eV, approaching to hexagonal phase BN single crystals. Meanwhile, as-grown BNNTs exhibit an intense UV-emission band located at 345 nm and a weak deep band at 237 nm. Their optoelectronic properties make them have promising for future nanoscale deep-UV light emitting devices.

  2. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1984-06-01

    Under the auspices of US Department of Energy, this work supports the program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that these cleaned hot gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A laboratory-scale pressurized test unit was used to continue the alkali-vapor characterization of activated bauxite and Emathlite at a bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute in a simulated PFBC flue gas stream containing <10 ppMV NaCl vapor. Under the test conditions, preliminary results show a comparable NaCl-vapor capture capability for both activated bauxite and Emathlite. Emathlite was found to capture NaCl vapor essentially by chemical reactions with the vapor to form water-insoluble compounds, probably sodium aluminosilicates, whereas activated bauxite captures the vapor mainly by physical adsorption as sodium sulfate. The test unit was modified and tested to improve the control of NaCl vaporization in the unit required for the source of alkali vapor in the simulated flue gas. Experimental results are also presented on (1) water leachability of both metallic and nonmetallic ions present in activated bauxite when it is cyclically heat-treated in a simulated PFBC flue gas environment and then leached with distilled water, and (2) the effect of heat-treatment of Emathlite in the simulated PFBC flue gas on the changes of its physical and chemical properties.

  3. The Vapor Pressure of Environmentally Significant Organic Chemicals: A Review of Methods and Data at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Site, A.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental techniques and the prediction procedures for the determination or evaluation of the vapor pressure of environmentally relevant organic compounds are described; with 259 references examined. For each of them the characteristics of precision and accuracy are given, when available from the literature. The experimental methods are classified as {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect.{close_quotes} The first class includes all those which can measure directly the vapor pressure, while the second concerns those which need {open_quotes}known{close_quotes} vapor pressures of reference compounds for the calibration. Prediction methods are based on the application of the Clapeyron{endash}Clausius equation or on the quantitative structure-property relationships. Also correlation methods require a suitable calibration. The vapor pressures at ambient temperature for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, selected pesticides, and some reference compounds are tabulated together with the vapor pressure equations and the enthalpy values in the temperature range of measurement. A critical comparison, based on a statistical analysis of the data obtained with different methods and derived from 152 references, is also carried out. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society.}{ital Key words:} chlorinated biphenyls; chlorinated dioxins; critically reviewed data; critically reviewed methods; pesticides; polynuclear aromatics; vapor pressure. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society}

  4. Discrete electronic-vibrational fluorescence spectra in the low-pressure phenanthrene and naphthacene vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Mirumyants, S.O.; Kozlov, V.K.; Vandyukov, E.A.

    1986-10-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been paid to developing methods for analysis and control of air pollutants. In this work the results of the study on quasiline fluorescence spectra for phenathrene and naphthacene in the gas phase are presented. Despite the fact that phenanthrene is a stereoisomer of anthracene, the shapes and intensities of their absorption and fluorescence spectra are markedly different. The oscillator strength of the first electronic transition in anthracene vapors is 50 times larger than that for the phenanthrene vapor (0.1 and 0.002, respectively). Therefore, the studies of the quasiline fluorescence spectrum of the phenanthrene vapor required a long exposition period (from 7 to 31 h) during the photographic detection. It is known that phenanthrene exhibits a characteristic quasiline spectrum in the 34584000-A range in frozen solutions. The authors have also investigated the possibility of obtaining structured quasiline vapor spectra for a more complex aromatic compound such as naphthacene which comprises four benzyl rings. In conclusion, the quasiline fluorescence spectra for phenanthrene and naphthacene in the gas phase have been obtained for the first time. In certain experimental conditions, phenanthrene and naphthacene emit wellresolved quasiline spectra which are dependent on the excitation frequency, temperature, and vapor pressure. For both compounds there is a frequency range for quasiline fluorescence excitation for which a shift of the quasiline spectrum occurs if the excitation frequency is changed within that range. Also more accurate values for the frequencies of the O-O electronic transition in phenanthrene and naphthacene have been obtained. Diagrams are included.

  5. a Property of the Saturated Vapor Pressure:. Results from Equations of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Yi

    Experimentally, a maximum point in the curve of the saturated property ψ=(1-Tr)Pr versus the saturated temperature was postulated (High Temp.-High Press. 26 (1994) 427). Here, Tr is the saturated temperature reduced by the critical temperature and Pr is the saturated pressure reduced by the critical pressure. Later, this behavior was applied to assure the saturated vapor pressure critical amplitudes (Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 (2007) 141905). In this paper, we indicate that theory of equation of state (EOS) can predict this maximum point. The EOSs we study are the combinations of the hard sphere repulsions and some normally used attractions such as the Redlich-Kwong attraction. We find the EOSs with Redlich-Kwong attractive terms give out the results in the experimental range.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene Using a Liquid Benzene Precursor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cheong; Jung, Da Hee; Lee, Jin Seok

    2015-11-01

    Graphene has attracted great attention owing to its unique structural and electrical properties. Among various synthetic approaches of the graphene, metal assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most reasonable and proper method to produce large-scale and low-defect graphene films. Until now, CVD from gaseous hydrocarbon sources has shown great promises for large-scale graphene growth, but high growth temperature is required for such growth. A recent work by using liquid benzene precursor has shown that monolayer graphene could be obtained at 300 degrees C by low pressure, required for high vacuum equipment. Here, we report the first successful attempt of atmospheric pressure CVD graphene growth on Cu foil using liquid benzene as a precursor. We investigated the effect of hydrogen partial pressure, growth time, and precursor temperature on the domain size of as-grown graphene. Also, micro-Raman analysis confirmed that these reaction parameters influenced the number of layer and uniformity of the graphene.

  7. High-Pressure Solvent Vapor Annealing with a Benign Solvent To Rapidly Enhance the Performance of Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Buyoung; Kim, Kangmin; Eom, Yoomin; Kim, Woochul

    2015-06-24

    A high-pressure solvent vapor annealing (HPSVA) treatment is suggested as an annealing process to rapidly achieve high-performance organic photovoltaics (OPVs); this process can be compatible with roll-to-roll processing methods and uses a benign solvent: acetone. Solvent vapor annealing can produce an advantageous vertical distribution in the active layer; however, conventional solvent vapor annealing is also time-consuming. To shorten the annealing time, high-pressure solvent vapor is exposed on the active layer of OPVs. Acetone is a nonsolvent for poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), but it can dissolve small amounts of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1,1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM). Acetone vapor molecules can penetrate into the active layer under high vapor pressure conditions to alter the morphology. HPSVA induces a PCBM-rich phase near the cathode and facilitates the transport of free charge carriers to the electrode. Although P3HT is not soluble in acetone, locally rearranged P3HT crystallites are generated. The performance of OPV films was enhanced after HPSVA; the film treated at 30 kPa for 10 s showed optimum performance. Additionally, this HPSVA method could be adapted for mass production because the temporary exposure of films to high-pressure acetone vapor in ambient conditions also improved performance.

  8. Estimation of Fracture Toughness of Anisotropic Rocks by Semi-Circular Bend (SCB) Tests Under Water Vapor Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, M.; Obara, Y.; Kuruppu, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to investigate the influence of water vapor pressure in the surrounding environment on mode I fracture toughness ( K Ic) of rocks, semi-circular bend (SCB) tests under various water vapor pressures were conducted. Water vapor is one of the most effective agents which promote stress corrosion of rocks. The range of water vapor pressure used was 10-2 to 103 Pa, and two anisotropic rock types, African granodiorite and Korean granite, were used in this work. The measurement of elastic wave velocity and observation of thin sections of these rocks were performed to investigate the microstructures of the rocks. It was found that the distribution of inherent microcracks and grains have a preferred orientation. Two types of specimens in different orientations, namely Type-1 and Type-3, were prepared based on the anisotropy identified by the differences in the elastic wave velocity. K Ic of both rock types was dependent on the water vapor pressure in the surrounding environment and decreased with increasing water vapor pressure. It was found that the degree of the dependence is influenced by the orientation and density of inherent microcracks. The experimental results also showed that K Ic depended on the material anisotropy. A fracture process was discussed on the basis of the geometry of fractures within fractured specimens visualized by the X-ray computed tomography (CT) method. It was concluded that the dominant factor causing the anisotropy of K Ic is the distribution of grains rather than inherent microcracks in these rocks.

  9. The control of purity and stoichiometry of compound semiconductors by high vapor pressure transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.; Ito, Kazufumi; Scroggs, Jeffery S.; Tran, Hien T.

    1995-01-01

    In this report we summarize the results of a three year research program on high pressure vapor transport (HPVT) of compound semiconductors. Most of our work focused onto pnictides, in particular ZnGeP2, as a model system. Access to single crystals of well controlled composition of this material is desired for advancing the understanding and control of its point defect chemistry in the contest of remote, real-time sensing of trace impurities, e.g., greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere by ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators (OPO's).

  10. Solubility parameter and activity coefficient of HDEHP dimer in select organic diluents by vapor pressure osmometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.; Nilsson, M.; Zalupski, P.

    2013-07-01

    A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)

  11. Selective growth of GaAs by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, R.; Dugrand, L.

    1991-01-01

    Complete selective epitaxy of GaAs by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy at atmospheric pressure was achieved by using TMG, AsH3, and AsCl3 as starting gases. Selectivity was observed at growth temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The blocking of polycrystal deposition on the mask, Si3N4, or W, is attributed to the adsorption of HCl on the mask, thus preventing the nucleation of GaAs. On the openings, the growth rate may be adjusted by controlling the TMG/AsCl3 ratio. When TMG/AsCl3<1, no growth occurs, but etching is observed.

  12. Track studies in water vapor using a low-pressure cloud chamber. II. Microdosimetric measurements.

    PubMed

    Stonell, G P; Marshall, M; Simmons, J A

    1993-12-01

    A low-pressure cloud chamber has been adapted to operate with pure water vapor. Photographs were obtained of tracks arising from the passage of ionizing radiation. The sources used were low-energy X rays, 242Cm alpha particles, and low-energy protons. Distributions of lineal energy, radial distances around an ion track, and interdroplet distances were measured and compared with the predictions of Monte Carlo calculations. After allowing for diffusion and the limitations of the geometry of the system, the measured and calculated distributions were found to be in good agreement.

  13. Effect of different carbon sources on the biological phosphorus removal by a sequencing batch reactor using pressurized pure oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Arfarita, Novi; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko; Kanno, Ariyo

    2014-05-04

    The effect of different carbon source on the efficiency of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from synthetic wastewater with acetate and two ratios of acetate/starch as a carbon source was investigated. Three pressurized pure oxygen sequencing batch reactor (POSBR) experiments were operated. The reactors (POSBR1, POSBR2 and POSBR3) were developed and studied at different carbon source ratios of 100% acetate, 75% acetate plus 25% starch and 50% acetate plus 50% starch, respectively. The results showed that POSBR1 had a higher phosphate release-to-uptake ratio and, respectively, in a much higher phosphorus removal efficiency (93.8%) than POSBR2 (84.7%) and POSBR3 (77.3%) within 30 days of operation. This indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased the higher the starch concentration was. It was also found that POSBR1 produced more polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) than the other reactors. Based on the effect of the carbon source on the PHA concentration and consumption, the conditions of POSBR1 were favourable for the growth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and therefore, beneficial for the biological phosphorus removal process.

  14. Simple fabrication of air-stable black phosphorus heterostructures with large-area hBN sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sapna; Takabayashi, Yuya; Shinohara, Hisanori; Kitaura, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a facile and general method to passivate thin black phosphorus (BP) flakes with large-area high-quality monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) sheets grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. In spite of the one-atom-thick structure, the high-quality CVD-grown monolayer hBN has proven to be useful to prevent the degradation of thin BP flakes exfoliated on substrates. Mechanically exfoliated BP flakes prepared on a Si substrate are covered by the monolayer hBN sheet to preserve (otherwise unstable) atomic layered BP flakes from degradation. The present technique can generally be applied to fabricating BP-based electronic devices with much easiness.

  15. A vapor-pressure study of the systems formed by polonium with palladium and iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumou, A.S.; Khokhlou, A.D.; Malysheu, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

    1985-11-01

    Direct thermal vacuum synthesis shows that polonium vapor does not react with iridium when they are heated together to 1000/sup 0/C. Polonium vapor begins to be absorbed appreciably by palladium at 340-350/sup 0/C. The radiotensimetric method has been used in examining the thermal stabilities of polonium-palladium comounds, which has shown that there are three intermetallides PdPo, Pd/sub 2/Po, and Pd/sub 3/Po, which dissociate to release elemental polonium. The dissociation temperature increases as the polonium content of the compound decreases and is in the range 390-700/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence of the polonium vapor pressure in the dissociation is described by the following: PdPo log P /SUB Pa/ = (7.31 + or - 0.08) -- (4520 + or -40)/T, and at 460580/sup 0/C, ..delta..H = 86.3 + or - 0.7 kJ/mol; Pd/sub 2/Po log P /SUB Pa/ = (7.42 + or - 0.01) -- (6080 + or 10)/T at 725900/sup 0/C, ..delta..H = 116 + or - 0.2 kJ/mol; Pd/sub 3/Po log P /SUB Pa/ = (9.18 + or - 0.01) -- (8620 + or 1000/sup 0/C, ..delta..H = 164 + or - 1 kJ/mol. The properties of these compounds are compared with those of the corresponding tellurides and of the polonium-nickel and poloniumplatinum systems.

  16. Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

  17. Comparative study of the effects of phosphorus and boron doping in vapor-liquid-solid growth with fixed flow of silicon gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Mehedi, Ibrahim Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the comparative effects of phosphorus and boron doing in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Doped Si microneedles were grown by VLS mechanism at the temperature of 700 °C or less using Au as the catalyst. VLS growth using in-situ doping with the mixed gas of Si2H6 and PH3 produced phosphorus doped n-Si microneedles at Au dot sites, whereas, the mixed gas of Si2H6 and B2H6 produced boron doped p-Si microneedles. The variation of growth rate, diameter, resistivity, impurity concentration and carrier (electron, hole) mobility of these n-Si and p-Si microneeedles were investigated and compared with the variation of dopant gas (PH3 or B2H6) flow, with a fixed flow of Si gas (Si2H6). This comparative study shall be helpful while fabricating devices by growing n-Si and p-Si microneedles one above another by multistep (2-step or 3-step) VLS growth.

  18. The stability of Au-chloride complexes in water vapor at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, S. M.; Migdisov, A. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    The solubility of gold in liquid-undersaturated HCl-bearing water vapor was investigated experimentally at temperatures of 300 to 360°C and pressures up to 144 bars. Results of these experiments show that the solubility of gold in the vapor phase is significant and increases with increasing fHCl and fH 2O . This behavior of gold is attributed to formation of hydrated gold-chloride gas species, interpreted to have a gold-chlorine ratio of 1:1 and a hydration number varying from 5 at 300°C to 3 at 360°C. These complexes are proposed to have formed through the following reaction: Ausolid+ m· HClgas+ n· H2Ogas= AuClm·( H2O) ngas+ m/2· H2gas which was determined to have log K values of -17.28 ± 0.36 at 300°C, -18.73 ± 0.66 at 340°C, and -18.74 ± 0.43 at 360°C. Gold solubility in the vapor was retrograde, i.e., it decreased with increasing temperature, possibly as a result of the inferred decrease in hydration number. Calculations based on our data indicate that at 300°C and fO 2-pH conditions, encountered in high sulfidation epithermal systems, the vapor phase can transport up to 6.6 ppb gold, which would be sufficient to form an economic deposit (e.g., Nansatsu, Japan; 36 tonnes) in ˜ 30,000 yr.

  19. Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular flows, the proposed scheme resorts to existing semiempirical correlations. Results based on two different correlations are presented and compared. Others may be used. It was shown that, for both dispersed and annular flow regimes, the predicted frictional pressure gradients in 0-g are lower than those in 1-g under otherwise identical conditions. The physical basis for this finding is given.

  20. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  5. Vapor pressures, thermodynamic stability, and fluorescence properties of three 2,6-alkyl naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Filipa L O M; Oliveira, Juliana A S A; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C; Monte, Manuel J S

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the experimental determination of relevant thermodynamic properties and the characterization of luminescence properties of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): 2,6-diethylnaphthalene, 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene and 2,6-di-tert-butylnaphthalene. The standard (p(o) = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, ΔcHm(o), of the three compounds were determined using static bomb combustion calorimetry. The vapor pressures of the crystalline phase of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene and 2,6-di-tert-butylnaphthalene were measured at different temperatures using the Knudsen effusion method and the vapor pressures of both liquid and crystalline phases of 2,6-diethylnaphthalene were measured by means of a static method. The temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion of the three compounds were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The gas-phase molar heat capacities and absolute entropies of the three 2,6-dialkylnaphthalenes studied were determined computationally. The thermodynamic stability of the compounds in both the crystalline and gaseous phases was evaluated by the determination of the Gibbs energies of formation and compared with the ones reported in the literature for 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene. From fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, the optical properties of the compounds studied and of naphthalene were evaluated in solution and in the solid state.

  6. Fungicide volatilization measurements: inverse modeling, role of vapor pressure, and state of foliar residue.

    PubMed

    Bedos, Carole; Rousseau-Djabri, Marie-France; Loubet, Benjamin; Durand, Brigitte; Flura, Dominique; Briand, Olivier; Barriuso, Enrique

    2010-04-01

    Few data sets of pesticide volatilization from plants at the field scale are available. In this work, we report measurements of fenpropidin and chlorothalonil volatilization on a wheat field using the aerodynamic gradient (AG) method and an inverse dispersion modeling approach (using the FIDES model). Other data necessary to run volatilization models are also reported: measured application dose, crop interception, plant foliage residue, upwind concentrations, and meteorological conditions. The comparison of the AG and inverse modeling methods proved the latter to be reliable and hence suitable for estimating volatilization rates with minimized costs. Different diurnal/nocturnal volatilization patterns were observed: fenpropidin volatilization peaked on the application day and then decreased dramatically, while chlorothalonil volatilization remained fairly stable over a week-long period. Cumulated emissions after 31 h reached 3.5 g ha(-1) and 5 g ha(-1), respectively (0.8% and 0.6% of the theoretical application dose). A larger difference in volatilization rates was expected given differences in vapor pressure, and for fenpropidin, volatilization should have continued given that 80% of the initial amount remained on plant foliage for 6 days. We thus ask if vapor pressure alone can accurately estimate volatilization just after application and then question the state of foliar residue. We identified adsorption, formulation, and extraction techniques as relevant explanations.

  7. Density, vapor pressure, solubility, and viscosity for water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + 1,3-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.; Yu, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    Four physical properties (solubility, vapor pressure, density, and viscosity) of water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + 1,3-propanediol (LiBr/LiNO{sub 3} mole ratio = 4, (LiBr + LiNO{sub 3})/HO(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OH mass ratio = 3.5) were measured. The system, a possible working fluid for an absorption heat pump, mainly consists of absorbent (LiBr + LiNO{sub 3} + HO(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OH) and refrigerant (H{sub 2}O). Solubilities were measured by the visual polythermal method in the temperature range (285.55 to 346.65) K and in the absorbent concentration range (68.0 to 75.0) mass %. Vapor pressures were measured by the boiling point method in the temperature range (325.35 to 395.15) K and in the absorbent concentration range (46.0 to 69.6) mass %. Densities and viscosities were measured by a set of hydrometers and viscometers, respectively, in the temperature range (283.15 to 343.15) K and in the absorbent concentration range (24.3 to 70.3) mass %. The measured values were correlated.

  8. Alkali-metal-vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed-combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    This work supports the program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that the cleaned hot gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A simulated PFBC flue gas containing NaCl vapor was used to characterize activated bauxite and diatomaceous earth at a bed temperature of 905/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute. The NaCl vapor was found to be captured by activated bauxite essentially as sodium sulfate, with a small fraction captured as sodium chloride. In contrast, diatomaceous earth captured NaCl vapor by a combined result of (1) a chemical reaction that converts the vapor into condensed sodium sulfate and (2) chemical reactions that transform the captured sodium into water-insoluble silicate compounds. In NaCl-vapor sorption efficiency studies, a 12.7-cm-long activated bauxite bed was tested for 12 h in a gas stream containing 4 to 8 ppmV NaCl-vapor concentration, and >99.8% NaCl-vapor sorption efficiency was achieved. This efficiency compared with 99.1 and 95.3% obtained by a diatomaceous earth bed of the same length tested for 8 h in gas streams containing 28 and 2 ppmV NaCl-vapor concentration, respectively. The addition of HCl to the simulated flue gas had an insignificant effect on the NaCl-vapor sorption behavior and efficiency of activated bauxite. Experimental results are also presented on (1) the water leachability of the sodium captured on activated bauxite, (2) the partial conversion to sodium sulfate of the NaCl sample used as the vapor source for the sorption tests, and (3) the changes in the chemical and physical properties of both sorbents as a result of exposure to the simulated flue gas.

  9. The Vapor Pressure of Environmentally Significant Organic Chemicals: A Review of Methods and Data at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Site, Alessandro

    1997-01-01

    The experimental techniques and the prediction procedures for the determination or evaluation of the vapor pressure of environmentally relevant organic compounds are described; with 259 references examined. For each of them the characteristics of precision and accuracy are given, when available from the literature. The experimental methods are classified as "direct" and "indirect." The first class includes all those which can measure directly the vapor pressure, while the second concerns those which need "known" vapor pressures of reference compounds for the calibration. Prediction methods are based on the application of the Clapeyron-Clausius equation or on the quantitative structure-property relationships. Also correlation methods require a suitable calibration. The vapor pressures at ambient temperature for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, selected pesticides, and some reference compounds are tabulated together with the vapor pressure equations and the enthalpy values in the temperature range of measurement. A critical comparison, based on a statistical analysis of the data obtained with different methods and derived from 152 references, is also carried out.

  10. A unified equation for calculating methane vapor pressures in the CH4-H2O system with measured Raman shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Song, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A unified equation has been derived by using all available data for calculating methane vapor pressures with measured Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band (??1) in the vapor phase of sample fluids near room temperature. This equation eliminates discrepancies among the existing data sets and can be applied at any Raman laboratory. Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band of methane in the vapor phase of CH4-H2O mixtures prepared in a high-pressure optical cell were also measured at temperatures between room temperature and 200 ??C, and pressures up to 37 MPa. The results show that the CH4 ??1 band position shifts to higher wavenumber as temperature increases. We also demonstrated that this Raman band shift is a simple function of methane vapor density, and, therefore, when combined with equation of state of methane, methane vapor pressures in the sample fluids at elevated temperatures can be calculated from measured Raman peak positions. This method can be applied to determine the pressure of CH4-bearing systems, such as methane-rich fluid inclusions from sedimentary basins or experimental fluids in hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell or other types of optical cell. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaporation rates and vapor pressures of individual aerosol species formed in the atmospheric oxidation of alpha- and beta-pinene.

    PubMed

    Bilde, M; Pandis, S N

    2001-08-15

    The semivolatile oxidation products (trans-norpinic acid, pinic acid, cis-pinonic acid, etc.) of the biogenic monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, etc.) contribute to the atmospheric burden of particulate matter. Using the tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) technique evaporation rates of glutaric acid, trans-norpinic acid, and pinic acid particles were measured in a laminar flow reactor. The vapor pressure of glutaric acid was found to be log(p0 glutaric/Pa) = - 3,510 K/T + 8.647 over the temperature range 290-300 K in good agreement with the values previously reported by Tao and McMurry (1989). The measured vapor pressure of trans-norpinic acid over the temperature range 290-312 K is log(p0 norpinic/Pa) = - 2,196.9 K/T + 3.522, and the vapor pressure of pinic acid is log(p0 pinic/ Pa) = - 5,691.7 K/T + 14.73 over the temperature range 290-323 K. The uncertainty on the reported vapor pressures is estimated to be approximately +/- 50%. The vapor pressure of cis-pinonic acid is estimated to be of the order of 7 x 10(-5) Pa at 296 K.

  12. Dynamics of a Spherical Vapor/Gas Bubble in Varying Pressure Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Hisanobu; Kameda, Masaharu

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the radial motion of cavitation bubbles. The heat and mass transports including phase change are formulated precisely. In order to reduce the computational cost without loss of the important thermo-fluid phenomena, two simplifications are employed: time-dependent bubble radius is described using the Rayleigh-Plesset equation; the pressure in the bubble is assumed to be uniform in space. For validation of the model, the transient radial motion of an air bubble in water is observed experimentally. A shock tube is used to make the sudden pressure reduction from atmospheric to below the saturated vapor pressure. The bubble radius is measured by high-speed photography, in which an interferomtric laser imaging technique is used for accurate determination of the initial bubble radius. The radial motion is successfully predicted by using this model. The temperature reduction at the bubble wall is a predominant factor on the bubble growth rate under superheated conditions, even if the liquid temperature is close to room temperature. The numerical result indicates that the growth rate is very sensitive to initial bubble radius, ambient pressure, and liquid temperature.

  13. Atmospheric pressure synthesis of photoluminescent hybrid materials by sequential organometallic vapor infiltration into polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Akyildiz, Halil I.; Mousa, Moataz Bellah M.; Jur, Jesse S.

    2015-01-28

    Exposing a polymer to sequential organometallic vapor infiltration (SVI) under low pressure conditions can significantly modify the polymer's chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. We demonstrate that SVI of trimethylaluminum into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can also proceed readily at atmospheric pressure, and at 60 °C the extent of reaction determined by mass uptake is independent of pressure between 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr. At 120 °C, however, the mass gain is 50% larger at 2.5 Torr relative to that at 760 Torr, indicating that the precursor diffusion in the chamber and fiber matrix decreases at higher source pressure. Mass gain decreases, in general, as the SVI process temperature increases both at 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr attributed to the faster reaction kinetics forming a barrier layer, which prevents further diffusion of the reactive species. The resulting PET/Al-O{sub x} product shows high photoluminescence compared to untreated fibers. A physical mask on the polymer during infiltration at 760 Torr is replicated in the underlying polymer, producing an image in the polymer that is visible under UV illumination. Because of the reduced precursor diffusivity during exposure at 760 Torr, the image shows improved resolution compared to SVI performed under typical 2.5 Torr conditions.

  14. High pressure studies using two-stage diamond micro-anvils grown by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; ...

    2015-06-10

    Ultra-high static pressures have been achieved in the laboratory using a two-stage micro-ball nanodiamond anvils as well as a two-stage micro-paired diamond anvils machined using a focused ion-beam system. The two-stage diamond anvils’ designs implemented thus far suffer from a limitation of one diamond anvil sliding past another anvil at extreme conditions. We describe a new method of fabricating two-stage diamond micro-anvils using a tungsten mask on a standard diamond anvil followed by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) homoepitaxial diamond growth. A prototype two stage diamond anvil with 300 μm culet and with a CVD diamond second stage ofmore » 50 μm in diameter was fabricated. We have carried out preliminary high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on a sample of rare-earth metal lutetium sample with a copper pressure standard to 86 GPa. Furthermore, the micro-anvil grown by CVD remained intact during indentation of gasket as well as on decompression from the highest pressure of 86 GPa.« less

  15. High pressure studies using two-stage diamond micro-anvils grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad

    2015-06-10

    Ultra-high static pressures have been achieved in the laboratory using a two-stage micro-ball nanodiamond anvils as well as a two-stage micro-paired diamond anvils machined using a focused ion-beam system. The two-stage diamond anvils’ designs implemented thus far suffer from a limitation of one diamond anvil sliding past another anvil at extreme conditions. We describe a new method of fabricating two-stage diamond micro-anvils using a tungsten mask on a standard diamond anvil followed by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) homoepitaxial diamond growth. A prototype two stage diamond anvil with 300 μm culet and with a CVD diamond second stage of 50 μm in diameter was fabricated. We have carried out preliminary high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on a sample of rare-earth metal lutetium sample with a copper pressure standard to 86 GPa. Furthermore, the micro-anvil grown by CVD remained intact during indentation of gasket as well as on decompression from the highest pressure of 86 GPa.

  16. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Vapor Pressure Thermometry System Near LN2 Subcooler

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1996-07-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is in the process of upgrading its detectors. Among these upgrades is the need for more transfer lines containing both liquid nitrogen and helium gas. These two fluids are used to provide the necessary operating cryogenic temperatures for the various detectors, such as the Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) and the solenoid inside the detector's calorimeter. With additional piping, it is important to monitor the temperatures to assure that the detectors can operate correctly. This can be done two ways. The first method is to use a Resistance Temperature Device, called a RTD, which is made using either a carbon resistor or a platinum resistor and measures the temperature based on resistance. The second method is to use a vapor-pressure thermometry system. This design will focus on the second method. A nitrogen Vapor Pressure Thermometer (VPT) system is designed to determine the temperature of the liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) supply line, after exiting the LN{sub 2} subcooler, inside the D-Zero Assembly Hall. The operating temperature range is designed from 77 to 300 Kelvin with an initial charge pressure of 100 psia. A cylindrical bulb with a 0.1875-inch diameter and 0.625-inch length allows for minimum cold and warm 1/4-inch O.D. SS 304L tubing lengths, 12-inch and 18-inch respectively, and maintains a liquid level of 50% inside the bulb during cold operation. The amount of nitrogen needed to fill the cylindrical bulb approximately half full is 0.149 grams. In order to conform to the conventional cold volume and warm volume VPT systems, we need to enlarge the existing 1/2-inch x 2-inch SCH. 10 LN{sub 2} supply line over a one foot section to 1-inch x 3-inch SCH. 10 piping.

  17. Flexible Electronics: High Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films and Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    PubMed

    He, Rongrui; Day, Todd D; Sparks, Justin R; Sullivan, Nichole F; Badding, John V

    2016-07-01

    On page 5939, J. V. Badding and co-workers describe the unrolling of a flexible hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell, deposited by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The high-pressure deposition process is represented by the molecules of silane infiltrating the small voids between the rolled up substrate, facilitating plasma-free deposition over a very large area. The high-pressure approach is expected to also find application for 3D nanoarchitectures.

  18. Vegetation stress from increased vapor pressure deficit implicated in recent decline in U.S. evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Guido, D.; Rigden, Angela

    2016-04-01

    We detect and attribute long-term changes in evapotranspiration (ET) over the contiguous United States from 1961 to 2013 using an approach we refer to as the ETRHEQ method (Evapotranspiration from Relative Humidity at Equilibrium). The ETRHEQ method primarily uses meteorological data collected at common weather stations. Daily ET is inferred by choosing the surface conductance to water vapor transport that minimizes the vertical variance of the calculated relative humidity profile averaged over the day. The key advantage of the ETRHEQ method is that it does not require knowledge of the surface state (soil moisture, stomatal conductance, leaf are index, etc.) or site-specific calibration. We estimate daily ET at 229 weather stations for 53 years. Across the U.S., we find a decrease in summertime (JJAS) ET of 0.21 cm/yr/yr from 1961-2013 with recent (1998-2013) declines in summertime ET of 1.08 cm/yr/yr. We decompose the ET trends into the dominant environmental drivers. Our results suggest that the recent decline in ET is due to increased vegetation stress induced by increases in vapor pressure deficit. We will present out results in context of other commonly used, regional ET data products.

  19. Germanium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: an increased vapor pressure-chloride generation system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Volkan, Mürvet

    2011-03-15

    A new chloride generation system was designed for the direct, sensitive, rapid and accurate determination of the total germanium in complex matrices. It was aimed to improve the detection limit of chloride generation technique by increasing the vapor pressure of germanium tetrachloride (GeCl(4)). In order to do so, a novel joint vapor production and gas-liquid separation unit equipped with a home-made oven was incorporated to an ordinary nitrous oxide-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Several variables such as reaction time, temperature and acid concentration have been investigated. The linear range for germanium determination was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) for 1 mL sampling volume with a detection limit (3s) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4% for nine replicates of a 1 ng mL(-1) germanium solution. The method was validated by the analysis of one non-certified and two certified geochemical reference materials, respectively, CRM GSJ-JR-2 (Rhyolite), and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite), and GBW 07107 (Chinese Rock). Selectivity of the method was investigated for Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), and Zn(2+) ions and ionic species of As(III), Sb(III), Te(IV), and Se(IV).

  20. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen; Chen, Mingming; Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei; Chen, Anqi; Zhu, Hai; Tang, Zikang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future.

  1. Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit reflect tissue-specific differences in hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Ocheltree, T W; Nippert, J B; Prasad, P V V

    2014-01-01

    The vapor pressure deficit (D) of the atmosphere can negatively affect plant growth as plants reduce stomatal conductance to water vapor (g(wv)) in response to increasing D, limiting the ability of plants to assimilate carbon. The sensitivity of g(wv) to changes in D varies among species and has been correlated with the hydraulic conductance of leaves (K(leaf) ), but the hydraulic conductance of other tissues has also been implicated in plant responses to changing D. Among the 19 grass species, we found that K(leaf) was correlated with the hydraulic conductance of large longitudinal veins (K(lv), r(2) = 0.81), but was not related to K(root) (r(2) = 0.01). Stomatal sensitivity to D was correlated with K(leaf) relative to total leaf area (r(2) = 0.50), and did not differ between C3 and C4 species. Transpiration (E) increased in response to D, but 8 of the 19 plants showed a decline in E at high D, indicative of an 'apparent feedforward' response. For these individuals, E began to decline at lower values of D in plants with low K(root) (r(2) = 0.72). These results show the significance of both leaf and root hydraulic conductance as drivers of plant responses to evaporative demand.

  2. Track studies in water vapor using a low-pressure cloud chamber. I. Macroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Stonell, G P; Marshall, M; Simmons, J A

    1993-12-01

    Techniques have been developed to operate a low-pressure cloud chamber with pure water vapor. Photographs have been obtained of the tracks arising in this medium from the passage of ionizing radiation. The sources used were low-energy X rays, 242Cm alpha particles, and low-energy protons. Track lengths of the electrons were similar to those found previously in tissue-equivalent gas. W values of 35.6 +/- 0.4 and 32.6 +/- 0.6 eV per ion pair for carbon and aluminum X rays also compare closely with those in tissue-equivalent gas, but are somewhat higher than the predictions of Monte Carlo calculations. Differential w values were obtained: for alpha particles of energy 5.3 MeV the value was 33.0 +/- 3.0 eV per ion pair; for protons of energy 390, 230, and 85 keV the values were 30.6 +/- 1.9, 31.9 +/- 2.0, and 33.6 +/- 3.4 eV per ion pair. The energy losses of protons in water vapor were measured in a second (dummy) chamber used for energy calibration. Results support Janni's values of stopping power for protons in the energy range 40-480 keV.

  3. The predictable influence of soil temperature and barometric pressure changes on vapor intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, David L.; McRae, Mary F.

    2017-02-01

    Intrusion of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase has impacted many buildings in many different locations. Various building and environmental factors such as buoyancy of heated air and changes in barometric pressure can influence indoor air concentrations due to vapor intrusion in these buildings resulting in seasonal and daily variability. One environmental factor that previous research has not adequately addressed is soil temperature. In this study we present two northern region study sites where the seasonal trends in indoor air VOC concentrations positively correlate with soil temperature, and short-term (days) variations are associated with barometric pressure changes. We present simple and multivariate linear relationships of indoor air concentrations as a function of soil temperature and barometric pressure. Results from this study show that small changes in soil temperature can result in relatively large changes in indoor air VOC concentrations where the gas phase VOCs are sourced from non-aqueous phase liquids contained in the soil. We use the results from this study to show that a five degree Celsius increase in soil temperature, a variation in soil temperature that is possible in many climatic regions, results in a two-fold increase in indoor air VOC concentrations. Additionally, analysis provides insight into how building ventilation, diffusion, and the relative rate of soil-gas flow across the slab both from the subsurface into the building and from the building into the subsurface impact short term variations in concentrations. With these results we are able to provide monitoring recommendations for practitioners.

  4. Linking Turgor with ABA Biosynthesis: Implications for Stomatal Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Land Plants.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2016-07-01

    Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) constitute the predominant form of daytime gas-exchange regulation in plants. Stomatal closure in response to increased VPD is driven by the rapid up-regulation of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA levels in angiosperms; however, very little is known about the physiological trigger for this increase in ABA biosynthesis at increased VPD Using a novel method of modifying leaf cell turgor by the application of external pressures, we test whether changes in turgor pressure can trigger increases in foliar ABA levels over 20 min, a period of time most relevant to the stomatal response to VPD We found in angiosperm species that the biosynthesis of ABA was triggered by reductions in leaf turgor, and in two species tested, that a higher sensitivity of ABA synthesis to leaf turgor corresponded with a higher stomatal sensitivity to VPD In contrast, representative species from nonflowering plant lineages did not show a rapid turgor-triggered increase in foliar ABA levels, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating passive stomatal responses to changes in VPD in these lineages. Our method provides a new tool for characterizing the response of stomata to water availability.

  5. 3D simulation of tungsten low-pressure chemical vapor deposition in contact holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bär, E.; Lorenz, J.

    1995-10-01

    We present a new method for three-dimensional (3D) simulation of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition in arbitrary geometries using a segment-based topography discretization with triangles combined with the calculation of particle fluxes to the wafer surface. The simulation program is applied to tungsten LPCVD using the reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF 6) by silane (SiH 4). We found that an approach in which the redistribution of the SiH 4 molecules is simulated and a constant reaction probability after collision of a SiH 4 molecule with the surface is assumed allows the simulation of this process with a reaction probability which is consistent with thermodynamic calculations. A comparison between a simulated 3D profile and experimental data from tungsten LPCVD in a contact hole shows very good agreement between experiment and simulation.

  6. Effect of Vapor Pressure Scheme on Multiday Evolution of SOA in an Explicit Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Emmons, L. K.; Tyndall, G. S.; Valorso, R.

    2011-12-01

    Recent modeling of the evolution of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) has led to the critically important prediction that SOA mass continues to increase for several days after emission of primary pollutants. This growth of organic aerosol in dispersing plumes originating from urban point sources has direct implications for regional aerosol radiative forcing. We investigate the robustness of predicted SOA mass growth downwind of Mexico City in the model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), by assessing its sensitivity to the choice of vapor pressure prediction scheme. We also explore the implications for multi-day SOA mass growth of glassification / solidification of SOA constituents during aging. Finally we use output from the MOZART-4 chemical transport model to evaluate our results in the regional and global context.

  7. Generalization of vapor pressure lowering effects in an existing geothermal simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, G.M.

    1993-06-01

    Thermodynamic properties of pore water are shown to be different from those of bulk water because of interfacial forces between the aqueous and solid phases. This {open_quotes}vapor-pressure lowering{close_quotes} (VPL) effect is described through Kelvin`s equation, which relates VPL to properties of the liquid phase. An algorithm that accounts for VPL had previously been implented in the geothermal simulator TETRAD. This algorithm applies to a narrow range of reservoir properties, and in some cases leads in inconsistencies. This report presents a generalization of the VPL algorithm which removes many of its limitations. The governing equations for the generalization are presented, assumptions and limitations of the method are discussed, and the modifications are validated.

  8. Si delta-doped field-effect transistors by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, N.; Carter, J.; Jackson, G. S.; Hendriks, H.; Zheng, X. L.; Kim, M. H.

    1991-07-01

    Si delta-doped GaAs field-effect transistors (FETs) are demonstrated by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and characterized by Hall-effect, capacitance-voltage (C-V), and Shubnikov de-Haas measurements. The Si delta doping was accomplished by interrupting the growth and flowing silane with controlled timing under an arsenic overpressure. Devices with 0.5 μm gate length (Ns=2.2×1012 cm-2) were fabricated with a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 140 mS/mm and a current gain cutoff frequency of 17 GHz. The transconductance as a function of gate voltage showed a plateau region through a range of 1.5 V further supporting spatial confinement of the electrons.

  9. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH4/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H2 into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C2, Ar, N2, CH, Hβ, and Hα were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T2g phonon at 1333 cm-1 peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit "coral" and "cauliflower-like" morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  10. Net vapor generation point in boiling flow of trichlorotrifluoroethane at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougall, R. S.; Lippert, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions at which the void in subcooled boiling starts to undergo a rapid increase were studied experimentally. The experiments were performed in a 12.7 x 9.5 mm rectangular channel. Heating was from a 3.2 mm wide strip embedded in one wall. The pressure ranged from 9.45 to 20.7 bar, mass velocity from 600 to 7000 kg/sq m sec, and subcooling from 16 to 67 C. Photographs were used to determine when detached bubbles first appeared in the bulk flow. Measurements of bubble layer thickness along the wall were also made. Results showed that the point of net vapor generation is close to the occurrence of fully-developed boiling.

  11. Identification of reaction products in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of molybdenum silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gaczi, P.J.; Reynolds, G.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The gaseous species produced by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of molybdenum silicide in a cold wall reactor were identified by mass spectroscopy. Lowering the ionizing electron energy made possible the unambiguous assignment of the mass spectra to individual species and also permitted useful quantitative estimates to be made. Thermodynamic calculations using the computer program SOLGASMIX were carried out on the M-Si-H-F (M = Mo, W) quaternary system. Both experiment and calculation indicate that the fluorosilanes were the major gaseous reaction by-products, with SiHF{sub 3} being the most abundant for the experimental conditions investigated here. The changes in the process with substrate temperature were also investigated and are discussed with reference to both thermodynamic and kinetic effects.

  12. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J.; Hemawan, Kadek W.

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been successfully synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH4/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H2 into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C2, Ar, N2, CH, Hβ and Hα were observed in emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T2g phonon at 1333 cm-1 peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealmore » that, depending on the on growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.« less

  13. Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Butters, R.A.

    1990-09-30

    Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

  14. Fabrication of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells by Controlled Low-Pressure Vapor Annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Cooper, Jason K; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Giannini, Cinzia; Liu, Yi; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2015-02-05

    A new method for achieving high efficiency planar CH3NH3I3-xClx perovskite photovoltaics, based on a low pressure, reduced temperature vapor annealing is demonstrated. Heterojunction devices based on this hybrid halide perovskite exhibit a top PCE of 16.8%, reduced J-V hysteresis, and highly repeatable performance without need for a mesoporous or nanocrystalline metal oxide layer. Our findings demonstrate that large hysteresis is not an inherent feature of planar heterojunctions, and that efficient charge extraction can be achieved with uniform halide perovskite materials with desired composition. X-ray diffraction, valence band spectroscopy, and transient absorption measurements of these thin films reveal that structural modifications induced by chlorine clearly dominate over chemical and electronic doping effects, without affecting the Fermi level or photocarrier lifetime in the material.

  15. The Vapor Pressure of Palladium at Temperatures up to 1973K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, K. G.; Feguson, F. T.; Nuth, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding high-temperature processes is imperative for modeling the formation of the solar system. It is unfortunate that since the 1950 s little has been done in the area of thermodynamics to continue gaining information on metals such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), palladium (Pd) and many others. Although the vapor pressures of these metals can be extrapolated to higher temperatures, the data is often limited to temperature ranges too low to be applicable to processes that occur during the formation of the solar system (T approx. 2000K). Experimental techniques inhibited the data in the past by restricting the testing of metals to temperatures below their melting point. Today, higher temperature testing is possible by using a Thermo- Cahn Thermogravimetric system that is able to reach temperatures up to 1973K in vacuo and measure a 10 gram change in a sample with mass of up to 100 grams.

  16. The Action of Pressure-Radiation Forces on Pulsating Vapor Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hao, Y.; Oguz, N.; Prosperetti, A.

    2001-01-01

    The action of pressure-radiation (or Bjerknes) forces on gas bubbles is well understood. This paper studies the analogous phenomenon for vapor bubbles, about which much less is known. A possible practical application is the removal of boiling bubbles from the neighborhood of a heated surface in the case of a downward facing surface or in the absence of gravity. For this reason, the case of a bubble near a plane rigid surface is considered in detail. It is shown that, when the acoustic wave fronts are parallel to the surface, the bubble remains trapped due to secondary Bjerknes force caused by an "image bubble." When the wave fronts are perpendicular to the surface, on the other hand, the bubble can be made to slide laterally.

  17. A search for chemical laser action in low pressure metal vapor flames. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwillenberg, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    Optical emissions were studied from low pressure (approximately 1 torr) dilute diffusion flames of Ca and Mg vapor with O2, N2O and mixtures of CCl4 and O2. The Ca flames with O2 and N2O revealed high vibrational excitation of the product CaO molecule (up to v=30). The flames with CCl4 revealed extreme nonequilibrium metal atom electronic excitation, up to the metal atom ionization limit (6.1 eV for Ca, 7.6 eV for Mg). The metal atom excited electronic state populations did not follow a Boltzmann distribution, but the excitation rates ('pumping rate') were found to obey an Arrhenius-type expression, with the electronic excitation energy playing the role of activation energy and a temperature of about 5000 K for triplet excited states and 2500 K for singlets (vs. approximately 500 K translational temperature).

  18. Partial Pressures for Several In-Se Compositions from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3-60.99 at.% Se and 673-1418 K was measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gauge measurements for compositions between 50-61 at.%, but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Knudsen-torsion cell measurements. It is found that 60.99 at.% Se lies outside the sesquiselenide homogeneity range and 59.98 at.% Se lies inside and is the congruently melting composition. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000-1300 K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 to -38 kJ per g atomic weight for 50 and 56% Se at 1200 and 1300 K.

  19. Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects in Halogenated Organic Compounds and Alcohols Dissolved in Water.

    PubMed

    Horst, Axel; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2016-12-20

    Volatilization causes changes in the isotopic composition of organic compounds as a result of different vapor pressures of molecules containing heavy and light isotopes. Both normal and inverse vapor pressure isotope effects (VPIE) have been observed, depending on molecular interactions in the liquid phase and the investigated element. Previous studies have focused mostly on pure compound volatilization or on compounds dissolved in organic liquids. Environmentally relevant scenarios, such as isotope fractionation during volatilization of organics from open water surfaces, have largely been neglected. In the current study, open-system volatilization experiments (focusing thereby on kinetic/-nonequilibrium effects) were carried out at ambient temperatures for trichloromethane, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane, methanol, and ethanol dissolved in water and, if not previously reported in the literature for these compounds, for volatilization from pure liquids. Stable carbon isotopic signatures were measured using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that volatilization of the four halogenated compounds from water does not cause a measurable change in the carbon isotopic composition, whereas for pure-phase evaporation, significant inverse isotope effects are consistently observed (+0.3 ‰< ε < + 1.7 ‰). In contrast, methanol and ethanol showed normal isotope effects for evaporation of pure organic liquids (-3.9 ‰ and -1.9 ‰) and for volatilization of compounds dissolved in water (-4.4 ‰ and -2.9 ‰), respectively. This absence of measurable carbon isotope fractionation considerably facilitates the application of isotopic techniques for extraction of field samples and preconcentration of organohalogens-known to be important pollutants in groundwater and in the atmosphere.

  20. A Method for Determining Hygroscopic Growth Factor for Organic Aerosols From Vapor Pressure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L. I.; Tabazadeh, A.; Golden, D. M.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, the tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) is one of the most commonly used instruments to study the hygroscopic behavior of aerosols. The hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), defined as the ratio of the diameter of a spherical particle when it is exposed to humid conditions to that at dry conditions, is typically used to quantify particle water uptake. We present a new formulation to express the HGF of an aerosol particle as a function of water activity (aW) in the aqueous phase. Our approach is based on the fact that water activity limits the growth of a particle that can be attributed to water uptake. We have assembled a vapor pressure apparatus to measure aW of aqueous solutions as a function of solution concentration and temperature. For the pertinent solutions, we report coefficients resulting from a least square fitting of the water activity data as a function of molality for temperatures from 0 to 30°C. We compared the results obtained using our measured water activities in the HGF formulation with previous studies published, where TDMA is used to directly measure the HGF, for solutes commonly found in atmospheric aerosols. Our results indicate agreement with TDMA studies for common inorganic salts and water-miscible organic particles that are known to deliquesce into aqueous drops at high relative humidity (RH). However, we find a difference for organic particles that show no deliquescence behavior at low RH. For example, one TDMA study measured a HGF of 1.18 for 100 nm phthalic acid particles at 90% RH (aW= 0.9) and 30°C. Our data showed that even an aqueous solution saturated in phthalic acid did not lower the vapor pressure of pure water at 30°C. We propose that the adsorption of a negligible mass of water by a porous particle can lead to an apparent growth in particle size by changing the particle morphology.

  1. Dietary phosphorus, blood pressure, and incidence of hypertension in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study and the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Alvaro; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; de Boer, Ian H; Folsom, Aaron R; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Chambless, Lloyd E; Jacobs, David R

    2010-03-01

    Greater phosphorus intake has been associated with lower levels of blood pressure in cross-sectional studies. This association, however, has not been assessed prospectively. We studied 13 444 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, with diet assessed at baseline using validated food frequency questionnaires. Blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication were determined at baseline and during follow-up visits. Compared with individuals in the lowest quintile of phosphorus intake at baseline, those in the highest quintile had lower baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressures after adjustment for dietary and nondietary confounders (-2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: -3.6 to -0.5], P for trend=0.01; and -0.6 [95% CI: -1.6 to +0.3], P for trend=0.20, respectively). During an average 6.2 years of follow-up, 3345 cases of hypertension were identified. Phosphorus intake was associated with the risk of hypertension (hazard ratio: 0.80 [95% CI: 0.80 to 1.00], comparing extreme quintiles; P for trend=0.02) after adjustment for nondietary factors but not after additional adjustment for dietary variables (hazard ratio: 1.01 [95% CI: 0.82 to 1.23], P for trend=0.88). Phosphorus from dairy products but not from other sources was associated with lower baseline blood pressure and reduced risk of incident hypertension. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) comparing extreme quintiles were 0.86 (0.76 to 0.97; P for trend=0.01) for phosphorus from dairy foods and 1.04 (0.93 to 1.17; P for trend=0.48) for phosphorus from other foods. These findings could indicate an effect of phosphorus in conjunction with other dairy constituents or of dairy itself without involvement of phosphorus.

  2. Gas chromatographic vapor pressure determination of atmospherically relevant oxidation products of β-caryophyllene and α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartonen, Kari; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Vilja, Vesa-Pekka; Tiala, Heidi; Knuuti, Sinivuokko; Lai, Ching Kwan; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-12-01

    Vapor pressures (subcooled liquid, pliquid) of atmospherically relevant oxidation products of β-caryophyllene (β-caryophyllene aldehyde 0.18 ± 0.03 Pa and β-nocaryophyllene aldehyde 0.17 ± 0.03 Pa), and α-pinene (pinonaldehyde 16.8 ± 0.20 Pa, cis-pinic acid 0.12 ± 0.06 Pa, and cis-pinonic acid 0.99 ± 0.19 Pa) at 298 K were obtained by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The effects of stationary phase polarity and column film thickness on the vapor pressure values were investigated. Increase in stationary phase polarity provided smaller values, while increase in film thickness gave slightly higher values. Values for vapor pressure were at least two orders of magnitude lower when obtained by a method utilizing vaporization enthalpy (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) than by retention index method. Finally, the results were compared with values calculated by group contribution theory. For the β-caryophyllene oxidation products, the values measured by gas chromatography were slightly lower than those obtained by theoretical calculations. The opposite trend was observed for the α-pinene oxidation products. The methods based on gas chromatography are concluded to be highly useful for the determination of vapor pressures of semi-volatile compounds. Except for the most polar pinic and pinonic acids, differences between vapor pressure values obtained by GC-FID and GC-MS were small. Since GC-MS provides structural information simultaneously, the use of GC-MS is recommended.

  3. [Measurement of atomic number of alkali vapor and pressure of buffer gas based on atomic absorption].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui-jie; Quan, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Yao; Lu, Ji-xi

    2015-02-01

    High sensitivitymagnetic measurementscanbe achieved by utilizing atomic spinmanipulation in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) regime, which uses an alkali cell as a sensing element. The atomic number density of the alkali vapor and the pressure of the buffer gasare among the most important parameters of the cell andrequire accurate measurement. A method has been proposed and developedto measure the atomic number density and the pressure based on absorption spectroscopy, by sweeping the absorption line and fittingthe experiment data with a Lorentzian profile to obtainboth parameters. Due to Doppler broadening and pressure broadening, which is mainly dominated by the temperature of the cell and the pressure of buffer gas respectively, this work demonstrates a simulation of the errorbetween the peaks of the Lorentzian profile and the Voigt profile caused by bothfactors. The results indicates that the Doppler broadening contribution is insignificant with an error less than 0.015% at 313-513 K for a 4He density of 2 amg, and an error of 0.1% in the presence of 0.6-5 amg at 393 K. We conclude that the Doppler broadening could be ignored under above conditions, and that the Lorentzianprofile is suitably applied to fit the absorption spectrumobtainingboth parameters simultaneously. In addition we discuss the resolution and the instability due to thelight source, wavelength and the temperature of the cell. We find that the cell temperature, whose uncertainty is two orders of magnitude larger than the instability of the light source and the wavelength, is one of the main factors which contributes to the error.

  4. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data in microfluidic segmented flows at elevated pressures using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Luther, Sebastian K; Stehle, Simon; Weihs, Kristian; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas

    2015-08-18

    A fast, noninvasive, and efficient analytical measurement strategy for the characterization of vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) is presented, which is based on phase (state of matter) selective Raman spectroscopy in multiphase flows inside microcapillay systems (MCS). Isothermal VLE data were measured in binary and ternary mixtures composed of acetone, water, carbon dioxide or nitrogen at elevated pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 333 K. For validation, the obtained data were compared with literature data and reference measurements in a high-pressure variable volume cell. Additionally, the mixtures were investigated at temperatures and pressures where no data is available in literature to extend the high-pressure VLE database.

  5. Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and EfOM using MIEX, coagulation, and low-pressure membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Timmes, Thomas C; Dempsey, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) treatment, in-line alum coagulation, and low-pressure membrane filtration was investigated for the simultaneous removal of total phosphorus (TP) and effluent organic matter (EfOM) from biologically treated wastewater. The focus was also placed on minimizing fouling of polyvinylidene fluoride and polyethersulfone membranes, which are the most commonly used low-pressure membranes in new and retrofit wastewater treatment plants. MIEX alone was effective for the removal of EfOM, and MIEX plus a small alum dose was very effective in removing both EfOM and TP. MIEX removed phosphorus, but organic acids in EfOM were preferentially removed, and the effects of competing anions on the removal of EfOM were insignificant. All the pretreatment strategies decreased the resistance to filtration. The greatest decrease in fouling was achieved by using MIEX (15 mL L⁻¹) plus a very low dose of alum (∼0.5 mg Al L⁻¹). Sweep floc coagulation using alum and without MIEX also significantly decreased fouling but did not effectively remove EfOM and produced high floc volume that could be problematic for inside-out hollow-fibre modules. The addition of these reagents into rapid mix followed by membrane filtration would provide operational simplicity and could be easily retrofitted at existing membrane filtration facilities.

  6. Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt

    2012-10-23

    Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

  7. Determination of saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of semi-volatile aerosols: the integrated volume mentod

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the integrated volume method for estimating saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of a whole aerosol distribution. We measure the change of total volume of an aerosol distribution between a reference state and several heated states, with the heating...

  8. An Integrated Approach to Introducing Biofuels, Flash Point, and Vapor Pressure Concepts into an Introductory College Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adam R.; Britton, Stephanie L.; Cadwell, Katie D.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Students explore the fundamental chemical concepts of vapor pressure and flash point in a real-world technical context, while gaining insight into the contemporary societal issue of biofuels. Lab activities were developed using a closed-cup instrument to measure the flash point of various biodiesel samples. Pre- and post-tests revealed that the…

  9. 46 CFR 39.20-13 - High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High and low vapor pressure protection for tankships-T/ALL. 39.20-13 Section 39.20-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS... inerted tankship, or the lowest vacuum relief valve setting in the cargo tank venting system for a...

  10. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgar, A.S.; Verkhoglyadova, T.S.; Samsonov, G.V.

    1985-02-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  11. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolgar, A. S.; Verkhoglyadova, T. S.; Samsonov, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome; and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide; and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY METHOD FOR PREDICTING VAPOR PRESSURES AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF POLAR ORGANIC OXYGENATES IN PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterizations of interactions of polar multifunctional organic oxygenates in PM2.5 must be included in aerosol chemistry models for evaluating control strategies for reducing ambient concentrations of PM2.5 compounds. Vapor pressures and activity coefficients of these compo...

  13. Temperature influences the ability of tall fescue to control transpiration in response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability for turfgrass systems is often limited, and likely to become more so in the future. These experiments examined the ability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to control transpiration with increasing vapor pressure deficit and whether control was influenced by temperature...

  14. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  15. Transport of Carbon Tetrachloride in a Fractured Vadose Zone due to Atmospheric Pressure Fluctuations, Diffusion, and Vapor Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, J. E.; Downs, W.; Falta, R. W.; Housley, T.

    2005-12-01

    DNAPL sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vapors are of interest at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The site is underlain by thick fractured basalt that includes sedimentary interbeds, each are a few meters thick. Daily atmospheric pressure fluctuations serve as driving forces for CT vapor transport in the subsurface. Other important transport processes for vapor movement include gas-phase diffusion and density-driven transport. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence and relative importance of these processes on gaseous transport of CT. Gas pressure and vapor concentration measurements were conducted at various depths in two wells. A numerical multiphase flow model (TOUGH2), calibrated to field pressure data, is used to conduct sensitivity analyses to elucidate the importance of the different transport mechanisms. Results show that the basalt is highly permeable to vertical air flow. The pressure dampening occurs mainly in the sedimentary interbeds. Model-calibrated permeability values for the interbeds are similar to those obtained in a study by the U.S. Geological Survey for shallow sediments, and an order of magnitude higher than column-scale values obtained by previous studies conducted by INEEL scientists. The transport simulations indicate that considering the effect of barometric pressure changes is critical to simulating transport of pollutants in the vadose zone above the DNAPL source. Predicted concentrations can be orders of magnitude smaller than actual concentrations if the effect is not considered. Below the DNAPL vapor source, accounting for density and diffusion alone would yield acceptable results provided that a 20% error in concentrations are acceptable, and that simulating concentrations trends (and not actual concentrations) is the primary goal.

  16. Laboratory measurements of the microwave opacity and vapor pressure of sulfuric acid vapor under simulated conditions for the middle atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave absorption measurements at wavelengths of 13.4 and 3.6 cm were made in gaseous H2SO4 in a CO2 atmosphere under simulated conditions for the Venus middle atmosphere. The results suggest that abundances of gaseous H2SO4 on the order of 15-30 ppm could account for the absorption observed by radio occultation measurements at these wavelengths. They also imply that such abundances would correspond to saturation vapor pressure existing at or above the 46-48-km range, which correlates with the observed cloud base.

  17. Osmotic virial coefficients of hydroxyethyl starch from aqueous hydroxyethyl starch-sodium chloride vapor pressure osmometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingjiang; Gier, Martin; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Prasad, Vinay; Elliott, Janet A W; Sputtek, Andreas

    2013-09-05

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is an important industrial additive in the paper, textile, food, and cosmetic industries and has been shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for red blood cells; however, little is known about its thermodynamic solution properties. In many applications, in particular those in biology, HES is used in an aqueous solution with sodium chloride (NaCl). The osmotic virial solution thermodynamics approach accurately captures the dependence of osmolality on molality for many types of solutes in aqueous systems, including electrolytes, sugars, alcohols, proteins, and starches. Elliott et al. proposed mixing rules for the osmotic virial equation to be used for osmolality of multisolute aqueous solutions [Elliott, J. A. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1775-1785] and recently applied this approach to the fitting of one set of aqueous HES-NaCl solution data reported by Jochem and Körber [Cryobiology 1987, 24, 513-536], indicating that the HES osmotic virial coefficients are dependent on HES-to-NaCl mass ratios. The current study reports new aqueous HES-NaCl vapor pressure osmometry data which are analyzed using the osmotic virial equation. HES modifications were measured after dialysis (membrane cut off: 10,000 g/mol) and freeze-drying using vapor pressure osmometry at different mass ratios of HES to NaCl for HES up to 50% and NaCl up to 25% with three different HES modifications (weight average molecular weights [g/mol]/degree of substitution: 40,000/0.5; 200,000/0.5; 450,000/0.7). Equations were then fit to the data to provide a model for HES osmotic virial coefficient dependence on mass ratio of HES to NaCl. The osmolality data of the three HES modifications were accurately described over a broad range of HES-to-NaCl mass ratios using only four parameters, illustrating the power of the osmotic virial approach in analyzing complex data sets. As expected, the second osmotic virial coefficients increase with molecular weight of the HES and

  18. Organic solvents vapor pressure and relative humidity effects on the phase transition rate of α and β forms of tegafur.

    PubMed

    Petkune, Sanita; Bobrovs, Raitis; Actiņš, Andris

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the relative humidity (RH) and solvent vapor pressure effects on the phase transition dynamics between tegafur polymorphic forms that do not form hydrates and solvates. The commercially available α and β modifications of 5-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)-uracil, known as the antitumor agent tegafur, were used as model materials for this study. While investigating the phase transitions of α and β tegafur under various partial pressures of methanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and water vapor, it was determined that the phase transition rate increased in the presence of solvent vapors, even though no solvates were formed. By increasing the relative air humidity from 20% to 80%, the phase transition rate constant of α and β tegafur was increased about 60 times. After increasing the partial pressure of methanol, n-propanol, or n-butanol vapor, the phase transition rate constant did not change, but the extent of phase transformation was increased. In the homologous row of n-alcohols, the phase transition rate constant decreased with increasing carbon chain length. The dependence of phase transformation extent versus the RH corresponded to the polymolecular adsorption isotherm with a possible capillary condensation effect.

  19. Mercury vapor pressure of flue gas desulfurization scrubber suspensions: effects of pH level, gypsum, and iron.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Jan; Kunth, Daniel; Weissbach, Sven; Koeser, Heinz

    2012-03-06

    Calcium-based scrubbers designed to absorb HCl and SO(2) from flue gases can also remove oxidized mercury. Dissolved mercury halides may have an appreciable partial vapor pressure. Chemical reduction of the dissolved mercury may increase the Hg emission, thereby limiting the coremoval of mercury in the wet scrubbing process. In this paper we evaluate the effects of the pH level, different gypsum qualities, and iron in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber suspensions. The impact of these parameters on mercury vapor pressure was studied under controlled laboratory conditions in model scrubber suspensions. A major influence is exerted by pH values above 7, considerably amplifying the mercury concentration in the vapor phase above the FGD scrubber suspension. Gypsum also increases the mercury re-emission. Fe(III) decreases and Fe(II) increases the vapor pressure significantly. The consequences of the findings for a reliable coremoval of mercury in FGD scrubbers are discussed. It is shown that there is an increased risk of poor mercury capture in lime-based FGD scrubbers in comparison to limestone FGD scrubbers.

  20. Methods for calculation of engineering parameters for gas separation. [vapor pressure and solubility of gases in organic liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  1. Exchange of Na+ and K+ between water vapor and feldspar phases at high temperature and low vapor pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine whether gas (steam) containing a small amount of dissolved alkali chloride is effective in promoting base exchange of Na+ and K+ among alkali feldspars and coexisting brine or brine plus solid salt, experiments were carried out at 400-700??C and steam densities ranging down to less than 0.05. For bulk compositions rich in potassium, the low pressure results are close to previous high-pressure results in composition of the fluid and coexisting solid phase. However, when the bulk composition is more sodic, alkali feldspars are relatively richer in potassium at low pressure than at high pressure. This behaviour corresponds to enrichment of potassium in the gas phase relative to coexisting brine and precipitation of solid NaCl when the brine plus gas composition becomes moderately sodic. The gas phase is very effective in promoting base exchange between coexisting alkali feldspars at high temperature and low water pressure. This suggests that those igneous rocks which contain coexisting alkali feldspars out of chemical equilibrium either remained very dry during the high-temperature part of their cooling history or that the pore fluid was a gas containing very little potassium relative to sodium. ?? 1976.

  2. An improved method for simultaneous determination of frictional pressure drop and vapor volume fraction in vertical flow boiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klausner, J. F.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The two-phase frictional pressure drop and vapor volume fraction in the vertical boiling and adiabatic flow of the refrigerant, R11, have been simultaneously measured by a liquid balancing column and differential magnetic reluctance pressure transducers. An account is given of the experimental apparatus and procedure, data acquisition and analysis, and error estimation employed. All values of two-phase multipliers evaluated on the basis of the measured frictional pressure drop data in vertical upflow fall in the range bounded by the predictions of the Chisholm correlation and the homogeneous model.

  3. Chain Assemblies from Nanoparticles Synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition: The Computational View.

    PubMed

    Mishin, Maxim V; Zamotin, Kirill Y; Protopopova, Vera S; Alexandrov, Sergey E

    2015-12-01

    This article refers to the computational study of nanoparticle self-organization on the solid-state substrate surface with consideration of the experimental results, when nanoparticles were synthesised during atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD). The experimental study of silicon dioxide nanoparticle synthesis by AP-PECVD demonstrated that all deposit volume consists of tangled chains of nanoparticles. In certain cases, micron-sized fractals are formed from tangled chains due to deposit rearrangement. This work is focused on the study of tangled chain formation only. In order to reveal their formation mechanism, a physico-mathematical model was developed. The suggested model was based on the motion equation solution for charged and neutral nanoparticles in the potential fields with the use of the empirical interaction potentials. In addition, the computational simulation was carried out based on the suggested model. As a result, the influence of such experimental parameters as deposition duration, particle charge, gas flow velocity, and angle of gas flow was found. It was demonstrated that electrical charges carried by nanoparticles from the discharge area are not responsible for the formation of tangled chains from nanoparticles, whereas nanoparticle kinetic energy plays a crucial role in deposit morphology and density. The computational results were consistent with experimental results.

  4. Low-temperature-grown continuous graphene films from benzene by chemical vapor deposition at ambient pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jisu; Son, Myungwoo; Chung, Sunki; Kim, Kihyeun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ham, Moon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in synthesizing large-area graphene films at low temperatures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for nanoelectronic and flexible device applications. However, to date, low-temperature CVD methods have suffered from lower surface coverage because micro-sized graphene flakes are produced. Here, we demonstrate a modified CVD technique for the production of large-area, continuous monolayer graphene films from benzene on Cu at 100–300 °C at ambient pressure. In this method, we extended the graphene growth step in the absence of residual oxidizing species by introducing pumping and purging cycles prior to growth. This led to continuous monolayer graphene films with full surface coverage and excellent quality, which were comparable to those achieved with high-temperature CVD; for example, the surface coverage, transmittance, and carrier mobilities of the graphene grown at 300 °C were 100%, 97.6%, and 1,900–2,500 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. In addition, the growth temperature was substantially reduced to as low as 100 °C, which is the lowest temperature reported to date for pristine graphene produced by CVD. Our modified CVD method is expected to allow the direct growth of graphene in device manufacturing processes for practical applications while keeping underlying devices intact. PMID:26658923

  5. Long-term evaluation of the controlled pressure method for assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway.

    PubMed

    Holton, Chase; Guo, Yuanming; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-02-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) investigations often require sampling of indoor air for evaluating occupant risks, but can be confounded by temporal variability and the presence of indoor sources. Controlled pressure methods (CPM) have been proposed as an alternative, but temporal variability of CPM results and whether they are indicative of impacts under natural conditions have not been rigorously investigated. This study is the first involving a long-term CPM test at a house having a multiyear high temporal resolution indoor air data set under natural conditions. Key observations include (a) CPM results exhibited low temporal variability, (b) false-negative results were not obtained, (c) the indoor air concentrations were similar to the maximum concentrations under natural conditions, and (d) results exceeded long-term average concentrations and emission rates under natural conditions by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Thus, the CPM results were a reliable indicator of VI occurrence and worst-case exposure regardless of day or time of year of the CPM test.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

  7. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  8. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J.; Hemawan, Kadek W.

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been successfully synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH4/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H2 into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C2, Ar, N2, CH, Hβ and Hα were observed in emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T2g phonon at 1333 cm-1 peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that, depending on the on growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  9. Stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit and its relationship to hydraulic conductance in Pinus palustris.

    PubMed

    Addington, Robert N; Mitchell, Robert J; Oren, Ram; Donovan, Lisa A

    2004-05-01

    We studied the response of stomatal conductance at leaf (gS) and canopy (GS) scales to increasing vapor pressure deficit (D) in mature Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) growing in a sandhill habitat in the coastal plain of the southeastern USA. Specifically, we determined if variation in the stomatal response to D was related to variation in hydraulic conductance along the soil-to-leaf pathway (KL) over the course of a growing season. Reductions in KL were associated with a severe growing season drought that significantly reduced soil water content (theta) in the upper 90-cm soil profile. Although KL recovered partially following the drought, it never reached pre-drought values. Stomatal sensitivity to D was well correlated with maximum gS at low D at both leaf and canopy scales, and KL appeared to influence this response by controlling maximum gS. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that stomatal response to D occurs to regulate minimum leaf water potential, and that the sensitivity of this response is related to changes in whole-plant hydraulics.

  10. The Evolution of Mechanisms Driving the Stomatal Response to Vapor Pressure Deficit1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are a principal means by which vascular land plants regulate daytime transpiration. While much work has focused on characterizing and modeling this response, there remains no consensus as to the mechanism that drives it. Explanations range from passive regulation by leaf hydration to biochemical regulation by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). We monitored ABA levels, leaf gas exchange, and water status in a diversity of vascular land plants exposed to a symmetrical, mild transition in VPD. The stomata in basal lineages of vascular plants, including gymnosperms, appeared to respond passively to changes in leaf water status induced by VPD perturbation, with minimal changes in foliar ABA levels and no hysteresis in stomatal action. In contrast, foliar ABA appeared to drive the stomatal response to VPD in our angiosperm samples. Increased foliar ABA level at high VPD in angiosperm species resulted in hysteresis in the recovery of stomatal conductance; this was most pronounced in herbaceous species. Increased levels of ABA in the leaf epidermis were found to originate from sites of synthesis in other parts of the leaf rather than from the guard cells themselves. The transition from a passive regulation to ABA regulation of the stomatal response to VPD in the earliest angiosperms is likely to have had critical implications for the ecological success of this lineage. PMID:25637454

  11. High vapor pressure deficit drives salt-stress-induced rice yield losses in India.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Singh, Rakesh K; Nalley, Lawton L; Viraktamath, Basavaraj C; Krishnamurthy, Saraswathipura L; Lyman, Nate; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2015-04-01

    Flooded rice is grown across wide geographic boundaries from as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Uruguay and New South Wales, primarily because of its adaptability across diverse agronomic and climatic conditions. Salt-stress damage, a common occurrence in delta and coastal rice production zones, could be heightened by the interactions between high temperature and relative humidity (vapor pressure deficit--VPD). Using temporal and spatial observations spanning 107 seasons and 19 rice-growing locations throughout India with varying electrical conductivity (EC), including coastal saline, inland saline, and alkaline soils, we quantified the proportion of VPD inducing salinity damage in rice. While controlling for time-invariant factors such as trial locations, rice cultivars, and soil types, our regression analysis indicates that EC has a nonlinear detrimental effect on paddy rice yield. Our estimates suggest these yield reductions become larger at higher VPD. A one standard deviation (SD) increase in EC from its mean value is associated with 1.68% and 4.13% yield reductions at median and maximum observed VPD levels, respectively. Yield reductions increase roughly sixfold when the one SD increase is taken from the 75th percentile of EC. In combination, high EC and VPD generate near catastrophic crop loss as predicted yield approaches zero. If higher VPD levels driven by global warming materialize in conjunction with rising sea levels or salinity incursion in groundwater, this interaction becomes an important and necessary predictor of expected yield losses and global food security.

  12. Organic component vapor pressures and hygroscopicities of aqueous aerosol measured by optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen; Stewart, David J; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-hong; Ohm, Peter; Dutcher, Cari S; Clegg, Simon L

    2015-01-29

    Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate retrievals of component vapor pressures and hygroscopic response through examining correlated variations in size and composition for binary droplets containing water and a single organic component. Measurements are reported for a homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid, citric acid, glycerol, or 1,2,6-hexanetriol. An assessment of the inherent uncertainties in such measurements when measuring only particle size is provided to confirm the value of such a correlational approach. We also show that the method of molar refraction provides an accurate characterization of the compositional dependence of the refractive index of the solutions. In this method, the density of the pure liquid solute is the largest uncertainty and must be either known or inferred from subsaturated measurements with an error of <±2.5% to discriminate between different thermodynamic treatments.

  13. Vapor pressure of three brominated flame retardants determined by using the Knudsen effusion method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-03-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used in a variety of consumer products in the past four decades. The vapor pressures for three widely used BFRs, that is, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and octabromodiphenyl ethers (octaBDEs) mixtures, were determined using the Knudsen effusion method and compared with those of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209). The values measured extrapolated to 298.15 K are 8.47 × 10⁻⁹, 7.47 × 10⁻¹⁰, and 2.33 × 10⁻⁹  Pa, respectively. The enthalpies of sublimation for these BFRs were estimated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and are 143.6 ± 0.4, 153.7 ± 3.1, and 150.8 ± 3.2 kJ/mole, respectively. In addition, the enthalpies of fusion and melting temperatures for these BFRs were also measured in the present study.

  14. Prediction of aqueous solubility, vapor pressure and critical micelle concentration for aquatic partitioning of perfluorinated chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-10-01

    The majority of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are of increasing risk to biota and environment due to their physicochemical stability, wide transport in the environment and difficulty in biodegradation. It is necessary to identify and prioritize these harmful PFCs and to characterize their physicochemical properties that govern the solubility, distribution and fate of these chemicals in an aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, available experimental data (10-35 compounds) of three important properties: aqueous solubility (AqS), vapor pressure (VP) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) on per- and polyfluorinated compounds were collected for quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) modeling. Simple and robust models based on theoretical molecular descriptors were developed and externally validated for predictivity. Model predictions on selected PFCs were compared with available experimental data and other published in silico predictions. The structural applicability domains (AD) of the models were verified on a bigger data set of 221 compounds. The predicted properties of the chemicals that are within the AD, are reliable, and they help to reduce the wide data gap that exists. Moreover, the predictions of AqS, VP, and CMC of most common PFCs were evaluated to understand the aquatic partitioning and to derive a relation with the available experimental data of bioconcentration factor (BCF).

  15. The evolution of mechanisms driving the stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are a principal means by which vascular land plants regulate daytime transpiration. While much work has focused on characterizing and modeling this response, there remains no consensus as to the mechanism that drives it. Explanations range from passive regulation by leaf hydration to biochemical regulation by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). We monitored ABA levels, leaf gas exchange, and water status in a diversity of vascular land plants exposed to a symmetrical, mild transition in VPD. The stomata in basal lineages of vascular plants, including gymnosperms, appeared to respond passively to changes in leaf water status induced by VPD perturbation, with minimal changes in foliar ABA levels and no hysteresis in stomatal action. In contrast, foliar ABA appeared to drive the stomatal response to VPD in our angiosperm samples. Increased foliar ABA level at high VPD in angiosperm species resulted in hysteresis in the recovery of stomatal conductance; this was most pronounced in herbaceous species. Increased levels of ABA in the leaf epidermis were found to originate from sites of synthesis in other parts of the leaf rather than from the guard cells themselves. The transition from a passive regulation to ABA regulation of the stomatal response to VPD in the earliest angiosperms is likely to have had critical implications for the ecological success of this lineage.

  16. Low-Pressure Vapor-Assisted Solution Process for Thiocyanate-Based Pseudohalide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Min; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-22

    In this report, we fabricated thiocyanate-based perovskite solar cells with low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method. Photovoltaic performances are evaluated with detailed materials characterizations. Scanning electron microscopy images show that SCN-based perovskite films fabricated using LP-VASP have long-range uniform morphology and large grain sizes up to 1 μm. The XRD and Raman spectra were employed to observe the characteristic peaks for both SCN-based and pure CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. We observed that the Pb(SCN)2 film transformed to PbI2 before the formation of perovskite film. X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) show that only a small amount of S remained in the film. Using LP-VASP method, we fabricated SCN-based perovskite solar cells and achieved a power conversion efficiency of 12.72 %. It is worth noting that the price of Pb(SCN)2 is only 4 % of PbI2 . These results demonstrate that pseudo-halide perovskites are promising materials for fabricating low-cost perovskite solar cells.

  17. Threefold atmospheric-pressure annealing for suppressing graphene nucleation on copper in chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Seiya; Nagamori, Takashi; Matsuoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Masamichi

    2014-09-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising method of producing a large single-crystal graphene on a catalyst, especially on copper (Cu), and a further increase in domain size is desirable for electro/optic applications. Here, we report on threefold atmospheric-pressure (ATM) annealing for suppressing graphene nucleation in atmospheric CVD. Threefold ATM annealing formed a step and terrace surface of the underlying Cu, in contrast to ATM annealing. Atomic force microscopy and Auger electron mapping revealed that Si-containing particles existed on threefold-ATM- and ATM-annealed surfaces; particles on Cu had a lower density after threefold ATM annealing than after ATM annealing. The formation of a step and terrace surface and the lower density of particles following the threefold ATM annealing would play a role in reducing graphene nucleation. By combining threefold ATM annealing and electropolishing of Cu, the nucleation of graphene was effectively suppressed, and a submillimeter-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene was successfully obtained.

  18. Low-temperature-grown continuous graphene films from benzene by chemical vapor deposition at ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jisu; Son, Myungwoo; Chung, Sunki; Kim, Kihyeun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ham, Moon-Ho

    2015-12-01

    There is significant interest in synthesizing large-area graphene films at low temperatures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for nanoelectronic and flexible device applications. However, to date, low-temperature CVD methods have suffered from lower surface coverage because micro-sized graphene flakes are produced. Here, we demonstrate a modified CVD technique for the production of large-area, continuous monolayer graphene films from benzene on Cu at 100-300 °C at ambient pressure. In this method, we extended the graphene growth step in the absence of residual oxidizing species by introducing pumping and purging cycles prior to growth. This led to continuous monolayer graphene films with full surface coverage and excellent quality, which were comparable to those achieved with high-temperature CVD; for example, the surface coverage, transmittance, and carrier mobilities of the graphene grown at 300 °C were 100%, 97.6%, and 1,900-2,500 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. In addition, the growth temperature was substantially reduced to as low as 100 °C, which is the lowest temperature reported to date for pristine graphene produced by CVD. Our modified CVD method is expected to allow the direct growth of graphene in device manufacturing processes for practical applications while keeping underlying devices intact.

  19. Stability and Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Aggregates and Aerosols Containing a Monovalent Ion.

    PubMed

    Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Factorovich, Matías H; Molinero, Valeria; Scherlis, Damián A

    2017-04-06

    The incidence of charged particles on the nucleation and the stability of aqueous aggregates and aerosols was reported more than a century ago. Many studies have been conducted ever since to characterize the stability, structure, and nucleation barrier of ion-water droplets. Most of these studies have focused on the free-energy surface as a function of cluster size, with an emphasis on the role of ionic charge and radius. This knowledge is fundamental to go beyond the rudimentary ion-induced classical nucleation theory. In the present article, we address this problem from a different perspective, by computing the vapor pressures of (H2O)nLi(+) and (H2O)nCl(-) aggregates using molecular simulations. Our calculations shed light on the structure, the critical size, the range of stability, and the role of ion-water interactions in aqueous clusters. Moreover, they allow one to assess the accuracy of the classical thermodynamic model, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses.

  20. Synthesis of phosphorous-doped graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anupama; Lv, Ruitao; Perera Lopez, Nestor; Berkdemir, Ayse; Elías, Ana Laura; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2013-03-01

    Although theoretical calculations have demonstrated that phosphorous (P) doping of graphene could open the largest band gap and could possess excellent properties to become an ideal toxic gas sensor, it has not been synthesized experimentally. We have successfully synthesized large-area, monolayered P-doped graphene by an ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD). In particular, triphenyl phosphene (TPP) dissolved in hexane with different concentrations of TPP has been used as phosphorous-carbon precursor. Raman spectroscopy is used extensively for characterizing the different synthesized materials. The intensity ratio of D, D', 2D and G bands and their associated shifts provide information related the nature and doping levels. The strong D-band and a prominent D'-band confirms the occurrence of doping by P-substitution. The doped graphene sheets have also been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, results on the use of these P-doped graphene in molecular sensing will be discussed.

  1. High Pressure Noble Gas Alkali Vapor Mixtures and Their Visible and Infrared Excimer Bands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Dense Alkali Vapors; Near Infrared Lasers; Infrared Absorption and Emission 20. ABSTRACT (Conrfinte on reverse -Ide If nece oeery ed Identify hr block...n,mber) " The infrared absorption of saturated alkali vapors has been measured for the first time. New absorption bands are tentatively assigned to...region of infrared absorption between lu and 2 i in the saturated vapors of sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. This new region of absorption appears

  2. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Andrew P.; Zeiri, Offer M.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data.

  3. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show that the sample sublimed congruently into HgI2 with no Hg or I2 absorption spectrum observed. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were determined. From these constants the vapor pressure of H912, P, was established as a function of temperatures for the liquid and the solid Beta-phases. The expressions correspond to the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 Kcal/mole, respectively, for the liquid and the Beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 Kcal/mole and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  4. Effect of carbon on irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation in reactor pressure vessel steels using first-principles-based rate theory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we incorporated the effect of carbon atoms on the irradiation-induced grain-boundary phosphorus segregation into the rate theory model by considering a carbon atom as a trap site of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, and simulated the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage in the reactor pressure vessel steels, A533B steels which were neutron-irradiated using the Halden reactor. As a result, by selecting the sink strength of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, the simulation reproduced the experimental grain-boundary phosphorus coverage that was measured using the scanning Auger electron microprobe analysis. It was observed that the grain-boundary phosphorus coverage does not depend on the dose rate regardless of the presence of carbon atoms. Furthermore, it was confirmed that vacancies scarcely transport phosphorus atoms to grain-boundaries as compared to the transport by self-interstitial atoms and it was found that carbon atoms influence the irradiation-induced phosphorus segregation by mainly suppressing the migration of vacancies.

  5. Nephrology pre-dialysis care affects the psychological adjustment, not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control.

    PubMed

    Furusho, Masahide; Kawazu, Minami; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kurachi, Emiko; Nakashima, Takafumi; Sagara, Rikako; Hara, Takashi; Mukai, Hideyuki; Miura, Shuhei; Sugawara, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that pre-dialysis care is associated with clinical outcomes. However, little has been reported on the influence of pre-dialysis care on the psychological adjustment to dialysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre-dialysis care on psychological adjustment to dialysis and clinical characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 52 patients who started hemodialysis at our hospital. They were divided into two groups according to the time of referral to our hospital: the early referral group (over 1 year prior to first dialysis: 19 patients, mean age 69.3 ± 11.1) and the late referral group (within 1 year prior to first dialysis: 33 patients, mean age 72.3 ± 8.9). We measured the clinical characteristics and evaluated the psychological adjustment to dialysis by Shontz's stage theory. Compared with the late referral group, the early referral group had a significantly better clinical characteristics concerning blood pressure (140.2 ± 23.7 vs. 156.9 ± 23.3 mmHg, P = 0.0150), hemoglobin (10.3 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 g/dL, P = 0.0078), and phosphorus (4.5 ± 1.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P = 0.0166). In addition, psychological adjustment to dialysis evaluated by Shontz's stage theory was significantly better in the early referral group (P = 0.017). Our results indicate that nephrology pre-dialysis care affects not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control but also the psychological adjustment to dialysis.

  6. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for achieving sufficient cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors (PFBC) so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A simulated PFBC flue gas was used to characterize the NaCl-vapor sorption behavior of activated bauxite at a bed temperature of 905/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute. Although the addition of HCl to simulated PFBC flue gas tends to promote the capture of NaCl vapor by activated bauxite as NaCl rather than Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, overall, its effect on the activated bauxite's NaCl-vapor sorption behavior was found to be insignificant. Experimental results are also presented on: (1) the partial conversion to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ of the NaCl sample used as the source of NaCl vapor for the test system; and (2) the water leachability of the sodium captured on activated bauxite.

  7. Aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients for C9-C14 linear alkylbenzenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherblom, P.M.; Gschwend, P.M.; Eganhouse, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and estimates of aqueous solubilities, 1-octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), and vapor pressures were made for 29 linear alkylbenzenes having alkyl chain lengths of 9-14 carbons. The ranges of values observed were vapor pressures from 0.002 to 0.418 Pa, log Kow, from 6.83 to 9.95, and aqueous solubilities from 4 to 38 nmol??L-1. Measured values exhibited a relationship to both the alkyl chain length and the position of phenyl substitution on the alkyl chain. Measurement of the aqueous concentrations resulting from equilibration of a mixture of alkylbenzenes yielded higher than expected values, indicating cosolute or other interactive effects caused enhanced aqueous concentrations of these compounds. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  8. A fixed granular-bed sorber for measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alkali vapors (Na and K) in the hot flue gas from the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal could cause corrosion problems with the gas turbine blades. In a laboratory-scale PFBC test with Beulah lignite, a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite sorbent was used to demonstrate its capability for measuring and controlling alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. The Beulah lignite was combusted in a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at bed temperatures ranging from 850 to 875{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. The time-averaged concentration of sodium vapor in the PFBC flue gas was determined from the analysis of two identical beds of activated bauxite and found to be 1.42 and 1.50 ppmW. The potassium vapor concentration was determined to be 0.10 ppmW. The sodium material balance showed that only 0.24% of the total sodium in the lignite was released as vapor species in the PFBC flue gas. This results in an average of 1.56 ppmW alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. This average is more than 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than the currently suggested alkali specification limit of 0.024 ppm for an industrial gas turbine. The adsorption data obtained with the activated bauxite beds were also analyzed mathematically by use of a LUB (length of unused bed)/equilibrium section concept. Analytical results showed that the length of the bed, L{sub o} in centimeters, relates to the break through time, {theta}{sub b} in hours, for the alkali vapor to break through the bed as follows: L{sub o} = 33.02 + 1.99 {theta}{sub b}. This formula provides useful information for the engineering design of fixed-bed activated bauxite sorbers for the measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC flue gas. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Vapor pressure deficit is as important as soil moisture in determining limitations to evapotranspiration during drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, K. A.; Williams, C. A.; Phillips, R.; Oishi, A. C.; Sulman, B. N.; Bohrer, G.; Ficklin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The decoupling between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and actual evapotranspiration (AET) is a useful metric to characterize ecosystem hydrologic stress. As hydrologic stress evolves, PET increases following increases in incident radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). AET, on the other hand, remains stationary or decreases due to declines in surface conductance imposed by decreasing soil water and stomatal closure under high VPD. Historically, it has been difficult to quantify the extent to which soil moisture as compared to VPD ultimately limits AET during hydrologic stress. Part of this difficulty relates to the strong correlation between soil moisture and VPD at timescales over which hydrologic stress evolves (weekly to monthly). Further, while it is relatively easy to manipulate soil moisture in experimental settings, manipulating VPD is much more difficult. Recently, the proliferation of eddy covariance flux sites has produced a rich collection of AET observations at fine timescales (i.e. hourly to daily) over which VPD and soil moisture are more decoupled. In this study, we leverage such data to quantify the extent to which soil moisture versus VPD constrains AET in more than 25 Ameriflux sites spanning a wide climate gradient. We found that AET was most significantly limited by soil moisture in dry sites where the annual PET was much higher than precipitation. VPD limitations to AET dominated in wetter sites, but even among the driest sites, they were of similar magnitude to soil moisture limitations. Our results highlight the critical, if at time underappreciated, role of VPD in determining ecohydrological functioning during periods of hydrologic stress. We also leverage these results together with future projections for VPD, soil moisture, and other relevant meteorological drivers to explore the extent to which the coherence between VPD and soil moisture, and their relative importance for limiting AET, may shift under future climate conditions.

  10. Temperature interactions with transpiration response to vapor pressure deficit among cultivated and wild soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Seversike, Thomas M; Sermons, Shannon M; Sinclair, Thomas R; Carter, Thomas E; Rufty, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    A key strategy in soybean drought research is increased stomatal sensitivity to high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which contributes to the 'slow wilting' trait observed in the field. These experiments examined whether temperature of the growth environment affected the ability of plants to respond to VPD, and thus control transpiration rate (TR). Two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and four wild soybean [Glycine soja (Sieb. and Zucc.)] genotypes were studied. The TR was measured over a range of VPD when plants were growing at 25 or 30°C, and again after an abrupt increase of 5°C. In G. max, a restriction of TR became evident as VPD increased above 2.0 kPa when temperature was near its growth optimum of 30°C. 'Slow wilting' genotype plant introduction (PI) 416937 exhibited greater TR control at high VPD compared with Hutcheson, and only PI 416937 restrained TR after the shift to 35°C. Three of the four G. soja genotypes exhibited control over TR with increasing VPD when grown at 25°C, which is near their estimated growth optimum. The TR control became engaged at lower VPD than in G. max and was retained to differing degrees after a shift to 30°C. The TR control systems in G. max and G. soja clearly were temperature-sensitive and kinetically definable, and more restrictive in the 'slow wilting' soybean genotype. For the favorable TR control traits observed in G. soja to be useful for soybean breeding in warmer climates, the regulatory linkage with lower temperatures must be uncoupled.

  11. Study of the low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten-silicon interface: Interfacial fluorine

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chopra, D.R.; Dillingham, T.R.; Gnade, B.; Smith, G.

    1989-03-15

    Single-crystal silicon <100> substrates uniformly doped at approx. >12 ..cap omega.. cm with boron were deposited with approx.800 A of low-pressure chemically vapor deposited W in a hot-quartz-walled (Anicon) system at a deposition temperature of 300 /sup 0/C. The samples studied include an as-deposited sample and two others which were post-deposition annealed at 600 /sup 0/C in Ar for 15 min each. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with an Ar/sup +/ ion sputter profiling technique was employed to investigate these structures as a function of depth. Particular emphasis was placed on the depth distribution, content, and chemical state of the fluorine present. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction were used to corroborate the XPS data. Results show that, for the as-deposited and 600 /sup 0/C annealed sample, the maximum concentration of fluorine (0.6--0.8 at. %) is observed, not at the W/Si interface, but rather at the W (H/sub 2/ reduction)/W (Si displacement) interface. For the sample annealed at 850 /sup 0/C, WSi/sub 2/ is formed in the overlayer, and the peak in the F profile corresponds to the position of the WSi/sub 2//Si interface. The maximum concentration of fluorine is reduced by approximately 75% to 0.23 at. % in this sample. From the XPS spectra of the F 1s region, the chemical species of fluorine present in these samples have been identified as WF/sub 6/, WF/sub 5/, and WF/sub 4/.

  12. Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Atagi, L.M. |; Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang; Rubiano, R.R.; Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

  13. Studies in graphene growth and processing using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrell, Andrew Nephi

    This dissertation focuses on graphene, a promising two-dimensional, carbon material with many favorable electronic properties. The prospect of implementing graphene into a wide variety of potential device applications is enticing, but many factors stand in the way before this goal is realized. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is a graphene production method that may be compatible with large-scale growth. Motivated by the need to more fully understand APCVD growth of graphene, a system is constructed, and several studies are carried out. Specifically, a detailed study is presented which involves the effects of hydrogen and contaminant oxygen in APCVD-grown graphene. The research shows that hydrogen is an important factor to control during the cooling stage of APCVD, as it has a direct effect on the formation of oxides on the copper foil (copper is used as the catalyst for graphene growth in APCVD). It is also determined that hydrogen, as well as the reaction chamber, play an important role in the formation of SiO2 nanoparticles, which accumulate on the copper surface during graphene growth. Methods for patterning and processing graphene are also explored in this dissertation, as such methods are crucial in the realization of graphene-based devices. The method of e-beam assisted metal deposition used in conjunction with masked-CVD growth is proposed as an effective alternative to conventional processing methods such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography. The proposed methods have several advantages, which pave the way for lowering graphene/metal contact resistance, and preserving the intrinsic properties of graphene during device fabrication.

  14. Effusion Cell Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Cobalt at Temperatures up to 2000K; Comparisons with Iron and Nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A.; Ferguson, F. T.; Johnson, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear over the past decade that high temperature processes played important roles in the Primitive Solar Nebula. Unfortunately, basic data, such as the vapor pressures of Fe, Ni, Co or SiO have not been measured over the appropriate temperature range (near T approx. 2000K), but must be extrapolated from lower temperature measurements often made more than 50 years ago. The extrapolation of the available data to higher temperatures can be quite complex (e.g., see [1] for SiO vapor pressures) and can depend on other factors such as the oxygen fugacity or the presence of hydrogen gas not accounted for in the original measurements. Moreover, modern technology has made possible more accurate measurements of such quantities over a wider temperature range. We have acquired a commercial Thermo-Cahn Thermogravimetric system capable of vacuum operation to 1700C and measurement of a 10g change in sample mass using up to a 100g sample, with microgram accuracy. With this new system we have initiated a series of basic vapor pressure measurements on simple metals such as Fe[2] and Ni[3] with the intention to extend such measurements to more complex systems once we gain sufficient experience.

  15. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Henry, R.F.; Smith, S.D.; Teats, F.G.; Wilson, W.I.; Myles, K.M.

    1985-08-01

    Under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, this work supports a program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of alkali corrodents from the flue gas produced by pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that the cleaned hot gas is able to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. This effort for FY 1984 involved two parts. In the first part, a laboratory-scale pressurized test unit was used to measure the rate of alkali (Na + K) evolution from beds of activated bauxite and Emathlite at a bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute in a gas stream closely simulating the actual PFBC flue gas. The evaluation of the measured rates showed that (1) a spent activated bauxite bed, regenerated by water leaching and replenished with a small amount of fresh activated bauxite, contributes significantly less alkali vapor to the flue gas than the currently accepted alkali tolerance (0.024 ppM) of an industrial gas turbine and (2) the Emathlite bed contributes more alkali vapor than the turbine tolerance limit if the bed is exposed to a flue gas for a space time greater than 0.5 seconds. In the second part, a laboratory-scale demonstration of a fixed granular-bed sorber for the control of alkali vapor from PFBC flue gas was initiated. A detailed engineering design of this sorber system is described, and initial test results are presented and discussed. 26 refs., 16 figs.; 14 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure and Ultra-High Vacuum Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids (2) Mixtures and Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Koch, Victor R.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Richard, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids are salts, many of which are typically viscous fluids at room temperature. The fluids are characterized by negligible vapor pressures under ambient conditions. These properties have led us to study the effectiveness of ionic liquids containing both organic cations and anions for use as space lubricants. In the previous paper we have measured the vapor pressure and some tribological properties of two distinct ionic liquids under simulated space conditions. In this paper we will present vapor pressure measurements for two new ionic liquids and friction coefficient data for boundary lubrication conditions in a spiral orbit tribometer using stainless steel tribocouples. In addition we present the first tribological data on mixed ionic liquids and an ionic liquid additive. Post mortem infrared and Raman analysis of the balls and races indicates the major degradation pathway for these two organic ionic liquids is similar to those of other carbon based lubricants, i.e. deterioration of the organic structure into amorphous graphitic carbon. The coefficients of friction and lifetimes of these lubricants are comparable to or exceed these properties for several commonly used space oils.

  17. Interactive response of photosynthetic characteristics in Haloxylon ammodendron and Hedysarum scoparium exposed to soil water and air vapor pressure deficits.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chunmei; Wang, Jiajia; Hu, Congxia; Wang, Junhui; Ning, Pengbo; Bai, Juan

    2015-08-01

    C4 plants possess better drought tolerance than C3 plants. However, Hedysarum scoparium, a C3 species, is dominant and widely distributed in the desert areas of northwestern China due to its strong drought tolerance. This study compared it with Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 species, regarding the interactive effects of drought stress and different leaf-air vapor pressure deficits. Variables of interest included gas exchange, the activity levels of key C4 photosynthetic enzymes, and cellular anatomy. In both species, gas exchange parameters were more sensitive to high vapor pressure deficit than to strong water stress, and the net CO2 assimilation rate (An) was enhanced as vapor pressure deficits increased. A close relationship between An and stomatal conductance (gs) suggested that the species shared a similar response mechanism. In H. ammodendron, the activity levels of key C4 enzymes were higher, including those of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malate enzyme (NADP-ME), whereas in H. scoparium, the activity level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malate enzyme (NAD-ME) was higher. Meanwhile, H. scoparium utilized adaptive structural features, including a larger relative vessel area and a shorter distance from vein to stomata, which facilitated the movement of water. These findings implied that some C4 biochemical pathways were present in H. scoparium to respond to environmental challenges.

  18. An instrument for environmental control of vapor pressure and temperature for tensile creep and other mechanical property measurements.

    PubMed

    Majsztrik, P W; Bocarsly, A B; Benziger, J B

    2007-10-01

    An instrument for measuring the creep response of a material maintained under a controlled environment of temperature and vapor pressure is described. The temperature range of the instrument is 20-250 degrees C while the range of vapor pressure is 0-1 atm. Data are presented for tests conducted on this instrument with Nafion, a perfluorinated ionomer developed by DuPont and used as a membrane in polymer exchange membrane fuel cells, over a range of temperature and water vapor pressure. The data are useful for predicting long-term creep behavior of the material in the fuel cell environment as well as providing insight to molecular level interactions in the material as a function of temperature and hydration. Measurements including dynamic and equilibrium strain due to water uptake as well as elastic modulus are described. The main features of the instrument are presented along with experimental methodology and analysis of results. The adaptation of the instrument to other mechanical tests is briefly described.

  19. An instrument for environmental control of vapor pressure and temperature for tensile creep and other mechanical property measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majsztrik, P. W.; Bocarsly, A. B.; Benziger, J. B.

    2007-10-01

    An instrument for measuring the creep response of a material maintained under a controlled environment of temperature and vapor pressure is described. The temperature range of the instrument is 20-250°C while the range of vapor pressure is 0-1atm. Data are presented for tests conducted on this instrument with Nafion®, a perfluorinated ionomer developed by DuPont and used as a membrane in polymer exchange membrane fuel cells, over a range of temperature and water vapor pressure. The data are useful for predicting long-term creep behavior of the material in the fuel cell environment as well as providing insight to molecular level interactions in the material as a function of temperature and hydration. Measurements including dynamic and equilibrium strain due to water uptake as well as elastic modulus are described. The main features of the instrument are presented along with experimental methodology and analysis of results. The adaptation of the instrument to other mechanical tests is briefly described.

  20. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W.

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are

  1. Novel superconducting skutterudite-type phosphorus nitride at high pressure from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Raza, Zamaan; Errea, Ion; Oganov, Artem R; Saitta, A Marco

    2014-07-30

    State of the art variable composition structure prediction based on density functional theory demonstrates that two new stoichiometries of PN, PN3 and PN2, become viable at high pressure. PN3 has a skutterudite-like Immm structure and is metastable with positive phonon frequencies at pressures between 10 and 100 GPa. PN3 is metallic and is the first reported nitrogen-based skutterudite. Its metallicity arises from nitrogen p-states which delocalise across N4 rings characteristic of skutterudites, and it becomes a good electron-phonon superconductor at 10 GPa, with a Tc of around 18 K. The superconductivity arises from strongly enhanced electron-phonon coupling at lower pressures, originating primarily from soft collective P-N phonon modes. The PN2 phase is an insulator with P2/m symmetry and is stable at pressures in excess of 200 GPa.

  2. Novel superconducting skutterudite-type phosphorus nitride at high pressure from first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Zamaan; Errea, Ion; Oganov, Artem R.; Saitta, A. Marco

    2014-01-01

    State of the art variable composition structure prediction based on density functional theory demonstrates that two new stoichiometries of PN, PN3 and PN2, become viable at high pressure. PN3 has a skutterudite-like Immm structure and is metastable with positive phonon frequencies at pressures between 10 and 100 GPa. PN3 is metallic and is the first reported nitrogen-based skutterudite. Its metallicity arises from nitrogen p-states which delocalise across N4 rings characteristic of skutterudites, and it becomes a good electron-phonon superconductor at 10 GPa, with a Tc of around 18 K. The superconductivity arises from strongly enhanced electron-phonon coupling at lower pressures, originating primarily from soft collective P-N phonon modes. The PN2 phase is an insulator with P2/m symmetry and is stable at pressures in excess of 200 GPa. PMID:25074347

  3. Vapor pressures, gas-phase PVT properties, and second virial coefficients for 1,1,1-trifluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.L.; Sato, Haruki; Watanabe, Koichi

    1995-07-01

    The PVT properties of 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (R-143a) in the gas phase have been measured by a Burnett apparatus in the range of temperatures from 320 to 380 K and at pressures up to 6 MPa. The vapor pressures in the range of temperatures from 295 to 342 K have also been measured, and a vapor-pressure correlation has been developed. The critical pressure was determined to be (3.776 {+-} 0.005) MPa on the basis of the present measurements. The second virial coefficients have been determined along seven isotherms, and a truncated virial equation of state has also been developed to represent the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficients and the present Burnett PVT measurements. The experimental uncertainties of temperature, pressure, density, and second virial coefficient throughout the present study were estimated to be no more than {+-} 8 mK, {+-} 0.8 kPa, {+-} 0.12%, and {+-} 5%, respectively. The purity of the R-143a sample used was better than 99.95 mol %.

  4. A combined droplet train and ambient pressure photoemission spectrometer for the investigation of liquid/vapor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, David E.; Wong, Ed K.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2008-05-01

    We describe a combined ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy/droplet train apparatus for investigating the nature and heterogeneous chemistry of liquid/vapor interfaces. In this instrument a liquid droplet train with typical droplet diameters from 50...150 {micro}m is produced by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG). The droplets are irradiated by soft X-rays (100...1500 eV) in front of the entrance aperture of a differentially pumped electrostatic lens system that transfers the emitted electrons into a conventional hemispherical electron analyzer. The photoemission experiments are performed at background pressures of up to several Torr, which allows the study of environmentally important liquid/vapor interfaces, in particular aqueous solutions, under equilibrium conditions. The exposure time of the droplet surface to the background gases prior to the XPS measurement can be varied, which will allow future kinetic measurements of gas uptake on liquid surfaces. As an example, a measurement of the surface composition of a {chi} = 0.21 aqueous methanol solution is presented. The concentration of methanol at the vapor/liquid interface is enhanced by a factor of about 3 over the bulk value, while the expected bulk value is recovered at depths larger than about 1.5 nm.

  5. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S.

    2014-08-18

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup −5 }Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (∼up to 100 μm) at very high rates (up to 3 μm{sup 2} s{sup −1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900 °C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900 °C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6 ± 1 eV for temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 960 °C and 9 ± 1 eV for temperatures above 960 °C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  6. Release of LNG vapor from large-volume, low-pressure LNG storage. Letter report, September 30, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This project involves development of practical release prevention measures by developing design and operating procedures beyond current practice. The objective of the program is to obtain the quantitative field data necessary to model the physics of the tank vapor space pressure response to boil-off compressor operation and atmospheric pressure changes. This work will lead to the development of guides to LNG storage tank operation and equipment specification that will limit the possibility of vapor venting or rollover of the stored LNG.

  7. A Convenient, Inexpensive, and Environmentally Friendly Method of Measuring the Vapor Pressure of a Liquid as a Function of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burness, James H.

    1996-10-01

    The popular experiment in which students measure the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature has been modified by introducing the use of a hand-held vacuum pump. This inexpensive modification not only eliminates the need to use mercury manometers and water aspirators, but it also makes the experimental apparatus much simpler and allows more data points to be collected during the three-hour lab period. Enthapies of vaporization and normal boiling points for the unknown samples, determined from the data by use of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, are usually within approximately 5% of the actual values. This paper describes the experimental procedure and setup needed for the revised experiment and compares the accuracy and precision of the data collected by both the original and the modified procedures.

  8. A new approach to determine vapor pressures of compounds in multicomponent systems by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Lai, Ching Kwan; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2014-06-01

    A method is described to determine vapor pressures of compounds in multicomponent systems simultaneously. The method is based on temperature-gradient analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). Vapor pressures are determined with the aid of known vapor pressure values of reference compounds eluting before and after the analytes. Reference compounds with the same functionalities as the analytes are preferred, but when these are not available, the alkane series can be utilized. The number of compounds whose vapor pressures can be determined is limited only by the peak capacity of the chromatographic system. Although the lowest subcooled vapor pressure determined was 0.006 Pa, for tetrahydroaraucarolone in an atmospheric aerosol sample, vapor pressures as low as 10(-6) Pa can be measured with the described set-up. Even lower values can be measured with higher GC temperatures and longer analysis times. Since only a few picograms of compound is required, in a mixture of any complexity, the GCxGC-TOFMS method offers unique sensitivity, rapidity, and comprehensiveness.

  9. An experimental study of the stability of copper chloride complexes in water vapor at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, S. M.; Migdisov, A. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2002-05-01

    The solubility of copper chloride in liquid-undersaturated HCl-bearing water vapor was investigated experimentally at temperatures of 280 to 320°C and pressures up to 103 bars. Results of these experiments show that the solubility of copper in the vapor phase is significant and increases with increasing fH 2O , but is retrograde with respect to temperature. This solubility is attributed to the formation of hydrated copper-chloride gas species, interpreted to have a copper-chlorine ratio of 1:1 (e.g., CuCl, Cu 3Cl 3, etc.) and a hydration number varying from 7.6 at 320°C, to 6.0 at 300°C, and 6.1 at 280°C. Complex formation is proposed to have occurred through the reaction: 3 CuCl solid+nH 2O gas⇋ Cu 3Cl 3·(H 2O) ngas Log K values determined for this reaction are -21.46 ± 0.05 at 280°C (n = 7.6), -19.03 ± 0.10 at 300°C (n = 6.0), and -19.45 ± 0.12 at 320°C (n = 6.1), if it is assumed that the vapor species is the trimer, Cu 3Cl 3(H 2O) 6-8. Calculations based on the above data indicate that at 300°C and HCl fluxes encountered in passively degassing volcanic systems, the vapor phase could transport copper in concentrations as high as 280 ppm. Theoretically, this vapor could form an economic copper deposit (e.g., 50 million tonnes of 0.5% Cu) in as little as ˜20,500 yr.

  10. Superconductivity in metastable phases of phosphorus-hydride compounds under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Livas, Jose; Amsler, Maximilian; Sanna, Antonio; Heil, Christoph; Boeri, Lilia; Profeta, Gianni; Wolverton, Crhis; Goedecker, Stefan; Gross, E. K. U.

    Recently, compressed phosphine was reported to metallize at pressures above 45 GPa, reaching a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 100 K at 200 GPa. However, neither the exact composition nor the crystal structure of the superconducting phase have been conclusively determined. In this work the phase diagram of PHn (n = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6) was extensively explored by means of ab initio crystal structure prediction methods. The results do not support the existence of thermodynamically stable PHn compounds, which exhibit a tendency for elemental decomposition at high pressure even when vibrational contributions to the free energies are taken into account. Although the lowest energy phases of PH1 , 2 , 3 display Tc's comparable to experiments, it remains questionable if the measured values of Tc can be fully attributed to a phase-pure compound of PHn. This work was done within the NCCR MARVEL project.

  11. Effects of Pressure on Optically Active Deep Levels in Phosphorus Doped ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, B. A.; Iota, V.

    1998-03-01

    We report high pressure photoluminescence (PL) and PL-excitation (PLE) studies at 8K of the 'midgap' emission in P-doped ZnSe using a diamond-cell with He medium. The dominant emission at low pressure is due to donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) transitions between shallow donors and deep trigonally relaxed P_Se acceptors.(J. Davies, et al., J. Luminescence 18/19, 322 (1979)) Its PL and PLE peaks shift by 8.2meV/kbar and 5.9meV/kbar, respectively -- Stokes shift decreasing with pressure. At 35kbar a new PL band, shifting to lower energy (-5.4meV/kbar), emerges from above the absorption edge, and concurrently the original DAP PL quenches. This shows that a resonant level, a deep donor or possibly a P_Se antibonding state,(R. Watts, et al., Phys. Rev. B3), 404 (1971) crosses the conduction edge into the gap. A third PL band is seen only with internse UV excitation. It occurs initially as a high energy shoulder of the original DAP peak, but shifts more rapidly upward (9.4meV/kbar) until it crosses the edge and quenches at 40kbar. We discuss candidates for this band, including donor-P_Se complexes, and we compare our results to similar work on the Zn vacancy in ZnSe. (figures)

  12. Superconductivity in metastable phases of phosphorus-hydride compounds under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Livas, José A.; Amsler, Maximilian; Heil, Christoph; Sanna, Antonio; Boeri, Lilia; Profeta, Gianni; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan; Gross, E. K. U.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich compounds have been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally in the quest for novel high-temperature superconductors. Reports on sulfur hydride attaining metallicity under pressure and exhibiting superconductivity at temperatures as high as 200 K have spurred an intense search for room-temperature superconductors in hydride materials. Recently, compressed phosphine was reported to metallize at pressures above 45 GPa, reaching a superconducting transition temperature (TC) of 100 K at 200 GPa. However, neither the exact composition nor the crystal structure of the superconducting phase have been conclusively determined. In this work, the phase diagram of PHn (n =1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ) was extensively explored by means of ab initio crystal structure predictions using the minima hopping method (MHM). The results do not support the existence of thermodynamically stable PHn compounds, which exhibit a tendency for elemental decomposition at high pressure even when vibrational contributions to the free energies are taken into account. Although the lowest energy phases of PH1 ,2 ,3 display TC's comparable to experiments, it remains uncertain if the measured values of TC can be fully attributed to a phase-pure compound of PHn.

  13. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Swift, W.M.; Lee, S.H.D.; Boyd, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    In the application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC) to the generation of electricity, hot corrosion of gas turbine components by alkali metal compounds is a potential problem. The objective of this investigation is to develop a method for removing these gaseous alkali metal compounds from the high-pressure high-temperature gas from a PFBC before the gas enters the gas turbine. A granular-bed filter, using either diatomaceous earth or activated bauxite as the bed material, is the concept currently being studied. Results are presented for the testing of diatomaceous earth for alkali vapor sorption at 800/sup 0/C and 9-atm pressure, using a simulated flue gas. Activated bauxite sorbent can be regenerated by leaching with water, and the kinetics of the leaching is under study.

  14. Surface vapor conductance derived from the ETRHEQ: Dependence on environmental variables and similarity to Oren's stomatal stress model for vapor pressure deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Daily time series of evapotranspiration and surface conductance to water vapor were estimated using the ETRHEQ method (Evapotranspiration from Relative Humidity at Equilibrium). ETRHEQ has been previously compared with ameriflux site-level measurements of ET at daily and seasonal time scales, with watershed water balance estimates, and with various benchmark ET data sets. The ETRHEQ method uses meteorological data collected at common weather stations and estimates the surface conductance by minimizing the vertical variance of the calculated relative humidity profile averaged over the day. The key advantage of the ETRHEQ method is that it does not require knowledge of the surface state (soil moisture, stomatal conductance, leaf are index, etc.) or site-specific calibration. The daily estimates of conductance from 229 weather stations for 53 years were analyzed for dependence on environmental variables known to impact stomatal conductance and soil diffusivity: surface temperature, surface vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, antecedent precipitation (as a surrogate for soil moisture), and a seasonal vegetation greenness index. At each site the summertime (JJAS) conductance values estimated from ETRHEQ were fitted to a multiplicate Jarvis-type stress model. Functional dependence was not proscribed, but instead fitted using flexible piecewise-linear splines. The resulting stress functions reproduce the time series of conductance across a wide range of ecosystems and climates. The VPD stress term resembles that proposed by Oren (i.e., 1-m*log(VPD) ), with VPD measured in kilopascals. The equivalent value of m derived from our spline-fits at each station varied over a remarkably small range of 0.58 to 0.62, in agreement with Oren's original analysis based on leaf and tree-level measurements.

  15. [Biological process of phosphorus turnover in surface water body of Xiamen Harbor. II: Grazing pressure of copepod on phytoplankton].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-di; Yang, Qing; Lin, Yuan-shao; Cao, Wen-qing

    2008-12-01

    To understand the roles of copepod in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus, gut fluorescence method was applied to examine in situ the grazing rate of copepod on the phytoplankton in Xiamen Time Station (XMTS) in May, August and November 2005 and March 2006. In the meanwhile, the abundance and species composition of copepod were investigated, and the grazing pressure of copepod on the phytoplankton was estimated. The results showed that the annual average grazing rate of copepod was 55.53 microg x m(-3) x d(-1), being the highest (108.98 microg x m(-3) x d(-1)) in autumn and the lowest (7.18 microg x m(-3) x d(-1)) in summer. Based on the estimation from our experimental data, the daily grazing rate of copepod populations on the phytoplankton in Xiamen Harbor was, on annual average, about 1.81% of the phytoplankton's standing stock, with the values in spring, summer, autumn, and winter being 3.22%, 0.06%, 3.52% and 0.46%, respectively.

  16. Alkali-metal-vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1982-01-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines. Data are presented in this report on the use of activated bauxite in a granular bed filter for the removal of gaseous NaCl from hot (800/sup 0/C), pressurized (less than or equal to 8 atm), wet simulated PFBC flue gas. Also, the sorption mechanisms are discussed. Greater than 99.9% NaCl vapor capture was achieved. Also reported are (1) the effects of several operating variables on the rate of leaching of NaCl that had been adsorbed on activated bauxite and (2) the volatility of alkali metal compounds present as impurities in activated bauxite. Finally, the preliminary estimate of the cost of using activated bauxite as a filter medium for the control of alkali vapors from PFBC flue gas was updated; a conceptual design of a fixed granular-bed filter was presented; and the energy needs and their costs for operating the filter in (a) the once-through and (b) the sorbent-regeneration modes were compared.

  17. Realization of the 3He Vapor-Pressure Temperature Scale and Development of a Liquid-He-Free Calibration Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, T.; Toyoda, K.; Tamura, O.

    2011-12-01

    The 3He vapor-pressure temperature scale was realized using an apparatus based on a continuously operating 3He cryostat at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The cryostat has two operational modes: a 3He circulation mode and a 1 K pot mode. The 3He circulation mode can be used for 3He vapor-pressure measurements below 1.6 K, and the 1 K pot mode can be used for measurements above 1.3 K. Either mode can be selected for measurements from 1.3 K to 1.6 K. The realization of the 3He vapor-pressure temperature scale in this study fully covers its defined temperature range from 0.65 K to 3.2 K in the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The latest realization results are presented in this article. In addition, a liquid-He-free calibration apparatus was developed. It does not require liquid helium as a cryogen, which usually entails cumbersome handling and periodic refilling. The apparatus was designed for the calibration of capsule-type resistance thermometers from 0.65 K to 24.5561 K (the triple point of neon). The cooling system of the apparatus consists of a commercially available pulse-tube refrigerator and a 3He Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling circuit developed at NMIJ/AIST. The pulse-tube refrigerator is used in a pre-cooling stage and cools the apparatus to approximately 5 K. The 3He JT cooling circuit is used to cool the apparatus from 5 K to below 0.65 K. Since the 3He JT cooling circuit is a closed circuit, the apparatus can run continuously with only simple maintenance required. The basic characteristics of the apparatus are described.

  18. Properties of TCO anodes deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their application to OLED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, R. Y.

    2012-02-01

    Doped ZnO is one of the materials currently being considered in commercial optoelectronic applications as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement for the transparent conducting oxide (TCO). The properties of doped ZnO anodes prepared at Arkema Inc. are analyzed using spectroscopic ellipsometer (230 to 1700 nm) and Hall-effect. The modeling of the refractive indexes is conducted using a double oscillator model. The model parameters are tested on a double layer: undoped and doped structure deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on glass substrates. Excellent correlation between calculated and experimental parameters was obtained.

  19. Nature of the self-limiting effect in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshitz, N.

    1987-09-28

    We propose a mechanism for the self-limiting effect which occurs in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten. When W is deposited by silicon reduction of tungsten hexafluoride WF/sub 6/, the deposition suddenly ceases at an early stage. No such effect is observed in the deposition of Mo using analogous chemistry. We believe the self-limiting effect is due to the formation of nonvolatile lower fluorides of tungsten. Our hypothesis is supported by secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies which indicate the presence of fluorine (approx. =3%) in W films, whereas in Mo films the concentration of fluorine is an order of magnitude lower.

  20. Nature of the self-limiting effect in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifshitz, N.

    1987-09-01

    We propose a mechanism for the self-limiting effect which occurs in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten. When W is deposited by silicon reduction of tungsten hexafluoride WF6, the deposition suddenly ceases at an early stage. No such effect is observed in the deposition of Mo using analogous chemistry. We believe the self-limiting effect is due to the formation of nonvolatile lower fluorides of tungsten. Our hypothesis is supported by secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies which indicate the presence of fluorine (≊3%) in W films, whereas in Mo films the concentration of fluorine is an order of magnitude lower.

  1. Physical and electrical properties of graphene grown under different hydrogen flow in low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen flow during low pressure chemical vapor deposition had significant effect not only on the physical properties but also on the electrical properties of graphene. Nucleation and grain growth of graphene increased at higher hydrogen flows. And, more oxygen-related functional groups like amorphous and oxidized carbon that probably contributed to defects or contamination of graphene remained on the graphene surface at low H2 flow conditions. It is believed that at low hydrogen flow, those remained oxygen or other oxidizing impurities make the graphene films p-doped and result in decreasing the carrier mobility. PMID:25332692

  2. Very Long Single and Few-Walled Boron Nitride Nanotubes via the Pressurized Vapor/Condenser Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Crooks, Roy; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for producing long, small diameter, single and few-walled, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in macroscopic quantities is reported. The pressurized vapor/condenser (PVC) method produces, without catalysts, highly crystalline, very long, small diameter, BNNTs. Palm-sized, cotton-like masses of BNNT raw material were grown by this technique and spun directly into centimeters-long yarn. Nanotube lengths were observed to be 100 times that of those grown by the most closely related method. Self-assembly and growth models for these long BNNTs are discussed.

  3. Very long single- and few-walled boron nitride nanotubes via the pressurized vapor/condenser method

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Smith; Jordan, Kevin C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Crooks, Roy; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2009-11-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are desired for their exceptional mechanical, electronic, thermal, structural, textural, optical, and quantum properties. A new method for producing long, small-diameter, single- and few-walled, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in macroscopic quantities is reported. The pressurized vapor/condenser (PVC) method produces, without catalysts, highly crystalline, very long, small-diameter, BNNTs. Palm-sized, cotton-like masses of BNNT raw material were grown by this technique and spun directly into centimeters-long yarn. Nanotube lengths were observed to be 100 times that of those grown by the most closely related method. Self-assembly and growth models for these long BNNTs are discussed.

  4. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  5. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Andrew P; Zeiri, Offer M; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of water vapor pressure in the arid region of northwest China, during 1961-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Yang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations of the water vapor pressure (WVP) of the arid region of northwest China (ARNC) from 1961 to 2011. The original daily temperature and relative humidity data were collected from 96 meteorological stations in the region and analyzed by a Mann-Kendall test and linear trend. The results showed that (1) the WVP possesses vertical zonality and longitude zonality, which decreased from the low to high with the elevation increasing, and the WVP changed obviously from the northwest and southeast to the middle of the ARNC. (2) WVP exhibited an abrupt increasing trend in most of the stations over the past 51 years; only four meteorological stations displayed upward trend in the ARNC. The WVP in the desert increased most rapidly, followed by the oasis and mountainous area. (3) The northwest of Xinjiang and northwest of the Hexi Corridor were sensitive to the water vapor change. Thus, further studies should be performed on the relations between the land use and cover and the water vapor change.

  7. Historic and projected changes in vapor pressure deficit suggest a continental-scale drying of the United States atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Novick, Kimberly A.

    2017-02-01

    Via air temperature increases and relative humidity changes, climate change will modify vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which is an important determinant of water vapor and CO2 exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. VPD is the difference between the water vapor the air can hold at saturation (es) and the actual amount of water vapor (ea). Here we assess changes in VPD, es, and ea in the United States (U.S.) for the recent past (1979-2013) and the future (2065-2099) using gridded, observed climate data and output from general circulation models. Historically, VPD has increased for all seasons, driven by increases in es and declines in ea. The spring, summer, and fall seasons exhibited the largest areal extent of significant increases in VPD, which was largely concentrated in the western and southern portions of the U.S. The changes in VPD stemmed from recent air temperature increases and relative humidity decreases. Projections indicate similar, amplified patterns into the future. For the summer, the general circulation model ensemble median showed a 51% projected increase (quartile range of 39 and 64%) in summer VPD for the U.S., reflecting temperature-driven increases in es but decreases or minimal changes in relative humidity that promotes negligible changes in ea. Using a simple model for plant hydraulic functioning, we also show that in the absence of stomatal acclimation, future changes in VPD can reduce stomatal conductance by 9-51%, which is a magnitude comparable to the expected decline in stomatal conductance from rising CO2.

  8. Vapor pressures of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids with long alkyl chains.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marisa A A; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2014-10-07

    This work presents the vapor pressure at several temperatures for the 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide series, [CN/2CN/2im][NTf2] (N = 14, 16, 18, and 20), measured by a Knudsen effusion method combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. The thermodynamic properties of vaporization of the ionic liquids under study are analysed together with the results obtained previously for the shorter alkyl chain length [CN/2CN/2im][NTf2] (N = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), in order to evaluate the effect of the alkyl side chains of the cation and to get additional insights concerning the nanostructuration of ionic liquids. The symmetry effect is explored, based on the comparison with the asymmetric imidazolium based ionic liquids, [CN-1C1im][NTf2]. A trend shift on the thermodynamic properties of vaporization along the alkyl side chains of the extended symmetric ionic liquids, around [C6C6im][NTf2], was detected. An intensification of the odd-even effect was observed starting from [C6C6im][NTf2], with higher enthalpies and entropies of vaporization for the odd numbered ionic liquids, [C7C7im][NTf2] and [C9C9im][NTf2]. Similar, but less pronounced, odd-even effect was found for the symmetric ionic liquids with lower alkyl side chains length, [CN/2CN/2im][NTf2] (with N = 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12). This effect is related with the predominant orientation of the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain to the imidazolium ring and their influence in the cation-anion interaction. The same Critical Alkyl length at the hexyl, (C6C1and C6C6) was found for both asymmetric and symmetric series indicating that the nanostructuration of the ionic liquids is related with alkyl chain length.

  9. Determination of Water Vapor Pressure Over Corrosive Chemicals Versus Temperature Using Raman Spectroscopy as Exemplified with 85.5% Phosphoric Acid.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Marion; Li, Qingfeng; Berg, Rolf Willestofte; Bjerrum, Niels Janniksen

    2016-07-01

    A method to determine the water vapor pressure over a corrosive substance was developed and tested with 85.5 ± 0.4% phosphoric acid. The water vapor pressure was obtained at a range of temperatures from ∼25 ℃ to ∼200 ℃ using Raman spectrometry. The acid was placed in an ampoule and sealed with a reference gas (either hydrogen or methane) at a known pressure (typically ∼0.5 bar). By comparing the Raman signals from the water vapor and the references, the water pressure was determined as a function of temperature. A considerable amount of data on the vapor pressure of phosphoric acid are available in the literature, to which our results could successfully be compared. A record value of the vapor pressure, 3.40 bar, was determined at 210 ℃. The method required a determination of the precise Raman scattering ratios between the substance, water, and the used reference gas, hydrogen or methane. In our case the scattering ratios between water and reference ν1 Q-branches were found to be 1.20 ± 0.03 and 0.40 ± 0.02 for H2 and CH4, respectively.

  10. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Correlation Methodology for Data Spanning the Melting Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    thermocouple embedded in glass beads in a second capillary tube. The temperature difference is ascribed to vaporization of the sample from the capillary...iamonds) C nd). id- Temper alysis % Diffe –7. 3.4 10. 14. 15.2 –42 11. 8.3 4.1 –0. – 13.2551 h outlier dat in a flatten s evidenced at the botto

  11. Substrate control for large area continuous films of monolayer MoS2 by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Pacios, Merce; Bhaskaran, Harish; Warner, Jamie H.

    2016-02-01

    Growing monolayer MoS2 films that are continuous with large domain sizes by chemical vapor deposition is one of the major challenges in 2D materials research at the moment. Here, we explore how atmospheric pressure CVD can be used to grow centimeter scale continuous films of monolayer MoS2 films directly on Si substrates with an oxide layer whilst also obtaining large domain sizes exceeding 20 μm within the films. This is achieved by orientating the growth substrate in a vertical position to improve the uniformity of precursor feed-stock compared to horizontally orientated growth substrates. This leads to continuous films of monolayer MoS2 over a significantly larger area without the need for low-pressure vacuum systems or volatile precursors. This provides important insights into novel approaches for maximizing domain sizes within MoS2 films, with concomitant large area uniform coverage.

  12. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  13. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  14. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  15. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  16. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  17. Very narrow SiGe/Si quantum wells deposited by low-temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, D.A.; Sedgwick, T.O.; Northrop, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    The optical, structural, and electrical properties of very narrow SiGe quantum wells grown by {open_quotes}ultra-clean{close_quotes} atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) are investigated. X-ray reflectivity data reveal abrupt interfaces with a root-mean-square roughness of not more than 0.2 nm. For the first time narrow (4.3 meV) excitonic photoluminescence (PL) spectra were obtained from APCVD grown samples containing SiGe wells with 12.5% to 32.5% Ge. For the narrowest wells PL doublets are observed which are attributed to atomic steps at the SiGe/Si interfaces. The Pl and x-ray diffractometry data show that process deposition control for well and barrier width is within the monolayer range. Resonant tunneling diodes fabricated with 2.5-mm-wide Si{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} wells show world record peak to valley ratios of 4.2. Magneto-transport measurements performed at high magnetic fields of two-dimensional hole gases exhibit pronounced Hall plateaus and well-defined Shubnikov de Hass oscillations, indicating high material quality. The results give evidence that atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition, which relies on gas switching sequences of the reactive gases in a hydrogen ambience, is able to produce interface abruptness comparable if not better than reported by any other technique. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The novel technique of vapor pressure analysis to monitor the enzymatic degradation of PHB by HPLC chromatography.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Péter; Rácz, Piroska; Rózsa, Péter; Nagy, Gergely N; Vértessy, Beáta G; Pukánszky, Béla

    2017-03-15

    A novel method was introduced for the quantitative determination of substances in aqueous solutions by using the evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector of a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The principle of the measurement is the different equilibrium vapor pressure of the solvent and the analyte resulting in decreasing evaporation rate, larger droplets and stronger signal with increasing concentration. The new technique based on vapor pressure analysis was validated with traditional UV-Vis detection carried out with a diode array detector (DAD). The new technique was used for monitoring the concentration of solutions obtained during the enzymatic degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) yielding the 3-hydroxybutyrate monomer as the product. The accuracy of the measurement allowed the determination of degradation kinetics as well. The results obtained with the two techniques showed excellent agreement at small concentrations. Deviations at larger concentrations were explained with the non-linear correlation between analyte concentration and detector signal and the linear regression used for calibration. Mathematical analysis of the method made possible the determination of the evaporation enthalpy of the analyte as well. The new approach is especially suitable for the quantitative analysis of compounds, which do not absorb in the detection range of the DAD detector or if their characteristic absorbance is close to the lower end of its wavelength range.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride films in the reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B.J.

    1999-12-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films were deposited onto a graphite substrate in reduced pressure by reacting ammonia and boron tribromide at 800--1,200 C. The growth rate of h-BN films was dependent on the substrate temperature and the total pressures. The growth rate increased with increasing the substrate temperature at the pressure of 2 kPa, while it showed a maximum value at the pressures of 4 and 8 kPa. The temperature at which the maximum growth rate occurs decreased with increasing total pressure. With increasing the substrate temperature and total pressure, the apparent grain size increased and the surface morphology showed a rough, cauliflower-like structure.

  20. Vapor pressures and calculated heats of vaporization of concentrated nitric acid solutions in the composition range 71 to 89 percent nitrogen dioxide, 1 to 10 percent water, and in the temperature range 10 to 60 degrees C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeown, A B; Belles, Frank E

    1954-01-01

    Total vapor pressures were measured for 16 acid mixtures of the ternary system nitric acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water within the temperature range 10 degrees to 60 degrees Celsius, and with the composition range 71 to 89 weight percent nitric acid, 7 to 20 weight percent nitrogen dioxide, and 1 to 10 weight percent water. Heats of vaporization were calculated from the vapor pressure measurements for each sample for the temperatures 25, 40, and 60 degrees Celsius. The ullage of the apparatus used for the measurements was 0.46. Ternary diagrams showing isobars as a function of composition of the system were constructed from experimental and interpolated data for the temperatures 25, 40, 45, and 60 degrees C and are presented herein.

  1. Bridgman-type apparatus for the study of growth-property relationships - Arsenic vapor pressure-GaAs property relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsey, J. M.; Nanishi, Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A precision Bridgman-type apparatus is described which was designed and constructed for the investigation of relationships between crystal growth parameters and the properties of GaAs crystals. Several key features of the system are highlighted, such as the use of a heat pipe for precise arsenic vapor pressure control and seeding without the presence of a viewing window. Pertinent growth parameters, such as arsenic source temperature, thermal gradients in the growing crystal and in the melt, and the macroscopic growth velocity can be independently controlled. During operation, thermal stability better than + or - 0.02 C is realized; thermal gradients can be varied up to 30 C/cm in the crystal region, and up to 20 C/cm in the melt region; the macroscopic growth velocity can be varied from 50 microns/hr to 6.0 cm/hr. It was found that the density of dislocations depends critically on As partial pressure; and essentially dislocation-free, undoped, crystals were grown under As pressure precisely controlled by an As source maintained at 617 C. The free carrier concentration varied with As pressure variations. This variation in free carrier concentration was found to be associated with variations in the compensation ratio rather than with standard segregation phenomena.

  2. Validity of the Ruff-MKW boiling point method: Vapor pressures, diffusion coefficients in argon and helium, and viscosity coefficients for gaseous cadmium and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlbeck, P. G.; Myers, D. L.; Truong, V. V.

    1985-09-01

    The Ruff-MKW boiling point method is used to determine equilibrium vapor pressures greater than 660 Pa (5 Torr). Samples are vaporized from a Ruff cell, which has a capillary exit, in the presence of an inert gas. Viscosity coefficients and gaseous interdiffusion coefficients may be determined also. This is a second study of the method using Cd(l) and Zn(l) as samples. For the first study with CsCl(l), see J. Chem. Phys. 81, 915 (1984). Vapor pressure data are in good agreement with previous data and gave a third-law ΔsubH0(298) for Cd(s) of 111.95±0.42 kJ/mol and for Zn(s) of 130.65±0.48 kJ/mol. Analyses of the diffusion coefficients gave atomic diameters of 4.06×10-10 m for Cd and 3.46×10-10 m for Zn; these values are somewhat larger than previously measured values. In these experiments when the equilibrium vapor pressures were greater than 13 000 Pa (100 Torr), the need to consider heat transfer from the furnace to the vaporizing sample was noted, i.e., sample cooling occured due to rapid vaporization. Validity of the MKW analysis was found.

  3. Mass Spectrometric Identification of Si-O-H(g) Species from the Reaction of Silica with Water Vapor at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Fox, Dennis S.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1997-01-01

    A high-pressure sampling mass spectrometer was used to detect the volatile species formed from SiO2 at temperatures between 1200C and 1400C in a flowing water vapor/oxygen gas mixture at 1 bar total pressure. The primary vapor species identified was Si(OH)4. The fragment ion Si(OH)3+,' was observed in quantities 3 to 5 times larger than the parent ion Si(OH)4+. The Si(OH)3+ intensity was found to have a small temperature dependence and to increase with the water vapor partial pressure as expected. In addition, SiO(OH)+ believed to be a fragment of SiO(OH)2, was observed. These mass spectral results were compared to the behavior of silicon halides.

  4. The relationship between calcium, phosphorus, and sodium intake, race, and blood pressure in children with renal insufficiency: a report of the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases (GFRD) Study.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, H; Chan, J C; Boyle, R; Farina, D; Baluarte, H J; Chinchilli, V M; Dresner, I G; Feld, L G

    1995-07-01

    Nutritional data compiled during the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Clinical Trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between the dietary intake of divalent minerals and sodium, nutritional status, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and blood pressure in black versus white children. One hundred eighteen patients are included in this report; 25 were black (21%) and 93 were white (79%). Although more of the blacks were male, the age distribution, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, blood pressure, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations were comparable in the two groups. Phosphorus intake was within the recommended daily allowance in both groups; in contrast, calcium intake was inadequate in all patients: 81% of the recommended daily allowance in whites, and 74% in blacks. Sixteen children were noted to be hypertensive during the observation period; six patients were receiving a variety of antihypertensive medications, including diuretics in two children. Linear regression analysis revealed that systolic and diastolic blood pressures were directly related to calcium and phosphorus intake in black patients. In white children, only dietary phosphorus intake and diastolic blood pressure were directly related. There was no relationship between sodium intake or GFR and blood pressure in the white or black children. PTH levels were directly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all children. The correlations between PTH and blood pressure were stronger in white versus black patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Compact electron-beam source for formation of neutral beams of very low vapor pressure materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, J. A.; Vroom, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to form metal vapors for neutral beam studies, an electron-beam heater and a power supply have been designed. The source, which measures about 30 x 50 x 70 mm, consists of a filament, accelerating plate (defined by pole pieces), and a supported target. The electrons from the filament are focused by the field penetration through a 2 mm slit in the high-voltage cage. They are then accelerated to about 5 kV to a ground plate. The electrons then follow a path in the magnetic field and strike the sample to be heated on its front surface. The assembly is attached to a water-cooled base plate. The electron beam source has produced beams of Ta and C particles with densities of about 10 to the 8th power/cu cm.

  6. Vapor pressures of solid hydrates of nitric acid - Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.; Fox, Lewis E.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for hydrates of nitric acid: HNO3.H2O, HNO3.2H2O, HNO3.3H2O, and a higher hydrate. Laboratory data indicate that nucleation and persistence of metastable HNO3.2H2O may be favored in polar stratospheric clouds over the slightly more stable HNO3.3H2O. Atmospheric observations indicate that some polar stratospheric clouds may be composed of HNO3.2H2O and HNO3.3H2O. Vapor transfer from HNO3.2H2O to HNO3.3H2O could be a key step in the sedimentation of HNO3, which plays an important role in the depletion of polar ozone.

  7. Microstructure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films Deposited in Low Se Vapor Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiwaki, Shiro; Kohara, Naoki; Negami, Takayuki; Miyake, Hideo; Wada, Takahiro

    1999-05-01

    The microstructure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films deposited under low Se flux was studied using scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger electron spectroscopy and high resolution and analytical electron microscopy. CIGS films were deposited on Mo coated soda-lime glass substrate using the “3-stage” process in which the Se flux used during the third stage was restricted to a forth of standard value. In the as-grown CIGS films, voids were observed along the grain boundaries and a Cu2Se phase was identified at the surface and the grain boundaries. The voids and Cu2Se layer were produced by vaporization of an In Se compound from the films during the third stage of deposition. A reaction model on the CIGS grain surface is proposed based on the microstructure observations.

  8. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  9. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of low vapor pressure chemical particulates collected from a surface.

    PubMed

    Ewing, K J; Gibson, D; Sanghera, J; Miklos, F

    2015-01-01

    The collection of a low vapor pressure chemical simulant triethyl phosphate sorbed onto silica gel (TEP/SG) from a surface with subsequent analysis of the TEP/SG particulates using desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is described. Collection of TEP/SG particulates on a surface was accomplished using a sticky screen sampler composed of a stainless steel screen coated with partially polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). DESI-MS analysis of TEP/SG particulates containing different percentages of TEP sorbed onto silica gel enabled the generation of response curves for the TEP ions m/z 155 and m/z 127. Using the response curves the calculation of the mass of TEP in a 25 wt% sample of TEP/SG was calculated, results show that the calculated mass of TEP was 14% different from the actual mass of TEP in the sample using the m/z 127 TEP ion response curve. Detection limits for the TEP vapor and TEP/SG particulates were calculated to be 4 μg and 6 particles, respectively.

  10. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  11. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface.

  12. Linking Turgor with ABA Biosynthesis: Implications for Stomatal Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Land Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) constitute the predominant form of daytime gas-exchange regulation in plants. Stomatal closure in response to increased VPD is driven by the rapid up-regulation of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA levels in angiosperms; however, very little is known about the physiological trigger for this increase in ABA biosynthesis at increased VPD. Using a novel method of modifying leaf cell turgor by the application of external pressures, we test whether changes in turgor pressure can trigger increases in foliar ABA levels over 20 min, a period of time most relevant to the stomatal response to VPD. We found in angiosperm species that the biosynthesis of ABA was triggered by reductions in leaf turgor, and in two species tested, that a higher sensitivity of ABA synthesis to leaf turgor corresponded with a higher stomatal sensitivity to VPD. In contrast, representative species from nonflowering plant lineages did not show a rapid turgor-triggered increase in foliar ABA levels, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating passive stomatal responses to changes in VPD in these lineages. Our method provides a new tool for characterizing the response of stomata to water availability. PMID:27208264

  13. Epitaxial Growth of Silicon Films on SiO2 Patterned Si(100) Substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Chunyan; Deng, Youjun; Ai, Bin; Liu, Chao; Zhuang, Lin; Shen, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of selective area nucleation on epitaxial growth of silicon (Si) films, 35 µm thick Si films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) under the standard condition on two kinds of SiO2 patterned Si(100) wafers. One was circular patterns, and the other was striated patterns. Then, the structural properties of the as-deposited silicon thin films were investigated by metallurgical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that normal epitaxial growth occurs on the exposed Si(100) regions, while just polycrystalline Si deposition happens on the SiO2 regions. Moreover, for the substrates with circular patterns, the as-deposited Si thin films possess pyramid surface morphology thus excellent light trapping performance being spontaneously formed, and the sizes of the pyramid grains approximately equal to the sum of the diameter and spacing of the round exposed Si regions.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure epitaxial growth technique of a multiple quantum well by mist chemical vapor deposition based on Leidenfrost droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Dang, Giang T.; Nitta, Noriko

    2016-10-01

    A multiple quantum well α-Fe2O3/α-Ga2O3 with parallel and coherent formation of uniform and highly single-crystalline layers on a sapphire substrate has been fabricated by open-air atmospheric-pressure solution-processed mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist CVD). This report demonstrates that complicated structures with atomic-level control can be fabricated even in non-vacuum conditions by the Mist CVD. This can be achieved via the precise control of the precursor flow and ambient temperature combined with the formation of mist droplets of the special Leidenfrost state, which increased the atomic migration length by 108 times more than that of traditional vacuum techniques. This work could be a milestone in the transformation from vacuum to non-vacuum thin film deposition techniques towards a green and sustainable industry.

  15. Vapor-pressure osmometric study of the molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid in Armadale horizon Bh were determined by vapor-pressure osmometry using tetrahydrofuran and water as solvents. With tetrahydrofuran, number-average molecular weight values of 767 ?? 34 and 699 ?? 8 daltons were obtained from two separate sets of measurements. Two sets of measurements with water also yielded values within this range (754 ?? 70 daltons) provided that the fulvic acid concentration in water did not exceed 7 mg ml-1; at higher concentrations (9.1-13.7 mg ml-1) a number-average molecular weight of 956 ?? 25 daltons was resolved, providing evidence of molecular aggregation. Extension of these studies to 80% neutralized fulvic acid showed that a sizeable fraction of the sodium counter ion is not osmotically active.

  16. Experimental study of fractal clusters formation from nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Maxim V.; Protopopova, Vera S.; Alexandrov, Sergey E.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results from the fractal structures formation from nanoparticles of silicone dioxide deposited on the silicon substrate surface. Nanoparticles are synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with the use of capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) discharge sustained in helium atmosphere. Tetraethoxysilane is chosen as the test precursor. Correlation between the morphology of obtained deposits and the process parameters is found. The capability of nanoparticles movement along the deposit surface in local near-surface electric field is demonstrated. The empirical model that satisfactorily explained the mechanism of fractal clusters formation from nanoparticles on the substrate surface is developed. The model indicates that the dynamics of deposit morphology variations is determined by two competing processes: electrical charge transfer by nanoparticles to the deposit surface and electrical charge running off over the surface under conditions of changeable conductivity of the deposit surface.

  17. The growth characteristics of microcrystalline Si thin film deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Dae

    2013-11-01

    Microcrystalline silicon thin film was grown by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique with a cylindrical rotary electrode supplied with 150 MHz very-high-frequency power. The crystalline volume fraction could be controlled by changing the flow rate ratio of silane and hydrogen gas during AP-PECVD. We could also control it by regulating the substrate scanning speed. At low substrate scanning speed, the silicon film had a low crystalline volume faction and layer-by-layer structure with alternating layers of amorphous and microcrystalline Si. On the other hand, at high substrate scanning speed, silicon crystals of sizes 25 nm grew homogeneously throughout the whole film.

  18. Modeling and Real-Time Process Monitoring of Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition of III-V Phosphides and Nitrides at Low and High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, K. J.; Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, C. A.; Sukidi, N.; McCall, S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review modeling and real-time monitoring by robust methods of reflectance spectroscopy of organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) processes in extreme regimes of pressure. The merits of p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy under the conditions of chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) and of internal transmission spectroscopy and principal angle spectroscopy at high pressure are assessed. In order to extend OMCVD to materials that exhibit large thermal decomposition pressure at their optimum growth temperature we have designed and built a differentially-pressure-controlled (DCP) OMCVD reactor for use at pressures greater than or equal to 6 atm. We also describe a compact hard-shell (CHS) reactor for extending the pressure range to 100 atm. At such very high pressure the decomposition of source vapors occurs in the vapor phase, and is coupled to flow dynamics and transport. Rate constants for homogeneous gas phase reactions can be predicted based on a combination of first principles and semi-empirical calculations. The pressure dependence of unimolecular rate constants is described by RRKM theory, but requires variational and anharmonicity corrections not included in presently available calculations with the exception of ammonia decomposition. Commercial codes that include chemical reactions and transport exist, but do not adequately cover at present the kinetics of heteroepitaxial crystal growth.

  19. Vapor pressures of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids with long alkyl chains

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Marisa A. A. E-mail: marisa.alexandra.rocha@gmail.com; Coutinho, João A. P.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F. E-mail: marisa.alexandra.rocha@gmail.com

    2014-10-07

    This work presents the vapor pressure at several temperatures for the 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide series, [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (N = 14, 16, 18, and 20), measured by a Knudsen effusion method combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. The thermodynamic properties of vaporization of the ionic liquids under study are analysed together with the results obtained previously for the shorter alkyl chain length [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (N = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), in order to evaluate the effect of the alkyl side chains of the cation and to get additional insights concerning the nanostructuration of ionic liquids. The symmetry effect is explored, based on the comparison with the asymmetric imidazolium based ionic liquids, [C{sub N-1}C{sub 1}im][NTf{sub 2}]. A trend shift on the thermodynamic properties of vaporization along the alkyl side chains of the extended symmetric ionic liquids, around [C{sub 6}C{sub 6}im][NTf{sub 2}], was detected. An intensification of the odd-even effect was observed starting from [C{sub 6}C{sub 6}im][NTf{sub 2}], with higher enthalpies and entropies of vaporization for the odd numbered ionic liquids, [C{sub 7}C{sub 7}im][NTf{sub 2}] and [C{sub 9}C{sub 9}im][NTf{sub 2}]. Similar, but less pronounced, odd-even effect was found for the symmetric ionic liquids with lower alkyl side chains length, [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (with N = 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12). This effect is related with the predominant orientation of the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain to the imidazolium ring and their influence in the cation-anion interaction. The same Critical Alkyl length at the hexyl, (C{sub 6}C{sub 1}and C{sub 6}C{sub 6}) was found for both asymmetric and symmetric series indicating that the nanostructuration of the ionic liquids is related with alkyl chain length.

  20. Persistent Water-Nitric Acid Condensate with Saturation Water Vapor Pressure Greater than That of Hexagonal Ice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ru-Shan; Gierczak, Tomasz; Thornberry, Troy D; Rollins, Andrew W; Burkholder, James B; Telg, Hagen; Voigt, Christiane; Peter, Thomas; Fahey, David W

    2016-03-10

    A laboratory chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH), exposed to an airstream containing water vapor (H2O) and nitric acid (HNO3), has been used to demonstrate the existence of a persistent water-nitric acid condensate that has a saturation H2O vapor pressure greater than that of hexagonal ice (Ih). The condensate was routinely formed on the mirror by removing HNO3 from the airstream following the formation of an initial condensate on the mirror that resembled nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). Typical conditions for the formation of the persistent condensate were a H2O mixing ratio greater than 18 ppm, pressure of 128 hPa, and mirror temperature between 202 and 216 K. In steady-state operation, a CMH maintains a condensate of constant optical diffusivity on a mirror through control of only the mirror temperature. Maintaining the persistent condensate on the mirror required that the mirror temperature be below the H2O saturation temperature with respect to Ih by as much as 3 K, corresponding to up to 63% H2O supersaturation with respect to Ih. The condensate was observed to persist in steady state for up to 16 h. Compositional analysis of the condensate confirmed the co-condensation of H2O and HNO3 and thereby strongly supports the conclusion that the Ih supersaturation is due to residual HNO3 in the condensate. Although the exact structure or stoichiometry of the condensate could not be determined, other known stable phases of HNO3 and H2O are excluded as possible condensates. This persistent condensate, if it also forms in the upper tropical troposphere, might explain some of the high Ih supersaturations in cirrus and contrails that have been reported in the tropical tropopause region.

  1. Considerations for osmolality measurement under elevated pCO(2): comparison of vapor pressure and freezing point osmometry.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, A E; deZengotita, V M; Miller, W M

    2000-01-20

    Osmolality increases with pCO(2) in bioreactors with pH control, and it has been shown that osmolality compensation by decreasing the basal NaCl concentration partially mitigates the adverse effects of elevated pCO(2) on animal cell growth, protein production, and glycosylation. Thus, measurement of osmolality is important for a complete characterization of the culture environment under elevated pCO(2). However, osmolality measurement may be compromised by CO(2) evolution. Freezing point depression and vapor pressure depression osmometry were directly compared for the measurement of osmolality in samples at elevated pCO(2) (up to 250 mmHg) and at a variety of pH values (6.7-7.5). More extensive degassing may be expected with the vapor pressure osmometer due to the smaller sample volume and larger surface area employed. However, both types of osmometer yielded similar results for all pCO(2) and pH values studied. Moreover, the measured values agreed with osmolality values calculated using a semi-empirical model. Further analysis showed that, while sample degassing may result in a large decrease in pCO(2), there is little associated decrease in osmolality. The great majority of total CO(2) in solution is present as bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)). Although a small amount of HCO(3)(-) is converted to CO(2) to compensate for CO(2) evolution, further depletion of HCO(3)(-) is inhibited by the associated increase in medium pH and by the need for HCO(3)(-) to maintain charge neutrality in solution. This explanation is consistent with the observed similarity in osmolality values for the two types of osmometer. It was also observed that osmolality did not change in samples that were frozen at -20 degrees C for up to 1 year.

  2. Vapor Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  3. Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer During Application of a Thermal Gradient for the Study of Vapor Deposition at Low Pressure Using and Ideal Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is

  4. Vapor pressures of binary mixtures of hexane + 1-butanol, + 2-butanol, + 2-methyl-1-propanol, or + 2-methyl-2-propanol at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, V.; Pardo, J.; Lopez, M.C.; Royo, F.M.; Urieta, J.S. . Dept. de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica)

    1993-07-01

    Previous papers from this laboratory reported measurements of excess enthalpies, excess volumes, vapor pressures, and dipole moments for mixtures containing an alkanol. The authors have now begun a systematic study of the properties of mixtures containing isomeric butanols. While many studies of the thermodynamic properties of 1-butanol have been published, only a few systematic investigations have been carried out for mixtures containing isomeric butanols. The total vapor pressures of binary mixtures of hexane + 1-butanol, + 2-butanol, + 2-methyl-1-propanol, or + 2-methyl-2-propanol were measured by a static method at 298.15 K. Vapor-phase compositions, activity coefficients, and excess molar Gibbs energies were calculated by Barker's method.

  5. Long Term Measurement of the Vapor Pressure of Gold in the Au-C System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating the {Au(s,l) + graphite} reference in component activity measurements made with the multiple effusion-cell vapor source mass spectrometry (multicell KEMS) technique provides a fixed temperature defining ITS-90 (T(sub mp)(Au) = 1337.33K) and a systematic method to check accuracy. Over a 2 year period delta H sub(298)Au was determined by the 2nd and 3rd law methods in 25 separate experiments and were in the ranges 362.2 plus or minus 3.3 kJmol(sup -1) and 367.8 plus or minus 1.1 kJmol(sup -1), respectively. This 5 kJmol-1 discrepancy is transferred directly to the measured activities. This is unacceptable and the source of this discrepancy needs to be understood and corrected. Accepting the 2nd law value increases p(Au) by about 50 percent, brings the 2nd and 3rd law values into agreement and removes the T dependence in the 3rd law values. While compelling, there is no way to independently determine instrument sensitivities, S(sub Au), with T in a single experiment with KEMS. This lack of capability is stopping a deeper understanding of this problem. In addition, the Au-C phase diagram suggests a eutectic invariant reaction: L-Au(4.7at%C) = FCC-Au(0.08at%C) + C(graphite) at T(sub e) approximately 1323K. This high C concentration in Au(l) must reduce p(Au) in equilibrium with {Au(s,l) + graphite} and raises some critical questions about the Gibbs free energy functions of Au(s,l) and the Au fixed point (T(sub mp)(Au) = 1337.33K) which is always measured in graphite.

  6. Low resistance tungsten films on GaAs deposited by means of rapid thermal low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Feingold, A.; Nakahara, S.; Pearton, S. J.; Lane, E.

    1992-08-01

    Low resistance tungsten (W) films were deposited onto GaAs substrates by means of rapid thermal low pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD), using tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) gas reduced by hydrogen (H2). Deposition temperatures up to 550 °C for durations of up to 30 s were explored, resulting in deposition of relatively pure W films (containing less than 2% O2 and C). Post-deposition sintering of the layers led to significant reduction of the resistivity to values as low as 50 μΩ cm. The efficiency of the deposition improved upon increasing the H2 flow rate up to 1250 sccm resulting in a deposition rate of about 10 nm/s at a total chamber pressure of 3.5 Torr and temperature of 500 °C. The films appeared to be polycrystalline with a very fine grain structure, regardless of the deposition temperature with good morphology and underwent a limited reaction with the underlying GaAs substrates.

  7. Enhanced Optical Properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Single Crystal Diamond by Low-Pressure/High-Temperature Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Yan, C; Lai, Y; Krasnicki, S; Shu, H; Yu, T; Liang, Q; Mao, H; Hemley, R

    2008-01-01

    Single crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at very high growth rates (up to 150 em/h) has been successfully annealed without graphitization at temperatures up to 2200 C and pressures <300 torr. Crystals were annealed in a hydrogen environment by using microwave plasma techniques for periods of time ranging from a fraction of minute to a few hours. This low-pressure/high-temperature (LPHT) annealing enhances the optical properties of this high-growth rate CVD single crystal diamond. Significant decreases are observed in UV, visible, and infrared absorption and photoluminescence spectra. The decrease in optical absorption after the LPHT annealing arises from the changes in defect structure associated with hydrogen incorporation during CVD growth. There is a decrease in sharp line spectral features indicating a reduction in nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH-) defects. These measurements indicate an increase in relative concentration of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in nitrogen-containing LPHT-annealed diamond as compared with as-grown CVD material. The large overall changes in optical properties and the specific types of alterations in defect structure induced by this facile LPHT processing of high-growth rate single-crystal CVD diamond will be useful in the creation of diamond for a variety of scientific and technological applications.

  8. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1981-06-01

    In the application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) to the generation of electricity, hot corrosion of the gas turbine (downstream from the combustor) by alkali metal compounds in the combustion gas is a potential problem. The objective of this investigation is to develop a method for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the high-pressure high-temperature gas from a PFBC before the gas enters the turbine. The use of a granular-bed filter for gas cleanup, utilizing activated bauxite as the bed material, is under study. Data are reported on the removal of gaseous NaCl from hot (800/sup 0/C), pessurized (5 atm), wet (3.4% H/sub 2/O) simulated flue gas using activated bauxite. Greater than 99.9% NaCl vapor capture was achieved. The energy needed for the operation of a fixed granular-bed filter has been estimated. The energy needs and cost of using activated bauxite in the once-through and regeneration modes of operation are compared.

  9. Enhanced optical properties of chemical vapor deposited single crystal diamond by low-pressure/high-temperature annealing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu-fei; Yan, Chih-shiue; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Shu, Haiyun; Yu, Thomas; Liang, Qi; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2008-11-18

    Single crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at very high growth rates (up to 150 microm/h) has been successfully annealed without graphitization at temperatures up to 2200 degrees C and pressures <300 torr. Crystals were annealed in a hydrogen environment by using microwave plasma techniques for periods of time ranging from a fraction of minute to a few hours. This low-pressure/high-temperature (LPHT) annealing enhances the optical properties of this high-growth rate CVD single crystal diamond. Significant decreases are observed in UV, visible, and infrared absorption and photoluminescence spectra. The decrease in optical absorption after the LPHT annealing arises from the changes in defect structure associated with hydrogen incorporation during CVD growth. There is a decrease in sharp line spectral features indicating a reduction in nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH(-)) defects. These measurements indicate an increase in relative concentration of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in nitrogen-containing LPHT-annealed diamond as compared with as-grown CVD material. The large overall changes in optical properties and the specific types of alterations in defect structure induced by this facile LPHT processing of high-growth rate single-crystal CVD diamond will be useful in the creation of diamond for a variety of scientific and technological applications.

  10. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  11. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  12. Effects of light intensity and air velocity on air temperature, water vapor pressure, and CO2 concentration inside a plant canopy under an artificial lighting condition.

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Y; Shibuya, T; Kozai, T; Kubota, C

    1998-01-01

    In order to characterize environmental variables inside a plant canopy under artificial lighting in the CELSS, we investigated the effects of light intensity and air velocity on air temperature, water vapor pressure, and CO2 concentration inside a plant canopy. Under a PPF of 500 micromoles m-2 s-1, air temperature was 2-3 degrees C higher, water vapor pressure was 0.6 kPa higher, and CO2 concentration was 25-35 micromoles mol-1 lower at heights ranging from 0 to 30 mm below the canopy than at a height 60 mm above the canopy. Increasing the PPF increased air temperature and water vapor pressure and decreased CO2 concentration inside the canopy. The air temperature was lower and the CO2 concentration was higher inside the canopy at an air velocity of 0.3 m s-1 than at an air velocity of 0.1 m s-1. The environmental variables inside the canopy under a high light intensity were characterized by higher air temperature, higher vapor pressure, and lower CO2 concentration than those outside the canopy.

  13. Ultrafine aerosol size distributions and sulfuric acid vapor pressures: Implications for new particle formation in the atmosphere. Year 2 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, P.H.

    1993-07-01

    This project has two components: (1) measurement of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor pressures in air under temperature/relative humidity conditions similar to atmospheric, and (2) measurement of ultrafine aerosol size distributions. During Year 2, more effort was put on size distribution measurements. 4 figs.

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen Including Liquid and Vapor Phases from 63K to 2000K with Pressures to 10,000 Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Richard T.; Stewart, Richard B.

    1973-01-01

    Tables of thermodynamic properties of nitrogen are presented for the liquid and vapor phases for temperatures from the freezing line to 2000K and pressures to 10,000 bar. The tables include values of density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity velocity of sound, the isotherm derivative, and the isochor derivative. The thermodynamic property tables are based on an equation of state, P=P (p,T), which accurately represents liquid and gaseous nitrogen for the range of pressures and temperatures covered by the tables. Comparisons of property values calculated from the equation of state with measured values for P-p-T, heat capacity, enthalpy, latent heat, and velocity of sound are included to illustrate the agreement between the experimental data and the tables of properties presented here. The coefficients of the equation of state were determined by a weighted least squares fit to selected P-p-T data and, simultaneously, to isochoric heat capacity data determined by corresponding states analysis from oxygen data, and to data which define the phase equilibrium criteria for the saturated liquid and the saturated vapor. The vapor pressure equation, melting curve equation, and an equation to represent the ideal gas heat capacity are also presented. Estimates of the accuracy of the equation of state, the vapor pressure equation, and the ideal gas heat capacity equation are given. The equation of state, derivatives of the equation, and the integral functions for calculating derived thermodynamic properties are included.

  15. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.; Denissen, C.; Suijker, J.

    2015-08-07

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  17. Identifying Liquid-Gas System Misconceptions and Addressing Them Using a Laboratory Exercise on Pressure-Temperature Diagrams of a Mixed Gas Involving Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on students' understandings of a liquid-gas system with liquid-vapor equilibrium in a closed system using a pressure-temperature ("P-T") diagram. By administrating three assessment questions concerning the "P-T" diagrams of liquid-gas systems to students at the beginning of undergraduate general chemistry…

  18. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Denissen, C.; Suijker, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.

    2015-08-01

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  19. Indicators: Phosphorus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Phosphate (PO4), which plays major roles in the formation of DNA, cellular energy, and cell membranes (and plant cell walls). Too much phosphorus can create water quality problems.

  20. Cellulose δ18O is an index of leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) in tropical plants

    PubMed Central

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Sachse, Dirk; Arndt, Stefan K.; Tu, Kevin P.; Farrington, Heraldo; Vitousek, Peter M.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose in plants contains oxygen that derives in most cases from precipitation. Because the stable oxygen isotope composition, δ18O, of precipitation is associated with environmental conditions, cellulose δ18O should be as well. However, plant physiological models using δ18O suggest that cellulose δ18O is influenced by a complex mix of both climatic and physiological drivers. This influence complicates the interpretation of cellulose δ18O values in a paleo-context. Here, we combined empirical data analyses with mechanistic model simulations to i) quantify the impacts that the primary climatic drivers humidity (ea) and air temperature (Tair) have on cellulose δ18O values in different tropical ecosystems and ii) determine which environmental signal is dominating cellulose δ18O values. Our results revealed that ea and Tair equally influence cellulose δ18O values and that distinguishing which of these factors dominates the δ18O values of cellulose cannot be accomplished in the absence of additional environmental information. However, the individual impacts of ea and Tair on the δ18O values of cellulose can be integrated into a single index of plant-experienced atmospheric vapor demand: the leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD). We found a robust relationship between VPD and cellulose δ18O values in both empirical and modeled data in all ecosystems that we investigated. Our analysis revealed therefore that δ18O values in plant cellulose can be used as a proxy for VPD in tropical ecosystems. As VPD is an essential variable that determines the biogeochemical dynamics of ecosystems, our study has applications in ecological-, climate-, or forensic-sciences. PMID:21245322