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Sample records for phosphorylation site database

  1. PhosphoGRID: a database of experimentally verified in vivo protein phosphorylation sites from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stark, Chris; Su, Ting-Cheng; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Lourenco, Pedro; Dahabieh, Matthew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Tyers, Mike; Sadowski, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a central role in cellular regulation. Recent proteomics strategies for identifying phosphopeptides have been developed using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and consequently, when combined with studies of individual gene products, the number of reported specific phosphorylation sites for this organism has expanded enormously. In order to systematically document and integrate these various data types, we have developed a database of experimentally verified in vivo phosphorylation sites curated from the S. cerevisiae primary literature. PhosphoGRID (www.phosphogrid.org) records the positions of over 5000 specific phosphorylated residues on 1495 gene products. Nearly 900 phosphorylated residues are reported from detailed studies of individual proteins; these in vivo phosphorylation sites are documented by a hierarchy of experimental evidence codes. Where available for specific sites, we have also noted the relevant protein kinases and/or phosphatases, the specific condition(s) under which phosphorylation occurs, and the effect(s) that phosphorylation has on protein function. The unique features of PhosphoGRID that assign both function and specific physiological conditions to each phosphorylated residue will provide a valuable benchmark for proteome-level studies and will facilitate bioinformatic analysis of cellular signal transduction networks. Database URL: http://phosphogrid.org/

  2. Molecular modeling of phosphorylation sites in proteins using a database of local structure segments.

    PubMed

    Plewczynski, Dariusz; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Godzik, Adam; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2005-11-01

    A new bioinformatics tool for molecular modeling of the local structure around phosphorylation sites in proteins has been developed. Our method is based on a library of short sequence and structure motifs. The basic structural elements to be predicted are local structure segments (LSSs). This enables us to avoid the problem of non-exact local description of structures, caused by either diversity in the structural context, or uncertainties in prediction methods. We have developed a library of LSSs and a profile--profile-matching algorithm that predicts local structures of proteins from their sequence information. Our fragment library prediction method is publicly available on a server (FRAGlib), at http://ffas.ljcrf.edu/Servers/frag.html . The algorithm has been applied successfully to the characterization of local structure around phosphorylation sites in proteins. Our computational predictions of sequence and structure preferences around phosphorylated residues have been confirmed by phosphorylation experiments for PKA and PKC kinases. The quality of predictions has been evaluated with several independent statistical tests. We have observed a significant improvement in the accuracy of predictions by incorporating structural information into the description of the neighborhood of the phosphorylated site. Our results strongly suggest that sequence information ought to be supplemented with additional structural context information (predicted with our segment similarity method) for more successful predictions of phosphorylation sites in proteins.

  3. FPD: A comprehensive phosphorylation database in fungi.

    PubMed

    Bai, Youhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Zhou, Yincong; Ren, Silin; Xu, Qin; Chen, Ming; Wang, Shihua

    2017-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation, one of the most classic post-translational modification, plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, and signal transduction pathways. However, the available information about phosphorylation in fungi is limited. Here, we provided a Fungi Phosphorylation Database (FPD) that comprises high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified by MS-based proteomics in various fungal species. This comprehensive phosphorylation database contains 62 272 non-redundant phosphorylation sites in 11 222 proteins across eight organisms, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Cryptococcus neoformans. A fungi-specific phosphothreonine motif and several conserved phosphorylation motifs were discovered by comparatively analysing the pattern of phosphorylation sites in plants, animals, and fungi. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predikin and PredikinDB: a computational framework for the prediction of protein kinase peptide specificity and an associated database of phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Neil FW; Brinkworth, Ross I; Huber, Thomas; Kemp, Bruce E; Kobe, Bostjan

    2008-01-01

    Background We have previously described an approach to predicting the substrate specificity of serine-threonine protein kinases. The method, named Predikin, identifies key conserved substrate-determining residues in the kinase catalytic domain that contact the substrate in the region of the phosphorylation site and so determine the sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site. Predikin was implemented originally as a web application written in Javascript. Results Here, we describe a new version of Predikin, completely revised and rewritten as a modular framework that provides multiple enhancements compared with the original. Predikin now consists of two components: (i) PredikinDB, a database of phosphorylation sites that links substrates to kinase sequences and (ii) a Perl module, which provides methods to classify protein kinases, reliably identify substrate-determining residues, generate scoring matrices and score putative phosphorylation sites in query sequences. The performance of Predikin as measured using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) graph analysis equals or surpasses that of existing comparable methods. The Predikin website has been redesigned to incorporate the new features. Conclusion New features in Predikin include the use of SQL queries to PredikinDB to generate predictions, scoring of predictions, more reliable identification of substrate-determining residues and putative phosphorylation sites, extended options to handle protein kinase and substrate data and an improved web interface. The new features significantly enhance the ability of Predikin to analyse protein kinases and their substrates. Predikin is available at . PMID:18501020

  5. Phosphorylation site prediction in plants.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiuming; Schulze, Waltraud X; Xu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation events on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues are the most pervasive protein covalent bond modifications in plant signaling. Both low and high throughput studies reveal the importance of phosphorylation in plant molecular biology. Although becoming more and more common, the proteome-wide screening on phosphorylation by experiments remains time consuming and costly. Therefore, in silico prediction methods are proposed as a complementary analysis tool to enhance the phosphorylation site identification, develop biological hypothesis, or help experimental design. These methods build statistical models based on the experimental data, and they do not have some of the technical-specific bias, which may have advantage in proteome-wide analysis. More importantly computational methods are very fast and cheap to run, which makes large-scale phosphorylation identifications very practical for any types of biological study. Thus, the phosphorylation prediction tools become more and more popular. In this chapter, we will focus on plant specific phosphorylation site prediction tools, with essential illustration of technical details and application guidelines. We will use Musite, PhosPhAt and PlantPhos as the representative tools. We will present the results on the prediction of the Arabidopsis protein phosphorylation events to give users a general idea of the performance range of the three tools, together with their strengths and limitations. We believe these prediction tools will contribute more and more to the plant phosphorylation research community.

  6. dbPPT: a comprehensive database of protein phosphorylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Deng, Wankun; Wang, Yongbo; Ren, Jian; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important protein post-translational modifications, the reversible phosphorylation is critical for plants in regulating a variety of biological processes such as cellular metabolism, signal transduction and responses to environmental stress. Numerous efforts especially large-scale phosphoproteome profiling studies have been contributed to dissect the phosphorylation signaling in various plants, while a large number of phosphorylation events were identified. To provide an integrated data resource for further investigations, here we present a comprehensive database of dbPPT (database of Phosphorylation site in PlanTs, at http://dbppt.biocuckoo.org), which contains experimentally identified phosphorylation sites in proteins from plants. The phosphorylation sites in dbPPT were manually curated from the literatures, whereas datasets in other public databases were also integrated. In total, there were 82,175 phosphorylation sites in 31,012 proteins from 20 plant organisms in dbPPT, presenting a larger quantity of phosphorylation sites and a higher coverage of plant species in comparison with other databases. The proportions of residue types including serine, threonine and tyrosine were 77.99, 17.81 and 4.20%, respectively. All the phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites in the database were critically annotated. Since the phosphorylation signaling in plants attracted great attention recently, such a comprehensive resource of plant protein phosphorylation can be useful for the research community. Database URL: http://dbppt.biocuckoo.or © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. dbPPT: a comprehensive database of protein phosphorylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Deng, Wankun; Wang, Yongbo; Ren, Jian; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important protein post-translational modifications, the reversible phosphorylation is critical for plants in regulating a variety of biological processes such as cellular metabolism, signal transduction and responses to environmental stress. Numerous efforts especially large-scale phosphoproteome profiling studies have been contributed to dissect the phosphorylation signaling in various plants, while a large number of phosphorylation events were identified. To provide an integrated data resource for further investigations, here we present a comprehensive database of dbPPT (database of Phosphorylation site in PlanTs, at http://dbppt.biocuckoo.org), which contains experimentally identified phosphorylation sites in proteins from plants. The phosphorylation sites in dbPPT were manually curated from the literatures, whereas datasets in other public databases were also integrated. In total, there were 82 175 phosphorylation sites in 31 012 proteins from 20 plant organisms in dbPPT, presenting a larger quantity of phosphorylation sites and a higher coverage of plant species in comparison with other databases. The proportions of residue types including serine, threonine and tyrosine were 77.99, 17.81 and 4.20%, respectively. All the phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites in the database were critically annotated. Since the phosphorylation signaling in plants attracted great attention recently, such a comprehensive resource of plant protein phosphorylation can be useful for the research community. Database URL: http://dbppt.biocuckoo.org PMID:25534750

  8. SH3 Domain Tyrosine PhosphorylationSites, Role and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tatárová, Zuzana; Brábek, Jan; Rösel, Daniel; Novotný, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains. Results To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to c–Src Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F). This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains. Conclusions While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners. PMID:22615764

  9. Examining site-specific GPCR phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Adrian J; Tobin, Andrew B; Kong, Kok Choi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most prominent post-translation modifications mediated by agonist stimulation. This process has been shown to result not only in receptor desensitisation but also, via the recruitment of arrestin adaptor proteins, to promote receptor coupling to numerous signalling pathways. Furthermore, there is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that GPCRs may employ phosphorylation as a mechanism to regulate their cell-type-specific signalling, hence generating tissue-specific functions. These advances have resulted partly from improved methods used in the determination of phospho-acceptor sites on GPCRs and improved analysis of the consequences of phosphorylation. This chapter aims to describe the methods used in our laboratory for the investigation of site-specific phosphorylation of the M₃-muscarinic receptor. These methods could easily be applied in the study of other receptors.

  10. Appendix A. Borderlands Site Database

    Treesearch

    A.C. MacWilliams

    2006-01-01

    The database includes modified components of the Arizona State Museum Site Recording System (Arizona State Museum 1993) and the New Mexico NMCRIS User?s Guide (State of New Mexico 1993). When sites contain more than one recorded component, these instances were entered separately with the result that many sites have multiple entries. Information for this database...

  11. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  12. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Altering Pollen Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Haque, Tamanna; Tudor, Richard L; Barron, Yoshimi; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Cotton, Nicholas P J; de Graaf, Barend H J; White, Scott A; Cooper, Helen J; Franklin, F Christopher H; Harper, Jeffery F; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates numerous cellular processes. Identifying the substrates and protein kinases involved is vital to understand how these important posttranslational modifications modulate biological function in eukaryotic cells. Pyrophosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate (PPi) to inorganic phosphate Pi, driving biosynthetic reactions; they are essential for low cytosolic inorganic phosphate. It was suggested recently that posttranslational regulation of Family I soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases) may affect their activity. We previously demonstrated that two pollen-expressed sPPases, Pr-p26.1a and Pr-p26.1b, from the flowering plant Papaver rhoeas were inhibited by phosphorylation. Despite the potential significance, there is a paucity of data on sPPase phosphorylation and regulation. Here, we used liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry to map phosphorylation sites to the otherwise divergent amino-terminal extensions on these pollen sPPases. Despite the absence of reports in the literature on mapping phosphorylation sites on sPPases, a database survey of various proteomes identified a number of examples, suggesting that phosphorylation may be a more widely used mechanism to regulate these enzymes. Phosphomimetic mutants of Pr-p26.1a/b significantly and differentially reduced PPase activities by up to 2.5-fold at pH 6.8 and 52% in the presence of Ca(2+) and hydrogen peroxide over unmodified proteins. This indicates that phosphoregulation of key sites can inhibit the catalytic responsiveness of these proteins in concert with key intracellular events. As sPPases are essential for many metabolic pathways in eukaryotic cells, our findings identify the phosphorylation of sPPases as a potential master regulatory mechanism that could be used to attenuate metabolism.

  13. Mixed mechanisms of multi-site phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmajo, Thapanar; Krishnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-site phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cell biology and has been widely studied experimentally and theoretically. The underlying chemical modification mechanisms are typically assumed to be distributive or processive. In this paper, we study the behaviour of mixed mechanisms that can arise either because phosphorylation and dephosphorylation involve different mechanisms or because phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation can occur through a combination of mechanisms. We examine a hierarchy of models to assess chemical information processing through different mixed mechanisms, using simulations, bifurcation analysis and analytical work. We demonstrate how mixed mechanisms can show important and unintuitive differences from pure distributive and processive mechanisms, in some cases resulting in monostable behaviour with simple dose–response behaviour, while in other cases generating new behaviour-like oscillations. Our results also suggest patterns of information processing that are relevant as the number of modification sites increases. Overall, our work creates a framework to examine information processing arising from complexities of multi-site modification mechanisms and their impact on signal transduction. PMID:25972433

  14. Mixed mechanisms of multi-site phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Suwanmajo, Thapanar; Krishnan, J

    2015-06-06

    Multi-site phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cell biology and has been widely studied experimentally and theoretically. The underlying chemical modification mechanisms are typically assumed to be distributive or processive. In this paper, we study the behaviour of mixed mechanisms that can arise either because phosphorylation and dephosphorylation involve different mechanisms or because phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation can occur through a combination of mechanisms. We examine a hierarchy of models to assess chemical information processing through different mixed mechanisms, using simulations, bifurcation analysis and analytical work. We demonstrate how mixed mechanisms can show important and unintuitive differences from pure distributive and processive mechanisms, in some cases resulting in monostable behaviour with simple dose-response behaviour, while in other cases generating new behaviour-like oscillations. Our results also suggest patterns of information processing that are relevant as the number of modification sites increases. Overall, our work creates a framework to examine information processing arising from complexities of multi-site modification mechanisms and their impact on signal transduction.

  15. An Extensive Survey of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Revealing New Sites in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heibeck, Tyler H.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Opresko, Lee K.; Zhao, Rui; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Qian, Weijun

    2009-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a central regulatory mechanism in cell signaling. To extensively characterize the site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation in human cells, we present here a global survey of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in a normal-derived human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) line by applying anti-phosphotyrosine (pTyr) peptide immunoaffinity purification (IP) coupled with high sensitivity LC-MS/MS. A total of 481 tyrosine phosphorylation sites (covered by 716 unique peptides) from 285 proteins were confidently identified in HMEC following the analysis of both the basal condition and an acute stimulated condition with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The estimated false discovery rate is 1.0% as measured by comparison against a scrambled database search. Comparison of these data to the literature showed significant agreement in site matches. Additionally 281 sites were not previously observed in HMEC culture were found. Twenty-nine of these sites have not been reported in any human cell or tissue system. The global profiling also allowed us to examine the phosphorylation stoichiometry differences based on spectral count information. Comparison of the data to a previous global proteome profiling study illustrates that most of the highly phoshorylated proteins are of relatively low-abundance. Large differences in phosphorylation stoichiometry for sites within the same protein were also observed for many of the identified proteins, suggesting potentially more important functional roles for those highly phosphorylated pTyr sites within a given protein. By mapping to major signaling networks such as EGF receptor and insulin growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways, many known proteins involved in these pathways were revealed to be tyrosine phosphorylated, which should allow us to select interesting targeted involved in a given pathway for more directed studies. This extensive HMEC tyrosine phosphorylation dataset represents an important database

  16. Survey of phosphorylation near drug binding sites in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and their effects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle P.; Gifford, Kathleen M.; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    While it is currently estimated that 40–50% of eukaryotic proteins are phosphorylated, little is known about the frequency and local effects of phosphorylation near pharmaceutical inhibitor binding sites. In this study, we investigated how frequently phosphorylation may affect the binding of drug inhibitors to target proteins. We examined the 453 non-redundant structures of soluble mammalian drug target proteins bound to inhibitors currently available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We cross-referenced these structures with phosphorylation data available from the PhosphoSitePlus database. 322/453 (71%) of drug targets have evidence of phosphorylation that has been validated by multiple methods or labs. For 132/453 (29%) of those, the phosphorylation site is within 12Å of the small molecule-binding site, where it would likely alter small molecule binding affinity. We propose a framework for distinguishing between drug-phosphorylation site interactions that are likely to alter the efficacy of drugs vs. those that are not. In addition we highlight examples of well-established drug targets, such as estrogen receptor alpha, for which phosphorylation may affect drug affinity and clinical efficacy. Our data suggest that phosphorylation may affect drug binding and efficacy for a significant fraction of drug target proteins. PMID:24833420

  17. An Extensive Survey of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Revealing New Sites in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heibeck, Tyler H.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Opresko, Lee K.; Zhao, Rui; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. Steven; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents a central regulatory mechanism in cell signaling. Here we present an extensive survey of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in a normal-derived human mammary epithelial cell line by applying anti-phosphotyrosine peptide immunoaffinity purification coupled with high sensitivity capillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 481 tyrosine phosphorylation sites (covered by 716 unique peptides) from 285 proteins were confidently identified in HMEC following the analysis of both the basal condition and acute stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The estimated false discovery rate was 1.0% as determined by searching against a scrambled database. Comparison of these data with existing literature showed significant agreement for previously reported sites. However, we observed 281 sites that were not previously reported for HMEC cultures and 29 of which have not been reported for any human cell or tissue system. The analysis showed that the majority of highly phosphorylated proteins were relatively low-abundance. Large differences in phosphorylation stoichiometry for sites within the same protein were also observed, raising the possibility of more important functional roles for such highly phosphorylated pTyr sites. By mapping to major signaling networks, such as the EGF receptor and insulin growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways, many known proteins involved in these pathways were revealed to be tyrosine phosphorylated, which provides interesting targets for future hypothesis-driven and targeted quantitative studies involving tyrosine phosphorylation in HMEC or other human systems. PMID:19534553

  18. Case study: using sequence homology to identify putative phosphorylation sites in an evolutionarily distant species (honeybee).

    PubMed

    Trost, Brett; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    The majority of scientific resources are devoted to studying a relatively small number of model species, meaning that the ability to translate knowledge across species is of considerable importance. Obtaining species-specific knowledge enables targeted investigations of the biology and pathobiology of a particular species, and facilitates comparative analyses. Phosphorylation is the most widespread posttranslational modification in eukaryotes, and although many phosphorylation sites have been experimentally identified for some species, little or no data are available for others. Using the honeybee as a test organism, this case study illustrates the process of using protein sequence homology to identify putative phosphorylation sites in a species of interest using experimentally determined sites from other species. A number of issues associated with this process are examined and discussed. Several databases of experimentally determined phosphorylation sites exist; however, it can be difficult for the nonspecialist to ascertain how their contents compare. Thus, this case study assesses the content and comparability of several phosphorylation site databases. Additional issues examined include the efficacy of homology-based phosphorylation site prediction, the impact of the level of evolutionary relatedness between species in making these predictions, the ability to translate knowledge of phosphorylation sites across large evolutionary distances and the criteria that should be used in selecting probable phosphorylation sites in the species of interest. Although focusing on phosphorylation, the issues discussed here also apply to the homology-based cross-species prediction of other posttranslational modifications, as well as to sequence motifs in general. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A grammar inference approach for predicting kinase specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner.

  20. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) and Accuracy (ACC) reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default), PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P < 0.01), and an increase in ACC of 4.6%. Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice. PMID:22305189

  1. PKA regulates calcineurin function through the phosphorylation of RCAN1: Identification of a novel phosphorylation site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kooyeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-04-17

    Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase that has been implicated in T cell activation through the induction of nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT). We have previously suggested that endogenous regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1) is targeted by protein kinase A (PKA) for the control of calcineurin activity. In the present study, we characterized the PKA-mediated phosphorylation site in RCAN1 by mass spectrometric analysis and revealed that PKA directly phosphorylated RCAN1 at the Ser 93. PKA-induced phosphorylation and the increase in the half-life of the RCAN1 protein were prevented by the substitution of Ser 93 with Ala (S93A). Furthermore, the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 potentiated the inhibition of calcineurin-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression by RCAN1. Our results suggest the presence of a novel phosphorylation site in RCAN1 and that its phosphorylation influences calcineurin-dependent inflammatory target gene expression. - Highlights: • We identify novel phosphorylation sites in RCAN1 by LC-MS/MS analysis. • PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 inhibits calcineurin-mediated intracellular signaling. • We show the immunosuppressive function of RCAN1 phosphorylation at Ser 93 in suppressing cytokine expression.

  2. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Hassauer, M.; Scheidtmann, K.H.; Walter, G.

    1986-06-01

    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T antigen, which was only weakly phosphorylated, and a truncated form of large T antigen of 34,000 molecular weight which was heavily phosphorylated. Both showed phosphorylation patterns similar to that of large T antigen from infected cells. Peptide analyses of large T antigens encoded by the deletion mutants dl8 and dl23 or of specific fragments of wild-type large T antigen indicated that the phosphorylation sites are located in an amino-terminal region upstream of residue 194. The amino acid composition of the phosphopeptides as revealed by differential labeling with various amino acids indicated that several phosphopeptides contain overlapping sequences and that all phosphorylation sites are located in four tryptic peptides derived from a region between Met71 and Arg191. Two of the potential phosphorylation sites were identified as Ser81 and Thr187. The possible role of this modification of large T antigen is discussed.

  3. Identification of a single phosphorylation site within octopus rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ohguro, H; Yoshida, N; Shindou, H; Crabb, J W; Palczewski, K; Tsuda, M

    1998-12-01

    Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin (Rho) is a first step in the desensitization of the signaling state of the receptor during vertebrate and invertebrate visual transduction. We found that only 358Ser of the photoactivated octopus Rho (oRho*) was phosphorylated by octopus rhodopsin kinase (oRK). Tryptic truncation of the C-terminal PPQGY repeats of oRho that follow the phosphorylation region did not influence spectral or G-protein activation properties of oRho but abolished phosphorylation. Despite significant structural differences between oRK and mammalian RK, these results provide further evidence of the importance of singly phosphorylated species of Rho* in the generation of arrestin binding sites.

  4. Determining in vivo Phosphorylation Sites using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Breitkopf, Susanne B.; Asara, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most studied protein post-translational modification (PTM) in biological systems since it controls cell growth, proliferation, survival, etc. High resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometers are used to identify protein phosphorylation sites due to their speed, sensitivity, selectivity and throughput. The protocol described here focuses on two common strategies: 1) Identifying phosphorylation sites from individual proteins and small protein complexes, and 2) Identifying global phosphorylation sites from whole cell and tissue extracts. For the first, endogenous or epitope tagged proteins are typically immunopurified (IP) from cell lysates, purified via gel electrophoresis or precipitation and enzymatically digested into peptides. Samples can be optionally enriched for phosphopeptides using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) and then analyzed by microcapillary liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Global phosphorylation site analyses that capture pSer/pThr/pTyr sites from biological sources sites are more resource and time-consuming and involve digesting the whole cell lysate, followed by peptide fractionation by strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX), phosphopeptide enrichment by IMAC or TiO2 and LC-MS/MS. Alternatively, one can fractionate the protein lysate by SDS-PAGE, followed by digestion, phosphopeptide enrichment and LC-MS/MS. One can also IP only phospho-tyrosine peptides using a pTyr antibody followed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:22470061

  5. Chemical dephosphorylation for identification of multiply phosphorylated peptides and phosphorylation site determination.

    PubMed

    Kyono, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Tomita, Masaru; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2010-08-15

    We have developed a novel strategy to improve the efficiency of identification of multiply phosphorylated peptides isolated by hydroxy acid modified metal oxide chromatography (HAMMOC). This strategy consists of alkali-induced chemical dephosphorylation (beta-elimination reaction) of phosphopeptides isolated by HAMMOC prior to analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). This approach identified 1.9-fold more multiply phosphorylated peptides than the conventional approach without beta-elimination from a digested mixture of three standard phosphoproteins. In addition, the accuracy of phosphorylation site determination in synthetic phosphopeptides was significantly improved. Finally, we applied this approach to a cell lysate. By combining this dephosphorylation approach with the conventional approach, we successfully identified 1649 unique phosphopeptides, including 325 multiply phosphorylated phosphopeptides, from 200 microg of cultured Arabidopsis cells. These results indicate that chemical dephosphorylation prior to LC/MS analysis increases the efficiency of identification of multiply phosphorylated peptides, as well as the accuracy of phosphorylation site determination. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    PubMed

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  7. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites on Extracellular Corneal Epithelial Cell Maspin

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Malathi; Mirza, Shama P.; Twining, Sally S.

    2011-01-01

    Maspin, a 42-kDa non classical serine protease inhibitor (serpin) is expressed by epithelial cells of various tissues including the cornea. The protein localizes to the nucleus and cytosol, and is present in the extracellular space. While extracellular maspin regulates corneal stromal fibroblast adhesion and inhibits angiogenesis during wound healing in the cornea, the molecular mechanism of its extracellular functions is unclear. We hypothesized that identifying post-translational modifications of maspin, such as phosphorylation, may help decipher its mode of action. The focus of this study was on the identification of phosphorylation sites on extracellular maspin, since the extracellular form of the molecule is implicated in several functions. Multi-stage fragmentation mass spectrometry was used to identify sites of phosphorylation on extracellular corneal epithelial cell maspin. A total of eight serine and threonine phosphorylation sites (Thr50, Ser97, Thr118, Thr157, Ser240, Ser298, Thr310, Ser316) were identified on the extracellular forms of the molecule. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on extracellular maspin was not detected on extracellular maspin from corneal epithelial cell, in contrast to breast epithelial cells. This study provides the basis for further investigation into the functional role of phosphorylation of corneal epithelial maspin. PMID:21365746

  8. MSK1 activity is controlled by multiple phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    McCOY, Claire E.; Campbell, David G.; Deak, Maria; Bloomberg, Graham B.; Arthur, J. Simon C.

    2004-01-01

    MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase) is a kinase activated in cells downstream of both the ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. In the present study, we show that, in addition to being phosphorylated on Thr-581 and Ser-360 by ERK1/2 or p38, MSK1 can autophosphorylate on at least six sites: Ser-212, Ser-376, Ser-381, Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758. Of these sites, the N-terminal T-loop residue Ser-212 and the ‘hydrophobic motif’ Ser-376 are phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1, and their phosphorylation is essential for the catalytic activity of the N-terminal kinase domain of MSK1 and therefore for the phosphorylation of MSK1 substrates in vitro. Ser-381 is also phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain, and mutation of Ser-381 decreases MSK1 activity, probably through the inhibition of Ser-376 phosphorylation. Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758 are phosphorylated by the N-terminal kinase domain; however, their function is not known. The activation of MSK1 in cells therefore requires the activation of the ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK cascades and does not appear to require additional signalling inputs. This is in contrast with the closely related RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) proteins, whose activity requires phosphorylation by PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1) in addition to phosphorylation by ERK1/2. PMID:15568999

  9. Phosphorylation sites in human erythrocyte band 3 protein.

    PubMed

    Yannoukakos, D; Vasseur, C; Piau, J P; Wajcman, H; Bursaux, E

    1991-01-30

    The human red cell anion-exchanger, band 3 protein, is one of the main phosphorylated proteins of the erythrocyte membrane. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that ATP-depletion of the red blood cell decreased the anion-exchange rate, suggesting that band 3 protein phosphorylation could be involved in the regulation of anion transport function (Bursaux et al. (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 777, 253-260). Phosphorylation occurs mainly on the cytoplasmic domain of the protein and the major site of phosphorylation was assigned to tyrosine-8 (Dekowski et al. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2750-2753). This site being very far from the integral, anion-exchanger domain, the aim of the present study was to determine whether phosphorylation sites exist in the integral domain. The phosphorylation reaction was carried out on isolated membranes in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP and phosphorylated band 3 protein was then isolated. Both the cytoplasmic and the membrane spanning domains were purified. The predominant phosphorylation sites were found on the cytoplasmic domain. RP-HPLC analyses of the tryptic peptides of whole band 3 protein, and of the isolated cytoplasmic and membrane-spanning domains allowed for the precise localization of the phosphorylated residues. 80% of the label was found in the N-terminal tryptic peptide (T-1), (residues 1-56). In this region, all the residues susceptible to phosphorylation were labeled but in varying proportion. Under our conditions, the most active membrane kinase was a tyrosine kinase, activated preferentially by Mn2+ but also by Mg2+. Tyrosine-8 was the main phosphate acceptor residue (50-70%) of the protein, tyrosine-21 and tyrosine-46 residues were also phosphorylated but to a much lesser extent. The main targets of membrane casein kinase, preferentially activated by Mg2+, were serine-29, serine-50, and threonine(s)-39, -42, -44, -48, -49, -54 residue(s) located in the T-1 peptide. A tyrosine phosphatase activity was

  10. Glucose-induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Functional effects and characterization of phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, T S; Xiao, S; Olefsky, J M

    1996-01-01

    Elevated glucose concentrations have been reported to inhibit insulin receptor kinase activity. We studied the effects of high glucose on insulin action in Rat1 fibroblasts transfected with wild-type human insulin receptor (HIRcB) and a truncated receptor lacking the COOH-terminal 43 amino acids (delta CT). In both cell lines, 25 mM glucose impaired receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation by 34%, but IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation was unaffected. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and bromodeoxyuridine uptake were decreased by 85 and 35%, respectively. This was reversed by coincubation with a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor or microinjection of a PKC inhibitor peptide. Phosphopeptide mapping revealed that high glucose or PMA led to serine/threonine phosphorylation of similar peptides. Inhibition of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade by the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 did not reverse the impaired phosphorylation. We conclude that high glucose inhibits insulin action by inducing serine phosphorylation through a PKC-mediated mechanism at the level of the receptor at sites proximal to the COOH-terminal 43 amino acids. This effect is independent of activation of the MAP kinase cascade. Proportionately, the impairment of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is greater than that of the insulin receptor resulting in attenuated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and mitogenic signaling. PMID:8609215

  11. Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Appella, Ettore; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

  12. Phosphorylation and truncation sites of bovine lens connexin 46 and connexin 50.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L

    2009-12-01

    Connexins 46 and 50 combine to form the gap junctions in ocular lens fiber cells. These proteins are known to be modified with fiber cell age; however, limited work has been done to characterize specific lens connexin modifications. In this report, bovine lens membrane proteins were isolated, digested by multiple enzymes, and analyzed by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Automated database searching revealed the locations of both phosphorylation and truncation sites. The results confirmed the full sequence of connexin 46 and 99% of the connexin 50 sequence. Eighteen phosphorylation sites on connexin 50 and nine phosphorylation sites on connexin 46 were identified, all on serine or threonine residues. All but three phosphorylation sites on connexin 50 were located the cytoplasmic C-terminus. All of the truncation sites of connexin 50 were localized in the cytoplasmic C-terminus (region 280-304). Truncation sites in connexin 46 were found in four different regions including: the N-terminus (residue G2), the cytoplasmic loop (residues 121-124), the cytoplasmic C-terminus (residues 251-285), and the distal C-terminus (residues 344-395). In an analysis of dissected lenses some truncation sites were specific to nucleus samples and others were detected in both nucleus and cortex samples.

  13. Two Pdk1 phosphorylation sites on the plant cell death suppressor Adi3 contribute to substrate phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joel W.; Nelson Dittrich, Anna C.; Chen, Sixue; Avila, Julian; Giavalisco, Patrick; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The tomato AGC kinase Adi3 is phosphorylated by Pdk1 for activation of its cell death suppression activity. The Pdk1 phosphorylation site for activation of Adi3 is at Ser539. However, there is at least one additional Pdk1 phosphorylation site on Adi3 that has an unknown function. Here we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana sequence homologue of Adi3 termed AGC1-3. Two Pdk1 phosphorylation sites were identified on AGC1-3, activation site Ser596 and Ser269, and by homology Ser212 on Adi3 was identified as a second Pdk1 phosphorylation site. While Ser212 is not required for Adi3 autophosphorylation, Ser212 was shown to be required for full phosphorylation of the Adi3 substrate Gal83. PMID:23507047

  14. FUNGALOXPHOS: an integrated database for oxidative phosphorylation in fungi.

    PubMed

    Lavín, José L; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Raquel L; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Gabaldón, Toni; Oguiza, José A

    2013-07-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is the main energy-producing pathway in aerobic organisms. Here we present FUNGALOXPHOS, a web based platform that stores OXPHOS proteins encoded in fungal nuclear genomes and that incorporates tools for the extraction, classification and bioinformatic screening of all the putative nuclear encoded fungal OXPHOS proteins. FUNGALOXPHOS includes local, parsing and remote tools that allow exploring the properties of OXPHOS proteins in fungal genomes. FUNGALOXPHOS is freely available on the web at http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/FUNGALOXPHOS_CSS/main.html.

  15. Identification of a phosphorylation site in the hinge region of the human progesterone receptor and additional amino-terminal phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Knotts, T A; Orkiszewski, R S; Cook, R G; Edwards, D P; Weigel, N L

    2001-03-16

    We have previously reported the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites in the amino-terminal region of the human progesterone receptor (PR). From our previous in vivo studies, it was evident that several phosphopeptides remained unidentified. In particular, we wished to determine whether human PR contains a phosphorylation site in the hinge region, as do other steroid receptors including chicken PR, human androgen receptor, and mouse estrogen receptor. Previously, problematic trypsin cleavage sites hampered our ability to detect phosphorylation sites in large incomplete tryptic peptides. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and in vitro phosphorylation, we have identified six previously unidentified phosphorylation sites in human PR. Using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have identified two new in vivo phosphorylation sites, Ser(20) and Ser(676), in baculovirus-expressed human PR. Ser(676) is analogous to the hinge site identified in other steroid receptors. Additionally, precursor ion scans identified another phosphopeptide that contains Ser(130)-Pro(131), a likely candidate for phosphorylation. In vitro phosphorylation of PR with Cdk2 has revealed five additional in vitro Cdk2 phosphorylation sites: Ser(25), Ser(213), Thr(430), Ser(554), and Ser(676). At least two of these, Ser(213) and Ser(676), are authentic in vivo sites. We confirmed the presence of the Cdk2-phosphorylated peptide containing Ser(213) in PR from in vivo labeled T47D cells, indicating that this is an in vivo site. Our combined studies indicate that most, if not all, of the Ser-Pro motifs in human PR are sites for phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that the phosphorylation of PR is highly complex, with at least 14 phosphorylation sites.

  16. Mapping and analysis of phosphorylation sites: a quick guide for cell biologists.

    PubMed

    Dephoure, Noah; Gould, Kathleen L; Gygi, Steven P; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    A mechanistic understanding of signaling networks requires identification and analysis of phosphorylation sites. Mass spectrometry offers a rapid and highly sensitive approach to mapping phosphorylation sites. However, mass spectrometry has significant limitations that must be considered when planning to carry out phosphorylation-site mapping. Here we provide an overview of key information that should be taken into consideration before beginning phosphorylation-site analysis, as well as a step-by-step guide for carrying out successful experiments.

  17. Bioinformatics study of cancer-related mutations within p53 phosphorylation site motifs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaona; Huang, Qiang; Yu, Long; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2014-07-29

    p53 protein has about thirty phosphorylation sites located at the N- and C-termini and in the core domain. The phosphorylation sites are relatively less mutated than other residues in p53. To understand why and how p53 phosphorylation sites are rarely mutated in human cancer, using a bioinformatics approaches, we examined the phosphorylation site and its nearby flanking residues, focusing on the consensus phosphorylation motif pattern, amino-acid correlations within the phosphorylation motifs, the propensity of structural disorder of the phosphorylation motifs, and cancer mutations observed within the phosphorylation motifs. Many p53 phosphorylation sites are targets for several kinases. The phosphorylation sites match 17 consensus sequence motifs out of the 29 classified. In addition to proline, which is common in kinase specificity-determining sites, we found high propensity of acidic residues to be adjacent to phosphorylation sites. Analysis of human cancer mutations in the phosphorylation motifs revealed that motifs with adjacent acidic residues generally have fewer mutations, in contrast to phosphorylation sites near proline residues. p53 phosphorylation motifs are mostly disordered. However, human cancer mutations within phosphorylation motifs tend to decrease the disorder propensity. Our results suggest that combination of acidic residues Asp and Glu with phosphorylation sites provide charge redundancy which may safe guard against loss-of-function mutations, and that the natively disordered nature of p53 phosphorylation motifs may help reduce mutational damage. Our results further suggest that engineering acidic amino acids adjacent to potential phosphorylation sites could be a p53 gene therapy strategy.

  18. Characterization of the phosphorylation sites of the squid (Loligo pealei) high-molecular-weight neurofilament protein from giant axon axoplasm.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H; Sharma, P; Grant, P; Pant, H

    2001-02-01

    Axonal caliber in vertebrates is attributed, in part, to the extensive phosphorylation of NFM and NFH C-terminal tail domain KSP repeats by proline-directed kinases. The squid giant axon, primarily involved in rapid impulse conduction during jet propulsion motility, is enriched in squid-specific neurofilaments, particularly the highly phosphorylated NF-220. Of the 228 serine-threonine candidate phosphate acceptor sites in the NF-220 tail domain (residues 401-1220), 82 are found in numerous repeats of three different motifs SAR/K, SEK/R, K/RSP, with 62 of these tightly clustered in the C-terminal repeat segment (residues 840-1160). Characterization of the in vivo NF-220 phosphorylated sites should provide clues as to the relevant kinases. To characterize these sites, proteolytic digests of NF-220 were analyzed by a combination of HPLC, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and database searching. A total of 53 phosphorylation sites were characterized, with 47 clustered in the C-terminal repeat segment (residues 840-1160), representing 76% (47/62) of the total acceptor sites in the region. As in mammalian NFH, approximately 64% of the K/RSP sites (14/22) in this region were found to be phosphorylated implicating proline-directed kinases. Significantly, 78% of serines (31/40) in the KAES*EK and EKS*ARSP motifs were also phosphorylated suggesting that non proline-directed kinases such as CKI may also be involved. This is consistent with previous studies showing that CKI is the principal kinase associated with axoplasmic NF preparations. It also suggests that phosphorylation of large macromolecules with multiple phospho-sites requires sequential phosphorylation by several kinases.

  19. Identification of a phosphorylation site on skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase that becomes phosphorylated during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Claire E; Watt, Peter W; Morrice, Nick; Knebel, Axel; Gaestel, Matthias; Cohen, Philip

    2002-01-15

    A protein phosphorylated efficiently in vitro by MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2) was purified from skeletal muscle extracts and identified as the calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The phosphorylation site was mapped to Ser(161), a residue shown previously to be autophosphorylated by MLCK. The residue equivalent to Ser(161) became phosphorylated in vivo when rat hindlimbs were stimulated electrically. However, phosphorylation was triggered within seconds, whereas activation of MAPKAP-K2 required several minutes. Moreover, contraction-induced Ser(161) phosphorylation was similar in wild-type or MAPKAP-K2-/- mice. These results indicate that contraction-induced phosphorylation is probably catalyzed by MLCK and not MAPKAP-K2. Ser(161) phosphorylation induced the binding of MLCK to 14-3-3 proteins, but did not detectably affect the kinetic properties of MLCK. The sequence surrounding Ser(161) is unusual in that residue 158 is histidine. Previously, an arginine located three residues N-terminal to the site of phosphorylation was thought to be critical for the specificity of MAPKAP-K2. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  20. Mass spectrometric phosphoproteome analysis of HIV-infected brain reveals novel phosphorylation sites and differential phosphorylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Uzasci, Lerna; Auh, Sungyoung; Cotter, Robert J.; Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To map the phosphoproteome and identify changes in the phosphorylation patterns in the HIV-infected and uninfected brain using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Experimental Design Parietal cortex from brain of individuals with and without HIV infection were lysed and trypsinized. The peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents, combined, phospho-enriched by titanium dioxide chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with high-resolution. Results Our phosphoproteomic workflow resulted in the identification of 112 phosphorylated proteins and 17 novel phosphorylation sites in all the samples that were analyzed. The phosphopeptide sequences were searched for kinase substrate motifs which revealed potential kinases involved in important signaling pathways. The site-specific phosphopeptide quantification showed that peptides from neurofilament medium polypeptide, myelin basic protein, and 2′–3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′ phosphodiesterase have relatively higher phosphorylation levels during HIV infection. Clinical Relevance This study has enriched the global phosphoproteome knowledge of the human brain by detecting novel phosphorylation sites on neuronal proteins and identifying differentially phosphorylated brain proteins during HIV infection. Kinases that lead to unusual phosphorylations could be therapeutic targets for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). PMID:26033855

  1. Incorporating hidden Markov models for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Wu, Li-Cheng; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Tsae

    2005-07-30

    Protein phosphorylation, which is an important mechanism in posttranslational modification, affects essential cellular processes such as metabolism, cell signaling, differentiation, and membrane transportation. Proteins are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. In this investigation, we develop a novel tool to computationally predict catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the concepts of profile Hidden Markov Models (HMM), computational models are trained from the kinase-specific groups of phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the trained models, we select the model with highest accuracy in each kinase-specific group and provide a Web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. The main contribution here is that we have developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Sequence- and Structure-Based Analysis of Tissue-Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Nermin Pinar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most widespread and well studied reversible posttranslational modification. Discovering tissue-specific preferences of phosphorylation sites is important as phosphorylation plays a role in regulating almost every cellular activity and disease state. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of global and tissue-specific sequence and structure properties of phosphorylation sites utilizing recent proteomics data. We identified tissue-specific motifs in both sequence and spatial environments of phosphorylation sites. Target site preferences of kinases across tissues indicate that, while many kinases mediate phosphorylation in all tissues, there are also kinases that exhibit more tissue-specific preferences which, notably, are not caused by tissue-specific kinase expression. We also demonstrate that many metabolic pathways are differentially regulated by phosphorylation in different tissues. PMID:27332813

  3. Multi-site Phosphorylation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel α Subunits from Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berendt, Frank J.; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of ion channels underlies cellular plasticity in mammalian neurons. Voltage-gated sodium or Nav channels underlie action potential initiation and propagation, dendritic excitability, and many other aspects of neuronal excitability. Various protein kinases have been suggested to phosphorylate the primary α subunit of Nav channels, affecting diverse aspects of channel function. Previous studies of Nav α subunit phosphorylation have led to the identification of a small set of phosphorylation sites important in meditating aspects of Nav channel function. Here we use nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS) on Nav α subunits affinity-purified from rat brain with two distinct monoclonal antibodies to identify 15 phosphorylation sites on Nav1.2, 12 of which have not been previously reported. We also found 3 novel phosphorylation sites on Nav1.1. In general, commonly used phosphorylation site prediction algorithms did not accurately predict these novel in vivo phosphorylation sites. Our results demonstrate that specific Nav α subunits isolated from rat brain are highly phosphorylated, and suggest extensive modulation of Nav channel activity in mammalian brain. Identification of phosphorylation sites using monoclonal antibody-based immunopurification and mass spectrometry is an effective approach to define the phosphorylation status of Nav channels and important membrane proteins in mammalian brain. PMID:20131913

  4. Musite, a Tool for Global Prediction of General and Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjiong; Thelen, Jay J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Xu, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications, regulating diverse cellular processes in various organisms. High throughput experimental studies using mass spectrometry have identified many phosphorylation sites, primarily from eukaryotes. However, the vast majority of phosphorylation sites remain undiscovered, even in well studied systems. Because mass spectrometry-based experimental approaches for identifying phosphorylation events are costly, time-consuming, and biased toward abundant proteins and proteotypic peptides, in silico prediction of phosphorylation sites is potentially a useful alternative strategy for whole proteome annotation. Because of various limitations, current phosphorylation site prediction tools were not well designed for comprehensive assessment of proteomes. Here, we present a novel software tool, Musite, specifically designed for large scale predictions of both general and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. We collected phosphoproteomics data in multiple organisms from several reliable sources and used them to train prediction models by a comprehensive machine-learning approach that integrates local sequence similarities to known phosphorylation sites, protein disorder scores, and amino acid frequencies. Application of Musite on several proteomes yielded tens of thousands of phosphorylation site predictions at a high stringency level. Cross-validation tests show that Musite achieves some improvement over existing tools in predicting general phosphorylation sites, and it is at least comparable with those for predicting kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. In Musite V1.0, we have trained general prediction models for six organisms and kinase-specific prediction models for 13 kinases or kinase families. Although the current pretrained models were not correlated with any particular cellular conditions, Musite provides a unique functionality for training customized prediction models

  5. Rapid Identification of Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Site Motifs Using Combinatorial Peptide Libraries.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chad J; Turk, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases phosphorylate substrates at serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues that fall within the context of short sequence motifs. Knowing the phosphorylation site motif for a protein kinase facilitates designing substrates for kinase assays and mapping phosphorylation sites in protein substrates. Here, we describe an arrayed peptide library protocol for rapidly determining kinase phosphorylation consensus sequences. This method uses a set of peptide mixtures in which each of the 20 amino acid residues is systematically substituted at nine positions surrounding a central site of phosphorylation. Peptide mixtures are arrayed in multiwell plates and analyzed by radiolabel assay with the kinase of interest. The preferred sequence is determined from the relative rate of phosphorylation of each peptide in the array. Consensus peptides based on these sequences typically serve as efficient and specific kinase substrates for high-throughput screening or incorporation into biosensors.

  6. KinasePhos: a web tool for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Horng, Jorng-Tzong

    2005-07-01

    KinasePhos is a novel web server for computationally identifying catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the profile hidden Markov model, computational models are learned from the kinase-specific groups of the phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the learned models, the model with highest accuracy was selected from each kinase-specific group, for use in a web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. Therefore, this work developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity. The prediction tool is freely available at http://KinasePhos.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/.

  7. Crosstalk between signaling pathways provided by single and multiple protein phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Hafumi; Demir, Emek; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular fate depends on the spatio-temporal separation and integration of signaling processes which can be provided by phosphorylation events. In this study we identify the crucial points in signaling crosstalk which can be triggered by discrete phosphorylation events on a single target protein. We integrated the data on individual human phosphosites with the evidence on their corresponding kinases, the functional consequences on phosphorylation on activity of the target protein and corresponding pathways. Our results show that there is a substantial fraction of phosphosites that can play critical roles in crosstalk between alternative or redundant pathways and regulatory outcome of phosphorylation can be linked to a type of phosphorylated residue. These regulatory phosphosites can serve as hubs in the signal flow and their functional roles are directly connected to their specific properties. Namely, phosphosites with similar regulatory functions are phosphorylated by the same kinases and participate in regulation of similar biochemical pathways. Such sites are more likely to cluster in sequence and space unlike sites with antagonistic outcomes of their phosphorylation on a target protein. In addition we found that in silico phosphorylation of sites with similar functional consequences have comparable outcomes on a target protein stability. An important role of phosphorylation sites in biological crosstalk is evident from the analysis of their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25451034

  8. Identification of a phosphorylation site in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase of rice.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Mika; Nakamura, Kentaro; Furukawa, Haruya; Hidema, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase monomerises ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs present in DNA, using energy from UVA and visible light. In plants, CPD photolyase activity is a crucial factor for determining UVB sensitivity. We previously demonstrated that native rice CPD photolyase is phosphorylated. To determine the phosphorylation site(s), the phosphorylation status of CPD photolyase was analyzed in rice varieties that have amino acid alterations at the potential phosphorylation sites. In wild-rice species, CPD photolyase was phosphorylated. In Poaceae species, CPD photolyase was phosphorylated in wheat but not in maize. Mutant CPD photolyase proteins, in which these putative phosphorylated residues were replaced with alanine residues, were synthesized using an insect cell-free translation system. A slow-migrating band disappeared when the serine residue at position 7 was mutated. A phospho-specific antibody was generated to determine whether this residue is phosphorylated in CPD photolyase. Only the slow-migrating band of native rice CPD photolyase was detected using this antibody, indicating that the serine residue at position 7 is a phosphorylation site in native rice CPD photolyase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of kinases phosphorylating 13 sites in the nuclear, DNA-binding protein NUCKS.

    PubMed

    Grundt, Kirsten; Thiede, Bernd; Østvold, Anne Carine

    2017-03-01

    NUCKS is a vertebrate specific, nuclear and DNA-binding phospho protein. The protein is highly expressed in rapidly dividing cells, and is overexpressed in a number of cancer tissues. The phosphorylation of NUCKS is cell cycle and DNA-damage regulated, but little is known about the responsible kinases. By utilizing in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation assays using isolated NUCKS as well as synthetic NUCKS-derived peptides in combination with mass spectrometry, phosphopeptide mapping, phosphphoamino acid analyses, phosphospecific antibodies and the use of specific kinase inhibitors, we found that NUCKS is phosphorylated on 11 sites by CK2. At least 7 of the CK2 sites are phosphorylated in vivo. We also found that NUCKS is phosphorylated on two sites by ATM kinase and DNA-PK in vitro, and is phosphorylated in vivo by ATM kinase in γ-irradiated cells. All together, we identified three kinases phosphorylating 13 out of 39 in vivo phosphorylated sites in mammalian NUCKS. The identification of CK2 and PIKK kinases as kinases phosphorylating NUCKS in vivo provide further evidence for the involvement of NUCKS in cell cycle control and DNA repair.

  10. Analysis of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation sites using antibodies to synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Safran, A; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Three peptides corresponding to residues 354-367, 364-374, 373-387 of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) delta subunit were synthesized. These peptides represent the proposed phosphorylation sites of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase and the calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase respectively. Using these peptides as substrates for phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase it was shown that only peptides 354-367 was phosphorylated whereas the other two were not. These results verify the location of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site within the AChR delta subunit. Antibodies elicited against these peptides reacted with the delta subunit. The antipeptide antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 5.46) specific for the delta subunit were tested for their binding to non-phosphorylated receptor and to receptor phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Antibodies to peptide 354-367 were found to react preferentially with non-phosphorylated receptor whereas the two other anti-peptide antibodies bound equally to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated receptors. Monoclonal antibody 7F2 reacted preferentially with the phosphorylated form of the receptor whereas monoclonal antibody 5.46 did not distinguish between the two forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3816758

  11. Phosphorylation Status of the Parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice Particle: Mapping and Biological Relevance of the Major Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Maroto, Beatriz; Ramírez, Juan C.; Almendral, José M.

    2000-01-01

    The core of the VP-1 and VP-2 proteins forming the T=1 icosahedral capsid of the prototype strain of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) share amino acids sequence and a common three-dimensional structure; however, the roles of these polypeptides in the virus infection cycle differ. To gain insights into this paradox, the nature, distribution, and biological significance of MVMp particle phosphorylation was investigated. The VP-1 and VP-2 proteins isolated from purified empty capsids and from virions containing DNA harbored phosphoserine and phosphothreonine amino acids, which in two-dimensional tryptic analysis resulted in complex patterns reproducibly composed by more than 15 unevenly phosphorylated peptides. Whereas secondary protease digestions and comigration of most weak peptides in the fingerprints revealed common phosphorylation sites in the VP-1 and VP-2 subunits assembled in capsids, the major tryptic phosphopeptides were remarkably characteristic of either polypeptide. The VP-2-specific peptide named B, containing the bulk of the 32P label of the MVMp particle in the form of phosphoserine, was mapped to the structurally unordered N-terminal domain of this polypeptide. Mutations in any or all four serine residues present in peptide B showed that the VP-2 N-terminal domain is phosphorylated at multiple sites, even though none of them was essential for capsid assembly or virus formation. Chromatographic analysis of purified wild-type (wt) and mutant peptide B digested with a panel of specific proteases allowed us to identify the VP-2 residues Ser-2, Ser-6, and Ser-10 as the main phosphate acceptors for MVMp capsid during the natural viral infection. Phosphorylation at VP-2 N-terminal serines was not necessary for the externalization of this domain outside of the capsid shell in particles containing DNA. However, the plaque-forming capacity and plaque size of VP-2 N-terminal phosphorylation mutants were severely reduced, with the evolutionarily

  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation and coevolution of its εPKC-mediated phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Nene, Aishwarya; Chen, Che-Hong; Disatnik, Marie-Hélène; Cruz, Leslie; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2017-01-05

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme for the metabolism of many toxic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, derived from alcohol drinking, and 4HNE, an oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation aldehyde. Post-translational enhancement of ALDH2 activity can be achieved by serine/threonine phosphorylation by epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC). Elevated ALDH2 is beneficial in reducing injury following myocardial infarction, stroke and other oxidative stress and aldehyde toxicity-related diseases. We have previously identified three εPKC phosphorylation sites, threonine 185 (T185), serine 279 (S279) and threonine 412 (T412), on ALDH2. Here we further characterized the role and contribution of each phosphorylation site to the enhancement of enzymatic activity by εPKC. Each individual phosphorylation site was mutated to a negatively charged amino acid, glutamate, to mimic a phosphorylation, or to a non-phosphorylatable amino acid, alanine. ALDH2 enzyme activities and protection against 4HNE inactivation were measured in the presence or absence of εPKC phosphorylation in vitro. Coevolution of ALDH2 and its εPKC phosphorylation sites was delineated by multiple sequence alignments among a diverse range of species and within the ALDH multigene family. We identified S279 as a critical εPKC phosphorylation site in the activation of ALDH2. The critical catalytic site, cysteine 302 (C302) of ALDH2 is susceptible to adduct formation by reactive aldehyde, 4HNE, which readily renders the enzyme inactive. We show that phosphomimetic mutations of T185E, S279E and T412E confer protection of ALDH2 against 4HNE-induced inactivation, indicating that phosphorylation on these three sites by εPKC likely also protects the enzyme against reactive aldehydes. Finally, we demonstrate that the three ALDH2 phosphorylation sites co-evolved with εPKC over a wide range of species. Alignment of 18 human ALDH isozymes, indicates that T185 and S279 are unique ALDH2, ε

  13. Comparison of Savannah River Site`s meteorological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A five-year meteorological database from the 61-meter, H-Area tower for the period 1987--1991 was compared to an earlier database for the period 1982--1986. The amount of invalid data for the newer 87--91 database was one third that for the earlier database. The data recovery percentage for the last four years of the 87-91 database was well above 90%. Considerable effort was necessary to fill in for missing data periods for the newer database for the H-Area tower. Therefore, additional databases that have been prepared for the remaining SRS meteorological towers have had missing and erroneous data flagged, but not replaced. The F-Area tower`s database was used for cross-comparison purposes because of its proximity to H Area. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the H-Tower databases for 82-86 and 87-91. Statistical methods enable the use of probability statements to be made concerning the hypothesis of no differences between the distributions of the two time periods, assuming each database is a random sample from its respective distribution. This assumption is required for the statistical tests to be valid. A number of statistical comparisons can be made between the two data sets, even though the 82-86 database exist only as distributions of frequency and mean speed.

  14. Hierarchical Organization of Multi-Site Phosphorylation at the CXCR4 C Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Wiebke; Schütz, Dagmar; Nagel, Falko; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 regulates cell migration during ontogenesis and disease states including cancer and inflammation. Upon stimulation by the endogenous ligand CXCL12, CXCR4 becomes phosphorylated at multiple sites in its C-terminal domain. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene affecting C-terminal phosphorylation sites are a hallmark of WHIM syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by a gain-of-CXCR4-function. To better understand how multi-site phosphorylation of CXCR4 is organized and how perturbed phosphorylation might affect CXCR4 function, we developed novel phosphosite-specific CXCR4 antibodies and studied the differential regulation and interaction of three C-terminal phosphorylation sites in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). CXCL12 promoted a robust phosphorylation at S346/347 which preceded phosphorylation at S324/325 and S338/339. After CXCL12 washout, the phosphosites S338/339 and S324/325 were rapidly dephosphorylated whereas phosphorylation at S346/347 was long-lasting. CXCL12-induced phosphorylation at S346/347 was staurosporine-insensitive and mediated by GRK2/3. WHIM syndrome-associated CXCR4 truncation mutants lacking the S346/347 phosphosite and the recently identified E343K WHIM mutant displayed strongly impaired phosphorylation at S324/325 and S338/339 as well as reduced CXCL12-induced receptor internalization. Relevance of the S346-S348 site was confirmed by a S346-348A mutant showing strongly impaired CXCL12-promoted phosphorylation at S324/325 and S338/339, defective internalization, gain of calcium mobilization, and reduced desensitization. Thus, the triple serine motif S346-S348 contains a major initial CXCR4 phosphorylation site and is required for efficient subsequent multi-site phosphorylation and receptor regulation. Hierarchical organization of CXCR4 phosphorylation explains why small deletions at the extreme CXCR4 C terminus typically associated with WHIM syndrome severely alter CXCR4 function. PMID:23734232

  15. Machine learning approach to predict protein phosphorylation sites by incorporating evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis Kumer; Noman, Nasimul; Sikder, Abdur Rahman

    2010-05-21

    Most of the existing in silico phosphorylation site prediction systems use machine learning approach that requires preparing a good set of classification data in order to build the classification knowledge. Furthermore, phosphorylation is catalyzed by kinase enzymes and hence the kinase information of the phosphorylated sites has been used as major classification data in most of the existing systems. Since the number of kinase annotations in protein sequences is far less than that of the proteins being sequenced to date, the prediction systems that use the information found from the small clique of kinase annotated proteins can not be considered as completely perfect for predicting outside the clique. Hence the systems are certainly not generalized. In this paper, a novel generalized prediction system, PPRED (Phosphorylation PREDictor) is proposed that ignores the kinase information and only uses the evolutionary information of proteins for classifying phosphorylation sites. Experimental results based on cross validations and an independent benchmark reveal the significance of using the evolutionary information alone to classify phosphorylation sites from protein sequences. The prediction performance of the proposed system is better than those of the existing prediction systems that also do not incorporate kinase information. The system is also comparable to systems that incorporate kinase information in predicting such sites. The approach presented in this paper provides an efficient way to identify phosphorylation sites in a given protein primary sequence that would be a valuable information for the molecular biologists working on protein phosphorylation sites and for bioinformaticians developing generalized prediction systems for the post translational modifications like phosphorylation or glycosylation. PPRED is publicly available at the URL http://www.cse.univdhaka.edu/~ashis/ppred/index.php.

  16. MASS SPECTROMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF PHOSPHORYLATION SITES IN GUANYLYL CYCLASE A AND B†

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Andrea R.; Stone, Matthew D.; Griffin, Timothy J.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase A and B (GC-A and GC-B) are transmembrane guanylyl cyclase receptors that mediate the physiologic effects of natriuretic peptides. Some sites of phosphorylation are known for rat GC-A and GC-B, but no phosphorylation site information is available for the human homologs. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify phosphorylation sites in GC-A and GC-B from both species. Tryptic digests of receptors purified from HEK293 cells were separated and analyzed by nLC-MS-MS. Seven sites of phosphorylation were identified in rat GC-A (S497, T500, S502, S506, S510, T513, and S487) and all of these sites except S510 and T513 were observed in human GC-A. Six phosphorylation sites were identified in rat GC-B (S513, T516, S518, S523, S526, and T529) and all six sites were also identified in human GC-B. Five sites are identical between GC-A and GC-B. S487 in GC-A and T529 in GC-B are novel, uncharacterized sites. Substitution of alanine for S487 did not affect initial ligand-dependent GC-A activity, but a glutamate substitution reduced activity 20%. Similar levels of ANP-dependent desensitization were observed for the wild type, S487A and S487E forms of GC-A. Substitution of glutamate or alanine for T529 increased or decreased ligand-dependent cyclase activity of GC-B, respectively, and T529E increased cyclase activity in a GC-B mutant containing glutamates for all five previously identified sites as well. In conclusion, we identified and characterized new phosphorylation sites in GC-A and GC-B and provide the first evidence of phosphorylation sites within human guanylyl cyclases. PMID:20977274

  17. Connexin 35/36 is phosphorylated at regulatory sites in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Kothmann, W. Wade; Li, Xiaofan; Burr, Gary S.; O’Brien, John

    2007-01-01

    Connexin 35/36 is the most widespread neuronal gap junction protein in the retina and central nervous system. Electrical and/or tracer coupling in a number of neuronal circuits that express this connexin are regulated by light adaptation. In many cases the regulation of coupling depends on signaling pathways that activate protein kinases such as PKA, and Cx35 has been shown to be regulated by PKA phosphorylation in cell culture systems. To examine whether phosphorylation might regulate Cx35/36 in the retina we developed phospho-specific polyclonal antibodies against the two regulatory phosphorylation sites of Cx35 and examined the phosphorylation state of this connexin in the retina. Western blot analysis with hybrid bass retinal membrane preparations showed Cx35 to be phosphorylated at both the Ser110 and Ser276 sites, and this labeling was eliminated by alkaline phosphatase digestion. The homologous sites of mouse and rabbit Cx36 were also phosphorylated in retinal membrane preparations. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed gap junctions identified with a monoclonal anti-Cx35 antibody to have variable levels of phosphorylation at both the Ser110 and Ser276 sites. Unusual gap junctions that could be identified by their large size (up to 32 μm2) and location in the IPL showed a prominent shift in phosphorylation state from heavily phosphorylated in nighttime, dark-adapted retina to weakly phosphorylated in daytime, light-adapted retina. Both Ser110 and Ser276 sites showed significant changes in this manner. Under both lighting conditions other gap junctions varied from non-phosphorylated to heavily phosphorylated. We predict that changes in the phosphorylation states of these sites correlate with changes in the degree of coupling through Cx35/36 gap junctions. This leads to the conclusion that connexin phosphorylation mediates changes in coupling in some retinal networks. However, these changes are not global and likely occur in a cell type

  18. Identification of Ser-543 as the major regulatory phosphorylation site in spinach leaf nitrate reductase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, M.; Shiraishi, N.; Campbell, W. H.; Yoo, B. C.; Harmon, A. C.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Spinach leaf NADH:nitrate reductase (NR) responds to light/dark signals and photosynthetic activity in part as a result of rapid regulation by reversible protein phosphorylation. We have identified the major regulatory phosphorylation site as Ser-543, which is located in the hinge 1 region connecting the cytochrome b domain with the molybdenum-pterin cofactor binding domain of NR, using recombinant NR fragments containing or lacking the phosphorylation site sequence. Studies with NR partial reactions indicated that the block in electron flow caused by phosphorylation also could be localized to the hinge 1 region. A synthetic peptide (NR6) based on the phosphorylation site sequence was phosphorylated readily by NR kinase (NRk) in vitro. NR6 kinase activity tracked the ATP-dependent inactivation of NR during several chromatographic steps and completely inhibited inactivation/phosphorylation of native NR in vitro. Two forms of NRk were resolved by using anion exchange chromatography. Studies with synthetic peptide analogs indicated that both forms of NRk had similar specificity determinants, requiring a basic residue at P-3 (i.e., three amino acids N-terminal to the phosphorylated serine) and a hydrophobic residue at P-5. Both forms are strictly calcium dependent but belong to distinct families of protein kinases because they are distinct immunochemically.

  19. Identification of Ser-543 as the major regulatory phosphorylation site in spinach leaf nitrate reductase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, M.; Shiraishi, N.; Campbell, W. H.; Yoo, B. C.; Harmon, A. C.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Spinach leaf NADH:nitrate reductase (NR) responds to light/dark signals and photosynthetic activity in part as a result of rapid regulation by reversible protein phosphorylation. We have identified the major regulatory phosphorylation site as Ser-543, which is located in the hinge 1 region connecting the cytochrome b domain with the molybdenum-pterin cofactor binding domain of NR, using recombinant NR fragments containing or lacking the phosphorylation site sequence. Studies with NR partial reactions indicated that the block in electron flow caused by phosphorylation also could be localized to the hinge 1 region. A synthetic peptide (NR6) based on the phosphorylation site sequence was phosphorylated readily by NR kinase (NRk) in vitro. NR6 kinase activity tracked the ATP-dependent inactivation of NR during several chromatographic steps and completely inhibited inactivation/phosphorylation of native NR in vitro. Two forms of NRk were resolved by using anion exchange chromatography. Studies with synthetic peptide analogs indicated that both forms of NRk had similar specificity determinants, requiring a basic residue at P-3 (i.e., three amino acids N-terminal to the phosphorylated serine) and a hydrophobic residue at P-5. Both forms are strictly calcium dependent but belong to distinct families of protein kinases because they are distinct immunochemically.

  20. CD34 Antigen: Determination of Specific Sites of Phosphorylation In Vitro and In Vivo¶

    PubMed Central

    Deterding, Leesa J.; Williams, Jason G.; Humble, Margaret M.; Petrovich, Robert M.; Wei, Sung-Jen; Trempus, Carol S.; Gates, Matthew B.; Zhu, Feng; Smart, Robert C.; Tennant, Raymond W.; Tomer, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    CD34, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is a surface antigen which is expressed on several cell types, including hematopoietic progenitors, endothelial cells, as well as mast cells. Recently, CD34 has been described as a marker for epidermal stem cells in mouse hair follicles, and is expressed in outer root sheath cells of the human hair follicle. Although the biological function and regulation of CD34 is not well understood, it is thought to be involved in cell adhesion as well as possibly having a role in signal transduction. In addition, CD34 was shown to be critical for skin tumor development in mice, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Many proteins' functions and biological activities are regulated through post-translational modifications. The extracellular domain of CD34 is heavily glycosylated but the role of these glycans in CD34 function is unknown. Additionally, two sites of tyrosine phosphorylation have been reported on human CD34 and it is known that CD34 is phosphorylated, at least in part, by protein kinase C; however, the precise location of the sites of phosphorylation has not been reported. In an effort to identify specific phosphorylation sites in CD34 and delineate the possible role of protein kinase C, we undertook the identification of the in vitro sites of phosphorylation on the intracellular domain of mouse CD34 (aa 309–382) following PKC treatment. For this work, we are using a combination of enzymatic proteolysis and peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry. After which the in vivo sites of phosphorylation of full-length mouse CD34 expressed from HEK293F cells were determined. The observed in vivo sites of phosphorylation, however, are not consensus PKC sites, but our data indicate that one of these sites may possibly be phosphorylated by AKT2. These results suggest that other kinases, as well as PKC, may have important signaling functions in CD34. PMID:21499536

  1. Phosphorylation of Human CTP Synthetase 1 by Protein Kinase A: IDENTIFICATION OF Thr455 AS A MAJOR SITE OF PHOSPHORYLATION*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Carman, George M.

    2007-01-01

    CTP synthetase is an essential enzyme that generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work, we examined the phosphorylation of the human CTPS1-encoded CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase A. CTP synthetase 1 was expressed and purified from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. Using purified CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was time- and dose-dependent. The phosphorylation, which primarily occurred on a threonine residue, was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CTP synthetase 1 activity. The synthetic peptide LGKRRTLFQT that contains the protein kinase A motif for Thr455 was a substrate for protein kinase A. A Thr455 to Ala (T455A) mutation in CTP synthetase 1 was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and was expressed and purified from the S. cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant. The T455A mutation caused a 78% decrease in protein kinase A phosphorylation, and the loss of the phosphothreonine residue and a major phosphopeptide that were present in the purified wild type enzyme phosphorylated by protein kinase A. The CTP synthetase 1 activity of the T455A mutant enzyme was 2-fold higher than the wild type enzyme. In addition, the T455A mutation caused a 44% decrease in the amount of human CTP synthetase 1 that was phosphorylated in S. cerevisiae cells, and this was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the cellular concentration of CTP and a 1.5-fold increase in the choline-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. PMID:17189248

  2. The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit phosphorylation sites in human Artemis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunmei; Pannicke, Ulrich; Lu, Haihui; Niewolik, Doris; Schwarz, Klaus; Lieber, Michael R

    2005-10-07

    Artemis protein has irreplaceable functions in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) as a hairpin and 5' and 3' overhang endonuclease. The kinase activity of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is necessary in activating Artemis as an endonuclease. Here we report that three basal phosphorylation sites and 11 DNA-PKcs phosphorylation sites within the mammalian Artemis are all located in the C-terminal domain. All but one of these phosphorylation sites deviate from the SQ or TQ motif of DNA-PKcs that was predicted previously from in vitro phosphorylation studies. Phosphatase-treated mammalian Artemis and Artemis that is mutated at the three basal phosphorylation sites still retain DNA-PKcs-dependent endonucleolytic activities, indicating that basal phosphorylation is not required for the activation. In vivo studies of Artemis lacking the C-terminal domain have been reported to be sufficient to complement V(D)J recombination in Artemis null cells. Therefore, the C-terminal domain may have a negative regulatory effect on the Artemis endonucleolytic activities, and phosphorylation by DNA-PKcs in the C-terminal domain may relieve this inhibition.

  3. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of calsequestrin on CK2-sensitive sites in heart.

    PubMed

    Ram, Michal L; Kiarash, Arash; Marsh, James D; Cala, Steven E

    2004-11-01

    Calsequestrin (CSQ) concentrates in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) where it functions in regulation of Ca2+ release. When purified from heart tissue, cardiac CSQ contains phosphate on a cluster of C-terminal serine residues, but little is known about the cellular site of kinase action, and the identity of the kinase remains uncertain. To determine basic features of the phosphorylation, we examined the reaction in canine heart preparations. CSQ phosphorylation was observed in [32P]metabolically-labeled heart cells after adenoviral overexpression, and its constitutive phosphorylation was limited to a CK2-sensitive C-terminal serine cluster. The CSQ kinase was oriented intralumenally, as was CSQ, inside membrane vesicles, such that exposure to each required detergent permeabilization. Yet even after detergent permeabilization, CSQ was phosphorylated much less efficiently by protein kinase CK2 in cardiac microsomes than was purified CSQ. Reduced phosphorylation was strongly dependent upon protein concentration, and phosphorylation time courses revealed a phosphatase activity that occurred constitutively as phosphorylated substrate accumulates. Evidence of selective dephosphorylation of CSQ glycoforms in heart homogenates was also seen by mass spectrometry analysis. Molecules with greater mannose content, a feature of early secretory pathway compartments, were more highly phosphorylated, while greater dephosphorylation was apparent in more distal compartments. Taken together, the analyses of CSQ phosphorylation in heart suggest that a constitutive process of phosphate turnover occurs for cardiac CSQ perhaps associated with its intracellular transport.

  4. Identification of phosphorylation sites in proteins by nanospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogueta, S; Rogado, R; Marina, A; Moreno, F; Redondo, J M; Vázquez, J

    2000-04-01

    A method is described for identifying serine phosphorylation sites in proteins, based on conventional (32)P labeling followed by electrophoretic separation, 'in-gel' digestion with a protease, peptide extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and collection and off-line analysis of the radioactive fractions by nanospray ion trap mass spectrometry. The method was successfully applied to the identification of three phosphorylation sites in two proteins which were subjected to in vitro phosphorylation under physiological conditions. Different combinations of the various scanning modes of the ion trap, including high-resolution, multiple subfragmentation (or MS(n)) and fast scan analysis, were employed to identify the phosphopeptides, determine their sequence and localize the exact site of phosphorylation. 'Blind' fragmentation using fast scans was used to analyze a phosphopeptide which was undetectable in other scanning modes. The sequence, phosphorylation site and double cysteine modification of the potassium adduct of a peptide containing 35 residues were also determined by multiple fragmentation. The results not only support the validity of the proposed method for routine identification of phosphorylation sites, but also demonstrate the exceptional capability of off-line ion trap mass spectrometry in combination with nanospray ionization for performing very detailed studies on the structure of peptides. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Sites and roles of phosphorylation of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Laurie A.; Strang, Blair L.; Lin, Eric W.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Coen, Donald M.

    2011-09-01

    The human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44 is a phosphoprotein, but its sites and roles of phosphorylation have not been investigated. We compared sites of phosphorylation of UL44 in vitro by the viral protein kinase UL97 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 with those in infected cells. Transient treatment of infected cells with a UL97 inhibitor greatly reduced labeling of two minor UL44 phosphopeptides. Viruses containing alanine substitutions of most UL44 residues that are phosphorylated in infected cells exhibited at most modest effects on viral DNA synthesis and yield. However, substitution of highly phosphorylated sites adjacent to the nuclear localization signal abolished viral replication. The results taken together are consistent with UL44 being phosphorylated directly by UL97 during infection, and a crucial role for phosphorylation-mediated nuclear localization of UL44 for viral replication, but lend little support to the widely held hypothesis that UL97-mediated phosphorylation of UL44 is crucial for viral DNA synthesis.

  6. Identification and Functional Characterization of the Phosphorylation Sites of the Neuropeptide FF2 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lauriane; Froment, Carine; Pardo, Pierre; Candotto, Cédric; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine; Moulédous, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide FF2 (NPFF2) receptor belongs to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors and mediates the effects of several related RFamide neuropeptides. One of the main pharmacological interests of this system resides in its ability to regulate endogenous opioid systems, making it a potential target to reduce the negative effects of chronic opioid use. Phosphorylation of intracellular residues is the most extensively studied post-translational modification regulating G protein-coupled receptor activity. However, until now, no information concerning NPFF2 receptor phosphorylation is available. In this study, we combined mass spectrometric analysis and site-directed mutagenesis to analyze for the first time the phosphorylation pattern of the NPFF2 receptor and the role of the various phosphorylation sites in receptor signaling, desensitization, and trafficking in a SH-SY5Y model cell line. We identified the major, likely GRK-dependent, phosphorylation cluster responsible for acute desensitization, 412TNST415 at the end of the C terminus of the receptor, and additional sites involved in desensitization (372TS373) and internalization (Ser395). We thus demonstrate the key role played by phosphorylation in the regulation of NPFF2 receptor activity and trafficking. Our data also provide additional evidence supporting the concept that desensitization and internalization are partially independent processes relying on distinct phosphorylation patterns. PMID:25326382

  7. Identification of novel in vivo phosphorylation sites of the human proapoptotic protein BAD: pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Polzien, Lisa; Baljuls, Angela; Rennefahrt, Ulrike E E; Fischer, Andreas; Schmitz, Werner; Zahedi, Rene P; Sickmann, Albert; Metz, Renate; Albert, Stefan; Benz, Roland; Hekman, Mirko; Rapp, Ulf R

    2009-10-09

    BAD is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors. Although much attention has been devoted to the identification of phosphorylation sites in murine BAD, little data are available with respect to phosphorylation of human BAD protein. Using mass spectrometry, we identified here besides the established phosphorylation sites at serines 75, 99, and 118 several novel in vivo phosphorylation sites within human BAD (serines 25, 32/34, 97, and 124). Furthermore, we investigated the quantitative contribution of BAD targeting kinases in phosphorylating serine residues 75, 99, and 118. Our results indicate that RAF kinases represent, besides protein kinase A, PAK, and Akt/protein kinase B, in vivo BAD-phosphorylating kinases. RAF-induced phosphorylation of BAD was reduced to control levels using the RAF inhibitor BAY 43-9006. This phosphorylation was not prevented by MEK inhibitors. Consistently, expression of constitutively active RAF suppressed apoptosis induced by BAD and the inhibition of colony formation caused by BAD could be prevented by RAF. In addition, using the surface plasmon resonance technique, we analyzed the direct consequences of BAD phosphorylation by RAF with respect to association with 14-3-3 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) proteins. Phosphorylation of BAD by active RAF promotes 14-3-3 protein association, in which the phosphoserine 99 represented the major binding site. Finally, we show here that BAD forms channels in planar bilayer membranes in vitro. This pore-forming capacity was dependent on phosphorylation status and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of BAD function by phosphorylation.

  8. Phosphorylation of the VP16 transcriptional activator protein during herpes simplex virus infection and mutational analysis of putative phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Ottosen, Søren; Herrera, Francisco J.; Doroghazi, James R.; Hull, Angela; Mittal, Sheenu; Lane, William S.; Triezenberg, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    VP16 is a virion phosphoprotein of herpes simplex virus and a transcriptional activator of the viral immediate-early (IE) genes. We identified four novel VP16 phosphorylation sites (Ser18, Ser353, Ser411, and Ser452) at late times in infection, but found no evidence of phosphorylation of Ser375, a residue reportedly phosphorylated when VP16 is expressed from a transfected plasmid. A virus carrying a S375A mutation of VP16 was viable in cell culture but with a slow growth rate. The association of the mutant VP16 protein with IE gene promoters and subsequent IE gene expression was markedly reduced during infection, consistent with prior transfection and in vitro results. Surprisingly, the association of Oct-1 with IE promoters was also diminished during infection by the mutant strain. We propose that Ser375 is important for the interaction of VP16 with Oct-1, and that the interaction is required to enable both proteins to bind to IE promoters. PMID:16297954

  9. Mitotic arrest-induced phosphorylation of Mcl-1 revisited using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphoproteomics: nine phosphorylation sites identified

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Katherine; Kothari, Anisha; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Kovak, Matthew R.; Chambers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) characteristically promote phosphorylation and degradation of Mcl-1, and this represents a critical pro-apoptotic signal in mitotic death. While several phosphorylation sites and kinases have been implicated in mitotic arrest-induced Mcl-1 phosphorylation, a comprehensive biochemical analysis has been lacking. Contrary to previous reports suggesting that T92 phosphorylation by Cdk1 regulates Mcl-1 degradation, a T92A Mcl-1 mutant expressed in HeLa cells was phosphorylated and degraded with the same kinetics as wild-type Mcl-1 following vinblastine treatment. Similarly, when Mcl-1 with alanine replacements of all five putative Cdk sites (S64, T92, S121, S159, T163) was expressed, it was also phosphorylated and degraded in response to vinblastine. To analyze Mcl-1 phosphorylation in more detail, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was performed. While untreated cells expressed mainly unphosphorylated Mcl-1 with two minor phosphorylated species, Mcl-1 from vinblastine treated cells migrated during 2D-PAGE as a train of acidic spots representing nine or more phosphorylated species. Immunopurification and mass spectrometry of phosphorylated Mcl-1 derived from mitotically arrested HeLa cells revealed nine distinct sites, including several previously unreported. Mcl-1 bearing substitutions of all nine sites had a longer half-life than wild-type Mcl-1 under basal conditions, but still underwent phosphorylation and degradation in response to vinblastine treatment, and, like wild-type Mcl-1, was unable to protect cells from MTA treatment. These results reveal an unexpected complexity in Mcl-1 phosphorylation in response to MTAs and indicate that previous work has severely underestimated the number of sites, and thus encourage major revisions to the current model. PMID:27738316

  10. GPS 2.0, a Tool to Predict Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Sites in Hierarchy *S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yu; Ren, Jian; Gao, Xinjiao; Jin, Changjiang; Wen, Longping; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-01-01

    Identification of protein phosphorylation sites with their cognate protein kinases (PKs) is a key step to delineate molecular dynamics and plasticity underlying a variety of cellular processes. Although nearly 10 kinase-specific prediction programs have been developed, numerous PKs have been casually classified into subgroups without a standard rule. For large scale predictions, the false positive rate has also never been addressed. In this work, we adopted a well established rule to classify PKs into a hierarchical structure with four levels, including group, family, subfamily, and single PK. In addition, we developed a simple approach to estimate the theoretically maximal false positive rates. The on-line service and local packages of the GPS (Group-based Prediction System) 2.0 were implemented in Java with the modified version of the Group-based Phosphorylation Scoring algorithm. As the first stand alone software for predicting phosphorylation, GPS 2.0 can predict kinase-specific phosphorylation sites for 408 human PKs in hierarchy. A large scale prediction of more than 13,000 mammalian phosphorylation sites by GPS 2.0 was exhibited with great performance and remarkable accuracy. Using Aurora-B as an example, we also conducted a proteome-wide search and provided systematic prediction of Aurora-B-specific substrates including protein-protein interaction information. Thus, the GPS 2.0 is a useful tool for predicting protein phosphorylation sites and their cognate kinases and is freely available on line. PMID:18463090

  11. PhosSA: Fast and accurate phosphorylation site assignment algorithm for mass spectrometry data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation site assignment of high throughput tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) data is one of the most common and critical aspects of phosphoproteomics. Correctly assigning phosphorylated residues helps us understand their biological significance. The design of common search algorithms (such as Sequest, Mascot etc.) do not incorporate site assignment; therefore additional algorithms are essential to assign phosphorylation sites for mass spectrometry data. The main contribution of this study is the design and implementation of a linear time and space dynamic programming strategy for phosphorylation site assignment referred to as PhosSA. The proposed algorithm uses summation of peak intensities associated with theoretical spectra as an objective function. Quality control of the assigned sites is achieved using a post-processing redundancy criteria that indicates the signal-to-noise ratio properties of the fragmented spectra. The quality assessment of the algorithm was determined using experimentally generated data sets using synthetic peptides for which phosphorylation sites were known. We report that PhosSA was able to achieve a high degree of accuracy and sensitivity with all the experimentally generated mass spectrometry data sets. The implemented algorithm is shown to be extremely fast and scalable with increasing number of spectra (we report up to 0.5 million spectra/hour on a moderate workstation). The algorithm is designed to accept results from both Sequest and Mascot search engines. An executable is freely available at http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/PhosSA/ for academic research purposes. PMID:24565028

  12. Phosphorylation sites in BubR1 that regulate kinetochore attachment, tension, and mitotic exit

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haomin; Hittle, James; Zappacosta, Francesca; Annan, Roland S.; Hershko, Avram; Yen, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    BubR1 kinase is essential for the mitotic checkpoint and also for kinetochores to establish microtubule attachments. In this study, we report that BubR1 is phosphorylated in mitosis on four residues that differ from sites recently reported to be phosphorylated by Plk1 (Elowe, S., S. Hummer, A. Uldschmid, X. Li, and E.A. Nigg. 2007. Genes Dev. 21:2205–2219; Matsumura, S., F. Toyoshima, and E. Nishida. 2007. J. Biol. Chem. 282:15217–15227). S670, the most conserved residue, is phosphorylated at kinetochores at the onset of mitosis and dephosphorylated before anaphase onset. Unlike the Plk1-dependent S676 phosphorylation, S670 phosphorylation is sensitive to microtubule attachments but not to kinetochore tension. Functionally, phosphorylation of S670 is essential for error correction and for kinetochores with end-on attachments to establish tension. Furthermore, in vitro data suggest that the phosphorylation status of BubR1 is important for checkpoint inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Finally, RNA interference experiments show that Mps1 is a major but not the exclusive kinase that specifies BubR1 phosphorylation in vivo. The combined data suggest that BubR1 may be an effector of multiple kinases that are involved in discrete aspects of kinetochore attachments and checkpoint regulation. PMID:19015317

  13. A phosphorylation site in the ftz homeodomain is required for activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, J; Hung, L H; Strome, R; Krause, H M

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila homeodomain-containing protein Fushi tarazu (Ftz) is expressed sequentially in the embryo, first in alternate segments, then in specific neuroblasts and neurons in the central nervous system, and finally in parts of the gut. During these different developmental stages, the protein is heavily phosphorylated on different subsets of Ser and Thr residues. This stage-specific phosphorylation suggests possible roles for signal transduction pathways in directing tissue-specific Ftz activities. Here we show that one of the Ftz phosphorylation sites, T263 in the N-terminus of the Ftz homeodomain, is phosphorylated in vitro by Drosophila embryo extracts and protein kinase A. In the embryo, mutagenesis of this site to the non-phosphorylatable residue Ala resulted in loss of ftz-dependent segments. Conversely, substitution of T263 with Asp, which is also non-phosphorylatable, but which successfully mimics phosphorylated residues in a number of proteins, rescued the mutant phenotype. This suggests that T263 is in the phosphorylated state when functioning normally in vivo. We also demonstrate that the T263 substitutions of Ala and Asp do not affect Ftz DNA-binding activity in vitro, nor do they affect stability or transcriptional activity in transfected S2 cells. This suggests that T263 phosphorylation is most likely required for a homeodomain-mediated interaction with an embryonically expressed protein. PMID:9545243

  14. Identification and functional analysis of novel phosphorylation sites in the RNA surveillance protein Upf1.

    PubMed

    Lasalde, Clarivel; Rivera, Andrea V; León, Alfredo J; González-Feliciano, José A; Estrella, Luis A; Rodríguez-Cruz, Eva N; Correa, María E; Cajigas, Iván J; Bracho, Dina P; Vega, Irving E; Wilkinson, Miles F; González, Carlos I

    2014-02-01

    One third of inherited genetic diseases are caused by mRNAs harboring premature termination codons as a result of nonsense mutations. These aberrant mRNAs are degraded by the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD) pathway. A central component of the NMD pathway is Upf1, an RNA-dependent ATPase and helicase. Upf1 is a known phosphorylated protein, but only portions of this large protein have been examined for phosphorylation sites and the functional relevance of its phosphorylation has not been elucidated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using tandem mass spectrometry analyses, we report the identification of 11 putative phosphorylated sites in S. cerevisiae Upf1. Five of these phosphorylated residues are located within the ATPase and helicase domains and are conserved in higher eukaryotes, suggesting a biological significance for their phosphorylation. Indeed, functional analysis demonstrated that a small carboxy-terminal motif harboring at least three phosphorylated amino acids is important for three Upf1 functions: ATPase activity, NMD activity and the ability to promote translation termination efficiency. We provide evidence that two tyrosines within this phospho-motif (Y-738 and Y-742) act redundantly to promote ATP hydrolysis, NMD efficiency and translation termination fidelity.

  15. CaMKII Phosphorylation of Na(V)1.5: Novel in Vitro Sites Identified by Mass Spectrometry and Reduced S516 Phosphorylation in Human Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Herren, Anthony W; Weber, Darren M; Rigor, Robert R; Margulies, Kenneth B; Phinney, Brett S; Bers, Donald M

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(V)1.5, drives the upstroke of the cardiac action potential and is a critical determinant of myocyte excitability. Recently, calcium (Ca(2+))/calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a critical regulator of Na(V)1.5 function through phosphorylation of multiple residues including S516, T594, and S571, and these phosphorylation events may be important for the genesis of acquired arrhythmias, which occur in heart failure. However, phosphorylation of full-length human Na(V)1.5 has not been systematically analyzed and Na(V)1.5 phosphorylation in human heart failure is incompletely understood. In the present study, we used label-free mass spectrometry to assess phosphorylation of human Na(V)1.5 purified from HEK293 cells with full coverage of phosphorylatable sites and identified 23 sites that were phosphorylated by CaMKII in vitro. We confirmed phosphorylation of S516 and S571 by LC-MS/MS and found a decrease in S516 phosphorylation in human heart failure, using a novel phospho-specific antibody. This work furthers our understanding of the phosphorylation of Na(V)1.5 by CaMKII under normal and disease conditions, provides novel CaMKII target sites for functional validation, and provides the first phospho-proteomic map of full-length human Na(V)1.5.

  16. Impairments in Site-Specific AS160 Phosphorylation and Effects of Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Consitt, Leslie A.; Van Meter, Jessica; Newton, Christopher A.; Collier, David N.; Dar, Moahad S.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F.P.; Treebak, Jonas T.; Tanner, Charles J.; Houmard, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if site-specific phosphorylation at the level of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is altered in skeletal muscle from sedentary humans across a wide range of the adult life span (18–84 years of age) and if endurance- and/or strength-oriented exercise training could rescue decrements in insulin action and skeletal muscle AS160 phosphorylation. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed in 73 individuals encompassing a wide age range (18–84 years of age), and insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was determined. Decrements in whole-body insulin action were associated with impairments in insulin-induced phosphorylation of skeletal muscle AS160 on sites Ser-588, Thr-642, Ser-666, and phospho-Akt substrate, but not Ser-318 or Ser-751. Twelve weeks of endurance- or strength-oriented exercise training increased whole-body insulin action and reversed impairments in AS160 phosphorylation evident in insulin-resistant aged individuals. These findings suggest that a dampening of insulin-induced phosphorylation of AS160 on specific sites in skeletal muscle contributes to the insulin resistance evident in a sedentary aging population and that exercise training is an effective intervention for treating these impairments. PMID:23801578

  17. Phosphorylation site mapping of soluble proteins: bioinformatical filtering reveals potential plastidic phosphoproteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lohrig, Katharina; Müller, Bernd; Davydova, Joulia; Leister, Dario; Wolters, Dirk Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mode of regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cell architecture. A combination of phosphopeptide enrichment strategies based on TiO(2) and IMAC in addition to our MudPIT strategy revealed the detection of 181 phosphorylation sites which are located on 125 potentially plastidic proteins predicted by GoMiner, TargetP/Predotar in Arabidopsis thaliana. In our study phosphorylation on serine is favored over threonine and this in turn over phosphorylation on tyrosine residues, showing a percentage of 67.4% to 24.3% to 8.3% for pS:pT:pY. Four phosphorylated residues (S208, Y239, T246 and T330), identified by our approach have been fitted to the structure of the activated form of spinach RuBisCO, which are located in close proximity to the substrate binding site for ribulosebisphosphate. Potentially, these phosphorylation sites exert a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Such examples show nicely the value of the presented mass spectrometric dataset for further biochemical applications, since alternative mutation analysis often turns out to be unsuccessful, caused by mutations in essential proteins which result in lethal phenotypes.

  18. PhosCalc: A tool for evaluating the sites of peptide phosphorylation from Mass Spectrometer data

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Daniel; Burrell, Michael A; Studholme, David J; Jones, Alexandra ME

    2008-01-01

    Background We have created a software implementation of a published and verified method for assigning probabilities to potential phosphorylation sites on peptides using mass spectrometric data. Our tool, named PhosCalc, determines the number of possible phosphorylation sites and calculates the theoretical masses for the b and y fragment ions of a user-provided peptide sequence. A corresponding user-provided mass spectrum is examined to determine which putative b and y ions have support in the spectrum and a probability score is calculated for each combination of phosphorylation sites. Findings We test the implementation using spectra of phosphopeptides from bovine beta-casein and we compare the results from the implementation to those from manually curated and verified phosphopeptides from our own experiments. We find that the PhosCalc scores are capable of helping a user to identify phosphorylated sites and can remove a bottleneck in high throughput proteomics analyses. Conclusion PhosCalc is available as a web-based interface for examining up to 100 peptides and as a downloadable tool for examining larger numbers of peptides. PhosCalc can be used to speed up identification of phosphorylation sites and can be easily integrated into data handling pipelines making it a very useful tool for those involved in phosphoproteomic research. PMID:18710483

  19. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    PubMed

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address http://mouse.biomed.cas.cz/sage/.

  20. Creation of geographic information database of subsatellite calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    The prototype of geographic information database (DB) of the sub-satellite calibration test site has been created, to which user can be accessed from the free open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS (QGIS) environment. QGIS is used as an integrator of all data and applications and visualizer of the satellite imagery and vector layers of test sites in the cartographic interface. Conversion of the database from the local representation in the MS Access to the server representation in the PostgreSQL environment has been performed. Dynamic application to QGIS for user interaction from QGIS environment with the object-relational database and to display information from the database has been created. Functional-algorithmic part of these application and the interface for user interaction with the database has been developed.

  1. Functional Implications of O-GlcNAcylation-dependent Phosphorylation at a Proximal Site on Keratin 18.

    PubMed

    Kakade, Poonam S; Budnar, Srikanth; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Vaidya, Milind M

    2016-06-03

    Keratins 8/18 (K8/18) are phosphoglycoproteins and form the major intermediate filament network of simple epithelia. The three O-GlcNAcylation (Ser(29), Ser(30), and Ser(48)) and two phosphorylation (Ser(33) and Ser(52)) serine sites on K18 are well characterized. Both of these modifications have been reported to increase K18 solubility and regulate its filament organization. In this report, we investigated the site-specific interplay between these two modifications in regulating the functional properties of K18, like solubility, stability, and filament organization. An immortalized hepatocyte cell line (HHL-17) stably expressing site-specific single, double, and triple O-GlcNAc and phosphomutants of K18 were used to identify the site(s) critical for regulating these functions. Keratin 18 mutants where O-GlcNAcylation at Ser(30) was abolished (K18-S30A) exhibited reduced phosphorylation induced solubility, increased stability, defective filament architecture, and slower migration. Interestingly, K18-S30A mutants also showed loss of phosphorylation at Ser(33), a modification known to regulate the solubility of K18. Further to this, the K18 phosphomutant (K18-S33A) mimicked K18-S30A in its stability, filament organization, and cell migration. These results indicate that O-GlcNAcylation at Ser(30) promotes phosphorylation at Ser(33) to regulate the functional properties of K18 and also impact cellular processes like migration. O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation on the same or adjacent sites on most proteins antagonize each other in regulating protein functions. Here we report a novel, positive interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation at adjacent sites on K18 to regulate its fundamental properties.

  2. Mechanism of multi-site phosphorylation from a ROCK-I:RhoE complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Komander, David; Garg, Ritu; Wan, Paul T C; Ridley, Anne J; Barford, David

    2008-01-01

    The ROCK-I serine/threonine protein kinase mediates the effects of RhoA to promote the formation of actin stress fibres and integrin-based focal adhesions. ROCK-I phosphorylates the unconventional G-protein RhoE on multiple N- and C-terminal sites. These phosphorylation events stabilise RhoE, which functions to antagonise RhoA-induced stress fibre assembly. Here, we provide a molecular explanation for multi-site phosphorylation of RhoE from the crystal structure of RhoE in complex with the ROCK-I kinase domain. RhoE interacts with the C-lobe αG helix of ROCK-I by means of a novel binding site remote from its effector region, positioning its N and C termini proximal to the ROCK-I catalytic site. Disruption of the ROCK-I:RhoE interface abolishes RhoE phosphorylation, but has no effect on the ability of RhoE to disassemble stress fibres. In contrast, mutation of the RhoE effector region attenuates RhoE-mediated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, indicating that RhoE exerts its inhibitory effects on ROCK-I through protein(s) binding to its effector region. We propose that ROCK-I phosphorylation of RhoE forms part of a feedback loop to regulate RhoA signalling. PMID:18946488

  3. HMMpTM: improving transmembrane protein topology prediction using phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction.

    PubMed

    Tsaousis, Georgios N; Bagos, Pantelis G; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades a large number of computational methods have been developed for predicting transmembrane protein topology. Current predictors rely on topogenic signals in the protein sequence, such as the distribution of positively charged residues in extra-membrane loops and the existence of N-terminal signals. However, phosphorylation and glycosylation are post-translational modifications (PTMs) that occur in a compartment-specific manner and therefore the presence of a phosphorylation or glycosylation site in a transmembrane protein provides topological information. We examine the combination of phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction with transmembrane protein topology prediction. We report the development of a Hidden Markov Model based method, capable of predicting the topology of transmembrane proteins and the existence of kinase specific phosphorylation and N/O-linked glycosylation sites along the protein sequence. Our method integrates a novel feature in transmembrane protein topology prediction, which results in improved performance for topology prediction and reliable prediction of phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. The method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/HMMpTM.

  4. Musk Kinase Activity is Modulated By A Serine Phosphorylation Site in The Kinase Loop

    PubMed Central

    Camurdanoglu, B. Z.; Hrovat, C.; Dürnberger, G.; Madalinski, M.; Mechtler, K.; Herbst, R.

    2016-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation. S751 is also phosphorylated in muscle tissue and its phosphorylation depends on MuSK kinase activity. A phosphomimetic mutant of S751 increases MuSK kinase activity in response to non-saturating agrin concentrations . In addition, basal MuSK and AChR phosphorylation as well as AChR cluster size are increased. We believe that the phosphorylation of S751 provides a novel mechanism to relief the autoinhibition of the MuSK activation loop. Such a lower autoinhibition could foster or stabilize MuSK kinase activation, especially during stages when no or low level of agrin are present. Phosphorylation of S751 might therefore represent a novel mechanism to modulate MuSK kinase activity during prepatterning or NMJ maintenance. PMID:27666825

  5. Musk Kinase Activity is Modulated By A Serine Phosphorylation Site in The Kinase Loop.

    PubMed

    Camurdanoglu, B Z; Hrovat, C; Dürnberger, G; Madalinski, M; Mechtler, K; Herbst, R

    2016-09-26

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation. S751 is also phosphorylated in muscle tissue and its phosphorylation depends on MuSK kinase activity. A phosphomimetic mutant of S751 increases MuSK kinase activity in response to non-saturating agrin concentrations . In addition, basal MuSK and AChR phosphorylation as well as AChR cluster size are increased. We believe that the phosphorylation of S751 provides a novel mechanism to relief the autoinhibition of the MuSK activation loop. Such a lower autoinhibition could foster or stabilize MuSK kinase activation, especially during stages when no or low level of agrin are present. Phosphorylation of S751 might therefore represent a novel mechanism to modulate MuSK kinase activity during prepatterning or NMJ maintenance.

  6. Prediction of phosphorylation sites based on the integration of multiple classifiers.

    PubMed

    Han, R Z; Wang, D; Chen, Y H; Dong, L K; Fan, Y L

    2017-02-23

    Phosphorylation is an important part of post-translational modifications of proteins, and is essential for many biological activities. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can regulate signal transduction, gene expression, and cell cycle regulation in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is extremely important for both basic research and drug discovery to rapidly and correctly identify the attributes of a new protein phosphorylation sites. Moreover, abnormal phosphorylation can be used as a key medical feature related to a disease in some cases. The using of computational methods could improve the accuracy of detection of phosphorylation sites, which can provide predictive guidance for the prevention of the occurrence and/or the best course of treatment for certain diseases. Furthermore, this approach can effectively reduce the costs of biological experiments. In this study, a flexible neural tree (FNT), particle swarm optimization, and support vector machine algorithms were used to classify data with secondary encoding according to the physical and chemical properties of amino acids for feature extraction. Comparison of the classification results obtained from the three classifiers showed that the classification of the FNT was the best. The three classifiers were then integrated in the form of a minority subordinate to the majority vote to obtain the results. The performance of the integrated model showed improvement in sensitivity (87.41%), specificity (87.60%), and accuracy (87.50%).

  7. Methionine residues around phosphorylation sites are preferentially oxidized in vivo under stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Veredas, Francisco J.; Cantón, Francisco R.; Aledo, J. Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prevalent and well-understood protein modifications. Oxidation of protein-bound methionine, which has been traditionally perceived as an inevitable damage derived from oxidative stress, is now emerging as another modification capable of regulating protein activity during stress conditions. However, the mechanism coupling oxidative signals to changes in protein function remains unknown. An appealing hypothesis is that methionine oxidation might serve as a rheostat to control phosphorylation. To investigate this potential crosstalk between phosphorylation and methionine oxidation, we have addressed the co-occurrence of these two types of modifications within the human proteome. Here, we show that nearly all (98%) proteins containing oxidized methionine were also phosphoproteins. Furthermore, phosphorylation sites were much closer to oxidized methionines when compared to non-oxidized methionines. This proximity between modification sites cannot be accounted for by their co-localization within unstructured clusters because it was faithfully reproduced in a smaller sample of structured proteins. We also provide evidence that the oxidation of methionine located within phosphorylation motifs is a highly selective process among stress-related proteins, which supports the hypothesis of crosstalk between methionine oxidation and phosphorylation as part of the cellular defence against oxidative stress. PMID:28079140

  8. Methionine residues around phosphorylation sites are preferentially oxidized in vivo under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Veredas, Francisco J; Cantón, Francisco R; Aledo, J Carlos

    2017-01-12

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prevalent and well-understood protein modifications. Oxidation of protein-bound methionine, which has been traditionally perceived as an inevitable damage derived from oxidative stress, is now emerging as another modification capable of regulating protein activity during stress conditions. However, the mechanism coupling oxidative signals to changes in protein function remains unknown. An appealing hypothesis is that methionine oxidation might serve as a rheostat to control phosphorylation. To investigate this potential crosstalk between phosphorylation and methionine oxidation, we have addressed the co-occurrence of these two types of modifications within the human proteome. Here, we show that nearly all (98%) proteins containing oxidized methionine were also phosphoproteins. Furthermore, phosphorylation sites were much closer to oxidized methionines when compared to non-oxidized methionines. This proximity between modification sites cannot be accounted for by their co-localization within unstructured clusters because it was faithfully reproduced in a smaller sample of structured proteins. We also provide evidence that the oxidation of methionine located within phosphorylation motifs is a highly selective process among stress-related proteins, which supports the hypothesis of crosstalk between methionine oxidation and phosphorylation as part of the cellular defence against oxidative stress.

  9. Novel method for the high-throughput production of phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Wakata, Yuka; Inobe, Tomonao; Kitamura, Haruki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsuzawa, Shun; Kishi, Yoshihiro; Isobe, Masaharu

    2016-04-29

    Threonine phosphorylation accounts for 10% of all phosphorylation sites compared with 0.05% for tyrosine and 90% for serine. Although monoclonal antibody generation for phospho-serine and -tyrosine proteins is progressing, there has been limited success regarding the production of monoclonal antibodies against phospho-threonine proteins. We developed a novel strategy for generating phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies by cloning immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells that were fixed, intracellularly stained with fluorescently labeled peptides and sorted without causing RNA degradation. Our high-throughput fluorescence activated cell sorting-based strategy, which targets abundant intracellular immunoglobulin as a tag for fluorescently labeled antigens, greatly increases the sensitivity and specificity of antigen-specific plasma cell isolation, enabling the high-efficiency production of monoclonal antibodies with desired antigen specificity. This approach yielded yet-undescribed guinea pig monoclonal antibodies against threonine 18-phosphorylated p53 and threonine 68-phosphorylated CHK2 with high affinity and specificity. Our method has the potential to allow the generation of monoclonal antibodies against a variety of phosphorylated proteins.

  10. Novel method for the high-throughput production of phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Wakata, Yuka; Inobe, Tomonao; Kitamura, Haruki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsuzawa, Shun; Kishi, Yoshihiro; Isobe, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Threonine phosphorylation accounts for 10% of all phosphorylation sites compared with 0.05% for tyrosine and 90% for serine. Although monoclonal antibody generation for phospho-serine and -tyrosine proteins is progressing, there has been limited success regarding the production of monoclonal antibodies against phospho-threonine proteins. We developed a novel strategy for generating phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies by cloning immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells that were fixed, intracellularly stained with fluorescently labeled peptides and sorted without causing RNA degradation. Our high-throughput fluorescence activated cell sorting-based strategy, which targets abundant intracellular immunoglobulin as a tag for fluorescently labeled antigens, greatly increases the sensitivity and specificity of antigen-specific plasma cell isolation, enabling the high-efficiency production of monoclonal antibodies with desired antigen specificity. This approach yielded yet-undescribed guinea pig monoclonal antibodies against threonine 18-phosphorylated p53 and threonine 68-phosphorylated CHK2 with high affinity and specificity. Our method has the potential to allow the generation of monoclonal antibodies against a variety of phosphorylated proteins. PMID:27125496

  11. Database for landscape-scale carbon monitoring sites

    Treesearch

    Jason A. Cole; Kristopher D. Johnson; Richard A. Birdsey; Yude Pan; Craig A. Wayson; Kevin McCullough; Coeli M. Hoover; David Y. Hollinger; John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan; Randall K. Kolka; Peter Wieshampel; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; John Hom; Scott V. Ollinger; Steven G. McNulty; Michael J. Gavazzi

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the database used to compile, store, and manage intensive ground-based biometric data collected at research sites in Colorado, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Wyoming, supporting research activities of the U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP). This report also provides details of each site, the sampling design and...

  12. Differentiation of opioid drug effects by hierarchical multi-site phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Just, Sascha; Illing, Susann; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Lau, Elaine K; Kotowski, Sarah J; Miess, Elke; Mann, Anika; Doll, Christian; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Burlingame, Alma L; von Zastrow, Mark; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the ability of opioid drugs to promote regulated endocytosis of μ-opioid receptors are related to their tendency to produce drug tolerance and dependence. Here we show that drug-specific differences in receptor internalization are determined by a conserved, 10-residue sequence in the receptor's carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Diverse opioids induce receptor phosphorylation at serine (S)375, present in the middle of this sequence, but opioids differ markedly in their ability to drive higher-order phosphorylation on flanking residues [threonine (T)370, T376, and T379]. Multi-phosphorylation is required for the endocytosis-promoting activity of this sequence and occurs both sequentially and hierarchically, with S375 representing the initiating site. Higher-order phosphorylation involving T370, T376, and T379 specifically requires GRK2/3 isoforms, and the same sequence controls opioid receptor internalization in neurons. These results reveal a biochemical mechanism differentiating the endocytic activity of opioid drugs.

  13. PPSP: prediction of PK-specific phosphorylation site with Bayesian decision theory

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yu; Li, Ao; Wang, Lirong; Feng, Huanqing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2006-01-01

    Background As a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, phosphorylation plays essential regulatory roles in a broad spectrum of the biological processes. Although many studies have been contributed on the molecular mechanism of phosphorylation dynamics, the intrinsic feature of substrates specificity is still elusive and remains to be delineated. Results In this work, we present a novel, versatile and comprehensive program, PPSP (Prediction of PK-specific Phosphorylation site), deployed with approach of Bayesian decision theory (BDT). PPSP could predict the potential phosphorylation sites accurately for ~70 PK (Protein Kinase) groups. Compared with four existing tools Scansite, NetPhosK, KinasePhos and GPS, PPSP is more accurate and powerful than these tools. Moreover, PPSP also provides the prediction for many novel PKs, say, TRK, mTOR, SyK and MET/RON, etc. The accuracy of these novel PKs are also satisfying. Conclusion Taken together, we propose that PPSP could be a potentially powerful tool for the experimentalists who are focusing on phosphorylation substrates with their PK-specific sites identification. Moreover, the BDT strategy could also be a ubiquitous approach for PTMs, such as sumoylation and ubiquitination, etc. PMID:16549034

  14. Proteomic investigation of phosphorylation sites in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Moreel, Xavier; Gagné, Pierre; Labelle, Yves; Droit, Arnaud; Chevalier-Paré, Mélissa; Bourassa, Sylvie; McDonald, Darin; Hendzel, Michael J; Prigent, Claude; Poirier, Guy G

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorylation is a very common post-translational modification event known to modulate a wide range of biological responses. Beyond the regulation of protein activity, the interrelation of phosphorylation with other post-translational mechanisms is responsible for the control of diverse signaling pathways. Several observations suggest that phosphorylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates its activity. There is also accumulating evidence to suggest the establishment of phosphorylation-dependent assembly of PARP-1-associated multiprotein complexes. Although it is relatively straightforward to demonstrate phosphorylation of a defined target, identification of the actual amino acids involved still represents a technical challenge for many laboratories. With the use of a combination of bioinformatics-based predictions tools for generic and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites, in vitro phosphorylation assays and mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the phosphorylation profile of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), two major enzymes responsible for poly(ADP-ribose) turnover. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the phosphorylation of several serine/threonine residues within important regulatory domains and motifs of both enzymes. With the use of in vivo microirradiation-induced DNA damage, we show that altered phosphorylation at specific sites can modify the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of PARP-1 at sites of DNA damage. By documenting and annotating a collection of known and newly identified phosphorylation sites, this targeted proteomics study significantly advances our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in the regulation of PARP-1 and PARG.

  15. TassDB: a database of alternative tandem splice sites.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Michael; Nikolajewa, Swetlana; Huse, Klaus; Szafranski, Karol; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schuster, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Platzer, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Subtle alternative splice events at tandem splice sites are frequent in eukaryotes and substantially increase the complexity of transcriptomes and proteomes. We have developed a relational database, TassDB (TAndem Splice Site DataBase), which stores extensive data about alternative splice events at GYNGYN donors and NAGNAG acceptors. These splice events are of subtle nature since they mostly result in the insertion/deletion of a single amino acid or the substitution of one amino acid by two others. Currently, TassDB contains 114 554 tandem splice sites of eight species, 5209 of which have EST/mRNA evidence for alternative splicing. In addition, human SNPs that affect NAGNAG acceptors are annotated. The database provides a user-friendly interface to search for specific genes or for genes containing tandem splice sites with specific features as well as the possibility to download large datasets. This database should facilitate further experimental studies and large-scale bioinformatics analyses of tandem splice sites. The database is available at http://helios.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/TassDB/.

  16. Identification of cyclin A/Cdk2 phosphorylation sites in B-Myb.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, O; Horstmann, S; Toprak, K; Klempnauer, K H; Ferrari, S

    1999-03-01

    B-myb is a highly conserved member of the myb proto-oncogene family that encodes a ubiquitously expressed 110-kDa sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Transactivation of Myb-inducible promoters by B-Myb is repressed by a regulatory domain located at the C-terminus of the protein. Cyclin A/Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation apparently releases the negative constraint and triggers B-Myb transactivation potential. Two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide analysis indicated that the majority of the sites phosphorylated in vivo are targeted in vitro by cyclin A/Cdk2. Six sites in B-Myb fulfil the requirements for recognition by Cdk2. Using point mutation of the phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable amino acids, we show that five of these sites are targets for Cdk2 in vivo. Mutation of one of these residues (T524) to alanine diminished the ability of B-Myb to promote transcription of a reporter gene, suggesting that phosphorylation of B-Myb at this site is important for the regulation of its activity by cyclin A/Cdk2.

  17. Artificial phosphorylation sites modulate the activity of a voltage-gated potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The KvAP potassium channel is representative of a family of voltage-gated ion channels where the membrane potential is sensed by a transmembrane helix containing several positively charged arginines. Previous work by Wang and Zocchi [A. Wang and G. Zocchi, PLoS ONE 6, e18598 (2011), 10.1371/journal.pone.0018598] showed how a negatively charged polyelectrolyte attached in proximity to the voltage sensing element can bias the opening probability of the channel. Here we introduce three phosphorylation sites at the same location and show that the response curve of the channel shifts by about 20 mV upon phosphorylation, while other characteristics such as the single-channel conductance are unaffected. In summary, we construct an artificial phosphorylation site which confers allosteric regulation to the channel.

  18. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in c-jun directly targeted in vitro by protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Richard T. . E-mail: rwaldron@mednet.ucla.edu; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Faull, Kym F.; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2007-05-04

    Protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylates the c-jun amino-terminal in vitro at site(s) distinct from JNK [C. Hurd, R.T. Waldron, E. Rozengurt, Protein kinase D complexes with c-jun N-terminal kinase via activation loop phosphorylation and phosphorylates the c-jun N-terminus, Oncogene 21 (2002) 2154-2160], but the sites have not been identified. Here, metabolic {sup 32}P-labeling of c-jun protein in COS-7 cells indicated that PKD phosphorylates c-jun in vivo at a site(s) between aa 43-93, a region containing important functional elements. On this basis, the PKD-mediated phosphorylation site(s) was further characterized in vitro using GST-c-jun fusion proteins. PKD did not incorporate phosphate into Ser63 and Ser73, the JNK sites in GST-c-jun(1-89). Rather, PKD and JNK could sequentially phosphorylate distinct site(s) simultaneously. By mass spectrometry of tryptic phosphopeptides, Ser58 interposed between the JNK-binding portion of the delta domain and the adjacent TAD1 was identified as a prominent site phosphorylated in vitro by PKD. These data were further supported by kinase reactions using truncations or point-mutations of GST-c-jun. Together, these data suggest that PKD-mediated phosphorylation modulates c-jun at the level of its N-terminal functional domains.

  19. Specific mixing facilitates the comparative quantification of phosphorylation sites with significant dysregulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Bo; Liu, Zheyi; Dong, Mingming; Mao, Jiawei; Zhou, Ye; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fangjun; Zou, Hanfa

    2017-01-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative analyses of proteome and proteome post-translational modifications (PTMs) play more and more important roles in biological, pharmaceutical and clinical studies. However, it is still a big challenge to accurately quantify the proteins or proteins PTM sites with extreme relative abundances in comparative protein samples, such as the significantly dysregulated ones. Herein, a novel quantification strategy, Mixing at Specific Ratio (MaSR) before isotope labeling, had been developed to improve the quantification accuracy and coverage of extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites. Briefly, the comparative protein samples were firstly mixed together at specific ratios of 9:1 and 1:9 (w/w), followed with mass differentiate light and heavy isotope labeling, respectively. The extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites, even if the newly expressed or disappeared ones, could be accurately quantified due to all of the proteins' relative abundances had been adjusted to 2 orders of magnitude (1/9-9) by this strategy. The number of quantified phosphorylation sites with more than 20 folds changes was improved about 10 times in comparative quantification of pervanadate stimulated phosphoproteome of HeLa cells, and 134 newly generated and 21 disappeared phosphorylation sites were solely quantified by the MaSR strategy. The significantly up-regulated phosphorylation sites were mainly involved in the key phosphoproteins regulating the insulin-related pathways, such as PI3K-AKT and RAS-MAPK pathways. Therefore, the MaSR strategy exhibits as a promising way in elucidating the biological processes with significant dysregulations.

  20. Predicting active site residue annotations in the Pfam database.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jaina; Bateman, Alex; Finn, Robert D

    2007-08-09

    Approximately 5% of Pfam families are enzymatic, but only a small fraction of the sequences within these families (<0.5%) have had the residues responsible for catalysis determined. To increase the active site annotations in the Pfam database, we have developed a strict set of rules, chosen to reduce the rate of false positives, which enable the transfer of experimentally determined active site residue data to other sequences within the same Pfam family. We have created a large database of predicted active site residues. On comparing our active site predictions to those found in UniProtKB, Catalytic Site Atlas, PROSITE and MEROPS we find that we make many novel predictions. On investigating the small subset of predictions made by these databases that are not predicted by us, we found these sequences did not meet our strict criteria for prediction. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of our methodology and estimate that only 3% of our predicted sequences are false positives. We have predicted 606110 active site residues, of which 94% are not found in UniProtKB, and have increased the active site annotations in Pfam by more than 200 fold. Although implemented for Pfam, the tool we have developed for transferring the data can be applied to any alignment with associated experimental active site data and is available for download. Our active site predictions are re-calculated at each Pfam release to ensure they are comprehensive and up to date. They provide one of the largest available databases of active site annotation.

  1. Retrovirus Integration Database (RID): a public database for retroviral insertion sites into host genomes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Shan, Jigui; Kearney, Mary F; Wu, Xiaolin; Maldarelli, Frank; Mellors, John W; Luke, Brian; Coffin, John M; Hughes, Stephen H

    2016-07-04

    The NCI Retrovirus Integration Database is a MySql-based relational database created for storing and retrieving comprehensive information about retroviral integration sites, primarily, but not exclusively, HIV-1. The database is accessible to the public for submission or extraction of data originating from experiments aimed at collecting information related to retroviral integration sites including: the site of integration into the host genome, the virus family and subtype, the origin of the sample, gene exons/introns associated with integration, and proviral orientation. Information about the references from which the data were collected is also stored in the database. Tools are built into the website that can be used to map the integration sites to UCSC genome browser, to plot the integration site patterns on a chromosome, and to display provirus LTRs in their inserted genome sequence. The website is robust, user friendly, and allows users to query the database and analyze the data dynamically. https://rid.ncifcrf.gov ; or http://home.ncifcrf.gov/hivdrp/resources.htm .

  2. The Different Function of Single Phosphorylation Sites of Drosophila melanogaster Lamin Dm and Lamin C

    PubMed Central

    Zaremba-Czogalla, Magdalena; Piekarowicz, Katarzyna; Wachowicz, Katarzyna; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Rzepecki, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Lamins' functions are regulated by phosphorylation at specific sites but our understanding of the role of such modifications is practically limited to the function of cdc 2 (cdk1) kinase sites in depolymerization of the nuclear lamina during mitosis. In our study we used Drosophila lamin Dm (B-type) to examine the function of particular phosphorylation sites using pseudophosphorylated mutants mimicking single phosphorylation at experimentally confirmed in vivo phosphosites (S25E, S45E, T435E, S595E). We also analyzed lamin C (A-type) and its mutant S37E representing the N-terminal cdc2 (mitotic) site as well as lamin Dm R64H mutant as a control, non-polymerizing lamin. In the polymerization assay we could observe different effects of N-terminal cdc2 site pseudophosphorylation on A- and B-type lamins: lamin Dm S45E mutant was insoluble, in contrast to lamin C S37E. Lamin Dm T435E (C-terminal cdc2 site) and R64H were soluble in vitro. We also confirmed that none of the single phosphorylation site modifications affected the chromatin binding of lamin Dm, in contrast to the lamin C N-terminal cdc2 site. In vivo, all lamin Dm mutants were incorporated efficiently into the nuclear lamina in transfected Drosophila S2 and HeLa cells, although significant amounts of S45E and T435E were also located in cytoplasm. When farnesylation incompetent mutants were expressed in HeLa cells, lamin Dm T435E was cytoplasmic and showed higher mobility in FRAP assay. PMID:22393432

  3. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates EMCV, TMEV and SafV leader proteins at different sites.

    PubMed

    Basta, Holly A; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2014-08-01

    Cardioviruses of the Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Theilovirus species encode small, amino-terminal proteins called Leaders (L). Phosphorylation of the EMCV L (LE) at two distinct sites by CK2 and Syk kinases is important for virus-induced Nup phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition. Despite similar biological activities, the LE phosphorylation sites are not conserved in the Theiloviruses, Saffold virus (LS, SafV) or Theiler׳s murine encephalitis virus (LT, TMEV) sequences even though these proteins also become phosphorylated in cells and cell-free extracts. Site prediction algorithms, combined with panels of site-specific protein mutations now identify analogous, but not homologous phosphorylation sites in the Ser/Thr and Theilo protein domains of LT and LS, respectively. In both cases, recombinant AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) was reactive with the proteins at these sites, and also with LE, modifying the same residue recognized by CK2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of PSD-95 PDZ Domains Reveals Fine-Tuned Regulation of Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Søren W; Albertsen, Louise; Moran, Griffin E; Levesque, Brié; Pedersen, Stine B; Bartels, Lina; Wapenaar, Hannah; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Mingjie; Bowen, Mark E; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2017-09-15

    The postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa (PSD-95) is a key scaffolding protein that controls signaling at synapses in the brain through interactions of its PDZ domains with the C-termini of receptors, ion channels, and enzymes. PSD-95 is highly regulated by phosphorylation. To explore the effect of phosphorylation on PSD-95, we used semisynthetic strategies to introduce phosphorylated amino acids at four positions within the PDZ domains and examined the effects on interactions with a large set of binding partners. We observed complex effects on affinity. Most notably, phosphorylation at Y397 induced a significant increase in affinity for stargazin, as confirmed by NMR and single molecule FRET. Additionally, we compared the effects of phosphorylation to phosphomimetic mutations, which revealed that phosphomimetics are ineffective substitutes for tyrosine phosphorylation. Our strategy to generate site-specifically phosphorylated PDZ domains provides a detailed understanding of the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of PSD-95 interactions.

  5. Novel AKT phosphorylation sites identified in the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4.

    PubMed

    Malak, Peter N; Dannenmann, Benjamin; Hirth, Alexander; Rothfuss, Oliver C; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The four OSKM factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC are key transcription factors modulating pluripotency, self-renewal and tumorigenesis in stem cells. However, although their transcriptional targets have been extensively studied, little is known about how these factors are regulated at the posttranslational level. In this study, we established an in vitro system to identify phosphorylation patterns of the OSKM factors by AKT kinase. OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC were expressed in Sf9 insect cells employing the baculoviral expression system. OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4 were localized in the nucleus of insect cells, allowing their easy purification to near homogeneity upon nuclear fractionation. All transcription factors were isolated as biologically active DNA-binding proteins. Using in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteome analyses several novel and known AKT phosphorylation sites could be identified in OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4.

  6. A Role for Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Mouse Progesterone Receptor at Serine 191 in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Sandra L.; Ward, Robert D.; Obr, Alison E.; Franco, Heather L.; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Kim, Jung-Sun; Roberts, Justin M.; Jeong, Jae-Wook; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Edwards, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone receptors (PRs) are phosphorylated on multiple sites, and a variety of roles for phosphorylation have been suggested by cell-based studies. Previous studies using PR-null mice have shown that PR plays an important role in female fertility, regulation of uterine growth, the uterine decidualization response, and proliferation as well as ductal side-branching and alveologenesis in the mammary gland. To study the role of PR phosphorylation in vivo, a mouse was engineered with homozygous replacement of PR with a PR serine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 191. No overt phenotypes were observed in the mammary glands or uteri of PR S191A treated with progesterone (P4). In contrast, although PR S191A mice were fertile, litters were 19% smaller than wild type and the estrous cycle was lengthened slightly. Moreover, P4-dependent gene regulation in primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) was altered in a gene-selective manner. MECs derived from wild type and PR S191A mice were grown in a three-dimensional culture. Both formed acinar structures that were morphologically similar, and proliferation was stimulated equally by P4. However, P4 induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and calcitonin was selectively reduced in S191A cultures. These differences were confirmed in freshly isolated MECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the binding of S191A PR to some of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand enhancers and a calcitonin enhancer was substantially reduced. Thus, the elimination of a single phosphorylation site is sufficient to modulate PR activity in vivo. PR contains many phosphorylation sites, and the coordinate regulation of multiple sites is a potential mechanism for selective modulation of PR function. PMID:25333515

  7. Phosphorylated HBO1 at UV irradiated sites is essential for nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Horiguchi, Ryo; Uchida, Chiharu; Nakazawa, Yuka; Motegi, Akira; Nishimoto, Koji; Sakai, Satoshi; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Nishitani, Hideo; Ui, Ayako; Ogi, Tomoo; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    HBO1, a histone acetyl transferase, is a co-activator of DNA pre-replication complex formation. We recently reported that HBO1 is phosphorylated by ATM and/or ATR and binds to DDB2 after ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we show that phosphorylated HBO1 at cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) sites mediates histone acetylation to facilitate recruitment of XPC at the damaged DNA sites. Furthermore, HBO1 facilitates accumulation of SNF2H and ACF1, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex, to CPD sites. Depletion of HBO1 inhibited repair of CPDs and sensitized cells to ultraviolet irradiation. However, depletion of HBO1 in cells derived from xeroderma pigmentosum patient complementation groups, XPE, XPC and XPA, did not lead to additional sensitivity towards ultraviolet irradiation. Our findings suggest that HBO1 acts in concert with SNF2H–ACF1 to make the chromosome structure more accessible to canonical nucleotide excision repair factors. PMID:28719581

  8. Structural and Dynamic Features of F-recruitment Site Driven Substrate Phosphorylation by ERK2

    PubMed Central

    Piserchio, Andrea; Ramakrishan, Venkatesh; Wang, Hsin; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Arshava, Boris; Dutta, Kaushik; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2015-01-01

    The F-recruitment site (FRS) of active ERK2 binds F-site (Phe-x-Phe-Pro) sequences found downstream of the Ser/Thr phospho-acceptor on cellular substrates. Here we apply NMR methods to analyze the interaction between active ERK2 (ppERK2), and a 13-residue F-site-bearing peptide substrate derived from its cellular target, the transcription factor Elk-1. Our results provide detailed insight into previously elusive structural and dynamic features of FRS/F-site interactions and FRS-driven substrate phosphorylation. We show that substrate F-site engagement significantly quenches slow dynamics involving the ppERK2 activation-loop and the FRS. We also demonstrate that the F-site phenylalanines make critical contacts with ppERK2, in contrast to the proline whose cis-trans isomerization has no significant effect on F-site recognition by the kinase FRS. Our results support a mechanism where phosphorylation of the disordered N-terminal phospho-acceptor is facilitated by its increased productive encounters with the ppERK2 active site due to docking of the proximal F-site at the kinase FRS. PMID:26054059

  9. Removal of Potential Phosphorylation Sites does not Alter Creatine Transporter Response to PKC or Substrate Availability.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Lucia; Darrabie, Marcus D; Mishra, Rajashree; Jacobs, Danny O

    2015-01-01

    Creatine, Phosphocreatine, and creatine kinases, constitute an energy shuttle that links ATP production in mitochondria with cellular consumption sites. Myocytes and neurons cannot synthesize creatine and depend on uptake across the cell membrane by a specialized transporter to maintain intracellular creatine levels. Although recent studies have improved our understanding of creatine transport in cardiomyocytes, the structural elements underlying the creatine transporter protein regulation and the relevant intracellular signaling processes are unknown. The effects of pharmacological activation of kinases or phosphatases on creatine transport in cardiomyocytes in culture were evaluated. Putative phosphorylation sites in the creatine transporter protein were identified by bioinformatics analyses, and ablated using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutant transporter function and their responses to pharmacological PKC activation or changes in creatine availability in the extracellular environment, were evaluated. PKC activation decreases creatine transport in cardiomyocytes in culture. Elimination of high probability potential phosphorylation sites did not abrogate responses to PKC activation or substrate availability. Modulation of creatine transport in cardiomyocytes is a complex process where phosphorylation at predicted sites in the creatine transporter protein does not significantly alter activity. Instead, non-classical structural elements in the creatine transporter and/or interactions with regulatory subunits may modulate its activity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Site-specific phosphorylation and microtubule dynamics control Pyrin inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Yang, Jieling; Liu, Wang; Wang, Yupeng; Shao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrin, encoded by the MEFV gene, is best known for its gain-of-function mutations causing familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disease. Pyrin forms a caspase-1–activating inflammasome in response to inactivating modifications of Rho GTPases by various bacterial toxins or effectors. Pyrin-mediated innate immunity is unique in that it senses bacterial virulence rather than microbial molecules, but its mechanism of activation is unknown. Here we show that Pyrin was phosphorylated in bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. We identified Ser-205 and Ser-241 in mouse Pyrin whose phosphorylation resulted in inhibitory binding by cellular 14-3-3 proteins. The two serines underwent dephosphorylation upon toxin stimulation or bacterial infection, triggering 14-3-3 dissociation, which correlated with Pyrin inflammasome activation. We developed antibodies specific for phosphorylated Ser-205 and Ser-241, which confirmed the stimuli-induced dephosphorylation of endogenous Pyrin. Mutational analyses indicated that both phosphorylation and signal-induced dephosphorylation of Ser-205/241 are important for Pyrin activation. Moreover, microtubule drugs, including colchicine, commonly used to treat FMF, effectively blocked activation of the Pyrin inflammasome. These drugs did not affect Pyrin dephosphorylation and 14-3-3 dissociation but inhibited Pyrin-mediated apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) aggregation. Our study reveals that site-specific (de)phosphorylation and microtubule dynamics critically control Pyrin inflammasome activation, illustrating a fine and complex mechanism in cytosolic immunity. PMID:27482109

  11. Differences in the sites of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.F.; Takayama, S.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-08-05

    Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was studied in intact well differentiated hepatoma cells (Fao) and in a solubilized and partially purified receptor preparation obtained from these cells by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin agarose. Tryptic peptides containing the phosphorylation sites of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor were analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphoamino acid content of these peptides was determined by acid hydrolysis and high voltage electrophoresis. Separation of the phosphopeptides from unstimulated Fao cells revealed one major and two minor phosphoserine-containing peptides and a single minor phosphothreonine-containing peptide. Insulin (10(-7) M) increased the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor 3- to 4-fold in the intact Fao cell. After insulin stimulation, two phosphotyrosine-containing peptides were identified. Tyrosine phosphorylation reached a steady state within 20 s after the addition of insulin and remained nearly constant for 1 h. Under our experimental conditions, no significant change in the amount of (TSP)phosphoserine or (TSP)phosphothreonine associated with the beta-subunit was found during the initial response of cells to insulin. When the insulin receptor was extracted from the Fao cells and incubated in vitro with (gamma-TSP)ATP and MnS , very little phosphorylation occurred in the absence of insulin.

  12. Identification and functional analysis of a new phosphorylation site (Y398) in the SH3 domain of Abi-1.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mizuho; Maruoka, Masahiro; Yokota, Naohiko; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Matsui, Akira; Inada, Mika; Ogawa, Takuya; Ishida-Kitagawa, Norihiro; Takeya, Tatsuo

    2011-03-23

    Abi-1 is an adaptor protein for Abelson kinase (c-Abl), and Abi-1 promotes the Abl-mediated phosphorylation of Mammalian Enabled (Mena) by binding both c-Abl and Mena. Here, we identified a new phosphorylation site (Y398) in the SH3 domain of Abi-1, and disruption of Y398, combined with the previously identified phosphorylation site Y213, significantly weakens the binding of Abi-1 to c-Abl. The SH3 domain of Abi-1 and the proline-rich domain of c-Abl are involved in this interaction. Abi-1 phosphorylation at both sites stimulates the phosphorylation of Mena through the activation of c-Abl kinase. The phosphorylation of Abi-1 also plays a role in enhancing the adhesion of Bcr-Abl-transformed leukemic cells. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane protein assembly: two cytoplasmic phosphorylated serine sites of Vpu from HIV-1 affect oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Pei; Lin, Meng-Han; Chan, Ya-Ting; Chen, Li-Chyong; Ma, Che; Fischer, Wolfgang B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral protein U (Vpu) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a short integral membrane protein which is known to self-assemble within the lipid membrane and associate with host factors during the HIV-1 infectivity cycle. In this study, full-length Vpu (M group) from clone NL4-3 was over-expressed in human cells and purified in an oligomeric state. Various single and double mutations were constructed on its phosphorylation sites to mimic different degrees of phosphorylation. Size exclusion chromatography of wild-type Vpu and mutants indicated that the smallest assembly unit of Vpu was a dimer and over time Vpu formed higher oligomers. The rate of oligomerization increased when (i) the degree of phosphorylation at serines 52 and 56 was decreased and (ii) when the ionic strength was increased indicating that the cytoplasmic domain of Vpu affects oligomerization. Coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulations with models of wild-type and mutant Vpu in a hydrated lipid bilayer supported the experimental data in demonstrating that, in addition to a previously known role in downregulation of host factors, the phosphorylation sites of Vpu also modulate oligomerization. PMID:27353136

  14. Phosphorylation sites required for regulation of cardiac calcium channels in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2013-11-26

    L-type Ca(2+) currents conducted by CaV1.2 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. Their activity is increased by β-adrenergic/cAMP signaling via phosphorylation by PKA in the fight-or-flight response, but the sites of regulation are unknown. We describe the functional role of phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704-sites of phosphorylation by PKA and casein kinase II at the interface between the proximal and distal C-terminal regulatory domains. Mutation of both residues to Ala in STAA mice reduced basal L-type Ca(2+) currents, due to a small decrease in expression and a substantial decrease in functional activity. The increase in L-type Ca(2+) current caused by isoproterenol was markedly reduced at physiological levels of stimulation (3-10 nM). Maximal increases in calcium current at nearly saturating concentrations of isoproterenol (100 nM) were also significantly reduced, but the mutation effects were smaller, suggesting that alternative regulatory mechanisms are engaged at maximal levels of stimulation. The β-adrenergic increase in cell contraction was also diminished. STAA ventricular myocytes exhibited arrhythmic contractions in response to isoproterenol, and up to 20% of STAA cells failed to sustain contractions when stimulated at 1 Hz. STAA mice have reduced exercise capacity, and cardiac hypertrophy is evident at 3 mo. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704 is essential for regulation of basal activity of CaV1.2 channels and for up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling at physiological levels of stimulation. Disruption of phosphorylation at those sites leads to impaired cardiac function in vivo, as indicated by reduced exercise capacity and cardiac hypertrophy.

  15. Estimating the total number of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Vlastaridis, Panayotis; Kyriakidou, Pelagia; Chaliotis, Anargyros; Van de Peer, Yves; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Phosphorylation is the most frequent post-translational modification made to proteins and may regulate protein activity as either a molecular digital switch or a rheostat. Despite the cornucopia of high-throughput (HTP) phosphoproteomic data in the last decade, it remains unclear how many proteins are phosphorylated and how many phosphorylation sites (p-sites) can exist in total within a eukaryotic proteome. We present the first reliable estimates of the total number of phosphoproteins and p-sites for four eukaryotes (human, mouse, Arabidopsis, and yeast). Results: In all, 187 HTP phosphoproteomic datasets were filtered, compiled, and studied along with two low-throughput (LTP) compendia. Estimates of the number of phosphoproteins and p-sites were inferred by two methods: Capture-Recapture, and fitting the saturation curve of cumulative redundant vs. cumulative non-redundant phosphoproteins/p-sites. Estimates were also adjusted for different levels of noise within the individual datasets and other confounding factors. We estimate that in total, 13 000, 11 000, and 3000 phosphoproteins and 230 000, 156 000, and 40 000 p-sites exist in human, mouse, and yeast, respectively, whereas estimates for Arabidopsis were not as reliable. Conclusions: Most of the phosphoproteins have been discovered for human, mouse, and yeast, while the dataset for Arabidopsis is still far from complete. The datasets for p-sites are not as close to saturation as those for phosphoproteins. Integration of the LTP data suggests that current HTP phosphoproteomics appears to be capable of capturing 70 % to 95 % of total phosphoproteins, but only 40 % to 60 % of total p-sites. PMID:28327990

  16. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in human Gab-1 protein by EGF receptor kinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lehr, S; Kotzka, J; Herkner, A; Klein, E; Siethoff, C; Knebel, B; Noelle, V; Brüning, J C; Klein, H W; Meyer, H E; Krone, W; Müller-Wieland, D

    1999-01-05

    Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab-1) has been identified recently in a cDNA library of glioblastoma tumors and appears to play a central role in cellular growth response, transformation, and apoptosis. Structural and functional features indicate that Gab-1 is a multisubstrate docking protein downstream in the signaling pathways of different receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the phosphorylation of recombinant human Gab-1 (hGab-1) protein by EGFR in vitro. Using the pGEX system to express the entire protein and different domains of hGab-1 as glutathione S-transferase proteins, kinetic data for phosphorylation of these proteins by wheat germ agglutinine-purified EGFR and the recombinant EGFR (rEGFR) receptor kinase domain were determined. Our data revealed similar affinities of hGab-1-C for both receptor preparations (KM = 2.7 microM for rEGFR vs 3.2 microM for WGA EGFR) as well as for the different recombinant hGab-1 domains. To identify the specific EGFR phosphorylation sites, hGab-1-C was sequenced by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. The entire protein was phosphorylated by rEGFR at eight tyrosine residues (Y285, Y373, Y406, Y447, Y472, Y619, Y657, and Y689). Fifty percent of the identified radioactivity was incorporated in tyrosine Y657 as the predominant peak in HPLC analysis, a site exhibiting features of a potential Syp (PTP1D) binding site. Accordingly, GST-pull down assays with A431 and HepG2 cell lysates showed that phosphorylated intact hGab-1 was able to bind Syp. This binding appears to be specific, because it was abolished by changing the Y657 of hGab-1 to F657. These results demonstrate that hGab-1 is a high-affinity substrate for the EGFR and the major tyrosine phosphorylation site Y657 in the C terminus is a specific binding site for the tyrosine phosphatase Syp.

  17. Site-specific radical directed dissociation of peptides at phosphorylated residues.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Jolene K; Julian, Ryan R

    2008-09-17

    Site-specific fragmentation of peptides at phosphorylated serine or threonine residues is demonstrated. This radical directed cleavage is accomplished by a two-step procedure. First the phosphate is replaced with naphthalenethiol using well established Michael Addition chemistry. Second, the modified peptide is electrosprayed and subjected to irradiation at 266 nm. Absorption at naphthalene causes homolytic cleavage of the connecting carbon-sulfur bond yielding a radical in the beta-position. Subsequent rearrangement cleaves the peptide backbone yielding a d-type fragment. This chemistry is generally applicable as demonstrated by experiments with several different peptides. Assignment of phosphorylation sites is greatly facilitated by this approach, particularly for peptides containing multiple serine or threonine residues.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based identification of native cardiac Nav1.5 channel α subunit phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Lichti, Cheryl F; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Charpentier, Flavien; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Townsend, R Reid; Mérot, Jean

    2012-12-07

    Cardiac voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are key determinants of action potential waveforms, refractoriness and propagation, and Nav1.5 is the main Nav pore-forming (α) subunit in the mammalian heart. Although direct phosphorylation of the Nav1.5 protein has been suggested to modulate various aspects of Nav channel physiology and pathophysiology, native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites have not been identified. In the experiments here, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach was developed to identify native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites directly. Using an anti-NavPAN antibody, Nav channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. The MS analyses revealed that this antibody immunoprecipitates several Nav α subunits in addition to Nav1.5, as well as several previously identified Nav channel associated/regulatory proteins. Label-free comparative and data-driven phosphoproteomic analyses of purified cardiac Nav1.5 protein identified 11 phosphorylation sites, 8 of which are novel. All the phosphorylation sites identified except one in the N-terminus are in the first intracellular linker loop, suggesting critical roles for this region in phosphorylation-dependent cardiac Nav channel regulation. Interestingly, commonly used prediction algorithms did not reliably predict these newly identified in situ phosphorylation sites. Taken together, the results presented provide the first in situ map of basal phosphorylation sites on the mouse cardiac Nav1.5 α subunit.

  19. Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase C: identification of Ser(462) and Thr(455) as major sites of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S; Baldwin, Enoch P; Carman, George M

    2007-06-15

    Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by mammalian protein kinase C was examined. Using purified Escherichia coli-expressed CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was time- and dose-dependent and dependent on the concentrations of ATP and CTP synthetase 1. The protein kinase C phosphorylation of the recombinant enzyme was accompanied by a 95-fold increase in CTP synthetase 1 activity. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analyses showed that CTP synthetase 1 was phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues. The induction of PKC1(R398A)-encoded protein kinase C resulted in a 50% increase for human CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Delta ura8Delta mutant lacking yeast CTP synthetase activity. Synthetic peptides that contain the protein kinase C motif for Ser(462) and Thr(455) were substrates for mammalian protein kinase C, and S462A and T455A mutations resulted in decreases in the extent of CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation that occurred in vivo. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of S. cerevisiae-expressed CTP synthetase 1 mutant enzymes phosphorylated with mammalian protein kinase C confirmed that Ser(462) and Thr(455) were phosphorylation sites. The S. cerevisiae-expressed and purified S462A mutant enzyme exhibited a 2-fold reduction in CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas the purified T455A mutant enzyme exhibited a 2-fold elevation in CTP synthetase 1 activity (Choi, M.-G., and Carman, G.M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5367-5377). These data indicated that protein kinase C phosphorylation at Ser(462) stimulates human CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas phosphorylation at Thr(455) inhibits activity.

  20. Phosphorylation of Human CTP Synthetase 1 by Protein Kinase C IDENTIFICATION OF Ser462 AND Thr455 AS MAJOR SITES OF PHOSPHORYLATION*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S.; Baldwin, Enoch P.; Carman, George M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 by mammalian protein kinase C was examined. Using purified Escherichia coli-expressed CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was time-and dose-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of ATP and CTP synthetase 1. The protein kinase C phosphorylation of the recombinant enzyme was accompanied by a 95-fold increase in CTP synthetase 1 activity. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analyses showed that CTP synthetase 1 was phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues. The induction of PKC1R398A-encoded protein kinase C resulted in a 50% increase for human CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant lacking yeast CTP synthetase activity. Synthetic peptides that contain the protein kinase C motif for Ser462 and Thr455 were substrates for mammalian protein kinase C, and S462A and T455A mutations resulted in decreases in the extent of CTP synthetase 1 phosphorylation that occurred in vivo. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of S. cerevisiae-expressed CTP synthetase 1 mutant enzymes phosphorylated with mammalian protein kinase C confirmed that Ser462 and Thr455 were phosphorylation sites. The S. cerevisiae-expressed and purified S462A mutant enzyme exhibited a 2-fold reduction in CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas the purified T455A mutant enzyme exhibits a 2-fold elevation in CTP synthetase 1 activity (Choi, M.-G., and Carman, G.M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5367–5377). These data indicated that protein kinase C phosphorylation at Ser462 stimulates human CTP synthetase 1 activity, whereas phosphorylation at Thr455 inhibits activity. PMID:17463002

  1. Differentiation of Opioid Drug Effects by Hierarchical Multi-Site Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Just, Sascha; Illing, Susann; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Lau, Elaine K.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Miess, Elke; Mann, Anika; Doll, Christian; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Burlingame, Alma L.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the ability of opioid drugs to promote regulated endocytosis of μ-opioid receptors are related to their tendency to produce drug tolerance and dependence. Here we show that drug-specific differences in receptor internalization are determined by a conserved, 10-residue sequence in the receptor’s carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Diverse opioids induce receptor phosphorylation at serine (S)375, present in the middle of this sequence, but opioids differ markedly in their ability to drive higher-order phosphorylation on flanking residues [threonine (T)370, T376, and T379]. Multi-phosphorylation is required for the endocytosis-promoting activity of this sequence and occurs both sequentially and hierarchically, with S375 representing the initiating site. Higher-order phosphorylation involving T370, T376, and T379 specifically requires GRK2/3 isoforms, and the same sequence controls opioid receptor internalization in neurons. These results reveal a biochemical mechanism differentiating the endocytic activity of opioid drugs. PMID:23239825

  2. Phosphorylation site of NtrC, a protein phosphatase whose covalent intermediate activates transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, D A; Gillece-Castro, B L; Burlingame, A L; Koshland, D E

    1992-01-01

    The NtrC transcription factor is a member of a family of homologous prokaryotic regulatory proteins that participate in the transduction of extracellular and nutritional signals. It has been demonstrated that the phosphate group from a histidine residue of the phosphorylated NtrB protein autokinase is transferred to the NtrC protein. Phosphorylation of the NtrC protein is transient and activates its transcriptional enhancement activity. We have investigated the site of phosphorylation of the Salmonella typhimurium NtrC protein and find that it is an aspartate residue (Asp-54) that is found within a sequence conserved in all of the members of the family of regulatory proteins. We propose that this phosphorylation is an NtrC protein histidine phosphatase catalytic intermediate. This conclusion suggests that the NtrC family should be viewed not as kinase substrates but as enzymes that can catalyze the hydrolysis of their activated forms in a concentration-independent fashion. They are similar in this sense to eukaryotic signal-transducing GTPases. Images PMID:1321122

  3. Improved localization of phosphorylation sites in simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    van Roy, F; Fransen, L; Fiers, W

    1983-01-01

    The location of phosphorylation sites in the large T antigen of simian virus 40 has been studied both by partial chemical cleavage and by partial proteolysis of various forms of large T. These included the full-size wild-type molecule with an apparent molecular weight of 88,000, deleted molecules coded for by the mutants dl1265 and dl1263, and several shortened derivatives generated by the action of a cellular protease. These molecules differed from each other by variations in the carboxy-terminal end. In contrast, a ubiquitous but minor large T form with a molecular weight of 91,000 was found to be modified in the amino-terminal half of the molecule. In addition to the phosphorylation of threonine at position 701 (K.-H. Scheidtmann et al., J. Virol. 38:59-69, 1981), two other discrete domains of phosphorylation were recognized, one at either side of the molecule. The amino-terminal region was located between positions 81 and 124 and contained both phosphothreonine and phosphoserine residues. The carboxy-terminal region was located between approximate positions 500 and 640 and contained at least one phosphoserine residue but no phosphothreonine. The presence in the phosphorylated domains of large T of known recognition sequences for different types of protein kinases is discussed, together with possible functions of large T associated with these domains. Images PMID:6296439

  4. A Variable Active Site Residue Influences the Kinetics of Response Regulator Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Immormino, Robert M; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2016-10-04

    Two-component regulatory systems, minimally composed of a sensor kinase and a response regulator protein, are common mediators of signal transduction in microorganisms. All response regulators contain a receiver domain with conserved active site residues that catalyze the signal activating and deactivating phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions. We explored the impact of variable active site position T+1 (one residue C-terminal to the conserved Thr/Ser) on reaction kinetics and signaling fidelity, using wild type and mutant Escherichia coli CheY, CheB, and NarL to represent the three major sequence classes observed across response regulators: Ala/Gly, Ser/Thr, and Val/Ile/Met, respectively, at T+1. Biochemical and structural data together suggested that different amino acids at T+1 impacted reaction kinetics by altering access to the active site while not perturbing overall protein structure. A given amino acid at position T+1 had similar effects on autodephosphorylation in each protein background tested, likely by modulating access of the attacking water molecule to the active site. Similarly, rate constants for CheY autophosphorylation with three different small molecule phosphodonors were consistent with the steric constraints on access to the phosphorylation site arising from combination of specific phosphodonors with particular amino acids at T+1. Because other variable active site residues also influence response regulator phosphorylation biochemistry, we began to explore how context (here, the amino acid at T+2) affected the influence of position T+1 on CheY autocatalytic reactions. Finally, position T+1 affected the fidelity and kinetics of phosphotransfer between sensor kinases and response regulators but was not a primary determinant of their interaction.

  5. The OTP-model applied to the Aklim site database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mraini, Kamilia; Jabiri, Abdelhadi; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Bounhir, Aziza; Hach, Youssef; Sabil, Mohammed; Habib, Abdelfettah

    2014-08-01

    Within the framework of the site prospection for the future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), a wide site characterization was achieved. Aklim site located at an altitude of 2350 m at the geographical coordinates: lat.= 30°07'38" N, long.= 8°18'31" W , in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Mountains, was one of the candidate sites chosen by the Framework Programme VI (FP6) of the European Union. To complete the fulfilled study ([19]; [21]), we have used the ModelOTP (model of optical turbulence profiles) established by [15] and improved by [6]. This model allows getting the built-in profiles of the optical turbulence under various conditions. In this paper, we present an overview of the Aklim database results, in the boundary layers and in the free atmosphere separately and we make a comparison with Cerro Pachon result [15].

  6. Assessment of current mass spectrometric workflows for the quantification of low abundant proteins and phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Manuel; Ahrné, Erik; Baron, Anna P.; Glatter, Timo; Fava, Luca L.; Santamaria, Anna; Nigg, Erich A.; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The data described here provide a systematic performance evaluation of popular data-dependent (DDA) and independent (DIA) mass spectrometric (MS) workflows currently used in quantitative proteomics. We assessed the limits of identification, quantification and detection for each method by analyzing a dilution series of 20 unmodified and 10 phosphorylated synthetic heavy labeled reference peptides, respectively, covering six orders of magnitude in peptide concentration with and without a complex human cell digest background. We found that all methods performed very similarly in the absence of background proteins, however, when analyzing whole cell lysates, targeted methods were at least 5–10 times more sensitive than directed or DDA methods. In particular, higher stage fragmentation (MS3) of the neutral loss peak using a linear ion trap increased dynamic quantification range of some phosphopeptides up to 100-fold. We illustrate the power of this targeted MS3 approach for phosphopeptide monitoring by successfully quantifying 9 phosphorylation sites of the kinetochore and spindle assembly checkpoint component Mad1 over different cell cycle states from non-enriched pull-down samples. The data are associated to the research article ‘Evaluation of data-dependent and data-independent mass spectrometric workflows for sensitive quantification of proteins and phosphorylation sites׳ (Bauer et al., 2014) [1]. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000964. PMID:26550600

  7. Low-dose cadmium exposure induces peribronchiolar fibrosis through site-specific phosphorylation of vimentin.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu Jun; Surolia, Ranu; Li, Huashi; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Gang; Liu, Rui-Ming; Mirov, Sergey B; Athar, Mohammad; Thannickal, Victor J; Antony, Veena B

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has been associated with development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The mechanisms and signaling pathways whereby Cd causes pathological peribronchiolar fibrosis, airway remodeling, and subsequent airflow obstruction remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether low-dose Cd exposure induces vimentin phosphorylation and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) activation leading to peribronchiolar fibrosis and subsequent airway remodeling. Our data demonstrate that Cd induces myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition around small (<2 mm in diameter) airways. Upon Cd exposure, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and the production of ECM proteins, including fibronectin and collagen-1, are markedly induced in primary human lung fibroblasts. Cd induces Smad2/3 activation and the translocation of both Smad2/3 and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) into the nucleus. In parallel, Cd induces AKT and cdc2 phosphorylation and downstream vimentin phosphorylation at Ser(39) and Ser(55), respectively. AKT and cdc2 inhibitors block Cd-induced vimentin fragmentation and secretion in association with inhibition of α-SMA expression, ECM deposition, and collagen secretion. Furthermore, vimentin silencing abrogates Cd-induced α-SMA expression and decreases ECM production. Vimentin-deficient mice are protected from Cd-induced peribronchiolar fibrosis and remodeling. These findings identify two specific sites on vimentin that are phosphorylated by Cd and highlight the functional significance of vimentin phosphorylation in YAP1/Smad3 signaling that mediates Cd-induced peribronchiolar fibrosis and airway remodeling. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Koland, John G

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  9. Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase Multi-Site Self-Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Koland, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  10. Identification of phosphorylation sites in the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of SARS-coronavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liang; Shao, Jianmin; Sun, Maomao; Liu, Jinxiu; Xu, Gongjin; Zhang, Xumin; Xu, Ningzhi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Siqi

    2007-12-01

    After decoding the genome of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), next challenge is to understand how this virus causes the illness at molecular bases. Of the viral structural proteins, the N protein plays a pivot role in assembly process of viral particles as well as viral replication and transcription. The SARS-CoV N proteins expressed in the eukaryotes, such as yeast and HEK293 cells, appeared in the multiple spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), whereas the proteins expressed in E. coli showed a single 2DE spotE These 2DE spots were further examined by Western blot and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, and identified as the N proteins with differently apparent pI values and similar molecular mass of 50 kDa. In the light of the observations and other evidences, a hypothesis was postulated that the SARS-CoV N protein could be phosphorylated in eukaryotes. To locate the plausible regions of phosphorylation in the N protein, two truncated N proteins were generated in E. coli and treated with PKC[alpha]. The two truncated N proteins after incubation of PKC[alpha] exhibited the differently electrophoretic behaviors on 2DE, suggesting that the region of 1-256 aa in the N protein was the possible target for PKC[alpha] phosphorylation. Moreover, the SARS-CoV N protein expressed in yeast were partially digested with trypsin and carefully analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In contrast to the completely tryptic digestion, these partially digested fragments generated two new peptide mass signals with neutral loss, and MS/MS analysis revealed two phosphorylated peptides located at the "dense serine" island in the N protein with amino acid sequences, GFYAEGSRGGSQASSRSSSR and GNSGNSTPGSSRGNSPARMASGGGK. With the PKC[alpha] phosphorylation treatment and the partially tryptic digestion, the N protein expressed in E. coli released the same peptides as observed in yeast cells. Thus, this investigation provided the preliminary data to determine the phosphorylation sites in the SARS-CoV N protein, and

  11. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B; MacAulay, N; Fenton, R A

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antibodies targeting pS124-NCC demonstrated a band of 160 kDa in the kidney cortex, but not medulla, which was preabsorbed by a corresponding phosphorylated peptide. Confocal microscopy with kidney tubule segment-specific markers localized pS124-NCC to all distal convoluted tubule cells. Double immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich-Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist dDAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and mTOR/FRAP) showed weak but significant phosphorylation activity at S124. In oocytes, (36)Cl uptake studies combined with biochemical analysis showed decreased activity of plasma membrane-associated NCC when replacing S124 with alanine (A) or aspartic acid (D). In novel tetracycline-inducible MDCKII-NCC cell lines, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC.

  12. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium–chloride cotransporter, NCC

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B; MacAulay, N; Fenton, R A

    2012-01-01

    The sodium–chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antibodies targeting pS124-NCC demonstrated a band of 160 kDa in the kidney cortex, but not medulla, which was preabsorbed by a corresponding phosphorylated peptide. Confocal microscopy with kidney tubule segment-specific markers localized pS124-NCC to all distal convoluted tubule cells. Double immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich–Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist dDAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1-related proline–alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and mTOR/FRAP) showed weak but significant phosphorylation activity at S124. In oocytes, 36Cl uptake studies combined with biochemical analysis showed decreased activity of plasma membrane-associated NCC when replacing S124 with alanine (A) or aspartic acid (D). In novel tetracycline-inducible MDCKII-NCC cell lines, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC. PMID:22966159

  13. Identification and functional analysis of tomato BRI1 and BAK1 receptor kinase phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Vikramjit S; Wang, Xiaofeng; Blackburn, R Kevin; Goshe, Michael B; Mitra, Srijeet K; Williams, Elisabeth L; Bishop, Gerard J; Krasnyanski, Sergei; Allen, George; Huber, Steven C; Clouse, Steven D

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the cell surface by a membrane-bound receptor kinase, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1). BRI1 interacts with BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) to initiate a signal transduction pathway in which autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation of BRI1 and BAK1, as well as phosphorylation of multiple downstream substrates, play critical roles. Detailed mechanisms of BR signaling have been examined in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the role of BRI1 and BAK1 phosphorylation in crop plants is unknown. As a foundation for understanding the mechanism of BR signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify multiple in vitro phosphorylation sites of the tomato BRI1 and BAK1 cytoplasmic domains. Kinase assays showed that both tomato BRI1 and BAK1 are active in autophosphorylation as well as transphosphorylation of each other and specific peptide substrates with a defined sequence motif. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the highly conserved kinase domain activation loop residue threonine-1054 was essential for tomato BRI1 autophosphorylation and peptide substrate phosphorylation in vitro. Furthermore, analysis of transgenic lines expressing full-length tomato BRI1-Flag constructs in the weak tomato bri1 allele, curl3(-abs1), demonstrated that threonine-1054 is also essential for normal BRI1 signaling and tomato growth in planta. Finally, we cloned the tomato ortholog of TGF-β Receptor Interacting Protein (TRIP1), which was previously shown to be a BRI1-interacting protein and kinase domain substrate in Arabidopsis, and found that tomato TRIP1 is a substrate of both tomato BRI1 and BAK1 kinases in vitro.

  14. Identification of Multiple Phosphorylation Sites on Maize Endosperm Starch Branching Enzyme IIb, a Key Enzyme in Amylopectin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Makhmoudova, Amina; Williams, Declan; Brewer, Dyanne; Massey, Sarah; Patterson, Jenelle; Silva, Anjali; Vassall, Kenrick A.; Liu, Fushan; Subedi, Sanjeena; Harauz, George; Siu, K. W. Michael; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) plays a crucial role in amylopectin biosynthesis in maize endosperm by defining the structural and functional properties of storage starch and is regulated by protein phosphorylation. Native and recombinant maize SBEIIb were used as substrates for amyloplast protein kinases to identify phosphorylation sites on the protein. A multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry identified three phosphorylation sites at Ser residues: Ser649, Ser286, and Ser297. Two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activities were partially purified from amyloplasts, termed K1, responsible for Ser649 and Ser286 phosphorylation, and K2, responsible for Ser649 and Ser297 phosphorylation. The Ser286 and Ser297 phosphorylation sites are conserved in all plant branching enzymes and are located at opposite openings of the 8-stranded parallel β-barrel of the active site, which is involved with substrate binding and catalysis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that phospho-Ser297 forms a stable salt bridge with Arg665, part of a conserved Cys-containing domain in plant branching enzymes. Ser649 conservation appears confined to the enzyme in cereals and is not universal, and is presumably associated with functions specific to seed storage. The implications of SBEIIb phosphorylation are considered in terms of the role of the enzyme and the importance of starch biosynthesis for yield and biotechnological application. PMID:24550386

  15. Identification of multiple phosphorylation sites on maize endosperm starch branching enzyme IIb, a key enzyme in amylopectin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Makhmoudova, Amina; Williams, Declan; Brewer, Dyanne; Massey, Sarah; Patterson, Jenelle; Silva, Anjali; Vassall, Kenrick A; Liu, Fushan; Subedi, Sanjeena; Harauz, George; Siu, K W Michael; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) plays a crucial role in amylopectin biosynthesis in maize endosperm by defining the structural and functional properties of storage starch and is regulated by protein phosphorylation. Native and recombinant maize SBEIIb were used as substrates for amyloplast protein kinases to identify phosphorylation sites on the protein. A multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry identified three phosphorylation sites at Ser residues: Ser(649), Ser(286), and Ser(297). Two Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activities were partially purified from amyloplasts, termed K1, responsible for Ser(649) and Ser(286) phosphorylation, and K2, responsible for Ser(649) and Ser(297) phosphorylation. The Ser(286) and Ser(297) phosphorylation sites are conserved in all plant branching enzymes and are located at opposite openings of the 8-stranded parallel β-barrel of the active site, which is involved with substrate binding and catalysis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that phospho-Ser(297) forms a stable salt bridge with Arg(665), part of a conserved Cys-containing domain in plant branching enzymes. Ser(649) conservation appears confined to the enzyme in cereals and is not universal, and is presumably associated with functions specific to seed storage. The implications of SBEIIb phosphorylation are considered in terms of the role of the enzyme and the importance of starch biosynthesis for yield and biotechnological application.

  16. Cooperativity within proximal phosphorylation sites is revealed from large-scale proteomics data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphorylation is the most prevalent post-translational modification on eukaryotic proteins. Multisite phosphorylation enables a specific combination of phosphosites to determine the speed, specificity and duration of biological response. Until recent years, the lack of high quality data limited the possibility for analyzing the properties of phosphorylation at the proteome scale and in the context of a wide range of conditions. Thanks to advances of mass spectrometry technologies, thousands of phosphosites from in-vivo experiments were identified and archived in the public domain. Such resource is appropriate to derive an unbiased view on the phosphosites properties in eukaryotes and on their functional relevance. Results We present statistically rigorous tests on the spatial and functional properties of a collection of ~70,000 reported phosphosites. We show that the distribution of phosphosites positioning along the protein tends to occur as dense clusters of Serine/Threonines (pS/pT) and between Serine/Threonines and Tyrosines, but generally not as much between Tyrosines (pY) only. This phenomenon is more ubiquitous than anticipated and is pertinent for most eukaryotic proteins: for proteins with ≥ 2 phosphosites, 54% of all pS/pT sites are within 4 amino acids of another site. We found a strong tendency for clustered pS/pT to be activated by the same kinase. Large-scale analyses of phosphopeptides are thus consistent with a cooperative function within the cluster. Conclusions We present evidence supporting the notion that clusters of pS/pT but generally not pY should be considered as the elementary building blocks in phosphorylation regulation. Indeed, closely positioned sites tend to be activated by the same kinase, a signal that overrides the tendency of a protein to be activated by a single or only few kinases. Within these clusters, coordination and positional dependency is evident. We postulate that cellular regulation takes advantage of such

  17. Rice_Phospho 1.0: a new rice-specific SVM predictor for protein phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shoukai; Song, Qi; Tao, Huan; Wang, Wei; Wan, Weifeng; Huang, Jian; Xu, Chaoqun; Chebii, Vivien; Kitony, Justine; Que, Shufu; Harrison, Andrew; He, Huaqin

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally-determined or computationally-predicted protein phosphorylation sites for distinctive species are becoming increasingly common. In this paper, we compare the predictive performance of a novel classification algorithm with different encoding schemes to develop a rice-specific protein phosphorylation site predictor. Our results imply that the combination of Amino acid occurrence Frequency with Composition of K-Spaced Amino Acid Pairs (AF-CKSAAP) provides the best description of relevant sequence features that surround a phosphorylation site. A support vector machine (SVM) using AF-CKSAAP achieves the best performance in classifying rice protein phophorylation sites when compared to the other algorithms. We have used SVM with AF-CKSAAP to construct a rice-specific protein phosphorylation sites predictor, Rice_Phospho 1.0 (http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/rice_phospho1.0). We measure the Accuracy (ACC) and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of Rice_Phospho 1.0 to be 82.0% and 0.64, significantly higher than those measures for other predictors such as Scansite, Musite, PlantPhos and PhosphoRice. Rice_Phospho 1.0 also successfully predicted the experimentally identified phosphorylation sites in LOC_Os03g51600.1, a protein sequence which did not appear in the training dataset. In summary, Rice_phospho 1.0 outputs reliable predictions of protein phosphorylation sites in rice, and will serve as a useful tool to the community. PMID:26149854

  18. Deciphering Protein Kinase Specificity through Large-Scale Analysis of Yeast Phosphorylation Site Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Janine; Kim, Philip M.; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Piccirillo, Stacy; Zhou, Xiuqiong; Jeschke, Grace R.; Sheridan, Douglas L.; Parker, Sirlester A.; Desai, Ved; Jwa, Miri; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Niu, Hengyao; Good, Matthew; Remenyi, Attila; Ma, Jia-Lin Nianhan; Sheu, Yi-Jun; Sassi, Holly E.; Sopko, Richelle; Chan, Clarence S. M.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Hollingsworth, Nancy M.; Lim, Wendell A.; Stern, David F.; Stillman, Bruce; Andrews, Brenda J.; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Turk, Benjamin E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a universal mechanism for regulating cell behavior in eukaryotes. Although protein kinases are known to target short linear sequence motifs on their substrates, the rules for kinase substrate recognition are not completely understood. We used a rapid peptide screening approach to determine consensus phosphorylation site motifs targeted by 61 of the 122 kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisae. Correlation of these motifs with kinase primary sequence has uncovered previously unappreciated rules for determining specificity within the kinase family, including a residue determining P−3 Arg specificity among members of the CMGC group of kinases. Furthermore, computational scanning of the yeast proteome enabled the prediction of thousands of new kinase-substrate relationships. We experimentally verified several candidate substrates of the Prk1 family of kinases in vitro and in vivo, and we identified a protein substrate of the kinase Vhs1. Together, these results elucidate how kinase catalytic domains recognize their phosphorylation targets and suggest general avenues for the identification of new kinase substrates across eukaryotes. PMID:20159853

  19. Newly identified phosphorylation site in the vesicular stomatitis virus P protein is required for viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Arindam; Victor, Ken G; Pudupakam, R S; Lyons, Charles E; Wertz, Gail W

    2014-02-01

    The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consists of two viral proteins; the large (L) protein is the main catalytic subunit, and the phosphoprotein (P) is an essential cofactor for polymerase function. The P protein interacts with the L protein and the N-RNA template, thus connecting the polymerase to the template. P protein also binds to free N protein to maintain it in a soluble, encapsidation-competent form. Previously, five sites of phosphorylation were identified on the P protein and these sites were reported to be differentially important for mRNA synthesis or genomic replication. The previous studies were carried out by biochemical analysis of portions of the authentic viral P protein or by analysis of bacterium-expressed, exogenously phosphorylated P protein by mutagenesis. However, there has been no systematic biochemical search for phosphorylation sites on authentic, virus-expressed P protein. In this study, we analyzed the P protein isolated from VSV-infected cells for sites of phosphorylation by mass spectrometry. We report the identification of Tyr14 as a previously unidentified phosphorylation site of VSV P and show that it is essential for viral transcription and replication. However, our mass spectral analysis failed to observe the phosphorylation of previously reported C-terminal residues Ser226 and Ser227 and mutagenic analyses did not demonstrate a role for these sites in RNA synthesis.

  20. Homo sapiens dullard protein phosphatase shows a preference for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site of lipin1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Garland, Megan; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2011-04-19

    Human lipin1 catalyzes the highly regulated conversion of phosphatidic acids to diacylglycerides. Lipin's cellular location, protein partners, and biological function are directed by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events catalyzed by the phosphoserine phosphatase dullard. To define the determinants of dullard substrate recognition and catalysis, and hence, lipin regulation, steady-state kinetic analysis was performed on phosphoserine-bearing nonapeptides based on the phosphorylation sites of lipin. The results demonstrate that dullard shows specificity for the peptide corresponding to the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site (Ser106) of lipin with a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These results are consistent with a coil-loop structure for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site on human lipin1 and make unlikely the requirement for an adaptor protein to confer activity such as that proposed for the yeast homologue.

  1. Phosphorylated Rad18 directs DNA Polymerase η to sites of stalled replication

    PubMed Central

    Day, Tovah A.; Palle, Komariah; Barkley, Laura R.; Kakusho, Naoko; Zou, Ying; Tateishi, Satoshi; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 guides DNA Polymerase eta (Polη) to sites of replication fork stalling and mono-ubiquitinates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to facilitate binding of Y family trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases during TLS. However, it is unclear exactly how Rad18 is regulated in response to DNA damage and how Rad18 activity is coordinated with progression through different phases of the cell cycle. Here we identify Rad18 as a novel substrate of the essential protein kinase Cdc7 (also termed Dbf4/Drf1-dependent Cdc7 kinase [DDK]). A serine cluster in the Polη-binding motif of Rad18 is phosphorylated by DDK. Efficient association of Rad18 with Polη is dependent on DDK and is necessary for redistribution of Polη to sites of replication fork stalling. This is the first demonstration of Rad18 regulation by direct phosphorylation and provides a novel mechanism for integration of S phase progression with postreplication DNA repair to maintain genome stability. PMID:21098111

  2. Pkc-Mediated Stimulation of Amphibian Cftr Depends on a Single Phosphorylation Consensus Site. Insertion of This Site Confers Pkc Sensitivity to Human Cftr

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Reuss, Luis; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations of the CFTR, a phosphorylation-regulated Cl− channel, cause cystic fibrosis. Activation of CFTR by PKA stimulation appears to be mediated by a complex interaction between several consensus phosphorylation sites in the regulatory domain (R domain). None of these sites has a critical role in this process. Here, we show that although endogenous phosphorylation by PKC is required for the effect of PKA on CFTR, stimulation of PKC by itself has only a minor effect on human CFTR. In contrast, CFTR from the amphibians Necturus maculosus and Xenopus laevis (XCFTR) can be activated to similar degrees by stimulation of either PKA or PKC. Furthermore, the activation of XCFTR by PKC is independent of the net charge of the R domain, and mutagenesis experiments indicate that a single site (Thr665) is required for the activation of XCFTR. Human CFTR lacks the PKC phosphorylation consensus site that includes Thr665, but insertion of an equivalent site results in a large activation upon PKC stimulation. These observations establish the presence of a novel mechanism of activation of CFTR by phosphorylation of the R domain, i.e., activation by PKC requires a single consensus phosphorylation site and is unrelated to the net charge of the R domain. PMID:11331356

  3. Phosphorylation Sites Identified in the NEIL1 DNA Glycosylase Are Potential Targets for the JNK1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Cao, Vy Bao; Doublié, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The NEIL1 DNA glycosylase is one of eleven mammalian DNA glycosylases that partake in the first step of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. NEIL1 recognizes and cleaves mainly oxidized pyrimidines from DNA. The past decade has witnessed the identification of an increasing number of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in BER enzymes including phosphorylation, acetylation, and sumoylation, which modulate enzyme function. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive analysis of phosphorylation sites in human NEIL1 expressed in human cells. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed phosphorylation at three serine residues: S207, S306, and a third novel site, S61. We expressed, purified, and characterized phosphomimetic (glutamate) and phosphoablating (alanine) mutants of the three phosphorylation sites in NEIL1 revealed by the MS analysis. All mutant enzymes were active and bound tightly to DNA, indicating that phosphorylation does not affect DNA binding and enzyme activity at these three serine sites. We also characterized phosphomimetic mutants of two other sites of phosphorylation, Y263 and S269, reported previously, and observed that mutation of Y263 to E yielded a completely inactive enzyme. Furthermore, based on sequence motifs and kinase prediction algorithms, we identified the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) as the kinase involved in the phosphorylation of NEIL1. JNK1, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, was detected in NEIL1 immunoprecipitates, interacted with NEIL1 in vitro, and was able to phosphorylate the enzyme at residues S207, S306, and S61. PMID:27518429

  4. IRP1 Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site, critical for regulation of RNA-binding and aconitase activities

    PubMed Central

    Fillebeen, Carine; Caltagirone, Annie; Martelli, Alain; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2005-01-01

    In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the activities of IRP1. We demonstrate that Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) treated with PMA, and we study the effects of the S711E (Ser-711→Glu) mutation on IRP1 functions. A highly purified preparation of recombinant IRP1S711E displays negligible IRE-binding and aconitase activities. It appears that the first step in the aconitase reaction (conversion of citrate into the intermediate cis-aconitate) is more severely affected, as recombinant IRP1S711E retains approx. 45% of its capacity to catalyse the conversion of cis-aconitate into the end-product isocitrate. When expressed in mammalian cells, IRP1S711E completely fails to bind to RNA and to generate isocitrate from citrate. We demonstrate that the apparent inactivation of IRP1S711E is not related to mutation-associated protein misfolding or to alterations in its stability. Sequence analysis of IRP1 from all species currently deposited in protein databases shows that Ser-711 and flanking sequences are highly conserved in the evolutionary scale. Our results suggest that Ser-711 is a critical residue for the control of IRP1 activities. PMID:15636585

  5. IRP1 Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site, critical for regulation of RNA-binding and aconitase activities.

    PubMed

    Fillebeen, Carine; Caltagirone, Annie; Martelli, Alain; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2005-05-15

    In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the activities of IRP1. We demonstrate that Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) treated with PMA, and we study the effects of the S711E (Ser-711-->Glu) mutation on IRP1 functions. A highly purified preparation of recombinant IRP1(S711E) displays negligible IRE-binding and aconitase activities. It appears that the first step in the aconitase reaction (conversion of citrate into the intermediate cis-aconitate) is more severely affected, as recombinant IRP1(S711E) retains approx. 45% of its capacity to catalyse the conversion of cis-aconitate into the end-product isocitrate. When expressed in mammalian cells, IRP1(S711E) completely fails to bind to RNA and to generate isocitrate from citrate. We demonstrate that the apparent inactivation of IRP1(S711E) is not related to mutation-associated protein misfolding or to alterations in its stability. Sequence analysis of IRP1 from all species currently deposited in protein databases shows that Ser-711 and flanking sequences are highly conserved in the evolutionary scale. Our results suggest that Ser-711 is a critical residue for the control of IRP1 activities.

  6. Site-directed spin labeling reveals a conformational switch in the phosphorylation domain of smooth muscle myosin.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Wendy D; Blakely, Sarah E; Nesmelov, Yuri E; Thomas, David D

    2005-03-15

    We have used site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy to detect structural changes within the regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle myosin upon phosphorylation. Smooth muscle contraction is activated by phosphorylation of S19 on RLC, but the structural basis of this process is unknown. There is no crystal structure containing a phosphorylated RLC, and there is no crystal structure for the N-terminal region of any RLC. Therefore, we have prepared single-Cys mutations throughout RLC, exchanged each mutant onto smooth muscle heavy meromyosin, verified normal regulatory function, and used EPR to determine dynamics and solvent accessibility at each site. A survey of spin-label sites throughout the RLC revealed that only the N-terminal region (first 24 aa) shows a significant change in dynamics upon phosphorylation, with most of the first 17 residues showing an increase in rotational amplitude. Therefore, we focused on this N-terminal region. Additional structural information was obtained from the pattern of oxygen accessibility along the sequence. In the absence of phosphorylation, little or no periodicity was observed, suggesting a lack of secondary structural order in this region. However, phosphorylation induced a strong helical pattern (3.6-residue periodicity) in the first 17 residues, while increasing accessibility throughout the first 24 residues. We have identified a domain within RLC, the N-terminal phosphorylation domain, in which phosphorylation increases helical order, internal dynamics, and accessibility. These results support a model in which this disorder-to-order transition within the phosphorylation domain results in decreased head-head interactions, activating myosin in smooth muscle.

  7. PKA modulates GSK-3β- and cdk5-catalyzed phosphorylation of tau in site- and kinase-specific manners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Liang, Zhihou; Shi, Jianhua; Yin, Dongmei; El-Akkad, Ezzat; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation of tau protein is regulated by several kinases, especially glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (cdk5) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Phosphorylation of tau by PKA primes it for phosphorylation by GSK-3β, but the site-specific modulation of GSK-3β–catalyzed tau phosphorylation by the prephosphorylation has not been well investigated. Here, we found that prephosphorylation by PKA promotes GSK-3β–catalyzed tau phosphorylation at Thr181, Ser199, Ser202, Thr205, Thr217, Thr231, Ser396 and Ser422, but inhibits its phosphorylation at Thr212 and Ser404. In contrast, the prephosphorylation had no significant effect on its subsequent phosphorylation by cdk5 at Thr181, Ser199, Thr205, Thr231 and Ser422; inhibited it at Ser202, Thr212, Thr217 and Ser404; and slightly promoted it at Ser396. These studies reveal the nature of the inter-regulation of tau phosphorylation by the three major tau kinases. PMID:17078951

  8. The location of phosphorylation sites and Ca2+-dependent proteolytic cleavage sites on the major neurofilament polypeptides from Myxicola infundibulum.

    PubMed Central

    Eagles, P A; Gilbert, D S; Maggs, A

    1981-01-01

    1. When axoplasm is incubated with [32P]Pi the main phosphorylated components are the neurofilament polypeptides. 2. Activation with Ca2+ of the proteinase present in axoplasm causes degradation of these neurofilaments and the peptides produced by this reaction have been analysed by fingerprinting. 3. Fingerprinting shows that initially the Ca2+-activated proteinase cleaves the neurofilament polypeptides at three major sites producing polypeptides with mol.wts. 70,000, 50,000 and 47,000. 4. These polypeptides sediment with filaments, originate from the tail-region of the molecule and contain a little radioactive label. 5. As these polypeptides are produced, other polypeptides that come from the head-region of the molecule are liberated as soluble products that contain the bulk of the radioactivity. 6. Fingerprinting therefore shows that at least two regions on the molecule are phosphorylated and that the major one is located towards the head-end of the polypeptides. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7039615

  9. PhosphoSVM: prediction of phosphorylation sites by integrating various protein sequence attributes with a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yongchao; Yao, Bo; Zhang, Chi

    2014-06-01

    Phosphorylation is one of the most essential post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. Studies on kinases and their substrates are important for understanding cellular signaling networks. Because of the cost in time and labor associated with large-scale wet-bench experiments, computational prediction of phosphorylation sites becomes important and many computational tools have been developed in the recent decades. The prediction tools can be grouped into two categories: kinase-specific and non-kinase-specific tools. With more kinases being discovered by the new sequencing technologies, accurate non-kinase-specific prediction tools are highly desirable for whole-genome annotation in a wider variety of species. In this manuscript, a support vector machine is used to combine eight different sequence level scoring functions to predict phosphorylation sites. The attributes used by this work, including Shannon entropy, relative entropy, predicted protein secondary structure, predicted protein disorder, solvent accessible area, overlapping properties, averaged cumulative hydrophobicity, and k-nearest neighbor, were able to obtain better results than the previously used attributes by other similar methods. This method achieved AUC values of 0.8405/0.8183/0.7383 for serine (S), threonine (T), and tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation sites, respectively, in animals with a tenfold cross-validation. The model trained by the animal phosphorylation sites was also applied to a plant phosphorylation site dataset as an independent test. The AUC values for the independent test dataset were 0.7761/0.6652/0.5958 for S/T/Y phosphorylation sites, which compared favorably with those of several existing methods. A web server based on our method was constructed for public use. The server, trained model, and all datasets used in the current study are available at http://sysbio.unl.edu/PhosphoSVM .

  10. Artifactual sulfation of silver-stained proteins: implications for the assignment of phosphorylation and sulfation sites.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Marlene; Marcantonio, Maria; Lehmann, Sylvia G; Courcelles, Mathieu; Meloche, Sylvain; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Sulfation and phosphorylation are post-translational modifications imparting an isobaric 80-Da addition on the side chain of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. These two post-translational modifications are often difficult to distinguish because of their similar MS fragmentation patterns. Targeted MS identification of these modifications in specific proteins commonly relies on their prior separation using gel electrophoresis and silver staining. In the present investigation, we report a potential pitfall in the interpretation of these modifications from silver-stained gels due to artifactual sulfation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues by sodium thiosulfate, a commonly used reagent that catalyzes the formation of metallic silver deposits onto proteins. Detailed MS analyses of gel-separated protein standards and Escherichia coli cell extracts indicated that several serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues were sulfated using silver staining protocols but not following Coomassie Blue staining. Sodium thiosulfate was identified as the reagent leading to this unexpected side reaction, and the degree of sulfation was correlated with increasing concentrations of thiosulfate up to 0.02%, which is typically used for silver staining. The significance of this artifact is discussed in the broader context of sulfation and phosphorylation site identification from in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  11. Assigning Quantitative Function to Post-Translational Modifications Reveals Multiple Sites of Phosphorylation That Tune Yeast Pheromone Signaling Output

    SciTech Connect

    Pincus, David; Ryan, Christopher J.; Smith, Richard D.; Brent, Roger; Resnekov, Orna; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali

    2013-03-12

    Cell signaling systems transmit information by post-­translationally modifying signaling proteins, often via phosphorylation. While thousands of sites of phosphorylation have been identified in proteomic studies, the vast majority of sites have no known function. Assigning functional roles to the catalog of uncharacterized phosphorylation sites is a key research challenge. Here we present a general approach to address this challenge and apply it to a prototypical signaling pathway, the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pheromone pathway includes a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activated by a G-­protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify sites whose phosphorylation changed when the system was active, and evolutionary conservation to assign priority to a list of candidate MAPK regulatory sites. We made targeted alterations in those sites, and measured the effects of the mutations on pheromone pathway output in single cells. Our work identified six new sites that quantitatively tuned system output. We developed simple computational models to find system architectures that recapitulated the quantitative phenotypes of the mutants. Our results identify a number of regulated phosphorylation events that contribute to adjust the input-­output relationship of this model eukaryotic signaling system. We believe this combined approach constitutes a general means not only to reveal modification sites required to turn a pathway on and off, but also those required for more subtle quantitative effects that tune pathway output. Our results further suggest that relatively small quantitative influences from individual regulatory phosphorylation events endow signaling systems with plasticity that evolution may exploit to quantitatively tailor signaling outcomes.

  12. Phosphorylation of the Consensus Sites of Protein Kinase A on α1D L-type Calcium Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Omar; Qu, Yongxia; Wadgaonkar, Raj; Baroudi, Ghayath; Karnabi, Eddy; Chahine, Mohamed; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The novel α1D L-type Ca2+ channel is expressed in supraventricular tissue and has been implicated in the pacemaker activity of the heart and in atrial fibrillation. We recently demonstrated that PKA activation led to increased α1D Ca2+ channel activity in tsA201 cells by phosphorylation of the channel protein. Here we sought to identify the phosphorylated PKA consensus sites on the α1 subunit of the α1D Ca2+ channel by generating GST fusion proteins of the intracellular loops, N terminus, proximal and distal C termini of the α1 subunit of α1D Ca2+ channel. An in vitro PKA kinase assay was performed for the GST fusion proteins, and their phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting using either anti-PKA substrate or anti-phosphoserine antibodies. Western blotting showed that the N terminus and C terminus were phosphorylated. Serines 1743 and 1816, two PKA consensus sites, were phosphorylated by PKA and identified by mass spectrometry. Site directed mutagenesis and patch clamp studies revealed that serines 1743 and 1816 were major functional PKA consensus sites. Altogether, biochemical and functional data revealed that serines 1743 and 1816 are major functional PKA consensus sites on the α1 subunit of α1D Ca2+ channel. These novel findings provide new insights into the autonomic regulation of the α1D Ca2+ channel in the heart. PMID:19074150

  13. Prediction of protein phosphorylation sites using classification trees and SVM classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betkier, Piotr; Szymański, Zbigniew

    2011-10-01

    The paper presents a method of solving the problem of protein phosphorylation sites recognition. Six classifiers were created for prediction whether specified amino acid sequences represented as a 9-character strings react with given types of the kinase-enzymes. The method consists of three steps. Positions in the amino acid sequences significant for classification are found with the use of classification trees in the first step. Afterwards, the symbols composing the sequences are mapped to the real numbers domain using the Gini index method. The last step consists of creating the SVM classifiers as the final prediction models. The paper contains evaluation of the obtained results and the description of the methods applied to evaluate the quality of the classifiers.

  14. Preorganized Peptide Scaffolds as Mimics of Phosphorylated Proteins Binding Sites with a High Affinity for Uranyl.

    PubMed

    Starck, Matthieu; Sisommay, Nathalie; Laporte, Fanny A; Oros, Stéphane; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2015-12-07

    Cyclic peptides with two phosphoserines and two glutamic acids were developed to mimic high-affinity binding sites for uranyl found in proteins such as osteopontin, which is believed to be a privileged target of this ion in vivo. These peptides adopt a β-sheet structure that allows the coordination of the latter amino acid side chains in the equatorial plane of the dioxo uranyl cation. Complementary spectroscopic and analytical methods revealed that these cyclic peptides are efficient uranyl chelating peptides with a large contribution from the phosphorylated residues. The conditional affinity constants were measured by following fluorescence tryptophan quenching and are larger than 10(10) at physiological pH. These compounds are therefore promising models for understanding uranyl chelation by proteins, which is relevant to this actinide ion toxicity.

  15. Mitochondrial ATP-Pi exchange complex and the site of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y; Hanstein, W G; Galante, Y; Stiggall, D L

    1975-07-01

    Five enzyme complexes, which are concerned with electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, have been isolated from beef heart mitochondria. Enzyme complexes I, II, III and IV are the electron transfer complexes discovered in 1961. Complex V is an energy-conserving complex. It catalyzes ATP-Pi exchange and ATP hydrolysis. The exchange reaction is sensitive to uncouplers, rutamycin, valinomycin plus K-+, dicyclorexylcarboditmide, arsenate, azide, and adenylyl imidodiphosphate. It is also specific for ATP; ITP, GTP and UTP are essentially ineffective. Studies with the photoaffinity labeling uncoupler, 2-azido-4-nitrophenol (NPA), have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding sites are located exclusively in complex V. Complexes I, III and IV, which carry the three coupling sites of the respiratory chain, had negligible capacity for the binding of NPA, whereas the uncoupler-binding capacity of complex V appeared to be increased two- to threefold as compared to mitochondria. Complexes I, II, III, IV and V are obtained from the same batch of mitochondria by a simple fractionation procedure, which employs cholate, deoxycholate, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Studies with NPA have shown that mitochondria contain per milligram protein about 0.6 nmole of uniformly reacting uncoupler binding site. All of the uncouplers tested appeared to interact competitively with this site. Photoaffinity labeling with tritiated NPA has shown that a major portion of NPA binds to a polypeptide of molecular weight between 26,000 and 30,000. Other studies on the mechanism of uncoupling have shown that picrate is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler. It cannot uncouple mitochondria. However, it is an effective uncoupler of ATP synthesis and ATP-induced transhydrogenation or reverse electron transfer when used in conjunction with sonicated submitochondrial particles, which have an inside-out orientation of the inner membrane with respect to the medium. In these particles, picrate

  16. Mimicking the phosphorylation of Rsp5 in PKA site T761 affects its function and cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Zaneta; Kaminska, Joanna; Chelstowska, Anna; Domanska, Anna; Rzepnikowska, Weronika; Sitkiewicz, Ewa; Cholbinski, Piotr; Gourlay, Campbell; Plochocka, Danuta; Zoladek, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase belongs to the Nedd4 family of proteins, which affect a wide variety of processes in the cell. Here we document that Rsp5 shows several phosphorylated variants of different mobility and the migration of the phosphorylated forms of Rsp5 was faster for the tpk1Δ tpk3Δ mutant devoid of two alternative catalytic subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), indicating that PKA possibly phosphorylates Rsp5 in vivo. We demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of GFP-HA-Rsp5 protein using the anti-phospho PKA substrate antibody that Rsp5 is phosphorylated in PKA sites. Rsp5 contains the sequence 758-RRFTIE-763 with consensus RRXS/T in the catalytic HECT domain and four other sites with consensus RXXS/T, which might be phosphorylated by PKA. The strain bearing the T761D substitution in Rsp5 which mimics phosphorylation grew more slowly at 28°C and did not grow at 37°C, and showed defects in pre-tRNA processing and protein sorting. The rsp5-T761D strain also demonstrated a reduced ability to form colonies, an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitivity to ROS-generating agents. These results indicate that PKA may downregulate many functions of Rsp5, possibly affecting its activity. Rsp5 is found in the cytoplasm, nucleus, multivesicular body and cortical patches. The rsp5-T761D mutation led to a strongly increased cortical localization while rsp5-T761A caused mutant Rsp5 to locate more efficiently in internal spots. Rsp5-T761A protein was phosphorylated less efficiently in PKA sites under specific growth conditions. Our data suggests that Rsp5 may be phosphorylated by PKA at position T761 and that this regulation is important for its localization and function.

  17. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site, Ser-170, as a regulator of bad pro-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Dramsi, Shaynoor; Scheid, Michael P; Maiti, Arpita; Hojabrpour, Payman; Chen, Xianming; Schubert, Kathryn; Goodlett, David R; Aebersold, Ruedi; Duronio, Vincent

    2002-02-22

    Bad is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is thought to exert a death-promoting effect by heterodimerization with Bcl-X(L), nullifying its anti-apoptotic activity. Growth factors may promote cell survival at least partially through phosphorylation of Bad at one or more of Ser-112, -136, or -155. Our previous work showed that Bad is also phosphorylated in response to cytokines at another site, which we now identify as Ser-170. The functional role of this novel phosphorylation site was assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and analysis of the pro-apoptotic function of Bad in transiently transfected HEK293 and COS-7 cells or by stable expression in the cytokine-dependent cell line, MC/9. In general, mutation of Ser-170 to Ala results in a protein with increased ability to induce apoptosis, similar to the S112A mutant. Mutation of Ser-170 to Asp, mimicking a constitutively phosphorylated site, results in a protein that is virtually unable to induce apoptosis. Similarly, the S112A/S170D double mutant does not cause apoptosis in HEK293 and MC/9 cell lines. These data strongly suggest that phosphorylation of Bad at Ser-170 is a critical event in blocking the pro-apoptotic activity of Bad.

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation of RUNX1/AML1 on 3 sites increases transactivation potency and stimulates cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linsheng; Fried, Florence B.; Guo, Hong

    2008-01-01

    RUNX1/AML1 regulates lineage-specific genes during hematopoiesis and stimulates G1 cell-cycle progression. Within RUNX1, S48, S303, and S424 fit the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) phosphorylation consensus, (S/T)PX(R/K). Phosphorylation of RUNX1 by cdks on serine 303 was shown to mediate destabilization of RUNX1 in G2/M. We now use an in vitro kinase assay, phosphopeptide-specific antiserum, and the cdk inhibitor roscovitine to demonstrate that S48 and S424 are also phosphorylated by cdk1 or cdk6 in hematopoietic cells. S48 phosphorylation of RUNX1 paralleled total RUNX1 levels during cell-cycle progression, S303 was more effectively phosphorylated in G2/M, and S424 in G1. Single, double, and triple mutation of the cdk sites to the partially phosphomimetic aspartic acid mildly reduced DNA affinity while progressively increasing transactivation of a model reporter. Mutation to alanine increased DNA affinity, suggesting that in other gene or cellular contexts phosphorylation of RUNX1 by cdks may reduce transactivation. The tripleD RUNX1 mutant rescued Ba/F3 cells from inhibition of proliferation by CBFβ-SMMHC more effectively than the tripleA mutant. Together these findings indicate that cdk phosphorylation of RUNX1 potentially couples stem/progenitor proliferation and lineage progression. PMID:18003885

  19. A Functional Screen Provides Evidence for a Conserved, Regulatory, Juxtamembrane Phosphorylation Site in Guanylyl Cyclase A and B

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Deborah M.; Andersland, Joshua; Rose, Beth A.; Stone, Matthew D.; Griffin, Timothy J.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2012-01-01

    Kinase homology domain (KHD) phosphorylation is required for activation of guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A and -B. Phosphopeptide mapping identified multiple phosphorylation sites in GC-A and GC-B, but these approaches have difficulty identifying sites in poorly detected peptides. Here, a functional screen was conducted to identify novel sites. Conserved serines or threonines in the KHDs of phosphorylated receptor GCs were mutated to alanine and tested for reduced hormone to detergent activity ratios. Mutation of Ser-489 in GC-B to alanine but not glutamate reduced the activity ratio to 60% of wild type (WT) levels. Similar results were observed with Ser-473, the homologous site in GC-A. Receptors containing glutamates for previously identified phosphorylation sites (GC-A-6E and GC-B-6E) were activated to ∼20% of WT levels but the additional glutamate substitution for S473 or S489 increased activity to near WT levels. Substrate-velocity assays indicated that GC-B-WT-S489E and GC-B-6E-S489E had lower Km values and that WT-GC-B-S489A, GC-B-6E and GC-B-6E-S489A had higher Km values than WT-GC-B. Homologous desensitization was enhanced when GC-A contained the S473E substitution, and GC-B-6E-S489E was resistant to inhibition by a calcium elevating treatment or protein kinase C activation – processes that dephosphorylate GC-B. Mass spectrometric detection of a synthetic phospho-Ser-473 containing peptide was 200–1300-fold less sensitive than other phosphorylated peptides and neither mass spectrometric nor 32PO4 co-migration studies detected phospho-Ser-473 or phospho-Ser-489 in cells. We conclude that Ser-473 and Ser-489 are Km-regulating phosphorylation sites that are difficult to detect using current methods. PMID:22590601

  20. Effects of targeted phosphorylation site mutations in the DNA-PKcs phosphorylation domain on low and high LET radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Ian M; Bell, Justin J; Maeda, Junko; Genet, Matthew D; Romero, Ashley; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamuta, Hisashi; Kamada, Tadashi; Chen, David J; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of targeted mutations in the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and phosphorylation domains on the survival of cells in response to different qualities of ionizing radiation. Mutated Chinese hamster ovary V3 cells were exposed to 500 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 200 keV/μm monoenergetic Fe ions; 290 MeV/nucleon initial energy and average 50 keV/μm spread-out Bragg peak C ions; 70 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 1 keV/μm monoenergetic protons; and 0.663 MeV initial energy and 0.3 keV/μm Cs(137) γ radiation. The results demonstrated that sensitivity to high linear energy transfer radiation is increased when both S2056 and T2609 clusters each contain a point mutation or multiple mutations are present in either cluster, whereas the phosphoinositide 3 kinase cluster only requires a single mutation to induce the sensitized phenotype of V3 cells. Additionally, the present study demonstrated that sensitivity to DNA cross-linking damage by cisplatin only requires a single mutation in one of the three clusters and that additional point mutations do not increase cell sensitivity.

  1. Mutational analysis of the potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C on the CCKA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, R L L; Fouraux, M A; Pouwels, W; van Emst-de Vries, S E; Ronken, E; De Pont, J J H H M; Willems, P H G M

    1998-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors contain potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (PKC), the exact role of which is poorly understood. In the present study, a mutant cholecystokininA (CCKA) receptor was generated in which the four consensus sites for PKC action were changed in an alanine. Both the wild-type (CCKAWT) and mutant (CCKAMT) receptor were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.Binding of [3H]-cholecystokinin-(26-33)-peptide amide (CCK-8) to membranes prepared from CHO-CCKAWT cells and CHO-CCKAMT cells revealed no difference in binding affinity (Kd values of 0.72 nM and 0.86 nM CCK-8, respectively).The dose-response curves for CCK-8-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) formation were shifted to the left in CHO-CCKAMT cells. This leftward shift was mimicked by the potent inhibitor of protein kinase activity, staurosporine. However, the effect of staurosporine was restricted to CHO-CCKAWT cells. This demonstrates that attenuation of CCK-8-induced activation of adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C-β involves a staurosporine-sensitive kinase, which acts directly at the potential sites of PKC action on the CCKA receptor in CCK-8-stimulated CHO-CCKAWT cells.The potent PKC activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), evoked a rightward shift of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in CHO-CCKAWT cells but not CHO-CCKAMT cells. This is in agreement with the idea that PKC acts directly at the CCKA receptor to attenuate adenylyl cyclase activation.In contrast, TPA evoked a rightward shift of the dose-response curve for CCK-8-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation in both cell lines. This demonstrates that high-level PKC activation inhibits CCK-8-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation also at a post-receptor site.TPA inhibition of agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization was only partly reversed in CHO-CCKAMT cells. TPA also inhibited Ca2+ mobilization in response to the G

  2. Uncertainty in site inspection and tracking database estimates of savings

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenblick, R.; Eto, J.

    1988-12-31

    The authors systematically analyze impact evaluation results of three commercial lighting rebate DSM programs. The research includes (1) analysis of ex ante and ex post estimates of program performance, broken down into critical program parameters: hours of operation, watts saved per measure, and measures installed per site; (2) construction of probability distributions of program performance, both in the aggregate and for these critical program parameters; and (3) use of these analyses and distributions to draw conclusions about the accuracy of savings estimates from a variety of evaluation methods. The analysis suggests that realization rates (a ratio of metered savings estimates to tracking database savings estimates) for the sample of participants they examine are subject to tremendous variability, calling into question the usefulness of a point estimate of the realization rate. Discrepancies in estimates of hours of operation are responsible for most of the uncertainty in the realization rate. Finally, the impact of shorter measure lifetimes on savings estimates suggest that persistence studies should be an evaluation priority.

  3. The DARC site: a database of aligned ribosomal complexes.

    PubMed

    Jarasch, Alexander; Dziuk, Philipp; Becker, Thomas; Armache, Jean-Paul; Hauser, Andreas; Wilson, Daniel N; Beckmann, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a highly dynamic machine responsible for protein synthesis within the cell. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallography structures of ribosomal particles, alone and in complex with diverse ligands (protein factors, RNAs and small molecules), have revealed the dynamic nature of the ribosome and provided much needed insight into translation and its regulation. In the past years, there has been exponential growth in the deposition of cryo-EM maps into the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) as well as atomic structures into the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Unfortunately, the deposited ribosomal particles usually have distinct orientations with respect to one another, which complicate the comparison of the available structures. To simplify this, we have developed a Database of Aligned Ribosomal Complexes, the DARC site (http://darcsite.genzentrum.lmu.de/darc/), which houses the available cryo-EM maps and atomic coordinates of ribosomal particles from the EMDB and PDB aligned within a common coordinate system. An easy-to-use, searchable interface allows users to access and download >130 cryo-EM maps and >300 atomic models in the format of brix and pdb files, respectively. The aligned coordinate system substantially simplifies direct visualization of conformational changes in the ribosome, such as subunit rotation and head-swiveling, as well as direct comparison of bound ligands, such as antibiotics or translation factors.

  4. Phosphorylation of serine 264 impedes active site accessibility in the E1 component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Franziska; Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Golbik, Ralph; Spinka, Michael; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Brauer, Johanna; Patel, Mulchand S; Tittmann, Kai

    2007-05-29

    At the junction of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in cellular metabolism, the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. In mammals, PDHc is tightly regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of three serine residues in the thiamin-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. In vivo, inactivation of human PDHc correlates mostly with phosphorylation of serine 264, which is located at the entrance of the substrate channel leading to the active site of E1. Despite intense investigations, the molecular mechanism of this inactivation has remained enigmatic. Here, a detailed analysis of microscopic steps of catalysis in human wild-type PDHc-E1 and pseudophosphorylation variant Ser264Glu elucidates how phosphorylation of Ser264 affects catalysis. Whereas the intrinsic reactivity of the active site in catalysis of pyruvate decarboxylation remains nearly unaltered, the preceding binding of substrate to the enzyme's active site via the substrate channel and the subsequent reductive acetylation of the E2 component are severely slowed in the phosphorylation variant. The structure of pseudophosphorylation variant Ser264Glu determined by X-ray crystallography reveals no differences in the three-dimensional architecture of the phosphorylation loop or of the active site, when compared to those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the channel leading to the active site is partially obstructed by the side chain of residue 264 in the variant. By analogy, a similar obstruction of the substrate channel can be anticipated to result from a phosphorylation of Ser264. The kinetic and thermodynamic results in conjunction with the structure of Ser264Glu suggest that phosphorylation blocks access to the active site by imposing a steric and electrostatic barrier for substrate binding and active site coupling with the E2 component. As a Ser264Gln variant, which carries no charge at position 264, is also selectively

  5. The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and the origin of hyperhomocysteinemia in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-01-01

    The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in mitochondria is proposed to consist of two molecules of thioretinamide bound to cobalamin, forming thioretinaco, complexed with ozone, oxygen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. and inorganic phosphate, TR2CoO3O2NAD(+)H2PO4(-). Reduction of the pyridinium nitrogen of the nicotinamide group by an electron from electron transport complexes initiates polymerization of phosphate with adenosine diphosphate, yielding nicotinamide riboside and ATP bound to thioretinaco ozonide oxygen. A second electron reduces oxygen to hydroperoxyl radical, releasing ATP from the active site. A proton gradient is created within F1F0 ATPase complexes of mitochondria by reaction of protons with reduced nicotinamide riboside and with hydroperoxyl radical, yielding reduced nicotinamide riboside and hydroperoxide. The hyperhomocysteinemia of aging and dementia is attributed to decreased synthesis of adenosyl methionine by thioretinaco ozonide and ATP, causing decreased allosteric activation of cystathionine synthase and decreased allosteric inhibition of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and resulting in dysregulation of methionine metabolism. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  6. Distinct Phosphorylation Sites on the β2-Adrenergic Receptor Establish a Barcode That Encodes Differential Functions of β-Arrestin

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Kelly N.; Xiao, Kunhong; Ahn, Seungkirl; Shukla, Arun K.; Lam, Christopher M.; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Strachan, Ryan T.; Huang, Teng-Yi; Bressler, Erin A.; Hara, Makoto R.; Shenoy, Sudha K.; Gygi, Steven P.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs, which are also known as seven-transmembrane spanning receptors) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) plays essential roles in the regulation of receptor function by promoting interactions of the receptors with β-arrestins. These multifunctional adaptor proteins desensitize GPCRs, by reducing receptor coupling to G proteins and facilitating receptor internalization, and mediate GPCR signaling through β-arrestin–specific pathways. Detailed mapping of the phosphorylation sites on GPCRs targeted by individual GRKs and an understanding of how these sites regulate the specific functional consequences of β-arrestin engagement may aid in the discovery of therapeutic agents targeting individual β-arrestin functions. The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has many serine and threonine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail and the intracellular loops, which are potential sites of phosphorylation. We monitored the phosphorylation of the β2AR at specific sites upon stimulation with an agonist that promotes signaling by both G protein–mediated and β-arrestin–mediated pathways or with a biased ligand that promotes signaling only through β-arrestin–mediated events in the presence of the full complement of GRKs or when either GRK2 or GRK6 was depleted. We correlated the specific and distinct patterns of receptor phosphorylation by individual GRKs with the functions of β-arrestins and propose that the distinct phosphorylation patterns established by different GRKs establish a “barcode” that imparts distinct conformations to the recruited β-arrestin, thus regulating its functional activities. PMID:21868357

  7. Identification of missing proteins in the neXtProt database and unregistered phosphopeptides in the PhosphoSitePlus database as part of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Shiromizu, Takashi; Adachi, Jun; Watanabe, Shio; Murakami, Tatsuo; Kuga, Takahisa; Muraoka, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2013-06-07

    The Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) is an international effort for creating an annotated proteomic catalog for each chromosome. The first step of the C-HPP project is to find evidence of expression of all proteins encoded on each chromosome. C-HPP also prioritizes particular protein subsets, such as those with post-translational modifications (PTMs) and those found in low abundance. As participants in C-HPP, we integrated proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis results from chromosome-independent biomarker discovery research to create a chromosome-based list of proteins and phosphorylation sites. Data were integrated from five independent colorectal cancer (CRC) samples (three types of clinical tissue and two types of cell lines) and lead to the identification of 11,278 proteins, including 8,305 phosphoproteins and 28,205 phosphorylation sites; all of these were categorized on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis. In total, 3,033 "missing proteins", i.e., proteins that currently lack evidence by mass spectrometry, in the neXtProt database and 12,852 unknown phosphorylation sites not registered in the PhosphoSitePlus database were identified. Our in-depth phosphoproteomic study represents a significant contribution to C-HPP. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD000089.

  8. Effects of kinase inhibitors and potassium phosphate (KPi) on site-specific phosphorylation of branched chain. cap alpha. -ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, M.J.; Shimomura, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Harris, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    BCKDH is phosphorylated by a copurifying kinase at two serine residues on the El..cap alpha.. subunit. Phosphorylation of both sites occurs at about the same rate initially, but inactivation is believed associated only with site 1 phosphorylation. The effects of KPi and known inhibitors of BCKDH kinase, ..cap alpha..-chloroisocaproate (CIC) and branched chain ..cap alpha..-ketoacids (BCKA), on the phosphorylation of purified rat liver BCKDH were studied. Site-specific phosphorylation was quantitated by thin-layer electrophoresis of tryptic peptides followed by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms. Addition of 5 mM KPi was found necessary to stabilize the BCKDH activity at 37/sup 0/C. Increasing the KPi to 50 mM dramatically increased the CIC and BCKA inhibition of site 1 and site 2 phosphorylation. The finding of enhanced sensitivity of inhibitors with 50 mM KPi may facilitate identification of physiologically important kinase effectors. Regardless of the KPi concentration, CIC and the BCKA showed much more effective inhibition of site 2 than site 1 phosphorylation. Although site 1 is the primary inactivating site, predominant inhibition of site 2 phosphorylation may provide a means of modulating kinase/phosphatase control of BCKDH activity under steady state conditions.

  9. Site-specific phosphorylation of L-form starch phosphorylase by the protein kinase activity from sweet potato roots.

    PubMed

    Young, Guang-Huar; Chen, Han-Min; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Tseng, Kuang-Ching; Wu, Jiann-Shing; Juang, Rong-Huay

    2006-02-01

    A 78-amino acid insertion (L78) is found in the low-affinity type (L-form) of starch phosphorylase (L-SP, EC 2.4.1.1). This insertion blocks the starch-binding site on the L-SP molecule, and it decreases the binding affinity of L-SP toward starch. The computational analysis of the amino acid sequence on L78 predicts several phosphorylation sites at its Ser residues. Indeed, from the immunoblotting results using antibodies against phosphoamino acids, we observed that the purified L-SP from mature sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots is phosphorylated. This observation led us to the detection of a protein kinase activity in the protein fraction of the crude extract from the sweet potato roots. The kinase was partially purified by liquid chromatography, and its native molecular mass was estimated as 338 kDa. An expressed peptide (L78P) containing the essential part of L78 was intensively phosphorylated by the kinase. However, H-SP (the high-affinity isomer of SP lacking the L78 insertion) and the proteolytic modified L-SP, which lost its L78 fragment, could not be phosphorylated. Furthermore, using L78P mutants by site-directed mutagenesis at Ser residues on L78, we demonstrate that only one Ser residue on L78 is phosphorylated by the kinase. These results imply that this kinase is specific to L-SP, or more precisely, to the L78 insertion. The in vitro phosphorylated L-SP shows higher sensitivity to proteolytic modification, but has no change in its kinetic parameters.

  10. Identification of key phosphorylation sites in PTH1R that determine arrestin3 binding and fine-tune receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zindel, Diana; Engel, Sandra; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Prézeau, Laurent; Tobin, Andrew B.; Bünemann, Moritz; Krasel, Cornelius; Butcher, Adrian J.

    2016-01-01

    The parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTH1R) is a member of family B of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), predominantly expressed in bone and kidney where it modulates extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and bone turnover. It is well established that phosphorylation of GPCRs constitutes a key event in regulating receptor function by promoting arrestin recruitment and coupling to G-protein-independent signaling pathways. Mapping phosphorylation sites on PTH1R would provide insights into how phosphorylation at specific sites regulates cell signaling responses and also open the possibility of developing therapeutic agents that could target specific receptor functions. Here, we have used mass spectrometry to identify nine sites of phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail of PTH1R. Mutational analysis revealed identified two clusters of serine and threonine residues (Ser489–Ser495 and Ser501–Thr506) specifically responsible for the majority of PTH(1–34)-induced receptor phosphorylation. Mutation of these residues to alanine did not affect negatively on the ability of the receptor to couple to G-proteins or activate extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer to monitor PTH(1–34)-induced interaction of PTH1R with arrestin3, we show that the first cluster Ser489–Ser495 and the second cluster Ser501–Thr506 operated in concert to mediate both the efficacy and potency of ligand-induced arrestin3 recruitment. We further demonstrate that Ser503 and Thr504 in the second cluster are responsible for 70% of arrestin3 recruitment and are key determinants for interaction of arrestin with the receptor. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the pattern of C-terminal tail phosphorylation on PTH1R may determine the signaling outcome following receptor activation. PMID:27623777

  11. Active mutants of the TCR-mediated p38α alternative activation site show changes in the phosphorylation lip and DEF site formation.

    PubMed

    Tzarum, Netanel; Diskin, Ron; Engelberg, David; Livnah, Oded

    2011-02-04

    The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase is commonly activated by dual (Thr and Tyr) phosphorylation catalyzed by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. However, in T-cells, upon stimulation of the T-cell receptor, p38α is activated via an alternative pathway, involving its phosphorylation by zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 on Tyr323, distal from the phosphorylation lip. Tyr323-phosphorylated p38α is autoactivated, resulting in monophosphorylation of Thr180. The conformational changes induced by pTyr323 mediating autoactivation are not known. The lack of pTyr323 p38α for structural studies promoted the search for Tyr323 mutations that may functionally emulate its effect when phosphorylated. Via a comprehensive mutagenesis of Tyr323, we identified mutations that rendered the kinase intrinsically active and others that displayed no activity. Crystallographic studies of selected active (p38α(Y323Q), p38α(Y323T), and p38α(Y323R)) and inactive (p38α(Y323F)) mutants revealed that substantial changes in interlobe orientation, extended conformation of the activation loop, and formation of substrate docking DEF site (docking site for extracellular signal-regulated kinase FXF) interaction pocket are associated with p38α activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hierarchical phosphorylation at N-terminal transformation-sensitive sites in c-Myc protein is regulated by mitogens and in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lutterbach, B; Hann, S R

    1994-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the c-Myc protein has been reported to be critical for both the transactivation and biological functions of the c-Myc proteins. Through detailed phosphopeptide mapping analyses, we demonstrate that there is a cluster of four regulated and complex phosphorylation events on the N-terminal domain of Myc proteins, including Thr-58, Ser-62, and Ser-71. An apparent enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation occurs on v-Myc proteins having a mutation at Thr-58 which has previously been correlated with increased transforming ability. In contrast, phosphorylation of Thr-58 in cells is dependent on a prior phosphorylation of Ser-62. Hierarchical phosphorylation of c-Myc is also observed in vitro with a specific glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha, unlike the promiscuous phosphorylation observed with other glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and 3 beta preparations. Although both p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cdc2 kinase specifically phosphorylate Ser-62 in vitro and cellular phosphorylation of Thr-58/Ser-62 is stimulated by mitogens, other in vivo experiments do not support a role for these kinases in the phosphorylation of Myc proteins. Unexpectedly, both the Thr-58 and Ser-62 phosphorylation events, but not other N-terminal phosphorylation events, can occur in the cytoplasm, suggesting that translocation of the c-Myc proteins to the nucleus is not required for phosphorylation at these sites. In addition, there appears to be an unusual block to the phosphorylation of Ser-62 during mitosis. Finally, although the enhanced transforming properties of Myc proteins correlates with the loss of phosphorylation at Thr-58 and an enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation, these phosphorylation events do not alter the ability of c-Myc to transactivate through the CACGTG Myc/Max binding site. Images PMID:8035827

  13. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Nagib; Swatek, Kirby N.; Zhang, Jingfen; Miernyk, Ján A.; Xu, Dong; Thelen, Jay J.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC) is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client (KiC) assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform “scanning mutagenesis” of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from “phylogenetic analysis” of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mtPDC by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution. PMID:22811682

  14. Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Paul, Atanu; Su, Dan; Mehmood, Shahid; Foo, Tzeh Keong; Ochi, Takashi; Bunting, Emma L.; Xia, Bing; Robinson, Carol V.; Wang, Bin; Blundell, Tom L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR. PMID:26778126

  15. Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Paul, Atanu; Su, Dan; Mehmood, Shahid; Foo, Tzeh Keong; Ochi, Takashi; Bunting, Emma L; Xia, Bing; Robinson, Carol V; Wang, Bin; Blundell, Tom L

    2016-02-04

    BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.

  16. Putative phosphorylation sites on WCA domain of HA2 is essential for Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yi-pin; Wang, Qian; Wu, Chun-chen; Pei, Rong-juan; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Xin-wen

    2011-08-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modification processes that play an essential role in regulating protein functionality. The Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) orf2-encoded nucleocapsid protein HA2 participates in orchestration of virus-induced actin polymerization through its WCA domain, in which phosphorylation status are supposed to be critical in respect to actin polymerization. In the present study, two putative phosphorylation sites ((232)Thr and (250)Ser) and a highly conserved Serine ((245)Ser) on the WCA domain of HA2 were mutated, and their phenotypes were characterized by reintroducing the mutated HA2 into the HearNPV genome. Viral infectivity assays demonstrated that only the recombinant HearNPV bearing HA2 mutation at (245)Ser can produce infectious virions, both (232)Thr and (250)Ser mutations were lethal to the virus. However, actin polymerization assay demonstrated that all the three viruses bearing HA2 mutations were still capable of initiating actin polymerization in the host nucleus, which indicated the putative phosphorylation sites on HA2 may contribute to HearNPV replication through another unidentified pathway.

  17. Nerve Agent Exposure Elicits Site-Specific Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongwen; O’Brien, Jennifer J.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Miller, Diane B.; Zhang, Qiang; Rana, Minal; Tsui, Tiffany; Peng, Youyi; Tomesch, John; Hendrick, Joseph P.; Wennogle, Lawrence P; Snyder, Gretchen L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds cause toxic symptoms, including convulsions, coma, and death, as the result of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The development of effective treatments to block these effects and attenuate long-term cognitive and motor disabilities that result from OP intoxication is hampered by a limited understanding of the CNS pathways responsible for these actions. We employed a candidate method (called CNSProfile™) to identify changes in the phosphorylation state of key neuronal phosphoproteins evoked by the OP compound, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Focused microwave fixation was used to preserve the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in brains of DFP-treated mice; hippocampus and striatum were analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. DFP exposure elicited comparable effects on phosphorylation of brain phosphoproteins in both C57BL/6 and FVB mice. DFP treatment significantly altered phosphorylation at regulatory residues on glutamate receptors, including Serine897 (S897) of the NR1 NMDA receptor. NR1 phosphorylation was bi-directionally regulated after DFP in striatum versus hippocampus. NR1 phosphorylation was reduced in striatum, but elevated in hippocampus, compared with controls. DARPP-32 phosphorylation in striatum was selectively increased at the Cdk5 kinase substrate, Threonine75 (T75). Phencynonate hydrochloride, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, prevented seizure-like behaviors and the observed changes in phosphorylation induced by DFP. The data reveal region-specific effects of nerve agent exposure on intracellular signaling pathways that correlate with seizure-like behavior and which are reversed by the muscarinic receptor blockade. This approach identifies specific targets for nerve agents, including substrates for Cdk5 kinase, which may be the basis for new anti-convulsant therapies. PMID:20423708

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Fate Is Controlled by Hrs Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites That Regulate Hrs Degradation▿

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Kathryn A.; Visser Smit, Gina D.; Place, Trenton L.; Winistorfer, Stanley; Piper, Robert C.; Lill, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is an endosomal protein essential for the efficient sorting of activated growth factor receptors into the lysosomal degradation pathway. Hrs undergoes ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation on residues Y329 and Y334 downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. It has been difficult to investigate the functional roles of phosphoHrs, as only a small proportion of the cellular Hrs pool is detectably phosphorylated. Using an HEK 293 model system, we found that ectopic expression of the protein Cbl enhances Hrs ubiquitination and increases Hrs phosphorylation following cell stimulation with EGF. We exploited Cbl's expansion of the phosphoHrs pool to determine whether Hrs tyrosine phosphorylation controls EGFR fate. In structure-function studies of Cbl and EGFR mutants, the level of Hrs phosphorylation and rapidity of apparent Hrs dephosphorylation correlated directly with EGFR degradation. Differential expression of wild-type versus Y329,334F mutant Hrs in Hrs-depleted cells revealed that one or both tyrosines regulate ligand-dependent Hrs degradation, as well as EGFR degradation. By modulating Hrs ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and protein levels, Cbl may control the composition of the endosomal sorting machinery and its ability to target EGFR for lysosomal degradation. PMID:17101784

  19. Histone phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, Dorine; Avvakumov, Nikita; Côté, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications are key components of diverse processes that modulate chromatin structure. These marks function as signals during various chromatin-based events, and act as platforms for recruitment, assembly or retention of chromatin-associated factors. The best-known function of histone phosphorylation takes place during cellular response to DNA damage, when phosphorylated histone H2A(X) demarcates large chromatin domains around the site of DNA breakage. However, multiple studies have also shown that histone phosphorylation plays crucial roles in chromatin remodeling linked to other nuclear processes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of histone phosphorylation and describe the many kinases and phosphatases that regulate it. We discuss the key roles played by this histone mark in DNA repair, transcription and chromatin compaction during cell division and apoptosis. Additionally, we describe the intricate crosstalk that occurs between phosphorylation and other histone modifications and allows for sophisticated control over the chromatin remodeling processes. PMID:22948226

  20. Study of O-Phosphorylation Sites in Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis-Related Processes in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Application of the SRM Approach.

    PubMed

    Angeleri, Martina; Muth-Pawlak, Dorota; Aro, Eva-Mari; Battchikova, Natalia

    2016-12-02

    O-Phosphorylation has been shown in photosynthesis-related proteins in a cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (thereafter Synechocystis 6803), suggesting that phosphorylation of S, T, and Y residues might be important in photosynthesis-related processes. Investigation of biological roles of these phosphorylation events requires confident knowledge of the phosphorylated sites and prospects for their individual assessment. We performed phosphoproteomic analysis of Synechocystis 6803 using TiO2 enrichment of the phosphopeptides, followed by LC-MS/MS, and discovered 367 phosphorylation sites in 190 proteins participating in various cellular functions. Furthermore, we focused on the large group of phosphoproteins that are involved in light harvesting, photosynthesis-driven electron flow, photoprotection, and CO2 fixation. The SRM approach was applied to verify/improve assignments of phosphorylation sites in these proteins and to investigate possibilities for analysis of phosphopeptide isomers. The SRM assays were designed for peptides comprising 45 phosphorylation sites. The assays contain peptide iRT values and Q1/Q3 transitions comprising those discriminating between phosphopeptide isoforms. The majority of investigated phosphopeptides and phosphorylated isoforms could be individually assessed with the SRM technique. The assays could be potentially used in future quantitative studies to evaluate an extent of phosphorylation in photosynthesis-related proteins in Synechocystis 6803 cells challenged with various environmental stresses.

  1. Opportune Landing Site CBR and Low-Density Laboratory Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    preparation) are using regression analysis to correlate field CBR with cone index (CI) measurements, as CI values are more numerous in the OLS soils database...tests, the military have adopted other tools more suited for field operations. The airfield cone penetrometer and the dual-mass dynamic cone ... penetrometer (DCP) are most typically used in the field, and correlations are provided to translate their measurements into CBR values for use in design (US

  2. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Falguni; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy. PMID:26739493

  3. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy.

  4. NMDA receptor phosphorylation at a site affected in schizophrenia controls synaptic and behavioral plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Devidze, Nino; Barengolts, Denis; Prostak, Naseem; Sphicas, Eleana; Apicella, Alfonso; Malinow, Roberto; Emamian, Effat S.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDAR) at serine (S) 897 is markedly reduced in schizophrenia patients. However, the role of NR1 S897 phosphorylation in normal synaptic function and adaptive behaviors are unknown. To address these questions we generated mice in which the NR1 S897 is replaced with alanine (A). This knock-in mutation causes severe impairment in NMDAR synaptic incorporation and NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Furthermore, the phosphomutant animals have reduced AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission, decreased AMPAR GluR1 subunit in the synapse, and impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). Finally, the mutant mice exhibit behavioral deficits in social interaction and sensorimotor gating. Our results suggest that an impairment in NR1 phosphorylation leads to glutamatergic hypofunction that can contribute to behavioral deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. PMID:19776282

  5. An unbiased approach to identifying tau kinases that phosphorylate tau at sites associated with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Annalisa; Brewerton, Suzanne; Bell, Amanda; Sargent, Samantha; Glover, Sarah; Hardy, Clare; Moore, Roger; Calley, John; Ramachandran, Devaki; Poidinger, Michael; Karran, Eric; Davies, Peter; Hutton, Michael; Szekeres, Philip; Bose, Suchira

    2013-08-09

    Neurofibrillary tangles, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), are composed of paired helical filaments of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. The accumulation of these proteinaceous aggregates in AD correlates with synaptic loss and severity of dementia. Identifying the kinases involved in the pathological phosphorylation of tau may identify novel targets for AD. We used an unbiased approach to study the effect of 352 human kinases on their ability to phosphorylate tau at epitopes associated with AD. The kinases were overexpressed together with the longest form of human tau in human neuroblastoma cells. Levels of total and phosphorylated tau (epitopes Ser(P)-202, Thr(P)-231, Ser(P)-235, and Ser(P)-396/404) were measured in cell lysates using AlphaScreen assays. GSK3α, GSK3β, and MAPK13 were found to be the most active tau kinases, phosphorylating tau at all four epitopes. We further dissected the effects of GSK3α and GSK3β using pharmacological and genetic tools in hTau primary cortical neurons. Pathway analysis of the kinases identified in the screen suggested mechanisms for regulation of total tau levels and tau phosphorylation; for example, kinases that affect total tau levels do so by inhibition or activation of translation. A network fishing approach with the kinase hits identified other key molecules putatively involved in tau phosphorylation pathways, including the G-protein signaling through the Ras family of GTPases (MAPK family) pathway. The findings identify novel tau kinases and novel pathways that may be relevant for AD and other tauopathies.

  6. Direct analysis of phosphorylation sites on the Rpb1 C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyunsuk; Ficarro, Scott B.; Kang, Un-Beom; Chun, Yujin; Marto, Jarrod A.; Buratowski, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between RNA polymerase II and various mRNA processing and chromatin modifying enzymes are mediated by the changing phosphorylation pattern on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of polymerase subunit Rpb1 during different stages of transcription. Phosphorylations within the repetitive heptamer sequence (YSPTSPS) of CTD have primarily been defined using antibodies, but these do not distinguish different repeats or allow comparative quantitation. Using a CTD modified for mass spectrometry (msCTD), we show that Ser5-P and Ser2-P occur throughout the length of CTD and are far more abundant than other phosphorylation sites. msCTD extracted from cells mutated in several CTD kinases or phosphatases showed the expected changes in phosphorylation. Furthermore, msCTD associated with capping enzyme was enriched for Ser5-P while that bound to the transcription termination factor Rtt103 had higher levels of Ser2-P. These results suggest a relatively sparse and simple "CTD code". PMID:26799764

  7. Carboxyl-terminal multi-site phosphorylation regulates internalization and desensitization of the human sst2 somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Schütz, Dagmar; Nagel, Falko; Stumm, Ralf; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-04-25

    The somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2) is the pharmacological target of somatostatin analogs that are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of human neuroendocrine tumors. We have recently shown that the stable somatostatin analogs octreotide and pasireotide (SOM230) stimulate distinct patterns of sst2 receptor phosphorylation and internalization. Like somatostatin, octreotide promotes the phosphorylation of at least six carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues namely S341, S343, T353, T354, T356 and T359, which in turn leads to a robust receptor endocytosis. Unlike somatostatin, pasireotide stimulates a selective phosphorylation of S341 and S343 of the human sst2 receptor followed by a partial receptor internalization. Here, we show that exchange of S341 and S343 by alanine is sufficient to block pasireotide-driven internalization, whereas mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 to alanine is required to strongly inhibited both octreotide- and somatostatin-induced internalization. Yet, combined mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 is not sufficient to prevent somatostatin-driven β-arrestin mobilization and receptor desensitization. Replacement of all fourteen carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues by alanine completely abrogates sst2 receptor internalization and β-arrestin mobilization in HEK293 cells. Together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that agonist-selective sst2 receptor internalization is regulated by multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail.

  8. Multiple phosphorylation sites of DNA polymerase alpha-primase cooperate to regulate the initiation of DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schub, O; Rohaly, G; Smith, R W; Schneider, A; Dehde, S; Dornreiter, I; Nasheuer, H P

    2001-10-12

    DNA polymerase alpha-primase (pol-prim) is the only enzyme that can start DNA replication de novo. The 180-kDa (p180) and 68-kDa (p68) subunits of the human four-subunit enzyme are phosphorylated by Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Cyclin A-Cdk2 physically interacts with pol-prim and phosphorylates N-terminal amino acids of the p180 and the p68 subunits, leading to an inhibition of pol-prim in initiating cell-free SV40 DNA replication. Mutation of conserved putative Cdk phosphorylation sites in the N terminus of human p180 and p68 reduced their phosphorylation by Cyclin A-Cdk2 in vitro. In contrast to wild-type pol-prim these mutants were no longer inhibited by Cyclin A-Cdk2 in the initiation of viral DNA replication. Importantly, rather than inhibiting it, Cyclin A-Cdk2 stimulated the initiation activity of pol-prim containing a triple N-terminal alanine mutant of the p180 subunit. Together these results suggest that Cyclin A-Cdk2 executes both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the activity of pol-prim in initiating DNA replication.

  9. Epileptogenesis and epileptic maturation in phosphorylation site-specific SNAP-25 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamori, Saori; Otsuka, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori; Suzuki, Eiji; Kataoka, Masakazu; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masami

    2015-09-01

    Snap25(S187A/S187A) mouse is a knock-in mouse with a single amino acid substitution at a protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation site of the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), which is a target-soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) protein essential for neurotransmitter release. Snap25(S187A/S187A) mice exhibit several distinct phenotypes, including reductions in dopamine and serotonin release in the brain, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive dysfunctions. Homozygous mice show spontaneous epileptic convulsions, and about 15% of the mice die around three weeks after birth. The remaining mice survive for almost two years and exhibit spontaneous recurrent seizures throughout their lifetime. Here, we conducted long-term continuous video electroencephalogram recording of the mice and analyzed the process of epileptogenesis and epileptic maturation in detail. Spikes and slow-wave discharges (SWDs) were observed in the cerebral cortex and thalamus before epileptic convulsions began. SWDs showed several properties similar to those observed in absence seizures including (1) lack of in the hippocampus, (2) movement arrest during SWDs, and (3) inhibition by ethosuximide. Multiple generalized seizures occurred in all homozygous mice around three weeks after birth. However, seizure generation stopped within several days, and a seizure-free latent period began. Following a spike-free quiet period, the number of spikes increased gradually, and epileptic seizures reappeared. Subsequently, spontaneous seizures occurred cyclically throughout the life of the mice, and several progressive changes in seizure frequency, seizure duration, seizure cycle interval, seizure waveform, and the number and waveform of epileptic discharges during slow-wave sleep occurred with different time courses over 10 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviors appeared suddenly within three days after epileptic seizures began and were delayed markedly by oral administration of

  10. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Phosphorylates S/T-P Sites in the Hepadnavirus Core Protein C-Terminal Domain and Is Incorporated into Viral Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Ludgate, Laurie; Ning, Xiaojun; Nguyen, David H.; Adams, Christina; Mentzer, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain (CTD) is important for viral RNA packaging, reverse transcription, and subcellular localization. Hepadnavirus capsids also package a cellular kinase. The identity of the host kinase that phosphorylates the core CTD or gets packaged remains to be resolved. In particular, both the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core CTDs harbor several conserved serine/threonine-proline (S/T-P) sites whose phosphorylation state is known to regulate CTD functions. We report here that the endogenous kinase in the HBV capsids was blocked by chemical inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), in particular, CDK2 inhibitors. The kinase phosphorylated the HBV CTD at the serine-proline (S-P) sites. Furthermore, we were able to detect CDK2 in purified HBV capsids by immunoblotting. Purified CDK2 phosphorylated the S/T-P sites of the HBV and DHBV CTD in vitro. Inhibitors of CDKs, of CDK2 in particular, decreased both HBV and DHBV CTD phosphorylation in vivo. Moreover, CDK2 inhibitors blocked DHBV CTD phosphorylation, specifically at the S/T-P sites, in a mammalian cell lysate. These results indicate that cellular CDK2 phosphorylates the functionally critical S/T-P sites of the hepadnavirus core CTD and is incorporated into viral capsids. PMID:22951823

  11. Phosphorylation sites of Epstein–Barr virus EBNA1 regulate its function

    PubMed Central

    Duellman, Sarah J.; Thompson, Katie L.; Coon, Joshua J.; Burgess, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and a risk factor for developing a variety of lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein found in all EBV-related malignancies. It plays a key role in establishing and maintaining the altered state of cells transformed with EBV. EBNA1 is required for a variety of functions, including gene regulation, replication and maintenance of the viral genome, but the regulation of EBNA1's functions is poorly understood. We demonstrate that phosphorylation affects the functions of EBNA1. By using electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, ten specific phosphorylated EBNA1 residues were identified. A mutant derivative preventing the phosphorylation of all ten phosphosites retained the unusually long half-life and the ability to translocate into the nucleus of wild-type EBNA1. This phosphorylation-deficient mutant, however, had a significantly reduced ability to activate transcription and to maintain EBV's plasmids in cells. PMID:19439552

  12. Phosphorylation sites of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 regulate its function.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Thompson, Katie L; Coon, Joshua J; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and a risk factor for developing a variety of lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein found in all EBV-related malignancies. It plays a key role in establishing and maintaining the altered state of cells transformed with EBV. EBNA1 is required for a variety of functions, including gene regulation, replication and maintenance of the viral genome, but the regulation of EBNA1's functions is poorly understood. We demonstrate that phosphorylation affects the functions of EBNA1. By using electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, ten specific phosphorylated EBNA1 residues were identified. A mutant derivative preventing the phosphorylation of all ten phosphosites retained the unusually long half-life and the ability to translocate into the nucleus of wild-type EBNA1. This phosphorylation-deficient mutant, however, had a significantly reduced ability to activate transcription and to maintain EBV's plasmids in cells.

  13. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  14. The Transcription Factor Bach2 Is Phosphorylated at Multiple Sites in Murine B Cells but a Single Site Prevents Its Nuclear Localization.

    PubMed

    Ando, Ryo; Shima, Hiroki; Tamahara, Toru; Sato, Yoshihiro; Watanabe-Matsui, Miki; Kato, Hiroki; Sax, Nicolas; Motohashi, Hozumi; Taguchi, Keiko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nio, Masaki; Maeda, Tatsuya; Ochiai, Kyoko; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-22

    The transcription factor Bach2 regulates the immune system at multiple points, including class switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells and the function of T cells in part by restricting their terminal differentiation. However, the regulation of Bach2 expression and its activity in the immune cells are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that Bach2 mRNA expression decreased in Pten-deficient primary B cells. Bach2 was phosphorylated in primary B cells, which was increased upon the activation of the B cell receptor by an anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody or CD40 ligand. Using specific inhibitors of kinases, the phosphorylation of Bach2 in activated B cells was shown to depend on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The complex of mTOR and Raptor phosphorylated Bach2 in vitro. We identified multiple new phosphorylation sites of Bach2 by mass spectrometry analysis of epitope-tagged Bach2 expressed in the mature B cell line BAL17. Among the sites identified, serine 535 (Ser-535) was critical for the regulation of Bach2 because a single mutation of Ser-535 abolished cytoplasmic accumulation of Bach2, promoting its nuclear accumulation in pre-B cells, whereas Ser-509 played an auxiliary role. Bach2 repressor activity was enhanced by the Ser-535 mutation in B cells. These results suggest that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibits Bach2 by both repressing its expression and inducing its phosphorylation in B cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Quantitative encoding of a partial agonist effect on individual opioid receptors by multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Elaine K.; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Burlingame, Alma L.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs act as partial agonists of seven-transmembrane signaling receptors when compared to endogenous ligands. Partial agonism is well described as a 'macroscopic' property manifest at the level of physiological systems or cell populations, but it is not known whether partial agonists encode discrete regulatory information at the 'microscopic' level of individual receptors. We addressed this question by focusing on morphine, a partial agonist drug for µ-type opioid peptide receptors, and combining quantitative mass spectrometry with cell biological analysis to investigate morphine's reduced efficacy for promoting receptor endocytosis when compared to a peptide full agonist. We show that these chemically distinct ligands produce a complex, and qualitatively similar mixture of phosphorylated opioid receptor forms in intact cells. Quantitatively, however, the agonists promote markedly disproportional production of multi-site phosphorylation involving a specific Ser/Thr motif, whose modification at more than one residue is essential for efficient recruitment of the adaptor protein β-arrestin to clathrin-coated pits that mediate subsequent endocytosis of MORs. These results reveal quantitative encoding of agonist-selective endocytosis at the level of individual opioid receptors, based on the conserved biochemical principles of multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection. PMID:21868358

  16. Phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase at the active site studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Deville-Bonne, D; Sellam, O; Merola, F; Lascu, I; Desmadril, M; Véron, M

    1996-11-19

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is the enzyme responsible in the cell for the phosphorylation of nucleoside or deoxynucleoside diphosphates into the corresponding triphosphates at the expense of ATP. Transfer of the gamma-phosphate is very fast (turnover number above 1000 s-1) and involves the phosphorylation of a histidine residue at the active site of the enzyme. We have used intrinsic protein fluorescence of the single tryptophan of Dictyostelium discoideum NDP kinase as a sensitive probe for monitoring the interaction of the enzyme with its substrates. We demonstrate that the 20% quenching of steady-state fluorescence observed upon addition of ATP is due to formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. Time-resolved fluorescence indicates that the Trp-137 side chain is rigidly bound to the protein core with a unique lifetime of 4.5 ns for the free enzyme at 20 degrees C and that it remains tightly immobilized during the time course of the reaction. Phosphorylation of this catalytic residue (His-122) in the presence of ATP induces a similar decrease in mean lifetime, due to the splitting of the signal and the appearance of a shorter decay. This splitting is discussed in terms of a slow conformational equilibrium. We demonstrate that, in the wild-type enzyme, the conserved His-55 quenches the fluorescence of Trp-137 as the H55A mutant protein fluorescence displays an increase in quantum yield. Even though H55A mutant enzyme is active, the absence of the imidazole ring prevents the detection of the phosphorylated state of His-122 by Trp-137. We conclude that His-55 serves as a relay between His-122 and Trp-137.

  17. GENISES: A GIS Database for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, J.

    1991-12-31

    This paper provides a general description of the Geographic Nodal Information Study and Evaluation System (GENISES) database design. The GENISES database is the Geographic Information System (GIS) component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Database (TDB). The GENISES database has been developed and is maintained by EG & G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (EG & G/EM). As part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Characterization Technical Data Management System, GENISES provides a repository for geographically oriented technical data. The primary objective of the GENISES database is to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project with an effective tool for describing, analyzing, and archiving geo-referenced data. The database design provides the maximum efficiency in input/output, data analysis, data management and information display. This paper provides the systematic approach or plan for the GENISES database design and operation. The paper also discusses the techniques used for data normalization or the decomposition of complex data structures as they apply to GIS database. ARC/INFO and INGRES files are linked or joined by establishing ``relate`` fields through the common attribute names. Thus, through these keys, ARC can allow access to normalized INGRES files greatly reducing redundancy and the size of the database.

  18. SITES 2006 User Guide for the International Database. Second Information Technology in Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk, Ed.; Carstens, Ralph, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    To support and promote secondary analyses, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) is making the SITES 2006 international database and accompanying User Guide available to researchers, analysts, and public users. The database comprises national contexts and school- and teacher-level data from 23 education…

  19. Partial Updating of TSCA Inventory DataBase; Production and Site Reports; Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A partial updating of the TSCA inventory database. The final rule requires manufacturers and importers of certain chemical substances included on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory to report current data on the production volume, plant site, etc.

  20. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of VEGFR2 Is Mediated by Receptor Trafficking: Insights from a Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Lindsay Wendel; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-binding isoforms and non-matrix-binding isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are both capable of stimulating vascular remodeling, but the resulting blood vessel networks are structurally and functionally different. Here, we develop and validate a computational model of the binding of soluble and immobilized ligands to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the endosomal trafficking of VEGFR2, and site-specific VEGFR2 tyrosine phosphorylation to study differences in induced signaling between these VEGF isoforms. In capturing essential features of VEGFR2 signaling and trafficking, our model suggests that VEGFR2 trafficking parameters are largely consistent across multiple endothelial cell lines. Simulations demonstrate distinct localization of VEGFR2 phosphorylated on Y1175 and Y1214. This is the first model to clearly show that differences in site-specific VEGFR2 activation when stimulated with immobilized VEGF compared to soluble VEGF can be accounted for by altered trafficking of VEGFR2 without an intrinsic difference in receptor activation. The model predicts that Neuropilin-1 can induce differences in the surface-to-internal distribution of VEGFR2. Simulations also show that ligated VEGFR2 and phosphorylated VEGFR2 levels diverge over time following stimulation. Using this model, we identify multiple key levers that alter how VEGF binding to VEGFR2 results in different coordinated patterns of multiple downstream signaling pathways. Specifically, simulations predict that VEGF immobilization, interactions with Neuropilin-1, perturbations of VEGFR2 trafficking, and changes in expression or activity of phosphatases acting on VEGFR2 all affect the magnitude, duration, and relative strength of VEGFR2 phosphorylation on tyrosines 1175 and 1214, and they do so predictably within our single consistent model framework. PMID:26067165

  1. Site-directed spectroscopy of cardiac myosin-binding protein C reveals effects of phosphorylation on protein structural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Brett A.; Thompson, Andrew R.; Espinoza-Fonseca, L. Michel; Thomas, David D.

    2016-01-01

    We have used the site-directed spectroscopies of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and double electron–electron resonance (DEER), combined with complementary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to resolve the structure and dynamics of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), focusing on the N-terminal region. The results have implications for the role of this protein in myocardial contraction, with particular relevance to β-adrenergic signaling, heart failure, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N-terminal cMyBP-C domains C0–C2 (C0C2) contain binding regions for potential interactions with both thick and thin filaments. Phosphorylation by PKA in the MyBP-C motif regulates these binding interactions. Our spectroscopic assays detect distances between pairs of site-directed probes on cMyBP-C. We engineered intramolecular pairs of labeling sites within cMyBP-C to measure, with high resolution, the distance and disorder in the protein’s flexible regions using TR-FRET and DEER. Phosphorylation reduced the level of molecular disorder and the distribution of C0C2 intramolecular distances became more compact, with probes flanking either the motif between C1 and C2 or the Pro/Ala-rich linker (PAL) between C0 and C1. Further insight was obtained from microsecond MD simulations, which revealed a large structural change in the disordered motif region in which phosphorylation unmasks the surface of a series of residues on a stable α-helix within the motif with high potential as a protein–protein interaction site. These experimental and computational findings elucidate structural transitions in the flexible and dynamic portions of cMyBP-C, providing previously unidentified molecular insight into the modulatory role of this protein in cardiac muscle contractility. PMID:26908877

  2. Site-directed spectroscopy of cardiac myosin-binding protein C reveals effects of phosphorylation on protein structural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colson, Brett A; Thompson, Andrew R; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Thomas, David D

    2016-03-22

    We have used the site-directed spectroscopies of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and double electron-electron resonance (DEER), combined with complementary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to resolve the structure and dynamics of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), focusing on the N-terminal region. The results have implications for the role of this protein in myocardial contraction, with particular relevance to β-adrenergic signaling, heart failure, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N-terminal cMyBP-C domains C0-C2 (C0C2) contain binding regions for potential interactions with both thick and thin filaments. Phosphorylation by PKA in the MyBP-C motif regulates these binding interactions. Our spectroscopic assays detect distances between pairs of site-directed probes on cMyBP-C. We engineered intramolecular pairs of labeling sites within cMyBP-C to measure, with high resolution, the distance and disorder in the protein's flexible regions using TR-FRET and DEER. Phosphorylation reduced the level of molecular disorder and the distribution of C0C2 intramolecular distances became more compact, with probes flanking either the motif between C1 and C2 or the Pro/Ala-rich linker (PAL) between C0 and C1. Further insight was obtained from microsecond MD simulations, which revealed a large structural change in the disordered motif region in which phosphorylation unmasks the surface of a series of residues on a stable α-helix within the motif with high potential as a protein-protein interaction site. These experimental and computational findings elucidate structural transitions in the flexible and dynamic portions of cMyBP-C, providing previously unidentified molecular insight into the modulatory role of this protein in cardiac muscle contractility.

  3. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr998 in the kinase domain. The LC–ESI–MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr890, Ser893 and Thr894) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr890, Ser893, Thr894 and Thr899, differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  4. Altered binding of thioflavin t to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase after phosphorylation of the active site by chlorpyrifos oxon or dichlorvos

    SciTech Connect

    Sultatos, L.G. Kaushik, R.

    2008-08-01

    The peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, when occupied by a ligand, is known to modulate reaction rates at the active site of this important enzyme. The current report utilized the peripheral anionic site specific fluorogenic probe thioflavin t to determine if the organophosphates chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos bind to the peripheral anionic site of human recombinant acetylcholinesterase, since certain organophosphates display concentration-dependent kinetics when inhibiting this enzyme. Incubation of 3 nM acetylcholinesterase active sites with 50 nM or 2000 nM inhibitor altered both the B{sub max} and K{sub d} for thioflavin t binding to the peripheral anionic site. However, these changes resulted from phosphorylation of Ser203 since increasing either inhibitor from 50 nM to 2000 nM did not alter further thioflavin t binding kinetics. Moreover, the organophosphate-induced decrease in B{sub max} did not represent an actual reduction in binding sites, but instead likely resulted from conformational interactions between the acylation and peripheral anionic sites that led to a decrease in the rigidity of bound thioflavin t. A drop in fluorescence quantum yield, leading to an apparent decrease in B{sub max}, would accompany the decreased rigidity of bound thioflavin t molecules. The organophosphate-induced alterations in K{sub d} represented changes in binding affinity of thioflavin t, with diethylphosphorylation of Ser203 increasing K{sub d}, and dimethylphosphorylation of Ser203 decreasing K{sub d}. These results indicate that chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos do not bind directly to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, but can affect binding to that site through phosphorylation of Ser203.

  5. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Geological Database - 13300

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Jan Richard; Mrugalla, Sabine; Dresbach, Christian; Hammer, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    The Gorleben salt dome is 4 km wide and nearly 15 km long. It is composed of different salt rock types of the Zechstein (Upper Permian) series and extends to the Zechstein basis in a depth of more than 3 km. In the course of the salt dome formation the salt was moved several kilometers. During the uplift of the salt the initially plane-bedded strata of the Zechstein series were extensively folded. In this process anhydrite as a competent layer was broken to isolated blocks. In the core of the salt dome the Hauptsalz, which is characterized by a particularly high creeping capacity, forms a homogeneous halite body with a volume of several cubic kilometres. The Hauptsalz contains gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons in separated zones of decimeter to meter dimensions. The overall hydrocarbon content is far below 0.01 %. At the flanks the salt dome consists of salt rocks with lower creeping capacities. Brine reservoirs with fluid volumes in the range of liters to hundreds of cubic meters exist in certain regions of this part of the salt dome. The water content of the Hauptsalz is below 0.02 %. Interconnected pores do not exist in the salt rock outside of fluid bearing or fractured areas, i.e. the salt rock is impermeable. The exploration of the Gorleben site as a potential site for a HLW-repository started in 1979 and is still in progress. To date no scientific findings contest the suitability of the site for a safe HLW-repository. (authors)

  6. Database of groundwater levels and hydrograph descriptions for the Nevada Test Site area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A database containing water levels measured from wells in and near areas of underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site was developed. The water-level measurements were collected from 1941 to 2016. The database provides information for each well including well construction, borehole lithology, units contributing water to the well, and general site remarks. Water-level information provided in the database includes measurement source, status, method, accuracy, and specific water-level remarks. Additionally, the database provides hydrograph narratives that document the water-level history and describe and interpret the water-level hydrograph for each well.Water levels in the database were quality assured and analyzed. Multiple conditions were assigned to each water-level measurement to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed to each water-level measurement.

  7. A Casein Kinase II Phosphorylation Site in AtYY1 Affects Its Activity, Stability, and Function in the ABA Response

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Yun; Li, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins are crucial in the regulation of protein activity and stability in various signaling pathways. In this study, we identified an ABA repressor, Arabidopsis Ying Yang 1 (AtYY1) as a potential target of casein kinase II (CKII). AtYY1 physically interacts with two regulatory subunits of CKII, CKB3, and CKB4. Moreover, AtYY1 can be phosphorylated by CKII in vitro, and the S284 site is the major CKII phosphorylation site. Further analyses indicated that S284 phosphorylation can enhance the transcriptional activity and protein stability of AtYY1 and hence strengthen the effect of AtYY1 as a negative regulator in the ABA response. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of AtYY1 mediated by CKII phosphorylation. PMID:28348572

  8. Prototype of web-based database of surface wave investigation results for site classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.; Cakir, R.; Martin, A. J.; Craig, M. S.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As active and passive surface wave methods are getting popular for evaluating site response of earthquake ground motion, demand on the development of database for investigation results is also increasing. Seismic ground motion not only depends on 1D velocity structure but also on 2D and 3D structures so that spatial information of S-wave velocity must be considered in ground motion prediction. The database can support to construct 2D and 3D underground models. Inversion of surface wave processing is essentially non-unique so that other information must be combined into the processing. The database of existed geophysical, geological and geotechnical investigation results can provide indispensable information to improve the accuracy and reliability of investigations. Most investigations, however, are carried out by individual organizations and investigation results are rarely stored in the unified and organized database. To study and discuss appropriate database and digital standard format for the surface wave investigations, we developed a prototype of web-based database to store observed data and processing results of surface wave investigations that we have performed at more than 400 sites in U.S. and Japan. The database was constructed on a web server using MySQL and PHP so that users can access to the database through the internet from anywhere with any device. All data is registered in the database with location and users can search geophysical data through Google Map. The database stores dispersion curves, horizontal to vertical spectral ratio and S-wave velocity profiles at each site that was saved in XML files as digital data so that user can review and reuse them. The database also stores a published 3D deep basin and crustal structure and user can refer it during the processing of surface wave data.

  9. Identification of C-terminal Phosphorylation Sites of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor-1 (FPR1) in Human Blood Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Maaty, Walid S.; Lord, Connie I.; Gripentrog, Jeannie M.; Riesselman, Marcia; Keren-Aviram, Gal; Liu, Ting; Dratz, Edward A.; Bothner, Brian; Jesaitis, Algirdas J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation, activation, and control of neutrophils at inflammation sites is partly driven by N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors (FPRs). Occupancy of these G-protein-coupled receptors by formyl peptides has been shown to induce regulatory phosphorylation of cytoplasmic serine/threonine amino acid residues in heterologously expressed recombinant receptors, but the biochemistry of these modifications in primary human neutrophils remains relatively unstudied. FPR1 and FPR2 were partially immunopurified using antibodies that recognize both receptors (NFPRa) or unphosphorylated FPR1 (NFPRb) in dodecylmaltoside extracts of unstimulated and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) + cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils or their membrane fractions. After deglycosylation and separation by SDS-PAGE, excised Coomassie Blue-staining bands (∼34,000 Mr) were tryptically digested, and FPR1, phospho-FPR1, and FPR2 content was confirmed by peptide mass spectrometry. C-terminal FPR1 peptides (Leu312–Arg322 and Arg323–Lys350) and extracellular FPR1 peptide (Ile191–Arg201) as well as three similarly placed FPR2 peptides were identified in unstimulated and fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated samples. LC/MS/MS identified seven isoforms of Ala323–Lys350 only in the fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated sample. These were individually phosphorylated at Thr325, Ser328, Thr329, Thr331, Ser332, Thr334, and Thr339. No phospho-FPR2 peptides were detected. Cytochalasin B treatment of neutrophils decreased the sensitivity of fMLF-dependent NFPRb recognition 2-fold, from EC50 = 33 ± 8 to 74 ± 21 nm. Our results suggest that 1) partial immunopurification, deglycosylation, and SDS-PAGE separation of FPRs is sufficient to identify C-terminal FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations by LC/MS/MS; 2) kinases/phosphatases activated in fMLF/cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils produce multiple C-terminal tail FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations but have little effect on corresponding FPR2 sites; and 3) the extent of

  10. Identification of C-terminal phosphorylation sites of N-formyl peptide receptor-1 (FPR1) in human blood neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Maaty, Walid S; Lord, Connie I; Gripentrog, Jeannie M; Riesselman, Marcia; Keren-Aviram, Gal; Liu, Ting; Dratz, Edward A; Bothner, Brian; Jesaitis, Algirdas J

    2013-09-20

    Accumulation, activation, and control of neutrophils at inflammation sites is partly driven by N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors (FPRs). Occupancy of these G-protein-coupled receptors by formyl peptides has been shown to induce regulatory phosphorylation of cytoplasmic serine/threonine amino acid residues in heterologously expressed recombinant receptors, but the biochemistry of these modifications in primary human neutrophils remains relatively unstudied. FPR1 and FPR2 were partially immunopurified using antibodies that recognize both receptors (NFPRa) or unphosphorylated FPR1 (NFPRb) in dodecylmaltoside extracts of unstimulated and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) + cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils or their membrane fractions. After deglycosylation and separation by SDS-PAGE, excised Coomassie Blue-staining bands (∼34,000 Mr) were tryptically digested, and FPR1, phospho-FPR1, and FPR2 content was confirmed by peptide mass spectrometry. C-terminal FPR1 peptides (Leu(312)-Arg(322) and Arg(323)-Lys(350)) and extracellular FPR1 peptide (Ile(191)-Arg(201)) as well as three similarly placed FPR2 peptides were identified in unstimulated and fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated samples. LC/MS/MS identified seven isoforms of Ala(323)-Lys(350) only in the fMLF + cytochalasin B-stimulated sample. These were individually phosphorylated at Thr(325), Ser(328), Thr(329), Thr(331), Ser(332), Thr(334), and Thr(339). No phospho-FPR2 peptides were detected. Cytochalasin B treatment of neutrophils decreased the sensitivity of fMLF-dependent NFPRb recognition 2-fold, from EC50 = 33 ± 8 to 74 ± 21 nM. Our results suggest that 1) partial immunopurification, deglycosylation, and SDS-PAGE separation of FPRs is sufficient to identify C-terminal FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations by LC/MS/MS; 2) kinases/phosphatases activated in fMLF/cytochalasin B-stimulated neutrophils produce multiple C-terminal tail FPR1 Ser/Thr phosphorylations but have little effect on corresponding FPR2 sites

  11. Role of phospholemman phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-dependent regulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Bossuyt, Julie; Martin, Jody L; Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M

    2010-12-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is a major target for phosphorylation mediated by both PKA (at Ser68) and PKC (at both Ser63 and Ser68) in the heart. In intact cardiac myocytes, PLM associates with and inhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), mainly by reducing its affinity for internal Na(+). The inhibition is relieved upon PLM phosphorylation by PKA or PKC. The aim here was to distinguish the role of the Ser63 and Ser68 PLM phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-induced modulation of NKA function. We expressed wild-type (WT) PLM and S63A, S68A, and AA (Ser63 and Ser68 to alanine double mutant) PLM mutants in HeLa cells that stably express rat NKA-α(1) and we measured the effect of PKA and PKC activation on NKA-mediated intracellular Na(+) concentration decline. PLM expression (WT or mutant) significantly decreased the apparent NKA affinity for internal Na(+) and had no significant effect on the maximum pump rate (V(max)). PKA activation with forskolin (20 μM) restored NKA Na(+) affinity in cells expressing WT but not AA PLM and did not affect V(max) in either case. Similarly, PKC activation with 300 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased NKA Na(+) affinity in cells expressing WT, S63A, and S68A PLM and had no effect in cells expressing AA PLM. Neither forskolin nor phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate affected NKA function in the absence of PLM. We conclude that PLM phosphorylation at either Ser63 or Ser68 is both necessary and sufficient for completely relieving the PLM-induced NKA inhibition.

  12. Role of phospholemman phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-dependent regulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fei; Bossuyt, Julie; Martin, Jody L.; Despa, Sanda

    2010-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is a major target for phosphorylation mediated by both PKA (at Ser68) and PKC (at both Ser63 and Ser68) in the heart. In intact cardiac myocytes, PLM associates with and inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA), mainly by reducing its affinity for internal Na+. The inhibition is relieved upon PLM phosphorylation by PKA or PKC. The aim here was to distinguish the role of the Ser63 and Ser68 PLM phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-induced modulation of NKA function. We expressed wild-type (WT) PLM and S63A, S68A, and AA (Ser63 and Ser68 to alanine double mutant) PLM mutants in HeLa cells that stably express rat NKA-α1 and we measured the effect of PKA and PKC activation on NKA-mediated intracellular Na+ concentration decline. PLM expression (WT or mutant) significantly decreased the apparent NKA affinity for internal Na+ and had no significant effect on the maximum pump rate (Vmax). PKA activation with forskolin (20 μM) restored NKA Na+ affinity in cells expressing WT but not AA PLM and did not affect Vmax in either case. Similarly, PKC activation with 300 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased NKA Na+ affinity in cells expressing WT, S63A, and S68A PLM and had no effect in cells expressing AA PLM. Neither forskolin nor phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate affected NKA function in the absence of PLM. We conclude that PLM phosphorylation at either Ser63 or Ser68 is both necessary and sufficient for completely relieving the PLM-induced NKA inhibition. PMID:20861470

  13. Specific phosphoantibodies reveal two phosphorylation sites in yeast Pma1 in response to glucose.

    PubMed

    Mazón, María J; Eraso, Pilar; Portillo, Francisco

    2015-08-01

    Glucose triggers post-translational modifications of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (Pma1) that lead to an increase in enzyme activity. The activation results from changes in two kinetic parameters: an increase in the affinity of the enzyme for ATP, depending on Ser899, and an increase in the Vmax involving Ser911/Thr912. Using phosphospecific antibodies, we show that Ser899 and Ser911/Thr912 are phosphorylated in vivo during glucose activation and that protein phosphatase Glc7 is involved in the dephosphorylation of Ser899 upon glucose starvation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Immunoprecipitation of Plasma Membrane Receptor-Like Kinases for Identification of Phosphorylation Sites and Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are difficult to study for numerous reasons. The surface of membrane proteins is relatively hydrophobic and sometimes very unstable, additionally requiring detergents for their extraction from the membrane. This leads to challenges at all levels, including expression, solubilization, purification, identification of associated proteins, and the identification of post-translational modifications. However, recent advances in immunoprecipitation technology allow to isolate membrane proteins efficiently, facilitating the study of protein-protein interactions, the identification of novel associated proteins, and to identify post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Here, we describe an optimized immunoprecipitation protocol for plant plasma membrane receptor-like kinases.

  15. In vivo roles for myosin phosphatase targeting subunit-1 phosphorylation sites T694 and T852 in bladder smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cai-Ping; Chen, Xin; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Wang, Pei; He, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Chen; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Wang, Ye; Gao, Ning; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Force production and maintenance in smooth muscle is largely controlled by different signalling modules that fine tune myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation, which relies on a balance between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activities. To investigate the regulation of MLCP activity in vivo, we analysed the role of two phosphorylation sites on MYPT1 (regulatory subunit of MLCP) that biochemically inhibit MLCP activity in vitro. MYPT1 is constitutively phosphorylated at T694 by unidentified kinases in vivo, whereas the T852 site is phosphorylated by RhoA-associated protein kinase (ROCK). We established two mouse lines with alanine substitution of T694 or T852. Isolated bladder smooth muscle from T852A mice displayed no significant changes in RLC phosphorylation or force responses, but force was inhibited with a ROCK inhibitor. In contrast, smooth muscles containing the T694A mutation showed a significant reduction of force along with reduced RLC phosphorylation. The contractile responses of T694A mutant smooth muscle were also independent of ROCK activation. Thus, phosphorylation of MYPT1 T694, but not T852, is a primary mechanism contributing to inhibition of MLCP activity and enhancement of RLC phosphorylation in vivo. The constitutive phosphorylation of MYPT1 T694 may provide a mechanism for regulating force maintenance of smooth muscle. Key points Force production and maintenance in smooth muscle is largely controlled by myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation, which relies on a balance between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activities. MYPT1 is the regulatory subunit of MLCP that biochemically inhibits MLCP activity via T694 or T852 phosphorylation in vitro. Here we separately investigated the contribution of these two phosphorylation sites in bladder smooth muscles by establishing two single point

  16. Multiple phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus regulate nuclear import of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44

    SciTech Connect

    Alvisi, Gualtiero; Marin, Oriano; Pari, Gregory; Mancini, Manuela; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Jans, David A.; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The processivity factor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, phosphoprotein ppUL44, is essential for viral replication. During viral infection ppUL44 is phosphorylated by the viral kinase pUL97, but neither the target residues on ppUL44 nor the effect of phosphorylation on ppUL44's activity are known. We report here that ppUL44 is phosphorylated when transiently expressed in mammalian cells and coimmunoprecipitates with cellular kinases. Of three potential phosphorylation sites (S413, S415, S418) located upstream of ppUL44's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one (T427) within the NLS itself, protein kinase CK2 (CK2) specifically phosphorylates S413, to trigger a cascade of phosphorylation of S418 and S415 by CK1 and CK2, respectively. Negative charge at the CK2/CK1 target serine residues facilitates optimal nuclear accumulation of ppUL44, whereas negative charge on T427, a potential cyclin-dependent 1 phosphorylation site, strongly decreases nuclear accumulation. Thus, nuclear transport of ppUL44 is finely tuned during viral infection through complex phosphorylation events.

  17. Identification of phosphorylation sites for adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate dependent protein kinase on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from Electrophorus electricus.

    PubMed

    Emerick, M C; Agnew, W S

    1989-10-17

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel from the electroplax of Electrophorus electricus is selectively phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) but not by protein kinase C. Under identical limiting conditions, the protein was phosphorylated 20% as rapidly as the synthetic model substrate kemptamide. A maximum of 1.7 +/- 0.6 equiv of phosphate is incorporated per mole. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed labeled phosphoserine and phosphothreonine at a constant ratio of 3.3:1. Seven distinct phosphopeptides were identified among tryptic fragments prepared from radiolabeled, affinity-purified protein and resolved by HPLC. The three most rapidly labeled fragments were further purified and sequenced. Four phosphorylated amino acids were identified deriving from three consensus phosphorylation sites. These were serine 6, serine 7, and threonine 17 from the amino terminus and a residue within 47 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus, apparently serine 1776. The alpha-subunits of brain sodium channels, like the electroplax protein, are readily phosphorylated by protein kinase A. However, these are also phosphorylated by protein kinase C and exhibit a markedly different pattern of incorporation. Each of three brain alpha-subunits displays an approximately 200 amino acid segment between homologous repeat domains I and II, which is missing from the electroplax and skeletal muscle proteins [Noda et al. (1986) Nature (London) 320, 188; Kayano et al. (1988) FEBS Lett. 228, 1878; Trimmer et al. (1989) Neuron 3, 33]. Most of the phosphorylation of the brain proteins occurs on a cluster of consensus phosphorylation sites located in this segment. This contrasts with the pattern of highly active sites on the amino and carboxyl termini of the electroplax protein. The detection of seven labeled tryptic phosphopeptides compared to the maximal labeling stoichiometry of approximately 2 suggests that many of the acceptor sites on the

  18. The MAPPER2 Database: a multi-genome catalog of putative transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The mapper2 Database (http://genome.ufl.edu/mapperdb) is a component of mapper2, a web-based system for the analysis of transcription factor binding sites in multiple genomes. The database contains predicted binding sites identified in the promoters of all human, mouse and Drosophila genes using 1017 probabilistic models representing over 600 different transcription factors. In this article we outline the current contents of the database and we describe its web-based user interface in detail. We then discuss ongoing work to extend the database contents to experimental data and to add analysis capabilities. Finally, we provide information about recent improvements to the hardware and software platform that mapper2 is based on. PMID:22121218

  19. Head and rod 1 interactions in vimentin: identification of contact sites, structure, and changes with phosphorylation using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Atya; Hess, John F; Budamagunta, Madhu S; FitzGerald, Paul G; Voss, John C

    2009-03-13

    We have used site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to identify residues 17 and 137 as sites of interaction between the head domain and rod domain 1A of the intermediate filament protein vimentin. This interaction was maximal when compared with the spin labels placed at up- and downstream positions in both head and rod regions, indicating that residues 17 and 137 were the closest point of interaction in this region. SDSL EPR characterization of residues 120-145, which includes the site of head contact with rod 1A, reveals that this region exhibits the heptad repeat pattern indicative of alpha-helical coiled-coil structure, but that this heptad repeat pattern begins to decay near residue 139, suggesting a transition out of coiled-coil structure. By monitoring the spectra of spin labels placed at the 17 and 137 residues during in vitro assembly, we show that 17-137 interaction occurs early in the assembly process. We also explored the effect of phosphorylation on the 17-137 interaction and found that phosphorylation-induced changes affected the head-head interaction (17-17) in the dimer, without significantly influencing the rod-rod (137-137) and head-rod (17-137) interactions in the dimer. These data provide the first direct evidence for, and location of, head-rod interactions in assembled intermediate filaments, as well as direct evidence of coiled-coil structure in rod 1A. Finally, the data identify changes in the structure in this region following in vitro phosphorylation.

  20. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I

    2006-08-08

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at http://ECRbase.dcode.org.

  1. Localisation of the sites of action of cadmium on oxidative phosphorylation in potato tuber mitochondria using top-down elasticity analysis.

    PubMed

    Kesseler, A; Brand, M D

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the significant sites of action of cadmium on oxidative phosphorylation in potato tuber mitocondria. We simplified the system to three convenient subsystems linked via the production or consumption of a common intermediate, namely protonmotive force. The three subsystems were substrate oxidation, which produces protonmotive force, and the proton leak reactions and the phosphorylation reactions, which consume protonmotive force. By measuring the effect of cadmium on the kinetic response of each subsystem to protonmotive force (top-down elasticity analysis), we found that cadmium stimulated proton leak reactions and strongly inhibited substrate oxidation, but had no measurable effect on the phosphorylation reactions. Cadmium therefore decreases the amount of ATP produced/oxygen consumed (the effective P/O ratio) not by inhibiting the phosphorylation reactions directly, but by inhibiting the production of protonmotive force and by diverting proton flux from phosphorylation reactions to the proton leak reactions.

  2. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Y. J. Lee; R. D. Van Remortel; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  3. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Van Remortel; Y. J. Lee; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  4. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Loots, Gabriela G. [LLNL; Ovcharenko, I. [LLNL

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. This database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a comprehensive collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes generated using multiple sources of gene annotation. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionary conserved and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and fugu genomes. (taken from paper in Journal: Bioinformatics, November 7, 2006, pp. 122-124

  5. The M3 Phosphorylation Site Is Required for Trafficking and Biological Roles of PIN-FORMED1, 2, and 7 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Daeeun; Sasayama, Daisuke; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes. PMID:27733863

  6. Reverse mutational analysis reveals threonine-373 as a potentially sufficient phosphorylation site for inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB).

    PubMed

    Lents, Nathan H; Gorges, Laura L; Baldassare, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that constitutive cyclin E expression can alleviate the requirement for cyclin D-CDK activity in the inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Rb(DeltaCDK), a mutant construct of pRb with 15 of the 16 CDK phosphorylation sites mutated to alanine represses activation of E2F by mitogen, despite cyclin E overexpression. However, restoration of the four cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation sites to Rb(DeltaCDK) renders this construct sensitive to inactivation by CDK phosphorylation. In the present study, we engage a "reverse mutational analysis" by restoring cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation sites to Rb(DeltaCDK) individually and in combinations in an attempt to discover phosphorylation sites on Rb that are critical for inactivation. Surprisingly, we report that, in both rodent and human cells, restoration of threonine-373 to Rb(DeltaCDK), alone or in combination with other phospho-restorations, results in a loss of the constitutively repressive effect of this construct on E2F activation. Further, induction of endogenous cyclin A protein is blocked by Rb(DeltaCDK), but not by mutants of Rb(DeltaCDK) containing a restored threonine-373. Finally, while S phase entry is blocked by expression of Rb(DeltaCDK), restoration of threonine-373 largely attenuates this effect. These findings reveal that phosphorylation of threonine-373 by CDK2-cyclin E represent a potentially crucial event in the inactivation of the pRb protein.

  7. KinasePhos 2.0: a web server for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites based on sequences and coupling patterns.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Liang, Han-Kuen; Huang, Chia-Mao; Wang, Ting-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Huan; Chu, Chia-Huei; Huang, Hsien-Da; Ko, Ming-Tat; Hwang, Jenn-Kang

    2007-07-01

    Due to the importance of protein phosphorylation in cellular control, many researches are undertaken to predict the kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. Referred to our previous work, KinasePhos 1.0, incorporated profile hidden Markov model (HMM) with flanking residues of the kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. Herein, a new web server, KinasePhos 2.0, incorporates support vector machines (SVM) with the protein sequence profile and protein coupling pattern, which is a novel feature used for identifying phosphorylation sites. The coupling pattern [XdZ] denotes the amino acid coupling-pattern of amino acid types X and Z that are separated by d amino acids. The differences or quotients of coupling strength C(XdZ) between the positive set of phosphorylation sites and the background set of whole protein sequences from Swiss-Prot are computed to determine the number of coupling patterns for training SVM models. After the evaluation based on k-fold cross-validation and Jackknife cross-validation, the average predictive accuracy of phosphorylated serine, threonine, tyrosine and histidine are 90, 93, 88 and 93%, respectively. KinasePhos 2.0 performs better than other tools previously developed. The proposed web server is freely available at http://KinasePhos2.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/.

  8. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites: the EPLYA and EGLYA motifs have a key role in tyrosine phosphorylation and Csk binding, and are substrates of the Abl kinase.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Sharma, Nanaocha; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Jensen, Ole N; Cabodi, Sara; Turco, Emilia; Di Stefano, Paola; Defilippi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation tightly regulates specific binding of effector proteins that control many diverse biological functions of cells (e. g. signaling, migration and proliferation). p140Cap is an adaptor protein, specifically expressed in brain, testis and epithelial cells, that undergoes phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant protein, in which both EPLYA/EGLYA tyrosines were converted to phenylalanine, was no longer tyrosine phosphorylated, despite the presence of other tyrosine residues in p140Cap sequence. Moreover, this mutant lost its ability to bind the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), previously shown to interact with p140Cap by Far Western analysis. In addition, we found that in vitro and in HEK-293 cells, the Abelson kinase is the major kinase involved in p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation on the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences. Overall, these data represent an original attempt to in vivo characterise phosphorylated residues of p140Cap. Elucidating the function of p140Cap will provide novel insights into its biological activity not only in normal cells, but also in tumors.

  9. Expression of a myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation site mutant complements the cytokinesis and developmental defects of Dictyostelium RMLC null cells.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, B D; Chen, P; Chisholm, R L

    1994-12-01

    In a number of systems phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RMLC) of myosin regulates the activity of myosin. In smooth muscle and vertebrate nonmuscle systems RMLC phosphorylation is required for contractile activity. In Dictyostelium discoideum phosphorylation of the RMLC regulates both ATPase activity and motor function. We have determined the site of phosphorylation on the Dictyostelium RMLC and used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the phosphorylated serine with an alanine. The mutant light chain was then expressed in RMLC null Dictyostelium cells (mLCR-) from an actin promoter on an integrating vector. The mutant RMLC was expressed at high levels and associated with the myosin heavy chain. RMLC bearing a ser13ala substitution was not phosphorylated in vitro by purified myosin light chain kinase, nor could phosphate be detected on the mutant RMLC in vivo. The mutant myosin had reduced actin-activated ATPase activity, comparable to fully dephosphorylated myosin. Unexpectedly, expression of the mutant RMLC rescued the primary phenotypic defects of the mlcR- cells to the same extent as did expression of wild-type RMLC. These results suggest that while phosphorylation of the Dictyostelium RMLC appears to be tightly regulated in vivo, it is not essential for myosin-dependent cellular functions.

  10. Quantitative in vivo Analyses Reveal Calcium-dependent Phosphorylation Sites and Identifies a Novel Component of the Toxoplasma Invasion Motor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Nebl, Thomas; Prieto, Judith Helena; Kapp, Eugene; Smith, Brian J.; Williams, Melanie J.; Yates, John R.; Cowman, Alan F.; Tonkin, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites depend on the invasion of host cells for survival and proliferation. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways appear to be essential for micronemal release and gliding motility, yet the target of activated kinases remains largely unknown. We have characterized calcium-dependent phosphorylation events during Toxoplasma host cell invasion. Stimulation of live tachyzoites with Ca2+-mobilizing drugs leads to phosphorylation of numerous parasite proteins, as shown by differential 2-DE display of 32[P]-labeled protein extracts. Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) identified ∼546 phosphorylation sites on over 300 Toxoplasma proteins, including 10 sites on the actomyosin invasion motor. Using a Stable Isotope of Amino Acids in Culture (SILAC)-based quantitative LC-MS/MS analyses we monitored changes in the abundance and phosphorylation of the invasion motor complex and defined Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation patterns on three of its components - GAP45, MLC1 and MyoA. Furthermore, calcium-dependent phosphorylation of six residues across GAP45, MLC1 and MyoA is correlated with invasion motor activity. By analyzing proteins that appear to associate more strongly with the invasion motor upon calcium stimulation we have also identified a novel 15-kDa Calmodulin-like protein that likely represents the MyoA Essential Light Chain of the Toxoplasma invasion motor. This suggests that invasion motor activity could be regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by the direct binding of calcium ions to this new component. PMID:21980283

  11. PKC putative phosphorylation site Ser235 is required for MIP/AQP0 translocation to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianguo; Zelenka, Peggy; Chepelinsky, Ana B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the functional significance of MIP/AQP0 phosphorylation at serine235. Methods MIP/AQP0 expression and cellular localization was studied in rat lens epithelia explants induced to differentiate by FGF-2. MIP wild type (WT) and MIP (S235A) mutant expression plasmids were constructed and transiently expressed in RK13 cells. Subcellular localization of endogenous MIP in differentiating lens epithelia explants or of transfected MIP expression vectors in RK13 cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Results MIP/AQP0 expressed in lens epithelia explants induced to differentiate by FGF-2 localizes to the plasma membrane of elongating cells. However, MIP/AQP0 translocation to the plasma membrane was prevented by inhibiting PKC activity with Go6976, resulting in retention in the cytoplasmic compartment. This effect was specific to MIP/AQP0; localization of AQP1 to the cell membrane was not affected by Go6976. When the consensus PKC phosphorylation site at MIP Ser235 was mutated to alanine and transiently expressed in transfected RK13 cells, the mutant MIP was retained in the cytoplasmic compartment in contrast to WT MIP that localized to the plasma membrane of the transfected RK13 cells. Colocalization studies indicated that the mutant MIP was retained in the trans-Golgi network. Conclusions Our results indicate that serine235 is required for proper intracellular transport of MIP/AQP0 from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. A PKC dependent phosphorylation event involving MIP at serine235 is most likely involved in this process. PMID:18523655

  12. The NMR structure of dematin headpiece reveals a dynamic loop that is conformationally altered upon phosphorylation at a distal site.

    PubMed

    Frank, Benjamin S; Vardar, Didem; Chishti, Athar H; McKnight, C James

    2004-02-27

    Dematin (band 4.9) is found in the junctional complex of the spectrin cytoskeleton that supports the erythrocyte cell membrane. Dematin is a member of the larger class of cytoskeleton-associated proteins that contain a modular "headpiece" domain at their extreme C termini. The dematin headpiece domain provides the second F-actin-binding site required for in vitro F-actin bundling. The dematin headpiece is found in two forms in the cell, one of 68 residues (DHP) and one containing a 22-amino acid insert near its N terminus (DHP+22). In addition, dematin contains the only headpiece domain that is phosphorylated, in vivo. The 22-amino acid insert in DHP+22 appeared unstructured in NMR spectra; therefore, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of DHP by multidimensional NMR methods. Although the overall three-dimensional structure of DHP is similar to that of the villin headpiece, there are two novel characteristics revealed by this structure. First, unlike villin headpiece that contains a single buried salt bridge, DHP contains a buried charged cluster comprising residues Glu(39), Arg(66), Lys(70), and the C-terminal carboxylate of Phe(76). Second, (15)N relaxation experiments indicate that the longer "variable loop" region near the N terminus of DHP (residues 20-29) is dynamic, undergoing significantly greater motions that the rest of the structure. Furthermore, NMR chemical shift changes indicate that the conformation of the dynamic variable loop is altered by phosphorylation of serine 74, which is far in the sequence from the variable loop region. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of the dematin headpiece acts as a conformational switch within this headpiece domain.

  13. Identification of kinases, phosphatases, and phosphorylation sites in human and porcine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Brett R; Gray, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Multiple inter-connected signaling pathways, involving kinases and phosphatases, form a framework that controls sperm motility, function, and fertilizing ability. Methods that give a broad view of the proteomic landscape may prove valuable in uncovering new crosstalk connections, as well as in discovering new proteins within this regulatory framework. A multi-immunoblotting strategy was utilized to evaluate this concept on human and porcine spermatozoa samples. In human and porcine spermatozoa, a diversity of kinases were identified including protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B (PKB), isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), calmodulin-dependent kinases (CAMK), casein kinase (CK), and isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3). Several phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase (PP)-1, PP2A, PP2C, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (MKP-1), were identified in human spermatozoa. The phosphorylation epitopes recognized belonged to members of the MAPK family, in addition to α and β isoforms of GSK3 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Proteomic approaches that allow a broad view may aid in understanding the crosstalk between signaling systems in spermatozoal physiology.

  14. The internalization signal and the phosphorylation site of transferrin receptor are distinct from the main basolateral sorting information.

    PubMed Central

    Dargemont, C; Le Bivic, A; Rothenberger, S; Iacopetta, B; Kühn, L C

    1993-01-01

    Wild-type human transferrin receptor (hTfR), like endogenous canine receptor, is expressed almost exclusively (97%) at the basolateral membrane of transfected Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We investigated the role of two distinct features of the hTfR cytoplasmic domain, namely the endocytic signal and the unique phosphorylation site, in polarized cell surface delivery. Basolateral location was not altered by point mutation of Ser24-->Ala24, indicating that phosphorylation is not involved in vectorial sorting of hTfR. The steady state distribution of hTfR was partially affected by a deletion of 36 cytoplasmic residues encompassing the internalization sequence. However, 80% of the receptors were still basolateral. As assessed by pulse-chase experiments in combination with biotinylation, newly synthesized wild-type and deletion mutant receptors were directly sorted to the domain of their steady state residency. Although both receptors could bind human transferrin, endocytosis of the deletion mutant was strongly impaired at either surface. These data indicate that the predominant basolateral targeting signal of hTfR is independent of the internalization sequence. Images PMID:8467813

  15. Site-specific phosphorylation of casein kinase 1 δ (CK1δ) regulates its activity towards the circadian regulator PER2.

    PubMed

    Eng, Gracie Wee Ling; Edison; Virshup, David M

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are intrinsic ~24 hour cycles that regulate diverse aspects of physiology, and in turn are regulated by interactions with the external environment. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ, CSNK1D) is a key regulator of the clock, phosphorylating both stabilizing and destabilizing sites on the PER2 protein, in a mechanism known as the phosphoswitch. CK1δ can itself be regulated by phosphorylation on its regulatory domain, but the specific sites involved, and the role this plays in control of circadian rhythms as well as other CK1-dependent processes is not well understood. Using a sensitized PER2::LUC reporter assay, we identified a specific phosphorylation site, T347, on CK1δ, that regulates CK1δ activity towards PER2. A mutant CK1δ T347A was more active in promoting PER2 degradation. This CK1δ regulatory site is phosphorylated in cells in trans by dinaciclib- and staurosporine-sensitive kinases, consistent with their potential regulation by cyclin dependent and other proline-directed kinases. The regulation of CK1δ by site-specific phosphorylation via the cell cycle and other signaling pathways provides a mechanism to couple external stimuli to regulation of CK1δ-dependent pathways including the circadian clock.

  16. The in vitro phosphorylation of p53 by calcium-dependent protein kinase C--characterization of a protein-kinase-C-binding site on p53.

    PubMed

    Delphin, C; Huang, K P; Scotto, C; Chapel, A; Vincon, M; Chambaz, E; Garin, J; Baudier, J

    1997-05-01

    We show that, in vitro, Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates recombinant murine p53 protein on several residues contained within a conserved basic region of 25 amino acids, located in the C-terminal part of the protein. Accordingly, synthetic p53-(357-381)-peptide is phosphorylated by PKC at multiple Ser and Thr residues, including Ser360, Thr365, Ser370 and Thr377. We also establish that p53-(357-381)-peptide at micromolar concentrations has the ability to stimulate sequence-specific DNA binding by p53. That stimulation is lost upon phosphorylation by PKC. To further characterise the mechanisms that regulate PKC-dependent phosphorylation of p53-(357-381)-peptide, the phosphorylation of recombinant p53 and p53-(357-381)-peptide by PKC were compared. The results suggest that phosphorylation of full-length p53 on the C-terminal PKC sites is highly dependent on the accessibility of the phosphorylation sites and that a domain on p53 distinct from p53-(357-381)-peptide is involved in binding PKC. Accordingly, we have identified a conserved 27-amino-acid peptide, p53-(320-346)-peptide, within the C-terminal region of p53 and adjacent to residues 357-381 that interacts with PKC in vitro. The interaction between p53-(320-346)-peptide and PKC inhibits PKC autophosphorylation and the phosphorylation of substrates, including p53-(357-381)-peptide, neurogranin and histone H1. Conventional Ca2+-dependent PKC alpha, beta and gamma and the catalytic fragment of PKC (PKM) were nearly equally susceptible to inhibition by p53-(320-346)-peptide. The Ca2+-independent PKC delta was much less sensitive to inhibition. The significance of these findings for understanding the in vivo phosphorylation of p53 by PKC are discussed.

  17. Potential regulatory phosphorylation sites in a Medicago truncatula plasma membrane proton pump implicated during early symbiotic signaling in roots.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Volkening, Jeremy D; Rose, Christopher M; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Ané, Jean-Michel; Sussman, Michael R

    2015-08-04

    In plants and fungi the plasma membrane proton pump generates a large proton-motive force that performs essential functions in many processes, including solute transport and the control of cell elongation. Previous studies in yeast and higher plants have indicated that phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory domain is involved in regulating pump activity. In this report we examine the Medicago truncatula plasma membrane proton pump gene family, and in particular MtAHA5. Yeast complementation assays with phosphomimetic mutations at six candidate sites support a phosphoregulatory role for two residues, suggesting a molecular model to explain early Nod factor-induced changes in the plasma membrane proton-motive force of legume root cells.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  19. The Plastid Casein Kinase 2 Phosphorylates Rubisco Activase at the Thr-78 Site but Is Not Essential for Regulation of Rubisco Activation State

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Y.; Bender, Kyle W.; Walker, Berkley J.; Zielinski, Raymond E.; Spalding, Martin H.; Ort, Donald R.; Huber, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Rubisco activase (RCA) is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is composed of a large RCAα and small RCAβ isoform that are formed by alternative splicing of a single gene (At2g39730). The activity of Rubisco is controlled in response to changes in irradiance by regulation of RCA activity, which is known to involve a redox-sensitive disulfide bond located in the carboxy-terminal extension of the RCAα subunit. Additionally, phosphorylation of RCA threonine-78 (Thr-78) has been reported to occur in the dark suggesting that phosphorylation may also be associated with dark-inactivation of RCA and deactivation of Rubisco. In the present study, we developed site-specific antibodies to monitor phosphorylation of RCA at the Thr-78 site and used non-reducing SDS-PAGE to monitor the redox status of the RCAα subunit. By immunoblotting, phosphorylation of both RCA isoforms occurred at low light and in the dark and feeding peroxide or DTT to leaf segments indicated that redox status of the chloroplast stroma was a critical factor controlling RCA phosphorylation. Use of a knockout mutant identified the plastid-targeted casein kinase 2 (cpCK2α) as the major protein kinase involved in RCA phosphorylation. Studies with recombinant cpCK2α and synthetic peptide substrates identified acidic residues at the –1, +2, and +3 positions surrounding Thr-78 as strong positive recognition elements. The cpck2 knockout mutant had strongly reduced phosphorylation at the Thr-78 site but was similar to wild type plants in terms of induction kinetics of photosynthesis following transfer from darkness or low light to high light, suggesting that if phosphorylation of RCA Thr-78 plays a direct role it would be redundant to redox regulation for control of Rubisco activation state under normal conditions. PMID:27064346

  20. Novel Phosphorylation and Ubiquitination Sites Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species-dependent Degradation of Anti-apoptotic c-FLIP Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P.; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The cytosolic protein c-FLIP (cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) is an inhibitor of death receptor-mediated apoptosis that is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, contributing to apoptosis resistance. Several compounds found to restore sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, a TNF family death ligand with promising therapeutic potential, act by targeting c-FLIP ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in c-FLIP protein degradation. However, the mechanism by which ROS post-transcriptionally regulate c-FLIP protein levels is not well understood. We show here that treatment of prostate cancer PPC-1 cells with the superoxide generators menadione, paraquat, or buthionine sulfoximine down-regulates c-FLIP long (c-FLIPL) protein levels, which is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, pretreatment of PPC-1 cells with a ROS scavenger prevented ubiquitination and loss of c-FLIPL protein induced by menadione or paraquat. We identified lysine 167 as a novel ubiquitination site of c-FLIPL important for ROS-dependent degradation. We also identified threonine 166 as a novel phosphorylation site and demonstrate that Thr-166 phosphorylation is required for ROS-induced Lys-167 ubiquitination. The mutation of either Thr-166 or Lys-167 was sufficient to stabilize c-FLIP protein levels in PPC-1, HEK293T, and HeLa cancer cells treated with menadione or paraquat. Accordingly, expression of c-FLIP T166A or K167R mutants protected cells from ROS-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death. Our findings reveal novel ROS-dependent post-translational modifications of the c-FLIP protein that regulate its stability, thus impacting sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL. PMID:23519470

  1. Novel phosphorylation and ubiquitination sites regulate reactive oxygen species-dependent degradation of anti-apoptotic c-FLIP protein.

    PubMed

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C

    2013-05-03

    The cytosolic protein c-FLIP (cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) is an inhibitor of death receptor-mediated apoptosis that is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, contributing to apoptosis resistance. Several compounds found to restore sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, a TNF family death ligand with promising therapeutic potential, act by targeting c-FLIP ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in c-FLIP protein degradation. However, the mechanism by which ROS post-transcriptionally regulate c-FLIP protein levels is not well understood. We show here that treatment of prostate cancer PPC-1 cells with the superoxide generators menadione, paraquat, or buthionine sulfoximine down-regulates c-FLIP long (c-FLIP(L)) protein levels, which is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, pretreatment of PPC-1 cells with a ROS scavenger prevented ubiquitination and loss of c-FLIP(L) protein induced by menadione or paraquat. We identified lysine 167 as a novel ubiquitination site of c-FLIP(L) important for ROS-dependent degradation. We also identified threonine 166 as a novel phosphorylation site and demonstrate that Thr-166 phosphorylation is required for ROS-induced Lys-167 ubiquitination. The mutation of either Thr-166 or Lys-167 was sufficient to stabilize c-FLIP protein levels in PPC-1, HEK293T, and HeLa cancer cells treated with menadione or paraquat. Accordingly, expression of c-FLIP T166A or K167R mutants protected cells from ROS-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death. Our findings reveal novel ROS-dependent post-translational modifications of the c-FLIP protein that regulate its stability, thus impacting sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL.

  2. Site-specific phosphorylation induces functionally active conformation in the intrinsically disordered N-terminal activation function (AF1) domain of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Garza, Anna M S; Khan, Shagufta H; Kumar, Raj

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered (ID) regions are disproportionately higher in cell signaling proteins and are predicted to have much larger frequency of phosphorylation sites than ordered regions, suggesting an important role in their regulatory capacity. In this study, we show that AF1, an ID activation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), adopts a functionally folded conformation due to its site-specific phosphorylation by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in apoptotic and gene-inductive events initiated by the GR. Further, we show that site-specific phosphorylation-induced secondary and tertiary structure formation specifically facilitates AF1's interaction with critical coregulatory proteins and subsequently its transcriptional activity. These data demonstrate a mechanism through which ID activation domain of the steroid receptors and other similar transcription factors may adopt a functionally active conformation under physiological conditions.

  3. Combined top-down and bottom-up proteomics identifies a phosphorylation site in stem-loop-binding proteins that contributes to high-affinity RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Christoph H; Thapar, Roopa; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Torres, Matthew P; Speir, J Paul; Easterling, Michael; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F

    2006-02-28

    The stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) is involved in multiple aspects of histone mRNA metabolism. To characterize the modification status and sites of SLBP, we combined mass spectrometric bottom-up (analysis of peptides) and top-down (analysis of intact proteins) proteomic approaches. Drosophilia SLBP is heavily phosphorylated, containing up to seven phosphoryl groups. Accurate M(r) determination by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS and FTICR-MS top-down experiments using a variety of dissociation techniques show there is removal of the initiator methionine and acetylation of the N terminus in the baculovirus-expressed protein, and that T230 is stoichiometrically phosphorylated. T230 is highly conserved; we have determined that this site is also completely phosphorylated in baculovirus-expressed mammalian SLBP and extensively phosphorylated in both Drosophila and mammalian cultured cells. Removal of the phosphoryl group from T230 by either dephosphorylation or mutation results in a 7-fold reduction in the affinity of SLBP for the stem-loop RNA.

  4. Identification of an N-terminal glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation site which regulates the functional localisation of polycystin-2 in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Andrew J; Moon, David J; Kane, Michelle E; Obara, Tomoko; Ong, Albert CM

    2008-01-01

    PKD2 is mutated in 15% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystin-2 (PC2), the PKD2 protein, is a nonselective Ca2+-permeable cation channel which may function at the cell surface and ER. Nevertheless, the factors that regulate the dynamic translocation of PC2 between the ER and other compartments are not well understood. Constitutive phosphorylation of PC2 at a single C-terminal site (Ser812) has been previously reported. Since we were unable to abolish phospholabelling of PC2 in HEK293 cells by site-directed mutagenesis of Ser812 or all 5 predicted phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus, we hypothesised that PC2 could also be phosphorylated at the N-terminus. In this paper, we report the identification of a new phosphorylation site for PC2 within its N-terminal domain (Ser76) and demonstrate that this residue is phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). The consensus recognition sequence for GSK-3 (Ser76/Ser80) is evolutionarily conserved down to lower vertebrates. In the presence of specific GSK-3 inhibitors, the lateral plasma membrane pool of endogenous PC2 redistributes into an intracellular compartment in MDCK cells without a change in primary cilia localization. Finally, co-injection of wild-type but not a S76A/S80A mutant PKD2 capped mRNA could rescue the cystic phenotype induced by an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to pkd2 in zebrafish pronephric kidney. We conclude that surface localization of PC2 is regulated by phosphorylation at a unique GSK-3 site in its N-terminal domain in vivo and in vitro. This site is functionally significant for the maintenance of normal glomerular and tubular morphology. PMID:16551655

  5. Database of repetitive elements in complete genomes and data mining using transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Lin, F M; Lin, J H; Huang, H D; Liu, B J

    2003-06-01

    Approximately 43% of the human genome is occupied by repetitive elements. Even more, around 51% of the rice genome is occupied by repetitive elements. The analysis presented here indicates that repetitive elements in complete genomes may have been very important in the evolutionary genomics. In this study, a database, called the Repeat Sequence Database, is first designed and implemented to store complete and comprehensive repetitive sequences. See http://rsdb.csie.ncu.edu.tw for more information. The database contains direct, inverted and palindromic repetitive sequences, and each repetitive sequence has a variable length ranging from seven to many hundred nucleotides. The repetitive sequences in the database are explored using a mathematical algorithm to mine rules on how combinations of individual binding sites are distributed among repetitive sequences in the database. Combinations of transcription factor binding sites in the repetitive sequences are obtained and then data mining techniques are applied to mine association rules from these combinations. The discovered associations are further pruned to remove insignificant associations and obtain a set of associations. The mined association rules facilitate efforts to identify gene classes regulated by similar mechanisms and accurately predict regulatory elements. Experiments are performed on several genomes including C. elegans, human chromosome 22, and yeast.

  6. Roles of the CDK phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdc6 in chromatin binding and rereplication.

    PubMed

    Honey, Sangeet; Futcher, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6 protein is crucial for DNA replication. In the absence of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, Cdc6 binds to replication origins, and loads Mcm proteins. In the presence of CDK activity, Cdc6 does not bind to origins, and this helps prevent rereplication. CDK activity affects Cdc6 function by multiple mechanisms: CDK activity affects transcription of CDC6, degradation of Cdc6, nuclear import of Cdc6, and binding of Cdc6 to Clb2. Here we examine some of these mechanisms individually. We find that when Cdc6 is forced into the nucleus during late G1 or S, it will not substantially reload onto chromatin no matter whether its CDK sites are present or not. In contrast, at a G2/M nocodazole arrest, Cdc6 will reload onto chromatin if and only if its CDK sites have been removed. Trace amounts of nonphosphorylatable Cdc6 are dominant lethal in strains bearing nonphosphorylatable Orc2 and Orc6, apparently because of rereplication. This synthetic dominant lethality occurs even in strains with wild-type MCM genes. Nonphosphorylatable Cdc6, or Orc2 and Orc6, sensitize cells to rereplication caused by overexpression of various replication initiation proteins such as Dpb11 and Sld2.

  7. Cardiac myosin binding protein C phosphorylation affects cross-bridge cycle's elementary steps in a site-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Kawai, Masakata

    2014-01-01

    Based on our recent finding that cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) phosphorylation affects muscle contractility in a site-specific manner, we further studied the force per cross-bridge and the kinetic constants of the elementary steps in the six-state cross-bridge model in cMyBP-C mutated transgenic mice for better understanding of the influence of cMyBP-C phosphorylation on contractile functions. Papillary muscle fibres were dissected from cMyBP-C mutated mice of ADA (Ala273-Asp282-Ala302), DAD (Asp273-Ala282-Asp302), SAS (Ser273-Ala282-Ser302), and t/t (cMyBP-C null) genotypes, and the results were compared to transgenic mice expressing wide-type (WT) cMyBP-C. Sinusoidal analyses were performed with serial concentrations of ATP, phosphate (Pi), and ADP. Both t/t and DAD mutants significantly reduced active tension, force per cross-bridge, apparent rate constant (2πc), and the rate constant of cross-bridge detachment. In contrast to the weakened ATP binding and enhanced Pi and ADP release steps in t/t mice, DAD mice showed a decreased ADP release without affecting the ATP binding and the Pi release. ADA showed decreased ADP release, and slightly increased ATP binding and cross-bridge detachment steps, whereas SAS diminished the ATP binding step and accelerated the ADP release step. t/t has the broadest effects with changes in most elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle, DAD mimics t/t to a large extent, and ADA and SAS predominantly affect the nucleotide binding steps. We conclude that the reduced tension production in DAD and t/t is the result of reduced force per cross-bridge, instead of the less number of strongly attached cross-bridges. We further conclude that cMyBP-C is an allosteric activator of myosin to increase cross-bridge force, and its phosphorylation status modulates the force, which is regulated by variety of protein kinases.

  8. Mutation of Light-dependent Phosphorylation Sites of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential-like (TRPL) Ion Channel Affects Its Subcellular Localization and Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Alexander C.; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  9. Synergistic binding of the phosphorylated S233- and S259-binding sites of C-RAF to one 14-3-3ζ dimer.

    PubMed

    Molzan, Manuela; Ottmann, Christian

    2012-11-02

    C-RAF kinase is a central component of the Ras-RAF-MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase)-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, which has been shown to be activated in 30% of human tumors. 14-3-3 proteins inactivate C-RAF by binding to the two N-terminal phosphorylation-dependent binding sites surrounding S233 and S259. 14-3-3 proteins can bind two target sequences located on one polypeptide chain simultaneously, thereby increasing binding affinity compared to single-site binding and possibly allowing regulated 14-3-3 binding through gatekeeper phosphorylation. To date, it was unclear whether 14-3-3 proteins can bind the two N-terminal phosphorylation-dependent binding sites of C-RAF simultaneously. Fluorescence polarization using phosphorylated peptides demonstrated that S233 is the low-affinity and S259 is the high-affinity binding site, while simultaneous engagement of both sites by 14-3-3ζ enhances affinity compared to single-site binding. Determination of a 1:1 stoichiometry for the di-phosphorylated peptide binding to one 14-3-3ζ dimer with isothermal titration calorimetry was supported by the crystal structure of the 14-3-3ζ/C-RAFpS233,pS259 complex. Cellular localization studies validate the significance of these sites for cytoplasmic retention of C-RAF, suggesting an extended mechanism of RAF regulation by 14-3-3 proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EGFR kinase possesses a broad specificity for ErbB phosphorylation sites, and ligand increases catalytic-centre activity without affecting substrate binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We previously found that EGF (epidermal growth factor) increases the EGFR (EGF receptor) kinase-binding affinity towards the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites in downstream adaptor proteins such as Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1) and Shc [Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and collagen containing protein], but not that towards EGFR autophosphorylation sites [Fan, Wong, Deb and Johnson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38143–38150]. EGFR activation can also result in transphosphorylation of tyrosine resides in the C-terminal region of the related receptors ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in heterodimers which are formed upon ligand stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of EGFR kinase by comparing the steady state kinetic parameters for peptides derived from all four ErbBs in the absence or presence of EGF. Our results demonstrated that (i) EGFR kinase can efficiently phosphorylate a broad range of diverse peptide sequences representing ErbB sites; (ii) certain ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 sites had higher specificity constants than any EGFR sequence and (iii) EGF stimulation consistently increases the kcat approx. 5-fold, but does not significantly alter the Km for any ErbB peptides. Furthermore, peptides containing lysine at position −2 or −3 N-terminal to the target tyrosine were found to be poor EGFR kinase substrates, and substitution of these lysines with glutamine decreased the Km and increased the kcat for these substrates. We conclude that EGFR kinase-mediated ErbB transphosphorylations are mostly controlled at the level of oligomerization, and not by a preference of the EGFR kinase for phosphorylation sites in any particular ErbB. The results also demonstrated that, unlike phosphorylation sites in select downstream targets, EGF does not regulate the recognition of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of any of the ErbBs. PMID:16122376

  11. SpBase: the sea urchin genome database and web site.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R Andrew; Samanta, Manoj; Yuan, Autumn; He, Dong; Davidson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    SpBase is a system of databases focused on the genomic information from sea urchins and related echinoderms. It is exposed to the public through a web site served with open source software (http://spbase.org/). The enterprise was undertaken to provide an easily used collection of information to directly support experimental work on these useful research models in cell and developmental biology. The information served from the databases emerges from the draft genomic sequence of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and includes sequence data and genomic resource descriptions for other members of the echinoderm clade which in total span 540 million years of evolutionary time. This version of the system contains two assemblies of the purple sea urchin genome, associated expressed sequences, gene annotations and accessory resources. Search mechanisms for the sequences and the gene annotations are provided. Because the system is maintained along with the Sea Urchin Genome resource, a database of sequenced clones is also provided.

  12. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2010-09-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS {yields} pTS {yields} pTpS {yields} TpS {yields} TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP {gamma}-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to P{gamma}. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities.

  13. GTRD: a database of transcription factor binding sites identified by ChIP-seq experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yevshin, Ivan; Sharipov, Ruslan; Valeev, Tagir; Kel, Alexander; Kolpakov, Fedor

    2017-01-01

    GTRD—Gene Transcription Regulation Database (http://gtrd.biouml.org)—is a database of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) identified by ChIP-seq experiments for human and mouse. Raw ChIP-seq data were obtained from ENCODE and SRA and uniformly processed: (i) reads were aligned using Bowtie2; (ii) ChIP-seq peaks were called using peak callers MACS, SISSRs, GEM and PICS; (iii) peaks for the same factor and peak callers, but different experiment conditions (cell line, treatment, etc.), were merged into clusters; (iv) such clusters for different peak callers were merged into metaclusters that were considered as non-redundant sets of TFBSs. In addition to information on location in genome, the sets contain structured information about cell lines and experimental conditions extracted from descriptions of corresponding ChIP-seq experiments. A web interface to access GTRD was developed using the BioUML platform. It provides: (i) browsing and displaying information; (ii) advanced search possibilities, e.g. search of TFBSs near the specified gene or search of all genes potentially regulated by a specified transcription factor; (iii) integrated genome browser that provides visualization of the GTRD data: read alignments, peaks, clusters, metaclusters and information about gene structures from the Ensembl database and binding sites predicted using position weight matrices from the HOCOMOCO database. PMID:27924024

  14. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  15. ARM Quick-looks Database for North Slope Alaska (NSA) sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stamnes, Knut [NSA Site Scientist

    From these pages one can monitor parts of the data acquisition process and access daily data visualizations from the different instruments. These data visualizations are produced in near real time automatically and are called Quick-Looks (QLs). The quick-looks contains unofficial data of unknown quality. Once data is released one can obtain the full data-set from any instrument available, and along with that, a statement about the data quality from the ARM archive. The database provides Quick-looks for the Barrow ACRF site (NSA C1), the Atqasuk ACRF site (NSA C2), or the SHEBA ice campaign of 1997 and 1998. As of 12-17-08, the database had more than 528,000 quick-looks available as data figures and data plots. No password is required for Quick-look access. (Specialized Interface)

  16. Site-specific phosphorylation of Tau protein is associated with deacetylation of microtubules in mouse spermatogenic cells during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroki; Hiradate, Yuuki; Shirakata, Yoshiki; Kanai, Kenta; Kosaka, Keita; Gotoh, Aina; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka; Uchida, Takafumi; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2014-05-29

    Tau is one of the microtubule-associated proteins and a major component of paired helical filaments, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Its expression has also been indicated in the testis. However, its function and modification in the testis have not been established. Here, we analyzed the dynamics of phosphorylation patterns during spermatogenesis. The expression of Tau protein and its phosphorylation were shown in the mouse testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the phosphorylation was strongly detected during meiosis. Correspondingly, the expression of acetylated tubulin was inversely weakened during meiosis. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Tau protein contributes to spermatogenesis, especially in meiosis.

  17. Structural basis for differential recognition of tyrosine-phosphorylated sites in the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) by the adaptor Gads

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sangwoo; Velikovsky, C Alejandro; Swaminathan, Chittoor P; Houtman, Jon C D; Samelson, Lawrence E; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2004-01-01

    The transmembrane protein, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), is essential for T-cell activation and development. Phosphorylation of LAT at multiple tyrosines creates binding sites for the adaptors Gads and Grb2, leading to nucleation of multiprotein signaling complexes. Human LAT contains five potential binding sites for Gads, of which only those at Tyr171 and Tyr191 appear necessary for T-cell function. We asked whether Gads binds preferentially to these sites, as differential recognition could assist in assembling defined LAT-based complexes. Measured calorimetrically, Gads-SH2 binds LAT tyrosine phosphorylation sites 171 and 191 with higher affinities than the other sites, with the differences ranging from only several fold weaker binding to no detectable interaction. Crystal structures of Gads-SH2 complexed with phosphopeptides representing sites 171, 191 and 226 were determined to 1.8−1.9 Å resolutions. The structures reveal the basis for preferential recognition of specific LAT sites by Gads, as well as for the relatively greater promiscuity of the related adaptor Grb2, whose binding also requires asparagine at position +2 C-terminal to the phosphorylated tyrosine. PMID:15029250

  18. Cancer registries in Japan: National Clinical Database and site-specific cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anazawa, Takayuki; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu

    2015-02-01

    The cancer registry is an essential part of any rational program of evidence-based cancer control. The cancer control program is required to strategize in a systematic and impartial manner and efficiently utilize limited resources. In Japan, the National Clinical Database (NCD) was launched in 2010. It is a nationwide prospective registry linked to various types of board certification systems regarding surgery. The NCD is a nationally validated database using web-based data collection software; it is risk adjusted and outcome based to improve the quality of surgical care. The NCD generalizes site-specific cancer registries by taking advantage of their excellent organizing ability. Some site-specific cancer registries, including pancreatic, breast, and liver cancer registries have already been combined with the NCD. Cooperation between the NCD and site-specific cancer registries can establish a valuable platform to develop a cancer care plan in Japan. Furthermore, the prognosis information of cancer patients arranged using population-based and hospital-based cancer registries can help in efficient data accumulation on the NCD. International collaboration between Japan and the USA has recently started and is expected to provide global benchmarking and to allow a valuable comparison of cancer treatment practices between countries using nationwide cancer registries in the future. Clinical research and evidence-based policy recommendation based on accurate data from the nationwide database may positively impact the public.

  19. PlantDHS: a database for DNase I hypersensitive sites in plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Marand, Alexandre P.; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by orchestrated binding of regulatory proteins to promoters and other cis-regulatory DNA elements (CREs). Several plant databases have been developed for mapping promoters or DNA motifs associated with promoters. However, there is a lack of databases that allow investigation for all CREs. Here we present PlantDHS (http://plantdhs.org), a plant DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) database that integrates histone modification, RNA sequencing, nucleosome positioning/occupancy, transcription factor binding sites, and genomic sequence within an easily navigated user interface. DHSs are indicative of all CREs, including promoters, enhancers, silencers, insulators and transcription factor binding sites; all of which play immense roles in global gene expression regulation. PlantDHS provides a platform to predict all CREs associated with individual genes from three model plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa). PlantDHS is especially valuable in the detection of distant CREs that are located away from promoters. PMID:26400163

  20. Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated and phosphorylated at different sites in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells treated with phorbol ester and forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, E.; Tank, A.W.; Weiner, D.H.; Mosimann, W.F.; Yanagihara, N.; Weiner, N.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of phorbol ester (4..beta..-phorbol, 12..beta..-myristate, 13..cap alpha..-acetate; TPA), an activator of Ca/sup + +//phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PK-C), and forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), on the activation and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells were examined. Incubation of the cells with TPA (0.01-1 ..mu..M) or forskolin (0.01-0.1 ..mu..M) produces increases in activation and phosphorylation of TH in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of TPA are dependent on extracellular Ca/sup + +/ and are inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with trifluoperazine (TFP). The effects of forskolin are independent of Ca/sup + +/ and are not inhibited by TFP. In cells treated with forskolin, the time course of the increase in cAMP correlates with the increases in TH activity and phosphorylation. cAMP levels do not increase in cells treated with TPA. There is an increase in the phosphorylation of only one tryptic phosphopeptide derived from TH in cells treated with either forskolin or TPA. The peptide phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells exhibits different elution characteristics on HPLC from that in forskolin-treated cells. The authors conclude that TH in PC 12 cells is phosphorylated on different sites by cAMP-PK and PK-C. Phosphorylation of either of these sites is associated with enzyme activation.

  1. A Kinase-Independent Function of c-Src Mediates p130Cas Phosphorylation at the Serine-639 Site in Pressure Overloaded Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Arun P; Suryakumar, Geetha; Panneerselvam, Kavin; Willey, Christopher D; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2015-12-01

    Early work in pressure overloaded (PO) myocardium shows that integrins mediate focal adhesion complex formation by recruiting the adaptor protein p130Cas (Cas) and nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Src. To explore c-Src role in Cas-associated changes during PO, we used a feline right ventricular in vivo PO model and a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-embedded adult cardiomyocyte in vitro model that utilizes a Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGD) peptide for integrin stimulation. Cas showed slow electrophoretic mobility (band-shifting), recruitment to the cytoskeleton, and tyrosine phosphorylation at 165, 249, and 410 sites in both 48 h PO myocardium and 1 h RGD-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Adenoviral mediated expression of kinase inactive (negative) c-Src mutant with intact scaffold domains (KN-Src) in cardiomyocytes did not block the RGD stimulated changes in Cas. Furthermore, expression of KN-Src or kinase active c-Src mutant with intact scaffold function (A-Src) in two-dimensionally (2D) cultured cardiomyocytes was sufficient to cause Cas band-shifting, although tyrosine phosphorylation required A-Src. These data indicate that c-Src's adaptor function, but not its kinase function, is required for a serine/threonine specific phosphorylation(s) responsible for Cas band-shifting. To explore this possibility, Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably express Cas were infected with either β-gal or KN-Src adenoviruses and used for Cas immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry analysis. In the KN-Src expressing cells, Cas showed phosphorylation at the serine-639 (human numbering) site. A polyclonal antibody raised against phospho-serine-639 detected Cas phosphorylation in 24-48 h PO myocardium. Our studies indicate that c-Src's adaptor function mediates serine-639 phosphorylation of Cas during integrin activation in PO myocardium.

  2. Bovine papillomavirus with a mutation in the E2 serine 301 phosphorylation site replicates at a high copy number.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, A A; Howley, P M

    1991-01-01

    The E2 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) encodes at least three proteins with transcriptional regulatory properties. The full-length E2 open reading frame encodes a transcriptional transactivator, and the 3' region encodes two smaller polypeptides that repress E2-mediated transactivation. The full-length gene product is also required for viral DNA replication. We have demonstrated that the BPV-1 E2 polypeptides are phosphorylated primarily on two serine residues at a site adjacent to the carboxy-terminal DNA binding domain, which is common to all three E2 proteins (A. A. McBride, J. B. Bolen, and P. M. Howley, J. Virol. 63:5076-5085, 1989). These serine residues, at amino acid positions 298 and 301, were substituted with alanine residues in the context of the entire BPV-1 genome. The mutated BPV-1 genomes were introduced into rodent cell lines and assayed for focus formation, viral gene expression, and extrachromosomal viral DNA replication. Viral DNAs containing the E2 serine-to-alanine substitution mutants transformed C127 cells with efficiencies comparable to that of wild-type BPV-1. However, the viral genome containing the serine-to-alanine substitution at position 301 of the E2 polypeptide replicated to a copy number 20-fold higher than that of wild-type DNA. Images PMID:1658358

  3. Identification of ubiquitin-modified lysine residues and novel phosphorylation sites on eukaryotic initiation factor 2B epsilon

    PubMed Central

    Tuckow, Alexander P.; Kazi, Abid A.; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bε (eIF2Bε) plays a critical role in the initiation of mRNA translation and its expression and guanine nucleotide exchange activity are major determinants of the rate of protein synthesis. In this work we provide evidence that the catalytic epsilon subunit of eIF2B is subject to ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Lysates of C2C12 myoblasts treated with proteasome inhibitor were subjected to sequential immunoprecipitations for eIF2Bε followed by ubiquitin. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of immunoprecipitated proteins resulted in the identification of five peptides containing ubiquitin (diglycine) modifications on eIF2Bε. The specific lysine residues containing the ubiquitin modifications were localized as Lys-56, Lys-98, Lys-136, Lys-212 and Lys-500 (corresponding to the rat protein sequence). In addition three novel phosphorylation sites were identified including Ser-22, Ser-125, and Thr-317. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of the E3 ligase NEDD4 were also detected in the LC-MS/MS analysis, and an interaction between endogenous eIF2Bε with NEDD4 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. PMID:23707720

  4. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated...

  5. A database of information on technologies for hazardous waste site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; White, M.K.; Byrant, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    A personal-computer-based database and user interface has been developed for retrieving and reviewing information on technologies applicable to the environmental remediation of hazardous waste sites. This system and its information represent a useful source of technology information for people preparing, reviewing, and approving site remediation plans or evaluating remediation technologies. The system includes a variety of information for approximately 90 distinct remedial action technologies. A general text description of each technology is provided, together with basic engineering or design parameters and flowcharts. Information on applying a given technology includes the applicability of the technology to specific contaminants, associated technologies that may be required in conjunction to provide for complete remediation of a site, technical limitations and constraints on the use of the technology, and identification of information or site data needed to deploy the technology at a particular site. US federal regulatory information relating to each technology is also provided. In addition, the system identifies sources for more detailed information for these technologies (i.e., references and specific sites where these technologies have been used). Technologies to be considered can be selected from the complete list of technologies for which information is included, or can be chosen from a shorter list of technologies matching a set of user-specific remediation objectives. The technology information is compiled from a wide variety of sources. The system is designed to support the assessment of remedial alternatives at US sites, but should be readily adaptable to other environmental remediation situations throughout the world.

  6. Distinct phosphorylation sites on the ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a, establish a code that determines the functions of ß-arrestins

    PubMed Central

    Bouzo-Lorenzo, Monica; Santo-Zas, Icía; Lodeiro, Maria; Nogueiras, Rubén; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Castro, Marian; Pazos, Yolanda; Tobin, Andrew B; Butcher, Adrian J.; Camiña, Jesús P.

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR1a, mediates the biological activities of ghrelin, which includes the secretion of growth hormone, as well as the stimulation of appetite, food intake and maintenance of energy homeostasis. Mapping phosphorylation sites on GHSR1a and knowledge of how these sites control specific functional consequences unlocks new strategies for the development of therapeutic agents targeting individual functions. Herein, we have identified the phosphorylation of different sets of sites within GHSR1a which engender distinct functionality of ß-arrestins. More specifically, the Ser362, Ser363 and Thr366 residues at the carboxyl-terminal tail were primarily responsible for ß-arrestin 1 and 2 binding, internalization and ß-arrestin-mediated proliferation and adipogenesis. The Thr350 and Ser349 are not necessary for ß-arrestin recruitment, but are involved in the stabilization of the GHSR1a-ß-arrestin complex in a manner that determines the ultimate cellular consequences of ß-arrestin signaling. We further demonstrated that the mitogenic and adipogenic effect of ghrelin were mainly dependent on the ß-arrestin bound to the phosphorylated GHSR1a. In contrast, the ghrelin function on GH secretion was entirely mediated by G protein signaling. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that the phosphorylation pattern on the C terminus of GHSR1a determines the signaling and physiological output. PMID:26935831

  7. MeRNA: a Database of Metal Ion Binding Sites in RNAStructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Liliana R.; Zhang, Rui; Levitan, Aaron G.; Hendrix, DonnaF.; Brenner, Steven E.; Holbrook, Stephen R.

    2005-10-05

    Metal ions are essential for the folding of RNA into stable tertiary structures and for the catalytic activity of some RNA enzymes. To aid in the study of the roles of metal ions in RNA structural biology, we have created MeRNA (Metals in RNA), a comprehensive compilation of all metal binding sites identified in RNA three-dimensional structures available from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Nucleic Acid Database (NDB). Currently, our database contains information relating to binding of 9764 metal ions corresponding to 23 distinct elements; in 256 RNA structures. The metal ion locations were confirmed and ligands characterized using original literature references. MeRNA includes eight manually identified metal-ion binding motifs, which are described in the literature. MeRNA is searchable by PDB identifier, metal ion, method of structure determination, resolution and R-values for X-ray structure, and distance from metal to any RNA atom or to water. New structures with their respective binding motifs will be added to the database as they become available. The MeRNA database will further our understanding of the roles of metal ions in RNA folding and catalysis and have applications in structural and functional analysis, RNA design and engineering.

  8. Site- and kinase-specific phosphorylation-mediated activation of SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel stimulated by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, Tobias; Diekmann, Marion; Offenborn, Jan Niklas; Lind, Christof; Bauer, Hubert; Hashimoto, Kenji; S Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Luan, Sheng; Kudla, Jörg; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2014-09-09

    Under drought stress, abscisic acid (ABA) triggers closure of leaf cell pores called stomata, which are formed by two specialized cells called guard cells in plant epidermis. Two pathways downstream of ABA stimulate phosphorylation of the S-type anion channels SLAC1 (slow anion channel associated 1) and SLAH3 (SLAC1 homolog 3), which causes these channels to open, reducing guard cell volume and triggering stomatal closure. One branch involves OST1 (open stomata 1), a calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase, and the other branch involves calcium-dependent protein kinases of the CPK (calcium-dependent protein kinase) family. We used coexpression analyses in Xenopus oocytes to show that the calcineurin B-like (CBL) calcium sensors CBL1 and CBL9 and their interacting protein kinase CIPK23 also triggered SLAC1 and SLAH3 opening. We analyzed whether regulation of SLAC1 opening by these different families of kinases involved the same or different sites on SLAC1 by measuring channel conductance of SLAC1 with mutations in the putative phosphorylation sites in the amino or carboxyl termini coexpressed with specific kinases in Xenopus oocytes. SLAC1 mutants lacking the OST1-phosphorylated site were still activated by CPK or by CBL/CIPK complexes. Phosphorylation and activation of SLAC1 by any of the kinases were inhibited by the phosphatase ABI1 (ABA insensitive 1), which is inactivated in response to ABA signaling. These findings identified CBL/CIPK complexes as potential regulators of stomatal aperture through S-type anion channels and indicated that phosphorylation at distinct sites enables SLAC1 activation by both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent pathways downstream of ABA.

  9. A surface site interaction point methodology for macromolecules and huge molecular databases.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Antoni; Hunter, Christopher A; Prohens, Rafel; Rosselló, Josep L

    2017-03-15

    Determining the position and magnitude of Surface Site Interaction Points (SSIP) is a useful technique for understanding intermolecular interactions. SSIPs have been used for the prediction of solvation properties and for virtual co-crystal screening. To determine the SSIPs for a molecule, the Molecular Electrostatic Potential Surface (MEPS) is first calculated using ab initio methods such as Density Functional Theory. This leads to a high cost in terms of computation time and is not compatible with the analysis of huge molecular databases. Herein, we present a method for the fast estimation of SSIPs, which is based on the MEPS calculated from MMFF94 atomic partial charges. The results show that this method can be used to calculate SSIPs for large molecular databases with a much higher speed than the original ab initio methodology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mapping the Zap-70 phosphorylation sites on LAT (linker for activation of T cells) required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Paz, P E; Wang, S; Clarke, H; Lu, X; Stokoe, D; Abo, A

    2001-01-01

    T-cell-receptor (TCR)-mediated LAT (linker for activation of T cells) phosphorylation is critical for the membrane recruitment of signalling complexes required for T-cell activation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT is required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins, the molecular mechanism associated with this event is unclear. In the present study we reconstituted the LAT signalling pathway by demonstrating that a direct tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT with activated protein-tyrosine kinase Zap70 is necessary and sufficient for the association and activation of signalling proteins. Zap-70 efficiently phosphorylates LAT on tyrosine residues at positions 226, 191, 171, 132 and 127. By substituting these tyrosine residues in LAT with phenylalanine and by utilizing phosphorylated peptides derived from these sites, we mapped the tyrosine residues in LAT required for the direct interaction and activation of Vav, p85/p110alpha and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1). Our results indicate that Tyr(226) and Tyr(191) are required for Vav binding, whereas Tyr(171) and Tyr(132) are necessary for association and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and PLCgamma1 respectively. Furthermore, by expression of LAT mutants in LAT-deficient T cells, we demonstrate that Tyr(191) and Tyr(171) are required for T-cell activation and Tyr(132) is required for the activation of PLCgamma1 and Ras signalling pathways. PMID:11368773

  11. Identification of an in vitro insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation site by negative-ion muLC/ES-API-CID-MS hybrid scan technique.

    PubMed

    Beck, Alexander; Moeschel, Klaus; Deeg, Martin; Häring, Hans Ulrich; Voelter, Wolfgang; Schleicher, Erwin D; Lehmann, Rainer

    2003-04-01

    Recently, we reported a fast on-line alkaline micro-liquid chromatography/electrospray-atmospheric pressure ionization/collision-induced dissociation/mass spectrometric approach for sensitive phosphopeptide screening of a tryptic digested protein and subsequent characterization of the identified phosphopeptide. Based on this study, we now applied an improved method for the identification of phosphorylation sites in insulin receptor substrate 1, an important mediator in insulin signal transduction which was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C-zeta. The approach consists of an on-line alkaline negative-ion micro-liquid chromatography/electrospray-atmospheric pressure ionization/collision-induced dissociation/mass spectrometric hybrid scan experiment using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with fractionation and subsequent off-line nanoES-MS (ion trap) analysis of the phosphopeptide-containing fractions. During the liquid chromatography (LC)/ES-MS experiment, the phosphopeptides of the enzymatic digest mixture of the studied insulin receptor substrate 1 fragment were detected under high skimmer potential (API-CID) using phosphorylation-specific m/z 79 marker ions as well as the intact m/z-values of the peptides which were recorded under low skimmer potential. Subsequently, the targeted fractions were analyzed by off-line nanoES-MS/MS and MS(3). Using this approach, serine 318 was clearly identified as a major in vitro protein kinase C-zeta phosphorylation site in the insulin receptor substrate -1 fragment. Together, our results indicate that the applied strategy is useful for unequivocal and fast analysis of phosphorylation sites in low abundant signaling proteins.

  12. Modulation of p47PHOX activity by site-specific phosphorylation: Akt-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal, Carolyn R.; Gutierrez, Abel; Young, Brandon M.; Catz, Sergio D.; Lin, Jun-Hsiang; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Babior, Bernard M.

    2003-01-01

    The leukocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} at the expense of NADPH. Extensive phosphorylation of the oxidase subunit p47PHOX occurs during the activation of the enzyme in intact cells. p47PHOX carrying certain serine-to-alanine mutations fails to support NADPH oxidase activity in intact cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation of specific serines on p47PHOX is required for the activation of the oxidase. Earlier studies with both intact cells and a kinase-dependent, cell-free system have suggested that protein kinase C can phosphorylate those serines of p47PHOX whose phosphorylation is necessary for its activity. Work with inhibitors suggested that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway also can activate the oxidase. Phosphorylation of p47PHOX by Akt (protein kinase B), whose activation depends on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, could be the final step in such a pathway. We now find that Akt activates the oxidase in vitro by phosphorylating serines S304 and S328 of p47PHOX. These results suggest that Akt could participate in the activation of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:12704229

  13. Effect of Xixin decoction on phosphorylation toxicity at specific sites of tau protein in brains of rats with sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Diwu, Yongchang; Tian, Jinzhou; Shi, Jing

    2013-12-01

    To explore the mechanism of action of Xixin decoction (XXD) for the prevention and treatment of sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD) by investigating the effects of XXD on the phosphorylation of Thr231 and Ser422 sites of tau protein. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with SAD were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operated, model (intracerebroventricular injection of Streptozotocin, ICV-STZ), donepezil (0.92 mg/kg), XXD low-dose (7.61 g/kg(-1) x d(-1)), moderate-dose (15.21 g/kg(-1) x d(-1)), and high-dose (30.42 g/kg(-1) x d(-1)). Immunohistochemistry and western immunoblotting were used to detect the phosphorylation at Thr231 and Ser422 sites of tau protein. XXD different dose groups decreased to varying degrees the expression of phosphorylated tau at P-Thr231 and P-Ser422 sites in the hippocampus of SAD rats. No significant difference was found between the donepezil and model group. XXD may prevent SAD pathological progress by inhibiting hyperphosphorylation at the key sites of tau proteins.

  14. Phosphorylation Sites in the Hook Domain of CaVβ Subunits Differentially Modulate CaV1.2 Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Sylvain; Emrick, Michelle A.; Sadilek, Martin; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of L-type calcium current is critical for the development, function, and regulation of many cell types. CaV1.2 channels that conduct L-type calcium currents are regulated by many protein kinases, but the sites of action of these kinases remain unknown in most cases. We combined mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and whole-cell patch clamp techniques in order to identify sites of phosphorylation of CaVβ subunits in vivo and test the impact of mutations of those sites on CaV1.2 channel function in vitro. Using the CaV1.1 channel purified from rabbit skeletal muscle as a substrate for phosphoproteomic analysis, we found that Ser193 and Thr205 in the HOOK domain of CaVβ1a subunits were both phosphorylated in vivo. Ser193 is located in a potential consensus sequence for casein kinase II, but it was not phosphorylated in vitro by that kinase. In contrast, Thr205 is located in a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, and it was robustly phosphorylated in vitro by PKA. These two sites are conserved in multiple CaVβ subunit isoforms, including the principal CaVβ subunit of cardiac CaV1.2 channels, CaVβ2b. In order to assess potential modulatory effects of phosphorylation at these sites separately from effects of phosphorylation of the α11.2 subunit, we inserted phosphomimetic or phosphoinhibitory mutations in CaVβ2b and analyzed their effects on CaV1.2 channel function in transfected nonmuscle cells. The phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bS152E decreased peak channel currents and shifted the voltage dependence of both activation and inactivation to more positive membrane potentials. The phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2bS152A had opposite effects. There were no differences in peak CaV1.2 currents or voltage dependence between the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bT164D and the phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2bT164A. However, calcium-dependent inactivation was significantly increased for the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bT164D. This effect was subunit

  15. The C-terminal tail inhibitory phosphorylation sites of PTEN regulate its intrinsic catalytic activity and the kinetics of its binding to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yeong-Chit Joel; Catimel, Bruno; Lio, Daisy Sio Seng; Ang, Ching-Seng; Peng, Benjamin; Wu, Hong; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Dephosphorylation of four major C-terminal tail sites and occupancy of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-binding site of PTEN cooperate to activate its phospholipid phosphatase activity and facilitate its recruitment to plasma membrane. Our investigation of the mechanism by which phosphorylation of these C-terminal sites controls the PI(4,5)P2-binding affinity and catalytic activity of PTEN resulted in the following findings. First, dephosphorylation of all four sites leads to full activation; and phosphorylation of any one site significantly reduces the intrinsic catalytic activity of PTEN. These findings suggest that coordinated inhibition of the upstream protein kinases and activation of the protein phosphatases targeting the four sites are needed to fully activate PTEN phosphatase activity. Second, PI(4,5)P2 cannot activate the phosphopeptide phosphatase activity of PTEN, suggesting that PI(4,5)P2 can only activate the phospholipid phosphatase activity but not the phosphoprotein phosphatase activity of PTEN. Third, dephosphorylation of all four sites significantly decreases the affinity of PTEN for PI(4,5)P2. Since PI(4,5)P2 is a major phospholipid co-localizing with the phospholipid- and phosphoprotein-substrates in plasma membrane, we hypothesise that the reduced affinity facilitates PTEN to "hop" on the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate these substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals system-wide signaling pathways regulated by site-specific phosphorylation on Keratin-8 in skin squamous cell carcinoma derived cell- line.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Richa; Sahu, Indrajit; Soni, Bihari Lal; Sathe, Gajanan J; Datta, Keshava K; Thapa, Pankaj; Sinha, Shruti; Vadivel, Chella Krishna; Dhaka, Bharti; Gowda, Harsha; Vaidya, Milind M

    2017-02-07

    Keratin 8/18, a simple epithelia specific keratin pair, is often aberrantly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) where its expression is correlated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. Majority of Keratin 8 (K8) functions are governed by its phosphorylation at Serine(73) (head-domain) and Serine(431) (tail-domain) residues. Although, deregulation of K8 phosphorylation is associated with progression of different carcinomas, its role in skin-SCC and the underlying mechanism is obscure. In this direction, we performed TMT-based quantitative phosphoproteomics by expressing K8 wild type, phosphodead and phosphomimetic mutants in K8-deficient A431 cells. Further analysis of our phosphoproteomics data showed a significant proportion of total phosphoproteome associated with migratory, proliferative and invasive potential of these cells to be differentially phosphorylated. Differential phosphorylation of CDK1(T14,Y15) , EIF4EBP1(T46,T50) , EIF4B(S422) , AKT1S1T246,S247, CTTN1(T401,S405,) Y421 & CAP1(S307/309) in K8-S73A/D mutant and CTTN1(T401,S405,Y421) , BUB1B(S1043) & CARHSP1(S30,S32) in K8-S431A/D mutants as well as some anonymous phosphosites including MYC(S176) , ZYX(S344) and PNN(S692) could be potential candidates associated with K8 phosphorylation mediated tumorigenicity. Biochemical validation followed by phenotypic analysis further confirmed our quantitative phosphoproteomics data. In conclusion, our study provides the first global picture of K8 site- specific phosphorylation function in neoplastic progression of A431 cells and suggests various potential starting points for further mechanistic studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Monocular deprivation delays the dynamic changes of phosphorylated synapsin Ia/b at site-1 in contralateral visual cortex of juvenile mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tao; Su, Qing; Xi, Ping; Han, Song; Li, Junfa

    2015-03-01

    Synapsins as a family of presynaptic terminal phosphoprotein participates in neuronal development, but their role in the synaptic plasticity of visual cortex is unclear. In this study, the impact of monocular deprivation (MD) on dynamic changes of isoform-specific protein expression and site 1 phosphorylation of synapsins in visual cortex of the postnatal mice were observed by using the technique of Western blot analysis. The results showed that the total (T-) protein levels of synapsins including the isoform of Ia/b, IIa/b and IIIa were about 21-26% of adult level in visual cortex of mice at postnatal 7 days (P7), and then the T-synapsin Ia/b and IIb could quickly reach adult level at P35. However, the T-synapsin IIa and IIIa increased more slowly (71-74% at P35), and then kept increasing in the visual cortex of mice at P60. Unlike to the changes of T-synapsins, the level of phosphorylated (P-) synapsin Ia/b (not IIa/b and IIIa) at site 1 increased with development to the highest level at P21, and then decreased rapidly to a low level in visual cortex of mice at P35-60. In addition, we found that the levels of P-synapsin Ia/b increased significantly in left visual cortex of P28 and P35 (not P21 and P42) mice with 1-week MD of right eye; and no significant changes of T-synapsins were observed in both left and right sides of visual cortex in P21-42 mice with MD treatment. These results suggested that the isoform-specific protein expression and site-1 phosphorylation of synapsins might play a different role in the synaptic plasticity of visual cortex, and MD delays the dynamic changes of phosphorylated synapsin Ia/b at site-1 in contralateral visual cortex of juvenile mice.

  18. The conserved dual phosphorylation sites of the Candida albicans Hog1 protein are crucial for white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Liang, Shen-Huan; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has a unique morphological transition between white and opaque phases. These two cells differ in virulence, mating capability, biofilm formation, and host-cell interaction. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the SSK2, PBS2, or HOG1 gene resulted in 100% opaque cell formation and suppressed the mating response. Thr-174 and Tyr-176 of the Hog1 protein are important phosphoacceptors and can be activated in response to stimuli. In this study, we first demonstrated the importance of two conserved phosphorylation sites in white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion. Six Hog1 point-mutated strains were generated, including nonphosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174A), Hog1(Y176F), and Hog1(T174A,Y176F)) and negatively charged phosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174D), Hog1(Y176D), and Hog1(T174D,Y176D)). Point mutation on Thr-174, Tyr-176 or in combination with the Hog1 protein in C. albicans MTL homozygous strains stimulated opaque cell formation at a frequency of 100%. Furthermore, mating projections of point-mutated strains were significantly shorter and their mating efficiencies and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesive numbers were lower than those of the wild-type. By investigating the effects of Hog1 phosphorylation in ssk1Δ and sln1Δ, we also demonstrate that the phosphorylation intensity of Hog1p is directly involved in the white-opaque switching. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that dual phosphorylation sites of C. albicans are crucial for white-opaque transition, sexual mating, and pheromone-induced cell adhesion.

  19. Identification of a phosphorylation site within the P protein important for mRNA transcription and growth of parainfluenza virus 5.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dengyun; Luthra, Priya; Xu, Pei; Yoon, Haeyoung; He, Biao

    2011-08-01

    The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) of paramyxovirus consists of the large (L) protein and the phosphoprotein (P). P is heavily phosphorylated, and it is thought that the phosphorylation of P plays a role in regulating viral RNA synthesis. However, no phosphorylation site within the P protein in paramyxovirus has been identified as playing a positive role in viral RNA synthesis in virus infection. Using mass spectrometry analysis, the threonine residue at position 286 of P of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) was found phosphorylated. Mutation of T286 to alanine (T286A), aspartic acid (T286D), or glutamic acid (T286E) reduced minigenome activity. Recombinant virus containing a mutation at the T286 position (rPIV5-P-T286A) grew slower than wild-type virus; viral mRNA synthesis and protein expression of rPIV5-P-T286A were delayed. Biochemical studies showed that the binding of NP or L protein with the P mutants or tetramer formation by the mutant P proteins was unaltered from that for wild-type P. While we failed to rescue rPIV5-P-T286E virus, several revertant viruses were obtained. All non-wild-type revertants had mutations at T286 and showed defects in both minigenome activity and viral growth. This is the first time that a phosphorylation site within the P protein in paramyxovirus has been found to play a positive role in viral mRNA synthesis and virus growth.

  20. Defective tobamovirus movement protein lacking wild-type phosphorylation sites can be complemented by substitutions found in revertants.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Shigeki; Hori, Koichi; Hosokawa, Daijiro; Okada, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2003-01-01

    We reported previously that the movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic tobamovirus is phosphorylated, and we proposed that MP phosphorylation is important for viral pathogenesis. Experimental data indicated that phosphorylation enhances the stability of MP in vivo and enables the protein to assume the correct intracellular location to perform its function. A mutant virus designated 37A238A was constructed; this virus lacked two serine residues within the MP, which prevented its phosphorylation. In the present study, we inoculated plants with the 37A238A mutant, and as expected, it was unable to produce local lesions on the leaves. However, after an extended period, we found that lesions did occur, which were due to revertant viruses. Several revertants were isolated, and the genetic changes in their MPs were examined together with any changes in their in vivo characteristics. We found that reversion to virulence was associated first with increased MP stability in infected cells and second with a shift in MP intracellular localization over time. In one case, the revertant MP was not phosphorylated in vivo, but it was functional.

  1. Use of a Phosphorylation Site Mutant To Identify Distinct Modes of Gene Repression by the Control of Virulence Regulator (CovR) in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Nicola; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2017-09-15

    Control of the virulence regulator/sensor kinase (CovRS) two-component system (TCS) serves as a model for investigating the impact of signaling pathways on the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CovR, an OmpR/PhoB family response regulator, controls virulence gene expression are poorly defined, partly due to the labile nature of its aspartate phosphorylation site. To better understand the regulatory effect of phosphorylated CovR, we generated the phosphorylation site mutant strain 10870-CovR-D53E, which we predicted to have a constitutive CovR phosphorylation phenotype. Interestingly, this strain showed CovR activity only for a subset of the CovR regulon, which allowed for classification of CovR-influenced genes into D53E-regulated and D53E-nonregulated groups. Inspection of the promoter sequences of genes belonging to each group revealed distinct promoter architectures with respect to the location and number of putative CovR-binding sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that recombinant CovR-D53E protein retains its ability to bind promoter DNA from both CovR-D53E-regulated and -nonregulated groups, implying that factors other than mere DNA binding are crucial for gene regulation. In fact, we found that CovR-D53E is incapable of dimerization, a process thought to be critical to OmpR/PhoB family regulator function. Thus, our global analysis of CovR-D53E indicates dimerization-dependent and dimerization-independent modes of CovR-mediated repression, thereby establishing distinct mechanisms by which this critical regulator coordinates virulence gene expression.IMPORTANCEStreptococcus pyogenes causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from superficial skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive infections. To establish these various disease manifestations, Streptococcus pyogenes requires tightly coordinated production of its virulence factor repertoire. Here, the response regulator Cov

  2. Mapping of a Myosin-binding Domain and a Regulatory Phosphorylation Site in M-Protein, a Structural Protein of the Sarcomeric M Band

    PubMed Central

    Obermann, Wolfgang M.J.; van der Ven, Peter F.M.; Steiner, Frank; Weber, Klaus; Fürst, Dieter O.

    1998-01-01

    The myofibrils of cross-striated muscle fibers contain in their M bands cytoskeletal proteins whose main function seems to be the stabilization of the three-dimensional arrangement of thick filaments. We identified two immunoglobin domains (Mp2–Mp3) of M-protein as a site binding to the central region of light meromyosin. This binding is regulated in vitro by phosphorylation of a single serine residue (Ser76) in the immediately adjacent amino-terminal domain Mp1. M-protein phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent kinase A inhibits binding to myosin LMM. Transient transfection studies of cultured cells revealed that the myosin-binding site seems involved in the targeting of M-protein to its location in the myofibril. Using the same method, a second myofibril-binding site was uncovered in domains Mp9–Mp13. These results support the view that specific phosphorylation events could be also important for the control of sarcomeric M band formation and remodeling. PMID:9529381

  3. Functional effects of diphosphomimetic mutations at cAbl-mediated phosphorylation sites on Rad51 recombinase activity.

    PubMed

    Alligand, Brendan; Le Breton, Magali; Marquis, Damien; Vallette, François; Fleury, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    Homologous Recombination enables faithful repair of the deleterious double strand breaks of DNA. This pathway relies on Rad51 to catalyze homologous DNA strand exchange. Rad51 is known to be phosphorylated in a sequential manner on Y315 and then on Y54, but the effect of such phosphorylation on Rad51 function remains poorly understood. We have developed a phosphomimetic model in order to study all the phosphorylation states. With the purified phosphomimetic proteins we performed in vitro assays to determine the activity of Rad51. Here we demonstrate the inhibitory effect of the double phosphomimetic mutant and suggest that it may be due to a defect in nucleofilament formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Phosphorylation of Rap1 by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Creates a Binding Site for KSR to Sustain ERK Activation by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Maho; Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Stork, Philip J S

    2017-01-27

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1 have been proposed to mediate this activation. Using HEK293 cells as a model system, we have recently shown that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. However, cAMP-dependent Ras signaling to ERKs is transient and rapidly terminated by PKA phosphorylation of the Raf isoforms C-Raf and B-Raf. In contrast, cAMP-dependent Rap1 signaling to ERKs and Rap1 is potentiated by PKA. We show that this is due to sustained binding of B-Raf to Rap1. One of the targets of PKA is Rap1 itself, directly phosphorylating Rap1a on serine 180 and Rap1b on serine 179. We show that these phosphorylations create potential binding sites for the adaptor protein 14-3-3 that links Rap1 to the scaffold protein KSR. These results suggest that Rap1 activation of ERKs requires PKA phosphorylation and KSR binding. Because KSR and B-Raf exist as heterodimers within the cell, this binding also brings B-Raf to Rap1, allowing Rap1 to couple to ERKs through B-Raf binding to Rap1 independently of its Ras-binding domain.

  5. Phosphorylation of the alternative mRNA splicing factor 45 (SPF45) by Clk1 regulates its splice site utilization, cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuying; Conaway, LaShardai; Rutherford Bethard, Jennifer; Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M; Thompson Bradley, Amber; Zheng, Hui; Weed, Scott A; Eblen, Scott T

    2013-05-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a mechanism to regulate protein isoform expression and is regulated by alternative splicing factors. The alternative splicing factor 45 (SPF45) is overexpressed in cancer, although few biological effects of SPF45 are known, and few splicing targets have been identified. We previously showed that Extracellular Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation of SPF45 regulates cell proliferation and adhesion to fibronectin. In this work, we show that Cdc2-like kinase 1 (Clk1) phosphorylates SPF45 on eight serine residues. Clk1 expression enhanced, whereas Clk1 inhibition reduced, SPF45-induced exon 6 exclusion from Fas mRNA. Mutational analysis of the Clk1 phosphorylation sites on SPF45 showed both positive and negative regulation of splicing, with a net effect of inhibiting SPF45-induced exon 6 exclusion, correlating with reduced Fas mRNA binding. However, Clk1 enhanced SPF45 protein expression, but not mRNA expression, whereas inhibition of Clk1 increased SPF45 degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Overexpression of SPF45 or a phospho-mimetic mutant, but not a phospho-inhibitory mutant, stimulated ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, correlating with increased fibronectin expression, ERK activation and enhanced splicing and phosphorylation of full-length cortactin. Our results demonstrate for the first time that SPF45 overexpression enhances cell migration and invasion, dependent on biochemical regulation by Clk1.

  6. The phosphorylation pattern of oligosaccharides in secreted procathepsin D is glycosylation site-specific and independent of the expression of mannose 6-phosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, F; Pohlmann, R; von Figura, K

    1997-01-10

    Mammalian cells contain two types of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPR), MPRs 46 and 300, that contribute with variable efficiency to the sorting of individual lysosomal proteins. To evaluate the role of phosphorylated oligosaccharides for the sorting efficiency by either of the two receptors, the structure of phosphorylated oligosaccharides on lysosomal proteins escaping sorting in cells lacking MPR 46 and/or MPR 300 was analyzed. Procathepsin D was chosen as a model because it is sorted efficiently via MPR 300 and poorly via MPR 46 and contains a distinct and highly heterogenous mixture of phosphorylated oligosaccharides at either of its two N-glycosylation sites. Both MPRs 46 and 300 were found to have a minor but distinct preference for forms of procathepsin D and other lysosomal proteins containing oligosaccharides with two phosphomonoesters. However, the phosphorylation of oligosaccharides in procathepsin D and other lysosomal proteins that escape sorting in control cells or in cells lacking MPR 46 and/or MPR 300 was strikingly similar, and oligosaccharides with two phosphomonoesters represented the major oligosaccharide species. We conclude from these results that the position of the position of the phosphate groups, the structure of the underlying oligosaccharide, and/or the polypeptide backbone of lysosomal proteins have major roles in determining the affinity to MPRs.

  7. [Phosphorylation of tau protein].

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Ishiguro, K

    1990-05-01

    In aged human brain and particularly in Alzheimer's disease brain, paired helical filaments (PHFs) accumulate in the neuronal cell. Recently, it has been found that the highly phosphorylated tau protein, one of the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), is a component of PHF. The authors attempted to clarify the mechanism underlying the accumulation of PHF from the following two aspects; 1) What is the mechanism of phosphorylation of tau protein? 2) Is the highly phosphorylated tau protein capable of forming PHFs? From rat or bovine microtubule proteins we partially purified and characterized a novel protein kinase that specifically phosphorylated tau and MAP2 among many proteins in the brain extract, and which formed a PHF epitope on the phosphorylated human tau. This enzyme was one of the protein serine/threonine kinases and was independent of known second messengers. The phosphorylation of tau by this enzyme was stimulated by tubulin under the condition of microtubule formation, suggesting that the phosphorylation of tau could occur concomitantly with microtubule formation in the brain. Since this kinase was usually bound to tau but not directly to tubulin, the enzyme was associated with microtubules through tau. From these properties related to tau, this kinase is designated as tau protein kinase. The tau that been phosphorylated with this kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP as a phosphate donor, was digested by endoprotinase Lys-C to produce three labeled fragments, K1, K2 and K3. These three fragments were sequenced and the phosphorylation sites on tau by this kinase were identified. The K2 fragment overlapped with the tau-1 site known to be one of the phosphorylation site in PHF. This result strengthens the possibility that tau protein phosphorylated by tau protein kinase is incorporated into PHF. Tubulin binding sites on tau were located between K1 and K3 fragments, while K2 fragment was located in the neighboring to N-terminus of K1. No phosphorylated sites were

  8. Ser-634 and Ser-636 of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus RTA are Involved in Transactivation and are Potential Cdk9 Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wan-Hua; Wang, Pei-Wen; Lin, Shu-Yu; Wu, I-Lin; Ko, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Lian; Li, Mengtao; Lin, Su-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), K-RTA, is a lytic switch protein that moderates the reactivation process of KSHV latency. By mass spectrometric analysis of affinity purified K-RTA, we showed that Thr-513 or Thr-514 was the primary in vivo phosphorylation site. Thr-513 and Thr-514 are proximal to the nuclear localization signal (527KKRK530) and were previously hypothesized to be target sites of Ser/Thr kinase hKFC. However, substitutions of Thr with Ala at 513 and 514 had no effect on K-RTA subcellular localization or transactivation activity. By contrast, replacement of Ser with Ala at Ser-634 and Ser-636 located in a Ser/Pro-rich region of K-RTA, designated as S634A/S636A, produced a polypeptide with ∼10 kDa shorter in molecular weight and reduced transactivation in a luciferase reporter assay relative to the wild type. In contrast to prediction, the decrease in molecular weight was not due to lack of phosphorylation because the overall Ser and Thr phosphorylation state in K-RTA and S634A/S636A were similar, excluding that Ser-634 or Ser-636 motif served as docking sites for consecutive phosphorylation. Interestingly, S634A/S636A lost ∼30% immuno-reactivity to MPM2, an antibody specific to pSer/pThr-Pro motif, indicating that 634SPSP637 motif was in vivo phosphorylated. By in vitro kinase assay, we showed that K-RTA is a substrate of CDK9, a Pro-directed Ser/Thr kinase central to transcriptional regulation. Importantly, the capability of K-RTA in associating with endogenous CDK9 was reduced in S634A/S636A, which suggested that Ser-634 and Ser-636 may be involved in CDK9 recruitment. In agreement, S634A/S636A mutant exhibited ∼25% reduction in KSHV lytic cycle reactivation relative to that by the wild type K-RTA. Taken together, our data propose that Ser-634 and Ser-636 of K-RTA are phosphorylated by host transcriptional kinase CDK9 and such a process contributes to a full

  9. Alteration of the major phosphorylation site of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E prevents its association with the 48 S initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Barve, S; Rychlik, W; Rhoads, R E

    1990-02-15

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace the serine residue at the primary phosphorylation site of human eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E with an alanine residue. The mutated cDNA was transcribed in vitro, and the transcript was used to direct protein synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate system. The variant protein (eIF-4EAla) was retained on a 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7GTP)-Sepharose affinity column and was specifically eluted by m7GTP. Examination of eIF-4EAla by isoelectric focusing revealed two species which had the same pI values as the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of unaltered eIF-4E (here designated eIF-4ESer). However, conversion of unphosphorylated eIF-4EAla to the putative phosphorylated eIF-4EAla in the reticulocyte lysate system was slower than the corresponding conversion of eIF-4ESer. The possibility that the more acidic form of eIF-4EAla was due to NH2-terminal acetylation was ruled out by an experiment in which the acetyl-CoA pool of the reticulocyte lysate system was depleted with oxaloacetate and citrate synthase. The more acidic form of eIF-4EAla was, however, eliminated by treatment with calf intestine alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that it results from a second-site phosphorylation. When translation reaction mixtures were resolved on sucrose density gradients, the 35S-labeled eIF-4ESer was found on the 48 S initiation complex in the presence of guanylyl imidodiphosphate, as reported earlier (Hiremath, L.S., Hiremath, S.T., Rychlik, W., Joshi, S., Domier, L.L., and Rhoads, R.E. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 1132-1138). eIF-4EAla, by contrast, was not found on the 48 S complex, suggesting that phosphorylation of eIF-4E is necessary for it to carry out its role of transferring mRNA to the 48 S complex. Supporting this interpretation was the finding that eIF-4ESer isolated from 48 S initiation complexes consisted predominantly of the phosphorylated form.

  10. Attributes of the Federal Energy Management Program's Federal Site Building Characteristics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, Susan A.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-12-31

    Typically, the Federal building stock is referred to as a group of about one-half million buildings throughout the United States. Additional information beyond this level is generally limited to distribution of that total by agency and maybe distribution of the total by state. However, additional characterization of the Federal building stock is required as the Federal sector seeks ways to implement efficiency projects to reduce energy and water use intensity as mandated by legislation and Executive Order. Using a Federal facility database that was assembled for use in a geographic information system tool, additional characterization of the Federal building stock is provided including information regarding the geographical distribution of sites, building counts and percentage of total by agency, distribution of sites and building totals by agency, distribution of building count and floor space by Federal building type classification by agency, and rank ordering of sites, buildings, and floor space by state. A case study is provided regarding how the building stock has changed for the Department of Energy from 2000 through 2008.

  11. Direct analysis of tau from PSP brain identifies new phosphorylation sites and a major fragment of N-terminally cleaved tau containing four microtubule-binding repeats.

    PubMed

    Wray, Selina; Saxton, Malcolm; Anderton, Brian H; Hanger, Diane P

    2008-06-01

    Tangles containing hyperphosphorylated aggregates of insoluble tau are a pathological hallmark of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Several phosphorylation sites on tau in PSP have been identified using phospho-specific antibodies, but no sites have been determined by direct sequencing due to the difficulty in enriching insoluble tau from PSP brain. We describe a new method to enrich insoluble PSP-tau and report eight phosphorylation sites [Ser46, Thr181, Ser202, Thr217, Thr231, Ser235, Ser396/Ser400 (one site) and Thr403/Ser404 (one site)] identified by mass spectrometry. We also describe a 35 kDa C-terminal tau fragment (tau35), lacking the N-terminus of tau but containing four microtubule-binding repeats (4R), that is present only in neurodegenerative disorders in which 4R tau is over-represented. Tau35 was readily detectable in PSP, corticobasal degeneration and 4R forms of fronto-temporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17, but was absent from control, Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease brain. Our findings suggest the aggregatory characteristics of PSP-tau differ from those of insoluble tau in Alzheimer's disease brain and this might be related to the presence of a C-terminal cleavage product of tau.

  12. Insulin-stimulated kinase from rat fat cells that phosphorylates initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 on the rapamycin-insensitive site (serine-111).

    PubMed

    Heesom, K J; Avison, M B; Diggle, T A; Denton, R M

    1998-11-15

    The effects of insulin and rapamycin on the phosphorylation of the translation regulator, initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) have been studied in rat fat cells by following changes in the incorporation of 32P from [32P]Pi under steady-state conditions. Both unbound 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP1 bound to eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were isolated from the cells and then digested with trypsin and other proteases; the radiolabelled phosphopeptides were then separated by two-dimensional thin- layer analysis and HPLC. The results provide confirmation of the conclusion of Fadden, Haystead and Lawrence [J. Biol. Chem. (1997) 272, 10240-10247] that insulin increases the phosphorylation of four sites that fit a Ser/Thr-Pro motif (Thr-36, Thr-45, Ser-64 and Thr-69) and that taken together these phosphorylations result in the dissociation of 4E-BP1 from eIF4E. The effects of insulin on the phosphorylation of these sites, and hence dissociation from eIF4E, are blocked by rapamycin. However, the present study also provides evidence that insulin increases the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 bound to eIF4E on a further site (Ser-111) and that this is by a rapamycin-insensitive mechanism. Extraction of rat epididymal fat cells followed by chromatography on Mono-S and Superose 12 columns resulted in the separation of both an insulin-stimulated eIF4E kinase and an apparently novel kinase that is highly specific for Ser-111 of 4E-BP1. The 4E-BP1 kinase was activated more than 10-fold by incubation of the cells with insulin and was markedly more active towards 4E-BP1 bound to eIF4E than towards unbound 4E-BP1. The effects of insulin were blocked by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin. A 14-mer peptide based on the sequence surrounding Ser-111 of 4E-BP1 was also a substrate for the kinase, but peptide substrates for other known protein kinases were not. The kinase is quite distinct from casein kinase 2, which also phosphorylates Ser-111 of 4E-BP1. The possible importance of these

  13. APASdb: a database describing alternative poly(A) sites and selection of heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals.

    PubMed

    You, Leiming; Wu, Jiexin; Feng, Yuchao; Fu, Yonggui; Guo, Yanan; Long, Liyuan; Zhang, Hui; Luan, Yijie; Tian, Peng; Chen, Liangfu; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Yuxin; Li, Jie; Chen, Chengyong; Zhang, Yaqing; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3'-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and APA-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology. Here we present a web-accessible database, named APASdb (http://mosas.sysu.edu.cn/utr), which can visualize the precise map and usage quantification of different APA isoforms for all genes. The datasets are deeply profiled by the sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (SAPAS) method capable of high-throughput sequencing 3'-ends of polyadenylated transcripts. Thus, APASdb details all the heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals, and maintains near complete coverage for APA sites, much better than the previous databases using conventional methods. Furthermore, APASdb provides the quantification of a given APA variant among transcripts with different APA sites by computing their corresponding normalized-reads, making our database more useful. In addition, APASdb supports URL-based retrieval, browsing and display of exon-intron structure, poly(A) signals, poly(A) sites location and usage reads, and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs). Currently, APASdb involves APA in various biological processes and diseases in human, mouse and zebrafish.

  14. APASdb: a database describing alternative poly(A) sites and selection of heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals

    PubMed Central

    You, Leiming; Wu, Jiexin; Feng, Yuchao; Fu, Yonggui; Guo, Yanan; Long, Liyuan; Zhang, Hui; Luan, Yijie; Tian, Peng; Chen, Liangfu; Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Yuxin; Li, Jie; Chen, Chengyong; Zhang, Yaqing; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3′-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and APA-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology. Here we present a web-accessible database, named APASdb (http://mosas.sysu.edu.cn/utr), which can visualize the precise map and usage quantification of different APA isoforms for all genes. The datasets are deeply profiled by the sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (SAPAS) method capable of high-throughput sequencing 3′-ends of polyadenylated transcripts. Thus, APASdb details all the heterogeneous cleavage sites downstream of poly(A) signals, and maintains near complete coverage for APA sites, much better than the previous databases using conventional methods. Furthermore, APASdb provides the quantification of a given APA variant among transcripts with different APA sites by computing their corresponding normalized-reads, making our database more useful. In addition, APASdb supports URL-based retrieval, browsing and display of exon-intron structure, poly(A) signals, poly(A) sites location and usage reads, and 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs). Currently, APASdb involves APA in various biological processes and diseases in human, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:25378337

  15. Phosphorylation and protonation of neighboring MiRP2 sites: function and pathophysiology of MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channels in periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Geoffrey W; Butler, Margaret H; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2006-02-01

    MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2) and Kv3.4 subunits assemble in skeletal muscle to create subthreshold, voltage-gated potassium channels. MiRP2 acts on Kv3.4 to shift the voltage dependence of activation, speed recovery from inactivation, suppress cumulative inactivation and increase unitary conductance. We previously found an R83H missense mutation in MiRP2 that segregated with periodic paralysis in two families and diminished the effects of MiRP2 on Kv3.4. Here we show that MiRP2 has a single, functional PKC phosphorylation site at serine 82 and that normal MiRP2-Kv3.4 function requires phosphorylation of the site. The R83H variant does not prevent PKC phosphorylation of neighboring S82; rather, the change shifts the voltage dependence of activation and endows MiRP2-Kv3.4 channels with sensitivity to changes in intracellular pH across the physiological range. Thus, current passed by single R83H channels decreases as internal pH is lowered (pK(a) approximately 7.3, consistent with histidine protonation) whereas wild-type channels are largely insensitive. These findings identify a key regulatory domain in MiRP2 and suggest a mechanistic link between acidosis and episodes of periodic paralysis.

  16. STAT activation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and amphiregulin. Requirement for the EGF receptor kinase but not for tyrosine phosphorylation sites or JAK1.

    PubMed

    David, M; Wong, L; Flavell, R; Thompson, S A; Wells, A; Larner, A C; Johnson, G R

    1996-04-19

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activates several signaling cascades in response to the ligands EGF and amphiregulin (AR). One of these signaling events involves the tyrosine phosphorylation of STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription), a process believed to require the activation of a tyrosine kinase of the JAK family. In this report we demonstrate that EGF- and AR-induced STAT activation requires the intrinsic kinase activity of the receptor but not the presence of Jak1. We show that both wild type (WT) and truncated EGF receptors lacking all autophosphorylation sites activate STAT 1, 3, and 5 in response to either EGF or AR. Furthermore, relative to cells expressing WT receptor, ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the STATs was enhanced in cells expressing only the truncated receptor. These results provide the first evidence that (i) EGF receptor-mediated STAT activation occurs in a Jak1-independent manner, (ii) the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor is essential for STAT activation, and (iii) tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the EGF receptor are not required for STAT activation.

  17. Screening of human SNP database identifies recoding sites of A-to-I RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Gommans, Willemijn M.; Tatalias, Nicholas E.; Sie, Christina P.; Dupuis, Dylan; Vendetti, Nicholas; Smith, Lauren; Kaushal, Rikhi; Maas, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are DNA sequence variations that can affect the expression or function of genes. As a result, they may lead to phenotypic differences between individuals, such as susceptibility to disease, response to medications, and disease progression. Millions of SNPs have been mapped within the human genome providing a rich resource for genetic variation studies. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing also leads to the production of RNA and protein sequence variants, but it acts on the level of primary gene transcripts. Sequence variations due to RNA editing may be misannotated as SNPs when relying solely on expressed sequence data instead of genomic material. In this study, we screened the human SNP database for potential cases of A-to-I RNA editing that cause amino acid changes in the encoded protein. Our search strategy applies five molecular features to score candidate sites. It identifies all previously known cases of editing present in the SNP database and successfully uncovers novel, bona fide targets of adenosine deamination editing. Our approach sets the stage for effective and comprehensive genome-wide screens for A-to-I editing targets. PMID:18772245

  18. Maryland power plant siting program radioecology database management system: format for coding radioecology data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Domotor, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Radioecology Laboratory of the State of Maryland Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) conducts routine radiological monitoring programs designed to assess the environmental impact of radionuclides released by nuclear power plants affecting Maryland. The PPSP radioecology database management system was initiated to store existing and future monitoring data collected by PPSP and its subcontractors in a computer file format. From these files, SAS (Statistical Analysis System) datasets are created for qualitative and quantitative analysis of monitoring data, for modeling studies through incorporation of this data, or for predicting environmental impact. The system was designed to accommodate both gamma and beta radionuclide analyses from water, sediment, soil, air, foodstuff, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna sample types. Plant releases of radionuclides and physical and chemical environmental parameters can also be stored.

  19. NPEST: a nonparametric method and a database for transcription start site prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Kryshchenko, Alona; Triska, Martin; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis; Neely, Michael; Schumitzky, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present NPEST, a novel tool for the analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) distributions and transcription start site (TSS) prediction. This method estimates an unknown probability distribution of ESTs using a maximum likelihood (ML) approach, which is then used to predict positions of TSS. Accurate identification of TSS is an important genomics task, since the position of regulatory elements with respect to the TSS can have large effects on gene regulation, and performance of promoter motif-finding methods depends on correct identification of TSSs. Our probabilistic approach expands recognition capabilities to multiple TSS per locus that may be a useful tool to enhance the understanding of alternative splicing mechanisms. This paper presents analysis of simulated data as well as statistical analysis of promoter regions of a model dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using our statistical tool we analyzed 16520 loci and developed a database of TSS, which is now publicly available at www.glacombio.net/NPEST. PMID:25197613

  20. NPEST: a nonparametric method and a database for transcription start site prediction.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Kryshchenko, Alona; Triska, Martin; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis; Neely, Michael; Schumitzky, Alan

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present NPEST, a novel tool for the analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) distributions and transcription start site (TSS) prediction. This method estimates an unknown probability distribution of ESTs using a maximum likelihood (ML) approach, which is then used to predict positions of TSS. Accurate identification of TSS is an important genomics task, since the position of regulatory elements with respect to the TSS can have large effects on gene regulation, and performance of promoter motif-finding methods depends on correct identification of TSSs. Our probabilistic approach expands recognition capabilities to multiple TSS per locus that may be a useful tool to enhance the understanding of alternative splicing mechanisms. This paper presents analysis of simulated data as well as statistical analysis of promoter regions of a model dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using our statistical tool we analyzed 16520 loci and developed a database of TSS, which is now publicly available at www.glacombio.net/NPEST.

  1. Phosphorylation at serine 52 and 635 does not alter the transport properties of glucosinolate transporter AtGTR1

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how plants regulate transporters of defense compounds. In A. thaliana, glucosinolates are transported between tissues by NPF2.10 (AtGTR1) and NPF2.11 (AtGTR2). Mining of the PhosPhat4.0 database showed two cytosol exposed phosphorylation sites for AtGTR1 and one membrane-buried phosphorylation site for AtGTR2. In this study, we investigate whether mutation of the two potential regulatory sites of AtGTR1 affected transport of glucosinolates in Xenopus oocytes. Characterization of AtGTR1 phosphorylation mutants showed that phosphorylation of AtGTR1 - at the two reported phosphorylation sites - is not directly involved in regulating AtGTR1 transport activity. We hypothesize a role for AtGTR1-phosphorylation in regulating protein-protein interactions. PMID:26340317

  2. Phosphorylation at serine 52 and 635 does not alter the transport properties of glucosinolate transporter AtGTR1.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how plants regulate transporters of defense compounds. In A. thaliana, glucosinolates are transported between tissues by NPF2.10 (AtGTR1) and NPF2.11 (AtGTR2). Mining of the PhosPhat4.0 database showed two cytosol exposed phosphorylation sites for AtGTR1 and one membrane-buried phosphorylation site for AtGTR2. In this study, we investigate whether mutation of the two potential regulatory sites of AtGTR1 affected transport of glucosinolates in Xenopus oocytes. Characterization of AtGTR1 phosphorylation mutants showed that phosphorylation of AtGTR1 - at the two reported phosphorylation sites - is not directly involved in regulating AtGTR1 transport activity. We hypothesize a role for AtGTR1-phosphorylation in regulating protein-protein interactions.

  3. HIV-1 encoded virus protein U (Vpu) solution structure of the 41-62 hydrophilic region containing the phosphorylated sites Ser52 and Ser56.

    PubMed

    Coadou, Gaël; Evrard-Todeschi, Nathalie; Gharbi-Benarous, Josyane; Benarous, Richard; Girault, Jean Pierre

    2002-03-08

    Degradation of the HIV receptor CD4 by the proteasome, mediated by the HIV-1 protein Vpu, is crucial for the release of fully infectious virions. To promote CD4 degradation Vpu has to be phosphorylated on a motif DSGXXS, which is conserved in several signalling proteins known to be degraded by the proteasome upon phosphorylation. Such phosphorylation is required for the interaction of Vpu with the ubiquitin ligase SCF-beta-TrCP that triggers CD4 degradation by the proteasome. In the present work, we used two peptides of 22 amino acids between residues 41 and 62 of Vpu. Vpu41-62 was predicted to form an alpha-helix-flexible-alpha-helix including the phosphorylation motif DS52GNES56 and Vpu_P41-62 was phosphorylated at the two sites Ser52 and Ser56. We analysed the conformational change induced by the phosphorylation of this peptide on the residues Ser52 and Ser56. Homo- and heteronuclear NMR techniques were used to assess the structural influence of phosphorylation. The spectra of the free peptides, Vpu_P41-62 and Vpu41-62, in both H2O (at pH 3.5 and 7.2) and a 1:1 mixture of H2O and trifluoroethanol were completely assigned by a combined application of several two-dimensional proton NMR methods. Analysis of the short- and medium-range NOE connectivities and of the secondary chemical shifts indicated that the peptide segment (42-49) shows a less well-defined helix propensity. The Vpu_P41-62 domain of residues 50-62 forms a loop with the phosphate group pointing away, a short beta-strand and a flexible extended 'tail' of residues 60-62. Residues 50-60 exhibit alpha-proton NMR secondary chemical shift changes from random coil toward more beta-like structure with the combined (temperature, solvent and pH) NMR and molecular calculation experiments. Differences in this molecular region 50-62 suggest that conformational changes of Vpu_P play an important role in Vpu_P-induced degradation of CD4 molecules.

  4. A site-specific phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase controls the formation of spheroid cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Beck, Hans Christian; Gosau, Martin; Kristensen, Lars Peter; Morsczeck, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) are ectomesenchymal multipotent stem cells that form spheroid cell clusters (SCCs) under serum free medium cell culture conditions (SFM). Until today, molecular mechanisms for the formation of SCCs are unknown. In this study a quantitative phosphoproteomics approach revealed regulated phosphorylated proteins in SCCs, which were derived from DFCs after 24 and 48 h in SFM. These regulated proteins were categorized using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes program. Here, cellular processes and signaling pathway were identified such as the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. In addition to the phosphoproteomics approach we showed that a specific phosphorylation of FAK (Y397) was required for the formation of SCCs. In conclusion, this study disclosed the phosphoproteome of SCCs for the first time and showed that the FAK signaling pathway is required for the formation of SCCs.

  5. SNP2TFBS – a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/. PMID:27899579

  6. mutLBSgeneDB: mutated ligand binding site gene DataBase

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pora; Zhao, Junfei; Lu, Pinyi; Zhao, Zhongming

    2017-01-01

    Mutations at the ligand binding sites (LBSs) can influence protein structure stability, binding affinity with small molecules, and drug resistance in cancer patients. Our recent analysis revealed that ligand binding residues had a significantly higher mutation rate than other parts of the protein. Here, we built mutLBSgeneDB (mutated Ligand Binding Site gene DataBase) available at http://zhaobioinfo.org/mutLBSgeneDB. We collected and curated over 2300 genes (mutLBSgenes) having ∼12 000 somatic mutations at ∼10 000 LBSs across 16 cancer types and selected 744 drug targetable genes (targetable_mutLBSgenes) by incorporating kinases, transcription factors, pharmacological genes, and cancer driver genes. We analyzed LBS mutation information, differential gene expression network, drug response correlation with gene expression, and protein stability changes for all mutLBSgenes using integrated genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, network and functional information. We calculated and compared the binding affinities of 20 carefully selected genes with their drugs in wild type and mutant forms. mutLBSgeneDB provides a user-friendly web interface for searching and browsing through seven categories of annotations: Gene summary, Mutated information, Protein structure related information, Differential gene expression and gene-gene network, Phenotype information, Pharmacological information, and Conservation information. mutLBSgeneDB provides a useful resource for functional genomics, protein structure, drug and disease research communities. PMID:27907895

  7. SNP2TFBS - a database of regulatory SNPs affecting predicted transcription factor binding site affinity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2017-01-04

    SNP2TFBS is a computational resource intended to support researchers investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory variation in the human genome. The database essentially consists of a collection of text files providing specific annotations for human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely whether they are predicted to abolish, create or change the affinity of one or several transcription factor (TF) binding sites. A SNP's effect on TF binding is estimated based on a position weight matrix (PWM) model for the binding specificity of the corresponding factor. These data files are regenerated at regular intervals by an automatic procedure that takes as input a reference genome, a comprehensive SNP catalogue and a collection of PWMs. SNP2TFBS is also accessible over a web interface, enabling users to view the information provided for an individual SNP, to extract SNPs based on various search criteria, to annotate uploaded sets of SNPs or to display statistics about the frequencies of binding sites affected by selected SNPs. Homepage: http://ccg.vital-it.ch/snp2tfbs/.

  8. Stimulation of glycogen synthesis by heat shock in L6 skeletal-muscle cells: regulatory role of site-specific phosphorylation of glycogen-associated protein phosphatase 1.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Byoung; Duddy, Noreen; Ragolia, Louis; Begum, Najma

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that glycogen-associated protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1(G)) is essential for basal and exercise-induced glycogen synthesis, which is mediated in part by dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase (GS). In the present study, we examined the potential role of site-specific phosphorylation of PP-1(G) in heat-shock-induced glycogen synthesis. L6 rat skeletal-muscle cells were stably transfected with wild-type PP-1(G) or with PP-1(G) mutants in which site-1 (S1) Ser(48) and site-2 (S2) Ser(67) residues were substituted with Ala. Cells expressing wild-type and PP-1(G) mutants, S1, S2 and S1/S2, were examined for potential alterations in glycogen synthesis after a 60 min heat shock at 45 degrees C, followed by analysis of [(14)C]glucose incorporation into glycogen at 37 degrees C. PP-1(G) S1 mutation caused a 90% increase in glycogen synthesis on heat-shock treatment, whereas the PP-1(G) S2 mutant was not sensitive to heat stress. The S1/S2 double mutant was comparable with wild-type, which showed a 30% increase over basal. Heat-shock-induced glycogen synthesis was accompanied by increased PP-1 and GS activities. The highest activation was observed in S1 mutant. Heat shock also resulted in a rapid and sustained Akt/ glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta) phosphorylation. Wortmannin blocked heat-shock-induced Akt/GSK-3 beta phosphorylation, prevented 2-deoxyglucose uptake and abolished the heat-shock-induced glycogen synthesis. Muscle glycogen levels regulate GS activity and glycogen synthesis and were found to be markedly depleted in S1 mutant on heat-shock treatment, suggesting that PP-1(G) S1 Ser phosphorylation may inhibit glycogen degradation during thermal stimulation, as S1 mutation resulted in excessive glycogen synthesis on heat-shock treatment. In contrast, PP-1(G) S2 Ser phosphorylation may promote glycogen breakdown under stressful conditions. Heat-shock-induced glycogenesis appears to be mediated via phosphoinositide 3

  9. PKA phosphorylation reshapes the pharmacological kinetics of BmK AS, a unique site-4 sodium channel-specific modulator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z. R.; Zhang, H.; Wu, J. Q.; Zhou, J. J.; Ji, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Although modulation of the activity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation has been investigated in multiple preparations, the pharmacological sensitivity of VGSCs to scorpion toxins after PKA phosphorylation has rarely been approached. In this study, the effects of BmK AS, a sodium channel-specific modulator from Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, on the voltage-dependent activation and inactivation of Nav1.2 were examined before and after PKA activation. After PKA phosphorylation, the pattern of dose-dependent modulation of BmK AS, on both Nav1.2α and Nav1.2 (α + β1) was reshaped. Meanwhile, the shifts in voltage-dependency of activation and inactivation induced by BmK AS were attenuated. The results suggested that PKA might play a role in different patterns how β-like toxins such as BmK AS modulate gating properties and peak currents of VGSCs. PMID:24430351

  10. A database of global reference sites to support validation of satellite surface albedo datasets (SAVS 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Alexander; Bennartz, Ralf; Fell, Frank; Lattanzio, Alessio; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Schulz, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Validating the accuracy and long-term stability of terrestrial satellite data products necessitates a network of reference sites. This paper documents a global database of more than 2000 sites globally which have been characterized in terms of their spatial heterogeneity. The work was motivated by the need for potential validation sites for geostationary surface albedo data products, but the resulting database is useful also for other applications. The database (SAVS 1.0) is publicly available through the EUMETSAT website (http://savs.eumetsat.int/, doi:10.15770/EUM_SEC_CLM_1001). Sites can be filtered according to different criteria, providing a flexible way to identify potential validation sites for further studies and a traceable approach to characterize the heterogeneity of these reference sites. The present paper describes the detailed information on the generation of the SAVS 1.0 database and its characteristics.

  11. Cytoplasmic retention of Xenopus nuclear factor 7 before the mid blastula transition uses a unique anchoring mechanism involving a retention domain and several phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Shou, W; Kloc, M; Reddy, B A; Etkin, L D

    1994-01-01

    Xenopus nuclear factor 7 (xnf7) is a maternally expressed protein that belongs to the B-box zinc finger gene family consisting of transcription factors, protooncogenes, and ribonucleoproteins. Its function is regulated by retention in the cytoplasm from oocyte maturation until the mid blastula transition (MBT) when it reenters the nucleus. We defined a 22-amino acid cytoplasmic retention domain (CRD) in xnf7 that functioned cooperatively with two phosphorylation sites within the xnf7 molecule to retain the protein in the cytoplasm until the MBT. Deletion of this region or mutations in the phosphorylation sites resulted in the early entry of xnf7 into the nucleus. A mutation changing one of the phosphorylation sites to a glutamic acid resulted in the prolonged retention of the xnf7 protein in the cytoplasm until stages 9-10, well past the MBT. Additionally, a mutant form of xnf7 possessing a second nuclear localization signal at the COOH terminus was retained in the cytoplasm. This suggests that retention of xnf7 was not due to the masking of its NLS as is the case with NFkB and dorsal but was due to a novel anchoring mechanism in which the CRD interacts with an anchor protein. The CRD sequence is also found in another B-box zinc finger protein that is also retained in the cytoplasm until the MBT in the newt. Therefore, we believe that this may be an important mechanism whereby the function of a number of nuclear proteins is regulated during development.

  12. [Effect of electroacupuncture on phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the spinal dorsal horn of CFA rats].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Fang, Jun-Fan; Du, Jun-Ying; Qiu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on phosphorylation of spinal NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain rats. METHods Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group (N group, n = 10), the model group (CFA group, n = 15), and the EA group (n = 15). The inflammatory pain model was established by subcutaneous injecting CFA (0.1 mL per rat) into the right hind paw. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured before CFA injection (as the base), as well as at 24 h, 25 h, 3rd day, and 7th day after CFA injection. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn at the 3rd day post-injection were detected using immunohistochemical assay. PWTs in the CFA group were significantly lower than those of the N group at every detective time point post-injection (P < 0.01). PWTs were obviously lower in the EA group than in the N group at 24 h post-injection (P < 0.01). It showed increasing tendency, markedly higher than those of the CFA group at 25 h and 3rd day post-injection (P < 0.01). Compared with the N group, the ratio of p-NR2B positive cells in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats in the CFA group was up-regulated. Compared with the CFA group, the ratio of p-NR2B positive cells in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats showed a decreasing tendency in the EA group. EA might effectively inhibit CFA-induced inflammatory pain possibly associated with down-regulating phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  13. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  14. AraPPISite: a database of fine-grained protein-protein interaction site annotations for Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yang, Shiping; Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Ziding

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge about protein interaction sites provides detailed information of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). To date, nearly 20,000 of PPIs from Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified. Nevertheless, the interaction site information has been largely missed by previously published PPI databases. Here, AraPPISite, a database that presents fine-grained interaction details for A. thaliana PPIs is established. First, the experimentally determined 3D structures of 27 A. thaliana PPIs are collected from the Protein Data Bank database and the predicted 3D structures of 3023 A. thaliana PPIs are modeled by using two well-established template-based docking methods. For each experimental/predicted complex structure, AraPPISite not only provides an interactive user interface for browsing interaction sites, but also lists detailed evolutionary and physicochemical properties of these sites. Second, AraPPISite assigns domain-domain interactions or domain-motif interactions to 4286 PPIs whose 3D structures cannot be modeled. In this case, users can easily query protein interaction regions at the sequence level. AraPPISite is a free and user-friendly database, which does not require user registration or any configuration on local machines. We anticipate AraPPISite can serve as a helpful database resource for the users with less experience in structural biology or protein bioinformatics to probe the details of PPIs, and thus accelerate the studies of plant genetics and functional genomics. AraPPISite is available at http://systbio.cau.edu.cn/arappisite/index.html .

  15. Target Genes, Consensus Binding Site, and Role of Phosphorylation for the Response Regulator MtrA of Corynebacterium glutamicum ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Melanie; Mack, Christina; Bott, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The two-component signal transduction system consisting of the sensor kinase MtrB and the response regulator MtrA is highly conserved in corynebacteria and mycobacteria. Whereas mtrA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was reported to be essential, we recently succeeded in creating ΔmtrAB and ΔmtrA deletion mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum and provided evidence that mepA and nlpC, both encoding putative cell wall peptidases, are directly repressed by MtrA, whereas proP and betP, both encoding carriers for compatible solutes, are directly activated by MtrA. In the present study, novel MtrA target genes were identified, including mepB, encoding another putative cell wall peptidase. The repressor or activator functions of MtrA correlate with the distance between the MtrA binding site and the transcriptional start site. From the identified binding sites within 20 target promoters, a 19-bp MtrA consensus motif was derived which represents a direct repeat of 8 base pairs separated by 3 base pairs. Gene expression of a strain containing MtrA with a D53N mutation instead of wild-type MtrA resembled that of a ΔmtrA mutant, indicating that MtrA is active in its phosphorylated form. This result was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with phosphorylated MtrA which showed an increased binding affinity. PMID:21183673

  16. The Role of MITF Phosphorylation Sites During Coat Color and Eye Development in Mice Analyzed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Transgene Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Georg L.; Praetorius, Christian; Bergsteinsdóttir, Kristín; Hallsson, Jón H.; Gísladóttir, Bryndís K.; Schepsky, Alexander; Swing, Deborah A.; O'Sullivan, T. Norene; Arnheiter, Heinz; Bismuth, Keren; Debbache, Julien; Fletcher, Colin; Warming, Søren; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur

    2009-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) has emerged as an important model for gene regulation in eukaryotic organisms. In vertebrates, it regulates the development of several cell types including melanocytes and has also been shown to play an important role in melanoma. In vitro, the activity of MITF is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including the KITL/KIT/B-Raf pathway, which results in phosphorylation of MITF on serine residues 73 and 409. However, the precise role of signaling to MITF in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we use a BAC transgene rescue approach to introduce specific mutations in MITF to study the importance of specific phospho-acceptor sites and protein domains. We show that mice that carry a BAC transgene where single-amino-acid substitutions have been made in the Mitf gene rescue the phenotype of the loss-of-function mutations in Mitf. This may indicate that signaling from KIT to MITF affects other phospho-acceptor sites in MITF or that alternative sites can be phosphorylated when Ser73 and Ser409 have been mutated. Our results have implications for understanding signaling to transcription factors. Furthermore, as MITF and signaling mechanisms have been shown to play an important role in melanomas, our findings may lead to novel insights into this resilient disease. PMID:19635938

  17. Mutation of putative GRK phosphorylation sites in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) confers resistance to cannabinoid tolerance and hypersensitivity to cannabinoids in mice.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Davis, Brian J; Kearn, Chris S; Marcus, David; Cook, Alex J; Wager-Miller, Jim; Straiker, Alex; Myoga, Michael H; Karduck, Jeffrey; Leishman, Emma; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Czyzyk, Traci A; Bradshaw, Heather B; Selley, Dana E; Mackie, Ken

    2014-04-09

    For many G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), desensitization has been proposed as a principal mechanism driving initial tolerance to agonists. GPCR desensitization typically requires phosphorylation by a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) and interaction of the phosphorylated receptor with an arrestin. In simple model systems, CB1R is desensitized by GRK phosphorylation at two serine residues (S426 and S430). However, the role of these serine residues in tolerance and dependence for cannabinoids in vivo was unclear. Therefore, we generated mice where S426 and S430 were mutated to nonphosphorylatable alanines (S426A/S430A). S426A/S430A mutant mice were more sensitive to acutely administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), have delayed tolerance to Δ(9)-THC, and showed increased dependence for Δ(9)-THC. S426A/S430A mutants also showed increased responses to elevated levels of endogenous cannabinoids. CB1R desensitization in the periaqueductal gray and spinal cord following 7 d of treatment with Δ(9)-THC was absent in S426A/S430A mutants. Δ(9)-THC-induced downregulation of CB1R in the spinal cord was also absent in S426A/S430A mutants. Cultured autaptic hippocampal neurons from S426A/S430A mice showed enhanced endocannabinoid-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and reduced agonist-mediated desensitization of DSE. These results indicate that S426 and S430 play major roles in the acute response to, tolerance to, and dependence on cannabinoids. Additionally, S426A/S430A mice are a novel model for studying pathophysiological processes thought to involve excessive endocannabinoid signaling such as drug addiction and metabolic disease. These mice also validate the approach of mutating GRK phosphorylation sites involved in desensitization as a general means to confer exaggerated signaling to GPCRs in vivo.

  18. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of alpha-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-alpha-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of alpha-synuclein.

  19. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of {alpha}-synuclein

    SciTech Connect

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki |; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami |; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi |

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of {alpha}-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-{alpha}-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of {alpha}-synuclein.

  20. Disruption of the interface between the pleckstrin homology (PH) and kinase domains of Akt protein is sufficient for hydrophobic motif site phosphorylation in the absence of mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Noel A; Niederst, Matt; Newton, Alexandra C

    2011-11-11

    The pro-survival kinase Akt requires phosphorylation at two conserved residues, the activation loop site (Thr-308) and the hydrophobic motif site (Ser-473), for maximal activation. Previous reports indicate that mTORC2 is necessary for phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif and that this site is not phosphorylated in cells lacking components of the mTORC2 complex, such as Sin1. Here we show that Akt can be phosphorylated at the hydrophobic motif site (Ser-473) in the absence of mTORC2. First, increasing the levels of PIP(3) in Sin1(-/-) MEFs by (i) expression of a constitutively active PI3K or (ii) relief of a negative feedback loop on PI3K by prolonged inhibition of mTORC1 or S6K is sufficient to rescue hydrophobic motif phosphorylation of Akt. The resulting accumulation of PIP(3) at the plasma membrane results in Ser-473 phosphorylation. Second, constructs of Akt in which the PH domain is constitutively disengaged from the kinase domain are phosphorylated at the hydrophobic motif site in Sin1(-/-) MEFs; both myristoylated-Akt and Akt lacking the PH domain are phosphorylated at Ser-473. Thus, disruption of the interface between the PH and kinase domains of Akt bypasses the requirement for mTORC2. In summary, these data support a model in which Akt can be phosphorylated at Ser-473 and activated in the absence of mTORC2 by mechanisms that depend on removal of the PH domain from the kinase domain.

  1. The lysine-rich H1 histones from the slime moulds, Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum lack phosphorylation sites recognised by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heads, R J; Carpenter, B G; Rickenberg, H V; Chambers, T C

    1992-07-13

    Calcium chloride-extracted histones were prepared from nuclei of the slime moulds, Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum, and phosphorylation by purified preparations of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-d PK) and growth-associated H1 histone kinase (HKG) examined and compared. Among the major histone fractions and other proteins in the two preparations, the H1 histones from both organisms were found to be effective and exclusive substrates for HKG. cAMP-d PK, which phosphorylates mammalian H1 histone and certain, in particular H2B, of the mammalian core histones, phosphorylated several of the core histones from both slime moulds but did not phosphorylate H1 histone from either. The slime mould H1s remained ineffective substrates for cAMP-d PK even after extensive alkaline phosphatase treatment of the histone preparations. Additional studies demonstrated that the lack of slime mould H1 phosphorylation by cAMP-d PK was not due to competition of the H1 molecules with the core histones for the kinase. Our studies suggest that H1 histones from these organisms, whilst clearly containing sites for phosphorylation by HKG, apparently lack phosphorylation sites recognised by cAMP-d PK. Thus, the mediation of specific nuclear functions by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of H1 in higher organisms may not occur or be required in these lower eukaryotes.

  2. Post-Caesarean Section Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Using an Online Database and Mobile Phone Technology.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Eliana; McIsaac, Corrine; MacDougall, Bhreagh; Wilson, Douglas; Kohr, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Obstetric surgical site infections (SSIs) are common and expensive to the health care system but remain under reported given shorter postoperative hospital stays and suboptimal post-discharge surveillance systems. SSIs, for the purpose of this paper, are defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) as infection incurring within 30 days of the operative procedure (in this case, Caesarean section [CS]). Demonstrate the feasibility of real-life use of a patient driven SSIs post-discharge surveillance system consisting of an online database and mobile phone technology (surgical mobile app - how2trak) among women undergoing CS in a Canadian urban centre. Estimate the rate of SSIs and associated predisposing factors. Prospective cohort of consecutive women delivering by CS at one urban Canadian hospital. Using surgical mobile app-how2trak-predetermined demographics, comorbidities, procedure characteristics, and self-reported symptoms and signs of infection were collected and linked to patients' incision self-portraits (photos) on postpartum days 3, 7, 10, and 30. A total of 105 patients were enrolled over a 5-month period. Mean age was 31 years, 13% were diabetic, and most were at low risk of surgical complications. Forty-six percent of surgeries were emergency CSs, and 104/105 received antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-five percent of patients (47/105) submitted at least one photo, and among those, one surgical site infection was detected by photo appearance and self-reported symptoms by postpartum day 10. The majority of patients whom uploaded photos did so multiple times and 43% of them submitted photos up to day 30. Patients with either a diagnosis of diabetes or self-reported Asian ethnicity were less likely to submit photos. Post-discharge surveillance for CS-related SSIs using surgical mobile app how2trak is feasible and deserves further study in the post-discharge setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Deoxycholate induced tetramer of αA-crystallin and sites of phosphorylation: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and femtosecond solvation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Aritra; Mojumdar, Supratik Sen; Choudhury, Aparajita; Banerjee, Rajat; Das, Kali Pada; Sasmal, Dibyendu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2012-04-01

    Structure and dynamics of acrylodan labeled αA-crystallin tetramer formed in the presence of a bile salt (sodium deoxycholate, NaDC) has been studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and femtosecond up-conversion techniques. Using FCS it is shown that, the diffusion constant (Dt) of the αA-crystallin oligomer (mass ˜800 kDa) increases from ˜35 μm2 s-1 to ˜68 μm2 s-1. This corresponds to a decrease in hydrodynamic radius (rh) from ˜6.9 nm to ˜3.3 nm. This corresponds to about 10-fold decrease in molecular mass to ˜80 kDa and suggests formation of a tetramer (since mass of αA-crystallin monomer is ˜20 kDa). The steady state emission maximum and average solvation time (<τs>) of acrylodan labeled at cysteine 131 position of αA-crystallin is markedly affected on addition of NaDC, while the tryptophan (trp-9) becomes more exposed. This suggests that NaDC binds near the cys-131 and makes the terminal region of αA-crystallin exposed. This may explain the enhanced auto-phosphorylation activity of αA-crystallin near the terminus of the 173 amino acid protein (e.g., at the threonine 13, serine 45, or serine 169 and 172) and suggests that phosphorylation at ser-122 (close to cys-131) is relatively less important.

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomics after auxin-stimulated lateral root induction identifies an SNX1 protein phosphorylation site required for growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Houjiang; Berke, Lidija; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz; Scheres, Ben; Menke, Frank L H

    2013-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation is instrumental to early signaling events. Studying system-wide phosphorylation in relation to processes under investigation requires a quantitative proteomics approach. In Arabidopsis, auxin application can induce pericycle cell divisions and lateral root formation. Initiation of lateral root formation requires transcriptional reprogramming following auxin-mediated degradation of transcriptional repressors. The immediate early signaling events prior to this derepression are virtually uncharacterized. To identify the signal molecules responding to auxin application, we used a lateral root-inducible system that was previously developed to trigger synchronous division of pericycle cells. To identify and quantify the early signaling events following this induction, we combined (15)N-based metabolic labeling and phosphopeptide enrichment and applied a mass spectrometry-based approach. In total, 3068 phosphopeptides were identified from auxin-treated root tissue. This root proteome dataset contains largely phosphopeptides not previously reported and represents one of the largest quantitative phosphoprotein datasets from Arabidopsis to date. Key proteins responding to auxin treatment included the multidrug resistance-like and PIN2 auxin carriers, auxin response factor2 (ARF2), suppressor of auxin resistance 3 (SAR3), and sorting nexin1 (SNX1). Mutational analysis of serine 16 of SNX1 showed that overexpression of the mutated forms of SNX1 led to retarded growth and reduction of lateral root formation due to the reduced outgrowth of the primordium, showing proof of principle for our approach.

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C.-Y.; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. PMID:26405031

  7. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  8. DISSS/PSDB - Personnel Security Database Modernization Project: Compilation of data gathered from DOE Operations Office`s site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.; Sweeney, D.

    1995-03-15

    This document is a compilation of the information gathered from visits to the DOE Operations Offices. The purpose of these visits was to gather requirements for the modernization of the personnel security database. The initial phase of visits were to sites which had known local systems to augment CPCI. They were; Rocky Flats, Richland, Las Vegas, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, and Oakland. The second phase of site visits were to; Headquarters, Schenectady, Pittsburgh, Idaho Falls, Chicago, and Albuquerque. We also visited the NRC. At each site we reviewed the current clearance process in use at the field office. If the site had a local personnel security database (PSDB), we also reviewed the current PSDB processing. Each meeting was began with the a discussion on the purpose of the meeting and the background of the redesign effort.

  9. P2X-mediated AMPA receptor internalization and synaptic depression is controlled by two CaMKII phosphorylation sites on GluA1 in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pougnet, Johan-Till; Compans, Benjamin; Martinez, Audrey; Choquet, Daniel; Hosy, Eric; Boué-Grabot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity at excitatory synapses can be induced either by synaptic release of glutamate or the release of gliotransmitters such as ATP. Recently, we showed that postsynaptic P2X2 receptors activated by ATP released from astrocytes downregulate synaptic AMPAR, providing a novel mechanism by which glial cells modulate synaptic activity. ATP- and lNMDA-induced depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are additive, suggesting distinct molecular pathways. AMPARs are homo-or hetero-tetramers composed of GluA1-A4. Here, we first show that P2X2-mediated AMPAR inhibition is dependent on the subunit composition of AMPAR. GluA3 homomers are insensitive and their presence in heteromers alters P2X-mediated inhibition. Using a mutational approach, we demonstrate that the two CaMKII phosphorylation sites S567 and S831 located in the cytoplasmic Loop1 and C-terminal tail of GluA1 subunits, respectively, are critical for P2X2-mediated AMPAR inhibition recorded from co-expressing Xenopus oocytes and removal of surface AMPAR at synapses of hippocampal neurons imaged by the super-resolution dSTORM technique. Finally, using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies, we show that P2X-induced depression in hippocampal slices produces a dephosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit at S567, contrary to NMDAR-mediated LTD. These findings indicate that GluA1 phosphorylation of S567 and S831 is critical for P2X2-mediated AMPAR internalization and ATP-driven synaptic depression. PMID:27624155

  10. Cryptic Rac-binding and p21(Cdc42Hs/Rac)-activated kinase phosphorylation sites of NADPH oxidase component p67(phox).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Prigmore, E; Govind, S; Veryard, C; Kozma, R; Wientjes, F B; Segal, A W; Lim, L

    1998-06-19

    Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of small molecular mass GTPases that act as molecular switches to control actin-based cell morphology as well as cell growth and differentiation. Rac1 and Rac2 are specifically required for superoxide formation by components of the NADPH oxidase. In binding assays, Rac1 interacts directly with p67(phox), but not with the other oxidase components: cytochrome b, p40(phox), or p47(phox) (Prigmore, E., Ahmed, S., Best, A., Kozma, R. , Manser, E., Segal, A. W., and Lim, L. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 10717-10722). Here, the Rac1/2 interaction with p67(phox) has been characterized further. Rac1 and Rac2 can bind to p67(phox) amino acid residues 170-199, and the N terminus (amino acids 1-192) of p67(phox) can be used as a specific inhibitor of Rac signaling. Deletion of p67(phox) C-terminal sequences (amino acids 193-526), the C-terminal SH3 domain (amino acids 470-526), or the polyproline-rich motif (amino acids 226-236) stimulates Rac1 binding by approximately 8-fold. p21(Cdc42Hs/Rac)-activated kinase (PAK) phosphorylates p67(phox) amino acid residues adjacent to the Rac1/2-binding site, and this phosphorylation is stimulated by deletion of the C-terminal SH3 domain or the polyproline-rich motif. These data suggest a role for cryptic Rac-binding and PAK phosphorylation sites of p67(phox) in control of the NADPH oxidase.

  11. Importance of a Potential Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation Site of Na+,K+-ATPase and Its Interaction Network for Na+ Binding.

    PubMed

    Einholm, Anja P; Nielsen, Hang N; Holm, Rikke; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-05-13

    The molecular mechanism underlying PKA-mediated regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was explored in mutagenesis studies of the potential PKA site at Ser-938 and surrounding charged residues. The phosphomimetic mutations S938D/E interfered with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane, whereas Na(+) binding from the extracellular side was unaffected. The reduction of Na(+) affinity is within the range expected for physiological regulation of the intracellular Na(+) concentration, thus supporting the hypothesis that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-938 regulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in vivo Ser-938 is located in the intracellular loop between transmembrane segments M8 and M9. An extended bonding network connects this loop with M10, the C terminus, and the Na(+) binding region. Charged residues Asp-997, Glu-998, Arg-1000, and Lys-1001 in M10, participating in this bonding network, are crucial to Na(+) interaction. Replacement of Arg-1005, also located in the vicinity of Ser-938, with alanine, lysine, methionine, or serine resulted in wild type-like Na(+) and K(+) affinities and catalytic turnover rate. However, when combined with the phosphomimetic mutation S938E only lysine substitution of Arg-1005 was compatible with Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function, and the Na(+) affinity of this double mutant was reduced even more than in single mutant S938E. This result indicates that the positive side chain of Arg-1005 or the lysine substituent plays a mechanistic role as interaction partner of phosphorylated Ser-938, transducing the phosphorylation signal into a reduced affinity of Na(+) site III. Electrostatic interaction of Glu-998 is of minor importance for the reduction of Na(+) affinity by phosphomimetic S938E as revealed by combining S938E with E998A. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The potential protein kinase A (Pka) phosphorylation site is required for the function of FgSge1 in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Meng-Hao; Yin, Yan-Ni; Ma, Zhong-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The new transcription factor Sge1 has garnered much attention in filamentous fungi recently, which highlights its role in pathogenicity, conidiation, and the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, we demonstrated that FgSge1 is localized in the nucleus in Fusarium graminearum using fluorescent protein GFP. Mutants containing a T67A mutation within the potential protein kinase A (Pka) phosphorylation site of FgSge1 exhibited a significant decrease in conidiation and dramatically impaired virulence on both wheat head and non-host tomato. These results indicated that the Pka phosphorylation site is required for the function of FgSge1 in F. graminearum. In addition, we characterized the FgSGE1 deletion mutants and found that the mutants showed increased sensitivity to osmotic stress mediated by NaCl or KCl, and to cell wall damaging agent congo red (CR). Real-time PCR assays revealed increased transcription levels of FgSGE1 with the treatment of NaCl or CR, and decreased FgSGE1 transcription in the FgOS-2 deletion mutant ΔFgOs-2. Based on the transcription levels, it can be concluded that FgSge1 is a downstream target of the mitogen-activated protein kinase FgOs-2.

  13. The protonmotive force in bovine heart submitochondrial particles. Magnitude, sites of generation and comparison with the phosphorylation potential.

    PubMed

    Sorgato, M C; Ferguson, S J; Kell, D B; John, P

    1978-07-15

    1. The magnitude of the protonmotive force in respiring bovine heart submitochondrial particles was estimated. The membrane-potential component was determined from the uptake of S14CN-ions, and the pH-gradient component from the uptake of [14C]methylamine. In each case a flow-dialysis technique was used to monitor uptake. 2. With NADH as substrate the membrane potential was approx. 145mV and the pH gradient was between 0 and 0.5 unit when the particles were suspended in a Pi/Tris reaction medium. The addition of the permeant NO3-ion decreased the membrane potential with a corresponding increase in the pH gradient. In a medium containing 200mM-sucrose, 50mM-KCl and Hepes as buffer, the total protonmotive force was 185mV, comprising a membrane potential of 90mV and a pH gradient of 1.6 units. Thus the protonmotive force was slightly larger in the high-osmolarity medium. 3. The phosphorylation potential (= deltaG0' + RT ln[ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) was approx. 43.1 kJ/mol (10.3kcal/mol) in all the reaction media tested. Comparison of this value with the protonmotive force indicates that more than 2 and up to 3 protons must be moved across the membrane for each molecule of ATP synthesized by a chemiosmotic mechanism. 4. Succinate generated both a protonmotive force and a phosphorylation potential that were of similar magnitude to those observed with NADH as substrate. 5. Although oxidation of NADH supports a rate of ATP synthesis that is approximately twice that observed with succinate, respiration with either of these substrates generated a very similar protonmotive force. Thus there seemed to be no strict relation between the size of the protonmotive force and the phosphorylation rate. 6. In the presence of antimycin and/or 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, ascorbate oxidation with either NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine or 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine as electron mediator generated a membrane potential of approx. 90mV, but no pH gradient was detected, even

  14. The protonmotive force in bovine heart submitochondrial particles. Magnitude, sites of generation and comparison with the phosphorylation potential.

    PubMed Central

    Sorgato, M C; Ferguson, S J; Kell, D B; John, P

    1978-01-01

    1. The magnitude of the protonmotive force in respiring bovine heart submitochondrial particles was estimated. The membrane-potential component was determined from the uptake of S14CN-ions, and the pH-gradient component from the uptake of [14C]methylamine. In each case a flow-dialysis technique was used to monitor uptake. 2. With NADH as substrate the membrane potential was approx. 145mV and the pH gradient was between 0 and 0.5 unit when the particles were suspended in a Pi/Tris reaction medium. The addition of the permeant NO3-ion decreased the membrane potential with a corresponding increase in the pH gradient. In a medium containing 200mM-sucrose, 50mM-KCl and Hepes as buffer, the total protonmotive force was 185mV, comprising a membrane potential of 90mV and a pH gradient of 1.6 units. Thus the protonmotive force was slightly larger in the high-osmolarity medium. 3. The phosphorylation potential (= deltaG0' + RT ln[ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) was approx. 43.1 kJ/mol (10.3kcal/mol) in all the reaction media tested. Comparison of this value with the protonmotive force indicates that more than 2 and up to 3 protons must be moved across the membrane for each molecule of ATP synthesized by a chemiosmotic mechanism. 4. Succinate generated both a protonmotive force and a phosphorylation potential that were of similar magnitude to those observed with NADH as substrate. 5. Although oxidation of NADH supports a rate of ATP synthesis that is approximately twice that observed with succinate, respiration with either of these substrates generated a very similar protonmotive force. Thus there seemed to be no strict relation between the size of the protonmotive force and the phosphorylation rate. 6. In the presence of antimycin and/or 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, ascorbate oxidation with either NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine or 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine as electron mediator generated a membrane potential of approx. 90mV, but no pH gradient was detected, even

  15. MetalS(3), a database-mining tool for the identification of structurally similar metal sites.

    PubMed

    Valasatava, Yana; Rosato, Antonio; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Andreini, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a database search tool to identify metal sites having structural similarity to a query metal site structure within the MetalPDB database of minimal functional sites (MFSs) contained in metal-binding biological macromolecules. MFSs describe the local environment around the metal(s) independently of the larger context of the macromolecular structure. Such a local environment has a determinant role in tuning the chemical reactivity of the metal, ultimately contributing to the functional properties of the whole system. The database search tool, which we called MetalS(3) (Metal Sites Similarity Search), can be accessed through a Web interface at http://metalweb.cerm.unifi.it/tools/metals3/ . MetalS(3) uses a suitably adapted version of an algorithm that we previously developed to systematically compare the structure of the query metal site with each MFS in MetalPDB. For each MFS, the best superposition is kept. All these superpositions are then ranked according to the MetalS(3) scoring function and are presented to the user in tabular form. The user can interact with the output Web page to visualize the structural alignment or the sequence alignment derived from it. Options to filter the results are available. Test calculations show that the MetalS(3) output correlates well with expectations from protein homology considerations. Furthermore, we describe some usage scenarios that highlight the usefulness of MetalS(3) to obtain mechanistic and functional hints regardless of homology.

  16. THE ECOTOX DATABASE AND ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVEL (ECO-SSL) WEB SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ECOTOX database (http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/) provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic effects information. Data on more than 8100 chemicals and 5700 terrestrial and aquatic species are included in the database. Information is ...

  17. Overexpression of eukaryotic initiation factor 5 rescues the translational defect of tpk1w in a manner that necessitates a novel phosphorylation site.

    PubMed

    Bavli-Kertselli, Ira; Melamed, Daniel; Bar-Ziv, Lavi; Volf, Hila; Arava, Yoav

    2015-02-01

    Cells respond to changes in their environment through mechanisms that often necessitate reprogramming of the translation machinery. The fastest and strongest of all tested responses is the translation inhibition observed following abrupt depletion of glucose from the media of yeast cells. The speed of the response suggests a post-translational modification of a key component of the translation machinery. This translation factor is as yet unknown. A cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutant yeast strain (tpk1(w)) that does not respond properly to glucose depletion and maintains translation was described previously. We hypothesized that the inability of tpk1(w) to arrest translation results from abnormal expression of key translation mediators. Genome-wide analysis of steady-state mRNA levels in tpk1(w) revealed underexpression of several candidates. Elevating the cellular levels of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5 by overexpression rescued the translational defect of tpk1(w). Restoring ribosomal dissociation by eIF5 necessitated an active GAP domain and multiple regions throughout this protein. Phosphoproteomics analysis of wild-type cells overexpressing eIF5 revealed increased phosphorylation in a novel site (Thr191) upon glucose depletion. Mutating this residue and introducing it into tpk1(w) abolished the ability of eIF5 to rescue the translational defect. Intriguingly, introducing this mutation into the wild-type strain did not hamper its translational response. We further show that Thr191 is phosphorylated in vitro by Casein Kinase II (CKII), and yeast cells with a mutated CKII have a reduced response to glucose depletion. These results implicate phosphorylation of eIF5 at Thr191 by CKII as one of the pathways for regulating translation upon glucose depletion. © 2014 FEBS.

  18. Stat3 recruitment by two distinct ligand-induced, tyrosine-phosphorylated docking sites in the interleukin-10 receptor intracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Weber-Nordt, R M; Riley, J K; Greenlund, A C; Moore, K W; Darnell, J E; Schreiber, R D

    1996-11-01

    Recent work has shown that IL-10 induces activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To define the mechanism underlying signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein recruitment to the interleukin 10 (IL-10) receptor, the STAT proteins activated by IL-10 in different cell populations were first defined using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In all cells tested, IL-10 activated Stat1 and Stat3 and induced the formation of three distinct DNA binding complexes that contained different combinations of these two transcription factors. IL-10 also activated Stat5 in Ba/F3 cells that stably expressed the murine IL-10 receptor. Using a structure-function mutagenesis approach, two tyrosine residues (Tyr427 and Tyr477) in the intracellular domain of the murine IL-10 receptor were found to be redundantly required for receptor function and for activation of Stat3 but not for Stat1 or Stat5. Twelve amino acid peptides encompassing either of these two tyrosine residues in phosphorylated form coprecipitated Stat3 but not Stat1 and blocked IL-10-induced Stat3 phosphorylation in a cell-free system. In contrast, tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides containing Tyr374 or Tyr396 did not interact with Stat3 or block Stat3 activation. These data demonstrate that Stat3 but not Stat1 or Stat5 is directly recruited to the ligand-activated IL-10 receptor by binding to specific but redundant receptor intracellular domain sequences containing phosphotyrosine. This study thus supports the concept that utilization of distinct STAT proteins by different cytokine receptors is dependent on the expression of particular ligand-activatable, tyrosine-containing STAT docking sites in receptor intracellular domains.

  19. Sulfonium Ion Derivatization, Isobaric Stable Isotope Labeling and Data Dependent CID- and ETD-MS/MS for Enhanced Phosphopeptide Quantitation, Identification and Phosphorylation Site Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yali; Zhou, Xiao; Stemmer, Paul M.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2014-01-01

    An amine specific peptide derivatization strategy involving the use of novel isobaric stable isotope encoded ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion reagents, coupled with an analysis strategy employing capillary HPLC, ESI-MS, and automated data dependent ion trap CID-MS/MS, -MS3, and/or ETD-MS/MS, has been developed for the improved quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation, and for identification and characterization of their site(s) of modification. Derivatization of 50 synthetic phosphopeptides with S,S′-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester iodide (DMBNHS), followed by analysis using capillary HPLC-ESI-MS, yielded an average 2.5-fold increase in ionization efficiencies and a significant increase in the presence and/or abundance of higher charge state precursor ions compared to the non-derivatized phosphopeptides. Notably, 44% of the phosphopeptides (22 of 50) in their underivatized states yielded precursor ions whose maximum charge states corresponded to +2, while only 8% (4 of 50) remained at this maximum charge state following DMBNHS derivatization. Quantitative analysis was achieved by measuring the abundances of the diagnostic product ions corresponding to the neutral losses of ‘light’ (S(CH3)2) and ‘heavy’ (S(CD3)2) dimethylsulfide exclusively formed upon CID-MS/MS of isobaric stable isotope labeled forms of the DMBNHS derivatized phosphopeptides. Under these conditions, the phosphate group stayed intact. Access for a greater number of peptides to provide enhanced phosphopeptide sequence identification and phosphorylation site characterization was achieved via automated data-dependent CID-MS3 or ETD-MS/MS analysis due to the formation of the higher charge state precursor ions. Importantly, improved sequence coverage was observed using ETD-MS/MS following introduction of the sulfonium ion fixed charge, but with no detrimental effects on ETD fragmentation efficiency. PMID:21952753

  20. MSDsite: a database search and retrieval system for the analysis and viewing of bound ligands and active sites.

    PubMed

    Golovin, Adel; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Oldfield, Tom; Rachedi, Abdelkrim; Henrick, Kim

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional environments of ligand binding sites have been derived from the parsing and loading of the PDB entries into a relational database. For each bound molecule the biological assembly of the quaternary structure has been used to determine all contact residues and a fast interactive search and retrieval system has been developed. Prosite pattern and short sequence search options are available together with a novel graphical query generator for inter-residue contacts. The database and its query interface are accessible from the Internet through a web server located at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/msd-srv/msdsite.

  1. Amino-terminal sequence of p36 and associated p10: identification of the site of tyrosine phosphorylation and homology with S-100.

    PubMed Central

    Glenney, J R; Tack, B F

    1985-01-01

    p36 is a major substrate of both viral and growth factor-receptor-associated tyrosine protein kinases. p36 can be isolated as a complex consisting of a subunit of Mr 36,000 (p36) and a subunit of Mr 10,000 (p10), and it represents an abundant cellular protein. We have isolated the p36-p10 complex from bovine intestinal epithelium and analyzed the amino terminus of both subunits. Sequence analysis of the first 56 amino acids of p10 demonstrates a striking sequence homology (48% identically placed residues) with the Mr 10,000 calcium-binding proteins from bovine brain, termed S-100. Intestinal p36 could be effectively labeled on a single tyrosine in vitro with immunoprecipitated pp60v-src and [gamma-32P]ATP. Mild proteolysis of p36 with chymotrypsin resulted in the cleavage into large (Mr, 33,000) and small domains (Mr, 3000), with the latter representing the phosphorylated amino terminus. Although the amino terminus is apparently blocked, sequence analysis of a secondary tryptic peptide of the Mr 3000 fragment as well as the amino-terminal sequence of the Mr 33,000 domain and overlapping peptides clearly established the site of tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:2415974

  2. Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

    2014-09-01

    locate primarily not only in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but also at the cell margins. We propose that the sequestration of PDE4D9 in a specific complex together with AMPK, ERK, MK2 and the H2O2-activatable 'switch' kinase allows for its selective multi-site phosphorylation, activation and regulation in mitosis.

  3. Expanding tandem mass spectral libraries of phosphorylated peptides: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yingwei; Lam, Henry

    2013-12-06

    The identification of phosphorylated proteins remains a challenge in proteomics, partially due to the difficulty in assigning tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra to their originating peptide sequences with correct phosphosite localization. Because of its advantages in efficiency and sensitivity, spectral library searching is a promising alternative to conventional sequence database searching. Our work aims to construct the largest collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS spectral libraries of phosphorylated peptides in human (Homo sapiens) and four model organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) to date, to facilitate phosphorylated peptide identification by spectral library searching. We employed state-of-the-art search methods to published data and applied two recently published phosphorylation site localization tools (PhosphoRS and PTMProphet) to ascertain the phosphorylation sites. To further increase the coverage of this library, we predicted "semi-empirical" spectra for peptides containing known phosphorylation sites from the corresponding template unphosphorylated peptide spectra. The performance of the spectral libraries built were evaluated and found to be superior to conventional database searching in terms of sensitivity. Updated spectral libraries of phosphorylated peptides are made freely available for use with the spectral search engine SpectraST. The work flow being developed will be used to continuously update the libraries when new data become available.

  4. αvβ3 integrins negatively regulate cellular forces by phosphorylation of its distal NPXY site.

    PubMed

    Milloud, Rachel; Destaing, Olivier; de Mets, Richard; Bourrin-Reynard, Ingrid; Oddou, Christiane; Delon, Antoine; Wang, Irène; Albigès-Rizo, Corinne; Balland, Martial

    2017-03-01

    Integrins are key receptors that allow cells to sense and respond to their mechanical environment. Although they bind the same ligand, β1 and β3 integrins have distinct and cooperative roles in mechanotransduction. Using traction force microscopy on unconstrained cells, we show that deleting β3 causes traction forces to increase, whereas the deletion of β1 integrin results in a strong decrease of contractile forces. Consistently, loss of β3 integrin also induces an increase in β1 integrin activation. Using a genetic approach, we identified the phosphorylation of the distal NPXY domain as an essential process for β3 integrin to be able to modulate traction forces. Loss of β3 integrins also impacted cell shape and the spatial distribution of traction forces, by causing forces to be generated closer to the cell edge, and the cell shape. Our results emphasize the role of β3 integrin in spatial distribution of cellular forces. We speculate that, by modulating its affinity with kindlin, β3 integrins may be able to locate near the cell edge where it can control β1 integrin activation and clustering. Tensional homeostasis at the single cell level is performed by the ability of β3 adhesions to negatively regulate the activation degree and spatial localization of β1 integrins. By combining genetic approaches and new tools to analyze traction distribution and cell morphology on a population of cells we were able to identify the molecular partners involved in cellular forces regulation. © 2016 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A screen for modifiers of cyclin E function in Drosophila melanogaster identifies Cdk2 mutations, revealing the insignificance of putative phosphorylation sites in Cdk2.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, M E; Elend, M; Heidmann, D; Herr, A; Marzodko, S; Herzig, A; Lehner, C F

    2000-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, cyclin E is thought to control the progression from G1 into S phase of the cell cycle by associating as a regulatory subunit with cdk2. To identify genes interacting with cyclin E, we have screened in Drosophila melanogaster for mutations that act as dominant modifiers of an eye phenotype caused by a Sevenless-CycE transgene that directs ectopic Cyclin E expression in postmitotic cells of eye imaginal disc and causes a rough eye phenotype in adult flies. The majority of the EMS-induced mutations that we have identified fall into four complementation groups corresponding to the genes split ends, dacapo, dE2F1, and Cdk2(Cdc2c). The Cdk2 mutations in combination with mutant Cdk2 transgenes have allowed us to address the regulatory significance of potential phosphorylation sites in Cdk2 (Thr 18 and Tyr 19). The corresponding sites in the closely related Cdk1 (Thr 14 and Tyr 15) are of crucial importance for regulation of the G2/M transition by myt1 and wee1 kinases and cdc25 phosphatases. In contrast, our results demonstrate that the equivalent sites in Cdk2 play no essential role. PMID:10790398

  6. PromEC: An updated database of Escherichia coli mRNA promoters with experimentally identified transcriptional start sites

    PubMed Central

    Hershberg, Ruti; Bejerano, Gill; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Margalit, Hanah

    2001-01-01

    PromEC is an updated compilation of Escherichia coli mRNA promoter sequences. It includes documentation on the location of experimentally identified mRNA transcriptional start sites on the E.coli chromosome, as well as the actual sequences in the promoter region. The database was updated as of July 2000 and includes 472 entries. PromEC is accessible at http://bioinfo.md.huji.ac.il/marg/promec PMID:11125111

  7. Microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (p110mark). A novel protein kinase that regulates tau-microtubule interactions and dynamic instability by phosphorylation at the Alzheimer-specific site serine 262.

    PubMed

    Drewes, G; Trinczek, B; Illenberger, S; Biernat, J; Schmitt-Ulms, G; Meyer, H E; Mandelkow, E M; Mandelkow, E

    1995-03-31

    Aberrant phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is one of the pathological features of neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. The phosphorylation of Ser-262 within the microtubule binding region of tau is of particular interest because so far it is observed only in Alzheimer's disease (Hasegawa, M., Morishima-Kawashima, M., Takio, K., Suzuki, M., Titani, K., and Ihara, Y. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 26, 17047-17054) and because phosphorylation of this site alone dramatically reduces the affinity for microtubules in vitro (Biernat, J., Gustke, N., Drewes, G., Mandelkow, E.-M., and Mandelkow, E. (1993) Neuron 11, 153-163). Here we describe the purification and characterization of a protein-serine kinase from brain tissue with an apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa on SDS gels. This kinase specifically phosphorylates tau on its KIGS or KCGS motifs in the repeat domain, whereas no significant phosphorylation outside this region was detected. Phosphorylation occurs mainly on Ser-262 located in the first repeat. This largely abolishes tau's binding to microtubules and makes them dynamically unstable, in contrast to other protein kinases that phosphorylate tau at or near the repeat domain. The data suggest a role for this novel kinase in cellular events involving rearrangement of the microtuble-associated proteins/microtubule arrays and their pathological degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Bioinformatics Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation in Plant Systems Biology Using P3DB.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiuming; Xu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive protein post-translational modification events in plant cells. It is involved in many plant biological processes, such as plant growth, organ development, and plant immunology, by regulating or switching signaling and metabolic pathways. High-throughput experimental methods like mass spectrometry can easily characterize hundreds to thousands of phosphorylation events in a single experiment. With the increasing volume of the data sets, Plant Protein Phosphorylation DataBase (P3DB, http://p3db.org ) provides a comprehensive, systematic, and interactive online platform to deposit, query, analyze, and visualize these phosphorylation events in many plant species. It stores the protein phosphorylation sites in the context of identified mass spectra, phosphopeptides, and phosphoproteins contributed from various plant proteome studies. In addition, P3DB associates these plant phosphorylation sites to protein physicochemical information in the protein charts and tertiary structures, while various protein annotations from hierarchical kinase phosphatase families, protein domains, and gene ontology are also added into the database. P3DB not only provides rich information, but also interconnects and provides visualization of the data in networks, in systems biology context. Currently, P3DB includes the KiC (Kinase Client) assay network, the protein-protein interaction network, the kinase-substrate network, the phosphatase-substrate network, and the protein domain co-occurrence network. All of these are available to query for and visualize existing phosphorylation events. Although P3DB only hosts experimentally identified phosphorylation data, it provides a plant phosphorylation prediction model for any unknown queries on the fly. P3DB is an entry point to the plant phosphorylation community to deposit and visualize any customized data sets within this systems biology framework. Nowadays, P3DB has become one of the major

  9. Etonogestrel implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall, and distant body sites: cases from a pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sarah; Niak, Ali; Gada, Neha; Brinker, Allen; Jones, S Christopher

    2017-09-01

    To describe clinical outcomes of etonogestrel implant patients with migration to the vasculature, chest wall and other distant body sites spontaneously reported to the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. We performed a standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) query in the FAERS database (through November 15, 2015), with reports coded with one or more MedDRA preferred terms that indicate complications with device placement or migration of the device from the original site of insertion to the vasculature, chest wall and other distant body sites. We excluded any cases previously described in the medical literature. We identified 38 cases of pronounced etonogestrel implant migration. Migration locations included the lung/pulmonary artery (n=9), chest wall (n=1), vasculature at locations other than the lung/pulmonary artery (n=14) and extravascular migrations (n=14) to other body sites (e.g., the axilla and clavicle/neck line/shoulder). The majority of cases were asymptomatic and detected when the patient desired implant removal; however, seven cases reported symptoms such as pain, discomfort and dyspnea in association with implant migration. Three cases also describe pulmonary fibrosis and skin reactions as a result of implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall and other distant body sites. Sixteen cases reported surgical removal in an operating room setting. Our FAERS case series demonstrates etonogestrel implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall and other body sites distant from the site of original insertion. As noted by the sponsor in current prescribing information, a key determinant in the risk for etonogestrel contraceptive implant migration appears to be improper insertion technique. Although migration of etonogestrel implants to the vasculature is rare, awareness of migration and education on proper insertion technique may reduce the risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Identification of Major Phosphorylation Sites of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Leader Protein (EBNA-LP): Ability of EBNA-LP To Induce Latent Membrane Protein 1 Cooperatively with EBNA-2 Is Regulated by Phosphorylation†

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tanaka, Michiko; Matsuda, Go; Kato, Kentaro; Kanamori, Mikiko; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hisashi; Kitabayashi, Issay; Ohki, Misao; Hirai, Kanji; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is a phosphoprotein suggested to play important roles in EBV-induced immortalization of B cells. One of the potential functions of EBNA-LP is a cooperative induction with EBNA-2 of viral and cellular gene expression, including that of the genes for viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and cellular cyclin D2. We report here that the phosphorylation of EBNA-LP by cellular kinase(s) is critical to its ability to cooperate with EBNA-2 in up-regulating the expression of LMP-1 in a B-lymphoma cell line. Our conclusion is based on the following observations. (i) Mass-spectrometric analysis of purified EBNA-LP and mutational analyses of EBNA-LP revealed that the serine residue at position 35 in the W2 repeat domain is the major phosphorylation site of EBNA-LP in vivo. (ii) Substitutions of this site in each W2 repeat domain with alanine markedly reduced the ability of the protein to induce LMP-1 expression in combination with EBNA-2 in Akata cells. (iii) Replacement at the major phosphorylation sites with glutamic acids restored the wild-type phenotype. It is well established that this substitution mimics constitutive phosphorylation. These results indicated that the coactivator function of EBNA-LP is regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:11333893

  11. Onco-Regulon: an integrated database and software suite for site specific targeting of transcription factors of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Navneet; Mishra, Akhilesh; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Jayaram, B

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind at multiple sites in the genome and regulate expression of many genes. Regulating TF binding in a gene specific manner remains a formidable challenge in drug discovery because the same binding motif may be present at multiple locations in the genome. Here, we present Onco-Regulon (http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm), an integrated database of regulatory motifs of cancer genes clubbed with Unique Sequence-Predictor (USP) a software suite that identifies unique sequences for each of these regulatory DNA motifs at the specified position in the genome. USP works by extending a given DNA motif, in 5'→3', 3' →5' or both directions by adding one nucleotide at each step, and calculates the frequency of each extended motif in the genome by Frequency Counter programme. This step is iterated till the frequency of the extended motif becomes unity in the genome. Thus, for each given motif, we get three possible unique sequences. Closest Sequence Finder program predicts off-target drug binding in the genome. Inclusion of DNA-Protein structural information further makes Onco-Regulon a highly informative repository for gene specific drug development. We believe that Onco-Regulon will help researchers to design drugs which will bind to an exclusive site in the genome with no off-target effects, theoretically.Database URL: http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm.

  12. Onco-Regulon: an integrated database and software suite for site specific targeting of transcription factors of cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Navneet; Mishra, Akhilesh; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Jayaram, B.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind at multiple sites in the genome and regulate expression of many genes. Regulating TF binding in a gene specific manner remains a formidable challenge in drug discovery because the same binding motif may be present at multiple locations in the genome. Here, we present Onco-Regulon (http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm), an integrated database of regulatory motifs of cancer genes clubbed with Unique Sequence-Predictor (USP) a software suite that identifies unique sequences for each of these regulatory DNA motifs at the specified position in the genome. USP works by extending a given DNA motif, in 5′→3′, 3′ →5′ or both directions by adding one nucleotide at each step, and calculates the frequency of each extended motif in the genome by Frequency Counter programme. This step is iterated till the frequency of the extended motif becomes unity in the genome. Thus, for each given motif, we get three possible unique sequences. Closest Sequence Finder program predicts off-target drug binding in the genome. Inclusion of DNA-Protein structural information further makes Onco-Regulon a highly informative repository for gene specific drug development. We believe that Onco-Regulon will help researchers to design drugs which will bind to an exclusive site in the genome with no off-target effects, theoretically. Database URL: http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm PMID:27515825

  13. A novel phosphorylation site mutation in profilin 1 revealed in a large screen of US, Nordic, and German amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ingre, Caroline; Landers, John E; Rizik, Naji; Volk, Alexander E; Akimoto, Chizuru; Birve, Anna; Hübers, Annemarie; Keagle, Pamela J; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Press, Rayomand; Andersen, Peter Munch; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2013-06-01

    Profilin 1 is a central regulator of actin dynamics. Mutations in the gene profilin 1 (PFN1) have very recently been shown to be the cause of a subgroup of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we performed a large screen of US, Nordic, and German familial and sporadic ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTLD) patients for PFN1 mutations to get further insight into the spectrum and pathogenic relevance of this gene for the complete ALS/FTLD continuum. Four hundred twelve familial and 260 sporadic ALS cases and 16 ALS/FTLD cases from Germany, the Nordic countries, and the United States were screened for PFN1 mutations. Phenotypes of patients carrying PFN1 mutations were studied. In a German ALS family we identified the novel heterozygous PFN1 mutation p.Thr109Met, which was absent in controls. This novel mutation abrogates a phosphorylation site in profilin 1. The recently described p.Gln117Gly sequence variant was found in another familial ALS patient from the United States. The ALS patients with mutations in PFN1 displayed spinal onset motor neuron disease without overt cognitive involvement. PFN1 mutations were absent in patients with motor neuron disease and dementia, and in patients with only FTLD. We provide further evidence that PFN1 mutations can cause ALS as a Mendelian dominant trait. Patients carrying PFN1 mutations reported so far represent the "classic" ALS end of the ALS-FTLD spectrum. The novel p.Thr109Met mutation provides additional proof-of-principle that mutant proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics can cause motor neuron degeneration. Moreover, this new mutation suggests that fine-tuning of actin polymerization by phosphorylation of profilin 1 might be necessary for motor neuron survival.

  14. Modification in hydrophobic packing of HAMP domain induces a destabilization of the auto-phosphorylation site in the histidine kinase CpxA.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marlet; Duclert-Savatier, Nathalie; Betton, Jean-Michel; Alzari, Pedro M; Nilges, Michael; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2016-10-01

    The histidine kinases belong to the family of two-component systems, which serves in bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses. Most of the histidine kinases are homodimers, in which the HAMP and DHp domains assemble into an elongated helical region flanked by two CA domains. Recently, X-ray crystallographic structures of the cytoplasmic region of the Escherichia coli histidine kinase CpxA were determined and a phosphotransferase-defective mutant, M228V, located in HAMP, was identified. In the present study, we recorded 1 μs molecular dynamics trajectories to compare the behavior of the WT and M228V protein dimers. The M228V modification locally induces the appearance of larger voids within HAMP as well as a perturbation of the number of voids within DHp, thus destabilizing the HAMP and DHp hydrophobic packing. In addition, a disruption of the stacking interaction between F403 located in the lid of the CA domain involved in the auto-phosphorylation and R296 located in the interacting DHp region, is more often observed in the presence of the M228V modification. Experimental modifications R296A and R296D of CpxA have been observed to reduce also the CpxA activity. These observations agree with the destabilization of the R296/F403 stacking, and could be the sign of the transmission of a conformational event taking place in HAMP to the auto-phosphorylation site of histidine kinase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 670-682, 2016.

  15. Contrasting features of ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation at the ERK1/2-dependent site in the rat brain in status epilepticus induced by kainic acid in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Yoko; Nairn, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro. However, studies examining ERK1/2 activity and its substrate phosphorylation in parallel are scarce especially in seizure models. We have been studying the phosphorylation state of the presynaptic protein, synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent and -independent sites in various types of seizure models and showed that ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I was indeed under control of ERK1/2 activity in vivo. To further expand our study, here we examined the effects of prolonged seizure activity on ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation by using status epilepticus induced by kainic acid (KA-SE) in rats in vivo. In KA-SE, robust ERK1/2 activation was observed in the hippocampus, a representative limbic structure, with lesser activation in the parietal cortex, a representative non-limbic structure. In contrast, the phosphorylation level of synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent phospho-site 4/5 was profoundly decreased, the extent of which was much larger in the hippocampus than in the parietal cortex. In addition, phosphorylation at other ERK1/2-independent phospho-sites in synapsin I also showed an even larger decrease. All these changes disappeared after recovery from KA-SE. These results indicate that the phosphorylation state of synapsin I is dynamically regulated by the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. The contrasting features of robust ERK1/2 activation yet synapsin I dephosphorylation may be indicative of an irreversible pathological outcome of the epileptic state in vivo. PMID:26320550

  16. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by nucleoside diphosphate kinase pH dependence and role of the active site Lys16 and Tyr56 residues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Babolat, M; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates nucleoside diphosphates with little specificity for the base and the sugar. Although nucleotide analogues used in antiviral therapies are also metabolized to their triphosphate form by NDP kinase, their lack of the 3'-hydroxyl of the ribose, which allows them to be DNA chain terminators, severely impairs the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase. We have analyzed the kinetics parameters of several mutant NDP kinases modified on residues (Lys16, Tyr56, Asn119) interacting with the gamma-phosphate and/or the 3'-OH of the Mg2+-ATP substrate. We compared the relative contributions of the active-site residues and the substrate 3'-OH for point mutations on Lys16, Tyr56 and Asn119. Analysis of additional data from pH profiles identify the ionization state of these residues in the enzyme active form. X-ray structure of K16A mutant NDP kinase shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues of the active site.

  17. DBASS3 and DBASS5: databases of aberrant 3'- and 5'-splice sites.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Emanuele; Chivers, Martin; Hwang, Gyulin; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    DBASS3 and DBASS5 provide comprehensive repositories of new exon boundaries that were induced by pathogenic mutations in human disease genes. Aberrant 5'- and 3'-splice sites were activated either by mutations in the consensus sequences of natural exon-intron junctions (cryptic sites) or elsewhere ('de novo' sites). DBASS3 and DBASS5 currently contain approximately 900 records of cryptic and de novo 3'- and 5'-splice sites that were produced by over a thousand different mutations in approximately 360 genes. DBASS3 and DBASS5 data can be searched by disease phenotype, gene, mutation, location of aberrant splice sites in introns and exons and their distance from authentic counterparts, by bibliographic references and by the splice-site strength estimated with several prediction algorithms. The user can also retrieve reference sequences of both aberrant and authentic splice sites with the underlying mutation. These data will facilitate identification of introns or exons frequently involved in aberrant splicing, mutation analysis of human disease genes and study of germline or somatic mutations that impair RNA processing. Finally, this resource will be useful for fine-tuning splice-site prediction algorithms, better definition of auxiliary splicing signals and design of new reporter assays. DBASS3 and DBASS5 are freely available at http://www.dbass.org.uk/.

  18. There must be a better way! Managing a corporate web site dynamically from a database

    SciTech Connect

    j.z. cohen

    1998-10-21

    This document is a set of slides available from http://www1.y12.org/lmes_sti/html/ycsdinf-98-8/index.htm that describes limitations of static web pages for conveying information, a plan for overcoming these limitations by generating web pages dynamically from a database, expected advantages and disadvantages of this method, design for a system using the method, and future plans.

  19. MetalPDB: a database of metal sites in biological macromolecular structures.

    PubMed

    Andreini, Claudia; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Lorenzini, Serena; Rosato, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We present here MetalPDB (freely accessible at http://metalweb.cerm.unifi.it), a novel resource aimed at conveying the information available on the three-dimensional (3D) structures of metal-binding biological macromolecules in a consistent and effective manner. This is achieved through the systematic and automated representation of metal-binding sites in proteins and nucleic acids by way of Minimal Functional Sites (MFSs). MFSs are 3D templates that describe the local environment around the metal(s) independently of the larger context of the macromolecular structure embedding the site(s), and are the central objects of MetalPDB design. MFSs are grouped into equistructural (broadly defined as sites found in corresponding positions in similar structures) and equivalent sites (equistructural sites that contain the same metals), allowing users to easily analyse similarities and variations in metal-macromolecule interactions, and to link them to functional information. The web interface of MetalPDB allows access to a comprehensive overview of metal-containing biological structures, providing a basis to investigate the basic principles governing the properties of these systems. MetalPDB is updated monthly in an automated manner.

  20. MetalPDB: a database of metal sites in biological macromolecular structures

    PubMed Central

    Andreini, Claudia; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Lorenzini, Serena; Rosato, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We present here MetalPDB (freely accessible at http://metalweb.cerm.unifi.it), a novel resource aimed at conveying the information available on the three-dimensional (3D) structures of metal-binding biological macromolecules in a consistent and effective manner. This is achieved through the systematic and automated representation of metal-binding sites in proteins and nucleic acids by way of Minimal Functional Sites (MFSs). MFSs are 3D templates that describe the local environment around the metal(s) independently of the larger context of the macromolecular structure embedding the site(s), and are the central objects of MetalPDB design. MFSs are grouped into equistructural (broadly defined as sites found in corresponding positions in similar structures) and equivalent sites (equistructural sites that contain the same metals), allowing users to easily analyse similarities and variations in metal–macromolecule interactions, and to link them to functional information. The web interface of MetalPDB allows access to a comprehensive overview of metal-containing biological structures, providing a basis to investigate the basic principles governing the properties of these systems. MetalPDB is updated monthly in an automated manner. PMID:23155064

  1. Phospholamban ablation rescues the enhanced propensity to arrhythmias of mice with CaMKII‐constitutive phosphorylation of RyR2 at site S2814

    PubMed Central

    Mazzocchi, G.; Sommese, L.; Palomeque, J.; Felice, J. I.; Di Carlo, M. N.; Fainstein, D.; Gonzalez, P.; Contreras, P.; Skapura, D.; McCauley, M. D.; Lascano, E. C.; Negroni, J. A.; Kranias, E. G.; Wehrens, X. H. T.; Mattiazzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    2814D+/+ mice in vivo or programmed electric stimulation and high extracellular Ca2+ in S2814D+/− hearts ex vivo were significantly diminished by PLN ablation. At the myocyte level, PLN ablation converted the arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves evoked by high extracellular Ca2+ provocation in S2814D+/+ mice into non‐propagated Ca2+ mini‐waves on confocal microscopy. Myocyte Ca2+ waves, typical of S2814D+/+ mice, could be evoked in SD+/+/KO cells by partially inhibiting SERCA2a. A mathematical human myocyte model replicated these results and allowed for predicting the increase in SR Ca2+ uptake required to prevent the arrhythmias induced by a Ca2+–calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase (CaMKII)‐dependent leaky RyR2. Our results demonstrate that increasing SR Ca2+ uptake by PLN ablation can prevent the arrhythmic events triggered by SR Ca2+ leak due to CaMKII‐dependent phosphorylation of the RyR2‐S2814 site and underscore the benefits of increasing SERCA2a activity on SR Ca2+‐triggered arrhythmias. PMID:26695843

  2. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )

    1990-09-11

    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  3. Prototype Database and User's Guide of Saturated Zone Hydraulic Properties forthe Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2002-09-01

    Predicting the movement of contaminants in groundwater beneath the Hanford Site is important for both understanding the impacts of these contaminants and for planning effective cleanup activities. These predictions are based on knowledge of the distribution of hydraulic properties within the aquifers underlying the Hanford Site. The Characterization of Systems (CoS) Task, under the Groundwater/Vadose Integration Project, is responsible for establishing a consistent set of data, parameters, and conceptual models to support estimates contaminant migration and impact.

  4. Prognostic value of site-specific metastases in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database analysis.

    PubMed

    Oweira, Hani; Petrausch, Ulf; Helbling, Daniel; Schmidt, Jan; Mannhart, Meinrad; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Schöb, Othmar; Giryes, Anwar; Decker, Michael; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-03-14

    To evaluate the prognostic value of site-specific metastases among patients with metastatic pancreatic carcinoma registered within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. SEER database (2010-2013) has been queried through SEER*Stat program to determine the presentation, treatment outcomes and prognostic outcomes of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma according to the site of metastasis. In this study, metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were classified according to the site of metastases (liver, lung, bone, brain and distant lymph nodes). We utilized chi-square test to compare the clinicopathological characteristics among different sites of metastases. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing for survival comparisons. We employed Cox proportional model to perform multivariate analyses of the patient population; and accordingly hazard ratios with corresponding 95%CI were generated. Statistical significance was considered if a two-tailed P value < 0.05 was achieved. A total of 13233 patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer and known sites of distant metastases were identified in the period from 2010-2013 and they were included into the current analysis. Patients with isolated distant nodal involvement or lung metastases have better overall and pancreatic cancer-specific survival compared to patients with isolated liver metastases (for overall survival: lung vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001; distant nodal vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001) (for pancreatic cancer-specific survival: lung vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001; distant nodal vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age < 65 years, white race, being married, female gender; surgery to the primary tumor and surgery to the metastatic disease were associated with better overall survival and pancreatic cancer-specific survival. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with isolated liver metastases have worse outcomes compared to patients with isolated

  5. Transcript identification by analysis of short sequence tags--influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database.

    PubMed

    Unneberg, Per; Wennborg, Anders; Larsson, Magnus

    2003-04-15

    There exist a number of gene expression profiling techniques that utilize restriction enzymes for generation of short expressed sequence tags. We have studied how the choice of restriction enzyme influences various characteristics of tags generated in an experiment. We have also investigated various aspects of in silico transcript identification that these profiling methods rely on. First, analysis of 14 248 mRNA sequences derived from the RefSeq transcript database showed that 1-30% of the sequences lack a given restriction enzyme recognition site. Moreover, 1-5% of the transcripts have recognition sites located less than 10 bases from the poly(A) tail. The uniqueness of 10 bp tags lies in the range 90-95%, which increases only slightly with longer tags, due to the existence of closely related transcripts. Furthermore, 3-30% of upstream 10 bp tags are identical to 3' tags, introducing a risk of misclassification if upstream tags are present in a sample. Second, we found that a sequence length of 16-17 bp, including the recognition site, is sufficient for unique transcript identification by BLAST based sequence alignment to the UniGene Human non-redundant database. Third, we constructed a tag-to-gene mapping for UniGene and compared it to an existing mapping database. The mappings agreed to 79-83%, where the selection of representative sequences in the UniGene clusters is the main cause of the disagreement. The results of this study may serve to improve the interpretation of sequence-based expression studies and the design of hybridization arrays, by identifying short tags that have a high reliability and separating them from tags that carry an inherent ambiguity in their capacity to discriminate between genes. To this end, supplementary information in the form of a web companion to this paper is located at http:// biobase.biotech.kth.se/tagseq.

  6. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  7. Determination of GPCR Phosphorylation Status: Establishing a Phosphorylation Barcode.

    PubMed

    Prihandoko, Rudi; Bradley, Sophie J; Tobin, Andrew B; Butcher, Adrian J

    2015-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are rapidly phosphorylated following agonist occupation in a process that mediates receptor uncoupling from its cognate G protein, a process referred to as desensitization. In addition, this process provides a mechanism by which receptors can engage with arrestin adaptor molecules and couple to downstream signaling pathways. The importance of this regulatory process has been highlighted recently by the understanding that ligands can direct receptor signaling along one pathway in preference to another, the phenomenon of signaling bias that is partly mediated by the phosphorylation status or phosphorylation barcode of the receptor. Methods to determine the phosphorylation status of a GPCR in vitro and in vivo are necessary to understand not only the physiological mechanisms involved in GPCR signaling, but also to fully examine the signaling properties of GPCR ligands. This unit describes detailed methods for determining the overall phosphorylation pattern on a receptor (the phosphorylation barcode), as well as mass spectrometry approaches that can define the precise sites that become phosphorylated. These techniques, coupled with the generation and characterization of receptor phosphorylation-specific antibodies, provide a full palate of techniques necessary to determine the phosphorylation status of any given GPCR subtype.

  8. Casein Kinase 2 Binds to the C Terminus of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) and Stimulates NHE3 Basal Activity by Phosphorylating a Separate Site in NHE3

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Rafiquel; Grønborg, Mads; Cha, Boyoung; Mohan, Sachin; Chen, Yueping; Pandey, Akhilesh; Litchfield, David

    2008-01-01

    Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is the epithelial-brush border isoform responsible for most intestinal and renal Na+ absorption. Its activity is both up- and down-regulated under normal physiological conditions, and it is inhibited in most diarrheal diseases. NHE3 is phosphorylated under basal conditions and Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors stimulate basal exchange activity; however, the kinases involved are unknown. To identify kinases that regulate NHE3 under basal conditions, NHE3 was immunoprecipitated; LC-MS/MS of trypsinized NHE3 identified a novel phosphorylation site at S719 of the C terminus, which was predicted to be a casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylation site. This was confirmed by an in vitro kinase assay. The NHE3-S719A mutant but not NHE3-S719D had reduced NHE3 activity due to less plasma membrane NHE3. This was due to reduced exocytosis plus decreased plasma membrane delivery of newly synthesized NHE3. Also, NHE3 activity was inhibited by the CK2 inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole DMAT when wild-type NHE3 was expressed in fibroblasts and Caco-2 cells, but the NHE3-S719 mutant was fully resistant to DMAT. CK2 bound to the NHE3 C-terminal domain, between amino acids 590 and 667, a site different from the site it phosphorylates. CK2 binds to the NHE3 C terminus and stimulates basal NHE3 activity by phosphorylating a separate single site on the NHE3 C terminus (S719), which affects NHE3 trafficking. PMID:18614797

  9. Ebola virus VP24 targets a unique NLS-binding site on karyopherin5 to selectively compete with nuclear import of phosphorylated STAT1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Edwards, Megan R.; Borek, Dominika M.; Feagins, Alicia R.; Mittal, Anuradha; Alinger, Joshua B.; Berry, Kayla N.; Yen, Benjamin; Hamilton, Jennifer; Brett, Tom J.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Leung, Daisy W.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During anti-viral defense, interferon (IFN) signaling triggers nuclear transport of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT1 (PY-STAT1), which occurs via a subset of karyopherin alpha (KPNA) nuclear transporters. Many viruses, including Ebola virus, actively antagonize STAT1 signaling to counteract the antiviral effects of IFN. Ebola virus VP24 protein (eVP24) binds KPNA to inhibit PY-STAT1 nuclear transport and render cells refractory to IFNs. We describe the structure of human KPNA5 C-terminus in complex with eVP24. In the complex, eVP24 recognizes a unique non-classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) binding site on KPNA5 that is necessary for efficient PY-STAT1 nuclear transport. eVP24 binds KPNA5 with very high affinity to effectively compete with and inhibit PY-STAT1 nuclear transport. In contrast, eVP24 binding does not affect the transport of classical NLS cargo. Thus, eVP24 counters cell-intrinsic innate immunity by selectively targeting PY-STAT1 nuclear import while leaving the transport of other cargo that maybe required for viral replication unaffected. PMID:25121748

  10. Polo Kinase Phosphorylates Miro to Control ER-Mitochondria Contact Sites and Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Homeostasis in Neural Stem Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongsoo; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Huh, Sungun; Liu, Song; Lee, Do-Yeon; Hong, Seung Hyun; Yu, Kweon; Lu, Bingwei

    2016-04-18

    Mitochondria play central roles in buffering intracellular Ca²⁺ transients. While basal mitochondrial Ca²⁺ (Ca²⁺ mito) is needed to maintain organellar physiology, Ca²⁺ mito overload can lead to cell death. How Ca²⁺ mito homeostasis is regulated is not well understood. Here we show that Miro, a known component of the mitochondrial transport machinery, regulates Drosophila neural stem cell (NSC) development through Ca²⁺ mito homeostasis control, independent of its role in mitochondrial transport. Miro interacts with Ca²⁺ transporters at the ER-mitochondria contact site (ERMCS). Its inactivation causes Ca²⁺ mito depletion and metabolic impairment, whereas its overexpression results in Ca²⁺ mito overload, mitochondrial morphology change, and apoptotic response. Both conditions impaired NSC lineage progression. Ca²⁺ mito homeostasis is influenced by Polo-mediated phosphorylation of a conserved residue in Miro, which positively regulates Miro localization to, and the integrity of, ERMCS. Our results elucidate a regulatory mechanism underlying Ca²⁺ mito homeostasis and how its dysregulation may affect NSC metabolism/development and contribute to disease.

  11. Pseudo-acetylation of multiple sites on human Tau proteins alters Tau phosphorylation and microtubule binding, and ameliorates amyloid beta toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Marianna Karina; Burnouf, Sylvie; Sofola-Adesakin, Oyinkan; Dols, Jacqueline; Augustin, Hrvoje; Weigelt, Carina Marianne; Grönke, Sebastian; Partridge, Linda

    2017-08-30

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that is highly soluble and natively unfolded. Its dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it aggregates within neurons. Deciphering the physiological and pathogenic roles of human Tau (hTau) is crucial to further understand the mechanisms leading to its dysfunction in vivo. We have used a knock-out/knock-in strategy in Drosophila to generate a strain with hTau inserted into the endogenous fly tau locus and expressed under the control of the endogenous fly tau promoter, thus avoiding potential toxicity due to genetic over-expression. hTau knock-in (KI) proteins were expressed at normal, endogenous levels, bound to fly microtubules and were post-translationally modified, hence displaying physiological properties. We used this new model to investigate the effects of acetylation on hTau toxicity in vivo. The simultaneous pseudo-acetylation of hTau at lysines 163, 280, 281 and 369 drastically decreased hTau phosphorylation and significantly reduced its binding to microtubules in vivo. These molecular alterations were associated with ameliorated amyloid beta toxicity. Our results indicate acetylation of hTau on multiple sites regulates its biology and ameliorates amyloid beta toxicity in vivo.

  12. An autophosphorylation site database for leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a family-wide study to identify and characterize sites of autophosphorylation in 73 representative LRR RLKs of the 223 member LRR RLK family in Arabidopsis thaliana. His-tagged constructs of intact cytoplasmic domains (CDs) for 73 of 223 A. thaliana LRR RLKs were cloned into E. coli BL-...

  13. Identification and Validation of Differential Phosphorylation Sites of the Nuclear FOXL2 Protein as Potential Novel Biomarkers for Adult-Type Granulosa Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dae-Shik; Oh, Hoon Kyu; Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Seeun; Shin, Eunkyoung; Lee, Kangseok; Kim, Yong-Hak; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2015-06-05

    Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare form of ovarian cancer classified as a sex cord-stromal tumor. The c.402C→G missense mutation in the FOXL2 gene that changes cysteine 134 to tryptophan (C134W) is found in more than 97% of adult-type GCTs, and the C134W FOXL2 mutant is hyperphosphorylated. We identified three differential phosphorylation sites, at serine 33 (S33), tyrosine 186 (Y186), and serine 238 (S238), of the C134W mutant by tandem mass spectrometry. Among these sites, antibodies were raised against the pS33 and pY186 epitopes using specific peptides, and they were tested by immunostaining tissue microarrays of archival adult-type GCT specimens, other tumors, and normal tissues. The pS33 antibody showed greater sensitivity and specificity for the detection of adult-type GCTs than that of the other phospho and nonphospho antibodies. The specificity of the pS33 antibody to the pS33 epitope was further confirmed by enriching the pS33 peptide by affinity chromatography using the immobilized antibody, followed by mass spectrometric and western blot analyses from whole cell lysates of the adult-type GCT cell line, KGN. pS33 FOXL2 immunostaining levels were significantly higher in adult-type GCTs than those in other tumors and tissues. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of pS33 FOXL2 showed high sensitivity (1.0) and specificity (0.76) to adult-type GCTs with a cutoff score of >30% positive cells, and the area under the curve was 0.96. This suggests the potential of pS33 FOXL2 to serve as a new biomarker for the diagnosis of adult-type GCT.

  14. An analysis of free flap failure using the ACS NSQIP database. Does flap site and flap type matter?

    PubMed

    Kwok, Alvin C; Agarwal, Jayant P

    2017-09-01

    We sought to use the NSQIP database to determine the national rate and predictors of free flap failure based upon flap sites and flap types. Free flaps were identified using the 2005-2010 NSQIP database. We examined overall flap failure rates as well as failure rates based upon flap sites (head and neck, extremities, trunk, and breast) and flap types (muscle, fascial, skin, bone, and bowel flaps). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of flap failure. There were 1,187 microvascular free tissue transfers identified. The overall flap failure rate was 5.1%. Head and neck flaps had the highest rate of free flap failure at 7.7%. Prolonged operative time is an independent predictor of flap failure for all free flaps (OR: 2.383, P = 0.0013). When examining predictors of failure by flap site, free flaps to the breast with prolonged operative time are independently associated with flap failure (OR: 2.288, P = 0.0152). When examining predictors of flap failure by flap type, muscle based free flaps with an ASA classification ≥3 are associated with flap failure (P = 0.0441). Risk factors for free flap failure differ based upon flap site and flap type. Prolonged operative time is an independent risk factor for the failure of free flaps used for breast reconstruction. An ASA classification ≥3 is associated with the failure of free muscle based flaps. Our findings identify actionable areas that may help to improve free flap success. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phosphorylation regulates human OCT4.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, Justin; Hou, Zhonggang; Russell, Jason D; Howden, Sara E; Yu, Pengzhi; Ledvina, Aaron R; Coon, Joshua J; Thomson, James A

    2012-05-08

    The transcription factor OCT4 is fundamental to maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal. To better understand protein-level regulation of OCT4, we applied liquid chromatography-MS to identify 14 localized sites of phosphorylation, 11 of which were previously unknown. Functional analysis of two sites, T234 and S235, suggested that phosphorylation within the homeobox region of OCT4 negatively regulates its activity by interrupting sequence-specific DNA binding. Mutating T234 and S235 to mimic constitutive phosphorylation at these sites reduces transcriptional activation from an OCT4-responsive reporter and decreases reprogramming efficiency. We also cataloged 144 unique phosphopeptides on known OCT4 interacting partners, including SOX2 and SALL4, that copurified during immunoprecipitation. These proteins were enriched for phosphorylation at motifs associated with ERK signaling. Likewise, OCT4 harbored several putative ERK phosphorylation sites. Kinase assays confirmed that ERK2 phosphorylated these sites in vitro, providing a direct link between ERK signaling and the transcriptional machinery that governs pluripotency.

  16. Phosphorylation regulates human OCT4

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Justin; Russell, Jason D.; Howden, Sara E.; Yu, Pengzhi; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Coon, Joshua J.; Thomson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor OCT4 is fundamental to maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal. To better understand protein-level regulation of OCT4, we applied liquid chromatography–MS to identify 14 localized sites of phosphorylation, 11 of which were previously unknown. Functional analysis of two sites, T234 and S235, suggested that phosphorylation within the homeobox region of OCT4 negatively regulates its activity by interrupting sequence-specific DNA binding. Mutating T234 and S235 to mimic constitutive phosphorylation at these sites reduces transcriptional activation from an OCT4-responsive reporter and decreases reprogramming efficiency. We also cataloged 144 unique phosphopeptides on known OCT4 interacting partners, including SOX2 and SALL4, that copurified during immunoprecipitation. These proteins were enriched for phosphorylation at motifs associated with ERK signaling. Likewise, OCT4 harbored several putative ERK phosphorylation sites. Kinase assays confirmed that ERK2 phosphorylated these sites in vitro, providing a direct link between ERK signaling and the transcriptional machinery that governs pluripotency. PMID:22474382

  17. Mutation of serum response factor phosphorylation sites and the mechanism by which its DNA-binding activity is increased by casein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Manak, J R; Prywes, R

    1991-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylates the mammalian transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) on a serine residue(s) located within a region of the protein spanning amino acids 70 to 92, thereby enhancing its DNA-binding activity in vitro. We report here that serine 83 appears to be the residue phosphorylated by CKII but that three other serines in this region can also be involved in phosphorylation and the enhancement of DNA-binding activity. A mutant that contained glutamate residues in place of these serines had only low-level binding activity; however, when the serines were replaced with glutamates and further mutations were made that increased the negative charge of the region, the resulting mutant showed a constitutively high level of binding equal to that achieved by phosphorylation of wild-type SRF. We have investigated the mechanism by which phosphorylation of SRF increases its DNA-binding activity. We have ruled out the possibilities that phosphorylation affects SRF dimerization or relieves inhibition due to masking of the DNA-binding domain by an amino-terminal region of the protein. Rather, using partial proteolysis to probe SRF's structure, we find that the conformation of SRF's DNA-binding domain is altered by phosphorylation. Images PMID:2046671

  18. Infection with CagA-Positive Helicobacter Pylori Strain Containing Three EPIYA C Phosphorylation Sites is Associated with More Severe Gastric Lesions in Experimentally Infected Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Junior, M. Ferreira; Batista, S.A.; Vidigal, P.V.T; Cordeiro, A.A.C.; Oliveira, F.M.S.; Prata, L.O.; Diniz, A.E.T.; Barral, C.M.; Barbuto, R.C.; Comes, A.D.; Araujo, I.D.; Queiroz, D.M.M.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains containing high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites in the CagA is associated with significant gastritis and increased risk of developing pre-malignant gastric lesions and gastric carcinoma. However, these findings have not been reproduced in animal models yet. Therefore, we investigated the effect on the gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains exhibiting one or three EPIYA-C phosphorilation sites. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori clonal isolates containing one or three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. Control group was composed by uninfected animals challenged with Brucella broth alone. Gastric fragments were evaluated by the modified Sydney System and digital morphometry. Clonal relatedness between the isolates was considered by the identical RAPD-PCR profiles and sequencing of five housekeeping genes, vacA i/d region and of oipA. The other virulence markers were present in both isolates (vacA s1i1d1m1, iceA2, and intact dupA). CagA of both isolates was translocated and phosphorylated in AGS cells. After 45 days of infection, there was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells and in the area of the lamina propria in the infected animals, notably in those infected by the CagA-positive strain with three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. After six months of infection, a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites was associated with progressive increase in the intensity of gastritis and in the area of the lamina propria. Atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were also observed more frequently in animals infected with the CagA-positive isolate with three EPIYA-C sites. We conclude that infection with H. pylori strain carrying a high number of CagA EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in an animal model of H. pylori infection. PMID:26150158

  19. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, K; Haga, K; Haga, T; Moro, O; Sadée, W

    1994-12-01

    A mutant of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor), lacking a large part of the third intracellular loop, was expressed and purified using the baculovirus/insect cell culture system. The mutant was not phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, as expected from the previous assignment of phosphorylation sites to the central part of the third intracellular loop. However, the m2 receptor mutant was capable of stimulating beta-adrenergic-receptor-kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the m2 phosphorylation sites in an agonist-dependent manner. Both mutant and wild-type m2 receptors reconstituted with the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein), G(o) and G(i)2, displayed guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, as assessed by displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding with carbamoylcholine, and both stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-[35S]thiotriphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding in the presence of carbamoylcholine and GDP. The Ki values of carbamoylcholine effects on [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding were indistinguishable for the mutant and wild-type m2 receptors. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the wild-type m2 receptor by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1 did not affect m2 interaction with G proteins as assessed by the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [35S]GTP[S]. These results indicate that (a) the m2 receptor serves both as an activator and as a substrate of beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, and (b) a large part of the third intracellular loop of the m2 receptor does not contribute to interaction with G proteins and its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase does not uncouple the receptor and G proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles.

  20. Phosphorylation at Ser²⁶ in the ATP-binding site of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II as a mechanism for switching off the kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehtap; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Leavis, Paul; Grabarek, Zenon; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2013-02-07

    CaMKII (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) is a serine/threonine phosphotransferase that is capable of long-term retention of activity due to autophosphorylation at a specific threonine residue within each subunit of its oligomeric structure. The γ isoform of CaMKII is a significant regulator of vascular contractility. Here, we show that phosphorylation of CaMKII γ at Ser²⁶, a residue located within the ATP-binding site, terminates the sustained activity of the enzyme. To test the physiological importance of phosphorylation at Ser²⁶, we generated a phosphospecific Ser²⁶ antibody and demonstrated an increase in Ser²⁶ phosphorylation upon depolarization and contraction of blood vessels. To determine if the phosphorylation of Ser²⁶ affects the kinase activity, we mutated Ser²⁶ to alanine or aspartic acid. The S26D mutation mimicking the phosphorylated state of CaMKII causes a dramatic decrease in Thr²⁸⁷ autophosphorylation levels and greatly reduces the catalytic activity towards an exogenous substrate (autocamtide-3), whereas the S26A mutation has no effect. These data combined with molecular modelling indicate that a negative charge at Ser²⁶ of CaMKII γ inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme towards its autophosphorylation site at Thr²⁸⁷ most probably by blocking ATP binding. We propose that Ser²⁶ phosphorylation constitutes an important mechanism for switching off CaMKII activity.

  1. Digital geologic map database of the Nevada Test Site area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, R.R.; Sawyer, D.A.; Minor, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Cole, J.C.; Swadley, W.C.; Laczniak, R.J.; Warren, R.G.; Green, K.S.; Engle, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Forty years of geologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been digitized. These data include all geologic information that: (1) has been collected, and (2) can be represented on a map within the map borders at the map scale is included in the map digital coverages. The following coverages are included with this dataset: Coverage Type Description geolpoly Polygon Geologic outcrops geolflts line Fault traces geolatts Point Bedding attitudes, etc. geolcald line Caldera boundaries geollins line Interpreted lineaments geolmeta line Metamorphic gradients The above coverages are attributed with numeric values and interpreted information. The entity files documented below show the data associated with each coverage.

  2. Digital geologic map database of the Nevada Test Site area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Ronald R.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Carr, Michael D.; Cole, James C.; Swadley, W.C.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Warren, Richard G.; Green, Katryn S.; Engle, Colin M.

    1997-09-09

    Forty years of geologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been digitized. These data include all geologic information that: (1) has been collected, and (2) can be represented on a map within the map borders at the map scale is included in the map digital coverages. The following coverages are included with this dataset: Coverage Type Description geolpoly Polygon Geologic outcrops geolflts line Fault traces geolatts Point Bedding attitudes, etc. geolcald line Caldera boundaries geollins line Interpreted lineaments geolmeta line Metamorphic gradients. The above coverages are attributed with numeric values and interpreted information. The entity files documented below show the data associated with each coverage.

  3. FLUXNET. Database of fluxes, site characteristics, and flux-community information

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. J.; Holladay, S. K.; Cook, R. B.; Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Gu, L.

    2004-02-28

    FLUXNET is a “network of regional networks” created by international scientists to coordinate regional and global analysis of observations from micrometeorological tower sites. The flux tower sites use eddy covariance methods to measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. FLUXNET’S goals are to aid in understanding the mechanisms controlling the exchanges of CO2, water vapor, and energy across a range of time (0.5 hours to annual periods) and space scales. FLUXNET provides an infrastructure for the synthesis and analysis of world-wide, long-term flux data compiled from various regional flux networks. Information compiled by the FLUXNET project is being used to validate remote sensing products associated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites. FLUXNET provides access to ground information for validating estimates of net primary productivity, and energy absorption that are being generated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. In addition, this information is also used to develop and validate ecosystem models.

  4. Protein phosphorylation and photorespiration.

    PubMed

    Hodges, M; Jossier, M; Boex-Fontvieille, E; Tcherkez, G

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration allows the recycling of carbon atoms of 2-phosphoglycolate produced by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) oxygenase activity, as well as the removal of potentially toxic metabolites. The photorespiratory pathway takes place in the light, encompasses four cellular compartments and interacts with several other metabolic pathways and functions. Therefore, the regulation of this cycle is probably of paramount importance to plant metabolism, however, our current knowledge is poor. To rapidly respond to changing conditions, proteins undergo a number of different post-translational modifications that include acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, but protein phosphorylation is probably the most common. The reversible covalent addition of a phosphate group to a specific amino acid residue allows the modulation of protein function, such as activity, subcellular localisation, capacity to interact with other proteins and stability. Recent data indicate that many photorespiratory enzymes can be phosphorylated, and thus it seems that the photorespiratory cycle is, in part, regulated by protein phosphorylation. In this review, the known phosphorylation sites of each Arabidopsis thaliana photorespiratory enzyme and several photorespiratory-associated proteins are described and discussed. A brief account of phosphoproteomic protocols is also given since the published data compiled in this review are the fruit of this approach.

  5. Endothelial CD47 promotes Vascular Endothelial-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation and participates in T-cell recruitment at sites of inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Azcutia, Veronica; Stefanidakis, Michael; Tsuboi, Naotake; Mayadas, Tanya; Croce, Kevin J.; Fukuda, Daiju; Aikawa, Masanori; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis W.

    2012-01-01

    At sites of inflammation, endothelial adhesion molecules bind leukocytes and transmit signals required for transendothelial migration (TEM). We previously reported that adhesive interactions between endothelial cell CD47 and leukocyte Signal Regulatory Proteinγ (SIRPγ) regulate human T-cell TEM. The role of endothelial CD47 in T-cell TEM in vivo, however, has not been explored. Here, CD47−/− mice showed reduced recruitment of blood T-cells as well as neutrophils and monocytes in a dermal air pouch model of TNF-α induced inflammation. Reconstitution of CD47−/− mice with wild type bone marrow (BM) cells did not restore leukocyte recruitment to the air pouch, indicating a role for endothelial CD47. The defect in leukocyte TEM in the CD47−/− endothelium was corroborated by intravital microscopy of inflamed cremaster muscle microcirculation in BM chimera mice. In an in vitro human system, CD47 on both HUVEC and T-cells were required for TEM. Although previous studies showed CD47-dependent signaling required Gαi coupled pathways, this was not the case for endothelial CD47 because pertussis toxin (PTX), which inactivates Gαi, had no inhibitory effect, whereas Gαi was required by the T-cell for TEM. We next investigated the endothelial CD47-dependent signaling events that accompany leukocyte TEM. Antibody-induced crosslinking of CD47 revealed robust actin cytoskeleton reorganization and Src and Pyk-2 kinase dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the VE-cadherin cytoplasmic tail. This signaling was PTX insensitive suggesting that endothelial CD47 signaling is independent of Gαi. These findings suggest that engagement of endothelial CD47 by its ligands triggers “outside-in” signals in endothelium that facilitate leukocyte TEM. PMID:22815286

  6. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Genome Size Reduction and the Emergence of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Site in the Movement Protein of New World Bipartite Begomoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Eric S.; Kuchie, Joan; Duffy, Siobain

    2014-01-01

    Begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection is devastating to a wide variety of agricultural crops including tomato, squash, and cassava. Thus, understanding the replication and adaptation of begomoviruses has important translational value in alleviating substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries. The bipartite genome of begomoviruses prevalent in the New World and their counterparts in the Old World share a high degree of genome homology except for a partially overlapping reading frame encoding the pre-coat protein (PCP, or AV2). PCP contributes to the essential functions of intercellular movement and suppression of host RNA silencing, but it is only present in the Old World viruses. In this study, we analyzed a set of non-redundant bipartite begomovirus genomes originating from the Old World (N = 28) and the New World (N = 65). Our bioinformatic analysis suggests ∼120 nucleotides were deleted from PCP’s proximal promoter region that may have contributed to its loss in the New World viruses. Consequently, genomes of the New World viruses are smaller than the Old World counterparts, possibly compensating for the loss of the intercellular movement functions of PCP. Additionally, we detected substantial purifying selection on a portion of the New World DNA-B movement protein (MP, or BC1). Further analysis of the New World MP gene revealed the emergence of a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site, which likely explains the increased purifying selection in that region. These findings provide important information about the strategies adopted by bipartite begomoviruses in adapting to new environment and suggest future in planta experiments. PMID:25383632

  7. Bioinformatic analysis reveals genome size reduction and the emergence of tyrosine phosphorylation site in the movement protein of New World bipartite begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Eric S; Kuchie, Joan; Duffy, Siobain

    2014-01-01

    Begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection is devastating to a wide variety of agricultural crops including tomato, squash, and cassava. Thus, understanding the replication and adaptation of begomoviruses has important translational value in alleviating substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries. The bipartite genome of begomoviruses prevalent in the New World and their counterparts in the Old World share a high degree of genome homology except for a partially overlapping reading frame encoding the pre-coat protein (PCP, or AV2). PCP contributes to the essential functions of intercellular movement and suppression of host RNA silencing, but it is only present in the Old World viruses. In this study, we analyzed a set of non-redundant bipartite begomovirus genomes originating from the Old World (N = 28) and the New World (N = 65). Our bioinformatic analysis suggests ∼ 120 nucleotides were deleted from PCP's proximal promoter region that may have contributed to its loss in the New World viruses. Consequently, genomes of the New World viruses are smaller than the Old World counterparts, possibly compensating for the loss of the intercellular movement functions of PCP. Additionally, we detected substantial purifying selection on a portion of the New World DNA-B movement protein (MP, or BC1). Further analysis of the New World MP gene revealed the emergence of a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site, which likely explains the increased purifying selection in that region. These findings provide important information about the strategies adopted by bipartite begomoviruses in adapting to new environment and suggest future in planta experiments.

  8. Prognostic value of site-specific metastases in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oweira, Hani; Petrausch, Ulf; Helbling, Daniel; Schmidt, Jan; Mannhart, Meinrad; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Schöb, Othmar; Giryes, Anwar; Decker, Michael; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prognostic value of site-specific metastases among patients with metastatic pancreatic carcinoma registered within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS SEER database (2010-2013) has been queried through SEER*Stat program to determine the presentation, treatment outcomes and prognostic outcomes of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma according to the site of metastasis. In this study, metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were classified according to the site of metastases (liver, lung, bone, brain and distant lymph nodes). We utilized chi-square test to compare the clinicopathological characteristics among different sites of metastases. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing for survival comparisons. We employed Cox proportional model to perform multivariate analyses of the patient population; and accordingly hazard ratios with corresponding 95%CI were generated. Statistical significance was considered if a two-tailed P value < 0.05 was achieved. RESULTS A total of 13233 patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer and known sites of distant metastases were identified in the period from 2010-2013 and they were included into the current analysis. Patients with isolated distant nodal involvement or lung metastases have better overall and pancreatic cancer-specific survival compared to patients with isolated liver metastases (for overall survival: lung vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001; distant nodal vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001) (for pancreatic cancer-specific survival: lung vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001; distant nodal vs liver metastases: P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age < 65 years, white race, being married, female gender; surgery to the primary tumor and surgery to the metastatic disease were associated with better overall survival and pancreatic cancer-specific survival. CONCLUSION Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with isolated liver metastases have worse outcomes

  9. JET2 Viewer: a database of predicted multiple, possibly overlapping, protein–protein interaction sites for PDB structures

    PubMed Central

    Ripoche, Hugues; Laine, Elodie; Ceres, Nicoletta; Carbone, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    The database JET2 Viewer, openly accessible at http://www.jet2viewer.upmc.fr/, reports putative protein binding sites for all three-dimensional (3D) structures available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). This knowledge base was generated by applying the computational method JET2 at large-scale on more than 20 000 chains. JET2 strategy yields very precise predictions of interacting surfaces and unravels their evolutionary process and complexity. JET2 Viewer provides an online intelligent display, including interactive 3D visualization of the binding sites mapped onto PDB structures and suitable files recording JET2 analyses. Predictions were evaluated on more than 15 000 experimentally characterized protein interfaces. This is, to our knowledge, the largest evaluation of a protein binding site prediction method. The overall performance of JET2 on all interfaces are: Sen = 52.52, PPV = 51.24, Spe = 80.05, Acc = 75.89. The data can be used to foster new strategies for protein–protein interactions modulation and interaction surface redesign. PMID:27899675

  10. Functional characterization of the phosphorylating D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the archaeon Methanothermus fervidus by comparative molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Talfournier, F; Colloc'h, N; Mornon, J P; Branlant, G

    1999-10-01

    Phosphorylating archaeal D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GraP-DHs) share only 15-20% identity with their glycolytic bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. Unlike the latter which are NAD-specific, archaeal GraP-DHs exhibit a dual-cofactor specificity with a marked preference for NADP. In the present study, we have constructed a three-dimensional model of the Methanothermus fervidus GraP-DH based upon the X-ray structures of the Bacillus stearothermophilus and Escherichia coli GraP-DHs. The overall structure of the archaeal enzyme is globally similar to homology modelling-derived structures, in particular for the cofactor binding domain, which might adopt a classical Rossmann fold. M. fervidus GraP-DH can be considered as a dimer of dimers which exhibits negative and positive cooperativity in binding the coenzymes NAD and NADP, respectively. As expected, the differences between the model and the templates are located mainly within the loops. Based on the predictions derived from molecular modelling, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to characterize better the cofactor binding pocket and the catalytic domain. The Lys32Ala, Lys32Glu and Lys32Asp mutants led to a drastic increase in the Km value for NADP (i.e. 165-, 500- and 1000-fold, respectively), thus demonstrating that the invariant Lys32 residue is one of the most important determinants favouring the adenosine 2'-PO42- binding of NADP. The involvement of the side chain of Asn281, which was postulated to play a role equivalent to that of the Asn313 of bacterial and eukaryotic GraP-DHs in fixing the position of the nicotinamide ring in a syn orientation [Fabry, S. & Hensel, R. (1988) Gene 64, 189-197], was ruled out. Most of the amino acids involved in catalysis and in substrate recognition in bacterial and eukaryotic GraP-DHs are not conserved in the archaeal enzyme except for the essential Cys149. Inspection of our model suggests that side chains of invariant residues Asn150, Arg176, Arg177 and

  11. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  12. Impact of SNPs on Protein Phosphorylation Status in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shoukai; Chen, Lijuan; Tao, Huan; Huang, Jian; Xu, Chaoqun; Li, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Tian, Tian; Liu, Wei; Xue, Lichun; Ai, Yufang; He, Huaqin

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used in functional genomics and genetics research work. The high-quality sequence of rice genome has provided a genome-wide SNP and proteome resource. However, the impact of SNPs on protein phosphorylation status in rice is not fully understood. In this paper, we firstly updated rice SNP resource based on the new rice genome Ver. 7.0, then systematically analyzed the potential impact of Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) on the protein phosphorylation status. There were 3,897,312 SNPs in Ver. 7.0 rice genome, among which 9.9% was nsSNPs. Whilst, a total 2,508,261 phosphorylated sites were predicted in rice proteome. Interestingly, we observed that 150,197 (39.1%) nsSNPs could influence protein phosphorylation status, among which 52.2% might induce changes of protein kinase (PK) types for adjacent phosphorylation sites. We constructed a database, SNP_rice, to deposit the updated rice SNP resource and phosSNPs information. It was freely available to academic researchers at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn. As a case study, we detected five nsSNPs that potentially influenced heterotrimeric G proteins phosphorylation status in rice, indicating that genetic polymorphisms showed impact on the signal transduction by influencing the phosphorylation status of heterotrimeric G proteins. The results in this work could be a useful resource for future experimental identification and provide interesting information for better rice breeding. PMID:27845739

  13. Impact of SNPs on Protein Phosphorylation Status in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shoukai; Chen, Lijuan; Tao, Huan; Huang, Jian; Xu, Chaoqun; Li, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Tian, Tian; Liu, Wei; Xue, Lichun; Ai, Yufang; He, Huaqin

    2016-11-11

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used in functional genomics and genetics research work. The high-quality sequence of rice genome has provided a genome-wide SNP and proteome resource. However, the impact of SNPs on protein phosphorylation status in rice is not fully understood. In this paper, we firstly updated rice SNP resource based on the new rice genome Ver. 7.0, then systematically analyzed the potential impact of Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) on the protein phosphorylation status. There were 3,897,312 SNPs in Ver. 7.0 rice genome, among which 9.9% was nsSNPs. Whilst, a total 2,508,261 phosphorylated sites were predicted in rice proteome. Interestingly, we observed that 150,197 (39.1%) nsSNPs could influence protein phosphorylation status, among which 52.2% might induce changes of protein kinase (PK) types for adjacent phosphorylation sites. We constructed a database, SNP_rice, to deposit the updated rice SNP resource and phosSNPs information. It was freely available to academic researchers at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn. As a case study, we detected five nsSNPs that potentially influenced heterotrimeric G proteins phosphorylation status in rice, indicating that genetic polymorphisms showed impact on the signal transduction by influencing the phosphorylation status of heterotrimeric G proteins. The results in this work could be a useful resource for future experimental identification and provide interesting information for better rice breeding.

  14. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  15. FLAGdb/FST: a database of mapped flanking insertion sites (FSTs) of Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA transformants.

    PubMed

    Samson, F; Brunaud, V; Balzergue, S; Dubreucq, B; Lepiniec, L; Pelletier, G; Caboche, M; Lecharny, A

    2002-01-01

    A large collection of T-DNA insertion transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana has been generated at the Institute of Agronomic Research, Versailles, France. The molecular characterisation of the insertion sites is currently performed by sequencing genomic regions flanking the inserted T-DNA (FST). The almost complete sequence of the nuclear genome of A.thaliana provides the framework for organising FSTs in a genome oriented database, FLAGdb/FST (http://genoplante-info.infobiogen.fr). The main scope of FLAGdb/FST is to help biologists to find the FSTs that interrupt the genes in which they are interested. FSTs are anchored to the genome sequences of A.thaliana and positions of both predicted genes and FSTs are shown graphically on sequences. Requests to locate the genomic position of a query sequence are made using BLAST programs. The response delivered by FLAGdb/FST is a graphical representation of the putative FSTs and of predicted genes in a 20 kb region.

  16. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V{sub s30}, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  17. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; D'Elia, Beniamino

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, Vs30, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.).

  18. Performance monitoring in interventional cardiology: application of statistical process control to a single-site database.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian R; Rivers, John T; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Cameron, James

    2011-03-01

    Graphical Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools have been shown to promptly identify significant variations in clinical outcomes in a range of health care settings, but as yet have not been widely applied to performance monitoring in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We explored the application of these techniques to a prospective PCI registry at a single site. Baseline clinical and procedural data along with one and twelve month major adverse cardiac event (MACE) details were prospectively collected in relation to 2,697 consecutive PCI procedures (2,417 patients) performed between the 1st January 2003 and the 31st December 2007. We investigated outcome measures which were both clinically relevant and occurred at a sufficient frequency (>1%) to allow valid application of SPC techniques, and found procedural and lesion failure, major postprocedural complications, and one and 12 month MACE to be suitable endpoints. Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) charts, Variable Life-Adjusted Display (VLAD) charts and Funnel Plots were employed in combination to evaluate both group and individual performance on a near "real time" basis. We found that the use of these charts provided complimentary prospective audit of clinical performance to identify variations in group and individual operator performance and to clarify these as either systemic or individual operator-related. We propose a system of integrating SPC tools as a component of the audit function of a PCI unit. SPC tools have the potential to provide near "real-time" performance monitoring and may allow early detection and intervention in altered performance for both the group and the individual operator. A clinically-integrated system of SPC tools may thus complement and enhance effectiveness of the traditional case-based morbidity and mortality audit.

  19. Performance monitoring in cardiac surgery: application of statistical process control to a single-site database.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian R; Gardner, Michael A; Garlick, Bruce; Brighouse, Russell D; Cameron, James; Lavercombe, Peter S; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foster, Kelley A; Rivers, John T

    2013-08-01

    Graphical Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools have been shown to promptly identify significant variations in clinical outcomes in a range of health care settings. We explored the application of these techniques to quantitatively inform the routine cardiac surgical (CAS) morbidity and mortality (M&M) review processes at a single site. Baseline clinical and procedural data relating to 5265 consecutive cardiac surgical procedures, performed at St Andrew's War Memorial Hospital (SAWMH) between the 1st January 2003 and the 30th April 2012, were retrospectively evaluated. A range of appropriate clinical outcome indicators (COIs) were developed and evaluated using a combination of Cumulative Sum charts, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average charts and Funnel Plots. Charts were updated regularly and discussed at the cardiac surgery unit's bi-monthly M&M meetings. Risk adjustment (RA) for the COIs was developed and validated for incorporation into the charts to improve monitoring performance. Discrete and aggregated measures, including blood product/reoperation, major acute post-procedural complications, cardiopulmonary bypass duration and Length of Stay/Readmission < 28 days have proved to be valuable measures for monitoring outcomes. Instances of variation in performance identified using the charts were examined thoroughly and could be related to changes in clinical practice (e.g. antifibrinolytic use) as well as differences in individual operator performance (in some instances, driven by case mix). SPC tools can promptly detect meaningful changes in clinical outcome thereby allowing early intervention to address altered performance. Careful interpretation of charts for group and individual operators has proven helpful in detecting and differentiating systemic versus individual variation. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B

  20. A new global database to improve predictions of permeability distribution in crystalline rocks at site scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtziger-Zupančič, P.; Loew, S.; Mariéthoz, G.

    2017-05-01

    A comprehensive worldwide permeability data set has been compiled consisting of 29,000 in situ permeabilities from 221 publications and reports and delineating the permeability distribution in crystalline rocks into depths of 2000 meters below ground surface (mbgs). We analyze the influence of technical factors (measurement method, scale effects, preferential sampling, and hydraulic anisotropy) and geological factors (lithology, current stress regime, current seismotectonic activity, and long-term tectonogeological history) on the permeability distribution with depth, by using regression analysis and k-means clustering. The influence of preferential sampling and hydraulic anisotropy are negligible. A scale dependency is observed based on calculated rock test volumes equaling 0.6 orders of magnitude of permeability change per order of magnitude of rock volume tested. Based on the entire data set, permeability decreases as log(k) = -1.5 × log(z) - 16.3 with permeability k (m2) and positively increasing depth z (km), and depth is the main factor driving the permeability distribution. The permeability variance is about 2 orders of magnitude at all depths, presumably representing permeability variations around brittle fault zones. Permeability and specific yield/storage exhibit similar depth trends. While in the upper 200 mbgs fracture flow varies between confined and unconfined, we observe confined fracture and matrix flow below about 600 mbgs depth. The most important geological factors are current seismotectonic activity (determined by peak ground acceleration) and long-term tectonogeological history (determined by geological province). The impact of lithology is less important. Based on the regression coefficients derived for all the geological key factors, permeability ranges of crystalline rocks at site scale can be predicted. First tests with independent data sets are promising.

  1. Yeast Nem1-Spo7 Protein Phosphatase Activity on Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase Is Specific for the Pho85-Pho80 Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Pah1 is the phosphatidate phosphatase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces diacylglycerol for triacylglycerol synthesis and concurrently controls the levels of phosphatidate used for phospholipid synthesis. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Pah1 regulate its subcellular location and phosphatidate phosphatase activity. Compared with its phosphorylation by multiple protein kinases, Pah1 is dephosphorylated by a protein phosphatase complex consisting of Nem1 (catalytic subunit) and Spo7 (regulatory subunit). In this work, we characterized the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex for its enzymological, kinetic, and regulatory properties with phosphorylated Pah1. The dephosphorylation of Pah1 by Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase resulted in the stimulation (6-fold) of phosphatidate phosphatase activity. For Pah1 phosphorylated by the Pho85-Pho80 kinase complex, maximum Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase activity required Mg2+ ions (8 mm) and Triton X-100 (0.25 mm) at pH 5.0. The energy of activation for the reaction was 8.4 kcal/mol, and the enzyme was thermally labile at temperatures above 40 °C. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sodium vanadate, sodium fluoride, N-ethylmaleimide, and phenylglyoxal but was not significantly affected by lipids or nucleotides. Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase activity was dependent on the concentrations of Pah1 phosphorylated by Pho85-Pho80, Cdc28-cyclin B, PKA, and PKC with kcat and Km values of 0.29 s−1 and 81 nm, 0.11 s−1 and 127 nm, 0.10 s−1 and 46 nm, and 0.02 s−1 and 38 nm, respectively. Its specificity constant (kcat/Km) for Pah1 phosphorylated by Pho85-Pho80 was 1.6-, 4-, and 6-fold higher, respectively, than that phosphorylated by PKA, Cdc28-cyclin B, and PKC. PMID:25359770

  2. Yeast Nem1-Spo7 protein phosphatase activity on Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase is specific for the Pho85-Pho80 protein kinase phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2014-12-12

    Pah1 is the phosphatidate phosphatase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces diacylglycerol for triacylglycerol synthesis and concurrently controls the levels of phosphatidate used for phospholipid synthesis. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Pah1 regulate its subcellular location and phosphatidate phosphatase activity. Compared with its phosphorylation by multiple protein kinases, Pah1 is dephosphorylated by a protein phosphatase complex consisting of Nem1 (catalytic subunit) and Spo7 (regulatory subunit). In this work, we characterized the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex for its enzymological, kinetic, and regulatory properties with phosphorylated Pah1. The dephosphorylation of Pah1 by Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase resulted in the stimulation (6-fold) of phosphatidate phosphatase activity. For Pah1 phosphorylated by the Pho85-Pho80 kinase complex, maximum Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase activity required Mg(2+) ions (8 mm) and Triton X-100 (0.25 mm) at pH 5.0. The energy of activation for the reaction was 8.4 kcal/mol, and the enzyme was thermally labile at temperatures above 40 °C. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sodium vanadate, sodium fluoride, N-ethylmaleimide, and phenylglyoxal but was not significantly affected by lipids or nucleotides. Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase activity was dependent on the concentrations of Pah1 phosphorylated by Pho85-Pho80, Cdc28-cyclin B, PKA, and PKC with kcat and Km values of 0.29 s(-1) and 81 nm, 0.11 s(-1) and 127 nm, 0.10 s(-1) and 46 nm, and 0.02 s(-1) and 38 nm, respectively. Its specificity constant (kcat/Km) for Pah1 phosphorylated by Pho85-Pho80 was 1.6-, 4-, and 6-fold higher, respectively, than that phosphorylated by PKA, Cdc28-cyclin B, and PKC. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Development of a priority list of chemical mixtures occurring at 1188 hazardous waste sites, using the HazDat database.

    PubMed

    Fay, R M; Mumtaz, M M

    1996-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) section 104 mandate, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 USC 9604 (i)(2), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is to identify individual substances and combinations of substances that pose the greatest public health hazard at hazardous waste sites. This has led to certain mandated activities of the Agency, including development of toxicological profiles, identification of data gaps, and, ultimately, establishment of a research agenda. The Agency has also developed HazDat, a database that captures pertinent information from public health assessments conducted at hazardous waste sites. As a preliminary step, data from sites have been analysed to identify the combinations of chemicals found in various environmental media. The most frequently found combinations were perchloroethylene (PERC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in water (23.5% of sites); chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in soil (20.5%); benzene and toluene in air (3.5%); PERC, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and TCE in water (11.6%); Cr, cadmium (Cd) and Pb in soil (12.0%); and benzene, PERC and TCE in air (2.2%). The findings of this analysis can be enhanced by factoring into the algorithm paramenters such as toxicity, source contribution, and likelihood of human exposure similar to that used for the Agency's priority list of 275 single substances. Assessment of the impact of chemical mixtures on human health is a formidable task, and estimating the toxicity of such mixtures, including the role of chemical interactions, is an equally demanding challenge. Because limited experimental data exist for chemical interactions, alternative methods such as predictive approaches and in vitro techniques are needed to address the many substances and their potential combinations.

  4. A database of schemes that prioritize sites and species based on their conservation value: focusing business on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Arthur G; Burkey, Tormod V

    2007-09-27

    Biodiversity offsets are conservation projects used mainly by business to counterbalance the environmental impacts of their operations, with the aim of achieving a net neutral or even beneficial outcome for biodiversity. Companies considering offsets need to know: (1) if there are areas of such biological importance that no impact is acceptable, and outside of these no-go areas, (2) the relative importance of biodiversity in the impacted site versus the site(s) proposed for protection, to ensure that the offset is of equal or greater status than that lost through the company's operations. We compiled a database of 40 schemes that use various methods to assess conservation priorities, and we examined if the schemes would allow companies to answer the above questions. Overall, schemes tend to be designed to guide conservation organizations in their own priority setting or they categorize species based on conservation status. Generally, the schemes do not provide all the necessary information for offsets because they operate at a broad spatial scale or with low spatial resolution, which make it difficult to assess sites at the project level. Furthermore, most schemes do not explicitly incorporate threat, which we consider key to assessing whether offsets protect habitats or species that would otherwise be lost (i.e., provide additionality). The schemes are useful, however, for identifying the major conservation issues in different ecosystems around the globe. Companies can proceed by first avoiding, reducing, and mitigating impacts, and then using existing schemes to identify i) no-go areas and ii) appropriate offsets to compensate for any unavoidable loss in biodiversity. If existing schemes are inadequate, then companies should use integrated conservation planning techniques to define offset options within the region of their operations.

  5. A database of schemes that prioritize sites and species based on their conservation value: focusing business on biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Arthur G; Burkey, Tormod V

    2007-01-01

    Background Biodiversity offsets are conservation projects used mainly by business to counterbalance the environmental impacts of their operations, with the aim of achieving a net neutral or even beneficial outcome for biodiversity. Companies considering offsets need to know: (1) if there are areas of such biological importance that no impact is acceptable, and outside of these no-go areas, (2) the relative importance of biodiversity in the impacted site versus the site(s) proposed for protection, to ensure that the offset is of equal or greater status than that lost through the company's operations. We compiled a database of 40 schemes that use various methods to assess conservation priorities, and we examined if the schemes would allow companies to answer the above questions. Description Overall, schemes tend to be designed to guide conservation organizations in their own priority setting or they categorize species based on conservation status. Generally, the schemes do not provide all the necessary information for offsets because they operate at a broad spatial scale or with low spatial resolution, which make it difficult to assess sites at the project level. Furthermore, most schemes do not explicitly incorporate threat, which we consider key to assessing whether offsets protect habitats or species that would otherwise be lost (i.e., provide additionality). The schemes are useful, however, for identifying the major conservation issues in different ecosystems around the globe. Conclusion Companies can proceed by first avoiding, reducing, and mitigating impacts, and then using existing schemes to identify i) no-go areas and ii) appropriate offsets to compensate for any unavoidable loss in biodiversity. If existing schemes are inadequate, then companies should use integrated conservation planning techniques to define offset options within the region of their operations. PMID:17900366

  6. The phosphorylation targets of p47phox, a subunit of the respiratory burst oxidase. Functions of the individual target serines as evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, L R; el Benna, J; Babior, B M; Chanock, S J

    1995-01-01

    The respiratory burst oxidase of phagocytes and B lymphocytes catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O2- at the expense of NADPH. Dormant in resting cells, the oxidase is activated by exposing the cells to appropriate stimuli. During activation, p47phox, a cytosolic oxidase subunit, becomes extensively phosphorylated on a number of serines located between S303 and S379. To determine whether this phosphorylation is necessary for oxidase activation, we examined phorbol-elicited oxidase activity in EBV-transformed B lymphoblasts deficient in p47phox after transfection with plasmids expressing various S-->A mutants of p47phox. The mutant containing S-->A mutations involving all serines between S303 and S379 [S(303-379)A] was not phosphorylated, did not translocate to plasma membrane during activation and was almost devoid of function. As to individual serines, S379 was of special interest because (a) p47 phox S379 was phosphorylated in phorbol-activated lymphoblasts expressing wild-type p47phox, and (b) p47phox S379A failed to translocate to the membrane, and was as functionless as p47phox S(303-379)A; other single S-->A mutations had little effect on oxidase activity. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of S379 may be important for oxidase activation in whole cells. Images PMID:7657821

  7. Phosphorylation of tau is regulated by PKN.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Kawamata, T; Mukai, H; Hasegawa, H; Isagawa, T; Yasuda, M; Hashimoto, T; Terashima, A; Nakai, M; Mori, H; Ono, Y; Tanaka, C

    2001-03-30

    For the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein, tau plays a pivotal role in regulating microtubule networks in neurons. Tau promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules. The potential for tau to bind to microtubules is down-regulated after local phosphorylation. When we investigated the effects of PKN activation on tau phosphorylation, we found that PKN triggers disruption of the microtubule array both in vitro and in vivo and predominantly phosphorylates tau in microtubule binding domains (MBDs). PKN has a catalytic domain highly homologous to protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that phosphorylates Ser-313 (= Ser-324, the number used in this study) in MBDs. Thus, we identified the phosphorylation sites of PKN and PKC subtypes (PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta, and -lambda) in MBDs. PKN phosphorylates Ser-258, Ser-320, and Ser-352, although all PKC subtypes phosphorylate Ser-258, Ser-293, Ser-324, and Ser-352. There is a PKN-specific phosphorylation site, Ser-320, in MBDs. HIA3, a novel phosphorylation-dependent antibody recognizing phosphorylated tau at Ser-320, showed immunoreactivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the active form of PKN, but not in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the inactive form of PKN. The immunoreactivity for phosphorylated tau at Ser-320 increased in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor, FK506 treatment, which means that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) may be involved in dephosphorylating tau at Ser-320 site. We also noted that PKN reduces the phosphorylation recognized by the phosphorylation-dependent antibodies AT8, AT180, and AT270 in vivo. Thus PKN serves as a regulator of microtubules by specific phosphorylation of tau, which leads to disruption of tubulin assembly.

  8. Cell Cycle-dependent Changes in Localization and Phosphorylation of the Plasma Membrane Kv2.1 K+ Channel Impact Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Contact Sites in COS-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Melanie M; Austin, Daniel C; Sack, Jon T; Trimmer, James S

    2015-12-04

    The plasma membrane (PM) comprises distinct subcellular domains with diverse functions that need to be dynamically coordinated with intracellular events, one of the most impactful being mitosis. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is conditionally localized to large PM clusters that represent specialized PM:endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites (PM:ER MCS), and overexpression of Kv2.1 induces more exuberant PM:ER MCS in neurons and in certain heterologous cell types. Localization of Kv2.1 at these contact sites is dynamically regulated by changes in phosphorylation at one or more sites located on its large cytoplasmic C terminus. Here, we show that Kv2.1 expressed in COS-1 cells undergoes dramatic cell cycle-dependent changes in its PM localization, having diffuse localization in interphase cells, and robust clustering during M phase. The mitosis-specific clusters of Kv2.1 are localized to PM:ER MCS, and M phase clustering of Kv2.1 induces more extensive PM:ER MCS. These cell cycle-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and the induction of PM:ER MCS are accompanied by increased mitotic Kv2.1 phosphorylation at several C-terminal phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv2.1 is significantly increased upon metaphase arrest in COS-1 and CHO cells, and in a pancreatic β cell line that express endogenous Kv2.1. The M phase clustering of Kv2.1 at PM:ER MCS in COS-1 cells requires the same C-terminal targeting motif needed for conditional Kv2.1 clustering in neurons. The cell cycle-dependent changes in localization and phosphorylation of Kv2.1 were not accompanied by changes in the electrophysiological properties of Kv2.1 expressed in CHO cells. Together, these results provide novel insights into the cell cycle-dependent changes in PM protein localization and phosphorylation.

  9. The TTSMI database: a catalog of triplex target DNA sites associated with genes and regulatory elements in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Chew, Chee Siang; Yong, Tai Pang; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Thammasorn, Wimada; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    A triplex target DNA site (TTS), a stretch of DNA that is composed of polypurines, is able to form a triple-helix (triplex) structure with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and is able to influence the site-specific modulation of gene expression and/or the modification of genomic DNA. The co-localization of a genomic TTS with gene regulatory signals and functional genome structures suggests that TFOs could potentially be exploited in antigene strategies for the therapy of cancers and other genetic diseases. Here, we present the TTS Mapping and Integration (TTSMI; http://ttsmi.bii.a-star.edu.sg) database, which provides a catalog of unique TTS locations in the human genome and tools for analyzing the co-localization of TTSs with genomic regulatory sequences and signals that were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and/or predicted by computational models. TTSMI was designed as a user-friendly tool that facilitates (i) fast searching/filtering of TTSs using several search terms and criteria associated with sequence stability and specificity, (ii) interactive filtering of TTSs that co-localize with gene regulatory signals and non-B DNA structures, (iii) exploration of dynamic combinations of the biological signals of specific TTSs and (iv) visualization of a TTS simultaneously with diverse annotation tracks via the UCSC genome browser.

  10. The TTSMI database: a catalog of triplex target DNA sites associated with genes and regulatory elements in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Chew, Chee Siang; Yong, Tai Pang; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Thammasorn, Wimada; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    A triplex target DNA site (TTS), a stretch of DNA that is composed of polypurines, is able to form a triple-helix (triplex) structure with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and is able to influence the site-specific modulation of gene expression and/or the modification of genomic DNA. The co-localization of a genomic TTS with gene regulatory signals and functional genome structures suggests that TFOs could potentially be exploited in antigene strategies for the therapy of cancers and other genetic diseases. Here, we present the TTS Mapping and Integration (TTSMI; http://ttsmi.bii.a-star.edu.sg) database, which provides a catalog of unique TTS locations in the human genome and tools for analyzing the co-localization of TTSs with genomic regulatory sequences and signals that were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and/or predicted by computational models. TTSMI was designed as a user-friendly tool that facilitates (i) fast searching/filtering of TTSs using several search terms and criteria associated with sequence stability and specificity, (ii) interactive filtering of TTSs that co-localize with gene regulatory signals and non-B DNA structures, (iii) exploration of dynamic combinations of the biological signals of specific TTSs and (iv) visualization of a TTS simultaneously with diverse annotation tracks via the UCSC genome browser. PMID:25324314

  11. Exploring Site-Specific N-Glycosylation Microheterogeneity of Haptoglobin using Glycopeptide CID Tandem Mass Spectra and Glycan Database Search

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Kevin Brown; Pompach, Petr; Goldman, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is a common protein modification with a significant role in many vital cellular processes and human diseases, making the characterization of protein-attached glycan structures important for understanding cell biology and disease processes. Direct analysis of protein N-glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry of glycopeptides promises site-specific elucidation of N-glycan microheterogeneity, something which detached N-glycan and de-glycosylated peptide analyses cannot provide. However, successful implementation of direct N-glycopeptide analysis by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenge. In this work, we consider algorithmic techniques for the analysis of LC-MS/MS data acquired from glycopeptide-enriched fractions of enzymatic digests of purified proteins. We implement a computational strategy which takes advantage of the properties of CID fragmentation spectra of N-glycopeptides, matching the MS/MS spectra to peptide-glycan pairs from protein sequences and glycan structure databases. Significantly, we also propose a novel false-discovery-rate estimation technique to estimate and manage the number of false identifications. We use a human glycoprotein standard, haptoglobin, digested with trypsin and GluC, enriched for glycopeptides using HILIC chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS to demonstrate our algorithmic strategy and evaluate its performance. Our software, GlycoPeptideSearch (GPS), assigned glycopeptide identifications to 246 of the spectra at false-discovery-rate 5.58%, identifying 42 distinct haptoglobin peptide-glycan pairs at each of the four haptoglobin N-linked glycosylation sites. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by analyzing plasma-derived haptoglobin, identifying 136 N-linked glycopeptide spectra at false-discovery-rate 0.4%, representing 15 distinct glycopeptides on at least three of the four N-linked glycosylation sites. The software, GlycoPeptideSearch, is available for download from http

  12. SNP@lincTFBS: an integrated database of polymorphisms in human LincRNA transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shangwei; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Ye, Jingrun; Wang, Peng; Zhi, Hui; Li, Ronghong; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Jianjian; Wang, Lihua; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a new class of functional transcripts, and aberrant expression of lincRNAs was associated with several human diseases. The genetic variants in lincRNA transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can change lincRNA expression, thereby affecting the susceptibility to human diseases. To identify and annotate these functional candidates, we have developed a database SNP@lincTFBS, which is devoted to the exploration and annotation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in potential TFBSs of human lincRNAs. We identified 6,665 SNPs in 6,614 conserved TFBSs of 2,423 human lincRNAs. In addition, with ChIPSeq dataset, we identified 139,576 SNPs in 304,517 transcription factor peaks of 4,813 lincRNAs. We also performed comprehensive annotation for these SNPs using 1000 Genomes Project datasets across 11 populations. Moreover, one of the distinctive features of SNP@lincTFBS is the collection of disease-associated SNPs in the lincRNA TFBSs and SNPs in the TFBSs of disease-associated lincRNAs. The web interface enables both flexible data searches and downloads. Quick search can be query of lincRNA name, SNP identifier, or transcription factor name. SNP@lincTFBS provides significant advances in identification of disease-associated lincRNA variants and improved convenience to interpret the discrepant expression of lincRNAs. The SNP@lincTFBS database is available at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/SNP_lincTFBS.

  13. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease recapitulates phosphorylation during development.

    PubMed

    Goedert, M; Jakes, R; Crowther, R A; Six, J; Lübke, U; Vandermeeren, M; Cras, P; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1993-06-01

    Tau is a neuronal phosphoprotein whose expression is developmentally regulated. A single tau isoform is expressed in fetal human brain but six isoforms are expressed in adult brain, with the fetal isoform corresponding to the shortest of the adult isoforms. Phosphorylation of tau is also developmentally regulated, as fetal tau is phosphorylated at more sites than adult tau. In Alzheimer disease, the six adult tau isoforms become abnormally phosphorylated and form the paired helical filament, the major fibrous component of the characteristic neurofibrillary lesions. We show here that Ser-202 (in the numbering of the longest human brain tau isoform) is a phosphorylation site that distinguishes fetal from adult tau and we identify it as one of the abnormal phosphorylation sites in Alzheimer disease. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease thus recapitulates normal phosphorylation during development.

  14. Asp295 stabilizes the active-site loop structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase, facilitating phosphorylation of Ser292 by pyruvate dehydrogenase-kinase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have developed an invitro system for detailed analysis of reversible phosphorylation of the plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, comprising recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana a2b2-hetero tetrameric pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) plus A.thaliana E1-kinase (AtPDK). Upon addition of MgATP...

  15. Tautomeric states of the active-site histidines of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, using two-dimensional heteronuclear NMR techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, J. G.; Torchia, D. A.; Meadow, N. D.; Roseman, S.

    1993-01-01

    IIIGlc is an 18.1-kDa signal-transducing phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system from Escherichia coli. The 1H, 15N, and 13C histidine ring NMR signals of both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc have been assigned using two-dimensional 1H-15N and 1H-13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments and a two-dimensional 13C-13C-1H correlation spectroscopy via JCC coupling experiment. The data were acquired on uniformly 15N-labeled and uniformly 15N/13C-labeled protein samples. The experiments rely on one-bond and two-bond J couplings that allowed for assignment of the signals without the need for the analysis of through-space (nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) correlations. The 15N and 13C chemical shifts were used to determine that His-75 exists predominantly in the N epsilon 2-H tautomeric state in both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc, and that His-90 exists primarily in the N delta 1-H state in the unphosphorylated protein. Upon phosphorylation of the N epsilon 2 nitrogen of His-90, the N delta 1 nitrogen remains protonated, resulting in the formation of a charged phospho-His-90 moiety. The 1H, 15N, and 13C signals of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated proteins showed only minor shifts in the pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. These data indicate that the pK alpha values for both His-75 and His-90 in IIIGlc and His-75 in phospho-IIIGlc are less than 5.0, and that the pK alpha value for phospho-His-90 is greater than 10. The results are presented in relation to previously obtained structural data on IIIGlc, and implications for proposed mechanisms of phosphoryl transfer are discussed. PMID:8518729

  16. A User’s Guide to the Comprehensive Water Quality Database for Groundwater in the Vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene

    2006-09-01

    This water quality database (viz.GeochemXX.mdb) has been developed as part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Program with the cooperation of several agencies actively participating in ongoing evaluation and characterization activities under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The database has been constructed to provide up-to-date, comprehensive, and quality controlled data in a uniform format for the support of current and future projects. This database provides a valuable tool for geochemical and hydrogeologic evaluations of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and surrounding region. Chemistry data have been compiled for groundwater within the NTS and the surrounding region. These data include major ions, organic compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, various field parameters, and environmental isotopes. Colloid data are also included in the database. The GeochemXX.mdb database is distributed on an annual basis. The extension ''XX'' within the database title is replaced by the last two digits of the release year (e.g., Geochem06 for the version released during the 2006 fiscal year). The database is distributed via compact disc (CD) and is also uploaded to the Common Data Repository (CDR) in order to make it available to all agencies with DOE intranet access. This report provides an explanation of the database configuration and summarizes the general content and utility of the individual data tables. In addition to describing the data, subsequent sections of this report provide the data user with an explanation of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocols for this database.

  17. EUDOC: a computer program for identification of drug interaction sites in macromolecules and drug leads from chemical databases.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Perola, Emanuele; Xu, Kun; Prendergast, Franklyn G.

    2001-11-30

    The completion of the Human Genome Project, the growing effort on proteomics, and the Structural Genomics Initiative have recently intensified the attention being paid to reliable computer docking programs able to identify molecules that can affect the function of a macromolecule through molecular complexation. We report herein an automated computer docking program, EUDOC, for prediction of ligand-receptor complexes from 3D receptor structures, including metalloproteins, and for identification of a subset enriched in drug leads from chemical databases. This program was evaluated from the standpoints of force field and sampling issues using 154 experimentally determined ligand-receptor complexes and four "real-life" applications of the EUDOC program. The results provide evidence for the reliability and accuracy of the EUDOC program. In addition, key principles underlying molecular recognition, and the effects of structural water molecules in the active site and different atomic charge models on docking results are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Comput Chem 22: 1750-1771, 2001

  18. Third year nursing students' understanding of how to find and evaluate information from bibliographic databases and Internet sites.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Hilary E; Andenæs, Randi

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to increase undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of finding and evaluating information from selected bibliographic databases and Internet sites. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. The 2004 autumn cohort (n=480) was divided into two approximately equal groups at the beginning of their studies. One group was subjected to a greater number of assignments requiring them to find and evaluate bibliographic and Internet-based information. The assignments were spread throughout the curriculum. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The low response rate makes generalizing the findings difficult. Only small differences were demonstrated between the knowledge of the revised assignment group and that of the other students. Both groups had a poor understanding of the use of important search and evaluation techniques. The results indicate that strategies proven in one context are not necessarily as effective in a new context and that more research is needed into which learning activities best enhance the development of information literacy skills during undergraduate nursing education.

  19. Identification of sites subjected to serine/threonine phosphorylation by SGK1 affecting N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)/Cap43-dependent suppression of angiogenic CXC chemokine expression in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuichi; Hosoi, Fumihito; Izumi, Hiroto; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Ureshino, Hiroki; Watari, Kosuke; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2010-05-28

    We have recently reported that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)/Ca(2+)-associated protein with a molecular mass of 43kDa (Cap43) suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth of pancreatic cancer through marked decreases in both the expression of CXC chemokines and phosphorylation of a NF-kappaB signaling molecule, inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IkappaBalpha). NDRG1/Cap43 is phosphorylated at serine/threonine sites in its C-terminal domain by serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). In this study, we attempted to clarify the domain or site of NDRG1/Cap43 responsible for its suppression of CXC chemokine expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Expression of the deletion constructs CapDelta2 [deletion of amino acids (AA) 130-142] and CapDelta4 [deletion of AA 180-294] as well as the wild-type full sequence of NDRG1/Cap43 (F-Cap), suppressed the production of CXC chemokines such as Groalpha/CXCL1 and ENA-78/CXCL5, whereas no or low suppression was observed in cell expressing the CapDelta5 mutant [deletion of AA 326-350] and CapDelta6 mutant [deletion of AA 326-394]. We further introduced mutations at the serine and threonine sites at 328 [T328A], 330 [S330A] and 346 [T346A], which are susceptible to phosphorylation by SGK1, and also constructed double mutants [T328A, S330A], [T328A, T346A] and [S330A, T346A]. Expression of all these mutants, with the exception of [S330A, T346A], suppressed the production of CXC chemokine to similar levels as their wild-type counterpart. IkappaBalpha was found to be specifically phosphorylated by this double mutant [S330A, T346A] and the CapDelta5 mutant at levels comparable to that induced in their wild-type counterpart. Phosphorylation of NDRG1/Cap43 at both serine330 and threonine346 is required for its suppressive action on the NF-kappaB signaling pathway and CXC chemokine expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

  20. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  1. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada 1957-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Fenelon

    2006-08-15

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  2. Ganglioside GM3 promotes HGF-stimulated motility of murine hepatoma cell through enhanced phosphorylation of cMet at specific tyrosine sites and PI3K/Akt-mediated migration signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhong, Weiliang; Zhang, Jianing; Ma, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Ganglioside GM3 plays a well-documented and important role in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis by modulating tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors. However, the effect of GM3 on the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, cMet) has not been fully delineated. In the current study, we investigated how GM3 affects cMet signaling and HGF-stimulated cell motility and migration using three hepatic cancer cell lines of mouse (Hca/A2, Hca/16A3, and Hepa1-6). Decreasing GM3 expression with the use of P4, a specific inhibitor for ganglioside synthesis inhibited the HGF-stimulated phosphorylation of cMet and activity of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In contrast, the increased expression of GM3 as a result of adding exogenous GM3 enhanced the HGF-stimulated phosphorylation of cMet and activity of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, HGF-stimulated cell motility and migration in vitro were inhibited by reduced expression of GM3 and enhanced by increased expression of GM3. All the observations indicate that ganglioside GM3 promotes HGF-stimulated motility of murine hepatoma cell through enhanced phosphorylation of cMet at specific tyrosine sites and PI3K/Akt-mediated migration signaling.

  3. CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strain containing three EPIYA C phosphorylation sites produces increase of G cell and decrease of D cell in experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Júnior, Moacir Ferreira; Batista, Sérgio de Assis; Barbuto, Rafael Calvão; Gomes, Adriana Dias; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães; Araújo, Ivana Duval; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal

    2016-09-01

    Human infection by Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increase in the number of gastrin-producing G cells and a concomitant decrease of somatostatin-producing D cells. However, to our knowledge, changes in G and D cell numbers in response to infection with H. pylori CagA-positive strains containing different number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites have not been analyzed to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the number of G and D cells in Mongolian gerbils challenged with H. pylori strains with different numbers of EPIYA-C motifs. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with isogenic H. pylori strains containing one to three phosphorylation sites. Mucosal fragments were evaluated by morphometry and immunohistochemistry using primary polyclonal rabbit anti-gastrin and anti-somatostatin antibodies. Positive cells were counted using an image analyzer. Forty-five days after infection, there was a decrease in the number of D cells and an increase in the G/D cell ratio in the group with three EPIYA-C. Six months after infection, there was a progressive and significant increase in the number of G cells and in the G/D cell ratio, with a concomitant decrease in the number of D cells, especially in the three EPIYA-C group. CagA-positive H. pylori strains containing a large number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites induce a decrease in D cell number and an increase in G cell number and G/D ratio, which were correlated with the number of inflammatory cells of the lamina propria. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Action at a distance: amino acid substitutions that affect binding of the phosphorylated CheY response regulator and catalysis of dephosphorylation can be far from the CheZ phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ashalla M; Mole, Beth M; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    Two-component regulatory systems, in which phosphorylation controls the activity of a response regulator protein, provide signal transduction in bacteria. For example, the phosphorylated CheY response regulator (CheYp) controls swimming behavior. In Escherichia coli, the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ stimulates the dephosphorylation of CheYp. CheYp apparently binds first to the C terminus of CheZ and then binds to the active site where dephosphorylation occurs. The phosphatase activity of the CheZ(2) dimer exhibits a positively cooperative dependence on CheYp concentration, apparently because the binding of the first CheYp to CheZ(2) is inhibited compared to the binding of the second CheYp. Thus, CheZ phosphatase activity is reduced at low CheYp concentrations. The CheZ21IT gain-of-function substitution, located far from either the CheZ active site or C-terminal CheY binding site, enhances CheYp binding and abolishes cooperativity. To further explore mechanisms regulating CheZ activity, we isolated 10 intragenic suppressor mutations of cheZ21IT that restored chemotaxis. The suppressor substitutions were located along the central portion of CheZ and were not allele specific. Five suppressor mutants tested biochemically diminished the binding of CheYp and/or the catalysis of dephosphorylation, even when the suppressor substitutions were distant from the active site. One suppressor mutant also restored cooperativity to CheZ21IT. Consideration of results from this and previous studies suggests that the binding of CheYp to the CheZ active site (not to the C terminus) is rate limiting and leads to cooperative phosphatase activity. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions distant from the active site can affect CheZ catalytic activity and CheYp binding, perhaps via the propagation of structural or dynamic perturbations through a helical bundle.

  5. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  6. A Sediment Testing Reference Area Database for the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA established and maintains a SF-DODS reference area database of previously-collected sediment test data. Several sets of sediment test data have been successfully collected from the SF-DODS reference area.

  7. Ser1333 phosphorylation indicates ROCKI activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiang-Hao; Liang, Shao-Wei; Chang, Zee-Fen; Lee, Hsiao-Hui

    2013-10-29

    Two isoforms of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), ROCKI and ROCKII, play a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeleton and are involved in multiple cellular processes in mammalian cells. Knockout mice experiments have indicated that the functions of ROCKI and II are probably non-redundant in physiology. However, it is difficult to differentiate the activation status of ROCKI and ROCKII in biological samples. Previously, we have identified phosphorylation site of ROCKII at Ser1366 residue sensitive to ROCK inhibition. We further investigated the activity-dependent phosphorylation site in ROCKI to establish the reagents that can be used to detect their individual activation. The phosphorylation site of ROCKI sensitive to its inhibition was identified to be the Ser1333 residue. The ROCKI pSer1333-specific antibody does not cross-react with phosphorylated ROCKII. The extent of S1333 phosphorylation of ROCKI correlates with myosin II light chain phosphorylation in cells in response to RhoA stimulation. Active ROCKI is phosphorylated at Ser1333 site. Antibodies that recognize phospho-Ser1333 of ROCKI and phospho-S1366 residues of ROCKII offer a means to discriminate their individual active status in cells and tissues.

  8. T-Loop Phosphorylated Cdk9 Localizes to Nuclear Speckle Domains Which May Serve as Sites of Active P-TEFb Function and Exchange Between the Brd4 and 7SK/HEXIM1 Regulatory Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Eugene C.; Liu, Hongbing; Rice, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    P-TEFb functions to induce the elongation step of RNA polymerase II transcription by phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Core P-TEFb is comprised of Cdk9 and a cyclin regulatory subunit, with Cyclin T1 being the predominant Cdk9-associated cyclin. The kinase activity of P-TEFb is dependent on phosphorylation of the Thr186 residue located within the T-loop domain of the Cdk9 subunit. Here, we used immunofluorescence deconvolution microscopy to examine the subcellular distribution of phospho-Thr186 Cdk9/Cyclin T1 P-TEFb heterodimers. We found that phospho-Thr186 Cdk9 displays a punctate distribution throughout the non-nucleolar nucleoplasm and it co-localizes with Cyclin T1 almost exclusively within nuclear s