Science.gov

Sample records for phosphotyrosine peptidomimetic prodrugs

  1. Phosphotyrosine as a substrate of acid and alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Apostoł, I; Kuciel, R; Wasylewska, E; Ostrowski, W S

    1985-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for following dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine has been described. The absorption spectra of phosphotyrosine and tyrosine were plotted over the pH range from 3 to 9. The change in absorbance accompanying the conversion of phosphotyrosine to tyrosine was the greatest at 286 nm. The difference absorption coefficients were calculated for several pH values. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine by acid phosphatases from human prostate gland, from wheat germ and potatoes obeys the Michaelis-Menten equation, whereas alkaline phosphatases calf intestine and E. coli are inhibited by excess of substrate.

  2. New prodrugs against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Giorgia; Chiarelli, Laurent Roberto; Riccardi, Giovanna; Pasca, Maria Rosalia

    2017-03-01

    The term 'prodrug' was first introduced by Albert in 1958. Generally, prodrugs can be utilized for improving active drug solubility and bioavailability, increasing drug permeability and absorption, modifying the distribution profile, preventing fast metabolism and excretion, and reducing toxicity. Previously, the prodrug approach was a final resort during the drug discovery process only after all other approaches had been exhausted. However, this strategy is now considered during the early stages of the drug development process. Most antitubercular agents are defined as 'prodrugs', including isoniazid and ethionamide. Thus, the prodrug approach could provide novel targets for the rational design of more effective treatments for tuberculosis (TB).

  3. A phosphotyrosine switch regulates organic cation transporters.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, Jason A; Ong, Su Sien; Gibson, Alice A; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Lin, Wenwei; Li, Lie; Bharill, Shashank; Ness, Rachel A; Stecula, Adrian; Offer, Steven M; Diasio, Robert B; Nies, Anne T; Schwab, Matthias; Cavaletti, Guido; Schlatter, Eberhard; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Schellens, Jan H M; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Sali, Andrej; Chen, Taosheng; Baker, Sharyn D; Sparreboom, Alex; Pabla, Navjotsingh

    2016-03-16

    Membrane transporters are key determinants of therapeutic outcomes. They regulate systemic and cellular drug levels influencing efficacy as well as toxicities. Here we report a unique phosphorylation-dependent interaction between drug transporters and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which has uncovered widespread phosphotyrosine-mediated regulation of drug transporters. We initially found that organic cation transporters (OCTs), uptake carriers of metformin and oxaliplatin, were inhibited by several clinically used TKIs. Mechanistic studies showed that these TKIs inhibit the Src family kinase Yes1, which was found to be essential for OCT2 tyrosine phosphorylation and function. Yes1 inhibition in vivo diminished OCT2 activity, significantly mitigating oxaliplatin-induced acute sensory neuropathy. Along with OCT2, other SLC-family drug transporters are potentially part of an extensive 'transporter-phosphoproteome' with unique susceptibility to TKIs. On the basis of these findings we propose that TKIs, an important and rapidly expanding class of therapeutics, can functionally modulate pharmacologically important proteins by inhibiting protein kinases essential for their post-translational regulation.

  4. Earliest Holozoan Expansion of Phosphotyrosine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Hiroshi; Torruella, Guifré; Burger, Gertraud; Brown, Matthew W.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling is involved in development and maintenance of metazoans’ multicellular body through cell-to-cell communication. Tyrosine kinases (TKs), tyrosine phosphatases, and other proteins relaying the signal compose the cascade. Domain architectures of the pTyr signaling proteins are diverse in metazoans, reflecting their complex intercellular communication. Previous studies had shown that the metazoan-type TKs, as well as other pTyr signaling proteins, were already diversified in the common ancestor of metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filastereans (which are together included in the clade Holozoa) whereas they are absent in fungi and other nonholozoan lineages. However, the earliest-branching holozoans Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea, as well as the two fungi-related amoebae Fonticula and Nuclearia, have not been studied. Here, we analyze the complete genome sequences of two ichthyosporeans and Fonticula, and RNAseq data of three additional ichthyosporeans, one corallochytrean, and Nuclearia. Both the ichthyosporean and corallochytrean genomes encode a large variety of receptor TKs (RTKs) and cytoplasmic TKs (CTKs), as well as other pTyr signaling components showing highly complex domain architectures. However, Nuclearia and Fonticula have no TK, and show much less diversity in other pTyr signaling components. The CTK repertoires of both Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea are similar to those of Metazoa, Choanoflagellida, and Filasterea, but the RTK sets are totally different from each other. The complex pTyr signaling equipped with positive/negative feedback mechanism likely emerged already at an early stage of holozoan evolution, yet keeping a high evolutionary plasticity in extracellular signal reception until the co-option of the system for cell-to-cell communication in metazoans. PMID:24307687

  5. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Christofk, H.R.; Vander Heiden, M.G.; Wu, N.; Asara, J.M.; Cantley, L.C.

    2008-06-03

    Growth factors stimulate cells to take up excess nutrients and to use them for anabolic processes. The biochemical mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood but it is initiated by phosphorylation of signalling proteins on tyrosine residues. Using a novel proteomic screen for phosphotyrosine-binding proteins, we have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. We show that binding of phosphotyrosine peptides to PKM2 results in release of the allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, leading to inhibition of PKM2 enzymatic activity. We also provide evidence that this regulation of PKM2 by phosphotyrosine signalling diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Collectively, our results indicate that expression of this phosphotyrosine-binding form of pyruvate kinase is critical for rapid growth in cancer cells.

  6. Structural and evolutionary division of phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains.

    PubMed

    Uhlik, Mark T; Temple, Brenda; Bencharit, Sompop; Kimple, Adam J; Siderovski, David P; Johnson, Gary L

    2005-01-07

    Proteins encoding phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains function as adaptors or scaffolds to organize the signaling complexes involved in wide-ranging physiological processes including neural development, immunity, tissue homeostasis and cell growth. There are more than 200 proteins in eukaryotes and nearly 60 human proteins having PTB domains. Six PTB domain encoded proteins have been found to have mutations that contribute to inherited human diseases including familial stroke, hypercholesteremia, coronary artery disease, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, demonstrating the importance of PTB scaffold proteins in organizing critical signaling complexes. PTB domains bind both peptides and headgroups of phosphatidylinositides, utilizing two distinct binding motifs to mediate spatial organization and localization within cells. The structure of PTB domains confers specificity for binding peptides having a NPXY motif with differing requirements for phosphorylation of the tyrosine within this recognition sequence. In this review, we use structural, evolutionary and functional analysis to divide PTB domains into three groups represented by phosphotyrosine-dependent Shc-like, phosphotyrosine-dependent IRS-like and phosphotyrosine-independent Dab-like PTBs, with the Dab-like PTB domains representing nearly 75% of proteins encoding PTB domains. In addition, we further define the binding characteristics of the cognate ligands for each group of PTB domains. The signaling complexes organized by PTB domain encoded proteins are largely unknown and represents an important challenge in systems biology for the future.

  7. Two absorption furosemide prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mombrú, A W; Mariezcurrena, R A; Suescun, L; Pardo, H; Manta, E; Prandi, C

    1999-03-15

    The structures of two absorption furosemide prodrugs, hexanoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoyl-anthranilate (C19H23CIN2O7S), (I), and benzoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilate (C20H17CIN2O7S), (II), are described in this paper and compared with furosemide and four other prodrugs. The molecular conformations of both compounds are similar to those of the other prodrugs; the packing and the crystal system are the primary differences. Compound (I) crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 and compound (II) in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n. The packing of both structures is stabilized by a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network.

  8. Cytochrome P450-activated prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    A prodrug is a compound that has negligible, or lower, activity against a specified pharmacological target than one of its major metabolites. Prodrugs can be used to improve drug delivery or pharmacokinetics, to decrease toxicity, or to target the drug to specific cells or tissues. Ester and phosphate hydrolysis are widely used in prodrug design because of their simplicity, but such approaches are relatively ineffective for targeting drugs to specific sites. The activation of prodrugs by the cytochrome P450 system provides a highly versatile approach to prodrug design that is particularly adaptable for targeting drug activation to the liver, to tumors or to hypoxic tissues. PMID:23360144

  9. Prodrugs: design and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Kumpulainen, Hanna; Heimbach, Tycho; Oliyai, Reza; Oh, Dooman; Järvinen, Tomi; Savolainen, Jouko

    2008-03-01

    Prodrugs are bioreversible derivatives of drug molecules that undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which can then exert the desired pharmacological effect. In both drug discovery and development, prodrugs have become an established tool for improving physicochemical, biopharmaceutical or pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically active agents. About 5-7% of drugs approved worldwide can be classified as prodrugs, and the implementation of a prodrug approach in the early stages of drug discovery is a growing trend. To illustrate the applicability of the prodrug strategy, this article describes the most common functional groups that are amenable to prodrug design, and highlights examples of prodrugs that are either launched or are undergoing human trials.

  10. Peptides and Peptidomimetics for Antimicrobial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Jenssen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and highlight a few classes of traditional antimicrobial peptides with a focus on structure-activity relationship studies. After first dissecting the important physiochemical properties that influence the antimicrobial and toxic properties of antimicrobial peptides, the contributions of individual amino acids with respect to the peptides antibacterial properties are presented. A brief discussion of the mechanisms of action of different antimicrobials as well as the development of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobial peptides follows. Finally, current efforts on novel design strategies and peptidomimetics are introduced to illustrate the importance of antimicrobial peptide research in the development of future antibiotics. PMID:26184232

  11. Self-assembly of small peptidomimetic cyclophanes.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Jorge; Burguete, M Isabel; Escuder, Beatriu; Galindo, Francisco; Gavara, Raquel; Miravet, Juan F; Luis, Santiago V; Peris, Gabriel

    2004-08-20

    The self-assembly of a series of small peptidomimetic cyclophanes in organic solvents was studied. X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modelling were used to understand the structural features of these self-assembling compounds both at the molecular and supramolecular level. The factors that could influence the formation of gels rather than crystals were studied and a model for the arrangement of molecules in the gel was proposed. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that in some cases these compounds undergo a transcription of chirality when going from organogelator to helicoidal gel fibres.

  12. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    PubMed

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-11-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid phosphatases tested from potato, wheat germ, milk, and bovine prostate did not show this degree of specificity. The plasma membrane activity also dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine histone at a much greater rate than did the other acid phosphatases. pH profiles for free O-phosphotyrosine and phosphotyrosine histone showed a shift toward physiological pH, indicating possible physiological significance. Phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation activity was nearly 10 times greater than that seen for phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation, and Km values were much lower for phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (0.5 microM vs. 10 microM). Fluoride and zinc significantly inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation. Vanadate, on the other hand, was a potent inhibitor of phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (50% inhibition at 0.5 microM) but not of phosphoserine histone. ATP stimulated phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (160-250%) but inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation (95%). These results suggest the existence of a highly specific phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase activity associated with the plasma membrane of human astrocytoma.

  13. Prodrug approaches for CNS delivery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Laine, Krista; Gynther, Mikko; Savolainen, Jouko

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery remains a major challenge, despite extensive efforts that have been made to develop novel strategies to overcome obstacles. Prodrugs are bioreversible derivatives of drug molecules that must undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which subsequently exerts the desired pharmacological effect. In both drug discovery and drug development, prodrugs have become an established tool for improving physicochemical, biopharmaceutical or pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically active agents that overcome barriers to a drug's usefulness. This review provides insight into various prodrug strategies explored to date for CNS drug delivery, including lipophilic prodrugs, carrier- and receptor-mediated prodrug delivery systems, and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy.

  14. Heterocycles in Peptidomimetics and Pseudopeptides: Design and Synthesis †

    PubMed Central

    Cerminara, Iole; Chiummiento, Lucia; Funicello, Maria; Guarnaccio, Ambra; Lupattelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This minireview provides a brief outline of the peculiar aspects of the preparation of peptidomimetic and pseudopeptidic structures containing heterocycles. In particular novel tricyclic structures are investigated as potential drugs. PMID:24281380

  15. Prodrug Strategies for Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ziyuan; Lv, Quanxia; Lu, Jun; Yao, Houzong; Lv, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is an anti-tumor agent with remarkable anti-tumor activity and wide clinical uses. However, it is also faced with various challenges especially for its poor water solubility and low selectivity for the target. To overcome these disadvantages of paclitaxel, approaches using small molecule modifications and macromolecule modifications have been developed by many research groups from all over the world. In this review, we discuss the different strategies especially prodrug strategies that are currently used to make paclitaxel more effective. PMID:27223283

  16. New water-soluble prodrugs of HIV protease inhibitors based on O-->N intramolecular acyl migration.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio; Ohtake, Jun; Sohma, Youhei; Kimura, Tooru; Hayashi, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2002-12-01

    To improve the low water-solubility of HIV protease inhibitors, we synthesized water-soluble prodrugs of KNI-272 and KNI-279 which are potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors consisting of an Apns-Thz core structure (Apns; allophenylnorstatine, Thz; thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) as an inhibitory machinery. The prodrugs, which contained an O-acyl peptidomimetic structure with an ionized amino group leading to the increase of water-solubility, were designed to regenerate the corresponding parent drugs based on the O-->N intramolecular acyl migration reaction at the alpha-hydroxy-beta-amino acid residue, that is allophenylnorstatine. The synthetic prodrugs 3, 4, 6, and 7 improved the water-solubility (>300mg/mL) more than 4000-fold in comparison with the parent compounds, which is the practically acceptable value as water-soluble drugs. These prodrugs were stable as an HCl salt and in a strongly acidic solution corresponding to gastric juice (pH 2.0), and could be converted to the parent compounds promptly in the aqueous condition from slightly acidic to basic pH at 37 degrees C, with the suitable migration rate, via a five-membered ring intermediate. Using a similar method, we synthesized a prodrug (12) of ritonavir, a clinically useful HIV-1 protease inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. In contrast to the prodrugs 3, 4, 6, and 7, the prodrug 12 was very slowly converted to ritonavir probably through a six-membered ring intermediate, with the t(1/2) value of 32h that may not be suitable for practical use.

  17. DAPP1: a dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Dowler, S; Currie, R A; Downes, C P; Alessi, D R

    1999-08-15

    We have identified a novel 280 amino acid protein which contains a putative myristoylation site at its N-terminus followed by an Src homology (SH2) domain and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at its C-terminus. It has been termed dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1). DAPP1 is widely expressed and exhibits high-affinity interactions with PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2), but not with other phospholipids tested. These observations predict that DAPP1 will interact with both tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and 3-phosphoinositides and may therefore play a role in regulating the location and/or activity of such proteins(s) in response to agonists that elevate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2).

  18. MEMO associated with an ErbB2 receptor phosphopeptide reveals a new phosphotyrosine motif.

    PubMed

    Feracci, Mikaël; Pimentel, Cyril; Bornet, Olivier; Roche, Philippe; Salaun, Danièle; Badache, Ali; Guerlesquin, Françoise

    2011-09-02

    Tyrosine phosphorylations are essential in signal transduction. Recently, a new type of phosphotyrosine binding protein, MEMO (Mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility), has been reported to bind specifically to an ErbB2-derived phosphorylated peptide encompassing Tyr-1227 (PYD). Structural and functional analyses of variants of this peptide revealed the minimum sequence required for MEMO recognition. Using a docking approach we have generated a structural model for MEMO/PYD complex and compare this new phosphotyrosine motif to SH2 and PTB phosphotyrosine motives.

  19. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    PubMed

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable.

  20. Prodrug delivery of novel PTP1B inhibitors to enhance insulin signalling.

    PubMed

    Erbe, D V; Klaman, L D; Wilson, D P; Wan, Z-K; Kirincich, S J; Will, S; Xu, X; Kung, L; Wang, S; Tam, S; Lee, J; Tobin, J F

    2009-06-01

    A growing percentage of the population is resistant to two key hormones - insulin and leptin - as a result of increased obesity, often leading to significant health consequences such as type 2 diabetes. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of signalling by both of these hormones, so that inhibitors of this enzyme may provide promise for correcting endocrine abnormalities in both diabetes and obesity. As with other tyrosine phosphatases, identification of viable drug candidates targeting PTP1B has been elusive because of the nature of its active site. Beginning with novel phosphotyrosine mimetics, we have designed some of the most potent PTP1B inhibitors. However, their highly acidic structures limit intrinsic permeability and pharmacokinetics. Ester prodrugs of these inhibitors improve their drug-like properties with the goal of delivering these nanomolar inhibitors to the cytoplasm of cells within target tissues. In addition to identifying prodrugs that is able to deliver active drugs into cells to inhibit PTP1B and increase insulin signalling, these compounds were further modified to gain a variety of cleavage properties for targeting activity in vivo. One such prodrug candidate improved insulin sensitivity in ob/ob mice, with lowered fasting blood glucose levels seen in the context of lowered fasting insulin levels following 4 days of intraperitoneal dosing. The results presented in this study highlight the potential for design of orally active drug candidates targeting PTP1B, while also delineating the considerable challenges remaining.

  1. Phospho-tyrosine dependent protein–protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Arndt; Benlasfer, Nouhad; Birth, Petra; Hegele, Anna; Wachsmuth, Franziska; Apelt, Luise; Stelzl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications, such as tyrosine phosphorylation, regulate protein–protein interactions (PPIs) critical for signal processing and cellular phenotypes. We extended an established yeast two-hybrid system employing human protein kinases for the analyses of phospho-tyrosine (pY)-dependent PPIs in a direct experimental, large-scale approach. We identified 292 mostly novel pY-dependent PPIs which showed high specificity with respect to kinases and interacting proteins and validated a large fraction in co-immunoprecipitation experiments from mammalian cells. About one-sixth of the interactions are mediated by known linear sequence binding motifs while the majority of pY-PPIs are mediated by other linear epitopes or governed by alternative recognition modes. Network analysis revealed that pY-mediated recognition events are tied to a highly connected protein module dedicated to signaling and cell growth pathways related to cancer. Using binding assays, protein complementation and phenotypic readouts to characterize the pY-dependent interactions of TSPAN2 (tetraspanin 2) and GRB2 or PIK3R3 (p55γ), we exemplarily provide evidence that the two pY-dependent PPIs dictate cellular cancer phenotypes. PMID:25814554

  2. Water-soluble prodrugs of dipeptide HIV protease inhibitors based on O-->N intramolecular acyl migration: Design, synthesis and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kimura, Tooru; Hayashi, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2004-01-02

    To improve the low water-solubility of HIV protease inhibitors, we synthesized water-soluble prodrugs of KNI-727, a potent small-sized dipeptide-type HIV-1 protease inhibitor consisting of an Apns-Dmt core (Apns; allophenylnorstatine, Dmt; (R)-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) as inhibitory machinery. These prodrugs contained an O-acyl peptidomimetic structure with an ionized amino group leading to an increase in water-solubility, and were designed to regenerate the corresponding parent drugs based on the O-->N intramolecular acyl migration reaction via a five-membered ring intermediate at the alpha-hydroxy-beta-amino acid residue, that is Apns. The synthetic prodrug 3a improved the water-solubility (13 mg/mL) more than 8000-fold in comparison with the parent compound, which is the practically acceptable value as water-soluble drug. Furthermore, to understand the structural effects of the O-acyl moiety on the migration rate, we evaluated several phenylacetyl-type and benzoyl-type prodrugs. These prodrugs were stable as an HCl salt and in a strongly acidic solution corresponding to gastric juice (pH 2.0), and could be converted to the parent compounds promptly under aqueous conditions from slightly acidic to basic pH at 37 degrees C.

  3. Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions towards cyclic constrained peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Koopmanschap, Gijs; Ruijter, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the recent past, the design and synthesis of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics) has received much attention. This because they have shown in many cases enhanced pharmacological properties over their natural peptide analogues. In particular, the incorporation of cyclic constructs into peptides is of high interest as they reduce the flexibility of the peptide enhancing often affinity for a certain receptor. Moreover, these cyclic mimics force the molecule into a well-defined secondary structure. Constraint structural and conformational features are often found in biological active peptides. For the synthesis of cyclic constrained peptidomimetics usually a sequence of multiple reactions has been applied, which makes it difficult to easily introduce structural diversity necessary for fine tuning the biological activity. A promising approach to tackle this problem is the use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs), because they can introduce both structural diversity and molecular complexity in only one step. Among the MCRs, the isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs) are most relevant for the synthesis of peptidomimetics because they provide peptide-like products. However, these IMCRs usually give linear products and in order to obtain cyclic constrained peptidomimetics, the acyclic products have to be cyclized via additional cyclization strategies. This is possible via incorporation of bifunctional substrates into the initial IMCR. Examples of such bifunctional groups are N-protected amino acids, convertible isocyanides or MCR-components that bear an additional alkene, alkyne or azide moiety and can be cyclized via either a deprotection–cyclization strategy, a ring-closing metathesis, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or even via a sequence of multiple multicomponent reactions. The sequential IMCR-cyclization reactions can afford small cyclic peptide mimics (ranging from four- to seven-membered rings), medium-sized cyclic constructs or peptidic macrocycles

  4. Prodrugs--from serendipity to rational design.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Kristiina M; Raunio, Hannu; Rautio, Jarkko

    2011-09-01

    The prodrug concept has been used to improve undesirable properties of drugs since the late 19th century, although it was only at the end of the 1950s that the actual term prodrug was introduced for the first time. Prodrugs are inactive, bioreversible derivatives of active drug molecules that must undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which can then elicit its desired pharmacological effect in the body. In most cases, prodrugs are simple chemical derivatives that are only one or two chemical or enzymatic steps away from the active parent drug. However, some prodrugs lack an obvious carrier or promoiety but instead result from a molecular modification of the prodrug itself, which generates a new active compound. Numerous prodrugs designed to overcome formulation, delivery, and toxicity barriers to drug utilization have reached the market. In fact, approximately 20% of all small molecular drugs approved during the period 2000 to 2008 were prodrugs. Although the development of a prodrug can be very challenging, the prodrug approach represents a feasible way to improve the erratic properties of investigational drugs or drugs already on the market. This review introduces in depth the rationale behind the use of the prodrug approach from past to present, and also considers the possible problems that can arise from inadequate activation of prodrugs.

  5. Why Prodrugs and Propesticides Succeed.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2017-04-07

    What are the advantages of bioactivation in optimizing drugs and pesticides? Why are there so many prodrugs and propesticides? These questions are examined here by considering compounds selected on the basis of economic value or market success in 2015. The 100 major drugs and 90 major pesticides are divided into ones acting directly and those definitely or possibly requiring bioactivation. Established or candidate prodrugs accounted for 19% of the total drug sales, with corresponding values of 20, 37, and 17% for proinsecticides, proherbicides, and profungicides. The 19 prodrugs acting in humans generally had better pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic properties for target enzyme, receptor, tissue, or organ specificity due to their physical properties (lipophilicity and stabilization). Bioactivation usually involved hydrolases or cytochrome P450 oxidation or reduction. Prodrugs considered are neuroactive aripiprazole, eletriptan, desvenlafaxin, lisdexamfetamine, quetiapine, and fesoterodine; cholesterol-lowering atorvastatin, ezetimibe, and fenofibrate; various prodrugs activated by esterases or sulfatases, ciclesonide, oseltamivir, dabigatran; omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters and esterone sulfate; and five others with various targets (sofosbuvir, fingolimod, clopidogrel, dapsone, and sildenafil). The proinsecticides are the neuroactive chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, and indoxacarb, two spiro enol ester inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase), and the bacterial protein delta-endotoxin. The proherbicides considered are five ACCase inhibitors including pinoxaden and clethodim, three protox inhibitors (saflufenacil, flumioxazin, and canfentrazone-ethyl), and three with various targets (fluroxypyr, isoxaflutole, and clomazone). The profungicides are prothioconazole, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, dazomet, and fosetyl-aluminum. The prodrug and propesticide concept is broadly applicable and has created some of the most selective pharmaceutical and pest control agents

  6. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase R3 receptors: Origin, evolution and structural diversification.

    PubMed

    Chicote, Javier U; DeSalle, Rob; García-España, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Subtype R3 phosphotyrosine phosphatase receptors (R3 RPTPs) are single-spanning membrane proteins characterized by a unique modular composition of extracellular fibronectin repeats and a single cytoplasmatic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain. Vertebrate R3 RPTPs consist of five members: PTPRB, PTPRJ, PTPRH and PTPRO, which dephosphorylate tyrosine residues, and PTPRQ, which dephosphorylates phophoinositides. R3 RPTPs are considered novel therapeutic targets in several pathologies such as ear diseases, nephrotic syndromes and cancer. R3 RPTP vertebrate receptors, as well as their known invertebrate counterparts from animal models: PTP52F, PTP10D and PTP4e from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and F44G4.8/DEP-1 from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, participate in the regulation of cellular activities including cell growth and differentiation. Despite sharing structural and functional properties, the evolutionary relationships between vertebrate and invertebrate R3 RPTPs are not fully understood. Here we gathered R3 RPTPs from organisms covering a broad evolutionary distance, annotated their structure and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. We show that R3 RPTPs (i) have probably originated in the common ancestor of animals (metazoans), (ii) are variants of a single ancestral gene in protostomes (arthropods, annelids and nematodes); (iii) a likely duplication of this ancestral gene in invertebrate deuterostomes (echinodermes, hemichordates and tunicates) generated the precursors of PTPRQ and PTPRB genes, and (iv) R3 RPTP groups are monophyletic in vertebrates and have specific conserved structural characteristics. These findings could have implications for the interpretation of past studies and provide a framework for future studies and functional analysis of this important family of proteins.

  7. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase R3 receptors: Origin, evolution and structural diversification

    PubMed Central

    Chicote, Javier U.; DeSalle, Rob; García-España, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Subtype R3 phosphotyrosine phosphatase receptors (R3 RPTPs) are single-spanning membrane proteins characterized by a unique modular composition of extracellular fibronectin repeats and a single cytoplasmatic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain. Vertebrate R3 RPTPs consist of five members: PTPRB, PTPRJ, PTPRH and PTPRO, which dephosphorylate tyrosine residues, and PTPRQ, which dephosphorylates phophoinositides. R3 RPTPs are considered novel therapeutic targets in several pathologies such as ear diseases, nephrotic syndromes and cancer. R3 RPTP vertebrate receptors, as well as their known invertebrate counterparts from animal models: PTP52F, PTP10D and PTP4e from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and F44G4.8/DEP-1 from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, participate in the regulation of cellular activities including cell growth and differentiation. Despite sharing structural and functional properties, the evolutionary relationships between vertebrate and invertebrate R3 RPTPs are not fully understood. Here we gathered R3 RPTPs from organisms covering a broad evolutionary distance, annotated their structure and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. We show that R3 RPTPs (i) have probably originated in the common ancestor of animals (metazoans), (ii) are variants of a single ancestral gene in protostomes (arthropods, annelids and nematodes); (iii) a likely duplication of this ancestral gene in invertebrate deuterostomes (echinodermes, hemichordates and tunicates) generated the precursors of PTPRQ and PTPRB genes, and (iv) R3 RPTP groups are monophyletic in vertebrates and have specific conserved structural characteristics. These findings could have implications for the interpretation of past studies and provide a framework for future studies and functional analysis of this important family of proteins. PMID:28257417

  8. Global Impact of Oncogenic Src on a Phosphotyrosine Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weifeng; Slebos, Robbert J.; Hill, Salisha; Li, Ming; Brábek, Jan; Amanchy, Ramars; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Hanks, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated activity of Src, the first characterized protein-tyrosine kinase, is associated with progression of many human cancers, and Src has attracted interest as a therapeutic target. Src is known to act in various receptor signaling systems to impact cell behavior, yet it remains likely that the spectrum of Src protein substrates relevant to cancer is incompletely understood. To better understand the cellular impact of deregulated Src kinase activity, we extensively applied a mass spectrometry shotgun phosphotyrosine (pTyr) proteomics strategy to obtain global pTyr profiles of Src-transformed mouse fibroblasts as well as their nontransformed counterparts. A total of 867 peptides representing 563 distinct pTyr sites on 374 different proteins were identified from the Src-transformed cells, while 514 peptides representing 275 pTyr sites on 167 proteins were identified from nontransformed cells. Distinct characteristics of the two profiles were revealed by spectral counting, indicative of pTyr site relative abundance, and by complementary quantitative analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). While both pTyr profiles are replete with sites on signaling and adhesion/cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, the Src-transformed profile is more diverse with enrichment in sites on metabolic enzymes and RNA and protein synthesis and processing machinery. Forty-three pTyr sites (32 proteins) are predicted as major biologically relevant Src targets on the basis of frequent identification in both cell populations. This select group, of particular interest as diagnostic biomarkers, includes well-established Src sites on signaling/adhesion/cytoskeletal proteins, but also uncharacterized sites of potential relevance to the transformed cell phenotype. PMID:18563927

  9. Duocarmycin-based prodrugs for cancer prodrug monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Schuster, Heiko J; Schmuck, Kianga; Schuberth, Ingrid; Alves, Frauke

    2008-06-15

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of novel prodrugs based on the cytotoxic antibiotic duocarmycin SA (1) for a selective treatment of cancer using a prodrug monotherapy (PMT) are described. Transformation of the phenol 8 with the glucuronic acid benzyl ester trichloroacetimidate 9b followed by reaction with DMAI x HCl (10) gives the glucuronide 11b, which is deprotected to afford the desired prodrug 4a containing a glucuronic acid moiety. In addition, the prodrug 4b with a glucuronic methyl ester unit is prepared. The cytotoxicity of the glucuronides is determined using a HTCFA-assay with IC(50) values of 610 nM for 4a and 3300 nM for 4b. In the presence of beta-glucuronidase, 4a expresses an IC(50) value of 0.9 nM and 4b of 2.1 nM resulting in QIC(50) values of about 700 for 4a and 1600 for 4b.

  10. Phosphoramidate-based Peptidomimetic Prostate Cancer PET Imaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    develop a PET imaging agent based on modifying the peptidomimetic PSMA inhibitor which will result in improved tumor uptake and clearance mechanism...Different fluorination approaches were attempted with PSMA module compounds such as direct labeling, cupper free chemistry and the use of...labeling approaches are established, and then the labeling of the modified PSMA inhibitor analogues will be investigated in vitro as well as in vivo. 15

  11. Phosphoramidate-based Peptidomimetic Prostate Cancer PET Imaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    goal is to develop a PET imaging agent based on modifying the peptidomimetic PSMA inhibitor which will result in improved tumor uptake and clearance...mechanism. Different fluorination approaches were attempted with PSMA module compounds such as direct labeling, cupper free chemistry and the use of...the labeling approaches are established, and then the labeling of the modified PSMA inhibitor analogues will be investigated in vitro as well as in

  12. Prodrug applications for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Giang, Irene; Boland, Erin L; Poon, Gregory M K

    2014-09-01

    Prodrugs are widely used in the targeted delivery of cytotoxic compounds to cancer cells. To date, targeted prodrugs for cancer therapy have achieved great diversity in terms of target selection, activation chemistry, as well as size and physicochemical nature of the prodrug. Macromolecular prodrugs such as antibody-drug conjugates, targeted polymer-drug conjugates and other conjugates that self-assemble to form liposomal and micellar nanoparticles currently represent a major trend in prodrug development for cancer therapy. In this review, we explore a unified view of cancer-targeted prodrugs and highlight several examples from recombinant technology that exemplify the prodrug concept but are not identified as such. Recombinant "prodrugs" such as engineered anthrax toxin show promise in biological specificity through the conditionally targeting of multiple cellular markers. Conditional targeting is achieved by structural complementation, the spontaneous assembly of engineered inactive subunits or fragments to reconstitute functional activity. These complementing systems can be readily adapted to achieve conditionally bispecific targeting of enzymes that are used to activate low-molecular weight prodrugs. By leveraging strengths from medicinal chemistry, polymer science, and recombinant technology, prodrugs are poised to remain a core component of highly focused and tailored strategies aimed at conditionally attacking complex molecular phenotypes in clinically relevant cancer.

  13. Rationally Designed Peptidomimetic Modulators of Aβ Toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekhar, K.; Suresh, S. N.; Manjithaya, Ravi; Govindaraju, T.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the devastating illnesses mankind is facing in the 21st century. The main pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease is believed to be the aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides into toxic aggregates. Molecules that interfere with this process may act as therapeutic agents for the treatment of the disease. Use of recognition unit based peptidomimetics as inhibitors are a promising approach, as they exhibit greater protease stability compared to natural peptides. Here, we present peptidomimetic inhibitors of Aβ aggregation designed based on the KLVFF (P1) sequence that is known to bind Aβ aggregates. We improved inhibition efficiency of P1 by introducing multiple hydrogen bond donor-acceptor moieties (thymine/barbiturate) at the N-terminal (P2 and P3), and blood serum stability by modifying the backbone by incorporating sarcosine (N-methylglycine) units at alternate positions (P4 and P5). The peptidomimetics showed moderate to good activity in both inhibition and dissolution of Aβ aggregates as depicted by thioflavin assay, circular dichroism (CD) measurements and microscopy (TEM). The activity of P4 and P5 were studied in a yeast cell model showing Aβ toxicity. P4 and P5 could rescue yeast cells from Aβ toxicity and Aβ aggregates were cleared by the process of autophagy.

  14. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained.

  15. Beta-galactoside prodrugs of doxorubicin for application in antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy/prodrug monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Devalapally, HariKrishna; Navath, Raghavendra Swamy; Yenamandra, Venkateshwarlu; Akkinepally, RaghuRam Rao; Devarakonda, Rama Krishna

    2007-06-01

    Anthracycline antibiotics, particularly doxorubicin and daunorubicin, have been used exten sively in the treatment of human malignancies. However cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance are significant problems that limit the clinical efficacy of such agents. Rational design to avoid these side effects includes strategies such as drug targeting and prodrug synthesis. Described here are the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of the enzymatically activated two new prodrugs (6 & 11) of doxorubicin. These prodrugs were designed as potential candidates for selective chemotherapy in ADEPT or PMT strategies. They are constituted of a galactose moiety, a spacer and the cytotoxic drug and they differ by the type of spacer. The prodrugs were stable in a buffer, and the in vitro studies showed good detoxification and hydrolysis kinetics. As prodrug 11 was readily hydrolyzed, this could be a valuable candidate for further development.

  16. Prodrug approach: An overview of recent cases.

    PubMed

    Abet, Valentina; Filace, Fabiana; Recio, Javier; Alvarez-Builla, Julio; Burgos, Carolina

    2017-02-15

    In this review we highlight the most modern trends in the prodrug strategy. In drug research and development, the prodrug concept has found a number of useful applications. Selected examples of this approach are provided in this paper and they are classified according to the aim of their design.

  17. A stereoselective approach to peptidomimetic BACE1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Gabellieri, Emanuele; Brindisi, Margherita; Giovani, Simone; Maramai, Samuele; Kshirsagar, Giridhar; Guarino, Egeria; Brogi, Simone; La Pietra, Valeria; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Cappelli, Andrea; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at identifying new scaffolds to generate beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors we developed peptidomimetics based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine core (3a-d), their seco-analogs (4a-b), and linear analogs (5a-h), by stereoselective approaches. We herein discuss the synthesis, molecular modeling and in vitro studies for the newly developed ligands. Compounds 5c and 5h behaved as BACE1 inhibitors on the isolated enzyme and in cellular studies. Particularly, for its low molecular weight, inhibitor 5h is a prototypic hit to develop a series of BACE1 inhibitors more potent and active on whole-cells.

  18. Peptidomimetics containing a vinyl ketone warhead as falcipain-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ettari, Roberta; Zappalà, Maria; Micale, Nicola; Grazioso, Giovanni; Giofrè, Salvatore; Schirmeister, Tanja; Grasso, Silvana

    2011-06-01

    The design, chemical synthesis, and enzymatic activity evaluation of a set of falcipain-2 inhibitors are reported. These compounds contain a proven peptidomimetic recognition motif based on a benzo[1,4]diazepin-2-one (1,4-BDZ) framework built on a dipeptide sequence, and a Michael acceptor terminal moiety capable of deactivating the cysteine protease active site. Our goal is to modify the P(3) site of this motif in order to identify the structural requirements for the interaction with the target.

  19. Peptidomimetics as protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Trabocchi, Andrea; Pala, Nicolino; Krimmelbein, Ilga; Menchi, Gloria; Guarna, Antonio; Sechi, Mario; Dreker, Tobias; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    The protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a calcium-dependent enzyme, which catalyses the irreversible conversion of peptidyl-arginines into peptidyl-citrullines and plays an important role in several diseases such as in the rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease and cancer. In this study, we report the inhibition profiles and computational docking toward the PAD4 enzyme of a series of 1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetic-based derivatives incorporating the β-phenylalanine and guanidine scaffolds. Several effective, low micromolar PAD4 inhibitors are reported in this study.

  20. A diversity-oriented synthesis strategy enabling the combinatorial-type variation of macrocyclic peptidomimetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Hadje Georgiou, Kathy; Galloway, Warren R J D; Giacomini, Elisa; Hansen, Mette R; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Tan, Yaw Sing; Carro, Laura; Sore, Hannah F; Spring, David R

    2015-04-21

    Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are associated with a broad range of biological activities. However, despite such potentially valuable properties, the macrocyclic peptidomimetic structural class is generally considered as being poorly explored within drug discovery. This has been attributed to the lack of general methods for producing collections of macrocyclic peptidomimetics with high levels of structural, and thus shape, diversity. In particular, there is a lack of scaffold diversity in current macrocyclic peptidomimetic libraries; indeed, the efficient construction of diverse molecular scaffolds presents a formidable general challenge to the synthetic chemist. Herein we describe a new, advanced strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that enables the combinatorial variation of molecular scaffolds (core macrocyclic ring architectures). The generality and robustness of this DOS strategy is demonstrated by the step-efficient synthesis of a structurally diverse library of over 200 macrocyclic peptidomimetic compounds, each based around a distinct molecular scaffold and isolated in milligram quantities, from readily available building-blocks. To the best of our knowledge this represents an unprecedented level of scaffold diversity in a synthetically derived library of macrocyclic peptidomimetics. Cheminformatic analysis indicated that the library compounds access regions of chemical space that are distinct from those addressed by top-selling brand-name drugs and macrocyclic natural products, illustrating the value of our DOS approach to sample regions of chemical space underexploited in current drug discovery efforts. An analysis of three-dimensional molecular shapes illustrated that the DOS library has a relatively high level of shape diversity.

  1. Insight into Prodrugs of Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabodh Chander; Piplani, Mona; Mittal, Monika; Pahwa, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are principal weapons against variety of bacterial infections and exert their antibacterial potential by interfering the activities of bacterial enzymes. As these agents are associated with some limitations, an important approach to overcome these major constraints is to prepare covalent derivatives, i.e. prodrugs. Prodrug design has been employed to improve the limitations of these drugs such as less aqueous solubility, poor absorption and distribution, toxicity, disagreeable taste, poor lipophilicity etc and for improving their pharmacological profile. This paper highlights the utility of various prodrug strategies in optimizing the therapeutic index of these antibacterial agents and their recent patents. Some of their prodrugs being utilized at preclinical and clinical levels have also been discussed. Hence, this paper has been prepared to present the significant findings of various research papers that would be helpful in motivating scientific researchers to forward the research in direction of utilization of prodrugs in clinical therapy.

  2. Prodrug behaviour of nicotinoylmorphine esters.

    PubMed

    Broekkamp, C L; Oosterloo, S K; Rijk, H W

    1988-06-01

    Morphine and its nicotinoyl esters, dinicotinoylmorphine (nicomorphine), 6-mononicotinoylmorphine (6-MNM) and 3-mononicotinoylmorphine (3-MNM) were tested in mice for central activity to obtain time-effect profiles of these compounds in rats. Two effects, analgesia with the hot plate test and locomotor stimulation in activity cages were measured and nicomorphine, 6-MNM and 3-MNM were found to have a faster onset of action compared with morphine. The effects of 3-MNM and morphine lasted longer than the effect of nicomorphine and 6-MNM. The prodrug behaviour of 3-MNM and nicomorphine for morphine and 6-MNM, respectively, is discussed.

  3. Identification of Glioblastoma Phosphotyrosine-Containing Proteins with Two-Dimensional Western Blotting and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tianyao; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Maoyu; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Ling; Peng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the presence of, and the potential biological roles of, protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the glioblastoma pathogenesis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis- (2DGE-) based Western blotting coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was used to detect and identify the phosphotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins in a glioblastoma tissue. MS/MS and Mascot analyses were used to determine the phosphotyrosine sites of each phosphopeptide. Protein domain and motif analysis and systems pathway analysis were used to determine the protein domains/motifs that contained phosphotyrosine residue and signal pathway networks to clarify the potential biological functions of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A total of 24 phosphotyrosine-containing proteins were identified. Each phosphotyrosine-containing protein contained at least one tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif and a certain structural and functional domains. Those phosphotyrosine-containing proteins were involved in the multiple signal pathway systems such as oxidative stress, stress response, and cell migration. Those data show 2DGE-based Western blotting, MS/MS, and bioinformatics are a set of effective approaches to detect and identify glioblastoma tyrosine-phosphorylated proteome and to effectively rationalize the biological roles of tyrosine phosphorylation in the glioblastoma biological systems. It provides novel insights regarding tyrosine phosphorylation and its potential role in the molecular mechanism of a glioblastoma. PMID:26090378

  4. Synthesis of sansalvamide A peptidomimetics: triazole, oxazole, thiazole, and pseudoproline containing compounds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melinda R.; Singh, Erinprit K.; Wahyudi, Hendra; Alexander, Leslie D.; Kunicki, Joseph B.; Nazarova, Lidia A.; Fairweather, Kelly A.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; McAlpine, Shelli R.

    2011-01-01

    Peptidomimetic-based macrocycles typically have improved pharmacokinetic properties over those observed with peptide analogs. Described are the syntheses of 13 peptidomimetic derivatives that are based on active Sansalvamide A structures, where these analogs incorporate heterocycles (triazoles, oxazoles, thiazoles, or pseudoprolines) along the macrocyclic backbone. The syntheses of these derivatives employ several approaches that can be applied to convert a macrocyclic peptide into its peptidomimetic counterpart. These approaches include peptide modifications to generate the alkyne and azide for click chemistry, a serine conversion into an oxazole, a Hantzsch reaction to generate the thiazole, and protected threonine to generate the pseudoproline derivatives. Furthermore, we show that two different peptidomimetic moieties, triazoles and thiazoles, can be incorporated into the macrocyclic backbone without reducing cytotoxicity: triazole and thiazole. PMID:22287031

  5. Prodrug Strategies in Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Barot, Megha; Bagui, Mahuya; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of topically instilled drug is the major concern in the field of ocular drug delivery. Efflux transporters, static and dynamic ocular barriers often possess rate limiting factors for ocular drug therapy. Different formulation strategies like suspension, ointment, gels, nanoparticles, implants, dendrimers and liposomes have been employed in order to improve drug permeation and retention by evading rate limiting factors at the site of absorption. Chemical modification such as prodrug targeting various nutrient transporters (amino acids, peptide and vitamin) has evolved a great deal ofintereSt to improve ocular drug delivery. In this review, we have discussed various prodrug strategies which have been widely applied for enhancing therapeutic efficacy of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the utilization of prodrug concept in ocular drug delivery. In addition, this review will highlight ongoing academic and industrial research and development in terms of ocular prodrug design and delivery. PMID:22530907

  6. Biocatalytic approaches applied to the synthesis of nucleoside prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Luis E; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Medici, Rosario; Bianchi, Paola; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are valuable bioactive molecules, which display antiviral and antitumour activities. Diverse types of prodrugs are designed to enhance their therapeutic efficacy, however this strategy faces the troublesome selectivity issues of nucleoside chemistry. In this context, the aim of this review is to give an overview of the opportunities provided by biocatalytic procedures in the preparation of nucleoside prodrugs. The potential of biocatalysis in this research area will be presented through examples covering the different types of nucleoside prodrugs: nucleoside analogues as prodrugs, nucleoside lipophilic prodrugs and nucleoside hydrophilic prodrugs.

  7. Evidence for a role for the phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Shc in interleukin 2 signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, K S; Igras, V; Shoelson, S E; Fesik, S W; Burakoff, S J

    1996-01-01

    Stimulation via the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL-2) leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, the interaction of Shc with Grb2, and the Ras GTP/GDP exchange factor, mSOS. Shc also coprecipitates with the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), and therefore, may link IL-2R to Ras activation. We have further characterized the Shc-IL-2R interaction and have made the following observations. (i) Among the two phosphotyrosine-interaction domains present in Shc, the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, rather than its SH2 domain, interacts with the tyrosine-phosphorylated IL-2R beta chain. Moreover, the Shc-PTB domain binds a phosphopeptide derived from the IL-2R beta chain (corresponding to residues surrounding Y338, SCFTNQGpYFF) with high affinity. (ii) In vivo, mutant IL-2R beta chains lacking the acidic region of IL-2Rbeta (which contains Y338) fail to phosphorylate Shc. Furthermore, when wild type or mutant Shc proteins that lack the PTB domain were expressed in the IL-2-dependent CTLL-20 cell line, an intact Shc-PTB domain was required for Shc phosphorylation by the IL-2R, which provides further support for a Shc-PTB-IL-2R interaction in vivo. (iii) PTB and SH2 domains of Shc associate with different proteins in IL-2- and T-cell-receptor-stimulated lysates, suggesting that Shc, through the concurrent use of its two different phosphotyrosine-binding domains, could assemble multiple protein complexes. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that the PTB domain of Shc interacts with Y338 of the IL-2R and provide evidence for a functional role for the Shc-PTB domain in IL-2 signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643566

  8. Thermodynamic and structural analysis of phosphotyrosine polypeptide binding to Grb2-SH2.

    PubMed

    McNemar, C; Snow, M E; Windsor, W T; Prongay, A; Mui, P; Zhang, R; Durkin, J; Le, H V; Weber, P C

    1997-08-19

    A thermodynamic analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been performed to examine the binding interaction between the SH2 (Src homology 2) domain of growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2-SH2) and one of its phosphotyrosine (pY) polypeptide ligands. Interaction of the Shc-derived phosphotyrosine hexapeptide Ac-SpYVNVQ-NH2 with Grb2-SH2 was both enthalpically and entropically favorable (DeltaH = -7.55 kcal mol-1, -TDeltaS = -1.46 kcal mol-1 , DeltaG = -9.01 kcal mol-1, T = 20 degrees C). ITC experiments using five alanine-substituted peptides were performed to examine the role of each side chain in binding. The results were consistent with homology models of the Grb2-SH2-Shc hexapeptide complex which identified several possible hydrogen bonds between Grb2-SH2 and the phosphotyrosine and conserved asparagine(+2) side chains of the Shc hexapeptide. These studies also demonstrated that the hydrophobic valine(+1) side chain contributes significantly to the favorable entropic component of binding. The thermodynamic and structural data are consistent with a Grb2-SH2 recognition motif of pY-hydrophobic-N-X (where X is any amino acid residue). The measured heat capacity of binding (DeltaCp = -146 cal mol-1 K-1) was very similar to computed values using semiempirical estimates (DeltaCp = -106 to -193 cal mol-1 K-1) derived from apolar and polar accessible surface area values calculated from several homology models of the Grb2-SH2-Shc hexapeptide complex. The homology model which most closely reproduced the measured DeltaCp value is also the model which had the lowest RMS deviation from the subsequently determined crystal structure. Calculations based on the thermodynamic data and these semiempirical estimates indicated that the binding event involves burial of nearly comparable apolar (677 A2) and polar (609 A2) surface areas.

  9. Amino Acid Carbamates As Prodrugs Of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Mattarei, Andrea; Azzolini, Michele; La Spina, Martina; Zoratti, Mario; Paradisi, Cristina; Biasutto, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a plant polyphenol, has important drug-like properties, but its pharmacological exploitation in vivo is hindered by its rapid transformation via phase II conjugative metabolism. One approach to bypass this problem relies on prodrugs. We report here the synthesis, characterization, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviour of prodrugs of resveratrol in which the OH groups are engaged in an N-monosubstituted carbamate ester (-OC(O)NHR) linkage with a natural amino acid (Leu, Ile, Phe, Thr) to prevent conjugation and modulate the physicochemical properties of the molecule. We also report a convenient, high-yield protocol to obtain derivatives of this type. The new carbamate ester derivatives are stable at pH 1, while they undergo slow hydrolysis at physiological pH and hydrolyse with kinetics suitable for use in prodrugs in whole blood. After administration to rats by oral gavage the isoleucine-containing prodrug was significantly absorbed, and was present in the bloodstream as non-metabolized unaltered or partially deprotected species, demonstrating effective shielding from first-pass metabolism. We conclude that prodrugs based on the N-monosubstituted carbamate ester bond have the appropriate stability profile for the systemic delivery of phenolic compounds. PMID:26463125

  10. Novel Peptidomimetics for Inhibition of HER2:HER3 Heterodimerization in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanthala, Shanthi; Banappagari, Sashikanth; Gokhale, Ameya; Liu, Yong-Yu; Xin, Gu; Zhao, Yunfeng; Jois, Seetharama

    2015-06-01

    The current approach to treating HER2-overexpressed breast cancer is the use of monoclonal antibodies or a combination of antibodies with traditional chemotherapeutic agents or kinase inhibitors. Our approach is to target clinically validated HER2 domain IV with peptidomimetics and inhibit the protein-protein interactions (PPI) of HERs. Unlike antibodies, peptidomimetics have advantages in terms of stability, modification, and molecular size. We have designed peptidomimetics (compounds 5 and 9) that bind to HER2 domain IV, inhibit protein-protein interactions, and decrease cell viability in breast cancer cells with HER2 overexpression. We have shown, using enzyme fragment complementation and proximity ligation assays, that peptidomimetics inhibit the PPI of HER2:HER3. Compounds 5 and 9 suppressed the tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, we have shown that these compounds inhibit PPI of HER2:HER3 and phosphorylation of HER2 as compared to control in tissue samples derived from in vivo studies. The stability of the compounds was also investigated in mouse serum, and the compounds exhibited stability with a half-life of up to 3 h. These results suggest that the novel peptidomimetics we have developed target the extracellular domain of HER2 protein and inhibit HER2:HER3 interaction, providing a novel method to treat HER2-positive cancer.

  11. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  12. Peptides and peptidomimetics in medicine, surgery and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Luca; Tolomelli, Alessandra; Squassabia, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Despite the fact that they have been used for a century to treat several kinds of diseases, peptides and short proteins are now considered the new generation of biologically active tools. Indeed, recent findings suggest a wide range of novel applications in medicine, biotechnology, and surgery. The efficacy of native peptides has been greatly enhanced by introducing structural modifications in the original sequences, giving rise to the class of peptidomimetics. This review gives an overview of both classical applications and promising new categories of biologically active peptides and analogs. Besides the new entries in well known peptide families, such as antibiotic macrocyclic peptides, integrin inhibitors, as well as immunoactive, anticancer, neuromodulator, opioid, and hormone peptides, a number of novel applications have been recently reported. Outstanding examples include peptide-derived semi-synthetic vaccines, drug delivery systems, radiolabeled peptides, self-assembling peptides, which can serve as biomaterials in tissue engineering for creating cartilage, blood vessels, and other tissues, or as substrates for neurite outgrowth and synapse formation, immobilized peptides, and proteins. Finally, peptide-based biomaterials can find applications in bio-nanotechnology for bio-microchips, peptide nanorods and nanotubes, bio-sensors, bio-electronic devices, and peptide-metal wires.

  13. Lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties.

    PubMed

    Kruse, J; Lachmann, B; Lauer, R; Eppacher, S; Noe, C R

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties. Two synthetic approaches are presented, on the one hand a non selective oligomerisation of lactic acid and on the other hand a block synthesis to tetramers of lactic acid. Dimers of lactic acid were investigated with respect to their plasma stability and their adsorption to albumine. Ibuprofen was chosen as the first drug for OLAylation. The ester 19 of LA(1)-ibuprofen was evaluated with respect to the degradation to human plasma and the adsorption to albumine. All results indicate that lactic acid oligomers are promising prodrug moieties.

  14. [In vitro metabolism of fenbendazole prodrug].

    PubMed

    Wen, Ai-Dan; Duan, Li-Ping; Liu, Cong-Shan; Tao, Yi; Xue, Jian; Wu, Ning-Bo; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Hao-Bing

    2013-02-01

    Synthesized fenbendazole prodrug N-methoxycarbonyl-N'-(2-nitro-4-phenylthiophenyl) thiourea (MPT) was analyzed in vitro in artificial gastric juice, intestinal juice and mouse liver homogenate model by using HPLC method, and metabolic curve was then generated. MPT was tested against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. The result showed that MPT could be metabolized in the three biological media, and to the active compound fenbendazole in liver homogenate, with a metabolic rate of 7.92%. Besides, the prodrug showed a weak activity against E. granulosus protoscolices with a mortality of 45.9%.

  15. Novel prodrugs with a spontaneous cleavable guanidine moiety.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble prodrug strategy is a practical alternative for improving the drug bioavailability of sparingly-soluble drugs with reduced drug efficacy. Many water-soluble prodrugs of sparingly-soluble drugs, such as the phosphate ester of a drug, have been reported. Recently, we described a novel water-soluble prodrug based on O-N intramolecular acyl migration. However, these prodrug approaches require a hydroxy group in the structure of their drugs, and other prodrug approaches are often restricted by the structure of the parent drugs. To develop prodrugs with no restriction in the structure, we focused on a decomposition reaction of arginine methyl ester. This reaction proceeds at room temperature under neutral conditions, and we applied this reaction to the prodrug strategy for drugs with an amino group. We designed and synthesized novel prodrugs of representative sparingly soluble drugs phenytoin and sulfathiazole. Phenytoin and sulfathiazole were obtained as stable salt that were converted to parent drugs under physiological conditions. Phenytoin prodrug 3 showed a short half-life (t1/2) of 13min, whereas sulfathiazole prodrug 7 had a moderate t1/2 of 40min. Prodrugs 3 and 7 appear to be suitable for use as an injectable formulation and orally administered drug, respectively.

  16. Modern prodrug design for targeted oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2014-10-14

    The molecular information that became available over the past two decades significantly influenced the field of drug design and delivery at large, and the prodrug approach in particular. While the traditional prodrug approach was aimed at altering various physiochemical parameters, e.g., lipophilicity and charge state, the modern approach to prodrug design considers molecular/cellular factors, e.g., membrane influx/efflux transporters and cellular protein expression and distribution. This novel targeted-prodrug approach is aimed to exploit carrier-mediated transport for enhanced intestinal permeability, as well as specific enzymes to promote activation of the prodrug and liberation of the free parent drug. The purpose of this article is to provide a concise overview of this modern prodrug approach, with useful successful examples for its utilization. In the past the prodrug approach used to be viewed as a last option strategy, after all other possible solutions were exhausted; nowadays this is no longer the case, and in fact, the prodrug approach should be considered already in the very earliest development stages. Indeed, the prodrug approach becomes more and more popular and successful. A mechanistic prodrug design that aims to allow intestinal permeability by specific transporters, as well as activation by specific enzymes, may greatly improve the prodrug efficiency, and allow for novel oral treatment options.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of diverse analogs of amygdalin as potential peptidomimetics of peptide T.

    PubMed

    Araya, Eyleen; Rodriguez, Alex; Rubio, Jaime; Spada, Alessandro; Joglar, Jesus; Llebaria, Amadeu; Lagunas, Carmen; Fernandez, Andres G; Spisani, Susanna; Perez, Juan J

    2005-03-01

    Peptide T (ASTTTNYT) is a promising molecule to prevent the neuropsychometric symptoms of patients suffering AIDS and for the treatment of psoriasis. In order to fully prove its therapeutic benefits, efforts were put forward to design peptidomimetics of the peptide. In this direction, in a recent computational study the natural product amygdalin was identified as a prospective peptidomimetic of the peptide and later proved to exhibit a similar chemotactic profile to the peptide. However, the cyanide moiety of amygdalin provides to the molecule a toxic profile. The present study reports the synthesis of a set of amygdalin analogs lacking the cyanide group with improved chemotactic profiles.

  18. Prodrug approach to improve absorption of prednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ye; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs have been developed to examine their potential in enhancing aqueous solubility and permeability as well as to bypass P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated cellular efflux of prednisolone. Prodrugs have been synthesized and identified with LC/MS/MS and NMR. Prodrugs displayed significantly higher aqueous solubility relative to prednisolone. These compounds also exhibited higher stability under acidic conditions relative to basic medium. [14]-Erythromycin uptake remained unaltered in the presence of valine-valine-prednisolone (VVP) indicating lower affinity towards P-gp. Moreover, VVP generated significantly higher transepithelial permeability across MDCK-MDR1 cells compared to prednisolone. Importantly, [3H]-GlySar uptake diminished significantly in the presence of VVP indicating high affinity towards peptide transporters. Moreover, prednisolone was regenerated from VVP due to enzymatic hydrolysis in SIRC cell homogenate. Results obtained from these studies clearly suggest that peptide transporter targeted prodrugs is a viable strategy to improve aqueous solubility and overcome P-gp mediated cellular efflux of prednisolone. PMID:25888804

  19. Rapid Multistep Synthesis of a Bioactive Peptidomimetic Oligomer for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utku, Yeliz; Rohatgi, Abhinav; Yoo, Barney; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Pohl, Nicola L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptidomimetic compounds are increasingly important in drug-discovery applications. We introduce the synthesis of an N-substituted glycine oligomer, a bioactive "peptoid" trimer. The six-step protocol is conducted on solid-phase resin, enabling the synthesis to be performed by undergraduate organic chemistry students. This synthesis lab was…

  20. Prodrugs - an efficient way to breach delivery and targeting barriers.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Kristiina M; Rautio, Jarkko

    2011-01-01

    The study of prodrugs that are chemically modified bioreversible derivatives of active drug compounds to alter their undesired properties has been expanded widely during the last decades. Despite the commercial success the prodrugs have afforded, the concept is still quite unknown among many scientist. Furthermore, many scientists regard prodrugs as a pure interest of academic research groups and not as a feasible solution to improve the delivery or targeting properties of new chemical entities, drug candidates failed in clinical trials, or drugs withdrawn from the market. Although there are still unmet needs that require addressing, prodrugs should be seen as fine-tuning tools for the successful drug research and development. This review represents the potential of prodrugs to improve the drug delivery by enhanced aqueous solubility or permeability as well as describes several targeted prodrug strategies.

  1. Photoactivatable Caged Prodrugs of VEGFR-2 Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Boris; Horbert, Rebecca; Döbber, Alexander; Kuhl, Lydia; Peifer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    In this study, we report on the design, synthesis, photokinetic properties and in vitro evaluation of photoactivatable caged prodrugs for the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR-2. Highly potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors 1 and 3 were caged by introduction of a photoremovable protecting group (PPG) to yield the caged prodrugs 4 and 5. As expected, enzymatic and cellular proliferation assays showed dramatically diminished efficacy of caged prodrugs in vitro. Upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the prodrugs original inhibitory activity was completely restored and even distinctly reinforced, as was the case for the prodrug 4. The presented results are a further evidence for caging technique being an interesting approach in the protein kinase field. It could enable spatial and temporal control for the inhibition of VEGFR-2. The described photoactivatable prodrugs might be highly useful as biological probes for studying the VEGFR-2 signal transduction.

  2. Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2013-12-01

    This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of novel dipeptide ester prodrugs of acyclovir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Yasser E.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2003-07-01

    Four dipeptide (Gly-Gly, Gly-Val, Val-Val, Val-Gly) ester prodrugs of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir, ACV) were synthesized. LC/MS was used to characterize the new prodrugs. Both 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the four prodrugs of ACV were measured and assigned based on spectral comparison with compounds of similar structures.

  4. Lipid prodrug nanocarriers in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mura, Simona; Bui, Duc Trung; Couvreur, Patrick; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-06-28

    Application of nanotechnology in the medical field (i.e., nanomedicine) plays an important role in the development of novel drug delivery methods. Nanoscale drug delivery systems can indeed be customized with specific functionalities in order to improve the efficacy of the treatments. However, despite the progresses of the last decades, nanomedicines still face important obstacles related to: (i) the physico-chemical properties of the drug moieties which may reduce the total amount of loaded drug; (ii) the rapid and uncontrolled release (i.e., burst release) of the encapsulated drug after administration and (iii) the instability of the drug in biological media where a fast transformation into inactive metabolites can occur. As an alternative strategy to alleviate these drawbacks, the prodrug approach has found wide application. The covalent modification of a drug molecule into an inactive precursor from which the drug will be freed after administration offers several benefits such as: (i) a sustained drug release (mediated by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of the linkage between the drug-moiety and its promoiety); (ii) an increase of the drug chemical stability and solubility and, (iii) a reduced toxicity before the metabolization occurs. Lipids have been widely used as building blocks for the design of various prodrugs. Interestingly enough, these lipid-derivatized drugs can be delivered through a nanoparticulate form due to their ability to self-assemble and/or to be incorporated into lipid/polymer matrices. Among the several prodrugs developed so far, this review will focus on the main achievements in the field of lipid-based prodrug nanocarriers designed to improve the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Gemcitabine (Pubchem CID: 60750); 5-fluorouracil (Pubchem CID: 3385); Doxorubicin (Pubchem CID: 31703); Docetaxel (Pubchem CID: 148124); Methotrexate (Pubchem CID: 126941); Paclitaxel (Pubchem CID: 36314).

  5. Lectin-directed enzyme activated prodrug therapy (LEAPT): Synthesis and evaluation of rhamnose-capped prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Philippe; Wang, Xiang-Tao; Robinson, Mark A; van Kasteren, Sander; Perkins, Alan C; Frier, Malcolm; Fairbanks, Antony J; Davis, Benjamin G

    2010-12-01

    The lectin-directed enzyme activated prodrug therapy (LEAPT) bipartite drug delivery system utilizes glycosylated enzyme, localized according to its sugar pattern, and capped prodrugs released by that enzyme. In this way, the sugar coat of a synthetic enzyme determines the site of release of a given drug. Here, prodrugs of doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil capped by the nonmammalian l-rhamnosyl sugar unit have been efficiently synthesized and evaluated for use in the LEAPT system. Both are stable in blood, released by synthetically d-galactosylated rhamnosidase enzyme, and do not inhibit the uptake of the synthetic enzyme to its liver target. These results are consistent with their proposed mode of action and efficacy in models of liver cancer, and confirm modular flexibility in the drugs that may be used in LEAPT.

  6. Gene Expression Profiles of Human Phosphotyrosine Phosphatases Consequent to Th1 Polarisation and Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sánchez, Patricia; Ramirez-Munoz, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a complex family of enzymes that control the balance of intracellular phosphorylation levels to allow cell responses while avoiding the development of diseases. Despite the relevance of CD4 T cell polarisation and effector function in human autoimmune diseases, the expression profile of PTPs during T helper polarisation and restimulation at inflammatory sites has not been assessed. Here, a systematic analysis of the expression profile of PTPs has been carried out during Th1-polarising conditions and upon PKC activation and intracellular raise of Ca2+ in effector cells. Changes in gene expression levels suggest a previously nonnoted regulatory role of several PTPs in Th1 polarisation and effector function. A substantial change in the spatial compartmentalisation of ERK during T cell responses is proposed based on changes in the dose of cytoplasmic and nuclear MAPK phosphatases. Our study also suggests a regulatory role of autoimmune-related PTPs in controlling T helper polarisation in humans. We expect that those PTPs that regulate T helper polarisation will constitute potential targets for intervening CD4 T cell immune responses in order to generate new therapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:28393080

  7. Purification of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor by using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, T.O.; Tremble, P.M.; Frackelton, A.R. Jr.; Williams, L.T.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor is a 180-kDa membrane glycoprotein. A protein of identical size, lectin affinity, and isoelectric point has been identified as a major substrate for PDGF-activated tyrosine kinase in stimulated 3T3 cells. The authors have purified this tyrosine-phosphorylated protein to homogeneity by using anti-phosphotyrosine immunoaffinity and lectin affinity steps. Demonstration that this purified tyrosine phosphoprotein is the PDGF receptor necessitated development of an assay capable of identifying specific SVI-labeled PDGF binding activity in soluble receptor preparations. Precipitated binding sites display affinity and kinetic characteristics of PDGF receptors in cells and membranes. Preparations of the 180-kDa phosphoprotein that are > 90% homogeneous by silver stain and by (TVS)methionine protein autoradiography have specific high affinity SVI-labeled PDGF binding sites. These data demonstrate that the 180-kDa substrate of the PDGF-stimulated tyrosine kinase is the PDGF receptor. Furthermore, these methods provide a means of purifying this and other tyrosine kinase substrates from growth factor-stimulated cells.

  8. Global Phosphotyrosine Proteomics Identifies PKCδ as a Marker of Responsiveness to Src Inhibition in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, W. Hayes; Luo, Weifeng; Zhao, Ping; Coffey, Robert J.; Hanks, Steven K.; Manning, H. Charles

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive and specific biomarkers of protein kinase inhibition can be leveraged to accelerate drug development studies in oncology by associating early molecular responses with target inhibition. In this study, we utilized unbiased shotgun phosphotyrosine (pY) proteomics to discover novel biomarkers of response to dasatinib, a small molecule Src-selective inhibitor, in preclinical models of colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed unbiased mass spectrometry shotgun pY proteomics to reveal the pY proteome of cultured HCT-116 colonic carcinoma cells, and then extended this analysis to HCT-116 xenograft tumors to identify pY biomarkers of dasatinib-responsiveness in vivo. Major dasatinib-responsive pY sites in xenograft tumors included sites on delta-type protein kinase C (PKCδ), CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), Type-II SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2), and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPα). The pY313 site PKCδ was further supported as a relevant biomarker of dasatinib-mediated Src inhibition in HCT-116 xenografts by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antibody. Reduction of PKCδ pY313 was further correlated with dasatinib-mediated inhibition of Src and diminished growth as spheroids of a panel of human CRC cell lines. These studies reveal PKCδ pY313 as a promising readout of Src inhibition in CRC and potentially other solid tumors and may reflect responsiveness to dasatinib in a subset of colorectal cancers. PMID:24260357

  9. Targeted prodrug approaches for hormone refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Aloysius, Herve; Hu, Longqin

    2015-05-01

    Due to the propensity of relapse and resistance with prolonged androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), there is a growing interest in developing non-hormonal therapeutic approaches as alternative treatment modalities for hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Although the standard treatment for HRPC consists of a combination of ADT with taxanes and anthracyclines, the clinical use of chemotherapeutics is limited by systemic toxicity stemming from nondiscriminatory drug exposure to normal tissues. In order to improve the tumor selectivity of chemotherapeutics, various targeted prodrug approaches have been explored. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategies leverage tumor-specific antigens and transcription factors for the specific delivery of cytotoxic anticancer agents using various prodrug-activating enzymes. In prostate cancer, overexpression of tumor-specific proteases such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is being exploited for selective activation of anticancer prodrugs designed to be activated through proteolysis by these prostate cancer-specific enzymes. PSMA- and PSA-activated prodrugs typically comprise an engineered high-specificity protease peptide substrate coupled to a potent cytotoxic agent via a linker for rapid release of cytotoxic species in the vicinity of prostate cancer cells following proteolytic cleavage. Over the past two decades, various such prodrugs have been developed and they were effective at inhibiting prostate tumor growth in rodent models; several of these prodrug approaches have been advanced to clinical trials and may be developed into effective therapies for HRPC.

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Prodrugs of Ertapenem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenems are intravenous lifesaving hospital antibiotics. Once patients leave the hospital, they are sent home with antibiotics other than carbapenems since they cannot be administered orally due to lack of oral absorption primarily because of very highly polarity. A prodrug approach is a bona fide strategy to improve oral absorption of compounds. Design and synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of diversified prodrugs of ertapenem, one of the only once daily dosed carbapenems is described. Many of the prodrugs prepared for evaluation are rapidly hydrolyzed in rat plasma. Only bis-(5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxol-4-yl)methyl (medoxomil) ester prodrug was rapidly hydrolyzed in most of the plasmas including rat, human, dog, and monkey. Although the rate of conversion of ertapenem diethyl ester prodrug (6) was slow in in vitro plasma hydrolysis, it showed the best in vivo pharmacokinetic profile in dog by an intraduodenal dosing giving >31% total oral absorption. PMID:24900737

  11. Prodrug-based nanoparticulate drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Sun, Jin; Sun, Bingjun; He, Zhonggui

    2014-11-01

    Despite the rapid developments in nanotechnology and biomaterials, the efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is still challenging. Prodrug-based nanoassemblies have many advantages as a potent platform for anticancer drug delivery, such as improved drug availability, high drug loading efficiency, resistance to recrystallization upon encapsulation, and spatially and temporally controllable drug release. In this review, we discuss prodrug-based nanocarriers for cancer therapy, including nanosystems based on polymer-drug conjugates, self-assembling small molecular weight prodrugs and prodrug-encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs). In addition, we discuss new trends in the field of prodrug-based nanoassemblies that enhance the delivery efficiency of anticancer drugs, with special emphasis on smart stimuli-triggered drug release, hybrid nanoassemblies, and combination drug therapy.

  12. The Determination of Protonation Constants of Peptidomimetic Cyclophanes in Binary Methanol-Water Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Danuta; Andrijewski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The protonation constants of new group of peptidomimetic cyclophanes with valine or phenylalanine moieties incorporated into the macrocyclic skeleton as well as their linear analogues were determined by potentiometric measurements in solutions of methanol-water mixtures at 25°C and constant ionic strength. The influence of cavity size, location of protonation sites, and attached substituents of the macrocyclic ligands on the protonation constants were discussed on the basis of potentiometric measurement as well as H1-NMR results. PMID:27516918

  13. Boron-containing peptidomimetics--a novel class of selective anti-tubercular drugs.

    PubMed

    Gorovoy, Alexey S; Gozhina, Olga V; Svendsen, John S; Domorad, Anna A; Tetz, George V; Tetz, Victor V; Lejon, Tore

    2013-03-01

    Medical treatment for tuberculosis is complicated nowadays by the appearance of new multiresistant strains, and therefore, new antibiotics are in great need. Here, we report the synthesis and in vitro testing of a new class of highly selective antimicrobial boron-containing peptidomimetics with compounds exhibiting activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis at ≤5 μg/mL. The new approach developed makes it possible to synthesize variously substituted β-aminoboronic acids and their derivatives with a high level of diastereoselectivity.

  14. Michael Acceptor-Based Peptidomimetic Inhibitor of Main Protease from Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenghua; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Kailin; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xiaomei; Gao, Fan; Liu, He; Chen, Xia; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Xiang; Cai, Yan; Yang, Haitao

    2017-03-13

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes high mortality in pigs. PEDV main protease (Mpro) plays an essential role in viral replication. We solved the structure of PEDV Mpro complexed with peptidomimetic inhibitor N3 carrying a Michael acceptor warhead, revealing atomic level interactions. We further designed a series of 17 inhibitors with altered side groups. Inhibitors M2 and M17 demonstrated enhanced specificity against PEDV Mpro. These compounds have potential as future therapeutics to combat PEDV infection.

  15. Cyclic carbo-isosteric depsipeptides and peptides as a novel class of peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Guéret, Stéphanie M; Meier, Peter; Roth, Hans-Jörg

    2014-03-07

    A novel and highly efficient cyclization method has been developed to access a new class of cyclic carbo-isosteric depsipeptides and carbo-isosteric peptides. Our strategy requires easily accessible C-terminal methyl ketone ester or amide functionalized linear precursors as starting materials. The well-known reductive amination has then been used to afford cyclic tetra- to octa-pseudopeptides via a selective intramolecular formation of a glycine peptidomimetic unit under moderate dilution.

  16. Development of macromolecular prodrug for rheumatoid arthritis☆

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Quan, Ling-dong; Cui, Liao; Goldring, Steven R.; Wang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is considered to be one of the major public health problems worldwide. The development of therapies that target tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and co-stimulatory pathways that regulate the immune system have revolutionized the care of patients with RA. Despite these advances, many patients continue to experience symptomatic and functional impairment. To address this issue, more recent therapies that have been developed are designed to target intracellular signaling pathways involved in immunoregulation. Though this approach has been encouraging, there have been major challenges with respect to off-target organ side effects and systemic toxicities related to the widespread distribution of these signaling pathways in multiple cell types and tissues. These limitations have led to an increasing interest in the development of strategies for the macromolecularization of anti-rheumatic drugs, which could target them to the inflamed joints. This approach enhances the efficacy of the therapeutic agent with respect to synovial inflammation, while markedly reducing non-target organ adverse side effects. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rational design and optimization of macromolecular prodrugs for treatment of RA. The superior and the sustained efficacy of the prodrug may be partially attributed to their Extravasation through Leaky Vasculature and subsequent Inflammatory cell-mediated Sequestration (ELVIS) in the arthritic joints. This biologic process provides a plausible mechanism, by which macromolecular prodrugs preferentially target arthritic joints and illustrates the potential benefits of applying this therapeutic strategy to the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. PMID:22433784

  17. Recent approaches in design of peptidomimetics for antimicrobial drug discovery research.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Sandeep; Bisht, Gopal Singh

    2013-06-01

    Resistant pathogenic microbial strains are emerging at a rate that far exceeds the pace of new anti-infective drug development. In order to combat resistance development, there is pressing need to develop novel class of antibiotics having different mechanism of action in comparison to existing antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as ubiquitous components of innate immune system and widely regarded as a potential source of future antibiotics owing to a remarkable set of advantageous properties ranging from broad spectrum of activity to low propensity of resistance development. However, AMPs present several drawbacks that strongly limit their clinical applicability as ideal drug candidates such as; poor bioavailability, potential immunogenicity and high production cost. Thus, to overcome the limitations of native peptides, peptidomimetic becomes an important and promising approach. The different research groups worldwide engaged in antimicrobial drug discovery over the past decade have paid tremendous effort to design peptidomimetics. This review will focus on recent approaches in design of antimicrobial peptidomimetics their structure-activity relationship studies, mode of action, selectivity & toxicity.

  18. Recent Approaches in design of Peptidomimetics for Antimicrobial Drug Discovery Resear.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Sandeep; Bisht, Gopal Singh

    2013-04-25

    Resistant pathogenic microbial strains are emerging at a rate that far exceeds the pace of new anti-infective drug development. In order to combat resistance development, there is pressing need to develop novel class of antibiotics having different mechanism of action in comparison to existing antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as ubiquitous components of innate immune system and widely regarded as a potential source of future antibiotics owing to a remarkable set of advantageous properties ranging from broad spectrum of activity to low propensity of resistance development. However, AMPs present several drawbacks that strongly limit their clinical applicability as ideal drug candidates such as; poor bioavailability, potential immunogenicity and high production cost. Thus, to overcome the limitations of native peptides, peptidomimetic becomes an important and promising approach. The different research groups worldwide engaged in antimicrobial drug discovery over the past decade have paid tremendous effort to design peptidomimetics. This review will focus on recent approaches in design of antimicrobial peptidomimetics their structure-activity relationship studies, mode of action, selectivity & toxicity.

  19. Bioinformatic Identification of Peptidomimetic-Based Inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum Antigen AMA1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a valuable vaccine candidate and exported on the merozoite surface at the time of erythrocyte invasion. PfAMA1 interacts with rhoptry neck protein PfRON2, a component of the rhoptry protein complex, which forms the tight junction at the time of invasion. Phage display studies have identified a 15-residue (F1) and a 20-residue (R1) peptide that bind to PfAMA1 and block the invasion of erythrocytes. Cocrystal structures of central region of PfAMA1 containing disulfide-linked clusters (domains I and II) with R1 peptide and a peptide derived from PfRON2 showed strong structural similarity in binding. The peptides bound to a hydrophobic groove surrounded by domain I and II loops. In this study, peptidomimetics based on the crucial PfAMA1-binding residues of PfRON2 peptide have been identified. Top 5 peptidomimetics when checked for their docking on the region of PfAMA1 encompassing the hydrophobic groove were found to dock on the groove. Drug-like molecules having structural similarity to the top 5 peptidomimetics were identified based on their binding ability to PfAMA1 hydrophobic groove in blind docking. These inhibitors provide potential lead compounds, which could be used in the development of antimalarials targeting PfAMA1. PMID:25580351

  20. Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine-binding proteins in germinating seeds from Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Valentina; Cramer, Rainer; Krynytskyy, Hryhoriy; Gout, Ivan; Gout, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in angiosperms has been implicated in various physiological processes, including seed development and germination. In conifers, the role of tyrosine phosphorylation and the mechanisms of its regulation are yet to be investigated. In this study, we examined the profile of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in Scots pine seeds at different stages of germination. We detected extensive protein tyrosine phosphorylation in extracts from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dormant seeds. In addition, the pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation was found to change significantly during seed germination, especially at earlier stages of post-imbibition which coincides with the initiation of cell division, and during the period of intensive elongation of hypocotyls. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of phosphotyrosine signaling, we employed affinity purification and mass spectrometry for the identification of pTyr-binding proteins from the extracts of Scots pine seedlings. Using this approach, we purified two proteins of 10 and 43 kDa, which interacted specifically with pTyr-Sepharose and were identified by mass spectrometry as P. sylvestris defensin 1 (PsDef1) and aldose 1-epimerase (EC:5.1.3.3), respectively. Additionally, we demonstrated that both endogenous and recombinant PsDef1 specifically interact with pTyr-Sepharose, but not Tyr-beads. As the affinity purification approach did not reveal the presence of proteins with known pTyr binding domains (SH2, PTB and C2), we suggest that plants may have evolved a different mode of pTyr recognition, which yet remains to be uncovered.

  1. 10-Boronic acid substituted camptothecin as prodrug of SN-38.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xie, Shao; Ma, Longjun; Chen, Yi; Lu, Wei

    2016-06-30

    Malignant tumor cells have been found to have high levels of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), supporting the hypothesis that a prodrug could be activated by intracellular H2O2 and lead to a potential antitumor therapy. In this study, the 7-ethyl-10-boronic acid camptothecin (B1) was synthesized for the first time as prodrug of SN-38, by linking a cleavable aryl carbon-boron bond to the SN-38. Prodrug B1 selectively activated by H2O2, converted rapidly to the active form SN-38 under favorable oxidative conditions in cancer cells with elevated levels of H2O2. The cell survival assay showed that prodrug B1 was equally or more effective in inhibiting the growth of six different cancer cells, as compared to SN-38. Unexpectedly, prodrug B1 displayed even more potent Topo I inhibitory activity than SN-38, suggesting that it was not only a prodrug of SN-38 but also a typical Topo I inhibitor. Prodrug B1 also demonstrated a significant antitumor activity at 2.0 mg/kg in a xenograft model using human brain star glioblastoma cell lines U87MG.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a protein-tyrosine kinase and a phosphotyrosine-protein phosphatase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Preneta, R; Jarraud, S; Vincent, C; Doublet, P; Duclos, B; Etienne, J; Cozzone, A J

    2002-01-01

    Two proteins of Klebsiella pneumoniae, termed Yor5 and Yco6, were analyzed for their capacity to participate in the reversible phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine. First, protein Yco6 was overproduced from its specific gene and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. Upon incubation in the presence of radioactive adenosine triphosphate, it was found to effectively autophosphorylate. Two-dimensional analysis of its phosphoamino acid content revealed that it was modified exclusively at tyrosine. Second, protein Yor5 was also overproduced from the corresponding gene and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. It was shown to contain a phosphatase activity capable of cleaving the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate into p-nitrophenol and free phosphate. In addition, it was assayed on individual phosphorylated amino acids and appeared to dephosphorylate specifically phosphotyrosine, with no effect on phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. Such specificity for phosphotyrosine was confirmed by the observation that Yor5 was able to dephosphorylate protein Yco6 previously autophosphorylated. Together, these data demonstrate that similarly to other bacterial species including Acinetobacter johnsonii and Escherichia coli, the cells of K. pneumoniae contain both a protein-tyrosine kinase and a phosphotyrosine-protein phosphatase. They also provide evidence that this phosphatase can utilize the kinase as an endogenous substrate, which suggests the occurrence of a regulatory mechanism connected with reversible protein phosphorylation on tyrosine. Since Yco6 and Yor5 are both involved in the synthesis of capsular polysaccharide and since capsules are essential to the virulence of K. pneumoniae, we suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation on tyrosine may be part of the cascade of reactions that determine the pathogenicity of bacteria.

  3. Cells of Escherichia coli contain a protein-tyrosine kinase, Wzc, and a phosphotyrosine-protein phosphatase, Wzb.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Doublet, P; Grangeasse, C; Vaganay, E; Cozzone, A J; Duclos, B

    1999-06-01

    Two proteins of Escherichia coli, termed Wzc and Wzb, were analyzed for their capacity to participate in the reversible phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine. First, Wzc was overproduced from its specific gene and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. Upon incubation in the presence of radioactive ATP, it was found to effectively autophosphorylate. Two-dimensional analysis of its phosphoamino acid content revealed that it was modified exclusively at tyrosine. Second, Wzb was also overproduced from the corresponding gene and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. It was shown to contain a phosphatase activity capable of cleaving the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate into p-nitrophenol and free phosphate. In addition, it was assayed on individual phosphorylated amino acids and appeared to dephosphorylate specifically phosphotyrosine, with no effect on phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. Such specificity for phosphotyrosine was confirmed by the observation that Wzb was able to dephosphorylate previously autophosphorylated Wzc. Together, these data demonstrate, for the first time, that E. coli cells contain both a protein-tyrosine kinase and a phosphotyrosine-protein phosphatase. They also provide evidence that this phosphatase can utilize the kinase as an endogenous substrate, which suggests the occurrence of a regulatory mechanism connected with reversible protein phosphorylation on tyrosine. From comparative analysis of amino acid sequences, Wzc was found to be similar to a number of proteins present in other bacterial species which are all involved in the synthesis or export of exopolysaccharides. Since these polymers are considered important virulence factors, we suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation on tyrosine may be part of the cascade of reactions that determine the pathogenicity of bacteria.

  4. Discovery of olmesartan hexetil: a new potential prodrug of olmesartan.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Anbar, Hanan S; Chung, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; Cho, Young-Jin; Lee, Bong Sang; Lee, Sun Ahe; Moon, Ji Yun; Lee, Dong Jin; Kwon, Dow; Choi, Won-Jai; Jeon, Hong-Ryeol; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Synthesis of a new ester prodrug of olmesartan, olmesartan hexetil (1), is described. It is in vitro stabilities and in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated. It showed high stability in simulated gastric juice, and was rapidly hydrolyzed to olmesartan in rat liver microsomes and rat plasma in vitro. C(max) and AUC(last) for olmesartan were significantly increased in case of hexetil prodrug, compared with olmesartan medoxomil. Olmesartan hexetil is proposed to be an efficient prodrug of olmesartan with markedly increased oral bioavailability.

  5. First enzymatically activated Taxotere prodrugs designed for ADEPT and PMT.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Emmanuel; Thirot, Sylvie; Schmidt, Frédéric; Monneret, Claude

    2004-03-01

    Described here are the syntheses and preliminary biological evaluations of the first two enzymatically activated prodrugs of docetaxel (Taxotere) reported to date. These prodrugs were designed as potential candidates for selective chemotherapy in ADEPT or PMT. They are constituted of a glucuronic acid moiety, a double spacer and the cytotoxic drug, differing only by the spacer substitution. The prodrugs were stable in a buffer, and the in vitro studies showed good detoxification and hydrolysis kinetics. As docetaxel was efficiently released in both cases, these compounds are very valuable candidates for further biological evaluations.

  6. Synthesis and biological studies of different duocarmycin based glycosidic prodrugs for their use in the antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Schuster, Heiko J; Krewer, Birgit; Schuberth, Ingrid

    2009-01-22

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of novel prodrugs for use in the antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) of cancer based on the cytotoxic antibiotic duocarmycin SA (1) are described. In this approach, we investigated the influence of the sugar moiety of the glycosidic prodrug on the QIC(50) values as well as on the stability and the water solubility. The best result was found for prodrug 22 containing an alpha-mannoside moiety with a QIC(50) value of 4500.

  7. Bioreductive prodrugs as cancer therapeutics: targeting tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Guise, Christopher P; Mowday, Alexandra M; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Yuan, Ran; Lin, Wan-Hua; Wu, Dong-Hai; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ding, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Hypoxia, a state of low oxygen, is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with disease progression as well as resistance to radiotherapy and certain chemotherapeutic drugs. Hypoxic regions in tumors, therefore, represent attractive targets for cancer therapy. To date, five distinct classes of bioreactive prodrugs have been developed to target hypoxic cells in solid tumors. These hypoxia-activated prodrugs, including nitro compounds, N-oxides, quinones, and metal complexes, generally share a common mechanism of activation whereby they are reduced by intracellular oxidoreductases in an oxygen-sensitive manner to form cytotoxins. Several examples including PR-104, TH-302, and EO9 are currently undergoing phase II and phase III clinical evaluation. In this review, we discuss the nature of tumor hypoxia as a therapeutic target, focusing on the development of bioreductive prodrugs. We also describe the current knowledge of how each prodrug class is activated and detail the clinical progress of leading examples.

  8. Development of a novel sulfonate ester-based prodrug strategy.

    PubMed

    Hanaya, Kengo; Yoshioka, Shohei; Ariyasu, Shinya; Aoki, Shin; Shoji, Mitsuru; Sugai, Takeshi

    2016-01-15

    A self-immolative γ-aminopropylsulfonate linker was investigated for use in the development of prodrugs that are reactive to various chemical or biological stimuli. To demonstrate their utility, a leucine-conjugated prodrug of 5-chloroquinolin-8-ol (5-Cl-8-HQ), which is a potent inhibitor against aminopeptidase from Aeromonas proteolytica (AAP), was synthesized. The sulfonate prodrug was considerably stable under physiological conditions, with only enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of leucine triggering the subsequent intramolecular cyclization to simultaneously release 5-Cl-8-HQ and form γ-sultam. It was also confirmed that this γ-aminopropylsulfonate linker was applicable for prodrugs of not only 8-HQ derivatives but also other drugs bearing a phenolic hydroxy group.

  9. Synthesis of acylhydrazino-peptomers, a new class of peptidomimetics, by consecutive Ugi and hydrazino-Ugi reactions

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Veronica Alves

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a versatile approach for the synthesis of acylhydrazino-peptomers, a new class of peptidomimetics. The key idea in this approach is based on a simple route using a one-pot hydrazino-Ugi four-component reaction followed by a hydrazinolysis or hydrolysis reaction and subsequent hydrazino-Ugi reaction or classical Ugi reaction for the construction of acyclic acylhydrazino-peptomers. The consecutive multicomponent reactions produced a variety of acylhydrazino-peptomers in moderate to excellent yields (47–90%). These compounds are multifunctional intermediates that can be further functionalized to obtain new peptidomimetics with potential biological activity. PMID:28144359

  10. The Prodrug Approach: A Successful Tool for Improving Drug Solubility.

    PubMed

    Jornada, Daniela Hartmann; dos Santos Fernandes, Guilherme Felipe; Chiba, Diego Eidy; de Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chung, Man Chin

    2015-12-29

    Prodrug design is a widely known molecular modification strategy that aims to optimize the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of drugs to improve their solubility and pharmacokinetic features and decrease their toxicity. A lack of solubility is one of the main obstacles to drug development. This review aims to describe recent advances in the improvement of solubility via the prodrug approach. The main chemical carriers and examples of successful strategies will be discussed, highlighting the advances of this field in the last ten years.

  11. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid "burst" release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)-doxorubicin (PEG-DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG-DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG-DOX prodrug were confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis. The PEG-DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG-DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy.

  12. Polyethylene terephthalate membrane grafted with peptidomimetics: endothelial cell compatibility and retention under shear stress.

    PubMed

    Rémy, Murielle; Bareille, Reine; Rerat, Vincent; Bourget, Chantal; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to treat a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface to make the biomaterial more 'attractive' in terms of attachment and shear stress response to endothelial cells with a view to possible applications in vascular grafting. A surface wet-chemistry protocol was applied to graft track-etched PET membranes with RGD peptidomimetics based on the tyrosine template and active at the nano-level vs. isolated human αvβ3 receptor, which was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy for characterization. A primary culture of human saphenous vein endothelial cells was used before and after sterilization of the membranes (heat treatment or γ-ray irradiation) to test the benefit of grafting. The optimal surface concentrations of grafted molecules were around 50 pmol/cm². Compared to GRGDS, the peptidomimetics promoted cell attachment with similar or slightly better performances. Endothelialized grafted supports were further exposed to 2 h of shear stress mimicking arterial conditions. Cells were lost on non-grafted PET whereas cells on grafted polymers sterilized by γ-ray irradiation withstood forces with no significant difference in focal contacts. At the mRNA level, cells on functionalized PET were able to respond to shear stress with NFkB upregulation. Thus, grafting of peptidomimetics as ligands of the αvβ3 integrin could be a relevant strategy to improve the adhesion of human endothelial cells and to obtain an efficient endothelialized PET for the surgery of small-diameter vascular prostheses.

  13. Spiro sugar-isoxazolidine scaffold as useful polyfunctional building block for peptidomimetics design.

    PubMed

    Richard, Mylène; Chapleur, Yves; Pellegrini-Moïse, Nadia

    2016-03-03

    Spiro sugar-isoxazolidines obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of activated exo-glycals and nitrones were efficiently functionalized at two sites, i.e. C-4 and C-7, with arginine, arginine mimetics and guanidylated appendages. Two bicyclic sugar derivatives differing by the configuration at C-7 were chosen as model compounds. The small library of peptidomimetics was evaluated toward inhibition of VEGF-A165/neuropilin-1 binding. Unexpected cleavage of C3-C4 bond of isoxazolidine moiety was observed during hydrogenolysis and opened thus a new way toward hemiketal structures which could also find interesting applications as less constrained scaffold.

  14. Synthesis of Amino Acid-Derived Cyclic Acyl Amidines for Use in β-Strand Peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ming C.; Bartlett, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The acyl amidine represented by the 4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-pyrazinone ring system 2 is isosteric to the vinylogous amide of the 1,2-dihydro-3(6H)-pyridinone 1, but its assembly from separate amine and amide components enables ready incorporation of an amino acid side chain with correct regio- and stereochemistry. β-Strand peptidomimetics incorporating amino acid analogues based on 2 have recently been shown to be potent, protease-resistant ligands to a PDZ protein-interaction domain. Two routes to the protected dipeptide analogue 3 are described. PMID:17371075

  15. A graftable LDV peptidomimetic: design, synthesis and application to a blood filtration membrane.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Maryam; Rerat, Vincent; Gharbi, Sonia; Gérard, Estelle; Pourcelle, Vincent; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline

    2008-02-01

    A graftable LDV (Leu-Asp-Val) peptidomimetic molecule (B-c) has been prepared from 3-(5-amino-2-hydroxy)phenyl-propionic acid, as alpha(4)beta(1) (VLA-4) integrin ligand. For that purpose, the mechanism of 3-(4-azidophenyl)propionic acid rearrangement has been revisited. Activation of Durapore DVPP-hydrophilic membrane, by surface wet chemistry using triazine trifluoride, followed by covalent coupling of B-c produced a modified filter (0.8% of derivatisation from XPS analysis) with improved capacity of leukocyte retention.

  16. Large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) prodrugs of valproic acid: new prodrug design ideas for central nervous system delivery.

    PubMed

    Peura, Lauri; Malmioja, Kalle; Laine, Krista; Leppänen, Jukka; Gynther, Mikko; Isotalo, Antti; Rautio, Jarkko

    2011-10-03

    Central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently restricts the entry of drug molecules into the CNS at sufficient amounts. The brain uptake of poorly penetrating drugs could be improved by utilizing the transporters at the BBB with a prodrug approach. In this study, we designed four phenylalanine derivatives of valproic acid and studied their ability to utilize a large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in CNS delivery with an aim to show that the meta-substituted phenylalanine prodrugs bind to LAT1 with a higher affinity compared with the affinity of the para-substituted derivatives. All of the prodrugs crossed the BBB carrier mediatedly via LAT1 in in situ rat brain perfusion. For the first time, we introduced a novel meta-substituted phenylalanine analogue promoiety which improved the LAT1 affinity 10-fold and more importantly the rat brain uptake of the prodrug 2-fold compared with those of the para-substituted derivatives. Therefore, we have characterized a new prodrug design idea for CNS drug delivery utilizing a transporter-mediated prodrug approach.

  17. HUMAN SKIN PERMEATION OF 3-O-ALKYL CARBAMATE PRODRUGS OF NALTREXONE

    PubMed Central

    Vaddi, Haranath K.; Banks, Stan L.; Chen, Jianhong; Hammell, Dana C.; Crooks, Peter A.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2009-01-01

    N-Monoalkyl and N,N-dialkyl carbamate prodrugs of naltrexone (NTX), an opioid antagonist, were synthesized and their in vitro permeation across human skin was determined. Relevant physicochemical properties were also determined. Most prodrugs exhibited lower melting points, lower aqueous solubilities, and higher oil solubilities than NTX. The flux values from N-monoalkyl carbamate prodrugs were significantly higher than those from NTX and N,N-dialkyl carbamates. The melting points of N-monoalkyl carbamate prodrugs were quite low compared to the N,N-dialkyl carbamate prodrugs and NTX. Heats of fusion for the N,N-dialkyl carbamate prodrugs were higher than that for NTX. N-Monoalkyl carbamate prodrugs had higher stratum corneum/vehicle partition coefficients than their N,N-dialkyl counterparts. Higher percent prodrug bioconversion to NTX in skin appeared to be related to increased skin flux. N,N-Dialkyl carbamate prodrugs were more stable in buffer and in plasma than N-monoalkyl carbamate prodrugs. In conclusion, N-monoalkyl carbamate prodrugs of NTX improved the systemic delivery of NTX across human skin in vitro. N,N-Dialkyl substitution in the prodrug moiety decreased skin permeation and plasma hydrolysis to the parent drug. The cross-sectional area of the carbamate head group was the major determinant of flux of the N-monoalkyl and N,N-dialkyl carbamate prodrugs of NTX. PMID:18972573

  18. Discovery of Novel Peptidomimetics as Irreversible CHIKV NsP2 Protease Inhibitors Using Quantum Mechanical-Based Ligand Descriptors.

    PubMed

    El-labbad, Eman M; Ismail, Mohammed A H; Abou Ei Ella, Dalal A; Ahmed, Marawan; Wang, Feng; Barakat, Khaled H; Abouzid, Khaled A M

    2015-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infections have been reported in Asia, Africa, and Europe. The symptoms of CHIKV infection include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, rash, and chronic persistent arthralgia. To date, no vaccines or selective antiviral drugs against this important emerging virus have been reported. In this study, the design, synthesis, and antiviral activity screening of new topographical peptidomimetics revealed three potential prototype agents 3a, 4b, and 5d showing 93-100% maximum inhibition of CHIKV replication in cell-based assay having EC90 of 8.76-9.57 μg/mL. Intensive molecular modeling studies including covalent docking, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, and the atomic condensed Fukui functions calculations strongly suggested the covalent binding of peptidomimetics 3a, 4b, and 5d to CHIKV nsP2 protease leading to permanent enzyme inactivation via Michael adduct formation between α/β-unsaturated ketone functionality in our designed peptidomimetics and active site catalytic cysteine1013. Furthermore, small molecular weight peptidomimetics 3a and 4b satisfied the Lipinski rule of five for drug-likeness and showed promising intestinal absorption and aqueous solubility via computational admet studies making them promising hits for further optimization.

  19. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated piperidine and pyrrolidine peptidomimetics via one-pot sequential lactam reduction/Joullié-Ugi reaction.

    PubMed

    Szcześniak, Piotr; Maziarz, Elżbieta; Stecko, Sebastian; Furman, Bartłomiej

    2015-04-03

    A direct approach to the synthesis of polyhydroxylated piperidine and pyrrolidine peptidomimetics is described. The presented strategy is based on one-pot reduction of sugar-derived lactams with Schwartz's reagent followed by a multicomponent Ugi-Joullié reaction.

  20. Targeted anticancer prodrug with mesoporous silica nanoparticles as vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianquan; Fang, Gang; Wang, Xiaodan; Zeng, Fang; Xiang, Yufei; Wu, Shuizhu

    2011-11-01

    A targeted anticancer prodrug system was fabricated with 180 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as carriers. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the particles through an acid-sensitive carboxylic hydrazone linker which is cleavable under acidic conditions. Moreover, folic acid (FA) was covalently conjugated to the particle surface as the targeting ligand for folate receptors (FRs) overexpressed in some cancer cells. The in vitro release profiles of DOX from the MSN-based prodrug systems showed a strong dependence on the environmental pH values. The fluorescent dye FITC was incorporated in the MSNs so as to trace the cellular uptake on a fluorescence microscope. Cellular uptakes by HeLa, A549 and L929 cell lines were tested for FA-conjugated MSNs and plain MSNs respectively, and a much more efficient uptake by FR-positive cancer cells (HeLa) can be achieved by conjugation of folic acid onto the particles because of the folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis. The cytotoxicities for the FA-conjugated MSN prodrug, the plain MSN prodrug and free DOX against three cell lines were determined, and the result indicates that the FA-conjugated MSN prodrug exhibits higher cytotoxicity to FR-positive cells, and reduced cytotoxicity to FR-negative cells. Thus, with 180 nm MSNs as the carriers for the prodrug system, good drug loading, selective targeting and sustained release of drug molecules within targeted cancer cells can be realized. This study may provide useful insights for designing and improving the applicability of MSNs in targeted anticancer prodrug systems.

  1. An Experimental-Theoretical Analysis of Protein Adsorption on Peptidomimetic Polymer Brushes

    PubMed Central

    Lau, K.H. Aaron; Ren, Chunlai; Park, Sung Hyun; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-grafted water soluble polymer brushes are being intensely investigated for preventing protein adsorption to improve biomedical device function, prevent marine fouling, and enable applications in biosensing and tissue engineering. In this contribution, we present an experimental-theoretical analysis of a peptidomimetic polymer brush system with regard to the critical brush density required for preventing protein adsorption at varying chain lengths. A mussel adhesive-inspired DOPA-Lys pentapeptide surface grafting motif enabled aqueous deposition of our peptidomimetic polypeptoid brushes over a wide range of chain densities. Critical densities of 0.88 nm−2 for a relatively short polypeptoid 10-mer to 0.42 nm−2 for a 50-mer were identified from measurements of protein adsorption. The experiments were also compared with the protein adsorption isotherms predicted by a molecular theory. Excellent agreements in terms of both the polymer brush structure and the critical chain density were obtained. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging is shown to be useful in verifying the critical brush density for preventing protein adsorption. The present co-analysis of experimental and theoretical results demonstrates the significance of characterizing the critical brush density in evaluating the performance of an anti-fouling polymer brush system. The high fidelity of the agreement between the experiments and molecular theory also indicate that the theoretical approach presented can aid in the practical design of antifouling polymer brush systems. PMID:22107438

  2. Small molecule peptidomimetic inhibitors of importin α/β mediated nuclear transport

    PubMed Central

    Ambrus, Géza; Whitby, Landon R.; Singer, Eric L.; Trott, Oleg; Choi, Euna; Olson, Arthur J.; Boger, Dale L.; Gerace, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells. Translocation of proteins and many RNAs between the nucleus and cytoplasm is carried out by shuttling receptors of the β-karyopherin family, also called importins and exportins. Leptomycin B, a small molecule inhibitor of the exportin CRM1, has proved to be an invaluable tool for cell biologists, but up to now no small molecule inhibitors of nuclear import have been described. We devised a microtiter plate based permeabilized cell screen for small molecule inhibitors of the importin α/β pathway. By analyzing peptidomimetic libraries, we identified β-turn and α-helix peptidomimetic compounds that selectively inhibit nuclear import by importin α/β but not by transportin. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that large aromatic residues and/or a histidine side chain are required for effective import inhibition by these compounds. Our validated inhibitors can be useful for in vitro studies of nuclear import, and can also provide a framework for synthesis of higher potency nuclear import inhibitors. PMID:20869252

  3. Investigating the Impact of Asp181 Point Mutations on Interactions between PTP1B and Phosphotyrosine Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Wang, Lushan; Sun, Xun; Zhao, Xian

    2014-05-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling, which suggests that it is an attractive therapeutic target in type II diabetes and obesity. The aim of this research is to explore residues which interact with phosphotyrosine substrate can be affected by D181 point mutations and lead to increased substrate binding. To achieve this goal, molecular dynamics simulations were performed on wild type (WT) and two mutated PTP1B/substrate complexes. The cross-correlation and principal component analyses show that point mutations can affect the motions of some residues in the active site of PTP1B. Moreover, the hydrogen bond and energy decomposition analyses indicate that apart from residue 181, point mutations have influence on the interactions of substrate with several residues in the active site of PTP1B.

  4. Improved peptide prodrugs of 5-ALA for PDT: rationalization of cellular accumulation and protoporphyrin IX production by direct determination of cellular prodrug uptake and prodrug metabolization.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Francesca; Bourré, Ludovic; MacRobert, Alexander J; Wilson, Michael; Eggleston, Ian M

    2009-07-09

    Twenty-seven dipeptide derivatives of general structure Ac-Xaa-ALA-OR were synthesized as potential prodrugs for 5-aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Xaa is an alpha-amino acid, chosen to provide a prodrug with appropriately tailored lipophilicity and water solubility. Although no simple correlation is observed between downstream production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in PAM212 keratinocytes and HPLC-derived descriptors of compound lipophilicity, quantification of prodrug uptake reveals that most of the dipeptides are actually more efficiently accumulated than ALA in PAM212 and also A549 and Caco-2 cell lines. Subsequent ALA release is the limiting factor, which emphasizes the importance of decoupling prodrug uptake and intracellular metabolization when assessing the efficacy of ALA derivatives for PDT. In agreement with PpIX fluorescence studies, at a concentration of 0.1 mM, l-Phe derivatives 4m and 4o, and l-Leu, l-Met, and l-Glu derivatives 4f, 4k, and 4u, exhibit significantly enhanced photoxicity in PAM212 cells compared to ALA.

  5. Structure-activity relationships for dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir: implications for prodrug design.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cledir R; Capela, Rita; Pereira, Cláudia S G P; Valente, Emília; Gouveia, Luís; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Moreira, Rui; Gomes, Paula

    2009-06-01

    A series of water-soluble dipeptide ester prodrugs of the antiviral acyclovir (ACV) were evaluated for their chemical stability, cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity against several strains of Herpes Simplex-1 and -2, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis, cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster viruses. ACV dipeptide esters were very active against herpetic viruses, independently of the rate at which they liberate the parent drug. Their minimum cytotoxic concentrations were above 100 microM and the resulting MCC/EC(50) values were lower than those of ACV. When comparing the reactivity of Phe-Gly esters and amides (ACV, zidovudine, paracetamol, captopril and primaquine) in pH 7.4 buffer it was found that the rate of drug release increases with drug's leaving group ability. Release of the parent drug from Phe-Gly in human plasma is markedly faster than in pH 7.4 buffer, thus suggesting that the dipeptide-based prodrug approach can be successfully applied to bioactive agents containing thiol, phenol and amine functional groups.

  6. Recent Trends in Targeted Anticancer Prodrug and Conjugate Design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yashveer; Palombo, Matthew; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are often nonselective antiproliferative agents (cytotoxins) that preferentially kill dividing cells by attacking their DNA at some level. The lack of selectivity results in significant toxicity to noncancerous proliferating cells. These toxicities along with drug resistance exhibited by the solid tumors are major therapy limiting factors that results into poor prognosis for patients. Prodrug and conjugate design involves the synthesis of inactive drug derivatives that are converted to an active form inside the body and preferably at the site of action. Classical prodrug and conjugate design has focused on the development of prodrugs that can overcome physicochemical (e.g., solubility, chemical instability) or biopharmaceutical problems (e.g., bioavailability, toxicity) associated with common anticancer drugs. The recent targeted prodrug and conjugate design, on the other hand, hinges on the selective delivery of anticancer agents to tumor tissues thereby avoiding their cytotoxic effects on noncancerous cells. Targeting strategies have attempted to take advantage of low extracellular pH, elevated enzymes in tumor tissues, the hypoxic environment inside the tumor core, and tumor-specific antigens expressed on tumor cell surfaces. The present review highlights recent trends in prodrug and conjugate rationale and design for cancer treatment. The various approaches that are currently being explored are critically analyzed and a comparative account of the advantages and disadvantages associated with each approach is presented. PMID:18691040

  7. Simvastatin prodrug micelles target fracture and improve healing.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenshan; Zhang, Yijia; Chen, Yen Hsun; Dusad, Anand; Yuan, Hongjiang; Ren, Ke; Li, Fei; Fehringer, Edward V; Purdue, P Edward; Goldring, Steven R; Daluiski, Aaron; Wang, Dong

    2015-02-28

    Simvastatin (SIM), a widely used anti-lipidemic drug, has been identified as a bone anabolic agent. Its poor water solubility and the lack of distribution to the skeleton, however, have limited its application in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases. In this study, an amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of SIM was designed and synthesized to overcome these limitations. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based prodrug can spontaneously self-assemble to form micelles. The use of SIM trimer as the prodrug's hydrophobic segment allows easy encapsulation of additional free SIM. The in vitro studies showed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles were internalized by MC3T3 cells via lysosomal trafficking and consistently induced expression of both BMP2 and DKK1 mRNA, suggesting that the prodrug micelle retains the biological functions of SIM. After systemic administration, optical imaging suggests that the micelles would passively target to bone fracture sites associated with hematoma and inflammation. Furthermore, flow cytometry study revealed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles had preferred cellular uptake by inflammatory and resident cells within the fracture callus tissue. The treatment study using a mouse osteotomy model validated the micelles' therapeutic efficacy in promoting bone fracture healing as demonstrated by micro-CT and histological analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that the macromolecular prodrug-based micelle formulation of SIM may have great potential for clinical management of impaired fracture healing.

  8. Prodrugs of aza nucleosides based on proton transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-12-01

    DFT calculation results for intramolecular proton transfer reactions in Kirby's enzyme models 1- 7 reveal that the reaction rate is quite responsive to geometric disposition, especially to distance between the two reactive centers, r GM, and the angle of attack, α (the hydrogen bonding angle). Hence, the study on the systems reported herein could provide a good basis for designing aza nucleoside prodrug systems that are less hydrophilic than their parental drugs and can be used, in different dosage forms, to release the parent drug in a controlled manner. For example, based on the calculated log EM, the cleavage process for prodrug 1ProD is predicted to be about 1010 times faster than that for prodrug 7ProD and about 104 times faster than prodrug 3ProD: rate 1ProD > rate 3ProD > rate 7ProD . Hence, the rate by which the prodrug releases the aza nucleoside drug can be determined according to the structural features of the linker (Kirby's enzyme model).

  9. Optimization of alkylating agent prodrugs derived from phenol and aniline mustards: a new clinical candidate prodrug (ZD2767) for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    PubMed

    Springer, C J; Dowell, R; Burke, P J; Hadley, E; Davis, D H; Blakey, D C; Melton, R G; Niculescu-Duvaz, I

    1995-12-22

    Sixteen novel potential prodrugs derived from phenol or aniline mustards and their 16 corresponding drugs with ring substitution and/or different alkylating functionalities were designed. The [[[4-]bis(2-bromoethyl)-(1a), [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)-(1b), and [[[4-[(2-chloroethyl)-[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]phenyl]oxy] carbonyl]-L-glutamic acids (1c), their [[[2- and 3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L- glutamic acids (1e-1), and the [[3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]carbamoyl]-L- glutamic acids (1o-r) were synthesized. They are bifunctional alkylating agents in which the activating effect of the phenolic hydroxyl or amino function is masked through an oxycarbonyl or a carbamoyl bond to a glutamic acid. These prodrugs were designed to be activated to their corresponding phenol and aniline nitrogen mustard drugs at a tumor site by prior administration of a monoclonal antibody conjugated to the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The synthesis of the analogous novel parent drugs (2a-r) is also described. The viability of a colorectal cell line (LoVo) was monitored with the potential prodrugs and the parent drugs. The differential in the cytotoxicity between the potential prodrugs and their corresponding active drugs ranged between 12 and > 195 fold. Compounds 1b-d,f,o exhibited substantial prodrug activity, since a cytotoxicity differential of > 100 was achieved compared to 2b-d,f,o respectively. The ability of the potential prodrugs to act as substrates for CPG2 was determined (kinetic parameters KM and kcat), and the chemical stability was measured for all the compounds. The unsubstituted phenols with different alkylating functionalities (1a-c) proved to have the highest ratio of the substrates kcat:KM. From these studies [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (1b) emerges as a new ADEPT clinical trial candidate due to its physicochemical and

  10. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection: Kinetics, Mechanism of Degradation, and In Vitro Release From Prodrug Suspension.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus

    2016-10-01

    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well as susceptibility to undergo esterase facilitated hydrolysis. In this study, physicochemical properties and pH rate profiles of 3 diclofenac ester prodrugs differing with respect to the spacer carbon chain length between the drug and the imidazole-based promoiety were determined and a rate equation for prodrug degradation in aqueous solution in the pH range 1-10 was derived. In the pH range 6-10, the prodrugs were subject to parallel degradation to yield diclofenac and an indolinone derivative. The prodrug degradation was found to be about 6-fold faster in 80% (vol/vol) human plasma as compared to 80% (vol/vol) human synovial fluid with 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6 dichlorophenyl)amino)phenylacetate being the poorest substrate toward enzymatic cleavage. The conversion and release of parent diclofenac from prodrug suspensions in vitro were studied using the rotating dialysis model. The results suggest that it is possible to alter and control dissolution and reconversion behavior of the diclofenac prodrugs, thus making the prodrug approach feasible for local and sustained diclofenac action after joint injection.

  11. Prodrug design to improve pharmacokinetic and drug delivery properties: challenges to the discovery scientists.

    PubMed

    Jana, S; Mandlekar, S; Marathe, P

    2010-01-01

    The prodrug design is a versatile, powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of parent drug molecules, administration routes, and formulations. Clinically, the majority of prodrugs are used with the aim of enhancing drug permeation by increasing lipophilicity, or by improving aqueous solubility. Prodrug design may improve the bioavailability of parent molecule, and thus can be integrated into the iterative process of lead optimization, rather than employing it as a post-hoc approach. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of advances and progress in the knowledge of current strategic approaches of prodrug design, along with their real-world utility in drug discovery and development. The review covers the type of prodrugs and functional groups that are amenable to prodrug design. Various prodrug approaches for improving oral drug delivery are discussed, with numerous examples of marketed prodrugs, including improved aqueous solubility, improved lipophilicity, transporter-mediated absorption, and prodrug design to achieve site-specific delivery. Tools employed for prodrug screening, and specific challenges in prodrug research and development are also elaborated. This article is intended to encourage discovery scientists to be creative and consider a rationally designed prodrug approach during the lead optimization phase of drug discovery programs, when the structure activity relationship (SAR) for the drug target is incompatible with pharmacokinetic or biopharmaceutical objectives.

  12. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  13. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: a promising approach for a selective treatment of cancer based on prodrugs and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Krewer, Birgit

    2009-09-01

    The antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy allows a selective liberation of cytotoxic agents from non-toxic prodrugs in cancerous tissue by targeted antibody-enzyme conjugates. We have developed a series of novel glycosidic prodrugs based on the natural antibiotic CC-1065 and the duocarmycins, which are up to 4800 times less toxic than the drugs liberated from these prodrugs in the presence of the activating enzyme (e.g., beta-D-galactosidase). Furthermore, the drugs show very high cytotoxicities with IC(50) values of as low as 4.5 pm. In this report, we summarize our recent results on the development and biological evaluation of these novel third-generation prodrugs with higher water solubility, higher difference in cytotoxicity between the prodrugs and the corresponding drugs and improved cytotoxicity of the drugs as compared with previous compounds.

  14. Glutathione-S-transferase selective release of metformin from its sulfonamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Vernerová, Monika; Aufderhaar, Imke; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, three sulfonamide prodrugs of metformin were designed and synthesized. The bioconversion of the sulfonamide prodrugs by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was evaluated in rat and human liver S9 fractions as well as with recombinant human GST forms. One of the prodrugs (3) was bioactivated by GST and released metformin in a quantitative manner, whereas the two others were enzymatically stable. Prodrug 3 had a much higher logD value relative to metformin and it was reasonably stable in both acidic buffer and rat small intestine homogenate, which indicates that this prodrug has the potential to increase the oral absorption of metformin.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of prodrugs based on the natural antibiotic duocarmycin for use in ADEPT and PMT.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Schmuck, Kianga; Schuster, Heiko J; Müller, Michael; Schuberth, Ingrid

    2011-02-07

    Chemotherapy of malign tumors is usually associated with serious side effects as common anticancer drugs lack selectivity. An approach to deal with this problem is the antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and the prodrug monotherapy (PMT). Herein, the synthesis and biological evaluation of new glycosidic prodrugs suitable for both concepts are described. All prodrugs but one are stable in human serum and show QIC(50) values (IC(50) of prodrug/IC(50) of prodrug in the presence of the appropriate glycohydrolase) of up to 6500. This is the best value found so far for compounds interacting with DNA.

  16. Cancer chemotherapy: a SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) glucuronide prodrug for treatment by a PMT (Prodrug MonoTherapy) strategy.

    PubMed

    Angenault, Stéphane; Thirot, Sylvie; Schmidt, Frédéric; Monneret, Claude; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Renard, Pierre

    2003-03-10

    A glucuronide-based prodrug of SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) has been synthesized for use in a Prodrug MonoTherapy Strategy (PMT). Since this prodrug is significantly less cytotoxic than SN-38 itself and efficiently releases the drug in vitro in the presence of beta-D-glucuronidase, it can be considered as an appropriate candidate for cancer treatment by a PMT strategy.

  17. Peptidomimetics Based On Dehydroepiandrosterone Scaffold: Synthesis, Antiproliferation Activity, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Su, Haihuan; Wang, Wenda; Chen, Changshui; Cao, Xiufang

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel peptidomimetics bearing dehydroepiandrosterone moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition activities against cell proliferation. According to the preliminary studies on inhibitory activities, some of the newly prepared compounds indicated significantly inhibition activities against human hepatoma cancer (HepG2), human lung cancer (A549), human melanoma (A875) cell lines compared with the control 5-fluorouracil. Especially, compounds Ii (IC50 < 14 μM) and Ik (IC50 < 13 μM) exhibited obvious inhibition activities against all tested cell lines. The highly potential compound Ik induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the apoptotic effects of compound Ik were further evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining assay, which revealed these highly potential compounds induced cell death in HepG2 cells at least partly by apoptosis.

  18. Small cationic antimicrobial peptidomimetics: emerging candidate for the development of potential anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Sandeep; Bisht, Gopal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increase in the emergence and spread of microbes resistant to conventionally used antibiotics has become a major threat to global health care. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as a potential source of novel antibiotics because of their numerous advantages such as broad-spectrum activity, lower tendency to induce resistance, immunomodulatory response and unique mode of action. However, AMPs have several drawbacks such as; susceptibility to protease degradation, toxicity and high costs of manufacturing. Therefore, extensive research efforts are underway to explore the therapeutic potential of these fascinating natural compounds. This review highlights the potential of small cationic antimicrobial peptidomimetics (SCAMPs; M.W. ≅ 700 Da) as new generation antibiotics. In particular, we focused on recently identified small active pharmacophore from bulky templates of native AMPs, β-peptides, and lipopeptides. In addition, various design strategies recently undertaken to improve the physicochemical properties (proteolytic stability & plasma protein binding) of small cationic peptides have also been discussed.

  19. Novel peptidomimetics as BACE-1 inhibitors: synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Gabellieri, Emanuele; Brindisi, Margherita; Casagni, Alice; Guarino, Egeria; Huleatt, Paul B; Relitti, Nicola; La Pietra, Valeria; Marinelli, Luciana; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at identifying new scaffolds for BACE-1 inhibition devoid of the pharmacokinetic drawbacks of peptide-like structures, we investigated a series of novel peptidomimetics based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine (BDZ) core 1a-h and their seco-analogues 2a-d. We herein discuss synthesis, molecular modeling and in vitro studies which, starting from 1a, led to the seco-analogues (R)-2c and (S)-2d endowed with BACE-1 inhibition properties in the micromolar range both on the isolated enzyme and in cellular studies. These data can encourage to pursue these analogues as hits for the development of a new series of BACE-1 inhibitors active on whole-cells.

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of binaphthyl-based, functionalized oxazole and thiazole peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Wales, Steven M; Hammer, Katherine A; Somphol, Kittiya; Kemker, Isabell; Schröder, David C; Tague, Andrew J; Brkic, Zinka; King, Amy M; Lyras, Dena; Riley, Thomas V; Bremner, John B; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G

    2015-11-28

    Thirty two new binaphthyl-based, functionalized oxazole and thiazole peptidomimetics and over thirty five novel leucine-containing intermediate oxazoles and thiazoles were prepared in this study. This includes the first examples of the direct C-5 arylation of an amino acid dipeptide-derived oxazole. Moderate to excellent antibacterial activity was observed for all new compounds across Gram positive isolates with MICs ranging from 1-16 μg mL(-1). Results for Gram negative E. coli and A. baumannii were more variable, but MICs as low as 4 μg mL(-1) were returned for two examples. Significantly, the in vitro results with a fluoromethyl-oxazole derivative collectively represent the best obtained to date for a member of our binaphthyl peptide antimicrobials.

  1. Development of peptidomimetics with a vinyl sulfone warhead as irreversible falcipain-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ettari, Roberta; Nizi, Emanuela; Di Francesco, Maria Emilia; Dude, Marie-Adrienne; Pradel, Gabriele; Vicík, Radim; Schirmeister, Tanja; Micale, Nicola; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria

    2008-02-28

    This paper describes the synthesis of a new class of peptidomimetic cysteine protease inhibitors based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine scaffold and on an electrophilic vinyl sulfone moiety. The former was introduced internally to a peptide sequence that mimics the fragment D-Ser-Gly; the latter was built on the P1-P1' site and reacts as a classical "Michael acceptor", leading to an alkylated enzyme by irreversible addition of the thiol group of the active site cysteine. The introduction of the vinyl sulfone moiety has been accomplished by olefin cross-metathesis, a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon double bonds. New compounds 2-3 have been proven to be potent and selective inhibitors of falcipain-2, a cysteine protease isolated from Plasmodium falciparum, displaying antiplasmodial activity.

  2. Interferon gamma peptidomimetic targeted to interstitial myofibroblasts attenuates renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Poosti, Fariba; Bansal, Ruchi; Yazdani, Saleh; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Poelstra, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis cannot be adequately treated since anti-fibrotic treatment is lacking. Interferon-γ is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-fibrotic properties. Clinical use of interferon-γ is hampered due to inflammation-mediated systemic side effects. We used an interferon-γ peptidomimetic (mimγ) lacking the extracellular IFNγReceptor recognition domain, and coupled it to the PDGFβR-recognizing peptide BiPPB. Here we tested the efficacy of mimγ-BiPPB (referred to as “Fibroferon”) targeted to PDGFβR-overexpressing interstitial myofibroblasts to attenuate renal fibrosis without inducing inflammation-mediated side effects in the mouse unilateral ureter obstruction model. Unilateral ureter obstruction induced renal fibrosis characterized by significantly increased α-SMA, TGFβ1, fibronectin, and collagens I and III protein and/or mRNA expression. Fibroferon treatment significantly reduced expression of these fibrotic markers. Compared to full-length IFNγ, anti-fibrotic effects of Fibroferon were more pronounced. Unilateral ureter obstruction-induced lymphangiogenesis was significantly reduced by Fibroferon but not full-length IFNγ. In contrast to full-length IFNγ, Fibroferon did not induce IFNγ-related side-effects as evidenced by preserved low-level brain MHC II expression (similar to vehicle), lowered plasma triglyceride levels, and improved weight gain after unilateral ureter obstruction. In conclusion, compared to full-length IFNγ, the IFNγ-peptidomimetic Fibroferon targeted to PDGFβR-overexpressing myofibroblasts attenuates renal fibrosis in the absence of IFNγ-mediated adverse effects. PMID:27509062

  3. Esterase-Sensitive Prodrugs with Tunable Release Rates and Direct Generation of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Ji, Kaili; Pan, Zhixiang; Chittavong, Vayou; Wang, Binghe

    2016-03-24

    Prodrugs that release hydrogen sulfide upon esterase-mediated cleavage of an ester group followed by lactonization are described herein. By modifying the ester group and thus its susceptibility to esterase, and structural features critical to the lactonization rate, H2 S release rates can be tuned. Such prodrugs directly release hydrogen sulfide without the involvement of perthiol species, which are commonly encountered with existing H2 S donors. Additionally, such prodrugs can easily be conjugated to another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, leading to easy synthesis of hybrid prodrugs. As a biological validation of the H2 S prodrugs, the anti-inflammatory effects of one such prodrug were examined by studying its ability to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells. This type of H2 S prodrugs shows great potential as both research tools and therapeutic agents.

  4. Simvastatin Prodrug Micelles Target Fracture and Improve Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dusad, Anand; Yuan, Hongjiang; Ren, Ke; Li, Fei; Fehringer, Edward V.; Purdue, P. Edward; Goldring, Steven R.; Daluiski, Aaron; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM), a widely used anti-lipidaemic drug, has been identified as a bone anabolic agent. Its poor water solubility and the lack of distribution to the skeleton, however, have limited its application in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases. In this study, an amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of SIM was designed and synthesized to overcome these limitations. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based prodrug can spontaneously self-assemble to form micelles. The use of SIM trimer as the prodrug’s hydrophobic segment allows easy encapsulation of additional free SIM. The in vitro studies showed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles were internalized by MC3T3 cells via lysosomal trafficking and consistently induced expression of both BMP2 and DKK1 mRNA, suggesting that the prodrug micelle retains the biological functions of SIM. After systemic administration, optical imaging suggests that the micelles would passively target to bone fracture sites associated with hematoma and inflammation. Furthermore, flow cytometry study revealed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles had preferred cellular uptake by inflammatory and resident cells within the fracture callus tissue. The treatment study using a mouse osteotomy model validated the micelles’ therapeutic efficacy in promoting bone fracture healing as demonstrated by micro-CT and histological analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that the macromolecular prodrug-based micelle formulation of SIM may have great potential for clinical management of impaired fracture healing. PMID:25542644

  5. Successful kinase bypass with new acyclovir phosphoramidate prodrugs.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Christopher; Derudas, Marco; Bugert, Joachim J; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Balzarini, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Novel phosphoramidates of acyclovir have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against acyclovir-sensitive and -resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Unlike the parent nucleoside these novel phosphate prodrugs retain antiviral potency versus the ACV-resistant virus strain, suggesting an efficient bypass of the viral thymidine kinase.

  6. Computationally-designed phenylephrine prodrugs - a model for enhancing bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik; Karaman, Donia; Zeiadeh, Isra'

    2013-11-01

    DFT calculations at B3LYP 6-31G (d,p) for intramolecular proton transfer in a number of Kirby's enzyme models demonstrated that the driving force for the proton transfer efficiency is the distance between the two reactive centres (rGM) and the attack angle (α); and the rate of the reaction is linearly correlated with rGM2 and sin (180°- α). Based on these results three phenylephrine prodrugs were designed to provide phenylephrine with higher bioavailability than their parent drug. Using the experimental t1/2 (the time needed for the conversion of 50% of the reactants to products) and EM (effective molarity) values for these processes the t1/2 values for the conversion of the three prodrugs to the parent drug, phenylephrine were calculated. The calculated t1/2 values for ProD 1 and ProD 2 were very high (145 days and several years, respectively) whereas that of ProD 3 was found to be about 35 hours. Therefore, the intra-conversion rates of the phenylephrine prodrugs to phenylephrine can be programmed according to the nature of the prodrug linker.

  7. Novel antiglaucoma prodrugs and codrugs of ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Cynkowska, Grazyna; Cynkowski, Tadeusz; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer M; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer A; Guo, Hong; Ashton, Paul; Crooks, Peter A

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a novel prodrug of ethacrynic acid (ECA) with short chain polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and codrugs of ECA with the beta-adrenergic blocking agent atenolol (ATL) or timolol (TML) to overcome the adverse effects of ECA and to enhance its physicochemical properties.

  8. Simplified AIP-II Peptidomimetics Are Potent Inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus AgrC Quorum Sensing Receptors.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Joseph K; Tal-Gan, Yftah; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Tyler, Kimberly A; Blackwell, Helen E

    2017-02-16

    The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus controls many aspects of virulence by using the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. The agr system is activated by a macrocyclic peptide signal known as an autoinducing peptide (AIP). We sought to develop structurally simplified mimetics of AIPs for use as chemical tools to study QS in S. aureus. Herein, we report new peptidomimetic AgrC receptor inhibitors based on a tail-truncated AIP-II peptide that have almost analogous inhibitory activities to the parent peptide. Structural comparison of one of these peptidomimetics to the parent peptide and a highly potent, all-peptide-derived, S. aureus agr inhibitor (AIP-III D4A) revealed a conserved hydrophobic motif and overall amphipathic nature. Our results suggest that the AIP scaffold is amenable to structural mimicry and minimization for the development of synthetic agr inhibitors.

  9. Transporter targeted gatifloxacin prodrugs: synthesis, permeability, and topical ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Vooturi, Sunil K; Kadam, Rajendra S; Kompella, Uday B

    2012-11-05

    In this work, we aim to design and synthesize prodrugs of gatifloxacin targeting organic cation transporter (OCT), monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), and ATB (0, +) transporters and to identify a prodrug with enhanced delivery to the back of the eye. Dimethylamino-propyl, carboxy-propyl, and amino-propyl(2-methyl) derivatives of gatifloxacin (GFX), DMAP-GFX, CP-GFX, and APM-GFX, were designed and synthesized to target OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. An LC-MS method was developed to analyze drug and prodrug levels in various studies. Solubility and log D (pH 7.4) were measured for prodrugs and the parent drug. The permeability of the prodrugs was determined in the cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera-choroid-retinal pigment epitheluim (SCRPE) and compared with gatifloxacin using an Ussing chamber assembly. Permeability mechanisms were elucidated by determining the transport in the presence of transporter specific inhibitors. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+), nicotinic acid sodium salt, and α-methyl-DL-tryptophan were used to inhibit OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. A prodrug selected based on in vitro studies was administered as an eye drop to pigmented rabbits, and the delivery to various eye tissues including vitreous humor was compared with gatifloxacin dosing. DMAP-GFX exhibited 12.8-fold greater solubility than GFX. All prodrugs were more lipophilic, with the measured log D (pH 7.4) values ranging from 0.05 to 1.04, when compared to GFX (log D: -1.15). DMAP-GFX showed 1.4-, 1.8-, and 1.9-fold improvement in permeability across the cornea, conjunctiva, and SCRPE when compared to GFX. Moreover, it exhibited reduced permeability in the presence of MPP+ (competitive inhibitor of OCT), indicating OCT-mediated transport. CP-GFX showed 1.2-, 2.3-, and 2.5-fold improvement in permeability across the cornea, conjunctiva, and SCRPE, respectively. In the presence of nicotinic acid (competitive inhibitor of MCT), the

  10. Bivalent peptidomimetic ligands of TrkC are biased agonists, selectively induce neuritogenesis, or potentiate neurotrophin-3 trophic signals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dianjun; Brahimi, Fouad; Angell, Yu; Li, Yu-Chin; Moscowicz, Jennifer; Saragovi, H. Uri; Burgess, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study was initiated to find small molecule ligands that would induce a functional response when docked with neurotrophin Trk receptors. “Minimalist” mimics of β-turns were designed for this purpose. These mimics are: (i) rigid, yet easily folded into turn-like conformations, and (ii) readily accessible from amino acids bearing most of the natural side chains. Gram quantities of sixteen of these turn mimics were prepared, then assembled into 152 fluorescein-labeled bivalent peptidomimetics via a solution-phase combinatorial method. Fluorescence-based screening of these molecules using cells transfected with the Trk receptors identified 10 potential ligands of TrkC, the receptor for neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Analogs of these bivalent peptidomimetics with biotin replacing the fluorescein label were then prepared and tested to confirm that binding was not due to the fluorescein. Several assays were conducted to find the mode of action of these biotinylated compounds. Thus, direct binding, survival and neuritogenic, and biochemical signal transduction assays showed 8 of the original 10 hits were agonistic ligands binding to the ectodomain of TrkC. Remarkably, some peptidomimetics afford discrete signals leading to either cell survival or neuritogenic differentiation. The significance of this work is three fold. First, we succeeded in finding small, selective, proteolytically stable ligands for the TrkC receptor; there are very few of these in the literature. Second, we show that it is possible to activate distinct and biased signaling pathways with ligands binding at the ectodomain of wild type receptors. Third, the discovery that some peptidomimetics initiate different modes of cell signaling increases their potential as pharmacological probes and therapeutic leads. PMID:19735123

  11. High-Affinity, Small-Molecule Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of MLL1/WDR5 Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karatas, Hacer; Townsend, Elizabeth C; Cao, Fang; Chen, Yong; Bernard, Denzil; Liu, Liu; Lei, Ming; Dou, Yali; Wang, Shaomeng

    2013-02-12

    Mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) is a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase, and targeting the MLL1 enzymatic activity has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acute leukemia harboring MLL1 fusion proteins. The MLL1/WDR5 protein–protein interaction is essential for MLL1 enzymatic activity. In the present study, we designed a large number of peptidomimetics to target the MLL1/WDR5 interaction based upon -CO-ARA-NH–, the minimum binding motif derived from MLL1. Our study led to the design of high-affinity peptidomimetics, which bind to WDR5 with Ki < 1 nM and function as potent antagonists of MLL1 activity in a fully reconstituted in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase assay. Determination of co-crystal structures of two potent peptidomimetics in complex with WDR5 establishes their structural basis for high-affinity binding to WDR5. Evaluation of one such peptidomimetic, MM-102, in bone marrow cells transduced with MLL1-AF9 fusion construct shows that the compound effectively decreases the expression of HoxA9 and Meis-1, two critical MLL1 target genes in MLL1 fusion protein mediated leukemogenesis. MM-102 also specifically inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells harboring MLL1 fusion proteins. Our study provides the first proof-of-concept for the design of small-molecule inhibitors of the WDR5/MLL1 protein–protein interaction as a novel therapeutic approach for acute leukemia harboring MLL1 fusion proteins.

  12. Solution and solid-supported synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-based peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Boeglin, Damien; Cantel, Sonia; Heitz, Annie; Martinez, Jean; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain

    2003-11-13

    [reaction: see text] 3,4,5-Trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles were synthesized in solution from various thioamides and hydrazides in smooth experimental conditions leading to peptidomimetic scaffolds. This strategy was found to be compatible with the usual peptide synthesis protecting groups. This methodology was then applied on solid support by anchoring alpha-amino acids through their amino function to an activated carbonate resin.

  13. Thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and cysteine as radioprotective agents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R.

    1995-08-01

    The need for protection against the toxic effects of ionizing radiation comes from many different directions: occupational exposure, nuclear accidents, environmental sources and protection of normal tissue during the therapeutic irradiation of cancer. Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including cysteamine and L-cysteine, have long been known to possess radioprotective properties, but their therapeutic utility is limited by their side effects at radioprotective doses. To avoid this drawback, thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and L-cysteine were prepared by the condensation of each thiolamine with the aldose monosaccharides, D-ribose and D-glucose, producing RibCyst, GlcCyst, Rib-Cys and GlcCys. The prodrugs were designed to liberate the parent thiolamine nonenzymatically, after ring opening and hydrolysis, which is then available e to function as a radioprotective agent. Cysteamine`s inherent toxicity, measured using Chinese hamster V79 cells growing in culture, was completely eliminated, even at concentrations as high as 25 mM, by providing the thiolamine in the form of a prodrug. Good protection against radiation-induced lethality was demonstrated by the cysteamine prodrugs using a clonogenic assay. Protection against radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks, as measured by alkaline elution, was also shown by both RibCyst and GlcCyst; this activity was higher than that exhibited by either cysteamine or WR-1065. The L-cysteine prodrugs, RibCys and GlcCys, also possessed radioprotective abilities under most of the conditions studied. Protection against DNA damage was comparable between L-cystein, WR-1065 and RibCys. 42 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. PACE4 inhibitors and their peptidomimetic analogs block prostate cancer tumor progression through quiescence induction, increased apoptosis and impaired neovascularisation.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Christine; Couture, Frédéric; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Desjardins, Roxane; Guérin, Brigitte; Neugebauer, Witold A; Day, Robert

    2015-02-28

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in North American men. Current pharmacological treatments are limited to anti-androgen strategies and the development of new therapeutic approaches remains a challenge. As a fundamentally new approach, we propose the inhibition of PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertases family of enzymes, as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer. We developed an inhibitor named the Multi-Leu peptide, with potent in vitro anti-proliferative effects. However, the Multi-Leu peptide has not been tested under in vivo conditions and its potency under such conditions is most likely limited, due to the labile characteristics of peptides in general. Using a peptidomimetic approach, we modified the initial scaffold, generating the analog Ac-[DLeu]LLLRVK-Amba, which demonstrates increased inhibitory potency and stability. The systemic administration of this peptidomimetic significantly inhibits tumor progression in the LNCaP xenograft model of prostate cancer by inducing tumor cell quiescence, increased apoptosis and neovascularization impairment. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles of this inhibitor confirm adequate tumor delivery properties of the compound. We conclude that PACE4 peptidomimetic inhibitors could result in stable and potent drugs for a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.

  15. PACE4 inhibitors and their peptidomimetic analogs block prostate cancer tumor progression through quiescence induction, increased apoptosis and impaired neovascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Christine; Couture, Frédéric; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Desjardins, Roxane; Guérin, Brigitte; Neugebauer, Witold A.; Day, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in North American men. Current pharmacological treatments are limited to anti-androgen strategies and the development of new therapeutic approaches remains a challenge. As a fundamentally new approach, we propose the inhibition of PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertases family of enzymes, as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer. We developed an inhibitor named the Multi-Leu peptide, with potent in vitro anti-proliferative effects. However, the Multi-Leu peptide has not been tested under in vivo conditions and its potency under such conditions is most likely limited, due to the labile characteristics of peptides in general. Using a peptidomimetic approach, we modified the initial scaffold, generating the analog Ac-[DLeu]LLLRVK-Amba, which demonstrates increased inhibitory potency and stability. The systemic administration of this peptidomimetic significantly inhibits tumor progression in the LNCaP xenograft model of prostate cancer by inducing tumor cell quiescence, increased apoptosis and neovascularization impairment. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles of this inhibitor confirm adequate tumor delivery properties of the compound. We conclude that PACE4 peptidomimetic inhibitors could result in stable and potent drugs for a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer. PMID:25682874

  16. Mimicking bone extracellular matrix: integrin-binding peptidomimetics enhance osteoblast-like cells adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, Roberta; Rechenmacher, Florian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Manero, José M; Gil, Javier; Kessler, Horst; Mas-Moruno, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Interaction between the surface of implants and biological tissues is a key aspect of biomaterials research. Apart from fulfilling the non-toxicity and structural requirements, synthetic materials are asked to direct cell response, offering engineered cues that provide specific instructions to cells. This work explores the functionalization of titanium with integrin-binding peptidomimetics as a novel and powerful strategy to improve the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells to implant materials. Such biomimetic strategy aims at targeting integrins αvβ3 and α5β1, which are highly expressed on osteoblasts and are essential for many fundamental functions in bone tissue development. The successful grafting of the bioactive molecules on titanium is proven by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescent labeling. Early attachment and spreading of cells are statistically enhanced by both peptidomimetics compared to unmodified titanium, reaching values of cell adhesion comparable to those obtained with full-length extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, and statistically higher cell proliferation and mineralization are observed on surfaces coated with the peptidomimetics. This study shows an unprecedented biological activity for low-molecular-weight ligands on titanium, and gives striking evidence of the potential of these molecules to foster bone regeneration on implant materials.

  17. The first generation of β-galactosidase-responsive prodrugs designed for the selective treatment of solid tumors in prodrug monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Legigan, Thibaut; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Tranoy-Opalinski, Isabelle; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Renoux, Brigitte; Thomas, Mikaël; Le Pape, Alain; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Papot, Sébastien

    2012-11-12

    Massive attack: Galactoside prodrugs have been designed that can be selectively activated by lysosomal β-galactosidase located inside cancer cells expressing a specific tumor-associated receptor. This efficient enzymatic process triggers a potent cytotoxic effect, releasing the potent antimitotic agent MMAE and allowing the destruction of both receptor-positive and surrounding receptor-negative tumor cells.

  18. Theranostic reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles for near-infrared imaging and pancreatic cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Haijie; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Yin; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and ``click'' reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Meanwhile, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that this prodrug exhibited high cytotoxicity against BxPC-3 cells. The in vivo whole-animal near-infrared (NIR) imaging results showed that these prodrug micelles could be effectively accumulated in tumor tissue and had a longer blood circulation time than IR820-COOH. The endogenous reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles with the in vivo NIR imaging ability might have great potential in image-guided pancreatic cancer therapy.A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and ``click'' reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which

  19. Hepatic protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase. Dephosphorylation of insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gruppuso, P A; Boylan, J M; Posner, B I; Faure, R; Brautigan, D L

    1990-01-01

    Polypeptide hormone signal transmission by receptor tyrosine kinases requires the rapid reversal of tyrosine phosphorylation by protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PPTPases). We studied hepatic PPTPases in the rat with emphasis on acute and chronic regulation by insulin. PPTPase activity with artificial substrates ([32P]Tyr-reduced, carboxyamidomethylated, and maleylated lysozyme and [32P]Tyr-poly[glutamic acid:tyrosine] 4:1) was present in distinct membrane, cytoskeletal, and cytosolic fractions. These PPTPase activities were unaffected by alloxan diabetes. Acute administration of insulin to normal animals also did not change PPTPase activity in liver plasma membranes or endosomal membranes. Although alloxan diabetes did not affect PPTPase activity measured with artificial substrates or with epidermal growth factor receptors, a decrease in insulin receptor dephosphorylation was noted. Dephosphorylation of hepatic receptors from normal and diabetic rats by membrane PPTPase from control rats was similar. These results indicate that alloxan diabetes does not lead to a generalized effect on hepatic PPTPase activity, although a substrate-specific decrease in activity with the insulin receptor may occur. Images PMID:2161429

  20. Phosphotyrosine-mediated LAT assembly on membranes drives kinetic bifurcation in recruitment dynamics of the Ras activator SOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, William Y. C.; Yan, Qingrong; Lin, Wan-Chen; Chung, Jean K.; Hansen, Scott D.; Christensen, Sune M.; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of cell surface receptors with downstream signaling molecules is a commonly occurring theme in multiple signaling systems. However, little is known about how these assemblies modulate reaction kinetics and the ultimate propagation of signals. Here, we reconstitute phosphotyrosine-mediated assembly of extended linker for the activation of T cells (LAT):growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2):Son of Sevenless (SOS) networks, derived from the T-cell receptor signaling system, on supported membranes. Single-molecule dwell time distributions reveal two, well-differentiated kinetic species for both Grb2 and SOS on the LAT assemblies. The majority fraction of membrane-recruited Grb2 and SOS both exhibit fast kinetics and single exponential dwell time distributions, with average dwell times of hundreds of milliseconds. The minor fraction exhibits much slower kinetics, extending the dwell times to tens of seconds. Considering this result in the context of the multistep process by which the Ras GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) activity of SOS is activated indicates that kinetic stabilization from the LAT assembly may be important. This kinetic proofreading effect would additionally serve as a stochastic noise filter by reducing the relative probability of spontaneous SOS activation in the absence of receptor triggering. The generality of receptor-mediated assembly suggests that such effects may play a role in multiple receptor proximal signaling processes. PMID:27370798

  1. NADPH oxidase-derived H2O2 subverts pathogen signaling by oxidative phosphotyrosine conversion to PB-DOPA

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Luis A.; Kovačič, Lidija; Rodríguez, Javier; Gosemann, Jan-Hendrik; Kubica, Malgorzata; Pircalabioru, Gratiela G.; Friedmacher, Florian; Cean, Ada; Ghişe, Alina; Sărăndan, Mihai B.; Puri, Prem; Daff, Simon; Plettner, Erika; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Bourke, Billy; Knaus, Ulla G.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening the host immune system to fully exploit its potential as antimicrobial defense is vital in countering antibiotic resistance. Chemical compounds released during bidirectional host–pathogen cross-talk, which follows a sensing-response paradigm, can serve as protective mediators. A potent, diffusible messenger is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but its consequences on extracellular pathogens are unknown. Here we show that H2O2, released by the host on pathogen contact, subverts the tyrosine signaling network of a number of bacteria accustomed to low-oxygen environments. This defense mechanism uses heme-containing bacterial enzymes with peroxidase-like activity to facilitate phosphotyrosine (p-Tyr) oxidation. An intrabacterial reaction converts p-Tyr to protein-bound dopa (PB-DOPA) via a tyrosinyl radical intermediate, thereby altering antioxidant defense and inactivating enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and metabolism. Disruption of bacterial signaling by DOPA modification reveals an infection containment strategy that weakens bacterial fitness and could be a blueprint for antivirulence approaches. PMID:27562167

  2. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action.

  3. MDCK cell permeability characteristics of a sulfenamide prodrug: strategic implications in considering sulfenamide prodrugs for oral delivery of NH-acids.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Victor R; Nti-Addae, Kwame; Stella, Valentino J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this Letter is both to report the permeability results of a linezolid-based sulfenamide prodrug in an MDCK cell model (enterocyte surrogate system) and to discuss the strategic implications of these results for considering sulfenamide prodrugs to enhance the oral delivery of weakly acidic NH-acids (e.g., amides, ureas, etc.). The two main findings from this study are that the sulfenamide prodrug does not appear to survive intracellular transport due to conversion to linezolid and that there appears to be an apically-oriented surface conversion pathway that can additionally serve to convert the sulfenamide prodrug to linezolid upon approach of the apical membrane. It is hoped that these findings, along with the discussion of the strategic implications, will facilitate a greater awareness of the potential strengths and weaknesses inherent in the sulfenamide prodrug approach for enhancing the oral delivery of weakly acidic NH-acid drugs.

  4. Requirement for both H and L chain V regions, VH and VK joining amino acids, and the unique H chain D region for the high affinity binding of an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody.

    PubMed

    Ruff-Jamison, S; Glenney, J R

    1993-04-15

    Sequence analysis of a panel of antibodies to phosphotyrosine revealed predominant H and L chain V regions in the immune response and a unique D segment in the Py20 mAb, which exhibits a high affinity for phosphotyrosine. In order to determine the influence of somatic diversity on the high affinity binding of Py20, H and L chain V regions were expressed in Escherichia coli as an Fv dimer. Whereas the H or L chain V regions of Py20 alone were unable to bind phosphotyrosine, the Fv binds phosphotyrosine with an affinity comparable with the intact IgG as determined by fluorescence quenching experiments (1.55 x 10(-7) M vs 1.25 x 10(-7) M, respectively). Substitution of the Py20 V regions with other IgG V regions that differed greatly in sequence abolished binding. A high affinity Py20-combining site was dependent on the presence of the unique D-D segment. Replacement of the Py20 D-D region with a single homologous D region resulted in a decrease in affinity (5.9 x 10(-7) M). Substitution of this D-D region for the D region of another anti-phosphotyrosine antibody that is known to bind phosphotyrosine weakly (1 x 10(-3) M) conferred high affinity binding. Removal of three tyrosines from the first of the two D regions was accompanied by a fivefold reduction in affinity for phosphotyrosine. In addition, changing the VK and VH junctional amino acids resulted in a complete loss of binding. Therefore, the formation of the high affinity Py20 combining site requires both a H and L chain that are similar in sequence to those of Py20 including the unique D region and the junctional amino acids.

  5. Supramolecular Crafting of Self-Assembling Camptothecin Prodrugs with Enhanced Efficacy against Primary Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao; Zhang, Pengcheng; Cheetham, Andrew G; Koo, Jin Mo; Lin, Ran; Masood, Asad; Schiapparelli, Paula; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Cui, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modification of small molecule hydrophobic drugs is a clinically proven strategy to devise prodrugs with enhanced treatment efficacy. While this prodrug strategy improves the parent drug's water solubility and pharmacokinetic profile, it typically compromises the drug's potency against cancer cells due to the retarded drug release rate and reduced cellular uptake efficiency. Here we report on the supramolecular design of self-assembling prodrugs (SAPD) with much improved water solubility while maintaining high potency against cancer cells. We found that camptothecin (CPT) prodrugs created by conjugating two CPT molecules onto a hydrophilic segment can associate into filamentous nanostructures in water. Our results suggest that these SAPD exhibit much greater efficacy against primary brain cancer cells relative to that of irinotecan, a clinically used CPT prodrug. We believe these findings open a new avenue for rational design of supramolecular prodrugs for cancer treatment. PMID:27217839

  6. Brain uptake of a Zidovudine prodrug after nasal administration of solid lipid microparticles.

    PubMed

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Ferraro, Luca; Perrone, Daniela; Leo, Eliana; Iannuccelli, Valentina; Pavan, Barbara; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Beggiato, Sarah; Scalia, Santo

    2014-05-05

    Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as an anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT brain targeting, the present study focuses on solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) as a carrier system for the nasal administration of UDCA-AZT prodrug. SLMs were produced by the hot emulsion technique, using tristearin and stearic acid as lipidic carriers, whose mean diameters were 16 and 7 μm, respectively. SLMs were of spherical shape, and their prodrug loading was 0.57 ± 0.03% (w/w, tristearin based) and 1.84 ± 0.02% (w/w, stearic acid based). The tristearin SLMs were able to control the prodrug release, whereas the stearic acid SLMs induced a significant increase of the dissolution rate of the free prodrug. The free prodrug was rapidly hydrolyzed in rat liver homogenates with a half-life of 2.7 ± 0.14 min (process completed within 30 min). The tristearin SLMs markedly enhanced the stability of the prodrug (75% of the prodrug still present after 30 min), whereas the stabilization effect of the stearic acid SLMs was lower (14% of the prodrug still present after 30 min). No AZT and UDCA-AZT were detected in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intravenous prodrug administration (200 μg). Conversely, the nasal administration of stearic acid based SLMs induced the uptake of the prodrug in the CSF, demonstrating the existence of a direct nose-CNS pathway. In the presence of chitosan, the CSF prodrug uptake increased six times, up to 1.5 μg/mL within 150 min after nasal administration. The loaded SLMs appear therefore as a promising nasal formulation for selective zidovudine brain uptake.

  7. New Taxol (paclitaxel) prodrugs designed for ADEPT and PMT strategies in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alaoui, Abdessamad El; Saha, Nabendu; Schmidt, Frédéric; Monneret, Claude; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2006-07-15

    Two new glucuronide paclitaxel prodrugs have been synthesized. Linked to the 2'-OH of the drug by a carbonate function, they include a self-immolative spacer bearing an arylnitro or arylamino group between the drug and the glucuronic acid residue. Both prodrugs were well detoxified and easily cleaved in the presence of beta-D-glucuronidase with fast removal of the spacer, releasing paclitaxel. The arylamino spacer-containing prodrug, more stable than the corresponding nitro analogue, was selected for further studies.

  8. Prodrugs of phosphonates and phosphates: crossing the membrane barrier.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Andrew J; Wiemer, David F

    2015-01-01

    A substantial portion of metabolism involves transformation of phosphate esters, including pathways leading to nucleotides and oligonucleotides, carbohydrates, isoprenoids and steroids, and phosphorylated proteins. Because the natural substrates bear one or more negative charges, drugs that target these enzymes generally must be charged as well, but small charged molecules can have difficulty traversing the cell membrane by means other than endocytosis. The resulting dichotomy has stimulated a great deal of effort to develop effective prodrugs, compounds that carry little or no charge to enable them to transit biological membranes, but able to release the parent drug once inside the target cell. This chapter presents recent studies on advances in prodrug forms, along with representative examples of their application to marketed and developmental drugs.

  9. A screen for and validation of prodrug antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Laura E; North, E Jeffrey; Lee, Richard E; Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Casadei, Gabriele; Lewis, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The rise of resistant pathogens and chronic infections tolerant to antibiotics presents an unmet need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Identifying broad-spectrum leads is challenging due to the effective penetration barrier of Gram-negative bacteria, formed by an outer membrane restricting amphipathic compounds, and multidrug resistance (MDR) pumps. In chronic infections, pathogens are shielded from the immune system by biofilms or host cells, and dormant persisters tolerant to antibiotics are responsible for recalcitrance to chemotherapy with conventional antibiotics. We reasoned that the dual need for broad-spectrum and sterilizing compounds could be met by developing prodrugs that are activated by bacterium-specific enzymes and that these generally reactive compounds could kill persisters and accumulate over time due to irreversible binding to targets. We report the development of a screen for prodrugs, based on identifying compounds that nonspecifically inhibit reduction of the viability dye alamarBlue, and then eliminate generally toxic compounds by testing for cytotoxicity. A large pilot of 55,000 compounds against Escherichia coli produced 20 hits, 3 of which were further examined. One compound, ADC111, is an analog of a known nitrofuran prodrug nitrofurantoin, and its activity depends on the presence of activating enzymes nitroreductases. ADC112 is an analog of another known antimicrobial tilbroquinol with unknown mechanism of action, and ADC113 does not belong to an approved class. All three compounds had a good spectrum and showed good to excellent activity against persister cells in biofilm and stationary cultures. These results suggest that screening for overlooked prodrugs may present a viable platform for antimicrobial discovery.

  10. The Design, Synthesis and Screening of Potential Pyridinium Oxime Prodrugs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-31

    but this dihydropyridine oxime probably does not contribute to the reactivation of brain AChE. It is noteworthy that pro-2-PAM given prophylactically 10...Brain Barrier by Its Dihydropyridine Derivative. Science, 190, 155. 21. Bodor, N., Shek, E. and Higuchi, T. (1976) Improved Delivery Through...Biological Membranes 1. Synthesis and Properties of 1-Methyl-1,6 Dihydropyridine -2-Carbaldoxime, A Pro-Drug of N-Methyl Pyridinium-2- -Carbaldoxime Chloride

  11. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anti-cancer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R.; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R.; McCormick, Alon V.; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX) silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt% of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80–150 nm in size with a loading level of 47–74 weight percent (wt%) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36–59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy. PMID:26505116

  12. A Minireview: Usefulness of Transporter-Targeted Prodrugs in Enhancing Membrane Permeability.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Teruo

    2016-09-01

    Orally administered drugs are categorized into 4 classes depending on the solubility and permeability in a Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Prodrug derivatization is one of feasible approaches in modifying the physicochemical properties such as low solubility and low permeability without changing the in vivo pharmacological action of the parent drug. In this article, prodrug-targeted solute carrier (SLC) transporters were searched randomly by PubMed. Collected SLC transporters are amino acid transporter 1, bile acid transporter, carnitine transporter 2, glucose transporter 1, peptide transporter 1, vitamin C transporter 1, and multivitamin transporter. The usefulness of transporter-targeted prodrugs was evaluated in terms of membrane permeability, stability under acidic condition, and conversion to the parent drug. Among prodrugs collected, peptide transporter-targeted prodrugs exhibited the highest number, and some prodrugs such as valaciclovir and valganciclovir are clinically available. ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), reduces the intestinal absorption of lipophilic P-gp substrate drugs, and SLC transporter-targeted prodrugs of P-gp substrate drugs circumvented the P-gp-mediated efflux transport. Thus, SLC transporter-targeted prodrug derivatization seems to be feasible approach to increase the oral bioavailability by overcoming various unwanted physicochemical properties of orally administered drugs, although the effect of food on prodrug absorption should be taken into consideration.

  13. Amino Acid Prodrugs: An Approach to Improve the Absorption of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Mandava, Nanda; Gokulgandhi, Mitan; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Poor systemic concentrations of lopinavir (LPV) following oral administration occur due to high cellular efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and extensive metabolism by CYP3A4 enzymes. In this study, amino acid prodrugs of LPV were designed and investigated for their potential to circumvent efflux processes and first pass effects. Three amino acid prodrugs were synthesized by conjugating isoleucine, tryptophan and methionine to LPV. Prodrug formation was confirmed by the LCMS/MS and NMR technique. Interaction of LPV prodrugs with efflux proteins were carried out in P-gp (MDCK-MDR1) and MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2) transfected cells. Aqueous solubility studies demonstrated that prodrugs generate higher solubility relative to LPV. Prodrugs displayed higher stability under acidic conditions and degraded significantly with rise in pH. Uptake and transport data suggested that prodrugs carry significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Moreover, prodrugs exhibited higher liver microsomal stability relative to LPV. Hence, amino acid prodrug modification might be a viable approach for enhancing LPV absorption across intestinal epithelial and brain endothelial cells which expresses high levels of P-gp and MRP2. PMID:24727459

  14. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel-Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anticancer Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R; McCormick, Alon V; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W

    2015-12-07

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX)-silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt % of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80-150 nm in size with a loading level of 47-74 wt % (wt %) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36-59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy.

  15. Prodrug approaches for enhancing the bioavailability of drugs with low solubility.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christa E

    2009-11-01

    Low water solubility and low bioavailability are frequent problems in drug development, particularly in the area of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. This short review describes selected prodrug approaches which have been developed to enhance the bioavailability of drugs, especially that of poorly soluble drugs. Some of the most successful drugs on the market are prodrugs. With a better understanding of active-transport processes at cell membranes in the gut as well as at the blood-brain barrier, the importance of prodrug approaches will further increase in the future. Prodrug approaches will already be considered in the early phase of drug discovery.

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a sulfenamide prodrug of basic metformin.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Kristiina M; Leppänen, Jukka; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Sirviö, Jouni; Laine, Krista; Rautio, Jarkko

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, a previously described sulfenamide prodrug of a basic antidiabetic drug, metformin, was evaluated further. This sulfenamide prodrug was designed to improve the permeability and consequently the oral absorption and bioavailability (F) of the highly water-soluble metformin. Bioactivation of the prodrug was mediated by reduced glutathione, but it has been reported that sulfenamide prodrugs can also be bioactivated by other endogenous thiols like cysteine, and free thiol-containing proteins. Consistent with earlier findings for a sulfenamide prodrug of a weakly acid drug, linezolid, the permeability studies indicated that the metformin prodrug was also prematurely bioactivated on the apical surface of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Nevertheless, the bioavailability of metformin was increased by approximately 25% after oral administration of the prodrug in rats, most probably because of better oral absorption. This indicates that the sulfenamide prodrug approach may be used to improve the moderate oral bioavailability of metformin, which may help to decrease the uncomfortable gastrointestinal adverse effects associated with metformin therapy as the daily doses of metformin can be reduced. Furthermore, the present study confirms that the applicability of the sulfenamide prodrug approach can be successfully extended from weak NH acids to very basic guanide-type drugs.

  17. Theranostic reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles for near-infrared imaging and pancreatic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Haijie; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Yin; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2016-01-07

    A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and "click" reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Meanwhile, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that this prodrug exhibited high cytotoxicity against BxPC-3 cells. The in vivo whole-animal near-infrared (NIR) imaging results showed that these prodrug micelles could be effectively accumulated in tumor tissue and had a longer blood circulation time than IR820-COOH. The endogenous reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles with the in vivo NIR imaging ability might have great potential in image-guided pancreatic cancer therapy.

  18. Strategies in the designing of prodrugs, taking into account the antiviral and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Lesniewska-Kowiel, Monika A; Muszalska, Izabela

    2017-03-31

    Prodrugs are a wide group of substances of low or no pharmacological activity. The search for prodrugs is aimed at obtaining drugs characterized by better pharmacokinetic properties, pharmaceutical availability and selective activity of the active substance. Prodrug strategies involve chemical modifications and syntheses of new structures as well as the establishment of systems that deliver active substances for therapeutic aims that is prodrug-based treatments. The paper describes decisive factors in prodrug designing, such as enzymes participating in their activation, concepts of chemical modifications in the group of antiviral drugs and new anticancer treatments based on prodrugs (ADEPT, GDEPT, LEAPT). Prodrugs are seen as a possibility to design medicines which are selective for their therapeutic aim, for example a tumorous cell or a microorganism. Such an approach is possible thanks to the knowledge on: pathogenesis of diseases at molecular level, metabolism of healthy and affected cells as well as metabolism of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.). Many drugs which have been used for years are still studied in relation to their metabolism and their molecular mechanism of operation, providing new knowledge on active substances. Many of them meet the criteria of being a prodrug. The paper indicates methods of discovering new structures or modifications of known structures and their synthesis as well as new therapeutic strategies using prodrugs, which are expected to be successful and to broaden the knowledge on what is happening to the drug in the body, in addition to providing a molecular explanation of xenobiotics activity.

  19. Stereoisomeric Prodrugs to Improve Corneal Absorption of Prednisolone: Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ye; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiying; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-06-01

    A series of stereoisomeric prodrugs have been designed to examine efficacy in generating higher corneal absorption relative to prednisolone. Prodrugs have been studied and identified with LC/MS/MS and NMR analyses. Prodrugs have been characterized for aqueous solubility, buffer stability, and cytotoxicity. Cellular uptake and permeability studies have been conducted across MDCK-MDR1 cells to determine prodrug affinity towards P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and peptide transporters. Enzyme-mediated degradation of prodrugs has been determined using Statens Seruminstitut rabbit cornea (SIRC) cell homogenates. Prodrugs exhibited higher aqueous solubility relative to prednisolone. Prodrugs circumvented P-gp-mediated cellular efflux and were recognized by peptide transporters. Prodrugs (DP, DDP) produced with D-isomers (D-valine) were significantly stable against both chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses. The order of degradation rate constants observed in chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses were in the same order, i.e., L-valine-L-valine-prednisolone (LLP) > L-valine-D-valine-prednisolone (LDP) > D-valine-L-valine-prednisolone (DLP) > D-valine-D-valine-prednisolone (DDP). Results obtained from this study clearly suggest that stereoisomeric prodrug approach is an effective strategy to overcome P-gp-mediated efflux and improve transcorneal permeability of prednisolone following topical administration.

  20. Atomic structure of the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia phosphotyrosine-binding domain in complex with the LDL-receptor tail.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Hay; Shah, Mehul; Girardi, Enrico; Guo, Lixia; Farquhar, Marilyn G; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2012-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, high serum cholesterol in the form of LDL, is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. LDL is mostly degraded in the liver after its cellular internalization with the LDL receptor (LDLR). This clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends on the protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), which binds the LDLR cytoplasmic tail. Mutations in either the LDLR tail or in ARH lead to hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis. Despite the significance of this interaction for cholesterol homeostasis, no structure of either ARH or the LDLR tail is available to determine its molecular basis. We report the crystal structure at 1.37-Å resolution of the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of ARH in complex with an LDLR tail peptide containing the FxNPxY(0) internalization signal. Surprisingly, ARH interacts with a longer portion of the tail than previously recognized, which extends to I(-7)xF(-5)xNPxY(0)QK(+2). The LDLR tail assumes a unique "Hook"-like structure with a double β-turn conformation, which is accommodated in distinctive ARH structural determinants (i.e., an extended backbone hydrogen-bonding platform, three hydrophobic helical grooves, and a hydrophobic pocket for Y(0)). This unique complementarity differs significantly in related PTB proteins and may account for the unique physiological role of these partners in the hepatic uptake of cholesterol LDL. Moreover, the unusual hydrophobic pocket for Y(0) explains the distinctive ability of ARH to internalize proteins containing either FxNPxY(0) or FxNPxF(0) sequences. Biophysical measurements reveal how mutations associated with hypercholesterolemia destabilize ARH and its complex with LDLR and illuminate LDL internalization defects seen in patients.

  1. Recent advances in drugs and prodrugs design of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Vinsova, J; Vavrikova, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline the recent advances in chitosan molecular modeling, especially its usage as a prodrug or drug in a field of antibacterial, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activity. Polymeric materials like peptides, polysaccharides and other natural products have recently attracted attention as biodegradabile drug carriers. They can optimize clinical drug application, minimize the undesirable drug properties and improve drug efficiency. They are used for the slow release of effective components as depot forms, to improve membrane permeability, solubility and site-specific targeting. Chitosan is such a prospective cationic polysaccharide which has shown number of functions in many fields, including bio medicinal, pharmaceutical, preservative, microbial and others. This article discusses the structure characteristics of chitosan, a number of factors such as degree of polymerization, level of deacetylation, types of quarternisation, installation of various hydrophilic substituents, metal complexation, and combination with other active agents. Biodegradable, non-toxic and non-allergenic nature of chitosan encourages its potential use as a carrier for drug delivery systems in all above mentioned targets. The use of chitosan prodrug conjugates is aimed at the site-specific transport to the target cells use, for example, a spacer tetrapeptide Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly, promotion of drug incorporation into cells via endocytosis, hybridization or synergism of two types of drugs or a drug with a bioactive carrier. The design of chitosan macromolecule prodrugs is also discussed.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of mPEG-PLA prodrug micelles.

    PubMed

    Hans, Meredith; Shimoni, Karin; Danino, Dganit; Siegel, Steven J; Lowman, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric prodrugs of mPEG-PLA-haloperidol (methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid)) can self-assemble into nanoscale micelle-like structures in aqueous solutions. mPEG-PLA-haloperidol was prepared and characterized using 1H and 13C NMR. The conjugation efficiency was found to be 64.8 +/- 21%. Micelles that form spontaneously upon solubilization of the mPEG-PLA and the polymeric prodrugs in water were characterized using a variety of techniques. The mPEG-PLA and prodrug micelles were found to have diameters of 28.73 +/- 1.45 and 49.67 +/- 4.29 nm, respectively, using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The micelle size and polydispersity were also evaluated with cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and were consistent with the DLS results. Cryo-TEM and proton NMR confirmed that the micelles were spherical in shape. DLS was also used to determine the aggregation numbers of the micelles. The aggregation numbers ranged from 351 to 603. The change in aggregation number was dependent on the total drug incorporation into the micelle core. Critical micelle concentrations were determined for the various micelle/drug formulations and found to range from 3 to 14 microg/mL. Finally, drug was incorporated into the micelle core using the conjugate, free drug with a saturated aqueous phase during production, or a combination of both techniques. Drug incorporation could be increased from 3% to 20% (w/w) using the different formulations.

  3. Plasma-mediated release of morphine from synthesized prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thommey P; Huang, Baohua; Desai, Ankur; Zong, Hong; Cheng, Xue-Min; Kotlyar, Alina; Leroueil, Pascale R; Dunham, Thomas; van der Spek, Abraham; Ward, Brent B; Baker, James R

    2010-11-01

    Two morphine prodrugs ('PDA' and 'PDB') were synthesized and the kinetics of esterase-mediated morphine release from these prodrugs were determined when incubated with plasma from different animal species. Morphine was rapidly released from PDA by all species plasma with the maximum reached within 5-10min; the released morphine was biologically active as determined by an in vitro cAMP assay. The morphine was released from PDB at a slower and species-dependent rate (mouse>rat>guinea pig>human). Morphine's release from PDB appeared to be mediated by carboxyl esterases as the release was inhibited by the carboxyl esterase inhibitor benzil. PDA nor PDB induce cytotoxicity in the neuronal cell lines SK-NSH and SH-SY5Y. The carboxyl and amino functional moieties present on the linker portions of PDA and PDB, respectively, may facilitate their conjugation to nanoparticles to tailor morphine pharmacokinetics and specific targeting. These studies suggest the potential clinical utility of these prodrugs for morphine release at desired rates by administration of their mixture at selected ratios.

  4. Macromolecular Pt(IV) Prodrugs from Poly(organo)phosphazenes

    PubMed Central

    Banfić, Jelena; Theiner, Sarah; Körner, Wilfried; Brüggemann, Oliver; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Heffeter, Petra; Teasdale, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of novel macromolecular prodrugs via the conjugation of two platinum(IV) complexes to suitably functionalized poly(organo)phosphazenes is presented. The inorganic/organic polymers provide carriers with controlled dimensions due to the use of living cationic polymerization and allow the preparation of conjugates with excellent aqueous solubility but long-term hydrolytic degradability. The macromolecular Pt(IV) prodrugs are designed to undergo intracellular reduction and simultaneous release from the macromolecular carrier to present the active Pt(II) drug derivatives. In vitro investigations show a significantly enhanced intracellular uptake of Pt for the macromolecular prodrugs when compared to small molecule Pt complexes, which is also reflected in an increase in cytotoxicity. Interestingly, drug-resistant sublines also show a significantly smaller resistance against the conjugates compared to clinically established platinum drugs, indicating that an alternative uptake route of the Pt(IV) conjugates might also be able to overcome acquired resistance against Pt(II) drugs. In vivo studies of a selected conjugate show improved tumor shrinkage compared to the respective Pt(IV) complex. PMID:27169668

  5. New green synthesis and formulations of acyclovir prodrugs.

    PubMed

    de Regil-Hernández, Rubén; Martínez-Lagos, Fernando; Rodríguez-Bayón, Amalia; Sinisterra, José-Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Different green synthesis of alkyl esters of acyclovir (acyclovir prodrugs) is described. Hexanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic and tetradecanoic acyclovir esters were synthesized reacting acyclovir and the respective acid anhydride in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in solvents from renewable sources and without solvent (T=30 °C). Yields in prodrugs after 10 min of reaction were >95% using DMSO as solvent. The purification methodology was very simple, shorter and greener than previously described. The biosolvent, N,N-dimethylamide of decanoic acid, let us to obtain >95% yield at 24 h. This oily biosolvent is not dermotoxic and the reaction crude can directly be used in topic formulations. Syntheses without solvent proceeded successfully for acyclovir esters. Indeed, dodecanoate and tetradecanoate yielding >98% conversion of reactants in 30 min. In spite of requiring mild temperature (65 °C), substrate molar ratios were lowered to 1 : 1, thus conducing to a more efficient use of raw materials. The synthetic procedures were scaled up to a 300 g batch (yield 98-99% isolated ester). These esters can be used as acyclovir prodrugs in topic formulations. The esters release from an oil/water micro-emulsion and a hydrogel formulation were tested with good results.

  6. Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ehinger, Johannes K.; Piel, Sarah; Ford, Rhonan; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander; Morota, Saori; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Cornell, Clive; Moss, Steven J.; Metzsch, Carsten; Hansson, Magnus J.; Fliri, Hans; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most prevalent defect in the respiratory chain in paediatric mitochondrial disease. This heterogeneous group of diseases includes serious or fatal neurological presentations such as Leigh syndrome and there are very limited evidence-based treatment options available. Here we describe that cell membrane-permeable prodrugs of the complex II substrate succinate increase ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration in CI-deficient human blood cells, fibroblasts and heart fibres. Lactate accumulation in platelets due to rotenone-induced CI inhibition is reversed and rotenone-induced increase in lactate:pyruvate ratio in white blood cells is alleviated. Metabolomic analyses demonstrate delivery and metabolism of [13C]succinate. In Leigh syndrome patient fibroblasts, with a recessive NDUFS2 mutation, respiration and spare respiratory capacity are increased by prodrug administration. We conclude that prodrug-delivered succinate bypasses CI and supports electron transport, membrane potential and ATP production. This strategy offers a potential future therapy for metabolic decompensation due to mitochondrial CI dysfunction. PMID:27502960

  7. Discovery of Peptidomimetic Ligands of EED as Allosteric Inhibitors of PRC2.

    PubMed

    Barnash, Kimberly D; The, Juliana; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline L; Cholensky, Stephanie H; Worley, Beau M; Li, Fengling; Stuckey, Jacob I; Brown, Peter J; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Frye, Stephen V; James, Lindsey I

    2017-03-13

    The function of EED within polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is mediated by a complex network of protein-protein interactions. Allosteric activation of PRC2 by binding of methylated proteins to the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) aromatic cage is essential for full catalytic activity, but details of this regulation are not fully understood. EED's recognition of the product of PRC2 activity, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), stimulates PRC2 methyltransferase activity at adjacent nucleosomes leading to H3K27me3 propagation and, ultimately, gene repression. By coupling combinatorial chemistry and structure-based design, we optimized a low-affinity methylated jumonji, AT-rich interactive domain 2 (Jarid2) peptide to a smaller, more potent peptidomimetic ligand (Kd = 1.14 ± 0.14 μM) of the aromatic cage of EED. Our strategy illustrates the effectiveness of applying combinatorial chemistry to achieve both ligand potency and property optimization. Furthermore, the resulting ligands, UNC5114 and UNC5115, demonstrate that targeted disruption of EED's reader function can lead to allosteric inhibition of PRC2 catalytic activity.

  8. Guanidino groups greatly enhance the action of antimicrobial peptidomimetics against bacterial cytoplasmic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Konstantin; Bianchi, Christopher; Laursen, Jonas S.; Citterio, Linda; Hein-Kristensen, Line; Gram, Lone; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Olsen, Christian A.; Gidalevitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides or their synthetic mimics are a promising class of potential new antibiotics. Herein we assess the effect of the type of cationic side chain (i.e., guanidino vs. amino groups) on the membrane perturbing mechanismof antimicrobial α-peptide–β-peptoid chimeras. Langmuirmonolayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoylsn- glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were used to model cytoplasmic membranes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,while lipopolysaccharide Kdo2-lipid Amonolayersweremimicking the outer membrane of Gram-negative species.We report the results of themeasurements using an array of techniques, including high-resolution synchrotron surface X-ray scattering, epifluorescence microscopy, and in vitro antimicrobial activity to study the molecularmechanisms of peptidomimetic interaction with bacterialmembranes.We found guanidino group-containing chimeras to exhibit greater disruptive activity on DPPGmonolayers than the amino group-containing analogues. However, this effect was not observed for lipopolysaccharidemonolayerswhere the difference was negligible. Furthermore, the addition of the nitrobenzoxadiazole fluorophore did not reduce the insertion activity of these antimicrobials into both model membrane systems examined, which may be useful for future cellular localization studies.

  9. Design, synthesis, and application of OB2C combinatorial peptide and peptidomimetic libraries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiwu; Shih, Tsung-Chieh; Deng, Xiaojun; Anwar, Lara; Ahadi, Sara; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken; Lam, Kit S

    2015-01-01

    The "one-bead two-compound" (OB2C) combinatorial library is constructed on topologically segregated trifunctional bilayer beads such that each bead has a fixed cell-capturing ligand and a random library compound co-displayed on its surface and a chemical coding tag (bar code) inside the bead. An OB2C library containing thousands to millions of compounds can be synthesized and screened concurrently within a short period of time. When live cells are incubated with such OB2C libraries, every bead will be coated with a monolayer of cells. The cell membranes of the captured cells facing the bead surface are exposed to the library compounds tethered to each bead. A specific biochemical or cellular response can be detected with an appropriate reporter system. The OB2C method enables investigators to rapidly discover synthetic molecules that not only interact with cell-surface receptors but can also stimulate or inhibit downstream cell signaling. To demonstrate this powerful method, one OB2C peptide library and two OB2C peptidomimetic libraries were synthesized and screened against Molt-4 lymphoma cells to discover "death ligands." Apoptosis of the bead-bound cells was detected with immunocytochemistry using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-cleaved caspase-3 antibody and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as a substrate. Two novel synthetic "death ligands" against Molt-4 cells were discovered using this OB2C library approach.

  10. The Structural Basis for Peptidomimetic Inhibition of Eukaryotic Ribonucleotide Reductase: A Conformationally Flexible Pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hai; Fairman, James W.; Wijerathna, Sanath R.; Kreischer, Nathan R.; LaMacchia, John; Helmbrecht, Elizabeth; Cooperman, Barry S.; Dealwis, Chris

    2008-08-19

    Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes nucleoside diphosphate conversion to deoxynucleoside diphosphate. Crucial for rapidly dividing cells, RR is a target for cancer therapy. RR activity requires formation of a complex between subunits R1 and R2 in which the R2 C-terminal peptide binds to R1. Here we report crystal structures of heterocomplexes containing mammalian R2 C-terminal heptapeptide, P7 (Ac-{sup 1}FTLDADF{sup 7}) and its peptidomimetic P6 ({sup 1}Fmoc(Me)PhgLDChaDF{sup 7}) bound to Saccharomyces cerevisiae R1 (ScR1). P7 and P6, both of which inhibit ScRR, each bind at two contiguous sites containing residues that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Such binding is quite distinct from that reported for prokaryotes. The Fmoc group in P6 peptide makes several hydrophobic interactions that contribute to its enhanced potency in binding to ScR1. Combining all of our results, we observe three distinct conformations for peptide binding to ScR1. These structures provide pharmacophores for designing highly potent nonpeptide class I RR inhibitors.

  11. Conformationally Constrained Histidines in the Design of Peptidomimetics: Strategies for the χ-Space Control

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Azzurra; Pinnen, Francesco; Feliciani, Federica; Cacciatore, Ivana; Lucente, Gino; Mollica, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    A successful design of peptidomimetics must come to terms with χ-space control. The incorporation of χ-space constrained amino acids into bioactive peptides renders the χ1 and χ2 torsional angles of pharmacophore amino acids critical for activity and selectivity as with other relevant structural features of the template. This review describes histidine analogues characterized by replacement of native α and/or β-hydrogen atoms with alkyl substituents as well as analogues with α, β-didehydro unsaturation or Cα-Cβ cyclopropane insertion (ACC derivatives). Attention is also dedicated to the relevant field of β-aminoacid chemistry by describing the synthesis of β2- and β3-models (β-hHis). Structural modifications leading to cyclic imino derivatives such as spinacine, aza-histidine and analogues with shortening or elongation of the native side chain (nor-histidine and homo-histidine, respectively) are also described. Examples of the use of the described analogues to replace native histidine in bioactive peptides are also given. PMID:21686155

  12. The structural basis for peptidomimetic inhibition of eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductase: a conformationally flexible pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai; Fairman, James W; Wijerathna, Sanath R; Kreischer, Nathan R; LaMacchia, John; Helmbrecht, Elizabeth; Cooperman, Barry S; Dealwis, Chris

    2008-08-14

    Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes nucleoside diphosphate conversion to deoxynucleoside diphosphate. Crucial for rapidly dividing cells, RR is a target for cancer therapy. RR activity requires formation of a complex between subunits R1 and R2 in which the R2 C-terminal peptide binds to R1. Here we report crystal structures of heterocomplexes containing mammalian R2 C-terminal heptapeptide, P7 (Ac-1FTLDADF7) and its peptidomimetic P6 (1Fmoc(Me)PhgLDChaDF7) bound to Saccharomyces cerevisiae R1 (ScR1). P7 and P6, both of which inhibit ScRR, each bind at two contiguous sites containing residues that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Such binding is quite distinct from that reported for prokaryotes. The Fmoc group in P6 peptide makes several hydrophobic interactions that contribute to its enhanced potency in binding to ScR1. Combining all of our results, we observe three distinct conformations for peptide binding to ScR1. These structures provide pharmacophores for designing highly potent nonpeptide class I RR inhibitors.

  13. Conformer and pharmacophore based identification of peptidomimetic inhibitors of chikungunya virus nsP2 protease.

    PubMed

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Kesari, Pooja; Singh, Harvijay; Kumar, Pravindra; Tomar, Shailly

    2016-12-02

    Chikungunya virus nsP2 replication protein is a cysteine protease, which cleaves the nonstructural nsP1234 polyprotein into functional replication components. The cleavage and processing of nsP1234 by nsP2 protease is essential for the replication and proliferation of the virus. Thus, ChikV nsP2 protease is a promising target for antiviral drug discovery. In this study, the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of ChikV nsP2 protease (PDB ID: 4ZTB) was used for structure based identification and rational designing of peptidomimetic inhibitors against nsP2 protease. The interactions of the junction residues of nsP3/4 polyprotein in the active site of nsP2 protease have been mimicked to identify and design potential inhibitory molecules. Molecular docking of the nsP3/4 junction peptide in the active site of ChikV nsP2 protease provided the structural insight of the probable binding mode of nsP3/4 peptide and pigeonholed the molecular interactions critical for the substrate binding. Further, the shape and pharmacophoric properties of the viral nsP3/4 substrate peptide were taken into consideration and the mimetic molecules were identified and designed. The designed mimetic compounds were then analyzed by docking and their binding affinity was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Pyrazole derived ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics with potent anti-biofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mija; Gunasekaran, Pethaiah; Rajasekaran, Ganesan; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo-Jae; Bang, Geul; Cho, Kun; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2017-01-05

    In this study, we report on the first chemical synthesis of ultra-short pyrazole-arginine based antimicrobial peptidomimetics derived from the newly synthesized N-alkyl/aryl pyrazole amino acids. Through the systematic tuning of hydrophobicity, charge, and peptide length, we identified the shortest peptide Py11 with the most potent antimicrobial activity. Py11 displayed greater antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including MRSA, MDRPA, and VREF, which was approximately 2-4 times higher than that of melittin. Besides its higher selectivity (therapeutic index) toward bacterial cells than LL-37, Py11 showed highly increased proteolytic stability against trypsin digestion and maintained its antimicrobial activity in the presence of physiological salts. Interestingly, Py11 exhibited higher anti-biofilm activity against MDRPA compared to LL-37. The results from fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested that Py11 kills bacterial cells possibly by integrity disruption damaging the cell membrane, leading to the cytosol leakage and eventual cell lysis. Furthermore, Py11 displayed significant anti-inflammatory (endotoxin-neutralizing) activity by inhibiting LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α. Collectively, our results suggest that Py11 may serve as a model compound for the design of antimicrobial and antisepsis agents.

  15. Synthesis and optimization of peptidomimetics as HIV entry inhibitors against the receptor protein CD4 using STD NMR and ligand docking.

    PubMed

    Neffe, Axel T; Bilang, Matthias; Meyer, Bernd

    2006-09-07

    We recently described the design and synthesis of a novel CD4 binding peptidomimetic as a potential HIV entry inhibitor with a KD value of approximately 35 microM and a high proteolytic stability [A. T. Neffe and B. Meyer, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2004, 43, 2937-2940]. Based on saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR analyses and docking studies of peptidomimetics we now report the rational design, synthesis, and binding properties of 11 compounds with improved binding affinity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) resulted in a KD = 10 microM for the best peptidomimetic XI, whose binding affinity is confirmed by STD NMR (KD = 9 microM). The STD NMR determined binding epitope of the ligand indicates a very similar binding mode as that of the lead structure. The binding studies provide structure activity relationships and demonstrate the utility of this approach.

  16. Synthesis, biological evaluation, hydration site thermodynamics, and chemical reactivity analysis of α-keto substituted peptidomimetics for the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Weldon, David J; Shah, Falgun; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sheri, Anjaneyulu; Chada, Raji Reddy; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Shivakumar, Develeena; Sherman, Woody; Desai, Prashant; Jung, Jae-Chul; Avery, Mitchell A

    2014-03-01

    A new series of peptidomimetic pseudo-prolyl-homophenylalanylketones were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3). In addition, the parasite killing activity of these compounds in human blood-cultured P. falciparum was examined. Of twenty-two (22) compounds synthesized, one peptidomimetic comprising a homophenylalanine-based α-hydroxyketone linked Cbz-protected hydroxyproline (39) showed the most potency (IC50 80 nM against FP-2 and 60 nM against FP-3). In silico analysis of these peptidomimetic analogs offered important protein-ligand structural insights including the role, by WaterMap, of water molecules in the active sites of these protease isoforms. The pseudo-dipeptide 39 and related compounds may serve as a promising direction forward in the design of competitive inhibitors of falcipains for the effective treatment of malaria.

  17. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  18. Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Studies of Dexibuprofen–Antioxidant Mutual Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Rasool, Raqiqatur; Hassan, Mubashir; Ahsan, Haseeb; Afzal, Samina; Afzal, Khurram; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Dexibuprofen–antioxidant conjugates were synthesized with the aim to reduce its gastrointestinal effects. The esters analogs of dexibuprofen 5a–c were obtained by reacting its –COOH group with chloroacetyl derivatives 3a–c. The in vitro hydrolysis data confirmed that synthesized prodrugs 5a–c were stable in stomach while undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free dexibuprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2 suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to stomach than dexibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activity of 5c (p < 0.001) is more significant than the parent dexibuprofen. The prodrug 5c produced maximum inhibition (42.06%) of paw-edema against egg-albumin induced inflammation in mice. Anti-pyretic effects in mice indicated that prodrugs 5a and 5b showed significant inhibition of pyrexia (p < 0.001). The analgesic activity of 5a is more pronounced compared to other synthesized prodrugs. The mean percent inhibition indicated that the prodrug 5a was more active in decreasing the number of writhes induced by acetic acid than standard dexibuprofen. The ulcerogenic activity results assured that synthesized prodrugs produce less gastrointestinal adverse effects than dexibuprofen. The ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity results also confirmed that synthesized prodrugs are less irritant to gastrointestinal mucosa than the parent dexibuprofen. Molecular docking analysis showed that the prodrugs 5a–c interacts with the residues present in active binding sites of target protein. The stability of drug–target complexes is verified by molecular dynamic simulation study. It exhibited that synthesized prodrugs formed stable complexes with the COX-2 protein thus support our wet lab results. It is therefore concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects than the parent drug. PMID:28009827

  19. Synthesis of a novel legumain-cleavable colchicine prodrug with cell-specific toxicity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert Løvsletten; Åstrand, Ove Alexander Høgmoen; Nguyen, Luan Minh; Elvestrand, Tina; Hagelin, Gunnar; Solberg, Rigmor; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Rongved, Pål

    2014-07-01

    Conventional chemotherapy has undesirable toxic side-effects to healthy tissues due to low cell selectivity of cytotoxic drugs. One approach to increase the specificity of a cytotoxic drug is to make a less toxic prodrug which becomes activated at the tumour site. The cysteine protease legumain have remarkable restricted substrate specificity and is the only known mammalian asparaginyl (Asn) endopeptidase. Over-expression of legumain is reported in cancers and unstable atherosclerotic plaques, and utilizing legumain is a promising approach to activate prodrugs. In this study we have synthesized the legumain-cleavable peptide sequence N-Boc-Ala-Ala-Asn-Val-OH. The peptide was subsequently conjugated to deacetyl colchicine during three steps to produce Suc-Ala-Ala-Asn-Val-colchicine (prodrug) with >90% chemical purity. Several cell lines with different expressions and activities of legumain were used to evaluate the general toxicity, specificity and efficacy of the microtubule inhibitor colchicine, valyl colchicine and the legumain-cleavable colchicine prodrug. The prodrug was more toxic to the colorectal cancer HCT116 cells (expressing both the 36kDa active and 56kDa proform of legumain) than SW620 cells (only expressing the 56kDa prolegumain) indicating a relationship between toxicity of the prodrug and activity of legumain in the cells. Also, in monoclonal legumain over-expressing HEK293 cells the prodrug toxicity was higher compared to native HEK293 cells. Furthermore, co-administration of the prodrug either with the potent legumain inhibitor cystatin E/M or the endocytosis inhibitor Dyngo-4a inhibited cell death, indicating that the prodrug toxicity was dependent on both asparaginyl endopeptidase activity and endocytosis. This colchicine prodrug adds to a legumain-activated prodrug strategy approach and could possibly be of use both in targeted anticancer and anti-inflammatory therapy.

  20. Discovery of a new isomannide-based peptidomimetic synthetized by Ugi multicomponent reaction as human tissue kallikrein 1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Barros, Thalita G; Santos, Jorge A N; de Souza, Bruno E G; Sodero, Ana Carolina R; de Souza, Alessandra M T; da Silva, Dayane P; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Pinheiro, Sergio; Dias, Luiza R S; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; Puzer, Luciano; Muri, Estela M F

    2017-01-15

    Human kallikrein 1 (KLK1) is the most extensively studied member of this family and plays a major role in inflammation processes. From Ugi multicomponent reactions, isomannide-based peptidomimetic 10 and 13 where synthesized and showed low micromolar values of IC50 for KLK1 The most active compound (10) presented competitive mechanism, with three structural modifications important to interact with active site residues which corroborates its KLK1 inhibition. Finally, the most active compound also showed good ADMET profile, which indicates compound 10 as a potential hit in the search for new KLK1 inhibitors with low side effects.

  1. Efficient macrocyclization of U-turn preorganized peptidomimetics: the role of intramolecular H-bond and solvophobic effects.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Jorge; Bolte, Michael; Burguete, M Isabel; Galindo, Francisco; García-España, Enrique; Luis, Santiago V; Miravet, Juan F

    2003-06-04

    Simple peptidomimetic molecules derived from amino acids were reacted with meta- and para-bis(bromomethyl)benzene in acetonitrile to very efficiently yield macrocyclic structures. The cyclization reaction does not require high dilution techniques and seems to be insensitive to the size of the formed macrocycle. The analysis of data obtained by (1)H NMR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, fluorescence measurements, and molecular mechanics indicate that folded conformations can preorganize the system for an efficient cyclization. The role played by intramolecular hydrogen-bonding and solvophobic effects in the presence of folded conformations is analyzed.

  2. Sulfur dioxide prodrugs: triggered release of SO2via a click reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Ji, Xingyue; Du, Zhenming; Wang, Binghe

    2017-01-24

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is being recognized as a possible endogenous gasotransmitter with importance on par with that of NO, CO, and H2S. Herein we describe a series of SO2 prodrugs that are activated for SO2 release via a bioorthogonal click reaction. The release rate can be tuned by adjusting the substituents on the prodrug.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of atorvastatin esters as prodrugs metabolically activated by human carboxylesterases.

    PubMed

    Mizoi, Kenta; Takahashi, Masato; Haba, Masami; Hosokawa, Masakiyo

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized 11 kinds of prodrug with an esterified carboxylic acid moiety of atorvastatin in moderate to high yields. We discovered that they underwent metabolic activation specifically by the human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) isozyme. The results suggested that these ester compounds of atorvastatin have the potential to act as prodrugs in vivo.

  4. Acid-responsive PEGylated doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticles for neuropilin-1 receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Huijuan; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembled prodrug nanoparticles have demonstrated great promise in cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, we developed a new kind of prodrug nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. PEGylated doxorubicin conjugate with an acid-cleavable cis-aconityl spacer was prepared. Then it was functionalized with a tumor-penetrating peptide, Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-Lys (CRGDK), providing the prodrug nanoparticles with the specific binding ability to neurophilin-1 receptor. In acid mediums, doxorubicin could be released from the prodrug nanoparticles with an accumulative release around 60% through the acid-triggered hydrolysis of cis-aconityl bond and nanoparticle disassembly. Whereas, drug release was slow under a neutral pH and the accumulative drug release was less than 16%. In the cell culture tests, our prodrug nanoparticles showed enhanced endocytosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells including HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but lower cytotoxicity in human cardiomyocyte H2C9. In the animal experiments, the prodrug nanoparticles were intravenously injected into Balb/c nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumors. Enhanced drug penetration and accumulation in tumors, accompanying with a rapid early tumor-binding behavior, was observed after intravenous injection of the peptide modified prodrug nanoparticles. These data suggests that the acid-sensitive and tumor-targeting PEGylated doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticle may be an efficient drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Transmembrane signalling at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Positive regulation by the C-terminal phosphotyrosine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Magni, M; Pandiella, A; Helin, K; Meldolesi, J; Beguinot, L

    1991-01-01

    point mutants suggest that the role of phosphotyrosine residues is not in the participation in specific amino acid sequences, but rather in the introduction of strong negative charges at strategic sites of the receptor tail. As a consequence of autophosphorylation, the receptor could become competent for specific association with phospholipase C gamma, with ensuing activation by tyrosine phosphorylation followed by the chains of intracellular responses ultimately leading to DNA synthesis and cell duplication. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1713444

  6. The Tetraspanin-Associated Uroplakins Family (UPK2/3) Is Evolutionarily Related to PTPRQ, a Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chicote, Javier U.; DeSalle, Rob; Segarra, José; Sun, Tung-Tien; García-España, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Uroplakins are a widespread group of vertebrate integral membrane proteins that belong to two different families: UPK1a and UPK1b belong to the large tetraspanin (TSPAN) gene family, and UPK3a, UPK3b, UPK3c, UPK3d, UPK2a and UPK2b form a family of their own, the UPK2/3 tetraspanin-associated family. In a previous study, we reported that uroplakins first appeared in vertebrates, and that uroplakin tetraspanins (UPK1a and UPK1b) should have originated by duplication of an ancestor tetraspanin gene. However, the evolutionary origin of the UPK2/3 family remains unclear. In this study, we provide evidence that the UPK2/3 family originated by gene duplication and domain loss from a protoPTPRQ-like basal deuterostome gene. PTPRQs are members of the subtype R3 tyrosine phosphatase receptor (R3 PTPR) family, which are characterized by having a unique modular composition of extracellular fibronectin (FN3) repeats, a transmembrane helix, and a single intra-cytoplasmic phosphotyrosine phophatase (PTP) domain. Our assumption of a deuterostome protoPTPRQ-like gene as an ancestor of the UPK2/3 family by gene duplication and loss of its PTP and fibronectin (FN3) domains, excluding the one closest to the transmembrane helix, is based on the following: (i) phylogenetic analyses, (ii) the existence of an identical intron/exon gene pattern between UPK2/3 and the corresponding genetic region in R3 PTPRs, (iii) the conservation of cysteine patterns and protein motifs between UPK2/3 and PTPRQ proteins and, (iv) the existence in tunicates, the closest organisms to vertebrates, of two sequences related to PTPRQ; one with the full subtype R3 modular characteristic and another without the PTP domain but with a short cytoplasmic tail with some sequence similarity to that of UPK3a. This finding will facilitate further studies on the structure and function of these important proteins with implications in human diseases. PMID:28099513

  7. The Potential Therapeutic Application of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Carlota; Maione, Francesco; Iqbal, Asif J.; Mascolo, Nicola; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapies are currently under investigation to improve pathological cardiovascular complications, but yet, there have been very few new medications approved for intervention/treatment. Therefore, new approaches to treat CVD are urgently required. Attempts to prevent vascular complications usually involve amelioration of contributing risk factors and underlying processes such as inflammation, obesity, hyperglycaemia, or hypercholesterolemia. Historically, the development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been avoided by the Pharmaceutical industry due to their low stability, size, rate of degradation, and poor delivery. However, more recently, resurgence has taken place in developing peptides and their mimetics for therapeutic intervention. As a result, increased attention has been placed upon using peptides that mimic the function of mediators involved in pathologic processes during vascular damage. This review will provide an overview on novel targets and experimental therapeutic approaches based on peptidomimetics for modulation in CVD. We aim to specifically examine apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE mimetic peptides and their role in cholesterol transport during atherosclerosis, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1-derived peptides and annexin-A1 as potent inhibitors of inflammation, incretin mimetics and their function in glucose-insulin tolerance, among others. With improvements in technology and synthesis platforms the future looks promising for the development of novel peptides and mimetics for therapeutic use. However, within the area of CVD much more work is required to identify and improve our understanding of peptide structure, interaction, and function in order to select the best targets to take forward for treatment. PMID:28111551

  8. Design, Synthesis and in vitro Characterization of Novel Hybrid Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of STAT3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Vijay M.; Yue, Peibin; Fletcher, Steven; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Luu, Diana P.; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Turkson, James; Gunning, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein signaling pathways has been extensively implicated in human cancers. Given STAT3’s prominent dysregulatory role in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis, there has been a significant effort to discover STAT3-specific inhibitors as chemical probes for defining the aberrant STAT3-mediated molecular events that support the malignant phenotype. To identify novel, STAT3-selective inhibitors suitable for interrogating STAT3 signaling in tumor cells, we explored the design of hybrid molecules by conjugating a known STAT3 inhibitory peptidomimetic, ISS610 to the high-affinity STAT3-binding peptide motif derived from the ILR/gp-130. Several hybrid molecules were examined in in vitro biophysical and biochemical studies for inhibitory potency against STAT3. Lead inhibitor 14aa was shown to strongly bind to STAT3 (KD = 900 nM), disrupt STAT3:phosphopeptide complexes (Ki = 5 μM) and suppress STAT3 activity in in vitro DNA-binding activity/ electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Moreover, lead STAT3 inhibitor 14aa induced a time-dependent inhibition of constitutive STAT3 activation in v-Src transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), with 80 % suppression of constitutively-active STAT3 at six hours following treatment of NIH3T3/v-Src. However, STAT3 activity recovered at 24 hours after treatment of cells, suggesting potential degradation of the compound. Results further showed a suppression of aberrant STAT3 activity in NIH3T3/v-Src by the treatment with compound 14aa-OH, which is the non-pTyr version of compound 14aa. The effect of compounds 14aa and 14aa-OH are accompanied by a moderate loss of cell viability. PMID:21216604

  9. The Potential Therapeutic Application of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Recio, Carlota; Maione, Francesco; Iqbal, Asif J; Mascolo, Nicola; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapies are currently under investigation to improve pathological cardiovascular complications, but yet, there have been very few new medications approved for intervention/treatment. Therefore, new approaches to treat CVD are urgently required. Attempts to prevent vascular complications usually involve amelioration of contributing risk factors and underlying processes such as inflammation, obesity, hyperglycaemia, or hypercholesterolemia. Historically, the development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been avoided by the Pharmaceutical industry due to their low stability, size, rate of degradation, and poor delivery. However, more recently, resurgence has taken place in developing peptides and their mimetics for therapeutic intervention. As a result, increased attention has been placed upon using peptides that mimic the function of mediators involved in pathologic processes during vascular damage. This review will provide an overview on novel targets and experimental therapeutic approaches based on peptidomimetics for modulation in CVD. We aim to specifically examine apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE mimetic peptides and their role in cholesterol transport during atherosclerosis, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1-derived peptides and annexin-A1 as potent inhibitors of inflammation, incretin mimetics and their function in glucose-insulin tolerance, among others. With improvements in technology and synthesis platforms the future looks promising for the development of novel peptides and mimetics for therapeutic use. However, within the area of CVD much more work is required to identify and improve our understanding of peptide structure, interaction, and function in order to select the best targets to take forward for treatment.

  10. Current Advances in L-DOPA and DOPA-Peptidomimetics: Chemistry, Applications and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Tortolini, Silvia; Rotelli, Luca; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine [2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (L-DOPA) is a natural constituent of animal and plant tissue derived from post-translational modification of the amino acid tyrosine. L-DOPA is modified during metabolism to catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are characterized by different biological activities. L-DOPA has been the first drug of choice in the therapy of Parkinson's disease that is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta. The social and economic impact of these diseases is very high due to the progressive aging of the population. This review focuses on the biological effect of LDOPA, as well as on the synthesis of L-DOPA derivatives and their application in central nervous system diseases. Among them, L-DOPA-containing peptides (L-DOPA-Pep) show important biological and pharmacological activities. For example, L-DOPA analogues of the alpha-factor interact with models of the G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and are used for improving L-DOPA absorption in long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease and as skin moisturizer in cosmetic compositions. Moreover, L-DOPA residues in proteins provide reactive tools for the preparation of adhesives and coatings materials. Usually, L-DOPA-Pep is prepared by traditional liquid or solid state procedures starting from simple amino acids. Recently, selective side-chain modifications of pre-formed peptides have also been reported both for linear and branched peptides. Here, we describe the recent advances in the synthesis of L-DOPA and dopa-peptidomimetics and their biological and pharmacological activities, focusing the attention on new synthetic procedures and biological mechanism of actions.

  11. Prodrugs as self-assembled hydrogels: a new paradigm for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Wiradharma, Nikken; Ankrum, James A; Miranda, Oscar R; John, George; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2013-12-01

    Prodrug-based self-assembled hydrogels represent a new class of active biomaterials that can be harnessed for medical applications, in particular the design of stimuli responsive drug delivery devices. In this approach, a promoiety is chemically conjugated to a known-drug to generate an amphiphilic prodrug that is capable of forming self-assembled hydrogels. Prodrug-based self-assembled hydrogels are advantageous as they alter the solubility of the drug, enhance drug loading, and eliminate the use of harmful excipients. In addition, self-assembled prodrug hydrogels can be designed to undergo controlled drug release or tailored degradation in response to biological cues. Herein we review the development of prodrug-based self-assembled hydrogels as an emerging class of biomaterials that overcome several common limitations encountered in conventional drug delivery.

  12. A Novel, Unusually Efficacious Duocarmycin Carbamate Prodrug That Releases No Residual Byproduct

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Amanda L.; Duncan, Katharine K.; Parelkar, Nikhil K.; Weir, Scott J.; Vielhauer, George A.; Boger, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    A unique heterocyclic carbamate prodrug of seco-CBI-indole2 that releases no residual byproduct is reported as a new member of a class of hydrolyzable prodrugs of the duocarmycin and CC-1065 family of natural products. The prodrug was designed to be activated by hydrolysis of a carbamate releasing the free drug without the cleavage release of a traceable extraneous group. Unlike prior carbamate prodrugs examined that are rapidly cleaved in vivo, the cyclic carbamate was found to be exceptionally stable to hydrolysis under both chemical and biological conditions providing a slow, sustained release of the exceptionally potent free drug. An in vivo evaluation of the prodrug found that its efficacy exceeded that of the parent drug, that its therapeutic window of efficacy versus toxicity is much larger than the parent drug, and that its slow free drug release permitted the safe and efficacious use of doses 150-fold higher than the parent compound. PMID:22650244

  13. Efficacious Cyclic N-Acyl O-Amino Phenol Duocarmycin Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Amanda L.; Duncan, Katharine K.; Parelkar, Nikhil K.; Brown, Douglas; Vielhauer, George A.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Two novel cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol prodrugs are reported as new members of a unique class of reductively cleaved prodrugs of the duocarmycin family of natural products. These prodrugs were explored with the expectation that they may be cleaved selectively within hypoxic tumor environments that have intrinsically higher concentrations of reducing nucleophiles and were designed to liberate the free drug without the release of an extraneous group. In vivo evaluation of the prodrug 6 showed that it exhibits extraordinary efficacy (T/C > 1500, L1210; 6/10 one year survivors) substantially exceeding that of the free drug, that its therapeutic window of activity is much larger permitting a dosing ≥ 40-fold higher than the free drug, and yet that it displays a potency in vivo that approaches the free drug (within 3-fold). Clearly, the prodrug 6 benefits from either its controlled slow release of the free drug or its preferential intracellular reductive cleavage. PMID:23627265

  14. Improvement of Topical Palmitoylethanolamide Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Pegylated Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Tronino, Diana; Russo, Roberto; Ostacolo, Carmine; Mazzolari, Angelica; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Laneri, Sonia; La Rana, Giovanna; Sacchi, Antonia; Della Valle, Francesco; Vistoli, Giulio; Calignano, Antonio

    2015-09-08

    A small library of polyethylene glycol esters of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) was synthesized with the aim of improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the parent drug after topical administration. Synthesized prodrugs were studied for their skin accumulation, pharmacological activities, in vitro chemical stability, and in silico enzymatic hydrolysis. Prodrugs proved to be able to delay and prolong the pharmacological activity of PEA by modification of its skin accumulation profile. Pharmacokinetic improvements were particularly evident when specific structural requirements, such as flexibility and reduced molecular weight, were respected. Some of the synthesized prodrugs prolonged the pharmacological effects 5 days following topical administration, while a formulation composed by PEA and two pegylated prodrugs showed both rapid onset and long-lasting activity, suggesting the potential use of polyethylene glycol prodrugs of PEA as a suitable candidate for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases.

  15. Binding of the Grb2 SH2 domain to phosphotyrosine motifs does not change the affinity of its SH3 domains for Sos proline-rich motifs.

    PubMed

    Cussac, D; Frech, M; Chardin, P

    1994-09-01

    Phosphotyrosine peptide binding to Grb2 induces tryptophan fluorescence changes in the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Affinities are in the nanomolar range, the Shc peptide having the highest affinity, followed by peptides mimicking Grb2 binding sites on EGF and HGF receptors, the putative sites on insulin and IGF-1 receptors having much lower affinities. Proline-rich peptide binding to the SH3 domains induces fluorescence changes mainly in the C-terminal SH3. Affinities are in the micromolar range, the highest affinity peptides mimicking the first proline-rich motif of the Sos C-terminus. Additional residues before this PVPPPVPP motif provide a minor contribution to the binding, but the two residues after this motif are important and may contribute to specificity. The affinity of each SH3 for each proline-rich motif is too low to account for the high stability of the Grb2-Sos complex, suggesting that Grb2 recognizes other structural features in the Sos C-terminus. Binding of a phosphotyrosine peptide to the SH2 has no effect on the SH3s. Thus the binding of Grb2 to a receptor or to an associated protein phosphorylated on tyrosines is unlikely to activate the exchange factor activity of Sos through a conformational change transmitted from the SH2 to the SH3 domains.

  16. A novel conserved phosphotyrosine motif in the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor signaling adaptor Dof with a redundant role in signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Agnes; Vogelsang, Elisabeth; Beug, Hartmut; Leptin, Maria

    2010-04-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signals through adaptors constitutively associated with the receptor. In Drosophila melanogaster, the FGFR-specific adaptor protein Downstream-of-FGFR (Dof) becomes phosphorylated upon receptor activation at several tyrosine residues, one of which recruits Corkscrew (Csw), the Drosophila homolog of SHP2, which provides a molecular link to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, the Csw pathway is not the only link from Dof to MAPK. In this study, we identify a novel phosphotyrosine motif present in four copies in Dof and also found in other insect and vertebrate signaling molecules. We show that these motifs are phosphorylated and contribute to FGF signal transduction. They constitute one of three sets of phosphotyrosines that act redundantly in signal transmission: (i) a Csw binding site, (ii) four consensus Grb2 recognition sites, and (iii) four novel tyrosine motifs. We show that Src64B binds to Dof and that Src kinases contribute to FGFR-dependent MAPK activation. Phosphorylation of the novel tyrosine motifs is required for the interaction of Dof with Src64B. Thus, Src64B recruitment to Dof through the novel phosphosites can provide a new link to MAPK activation and other cellular responses. This may give a molecular explanation for the involvement of Src kinases in FGF-dependent developmental events.

  17. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functions via epigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Masciarelli, Silvia; Madaro, Luca; Iosue, Ilaria; Marrocco, Valeria; Relaix, Frédéric; Fazi, Francesco; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A; Bouché, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regulation of the stem cell fate is fundamental for designing novel regenerative medicine strategies. Previous studies have suggested that pharmacological treatments with small molecules provide a robust and reversible regulation of the stem cell program. Previously, we showed that treatment with a vanadium compound influences muscle cell fatein vitro In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (BpV) drives primary muscle cells to a poised stem cell stage, with enhanced function in muscle regenerationin vivofollowing transplantation into injured muscles. Importantly, BpV-treated cells displayed increased self-renewal potentialin vivoand replenished the niche in both satellite and interstitial cell compartments. Moreover, we found that BpV treatment induces specific activating chromatin modifications at the promoter regions of genes associated with stem cell fate, includingSca-1andPw1 Thus, our findings indicate that BpV resets the cell fate program by specific epigenetic regulations, such that the committed myogenic cell fate is redirected to an earlier progenitor cell fate stage, which leads to an enhanced regenerative stem cell potential.-Smeriglio, P., Alonso-Martin, S., Masciarelli, S., Madaro, L., Iosue, I., Marrocco, V., Relaix, F., Fazi, F., Marazzi, G., Sassoon, D. A., Bouché, M. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functionsviaepigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

  18. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-08

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  19. A Food Effect Study of an Oral Thrombin Inhibitor and Prodrug Approach To Mitigate It.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihye; Kim, Bongchan; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Park, Hee Dong; Chung, Kyungha; Lee, Sung-Hack; Paek, Seungyup; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoon, SukKyoon; Kim, Aeri

    2016-04-04

    LB30870, a new direct thrombin inhibitor, showed 80% reduction in oral bioavailability in fed state. The present study aims to propose trypsin binding as a mechanism for such negative food effect and demonstrate a prodrug approach to mitigate food effect. Effect of food composition on fed state oral bioavailability of LB30870 was studied in dogs. Various prodrugs were synthesized, and their solubility, permeability, and trypsin binding affinity were measured. LB30870 and prodrugs were subject to cocrystallization with trypsin, and the X-ray structures of cocrystals were determined. Food effect was studied in dogs for selected prodrugs. Protein or lipid meal appeared to affect oral bioavailability of LB30870 in dogs more than carbohydrate meal. Blocking both carboxyl and amidine groups of LB30870 resulted in trypsin Ki values orders of magnitude higher than that of LB30870. Prodrugs belonged to either Biopharmaceutical Classification System I, II, or III. X-ray crystallography revealed that prodrugs did not bind to trypsin, but instead their hydrolysis product at the amidine blocking group formed cocrystal with trypsin. A prodrug with significantly less food effect than LB30870 was identified. Binding of prodrugs to food components such as dietary fiber appeared to counteract the positive effect brought with the prodrug approach. Further formulation research is warranted to enhance the oral bioavailability of prodrugs. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the negative food effect of LB30870 can be attributed to trypsin binding. Trypsin binding study is proposed as a screening tool during lead optimization to minimize food effect.

  20. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  1. Functional characterization of five different PRXamide receptors of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with peptidomimetics and identificaiton of agonists and antagonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neuropeptidergic system in insects is considered to be an excellent target for pest control strategies. One promising biorational approach is the use of peptidomimetics modified from endogenous ligands to enhance biostability and bioavailability. In this study, we functionally characterized fiv...

  2. NMR-assisted computational studies of peptidomimetic inhibitors bound in the hydrophobic pocket of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41

    PubMed Central

    Gochin, Miriam; Whitby, Landon R.; Phillips, Aaron H.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the inherently flexible nature of a protein – protein interaction surface, it is difficult both to inhibit the association with a small molecule, and to predict how it might bind to the surface. In this study, we have examined small molecules that mediate the interaction between a WWI motif on the C-helix of HIV-1 glycoprotein-41 and a deep hydrophobic pocket contained in the interior N-helical trimer. Association between these two components of gp41 leads to virus–cell and cell–cell fusion, which could be abrogated in the presence of an inhibitor that binds tightly in the pocket. We have studied a comprehensive combinatorial library of α-helical peptidomimetics, and found that compounds with strongly hydrophobic side chains had the highest affinity. Computational docking studies produced multiple possible binding modes due to the flexibility of both the binding site and the peptidomimetic compounds. We applied a transferred paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiment to two selected members of the library, and showed that addition of a few experimental constraints enabled definitive identification of unique binding poses. Computational docking results were extremely sensitive to side chain conformations, and slight variations could preclude observation of the experimentally validated poses. Different receptor structures were required for docking simulations to sample the correct pose for the two compounds. The study demonstrated the sensitivity of predicted poses to receptor structure and indicated the importance of experimental verification when docking to a malleable protein – protein interaction surface. PMID:23893342

  3. Disaggregation of Amylin Aggregate by Novel Conformationally Restricted Aminobenzoic Acid containing α/β and α/γ Hybrid Peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ashim; Kalita, Sourav; Kalita, Sujan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Mandal, Bhubaneswar

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a threat to the current world. More than ninety five per cent of all the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregates of Amylin hormone, which is co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells, inhibit the activities of insulin and glucagon and cause T2DM. Importance of the conformationally restricted peptides for drug design against T2DM has been invigorated by recent FDA approval of Symlin, which is a large conformationally restricted peptide. However, Symlin still has some issues including solubility, oral bioavailability and cost of preparation. Herein, we introduced a novel strategy for conformationally restricted peptide design adopting a minimalistic approach for cost reduction. We have demonstrated efficient inhibition of amyloid formation of Amylin and its disruption by a novel class of conformationally restricted β-sheet breaker hybrid peptidomimetics (BSBHps). We have inserted β, γ and δ -aminobenzoic acid separately into an amyloidogenic peptide sequence, synthesized α/β, α/γ and α/δ hybrid peptidomimetics, respectively. Interestingly, we observed the aggregation inhibitory efficacy of α/β and α/γ BSBHps, but not of α/δ analogues. They also disrupt existing amyloids into non-toxic forms. Results may be useful for newer drug design against T2DM as well as other amyloidoses and understanding amyloidogenesis. PMID:28054630

  4. NMR-assisted computational studies of peptidomimetic inhibitors bound in the hydrophobic pocket of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochin, Miriam; Whitby, Landon R.; Phillips, Aaron H.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the inherently flexible nature of a protein-protein interaction surface, it is difficult both to inhibit the association with a small molecule, and to predict how it might bind to the surface. In this study, we have examined small molecules that mediate the interaction between a WWI motif on the C-helix of HIV-1 glycoprotein-41 (gp41) and a deep hydrophobic pocket contained in the interior N-helical trimer. Association between these two components of gp41 leads to virus-cell and cell-cell fusion, which could be abrogated in the presence of an inhibitor that binds tightly in the pocket. We have studied a comprehensive combinatorial library of α-helical peptidomimetics, and found that compounds with strongly hydrophobic side chains had the highest affinity. Computational docking studies produced multiple possible binding modes due to the flexibility of both the binding site and the peptidomimetic compounds. We applied a transferred paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiment to two selected members of the library, and showed that addition of a few experimental constraints enabled definitive identification of unique binding poses. Computational docking results were extremely sensitive to side chain conformations, and slight variations could preclude observation of the experimentally validated poses. Different receptor structures were required for docking simulations to sample the correct pose for the two compounds. The study demonstrated the sensitivity of predicted poses to receptor structure and indicated the importance of experimental verification when docking to a malleable protein-protein interaction surface.

  5. Disaggregation of Amylin Aggregate by Novel Conformationally Restricted Aminobenzoic Acid containing α/β and α/γ Hybrid Peptidomimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Ashim; Kalita, Sourav; Kalita, Sujan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Mandal, Bhubaneswar

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a threat to the current world. More than ninety five per cent of all the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregates of Amylin hormone, which is co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells, inhibit the activities of insulin and glucagon and cause T2DM. Importance of the conformationally restricted peptides for drug design against T2DM has been invigorated by recent FDA approval of Symlin, which is a large conformationally restricted peptide. However, Symlin still has some issues including solubility, oral bioavailability and cost of preparation. Herein, we introduced a novel strategy for conformationally restricted peptide design adopting a minimalistic approach for cost reduction. We have demonstrated efficient inhibition of amyloid formation of Amylin and its disruption by a novel class of conformationally restricted β-sheet breaker hybrid peptidomimetics (BSBHps). We have inserted β, γ and δ -aminobenzoic acid separately into an amyloidogenic peptide sequence, synthesized α/β, α/γ and α/δ hybrid peptidomimetics, respectively. Interestingly, we observed the aggregation inhibitory efficacy of α/β and α/γ BSBHps, but not of α/δ analogues. They also disrupt existing amyloids into non-toxic forms. Results may be useful for newer drug design against T2DM as well as other amyloidoses and understanding amyloidogenesis.

  6. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  7. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate beads. Release of prodrug from alginate beads was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237

  8. Molecular Pathways: Hypoxia-activated prodrugs in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Baran, Natalia; Konopleva, Marina

    2017-01-30

    Hypoxia is a known feature of aggressive solid tumors as well as a critical hallmark of the niche in aggressive hematologic malignances. Hypoxia is associated with insufficient response to standard therapy, resulting in disease progression and curtailed patients' survival through maintenance of noncycling cancer stem-like cells. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signaling pathways induced by hypoxia is essential to overcoming these effects. Recent findings demonstrate that bone marrow in the setting of hematologic malignancies is highly hypoxic and that progression of the disease is associated with expansion of hypoxic niches and stabilization of the oncogenic hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α). Solid tumors have also been shown to harbor hypoxic areas, maintaining survival of cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. Developing new strategies for targeting hypoxia has become a crucial approach in modern cancer therapy. The number of preclinical and clinical trials targeting low-oxygen tumor compartments or the hypoxic bone marrow niche via hypoxia-activated prodrugs is increasing. This review discusses the development of the hypoxia-activated prodrugs and their applicability in treating both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

  9. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel water-soluble prodrugs of buparvaquone.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Antti; Rautio, Jarkko; Nevalainen, Tapio; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Vepsälainen, Jouko; Järvinen, Tomi

    2004-10-01

    Novel water-soluble phosphate prodrugs (2b-5b) of buparvaquone-oxime (1a) and buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as potential oral prodrugs against leishmaniasis. Buparvaquone-oxime (1a), and most probably also buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b), released the parent buparvaquone via a cytochrome P450-catalysed reaction. The prodrugs 2b-5b showed significantly higher aqueous solubilities (>4 mg/ml) than buparvaquone (< or = 0.03 microg/ml) over a pH range of 3.0-7.4. The prodrugs 2b, 3b and 5b rapidly released (t1/2 = 7 min) the corresponding oximes of buparvaquone (1a and 1b), and prodrug 4b at a moderate rate (t1/2 = 22.5 min) in alkaline phosphatase solution in vitro. Prodrug 3b was the most chemically stable in the aqueous solutions over a pH range of 3.0-7.4 (t1/2 > 8 days). Although buparvaquone-oxime (1a) has been shown to undergo a cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidation in liver microsomes to the parent buparvaquone and behave as a novel bioreversible prodrug, its usefulness is limited in oral drug delivery due to its poor aqueous solubility, like buparvaquone itself. Further phosphorylation of an oxime form of buparvaquone significantly increased water solubility, and this novel approach is therefore useful to improve physicochemical properties of drugs containing a ketone functional group.

  10. Synthesis, metabolism and cellular permeability of enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Ravi S; Samanta, Swapan K; Gaudana, Ripal; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to synthesize and evaluate novel enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs for improved absorption of acyclovir. l-Valine-l-valine-acyclovir (LLACV), l-valine-d-valine-acyclovir (LDACV), d-valine-l-valine-acyclovir (DLACV) and d-valine-d-valine-acyclovir (DDACV) were successfully synthesized. The uptake and transport studies were conducted on a Caco-2 cell line. Buffer stability and metabolism of the prodrugs in Caco-2, rat intestine and liver homogenates were studied. Structure and purity of the all compounds were confirmed with LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Uptake and transport of [(3)H] glycylsarcosine was inhibited by all prodrugs except DDACV. DLACV and DDACV exhibited no measurable degradation in Caco-2 homogenate. Except DDACV other three prodrugs were hydrolyzed in rat intestine and liver homogenates. The order of permeability across Caco-2 was LDACV>LLACV>DDACV>DLACV. A linear correlation between the amount of prodrug transported and over all permeability of acyclovir was established. This study shows that the incorporation of one d-valine in a dipeptide did not abolish its affinity towards peptide transporters (PEPT). Moreover, it enhanced enzymatic stability of prodrug to a certain extent depending on the position in a dipeptide conjugate. This strategy improved both the cellular permeability and the amount of intact prodrug transported which would enable targeting the nutrient transporters at blood ocular barrier (BOB).

  11. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of nucleoside prodrugs designed to target siderophore biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dawadi, Surendra; Kawamura, Shuhei; Rubenstein, Anja; Remmel, Rory; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2016-03-15

    The nucleoside antibiotic, 5'-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (1), possesses potent whole-cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). This compound is also active in vivo, but suffers from poor drug disposition properties that result in poor bioavailability and rapid clearance. The synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of lipophilic ester prodrugs containing linear and α-branched alkanoyl groups from two to twelve carbons at the 3'-position of a 2'-fluorinated analog of 1 is reported with the goal to improve oral bioavailability. The prodrugs were stable in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The prodrugs were also remarkably stable in mouse, rat, and human serum (relative serum stability: human∼rat≫mouse) displaying a parabolic trend in the SAR with hydrolysis rates increasing with chain length up to eight carbons (t1/2=1.6 h for octanoyl prodrug 7 in mouse serum) and then decreasing again with higher chain lengths. The permeability of the prodrugs was also assessed in a Caco-2 cell transwell model. All of the prodrugs were found to have reduced permeation in the apical-to-basolateral direction and enhanced permeation in the basolateral-to-apical direction relative to the parent compound 2, resulting in efflux ratios 5-28 times greater than 2. Additionally, Caco-2 cells were found to hydrolyze the prodrugs with SAR mirroring the serum stability results and a preference for hydrolysis on the apical side. Taken together, these results suggest that the described prodrug strategy will lead to lower than expected oral bioavailability of 2 and highlight the contribution of intestinal esterases for prodrug hydrolysis.

  12. Identification of novel nitroreductases from Bacillus cereus and their interaction with the CB1954 prodrug.

    PubMed

    Gwenin, Vanessa V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Halliwell, Jennifer; Ball, Patrick; Robinson, George; Gwenin, Chris D

    2015-12-01

    Directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a form of cancer chemotherapy in which bacterial prodrug-activating enzymes, or their encoding genes, are directed to the tumour before administration of a prodrug. The prodrug can then be activated into a toxic drug at the tumour site, reducing off-target effects. The bacterial nitroreductases are a class of enzymes used in this therapeutic approach and although very promising, the low turnover rate of prodrug by the most studied nitroreductase enzyme, NfnB from Escherichia coli (NfnB_Ec), is a major limit to this technology. There is a continual search for enzymes with greater efficiency, and as part of the search for more efficient bacterial nitroreductase enzymes, two novel enzymes from Bacillus cereus (strain ATCC 14579) have been identified and shown to reduce the CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) prodrug to its respective 2'-and 4'-hydroxylamine products. Both enzymes shared features characteristic of the nitro-FMN-reductase superfamily including non-covalently associated FMN, requirement for the NAD(P)H cofactor, homodimeric, could be inhibited by Dicoumarol (3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one)), and displayed ping pong bi bi kinetics. Based on the biochemical characteristics and nucleotide alignment with other nitroreductase enzymes, one enzyme was named YdgI_Bc and the other YfkO_Bc. Both B. cereus enzymes had greater turnover for the CB1954 prodrug compared with NfnB_Ec, and in the presence of added NADPH cofactor, YfkO_Bc had superior cell killing ability, and produced mainly the 4'-hydroxylamine product at low prodrug concentration. The YfkO_Bc was identified as a promising candidate for future enzyme prodrug therapy.

  13. Characterization of lipophilic gemcitabine prodrug-liposomal membrane interaction by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Francesco; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Ceruti, Maurizio; Rocco, Flavio; Cattel, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Gemcitabine is an anticancer agent rapidly deaminated to the inactive metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine. Its stability as well as bioavailability can be increased by making prodrugs. A series of lipophilic prodrugs of gemcitabine were synthesized by linking the 4-amino group with valeroyl, lauroyl, and stearoyl linear acyl derivatives. We studied, by the differential scanning calorimetry technique, and compared the interaction of pure gemcitabine and its prodrugs with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and distearoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with the aim of demonstrating if the gemcitabine prodrug is more able than the pure gemcitabine to interact with lipid vesicles employed both as model biomembranes and as carriers in the transport of antitumor drugs. These studies, carried out by static and kinetic calorimetric measurements, give evidence that the increase of the prodrug's lipophilic character improves the interaction with lipid bilayers, favoring the absorption through the lipid barriers and allowing the liposomes to work (when the prodrug is inserted inside the vesicles) as a lipophilic carrier which is able to deliver the drug near the cell surface. The use of different prodrugs modified in their lipophilic character, of different kinds of vesicles (multilamellar and unilamellar), and of different kinds of vesicles forming phospholipids permitted us to determine the better equilibrium between in-vesicle solubility and through-vesicle diffusion of the drug, important in the preformulative studies of antitumor carriers based on phospholipid formulations. Such studies suggest that the prodrug lipophilic tail should modulate the transport and the release of gemcitabine inside the cellular compartments, and the efficiency of the liposomal system is related to the length of the prodrug's acyl chain which has to match the phospholipid acyl chain allowing or retarding the migration through the lipid release device.

  14. Annexin V-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy using cytosine deaminase in combination with 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Van Rite, Brent D; Harrison, Roger G

    2011-08-01

    A fusion protein, consisting of cytosine deaminase (CD) linked to human annexin V, was created for use in an enzyme prodrug therapy targeted to the tumor vasculature and associated cancer cells in the primary tumor and distant metastases. The major finding of this study is that the CD-annexin V fusion protein in combination with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine has significant cytotoxic activity against endothelial cells and two breast cancer cells lines in vitro that expose phosphatidylserine on their surface. The cytotoxicity experiments verified this novel enzyme prodrug system has the ability to produce therapeutic levels of 5-fluorouracil and thus appears promising.

  15. Use of enzyme inhibitors to evaluate the conversion pathways of ester and amide prodrugs: a case study example with the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Gary; Skibbe, Jennifer; Parkinson, Andrew; Johnson, Mark D; Baumgardner, Dawn; Ogilvie, Brian; Usuki, Etsuko; Tonelli, Fred; Holsapple, Jeff; Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne

    2012-03-01

    An approach was developed that uses enzyme inhibitors to support the assessment of the pathways that are responsible for the conversion of intravenously administered ester and amide prodrugs in different biological matrices. The methodology was applied to ceftobiprole medocaril (BAL5788), the prodrug of the cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftobiprole. The prodrug was incubated in plasma, postmitochondrial supernatant fractions from human liver (impaired and nonimpaired), kidney, and intestine as well as erythrocytes, in the presence and absence of different enzyme inhibitors (acetylcholinesterase, pseudocholinesterase, retinyl palmitoyl hydrolase, serine esterases, amidases, and cholinesterase). Hydrolysis was rapid, extensive, and not dependent on the presence of β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) in all matrices tested, suggesting the involvement of carboxylesterases but not P450 enzymes. Hydrolysis in healthy human plasma was rapid and complete and only partially inhibited in the presence of paraoxonase inhibitors or in liver from hepatic impaired patients, suggesting involvement of nonparaoxonase pathways. The results demonstrate the utility of this approach in confirming the presence of multiple conversion pathways of intravenously administered prodrugs and in the case of BAL5788 demonstrated that this prodrug is unlikely to be affected by genetic polymorphisms, drug interactions, or other environmental factors that might inhibit or induce the enzymes involved in its conversion.

  16. Synthesis and molecular modeling studies of derivatives of a highly potent peptidomimetic vinyl ester as falcipain-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ettari, Roberta; Micale, Nicola; Grazioso, Giovanni; Bova, Floriana; Schirmeister, Tanja; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Herein we report the synthesis of a set of constrained peptidomimetics endowed with an electrophilic vinyl ester warhead and structurally related to a previously identified lead compound, a potent and irreversible inhibitor of falcipain-2 (FP-2). FP-2 is the main hemoglobinase of the malaria parasite P. falciparum. The new compounds were evaluated for their inhibition against FP-2, and the results were rationalized on the basis of docking experiments. These studies underscore the pivotal role of both the ester function at the P1' site and the trifluoromethyl group of the P3 side chain in determining the correct orientation of the Michael acceptor warhead in the catalytic site, and as a consequence, the potency of the inhibitors as well as their reversible or irreversible mode of inhibition.

  17. Evaluating Prodrug Strategies for Esterase-Triggered Release of Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Christian; Daniel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Prodrugs are effective tools in overcoming drawbacks typically associated with drug formulation and delivery. Those employing esterase-triggered functional groups are frequently utilized to mask polar carboxylic acids and phenols, increasing drug-like properties such as lipophilicity. Herein we detail a comprehensive assessment for strategies that effectively release hydroxyl and phenolic moieties in the presence of an esterase. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) serve as our proof-of-concept target. Three distinct ester-responsive protecting groups are incorporated into MMP proinhibitors containing hydroxyl moieties. Analytical evaluation of the proinhibitors demonstrates that the use of a benzyl ether group appended to the esterase trigger leads to considerably faster kinetics of conversion and enhanced aqueous stability when compared to more conventional approaches where the trigger is directly attached to the inhibitor. Biological assays confirm that all protecting groups effectively cleave in the presence of esterase to generate the active inhibitor. PMID:23929690

  18. Development and characterization of nanoparticulate formulation of a water soluble prodrug of dexamethasone by HIP complexation

    PubMed Central

    Gaudana, Ripal; Parenky, Ashwin; Vaishya, Ravi; Samanta, Swapan K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticulate-based sustained release formulation of a water soluble dipeptide prodrug of dexamethasone, valine–valine-dexamethasone (VVD). Being hydrophilic in nature, it readily leaches out in the external aqueous medium and hence partitions poorly into the polymeric matrix resulting in minimal entrapment in nanoparticles. Hence, hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complexation of the prodrug was employed with dextran sulphate as a complexing polymer. A novel, solid in oil in water emulsion method was employed to encapsulate the prodrug in HIP complex form in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix. Nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, crystallinity of entrapped drug and surface morphology. A significant enhancement in the entrapment of the prodrug in nanoparticles was achieved. Finally, a simple yet novel method was developed which can also be applicable to encapsulate other charged hydrophilic molecules, such as peptides and proteins. PMID:20939702

  19. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-04

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) <1 mM) was observed for l-valyl and l-isoleucyl amino acid prodrugs in competition experiments with [(3)H]Gly-Sar, indicating a 3-6 times higher affinity for PEPT1 compared to valacyclovir, a well-known PEPT1 substrate and >30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and

  20. Ester prodrug-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats as transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-mei; Branford-White, Christopher J; Zhu, Li-min; Chatterton, Nichoals P; Yu, Deng-guang

    2010-08-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers loaded with the ester prodrugs of naproxen, including methyl ester, ethyl ester and isopropyl ester, were prepared through electrospinning using acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)/ethanol (4:1:1, v/v/v) as solvent. The chemical and morphological characterizations of the medicated fibers were investigated by means of SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR, as well as the studies of the drug release properties. The results indicated that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were influenced by the concentration of spinning solution, applied voltage, electrospun solvent and the surfactants. The average diameters of the fibers ranged between 100 and 500 nm for three prodrugs. There was good compatibility between CA and three prodrugs in the blended fibers, respectively. In vitro release indicated that constant drug release from the fiber was observed over 6 days. The prodrugs were successfully encapsulated into the fibers, and this system was stable in terms of effectiveness in release.

  1. Improved buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists with bitterless prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J; Koval, C A; Shefter, E

    1988-09-01

    Buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists is a useful way of improving bioavailability relative to the oral route. These compounds taste bitter, however. Various prodrugs of nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxymorphone, butorphanol, and levallorphan, in which the 3-phenolic hydroxyl group was esterified, lacked a bitter taste. This taste difference was not due to differences in water solubility, suggesting that for these compounds the phenolic functional group is important for interaction with the taste receptor. In rats, nalbuphine, naloxone, and naltrexone administered buccally as prodrugs exhibited up to 90% bioavailability. In dogs, the bitter taste of buccally administered nalbuphine and naloxone caused salivation and swallowing, and bioavailability was low. Buccal dosing of the prodrugs of these compounds caused no adverse effects and the bioavailability ranged from 35 to 50%, a significant improvement relative to the oral bioavailability, which is 5% or less. The feasibility of buccal prodrug delivery using an adhesive patch formulation was demonstrated.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of mutual prodrugs of ibuprofen with menthol, thymol and eugenol.

    PubMed

    Redasani, Vivekkumar K; Bari, Sanjay B

    2012-10-01

    The present works deals with simple and efficient method of improving therapeutic efficacy of racemic ibuprofen by retarding gastrointestinal side effects through masking of carboxylic group chemically. This is achieved by synthesis and evaluation of ester derivatives of ibuprofen as mutual prodrugs with naturally occurring phenolic and alcoholic compounds. Promoieties like menthol; thymol and eugenol were selected with the aim of getting synergistic effect as these are natural analgesic having traditional medicinal values. Prodrugs are found to be highly lipophilic as compared to parent drug. All the prodrugs are found to be highly stable at acidic pH while undergoes hydrolysis at neutral and alkaline pH as indicated by their t(1/2) values. Synthesized prodrugs derivatives show increased anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributed to synergistic effect as ibuprofen conjugates to natural analgesics. Ulcer index shows much reduction in gastric ulceration compared to ibuprofen concluding the successful masking of acidic group.

  3. The Synthetic Amphipathic Peptidomimetic LTX109 Is a Potent Fungicide That Disturbs Plasma Membrane Integrity in a Sphingolipid Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Camilla Eggert; Folkesson, Anders; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The peptidomimetic LTX109 (arginine-tertbutyl tryptophan-arginine-phenylethan) was previously shown to have antibacterial properties. Here, we investigated the activity of this novel antimicrobial peptidomimetic on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that LTX109 was an efficient fungicide that killed all viable cells in an exponentially growing population as well as a large proportion of cells in biofilm formed on an abiotic surface. LTX109 had similar killing kinetics to the membrane-permeabilizing fungicide amphotericin B, which led us to investigate the ability of LTX109 to disrupt plasma membrane integrity. S. cerevisiae cells exposed to a high concentration of LTX109 showed rapid release of potassium and amino acids, suggesting that LTX109 acted by destabilizing the plasma membrane. This was supported by the finding that cells were permeable to the fluorescent nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green after a few minutes of LTX109 treatment. We screened a haploid S. cerevisiae gene deletion library for mutants resistant to LTX109 to uncover potential molecular targets. Eight genes conferred LTX109 resistance when deleted and six were involved in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway (SUR1, SUR2, SKN1, IPT1, FEN1 and ORM2). The involvement of all of these genes in the biosynthetic pathway for the fungal-specific lipids mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and mannosyl di-(inositol phosphoryl) ceramide (M(IP)2C) suggested that these lipids were essential for LTX109 sensitivity. Our observations are consistent with a model in which LTX109 kills S. cerevisiae by nonspecific destabilization of the plasma membrane through direct or indirect interaction with the sphingolipids. PMID:23874964

  4. Synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and antileishmanial activity of water-soluble prodrugs of buparvaquone.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Antti; Garnier, Tracy; Rautio, Jarkko; Nevalainen, Tapio; Vepsälainen, Jouko; Koskinen, Ari; Croft, Simon L; Järvinen, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble phosphate prodrugs of buparvaquone (1), containing a hydroxynaphthoquinone structure, were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for improved topical and oral drug delivery against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. The successful prodrug synthesis involved a strong base; e.g., sodium hydride. Buparvaquone-3-phosphate (4a) and 3-phosphonooxymethyl-buparvaquone (4b) prodrugs possessed significantly higher aqueous solubilities (>3.5 mg/mL) than the parent drug (prodrugs for the improved topical and oral bioavailability of 1. Buparvaquone and its prodrugs showed nanomolar or low-micromolar ED(50) activity values against species that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis, e.g., L. major, L. amazonensis, L. aethiopica, L. mexicana, and L. panamensis and also L. donovani, which is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. From these results, the human skin permeation of the prodrugs 4a and 4b were studied in vitro. While no buparvaquone permeated across post mortem skin in vitro during 72 h of experiments, both prodrugs 4a and 4b permeated readily through the skin. In addition, 4b easily released the parent drug in human skin homogenate and, therefore, is a promising prodrug candidate to deliver buparvaquone through the skin for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  5. Anti-HIV Nucleoside Phosphonate GS-9148 and Its Prodrug GS-9131: Scale Up of a 2'-F Modified Cyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate and Synthesis of Selected Amidate Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mackman, Richard L

    2014-03-26

    Nucleoside phosphonate analogs are an important class of antiviral drugs for the treatment of HIV and HBV. The most recent nucleoside phosphonate to progress to clinical development is GS-9131, a cyclic nucleoside phosphonate (CNP). This unit contains procedures for the synthesis of the parent CNP 2'-Fd4AP (GS-9148) and selected monoamidate and bisamidate prodrugs, including the monoamidate clinical prodrug GS-9131. The first basic protocol of this unit details improved procedures for the preparation of 2'-Fd4AP and related phosphonate esters by introduction of a hydroxylmethyl phosphonate ester regioselectively and stereoselectively onto a furanose core via a glycal intermediate. The method described is believed to be robust and flexible, allowing for a variety of analogs with other nucleobases or furanose 2'-ring substitutions to be prepared. The preparation of monoamidate and bisamidate prodrugs either on the phosphonate diacid or its monophenyl ester is then described in the second and third basic protocols of this unit.

  6. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs: paths forward in the era of personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Francis W; Wouters, Bradly G; Wilson, William R

    2016-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia has been pursued as a cancer drug target for over 30 years, most notably using bioreductive (hypoxia-activated) prodrugs that target antineoplastic agents to low-oxygen tumour compartments. Despite compelling evidence linking hypoxia with treatment resistance and adverse prognosis, a number of such prodrugs have recently failed to demonstrate efficacy in pivotal clinical trials; an outcome that demands reflection on the discovery and development of these compounds. In this review, we discuss a clear disconnect between the pathobiology of tumour hypoxia, the pharmacology of hypoxia-activated prodrugs and the manner in which they have been taken into clinical development. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs have been evaluated in the manner of broad-spectrum cytotoxic agents, yet a growing body of evidence suggests that their activity is likely to be dependent on the coincidence of tumour hypoxia, expression of specific prodrug-activating reductases and intrinsic sensitivity of malignant clones to the cytotoxic effector. Hypoxia itself is highly variable between and within individual tumours and is not treatment-limiting in all cancer subtypes. Defining predictive biomarkers for hypoxia-activated prodrugs and overcoming the technical challenges of assaying them in clinical settings will be essential to deploying these agents in the era of personalised cancer medicine. PMID:27070712

  7. Ester prodrugs of morphine improve transdermal drug delivery: a mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jhi-Joung; Sung, K C; Huang, Jeng-Fen; Yeh, Chih-Hui; Fang, Jia-You

    2007-07-01

    Two alkyl esters of morphine, morphine propionate (MPR) and morphine enanthate (MEN), were synthesized as potential prodrugs for transdermal delivery. The ester prodrugs could enhance transdermal morphine delivery. The mechanisms of this enhancing effect were elucidated in this study. Both prodrugs were more lipophilic than their parent drug as evaluated by the skin/vehicle partition coefficient (log P) and capacity factor (log K'). The in-vitro skin permeation of morphine and its prodrugs from pH 6 buffer was in the order of MEN > MPR > morphine. MPR and MEN respectively enhanced the transdermal delivery of morphine by 2- and 5-fold. A contrary result was observed when using sesame oil as the vehicle. The prodrugs were stable against chemical hydrolysis in an aqueous solution, but were readily hydrolysed to the parent drug when exposed to skin homogenate and esterase. Approximately 98% MPR and approximately 75% MEN were converted to morphine in an in-vitro permeation experiment. The viable epidermis/dermis contributed to a significant resistance to the permeation of ester prodrugs. According to the data of skin permeation across ethanol-, alpha-terpineol-, and oleic acid-pretreated skin, MEN was predominantly transported via lipid bilayer lamellae in the stratum corneum. The intercellular pathway was not important for either morphine or MPR permeation.

  8. Sustained release of metformin via red blood cell accumulated sulfenamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Peura, Lauri; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-07-01

    Metformin is a first-line antidiabetic drug to treat type 2 diabetes. It is rapidly eliminated from plasma but also accumulated into red blood cells (RBCs) from which it is slowly released back into plasma. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the amount of metformin in the RBCs could be increased by a sulfenamide prodrug approach, which could provide longer duration of metformin in systemic circulation. Pharmacokinetic properties of metformin and its cyclohexyl sulfenamide prodrug were evaluated in plasma and in whole blood after intravenous and oral administration in rats. Once the sulfenamide prodrug reached the bloodstream, it was rapidly and efficiently accumulated into the RBCs, where it was converted to metformin by free thiols. The RBC-whole blood ratio of metformin was increased approximately from 42% to 96% when metformin was administered intravenously as its sulfenamide prodrug, and the proportion of metformin in the RBCs was found to be concentration and time independent. Because metformin was slowly liberated into plasma, the prodrug showed a sustained-release pharmacokinetic profile and longer plasma half-life for metformin after oral administration. Therefore, this sulfenamide prodrug has great potential to improve metformin therapy as the daily doses could be reduced.

  9. Assessment of the cellular internalization of thermolytic phosphorothioate DNA oligonucleotide prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Jain, Harsh V; Takeda, Kazuyo; Tami, Cecilia; Verthelyi, Daniela; Beaucage, Serge L

    2013-10-15

    The bioactivity of a CpG-containing phosphorothioate DNA oligonucleotide with thermolytic 2-(N-formyl-N-methylamino)ethyl (fma) thiophosphate groups in mice led us to investigate the parameters affecting the internalization of these thermosensitive DNA prodrugs in various cell lines. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses indicate that 5'-fluoresceinated fma-phosphorothioate DNA sequences are poorly internalized in Vero, HeLa and GC-2 cells. However, when four fma-thiophosphate groups of a 15-nucleotide long oligothymidylate prodrug are replaced with 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)prop-1-yl thiophosphate functions, internalization of the positively charged prodrug, under physiological conditions, increased fourfold in HeLa and 40-fold in Vero or GC-2 cells. No cytotoxic effects are observed in Vero cells even at an extracellular prodrug concentration of 50 μM over a period of 72 h. Confocal microscopy studies show that internalization of the positively charged oligothymidylate prodrug in Vero cells is time-dependent with early trafficking of the DNA sequence through endosomal vesicles and, eventually, to the nucleus of the cells. Thus, the incorporation of four 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)prop-1-yl thiophosphate groups into thermosentive fma-phosphorothioate DNA prodrugs is an attractive strategy for efficient cellular internalization of these nucleic acid-based drugs for potential therapeutic indications.

  10. Prodrugs for targeted tumor therapies: recent developments in ADEPT, GDEPT and PMT.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Schmuck, Kianga

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with common anti-proliferative agents generally suffers from an insufficient differentiation between normal and malignant cells which results in extensive side effects. To enhance the efficacy and reduce the normal tissue toxicity of anticancer drugs, numerous selective tumor therapies have emerged including the highly promising approaches ADEPT (Antibody-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy), GDEPT (Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy) and PMT (Prodrug Monotherapy). These allow a selective release of cytotoxic agents from non-toxic prodrugs at the tumor site either by targeted antibody-enzyme conjugates, enzyme encoding genes or by exploiting physiological and metabolic aberrations in cancerous tissue. Herein, recent developments in the design and biological evaluation of prodrugs for use in ADEPT, GDEPT and PMT are reviewed. As a highlight, a series of novel glycosidic prodrugs based on the natural antibiotics CC-1065 and the duocarmycins will be discussed which show a therapeutic window of up to one million. Notably, the corresponding drugs have tremendously high cytotoxicities with IC(50) values of down to 110 fM.

  11. New Enzyme Prodrug and Methionine-Depletion Combination Therapy of Breast Cancer Designed for Effective Delivery to the Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    AD_ ________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0722 TITLE: New Enzyme Prodrug and...14 Sept 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Enzyme Prodrug and Methionine-Depletion Combination Therapy of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Breast...to human endothelial cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells grown in vitro. Tests with the enzyme prodrug over a

  12. Crystal Structure of Human E-Cadherin-EC1EC2 in Complex with a Peptidomimetic Competitive Inhibitor of Cadherin Homophilic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Valentina; Lucarelli, Anna Paola; Dalle Vedove, Andrea; Fanelli, Roberto; Tomassetti, Antonella; Belvisi, Laura; Civera, Monica; Parisini, Emilio

    2016-05-26

    Cadherins are transmembrane cell adhesion proteins whose aberrant expression often correlates with cancer development and proliferation. We report the crystal structure of an E-cadherin extracellular fragment in complex with a peptidomimetic compound that was previously shown to partially inhibit cadherin homophilic adhesion. The structure reveals an unexpected binding mode and allows the identification of a druggable cadherin interface, thus paving the way to a future structure-guided design of cell adhesion inhibitors against cadherin-expressing solid tumors.

  13. New Enzyme Prodrug and Methionine-Depletion Combination Therapy of Breast Cancer Designed for Effective Delivery to the Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    to human endothelial cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells grown in vitro. In vitro tests of both enzyme prodrug...methylselenol, was tested in vivo in SCID mice with implanted MDA-MB-231/GFP cancer cells using i.p. injection of the FP and the prodrug. The result was that...prodrug combination was tested in SCID mice with breast tumor xenografts for its effect as an enzyme prodrug by itself and also in combination with

  14. Acetal-linked paclitaxel prodrug micellar nanoparticles as a versatile and potent platform for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yudan; Zhong, Yinan; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-08-12

    Endosomal pH-activatable paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug micellar nanoparticles were designed and prepared by conjugating PTX onto water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-PAA) block copolymers via an acid-labile acetal bond to the PAA block and investigated for potent growth inhibition of human cancer cells in vitro. PTX was readily conjugated to PEG-PAA with high drug contents of 21.6, 27.0, and 42.8 wt % (denoted as PTX prodrugs 1, 2, and 3, respectively) using ethyl glycol vinyl ether (EGVE) as a linker. The resulting PTX conjugates had defined molecular weights and self-assembled in phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.4, 10 mM) into monodisperse micellar nanoparticles with average sizes of 158.3-180.3 nm depending on PTX contents. The in vitro release studies showed that drug release from PTX prodrug nanoparticles was highly pH-dependent, in which ca. 86.9%, 66.4% and 29.0% of PTX was released from PTX prodrug 3 at 37 °C in 48 h at pH 5.0, 6.0, and pH 7.4, respectively. MTT assays showed that these pH-sensitive PTX prodrug nanoparticles exhibited high antitumor effect to KB and HeLa cells (IC(50) = 0.18 and 0.9 μg PTX equiv/mL, respectively) as well as PTX-resistant A549 cells. Notably, folate-decorated PTX prodrug micellar nanoparticles based on PTX prodrug 3 and 20 wt % folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (FA-PEG-PLA) displayed apparent targetability to folate receptor-overexpressing KB cells with IC(50) over 12 times lower than nontargeting PTX prodrug 3 under otherwise the same conditions. Furthermore, PTX prodrug nanoparticles could also load doxorubicin (DOX) to simultaneously release PTX and DOX under mildly acidic pH. These acetal-linked PTX prodrug micellar nanoparticles have appeared as a highly versatile and potent platform for cancer therapy.

  15. An In Silico Insight into Novel Therapeutic Interaction of LTNF Peptide-LT10 and Design of Structure Based Peptidomimetics for Putative Anti-Diabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sonali Gopichand; Deobagkar, Deepti Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) obtained from Opossum serum (Didephis virginiana) is known to exhibit toxin-neutralizing activity for envenomation caused by animals, plants and bacteria. Small synthetic peptide- LT10 (10mer) derived from N-terminal fraction of LTNF exhibit similar anti-lethal and anti-allergic property. In our in silico study, we identified Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE) as a potential target of LT10 peptide followed by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies which revealed relatively stable interaction of LT10 peptide with IDE. Moreover, their detailed interaction analyses dictate IDE-inhibitory interactions of LT10 peptide. This prediction ofLT10 peptide as a novel putative IDE-inhibitor suggests its possible role in anti-diabetic treatment since IDE- inhibitors are known to assist treatment of Diabetes mellitus by enhancing insulin signalling. Furthermore, series of structure based peptidomimetics were designed from LT10 peptide and screened for their inhibitory interactions which ultimately led to a small set of peptidomimetic inhibitors of IDE. These peptidomimetic thus might provide a new class of IDE-inhibitors, those derived from LT10 peptide. PMID:25816209

  16. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on the binding mechanism of statine-based peptidomimetics with beta-secretase.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhili; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Shen, Jianhua; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian

    2005-03-15

    beta-Secretase is an important protease in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Some statine-based peptidomimetics show inhibitory activities to the beta-secretase. To explore the inhibitory mechanism, molecular docking and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies on these analogues were performed. The Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) was applied to locate the binding orientations and conformations of the peptidomimetics with the beta-secretase. A good correlation between the calculated binding free energies and the experimental inhibitory activities suggests that the identified binding conformations of these potential inhibitors are reliable. Based on the binding conformations, highly predictive 3D-QSAR models were developed with q(2) values of 0.582 and 0.622 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The predictive abilities of these models were validated by some compounds that were not included in the training set. Furthermore, the 3D-QSAR models were mapped back to the binding site of the beta-secretase, to get a better understanding of vital interactions between the statine-based peptidomimetics and the protease. Both the CoMFA and the CoMSIA field distributions are in well agreement with the structural characteristics of the binding groove of the beta-secretase. Therefore, the final 3D-QSAR models and the information of the inhibitor-enzyme interaction would be useful in developing new drug leads against Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Peptide Prodrugs: Improved Oral Absorption of Lopinavir, a HIV Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Boddu, S.H.S.; Jain, Ritesh; Samanta, Swapan; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2008-01-01

    Lopinavir (LVR) is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 and is prevented from entering the cells by membrane efflux pumps such as P-gp and MRP2. In an approach to evade the first-pass metabolism and efflux of LVR, peptide prodrugs of LVR [valine-valine-lopinavir (VVL) and glycine-valine-lopinavir (GVL)] were synthesized. Prodrugs were identified with 1H and 13C NMR spectra and LC/MS/MS was employed to evaluate their mass and purity. Solubility studies indicated that the prodrugs have much greater solubility as compared with LVR in water. In vitro evaluations were performed to determine affinities for efflux proteins (P-gp and MRP2) and CYP3A4 and permeabilities across intestinal barrier. Accumulation and transport data of VVL and GVL across MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells indicated evasion of prodrugs’ efflux by P-gp and MRP2 significantly. Permeability studies across Caco-2 cells indicated that the prodrugs are transported by peptide transporters and have increased permeability as compared with LVR. VVL and GVL exhibited significantly better degradation rate constants as compared with LVR in rat liver microsomes. Enzymatic stability studies in Caco-2 cell homogenate indicated that the peptide prodrugs are first converted to the ester intermediate and then finally to the parent drug. Overall, the advantages of utilizing peptide prodrugs include chemical modification of the compound to achieve targeted delivery via peptide transporters present across the intestinal epithelium, significant evasion of efflux and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism and significantly better solubility profiles. Therefore, in vitro studies demonstrated that peptide prodrug derivatization of LVR may be an effective strategy for bypassing its efflux and enhancing its systemic bioavailability. PMID:18455890

  18. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Zaman; Alamgeer; Kanwal, Munazza; Hassan, Mubashir; Abdullah, Sahar; Waheed, Mamuna; Ahsan, Haseeb; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities

  19. Nanoassemblies from amphiphilic cytarabine prodrug for leukemia targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Dujuan; He, Wenxiu; Zhang, Huiyuan; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2017-02-01

    The anti-leukemia effect of cytarabine (Ara-C) is severely restricted by its high hydrophilic properties and rapid plasma degradation. Herein, a novel amphiphilic small molecular prodrug of Ara-C was developed by coupling a short aliphatic chain, hexanoic acid (HA) to 4-NH2 of the parent drug. Based on the amphiphilic nature, the resulting bioconjugate (HA-Ara) could spontaneously self-assemble into stable spherical nanoassemblies (NAs) with an extremely high drug loading (∼71wt%). Moreover, folate receptor (FR)-targeting NAs with high grafting efficient folic acid - bovine serum albumin (FA-BSA) conjugate immobilized on the surface (NAs/FA-BSA) was prepared. The results of MTT assays on FR-positive K562 cells and FR-negative A549 cells demonstrated higher cytotoxicity of HA-Ara NAs than the native drug. Especially, the IC50 values revealed that NAs/FA-BSA was 3 and 2-fold effective than non-targeted NAs after 24 and 48h treatment with K562 cells, respectively indicating FR-mediated enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. In vitro cellular uptake, larger accumulation of HA-Ara NAs were observed in comparative with the free FITC and the results further confirmed the selective uptake of NAs/FA-BSA in folate receptor enriched cancer cells. Above all, self-assembled HA-Ara NAs exhibited potential superiority for Ara-C delivery and FA-modified NAs would be an excellent candidate for targeting leukemia therapy.

  20. Synthesis and in vitro studies on a potential dopamine prodrug.

    PubMed

    Giannola, L I; De Caro, V; Giandalia, G; Siragusa, M G; Lamartina, L

    2008-10-01

    Dopamine delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) undergoes the permeability limitations of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is a selective interface that excludes most water-soluble molecules from entering the brain. Neutral amino acids permeate the BBB by specific transport systems. Condensation of dopamine with neutral amino acids could afford potential prodrugs able to interact with the BBB endogenous transporters and easily enter the brain. The synthesis and characterization of the dopamine derivative 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (7) is described. The chemical and enzymatic stability of 7 was evaluated. The molecular weight (300 Da) and Log Papp (0.76) indicated that the physico-chemical characteristics of compound 7 are adequate to cross biological membranes. Compound 7 was enzymatically cleaved to free dopamine in rat brain homogenate (t1/2 = 460 min). In human plasma, the t1/2 of 7 was estimated comparable to that reported for L-DOPA. In view of a possible oral administration of 7, studies of its chemical behavior under conditions simulating those of the gastrointestinal tract showed that no dopamine production occurred; furthermore, 7 is able to permeate through a simulated intestinal mucosal membrane. The collected data suggest that compound 7 could beconsidered a very valuable candidate for subsequent in vivo evaluation.

  1. Electronic structural investigations of ruthenium compounds and anticancer prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Travis V; Szilagyi, Robert K; McFarlane Holman, Karen L

    2009-08-01

    Several Ru(III) compounds are propitious anticancer agents although the precise mechanisms of action remain unknown. With this paper we start to establish an experimental library of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data for ten Ru compounds wherein the ligands [Cl(-), dimethyl sulfoxide, imidazole, and indazole] were varied systematically to provide electronic structural information for future use in correlating spectroscopic signatures with chemical properties. Despite the considerable difference in the coordination environments of the complexes studied, the overall differences in spectral features and electronic structures calculated using density functional theory are unexpectedly small. However, the differences in the electronic structure of the Ru(III) prodrugs KP1019 ([IndH][trans-RuCl(4)(Ind)(2)], Ind is indazole) and ICR ([ImH][trans-RuCl(4)(Im)(2)], Im is imidazole) observed in the XAS data show correlation with known chemical and biological activities in addition to the donor abilities of imidazole compared with indazole and reduction potentials of the complexes. These semiquantitative results lay the groundwork for future biochemical studies into the structure-function relationships of Ru-based anticancer drugs.

  2. Click synthesis of a polyamidoamine dendrimer-based camptothecin prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu.; Xu, Leyuan; Valerie, Kristoffer; Yang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we report on the click synthesis of a new camptothecin (CPT) prodrug based on anionic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer intended for cancer therapy. We applied ‘click’ chemistry to improve polymer-drug coupling reaction efficiency. Specifically, CPT was functionalized with a spacer, 1-azido-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxaoctadecan-18-oic acid (APO), via EDC/DMAP coupling reaction. In parallel, propargylamine (PPA) and methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) amine were conjugated to PAMAM dendrimer G4.5 in sequence using an effective coupling agent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-(1,3,5)triazin-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholinium chloride (DMTMM). CPT-APO was then coupled to PEGylated PAMAM dendrimer G4.5-PPA via a click reaction using copper bromide/2,2’-bipyridine/ dimethyl sulfoxide (catalyst/ligand/solvent). Human glioma cells were exposed to the CPT-conjugate to determine toxicity and cell cycle effects using WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The CPT-conjugate displayed a dose-dependent toxicity with an IC50 of 5 μM, a 185-fold increase relative to free CPT, presumably as a result of slow release. As expected, conjugated CPT resulted in G2/M arrest and cell death while the dendrimer itself had little to no toxicity. Altogether, highly efficient click chemistry allows for the synthesis of multifunctional dendrimers for sustained drug delivery. PMID:26640689

  3. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  4. Computer-assisted design of pro-drugs for antimalarial atovaquone.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik; Hallak, Hussein

    2010-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and ab initio calculation results for the proton transfer reaction in Kirby's enzyme models 1-6 reveal that the reaction rate is largely dependent on the existence of a hydrogen bonding net in the reactants and the corresponding transition states. Further, the distance between the two reacting centers and the angle of the hydrogen bonding formed along the reaction path has profound effects on the rate. Hence, the study on the systems reported herein could provide a good basis for designing antimalarial (atovaquone) pro-drug systems that can be used to release the parent drug in a controlled manner. For example, based on the calculated log EM, the cleavage process for pro-drug 1Pro may be predicted to be about 10¹¹ times faster than that for a pro-drug 4Pro and about 10⁴ times faster than pro-drug 2Pro: rate (1Pro) > rate (2Pro > rate (4Pro). Thus, the rate by which the pro-drug releases the antimalarial drug can be determined according to the nature of the linker (Kirby's enzyme model 1-6).

  5. Development of an In Vitro Model to Screen CYP1B1-Targeted Anticancer Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Yao; Drbohlav, Laura M; Wu, Judy Qiju; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is an anticancer therapeutic target due to its overexpression in a number of steroid hormone-related cancers. One anticancer drug discovery strategy is to develop prodrugs specifically activated by CYP1B1 in malignant tissues to cytotoxic metabolites. Here, we aimed to develop an in vitro screening model for CYP1B1-targeted anticancer prodrugs using the KLE human endometrial carcinoma cell line. KLE cells demonstrated superior stability of CYP1B1 expression relative to transiently transfected cells and did not express any appreciable amount of cognate CYP1A1 or CYP1A2, which would have compromised the specificity of the screening assay. The effect of two CYP1B1-targeted probe prodrugs on KLE cells was evaluated in the absence and presence of a CYP1B1 inhibitor to chemically "knock out" CYP1B1 activity (CYP1B1 inhibited). Both probe prodrugs were more toxic to KLE cells than to CYP1B1-inhibited KLE cells and significantly induced G0/G1 arrest and decreased the S phase in KLE cells. They also exhibited pro-apoptotic effects in KLE cells, which were attenuated in CYP1B1-inhibited KLE cells. In summary, a KLE cell-based model has been characterized to be suitable for identifying CYP1B1-targeted anticancer prodrugs and should be further developed and employed for screening chemical libraries.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro Kinetics Study of Atenolol Prodrugs for the Use in Aqueous Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Qtait, Alaa; Dajani, Khulod Khayyat; Abu Lafi, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Based on DFT, MP2, and the density functional from Truhlar group (hybrid GGA: MPW1k) calculations for an acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of nine Kirby's N-alkylmaleamic acids and two atenolol prodrugs were designed. The calculations demonstrated that the amide bond cleavage is due to intramolecular nucleophilic catalysis by the adjacent carboxylic acid group and the rate-limiting step is determined based on the nature of the amine leaving group. In addition, a linear correlation of the calculated and experimental rate values has drawn credible basis for designing atenolol prodrugs that are bitterless, are stable in neutral aqueous solutions, and have the potential to release the parent drug in a sustained release manner. For example, based on the calculated B3LYP/6-31 G (d,p) rates, the predicted t1/2 (a time needed for 50% of the prodrug to be converted into drug) values for atenolol prodrugs ProD 1-ProD 2 at pH 2 were 65.3 hours (6.3 hours as calculated by GGA: MPW1K) and 11.8 minutes, respectively. In vitro kinetic study of atenolol prodrug ProD 1 demonstrated that the t1/2 was largely affected by the pH of the medium. The determined t1/2 values in 1N HCl, buffer pH 2, and buffer pH 5 were 2.53, 3.82, and 133 hours, respectively. PMID:24526887

  7. Amorphous Solid Dispersions or Prodrugs: Complementary Strategies to Increase Drug Absorption.

    PubMed

    Rumondor, Alfred C F; Dhareshwar, Sundeep S; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2016-09-01

    Maximizing oral bioavailability of drug candidates represents a challenge in the pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) to address this issue, where a growing number of solid dispersion formulations have been introduced to the market. However, an increase in solubility or dissolution rate through ASD does not always result in sufficient improvement of oral absorption because solubility limitations may still exist at high doses. Chemical modification in the form of a prodrug may offer an alternative approach for these cases. Although prodrugs have been primarily used to improve membrane permeability, examples are available in which prodrugs have been used to increase drug solubility beyond what can be achieved via formulation approaches. In this mini review, the role of ASDs and prodrugs as 2 complementary approaches in improving oral bioavailability of drug candidates is discussed. We discuss the fundamental principles of absorption and bioavailability, and review available literature on both solid dispersions and prodrugs, providing a summary of their use and examples of successful applications, and cover some of the biopharmaceutics evaluation aspects for these approaches.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation as Prodrugs of Hydrophilic Carbamate Ester Analogues of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Azzolini, Michele; Mattarei, Andrea; La Spina, Martina; Marotta, Ester; Zoratti, Mario; Paradisi, Cristina; Biasutto, Lucia

    2015-09-08

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is an unfulfilled promise for health care: its exploitation is hindered by rapid conjugative metabolism in enterocytes and hepatocytes; low water solubility is a serious practical problem. To advantageously modify the physicochemical properties of the compound we have developed prodrugs in which all or part of the hydroxyl groups are linked via an N-monosubstituted carbamate ester bond to promoieties derived from glycerol or galactose, conferring higher water solubility. Kinetic studies of hydrolysis in aqueous solutions and in blood indicated that regeneration of resveratrol takes place in an appropriate time frame for delivery via oral administration. Despite their hydrophilicity some of the synthesized compounds were absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. In these cases the species found in blood after administration of a bolus consisted mainly of partially deprotected resveratrol derivatives and of the products of their glucuronidation, thus providing proof-of-principle evidence of behavior as prodrugs. The soluble compounds largely reached the lower intestinal tract. Upon administration of resveratrol, the major species found in this region was dihydroresveratrol, produced by enzymes of the intestinal flora. In experiments with a fully protected (trisubstituted) deoxygalactose containing prodrug, the major species were the prodrug itself and partially deprotected derivatives, along with small amounts of dihydroresveratrol. We conclude that the N-monosubstituted carbamate moiety is suitable for use in prodrugs of polyphenols.

  9. Somatostatin receptor-mediated specific delivery of paclitaxel prodrugs for efficient cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huo, Meirong; Zhu, Qinnv; Wu, Qu; Yin, Tingjie; Wang, Lei; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a novel PTX prodrug, octreotide(Phe)-polyethene glycol-paclitaxel [OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX], was successfully synthesized and used for targeted cancer therapy. A nontargeting conjugate, mPEG-PTX, was also synthesized and used as a control. Chemical structures of OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX and mPEG-PTX were confirmed using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. The drug contents in both the conjugates were 12.0% and 14.0%, respectively. Compared with the parent drug (PTX), OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX, and mPEG-PTX prodrugs showed a 20,000- and 30,000-fold increase in water solubility, respectively. PTX release from mPEG-PTX and OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX exhibited a pH-dependent profile. Moreover, compared with mPEG-PTX, OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX exhibited significantly stronger cytotoxicity against NCI-H446 cells (SSTR overexpression) but comparable cytotoxicity against WI-38 cells (no SSTR expression). Results of confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the targeting prodrug labeled with fluorescence probe was selectively taken into tumor cells via SSTR-mediated endocytosis. In vivo investigation of prodrugs in nude mice bearing NCI-H446 cancer xenografts confirmed that OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX prodrug exhibited stronger antitumor efficacy and lower systemic toxicity than mPEG-PTX and commercial Taxol. These results suggested that OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX is a promising anticancer drug delivery system for targeted cancer therapy.

  10. Zanamivir Amidoxime- and N-Hydroxyguanidine-Based Prodrug Approaches to Tackle Poor Oral Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Schade, Dennis; Kotthaus, Jürke; Riebling, Lukas; Kotthaus, Joscha; Müller-Fielitz, Helge; Raasch, Walter; Hoffmann, Anja; Schmidtke, Michaela; Clement, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor zanamivir (1) is potently active against a broad panel of influenza A and B strains, including mutant viruses, but suffers from pharmacokinetic (PK) shortcomings. Here, distinct prodrug approaches are described that aimed at overcoming zanamivir's lack of oral bioavailability. Lowering the high basicity of the 4-guanidino group in zanamivir and of a bioisosteric 4-acetamidine analog (5) by N-hydroxylation was deemed to be a plausible tactic. The carboxylic acid and glycerol side chain were also masked with different ester groups. The bioisosteric amidine 5 turned out to be potently active against a panel of H1N1 (IC50 = 2-10 nM) and H3N2 (IC50 = 5-10 nM) influenza A viruses (NA inhibition assay). In vitro PK studies showed that all prodrugs were highly soluble, exhibited low protein binding, and were bioactivated by N-reduction to the respective guanidines and amidines. The most promising prodrug candidates, amidoxime ester 7 and N-hydroxyguanidine ester 8, were subjected to in vivo bioavailability studies. Unfortunately, both prodrugs were not orally bioavailable to a convincing degree (F ≤ 3.7%, rats). This finding questions the general feasibility of improving the oral bioavailability of 1 by lipophilicity-increasing prodrug strategies, and suggests that intrinsic structural features represent key hurdles.

  11. Integrase Inhibitor Prodrugs: Approaches to Enhancing the Anti-HIV Activity of β-Diketo Acids.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vasu; Okello, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    HIV integrase, encoded at the 3'-end of the HIV pol gene, is essential for HIV replication. This enzyme catalyzes the incorporation of HIV DNA into human DNA, which represents the point of "no-return" in HIV infection. Integrase is a significant target in anti-HIV drug discovery. This review article focuses largely on the design of integrase inhibitors that are β-diketo acids constructed on pyridinone scaffolds. Methodologies for synthesis of these compounds are discussed. Integrase inhibition data for the strand transfer (ST) step are compared with in vitro anti-HIV data. The review also examines the issue of the lack of correlation between the ST enzymology data and anti-HIV assay results. Because this disconnect appeared to be a problem associated with permeability, prodrugs of these inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Prodrugs dramatically improved the anti-HIV activity data. For example, for compound, 96, the anti-HIV activity (EC50) improved from 500 nM for this diketo acid to 9 nM for its prodrug 116. In addition, there was excellent correlation between the IC50 and IC90 ST enzymology data for 96 (6 nM and 97 nM, respectively) and the EC50 and EC90 anti-HIV data for its prodrug 116 (9 nM and 94 nM, respectively). Finally, it was confirmed that the prodrug 116 was rapidly hydrolyzed in cells to the active compound 96.

  12. Interaction of lipophilic gemcitabine prodrugs with biomembrane models studied by Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Francesco; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Rocco, Flavio; Ceruti, Maurizio; Cattel, Luigi

    2007-09-01

    The stability and bioavailability of anticancer agents, such as gemcitabine, can be increased by forming prodrugs. Gemcitabine is rapidly deaminated to the inactive metabolite (2('),2(')-difluorodeoxyuridine), thus to improve its stability a series of increasingly lipophilic gemcitabine prodrugs linked through the 4-amino group to valeroyl, lauroyl, and stearoyl acyl chains were synthesized. Studies of monolayer properties are important to improve understanding of biological phenomena involving lipid/gemcitabine or lipid/gemcitabine derivative interactions. The interfacial behavior of monolayers constituted by DMPC plus gemcitabine or lipophilic gemcitabine prodrugs at increasing molar fractions was studied at the air/water interface at temperatures below (10 degrees C) and above (37 degrees C) the lipid phase transition. The effect of the hydrophobic chain length of gemcitabine derivatives on the isotherm of pure DMPC was investigated by surface tension measurement, and the results are reported as molar fractions as a function of mean molecular area per molecule. The results show that the compounds interact with DMPC producing mixed monolayers that are subject to an expansion effect, depending on the prodrug chain length. The results give useful hints of the interaction of these prodrugs with biological membranes and increase knowledge on the incorporation site of such compounds, as a function of their lipophilicity, in a lipid carrier; they may lead to improved liposomal formulation design.

  13. Mechanism of brain targeting by dexibuprofen prodrugs modified with ethanolamine-related structures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Zhou, Yangyang; Jiang, Jiayu; Wang, Xinyi; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-01-01

    The first molecular insights into how prodrugs modified with ethanolamine-related structures target the brain were generated using an in vitro BBB model and in situ perfusion technique. Prodrugs were delivered safely and efficiently to the brain through tight interaction with the anionic membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells, observed as a shift in zeta potential, followed by uptake into the cells. Prodrugs III and IV carrying primary and secondary amine modifications appeared to enter the brain via energy-independent passive diffusion. In contrast, besides the passive diffusion, prodrugs I and II carrying tertiary amine modifications also appeared to enter via an active process that was energy and pH dependent but was independent of sodium or membrane potential. This active process involved, at least in part, the pyrilamine-sensitive H+/OC antiporter, for which the N,N-diethyl-based compound II showed a much lower affinity than the N,N-dimethyl-based compound I, likely due to steric hindrance. These new insights into brain-targeting mechanisms may help guide efforts to design new prodrugs. PMID:26154870

  14. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-05-10

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of water-soluble prodrugs of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an anti-apoptotic bile acid.

    PubMed

    Dosa, Peter I; Ward, Tim; Castro, Rui E; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Steer, Clifford J

    2013-06-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid with demonstrated anti-apoptotic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. However, its utility is hampered by limited aqueous solubility. As such, water-soluble prodrugs of UDCA could have an advantage over the parent bile acid in indications where intravenous administration might be preferable, such as decreasing damage from stroke or acute kidney injury. Five phosphate prodrugs were synthesized, including one incorporating a novel phosphoryloxymethyl carboxylate (POMC) moiety. These prodrugs were highly water-soluble, but showed significant differences in chemical stability, with oxymethylphosphate prodrugs being the most unstable. In a series of NMR experiments, the POMC prodrug was bioactivated to UDCA by alkaline phosphatase (AP) faster than a prodrug containing a phosphate directly attached to the alcohol at the 3-position of UDCA. Both of these prodrugs showed significant anti-apoptotic activity in a series of in vitro assays, although the POMC prodrug required the addition of AP for activity, while the other compound was active without exogenous AP.

  16. A prodrug approach involving in situ depot formation to achieve localized and sustained action of diclofenac after joint injection.

    PubMed

    Thing, Mette; Ågårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan; Rasmussen, Rune; Pallesen, Jakob; Mertz, Nina; Kristensen, Jesper; Hansen, Martin; Ostergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus Selch

    2014-12-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac ester prodrug, a weak base (pKa 7.52), has relatively high solubility at low pH (6.5 mg mL(-1) at pH 4) and much lower solubility at physiological pH (4.5 μg mL(-1) at pH 7.4) at 37°C. In biological media including 80% (v/v) human synovial fluid (SF), the prodrug was cleaved to diclofenac mediated by esterases. In situ precipitation of the prodrug was observed upon addition of a concentrated slightly acidic prodrug solution to phosphate buffer or SF at pH 7.4. The degree of supersaturation accompanying the precipitation process was more pronounced in SF than in phosphate buffer. In the rotating dialysis cell model, a slightly acidic prodrug solution was added to the donor cell containing 80% SF resulting in a continuous appearance of diclofenac in the acceptor phase for more than 43 h after an initial lag period of 8 h. Detectable amounts of prodrug were found in the rat joint up to 8 days after knee injection of the acidic prodrug solution.

  17. Development of Platinum(iv) Complexes as Anticancer Prodrugs: the Story so Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-06-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg some forty years ago brought about a paradigm shift in the field of medicinal chemistry and challenged conventional thinking regarding the role of potentially toxic heavy metals in drugs. Platinum(II)-based anticancer drugs have since become some of the most effective and widely-used drugs in a clinician's arsenal and have saved countless lives. However, they are limited by high toxicity, severe side-effects and the incidence of drug resistance. In recent years, attention has shifted to stable platinum(IV) complexes as anticancer prodrugs. By exploiting the unique chemical and structural attributes of their scaffolds, these platinum(IV) prodrugs offer new strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells. This review summarizes the development of anticancer platinum(IV) prodrugs to date and some of the exciting strategies that utilise the platinum(IV) construct as targeted chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.

  18. Riluzole prodrugs for melanoma and ALS: design, synthesis, and in vitro metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Mark E.; Vera, Matthew D.; Blass, Benjamin E.; Pelletier, Jeffrey C.; King, Richard C.; Fernandez-Metzler, Carmen; Smith, Garry R.; Wrobel, Jay; Chen, Suzie; Reitz, Allen B.

    2012-01-01

    Riluzole (1) is an approved therapeutic for the treatment of ALS and has also demonstrated antimelanoma activity in metabotropic glutamate GRM1 positive cell lines, a mouse xenograft assay and human clinical trials. Highly variable drug exposure following oral administration among patients, likely due to variable first pass effects from heterogeneous CYP1A2 expression, hinders its clinical use. In an effort to mitigate effects of this clearance pathway and uniformly administer riluzole at efficacious exposure levels, several classes of prodrugs of riluzole were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in multiple in vitro stability assays to predict in vivo drug levels. The optimal prodrug would possess the following profile: stability while transiting the digestive system, stability towards first pass metabolism, and metabolic lability in the plasma releasing riluzole. (S)-O-Benzyl serine derivative 9 was identified as the most promising therapeutically acceptable prodrug. PMID:22892214

  19. A core cross-linked polymeric micellar platium(IV) prodrug with enhanced anticancer efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Shang, Jincai; Jiao, Chengbin; Jiang, Peiyue; Xiao, Huijie; Luo, Lan; Liu, Tongjun

    2013-07-01

    A core cross-linked polymeric micellar cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug is prepared by attaching the cisplatin(IV) to mPEG-b-PLL biodegradable copolymers to form micellar nanoparticles that can disintegrate to release the active anticancer agent cisplatin(II) in a mild reducing environment. Moreover, in vitro studies show that this cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug displays enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cells compared with cisplatin(II). Further studies demonstrate that the high cellular uptake and platinum-DNA adduct of this cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug can induce more cancer-cell apoptosis than cisplatin(II), which is responsible for its enhanced anticancer activity.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Peptide Prodrug of Glucosamine with Enhanced Gut Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Gilzad Kohan, Hamed; Kaur, Kamaljit; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a peptide prodrug of glucosamine (GlcN) with increased gut permeability through the gut peptide transporter 1 (PepT1). Glycine-Valine ester derivative of GlcN (GVG) was synthesised using solid phase synthesis followed by characterization and evaluation of its physicochemical and intestinal stability. In addition, GVG was evaluated for its ability to be biotransformed to GlcN in the liver homogenate. In vitro absorption of the new prodrug through everted rat gut was also assessed. GVG demonstrated significant and meaningful increased gut permeability as compared with GlcN. It showed favorable stability in the gut and a quick cleavage to GlcN after exposure to the liver homogenate. In conclusion, a novel prodrug of glucosamine with superior gut permeability compared to GlcN was developed and successfully tested in vitro. PMID:25978315

  1. Novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of 5-aminolevulinic acid display improved anticancer activity dependent on photoactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2009-06-01

    New approaches to PDT using multifunctional 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based prodrugs activating mutual routes of toxicity are described. We investigated the mutual anti-cancer activity of ALA prodrugs which upon metabolic hydrolysis by unspecific esterases release ALA, formaldehyde or acetaldehye and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) butyric acid. The most potent prodrug in this study was butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (AN-233) that stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells and generated an efficient photodynamic destruction. AN-233 induced a considerable high level of intracellular ROS in the cells following light irradiation, reduction of mitochondrial activity, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. The main advantage of AN-233 over ALA stems from its ability to induce photodamage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  2. Glutathione- and pH-responsive nonporous silica prodrug nanoparticles for controlled release and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang; Liu, Shiying; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-03-01

    A myriad of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles, polymers and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed for cancer therapy. Very few of them, however, have the ability to integrate multiple functionalities such as specific delivery, high circulation stability, controllable release and good biocompatibility and biodegradability in a single system to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report two types of stimuli-responsive nonporous silica prodrug NPs towards this goal for controlled release of anticancer drugs and efficient combinatorial cancer therapy. As a proof of concept, anticancer drugs camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) were covalently encapsulated into silica matrices through glutathione (GSH)-responsive disulfide and pH-responsive hydrazone bonds, respectively, resulting in NPs with sizes tunable in the range of 50-200 nm. Both silica prodrug NPs showed stimuli-responsive controlled release upon exposure to a GSH-rich or acidic environment, resulting in improved anticancer efficacy. Notably, two prodrug NPs simultaneously taken up by HeLa cells showed a remarkable combinatorial efficacy compared to free drug pairs. These results suggest that the stimuli-responsive silica prodrug NPs are promising anticancer drug carriers for efficient cancer therapy.A myriad of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles, polymers and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed for cancer therapy. Very few of them, however, have the ability to integrate multiple functionalities such as specific delivery, high circulation stability, controllable release and good biocompatibility and biodegradability in a single system to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report two types of stimuli-responsive nonporous silica prodrug NPs towards this goal for controlled release of anticancer drugs and efficient combinatorial cancer therapy. As a proof of concept, anticancer drugs camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) were

  3. Drug-Initiated Synthesis of Polymer Prodrugs: Combining Simplicity and Efficacy in Drug Delivery†

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the field of nanomedicine, the global trend over the past few years has been toward the design of highly sophisticated drug delivery systems with active targeting and/or imaging capabilities, as well as responsiveness to various stimuli to increase their therapeutic efficacy. However, providing sophistication generally increases complexity that could be detrimental in regards to potential pharmaceutical development. An emerging concept to design efficient yet simple drug delivery systems, termed the “drug-initiated” method, consists of growing short polymer chains from drugs in a controlled fashion to yield well-defined drug–polymer prodrugs. These materials are obtained in a reduced amount of synthetic steps and can be self-assembled into polymer prodrug nanoparticles, be incorporated into lipid nanocarriers or be used as water-soluble polymer prodrugs. This Perspective article will capture the recent achievements from the “drug-initiated” method and highlight the great biomedical potential of these materials. PMID:27041820

  4. Suppression of peak tailing of phosphate prodrugs in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Qinggang; Kleintop, Brent; Raglione, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Peak tailing of phosphate prodrugs in acidic mobile phases was thoroughly investigated. The results indicated that both metal-phosphate interactions and silanophilic interactions contributed to the observed peak tailing. Column pretreatment with phosphate buffers was demonstrated to be an effective and robust approach in suppressing metal-phosphate interaction. Silanophilic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding interactions between protonated isolated silanol groups and partially deprotonated phosphate groups were mobile phase pH dependent. The combination of column pretreatment and volatile low pH mobile phase buffers can be used to mitigate peak tailing issues in developing MS compatible RPLC methods for phosphate prodrugs. The use of non-endcapped columns should be avoided in RPLC analysis for phosphate prodrugs due to large amount of residual silanol groups in the stationary phases.

  5. Synthesis and in vitro Evaluation of Polymeric Prodrug of Ibuprofen with Amino Acid Spacer.

    PubMed

    Redasani, Vivekkumar K; Bari, Sanjay B

    2015-01-01

    The present work is an agreement with simple and efficient method of improving the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen by masking its acidic moiety. It aims to reduce gastrointestinal side effects by controlling the rate, duration and site of release. This is achieved by synthesis and evaluation of polymeric prodrug of ibuprofen with natural polymer sodium alginate. The synthesis was supported by N-protected serine as spacer due to chemical incompatibility of drug and polymer. Synthesized prodrug was characterized for confirmation of said structures. The in-vitro dissolution profile of ibuprofen-alginate prodrug showed that the release of the drug is significantly higher in case of pH 7.2 buffer as compared to ibuprofen, which might be due to ester group adjacent to drug get hydrolyzed. The hydrolysis was found to be with faster rate in alkaline media than that of in acidic media.

  6. Modulation of Activity Profiles for Largazole-Based HDAC Inhibitors through Alteration of Prodrug Properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Largazole is a potent and class I-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor purified from marine cyanobacteria and was demonstrated to possess antitumor activity. Largazole employs a unique prodrug strategy, via a thioester moiety, to liberate the bioactive species largazole thiol. Here we report alternate prodrug strategies to modulate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles of new largazole-based compounds. The in vitro effects of largazole analogues on cancer cell proliferation and enzymatic activities of purified HDACs were comparable to the natural product. However, in vitro and in vivo histone hyperacetylation in HCT116 cells and implanted tumors, respectively, showed differences, particularly in the onset of action and oral bioavailability. These results indicate that, by employing a different approach to disguise the “warhead” moiety, the functional consequence of these prodrugs can be significantly modulated. Our data corroborate the role of the pharmacokinetic properties of this class of compounds to elicit the desired and timely functional response. PMID:25147612

  7. Synthesis of 1-O-(2'-acetoxy)benzoyl-alpha-D-2-deoxyglucopyranose, a novel aspirin prodrug.

    PubMed

    Truelove, J E; Hussain, A A; Kostenbauder, H B

    1980-02-01

    The synthesis and characterization of 1-O-(2'-acetoxy)benzoyl-alpha-D-2-deoxyglucopyranose, a novel aspirin prodrug, are described. 3,4,6-Tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-2-deoxyglucopyranose was synthesized by methylating the anomeric hydroxyl group of 2-deoxyglucose, benzylating the 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxy functional grups, and cleaving hydrolytically the anomeric methyl group. Reaction of the tribenzylated sugar with the acid chloride of aspirin and subsequent hydrogenolysis of the benzyl groups resulted in the prodrug, mp 128 degrees. The compound was further characterized by elemental analysis and PMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. In vitro, the compound cleaved to aspirin with a half-life of 7 min at 37 degrees. Prodrug cleavage was independent of pH over the pH 3--9 range.

  8. Insight into selectivity of peptidomimetic inhibitors with modified statine core for plasmepsin II of Plasmodium falciparum over human cathepsin D.

    PubMed

    Dali, Brice; Keita, Melalie; Megnassan, Eugene; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2012-04-01

    Plasmepsin II (PlmII), an aspartic protease expressed in the food vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum (pf), cleaves the hemoglobin of the host during the erythrocytic stage of the parasite life cycle. Various peptidomimetic inhibitors of PlmII reported so far discriminate poorly between the drug target and aspartic proteases of the host organism, e.g., human cathepsinD (hCatD). hCatD is a protein digestion enzyme and signaling molecule involved in a variety of physiological processes; therefore, inhibition of hCatD by PlmII inhibitors may lead to pathophysiological conditions. In this study, binding of PlmII inhibitors has been modeled using the crystal structures of pfPlmII and hCatD complexes to gain insight into structural requirements underlying the target selectivity. A series of 26 inhibitors were modeled in the binding clefts of the pfPlmII and hCatD to establish QSAR models of the protease inhibition. In addition, 3D-QSAR pharmacophore models were generated for each enzyme. It was concluded that the contributions of the P(2) and P(3') residues to the inhibitor's binding affinity are responsible for the target selectivity. Based on these findings, new inhibitor candidates were designed with predicted inhibition constants K (pre)(i PlmII) reaching 0.2nm and selectivity index (S.I.)=K(pre)(i PlmII) >1200.

  9. Rapid Synthesis of Boc-2′,6′-dimethyl-l-tyrosine and Derivatives and Incorporation into Opioid Peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The unnatural amino acid 2′,6′-dimethyl-l-tyrosine has found widespread use in the development of synthetic opioid ligands. Opioids featuring this residue at the N-terminus often display superior potency at one or more of the opioid receptor types, but the availability of the compound is hampered by its cost and difficult synthesis. We report here a short, three-step synthesis of Boc-2′,6′-dimethyl-l-tyrosine (3a) utilizing a microwave-assisted Negishi coupling for the key carbon–carbon bond forming step, and employ this chemistry for the expedient synthesis of other unnatural tyrosine derivatives. Three of these derivatives (3c, 3d, 3f) have not previously been examined as Tyr1 replacements in opioid ligands. We describe the incorporation of these tyrosine derivatives in a series of opioid peptidomimetics employing our previously reported tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) scaffold, and the binding and relative efficacy of each of the analogues at the three opioid receptor subtypes: mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR). PMID:26713104

  10. Cyclopropane pipecolic acids as templates for linear and cyclic peptidomimetics: application in the synthesis of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptide as an αvβ3 integrin ligand.

    PubMed

    Sernissi, Lorenzo; Petrović, Martina; Scarpi, Dina; Guarna, Antonio; Trabocchi, Andrea; Bianchini, Francesca; Occhiato, Ernesto G

    2014-08-25

    The synthesis and evaluation of substituted cyclopropane pipecolic acids (CPA) as conformationally restricted templates for linear and cyclic peptidomimetics is reported. A variety of differently substituted (poly)hydroxy- and amino-2-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-1-carboxylic acids were prepared by means of the Pd-catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of suitably functionalized lactam-derived enol phosphates, followed by OH-directed cyclopropanation. CPAs were successfully introduced into a linear peptide sequence to assess the cis/trans isomerism about the pipecolic acid peptide bond, and in a cyclic peptidomimetic that bore the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, which displayed nanomolar activity as antagonist of the αvβ3 integrin in M21 human melanoma cells. Thus, CPAs appear to be suitable for the generation of novel peptidomimetics for drug discovery.

  11. Combination therapy with bioengineered miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin synergistically suppresses osteosarcoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Tu, Mei-Juan; Yu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Wei-Peng; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Qiu, Jing-Xin; Yu, Ai-Xi; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common form of primary malignant bone tumor and prevalent among children and young adults. Recently we have established a novel approach to bioengineering large quantity of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) prodrug for miRNA replacement therapy. This study is to evaluate combination treatment with miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin, which may synergistically suppress human OS cell growth via RNA interference and DNA intercalation. Synergistic effects were indeed obvious between miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin for the suppression of OS cell proliferation, as defined by Chou-Talalay method. The strongest antiproliferative synergism was achieved when both agents were administered simultaneously to the cells at early stage, which was associated with much greater degrees of late apoptosis, necrosis, and G2 cell cycle arrest. Alteration of OS cellular processes and invasion capacity was linked to the reduction of protein levels of miR-34a targeted (proto-)oncogenes including SIRT1, c-MET, and CDK6. Moreover, orthotopic OS xenograft tumor growth was repressed to a significantly greater degree in mouse models when miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin were co-administered intravenously. In addition, multiple doses of miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin had no or minimal effects on mouse blood chemistry profiles. The results demonstrate that combination of doxorubicin chemotherapy and miR-34a replacement therapy produces synergistic antiproliferative effects and it is more effective than monotherapy in suppressing OS xenograft tumor growth. These findings support the development of mechanism-based combination therapy to combat OS and bioengineered miR-34a prodrug represents a new natural miRNA agent. PMID:26518752

  12. Combination therapy with bioengineered miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin synergistically suppresses osteosarcoma growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Tu, Mei-Juan; Yu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Wei-Peng; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Qiu, Jing-Xin; Yu, Ai-Xi; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-12-15

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common form of primary malignant bone tumor and prevalent among children and young adults. Recently we have established a novel approach to bioengineering large quantity of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) prodrug for miRNA replacement therapy. This study is to evaluate combination treatment with miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin, which may synergistically suppress human OS cell growth via RNA interference and DNA intercalation. Synergistic effects were indeed obvious between miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin for the suppression of OS cell proliferation, as defined by Chou-Talalay method. The strongest antiproliferative synergism was achieved when both agents were administered simultaneously to the cells at early stage, which was associated with much greater degrees of late apoptosis, necrosis, and G2 cell cycle arrest. Alteration of OS cellular processes and invasion capacity was linked to the reduction of protein levels of miR-34a targeted (proto-)oncogenes including SIRT1, c-MET, and CDK6. Moreover, orthotopic OS xenograft tumor growth was repressed to a significantly greater degree in mouse models when miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin were co-administered intravenously. In addition, multiple doses of miR-34a prodrug and doxorubicin had no or minimal effects on mouse blood chemistry profiles. The results demonstrate that combination of doxorubicin chemotherapy and miR-34a replacement therapy produces synergistic antiproliferative effects and it is more effective than monotherapy in suppressing OS xenograft tumor growth. These findings support the development of mechanism-based combination therapy to combat OS and bioengineered miR-34a prodrug represents a new natural miRNA agent.

  13. Hydrophilic prodrug approach for reduced pigment binding and enhanced transscleral retinal delivery of celecoxib.

    PubMed

    Malik, Pradip; Kadam, Rajendra S; Cheruvu, Narayan P S; Kompella, Uday B

    2012-03-05

    Transscleral retinal delivery of celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory and anti-VEGF agent, is restricted by its poor solubility and binding to the melanin pigment in choroid-RPE. The purpose of this study was to develop soluble prodrugs of celecoxib with reduced pigment binding and enhanced retinal delivery. Three hydrophilic amide prodrugs of celecoxib, celecoxib succinamidic acid (CSA), celecoxib maleamidic acid (CMA), and celecoxib acetamide (CAA) were synthesized and characterized for solubility and lipophilicity. In vitro melanin binding to natural melanin (Sepia officinalis) was estimated for all three prodrugs. In vitro transport studies across isolated bovine sclera and sclera-choroid-RPE (SCRPE) were performed. Prodrug with the highest permeability across SCRPE was characterized for metabolism and cytotoxicity and its in vivo transscleral delivery in pigmented rats. Aqueous solubilities of CSA, CMA, and CAA were 300-, 182-, and 76-fold higher, respectively, than celecoxib. Melanin binding affinity and capacity were significantly lower than for celecoxib for all three prodrugs. Rank order for the % in vitro transport across bovine sclera and SCRPE was CSA > CMA ~ CAA ~ celecoxib, with the transport being 8-fold higher for CSA than celecoxib. CSA was further assessed for its metabolic stability and in vivo delivery. CSA showed optimum metabolic stability in all eye tissues with only 10-20% conversion to parent celecoxib in 30 min. Metabolic enzymes responsible for bioconversion included amidases, esterase, and cytochrome P-450. In vivo delivery in pigmented BN rats showed that CSA had 4.7-, 1.4-, 3.3-, 6.0-, and 4.5-fold higher delivery to sclera, choroid-RPE, retina, vitreous, and lens than celecoxib. CSA has no cytotoxicity in ARPE-19 cells in the concentration range of 0.1 to 1000 μM. Celecoxib succinamidic acid, a soluble prodrug of celecoxib with reduced melanin binding, enhances transscleral retinal delivery of celecoxib.

  14. Lipophilic Prodrugs of SN38: Synthesis and in Vitro Characterization toward Oral Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bala, Vaskor; Rao, Shasha; Li, Peng; Wang, Shudong; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-04

    SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy camptothecin) is a potent anticancer agent belonging to the camptothecin family; however, its oral delivery is extensively restricted by poor solubility in pharmaceutically acceptable excipients and low transmucosal permeability. Lipid-based carriers are well-known for their ability to improve oral absorption and bioavailability of lipid soluble and highly permeable compounds. Thus, this study has focused on improving solubility in lipid excipients, controlling stability, and enhancing transmucosal permeability of SN38 by specific chemical modification. To achieve these aims, a series of lipophilic prodrugs were designed and synthesized by esterification at the C10 and/or C20 positon(s) of SN38 with dietary fatty acids of diverse hydrocarbon chain lengths. The solubility of these novel prodrugs in long-chain triglycerides was increased up to 444-fold, and cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in comparison to SN38. The prodrugs were stable in simulated gastric fluids but exhibited different rates of hydrolysis (t1/2 < 5 min to t1/2 > 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids (in the presence of enzymes) depending on the alkyl chain length and the position modified. A predictable reconversion of prodrugs to SN38 in plasma was also confirmed. On the basis of these studies, SN38-undecanoate (C20) was identified as the optimal prodrug. Finally, in vitro permeability and uptake studies in rat intestinal mucosal membrane using an Ussing chamber showed significant improvement in transepithelial drug transport and cellular uptake. Together, these results indicate that well designed lipophilic prodrugs have potential for the efficacious and safe oral delivery of SN38.

  15. Delivery of a Protease-Activated Cytolytic Peptide Prodrug by Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jallouk, Andrew P; Palekar, Rohun U; Marsh, Jon N; Pan, Hua; Pham, Christine T N; Schlesinger, Paul H; Wickline, Samuel A

    2015-08-19

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide derived from bee venom that inserts into lipid membranes and oligomerizes to form membrane pores. Although this peptide is an attractive candidate for treatment of cancers and infectious processes, its nonspecific cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity have limited its therapeutic applications. Several groups have reported the development of cytolytic peptide prodrugs that only exhibit cytotoxicity following activation by site-specific proteases. However, systemic administration of these constructs has proven difficult because of their poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we present a platform for the design of protease-activated melittin derivatives that may be used in conjunction with a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle delivery system. Although native melittin was substantially hemolytic (HD50: 1.9 μM) and cytotoxic (IC50: 2.4 μM), the prodrug exhibited 2 orders of magnitude less hemolytic activity (HD50: > 100 μM) and cytotoxicity (IC50: > 100 μM). Incubation with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) led to cleavage of the prodrug at the expected site and restoration of hemolytic activity (HD50: 3.4 μM) and cytotoxicity (IC50: 8.1 μM). Incubation of the prodrug with perfluorocarbon nanoparticles led to stable loading of 10,250 peptides per nanoparticle. Nanoparticle-bound prodrug was also cleaved and activated by MMP-9, albeit at a fourfold slower rate. Intravenous administration of prodrug-loaded nanoparticles in a mouse model of melanoma significantly decreased tumor growth rate (p = 0.01). Because MMPs and other proteases play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis, this platform holds promise for the development of personalized cancer therapies directed toward a patient's individual protease expression profile.

  16. An overview of prodrug technology and its application for developing abuse-deterrent opioids.

    PubMed

    Gudin, Jeffrey A; Nalamachu, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified prescription drug abuse and overdose deaths as an epidemic. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death, with rates that have more than doubled since 1999. This crisis has developed concurrently with the increased prescribing and availability analgesic drugs, especially opioids, resulting from an effort on the part of clinicians to address a critical need for improved pain assessment and treatment. Clinicians have recognized that oftentimes, opioid analgesics are one of the few remaining options for patients who suffer with severe pain. A 2015 fact sheet issued by the Office of National Drug Policy stated: "While we must ensure better access to prescription medications to alleviate suffering, it is also vital that we do all we can to reduce the diversion and abuse of pharmaceuticals." The US Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance that encourages the research and development of abuse-deterrent formulation of opioids which have the potential to curtail abuse. Included among the recommended formulations for development of abuse-deterrent opioids are prodrugs. Prodrugs are chemically modified versions of pharmacological agents that must undergo a biochemical conversion following administration, often by enzymatic cleavage, to free the active drug. Prodrugs may be inherently abuse-deterrent because they are inactive or significantly less active until conversion to the active drug. This requirement for conversion in the GI tract can modify the pharmacokinetic profile and eliminate or reduce the euphoria when abusers change the route of administration. Abusers often attempt to extract the active drug for injection or insufflation. Prodrugs can be designed to be resistant to crushing or dissolving. In this article, we review the concept of prodrugs and introduce and examine the potential of abuse-deterrent opioid prodrugs.

  17. Acetal-linked polymeric prodrug micelles for enhanced curcumin delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Gao, Min; Fu, Yunlan; Chen, Chao; Meng, Xuan; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    On-demand curcumin delivery via stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers holds promise for addressing its solubility and stability problem. Polymer-curcumin prodrug conjugate micelle is one of such nanosystems. The diversity of linker and conjugation chemistry enabled the generation and optimization of different curcumin micelles with tunable stimuli-responsiveness and delivery efficiency. The aim of the current work was to generate and assess acetal-linked polymeric micelles to enrich the pH-responsive curcumin delivery platforms. Curcumin was slightly modified prior to conjugating to amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) copolymer via an acetal bond, whereas an ester bond-linked conjugate was used as the control. The acetal-containing micelles showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 91.1 ± 2.9(nm) and the accompanying core size of 63.5 ± 7.1 (nm) with a zeta potential of -10.9 ± 0.7(mV). Both control and pH-labile micelles displayed similar critical micelle concentration at 1.6 μM. The acetal-containing nanocarriers exhibited a pH-dependent drug release behavior, which was faster at lower pH values. The cytotoxicity study in HepG2 cells revealed a significantly lower IC50 at 51.7 ± 9.0(μM) for acetal-linked micelles in contrast to the control at 103.0 ± 17.8(μM), but the polymer residue showed no cytotoxicity upon drug release. The acetal-linked micellar nanocarrier could be a useful addition to the spectrum of currently available stimuli-responsive curcumin nano-formulations.

  18. Medicinal chemistry of antiviral/anticancer prodrugs subjected to phosphate conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kalász, H; Adem, A; Hasan, M Y; Adeghate, E; Ram, N; Gulyás, Zs; Tekes, K

    2010-08-01

    Certain xenobiotics are given in the "prodrug" form. Either the human body, or one compartment of the body, or the targeted virus itself metabolizes the prodrug into its active form. The bioprecursor form of drugs is used for a wide variety of reasons, namely: to make drug penetration into the target organ (mainly to the brain through the blood-brain-barrier) possible, eliminate unpleasant taste, alter (either increasing or decreasing) the half life of the active component or supply more than one active components to the body.

  19. Chemotherapy pro-drug activation by biocatalytic virus-like nanoparticles containing cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Lorena; Cadena-Nava, Rubén D; Palomares, Laura A; Ruiz-Garcia, Jaime; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2014-06-10

    This work shows, for the first time, the encapsulation of a highly relevant protein in the biomedical field into virus-like particles (VLPs). A bacterial CYP variant was effectively encapsulated in VLPs constituted of coat protein from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). The catalytic VLPs are able to transform the chemotherapeutic pro-drug, tamoxifen, and the emerging pro-drug resveratrol. The chemical nature of the products was identified, confirming similar active products than those obtained with human CYP. The enzymatic VLPs remain stable after the catalytic reaction. The potential use of these biocatalytic nanoparticles as targeted CYP carriers for the activation of chemotherapy drugs is discussed.

  20. Facile synthesis of the NNRTI microbicide MC-1220 and synthesis of its phosphoramidate prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Loksha, Yasser M; Pedersen, Erik B; La Colla, Paolo; Loddo, Roberta

    2016-01-21

    A facile and novel synthetic route to MC-1220 was achieved by condensation of 4,6-dichloro-N,N-5-trimethylpyrimidin-2-amine (1) with the sodium salt of 2,6-difluorophenylacetonitrile, followed by methylation and strong acidic hydrolysis. The prodrugs of MC-1220 were synthesized by reaction of chlorophosphoramidate derivatives (7a-e) or α-acetobromoglucose with the sodium salt of MC-1220. The stability and anti-HIV-1 activity of phosphoramidate prodrugs turned out to be comparable to those of the parent drug MC-1220.

  1. Crystal Structures of HLA-A*0201 Complexed with Melan-A/MART-1[subscript 26(27L)-35] Peptidomimetics Reveal Conformational Heterogeneity and Highlight Degeneracy of T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Douat-Casassus, Celine; Borbulevych, Oleg; Tarbe, Marion; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Baker, Brian M.; Quideau, Stphane

    2010-10-07

    There is growing interest in using tumor associated antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins as cancer vaccines. As native peptides are poorly stable in biological fluids, researchers have sought to engineer synthetic peptidomimetics with greater biostability. Here, we demonstrate that antigenic peptidomimetics of the Melan-A/MART-1{sub 26(27L)-35} melanoma antigen adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to MHC-I, highlighting the degeneracy of T cell recognition and revealing the challenges associated with mimicking native peptide conformation.

  2. Surface coating of siRNA-peptidomimetic nano-self-assemblies with anionic lipid bilayers: enhanced gene silencing and reduced adverse effects in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xianghui; de Groot, Anne Marit; Sijts, Alice J. A. M.; Broere, Femke; Oude Blenke, Erik; Colombo, Stefano; van Eden, Willem; Franzyk, Henrik; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2015-11-01

    Cationic vectors have demonstrated the potential to facilitate intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. However, enhanced transfection efficiency is usually associated with adverse effects, which also proves to be a challenge for vectors based on cationic peptides. In this study a series of proteolytically stable palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics with a systematically varied number of repeating lysine and homoarginine residues was shown to self-assemble with small interfering RNA (siRNA). The resulting well-defined nanocomplexes were coated with anionic lipids giving rise to net anionic liposomes. These complexes and the corresponding liposomes were optimized towards efficient gene silencing and low adverse effects. The optimal anionic liposomes mediated a high silencing effect, which was comparable to that of the control (cationic Lipofectamine 2000), and did not display any noticeable cytotoxicity and immunogenicity in vitro. In contrast, the corresponding nanocomplexes mediated a reduced silencing effect with a more narrow safety window. The surface coating with anionic lipid bilayers led to partial decomplexation of the siRNA-peptidomimetic nanocomplex core of the liposomes, which facilitated siRNA release. Additionally, the optimal anionic liposomes showed efficient intracellular uptake and endosomal escape. Therefore, these findings suggest that a more efficacious and safe formulation can be achieved by surface coating of the siRNA-peptidomimetic nano-self-assemblies with anionic lipid bilayers.Cationic vectors have demonstrated the potential to facilitate intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. However, enhanced transfection efficiency is usually associated with adverse effects, which also proves to be a challenge for vectors based on cationic peptides. In this study a series of proteolytically stable palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics with a systematically varied number of repeating lysine

  3. Biological activities of the natural imidazole-containing peptidomimetics n-acetylcarnosine, carcinine and L-carnosine in ophthalmic and skin care products.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2006-04-11

    Apart from genetically programmed cell aging, different external aggressors related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) can accelerate the skin aging phenomenon. Oxidative stress associated with the formation of lipid peroxides is suggested to contribute to pathological processes in aging and systemic diseases known as the risk factors for cataract. Despite the fact that L-carnosine-related peptidomimetics N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) (NAC) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) are metabolically related to L-carnosine and have been demonstrated to occur in tissues of many vertebrates, including humans, these compounds were shown resistant toward enzymatic hydrolysis. A series of related biocompatible imidazole-containing peptidomimetics were synthesized in order to confer resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis and ex vivo improvement of protective antioxidative properties related to L-carnosine. The included findings revealed a greater role of N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) and carcinine ex vivo in the prolongation and potentiation of physiological responses to the therapeutical and cosmetics treatments with L-carnosine as antioxidant. 3-D molecular conformation studies proposed the antioxidant activity of peptidomimetics (carcinine, L-prolylhistamine, N-acetylcarnosine, L-carnosine) for metal ion binding, quenching of a number free radicals, and binding of hydroperoxide or aldehyde (including dialdehyde LPO products) in an imidazole-peroxide adducts. NAC can act as a time release (carrier) stable version of L-carnosine during application in ophthalmic pharmaceutical and cosmetics formulations which include lubricants. Carcinine, L-prolylhistamine show efficient deactivation of lipid hydroperoxides monitored by HPLC and protection of membrane phospholipids and water soluble proteins from the lipid peroxides-induced damages. This activity is superior over the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E. The biologically significant applications of

  4. Design, synthesis and crystallographic analysis of nitrile-based broad-spectrum peptidomimetic inhibitors for coronavirus 3C-like proteases.

    PubMed

    Chuck, Chi-Pang; Chen, Chao; Ke, Zhihai; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Chow, Hak-Fun; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviral infection is associated with up to 5% of respiratory tract diseases. The 3C-like protease (3CL(pro)) of coronaviruses is required for proteolytic processing of polyproteins and viral replication, and is a promising target for the development of drugs against coronaviral infection. We designed and synthesized four nitrile-based peptidomimetic inhibitors with different N-terminal protective groups and different peptide length, and examined their inhibitory effect on the in-vitro enzymatic activity of 3CL(pro) of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus. The IC(50) values of the inhibitors were in the range of 4.6-49 μM, demonstrating that the nitrile warhead can effectively inactivate the 3CL(pro) autocleavage process. The best inhibitor, Cbz-AVLQ-CN with an N-terminal carbobenzyloxy group, was ~10x more potent than the other inhibitors tested. Crystal structures of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes showed that the nitrile warhead inhibits 3CL(pro) by forming a covalent bond with the catalytic Cys145 residue, while the AVLQ peptide forms a number of favourable interactions with the S1-S4 substrate-binding pockets. We have further showed that the peptidomimetic inhibitor, Cbz-AVLQ-CN, has broad-spectrum inhibition against 3CL(pro) from human coronavirus strains 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, and infectious bronchitis virus, with IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 to 3.7 μM, but no detectable inhibition against caspase-3. In summary, we have shown that the nitrile-based peptidomimetic inhibitors are effective against 3CL(pro), and they inhibit 3CL(pro) from a broad range of coronaviruses. Our results provide further insights into the future design of drugs that could serve as a first line defence against coronaviral infection.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicate Ester Prodrugs and Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Block Copolymers for Formulation into Prodrug-Loaded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Adam Richard

    Fine control of the physical and chemical properties of customized materials is a field that is rapidly advancing. This is especially critical in pursuits to develop and optimize novel nanoparticle drug delivery. Specifically, I aim to apply chemistry concepts to test the hypothesis "Silicate ester prodrugs of paclitaxel, customized to have the proper hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability, can be formulated with well-defined, biocompatible, amphiphilic block copolymers into nanoparticles that are effective drugs." Chapter 1 briefly describes the context and motivation of the scientific pursuits described in this thesis. In Chapter 2, a family of model silicate esters is synthesized, the hydrolysis rate of each compound is benchmarked, and trends are established based upon the steric bulk and leaving group ability of the silicate substituents. These trends are then applied to the synthesis of labile silicate ester prodrugs in Chapter 3. The bulk of this chapter focuses on the synthesis, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity of prodrugs based on paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. In Chapter 4, a new methodology for the synthesis of narrowly dispersed, "random" poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymers by a constant infusion of the glycolide monomer is detailed. Using poly(ethylene glycol) as a macroinitiator, amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized. Co-formulating a paclitaxel silicate and an amphiphilic block copolymer via flash nanoprecipitation led to highly prodrug-loaded, kinetically trapped nanoparticles. Studies to determine the structure, morphology, behavior, and efficacy of these nanoparticles are described in Chapter 5. Efforts to develop a general strategy for the selective end-functionalization of the polyether block of these amphiphilic block copolymers are discussed in Chapter 6. Examples of this strategy include functionalization of the polyether with an azide or a maleimide. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an outlook for future development of

  6. Large-scale phosphotyrosine proteomic profiling of rat renal collecting duct epithelium reveals predominance of proteins involved in cell polarity determination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Boyang; Knepper, Mark A; Chou, Chung-Lin; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2012-01-01

    Although extensive phosphoproteomic information is available for renal epithelial cells, previous emphasis has been on phosphorylation of serines and threonines with little focus on tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we have carried out large-scale identification of phosphotyrosine sites in pervanadate-treated native inner medullary collecting ducts of rat, with a view towards identification of physiological processes in epithelial cells that are potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The method combined antibody-based affinity purification of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides coupled with immobilized metal ion chromatography to enrich tyrosine phosphopeptides, which were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 418 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 273 proteins were identified. A large fraction of these sites have not been previously reported on standard phosphoproteomic databases. All results are accessible via an online database: http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/iPY/. Analysis of surrounding sequences revealed four overrepresented motifs: [D/E]xxY*, Y*xxP, DY*, and Y*E, where the asterisk symbol indicates the site of phosphorylation. These motifs plus contextual information, integrated using the NetworKIN tool, suggest that the protein tyrosine kinases involved include members of the insulin- and ephrin-receptor kinase families. Analysis of the gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways whose protein elements are overrepresented in our data set point to structures involved in epithelial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions ("adherens junction," "tight junction," and "focal adhesion") and to components of the actin cytoskeleton as major sites of tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells. In general, these findings mesh well with evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in epithelial polarity determination.

  7. A non-canonical ESCRT pathway, including histidine domain phosphotyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP), is used for down-regulation of virally ubiquitinated MHC class I.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Michael D J; Piper, Siân C; Bright, Nicholas A; Evans, Jennifer L; Boname, Jessica M; Bowers, Katherine; Lehner, Paul J; Luzio, J Paul

    2015-10-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) K3 viral gene product effectively down-regulates cell surface MHC class I. K3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination of MHC class I, providing the signal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Endocytosis is followed by sorting into the intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and eventual delivery to lysosomes. The sorting of MHC class I into MVBs requires many individual proteins of the four endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). In HeLa cells expressing the KSHV K3 ubiquitin ligase, the effect of RNAi-mediated depletion of individual proteins of the ESCRT-0 and ESCRT-I complexes and three ESCRT-III proteins showed that these are required to down-regulate MHC class I. However, depletion of proteins of the ESCRT-II complex or of the ESCRT-III protein, VPS20 (vacuolar protein sorting 20)/CHMP6 (charged MVB protein 6), failed to prevent the loss of MHC class I from the cell surface. Depletion of histidine domain phosphotyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP) resulted in an increase in the cell surface concentration of MHC class I in HeLa cells expressing the KSHV K3 ubiquitin ligase. Rescue experiments with wild-type (WT) and mutant HD-PTP supported the conclusion that HD-PTP acts as an alternative to ESCRT-II and VPS20/CHMP6 as a link between the ESCRT-I and those ESCRT-III protein(s) necessary for ILV formation. Thus, the down-regulation of cell surface MHC class I, polyubiquitinated by the KSHV K3 ubiquitin ligase, does not employ the canonical ESCRT pathway, but instead utilizes an alternative pathway in which HD-PTP replaces ESCRT-II and VPS20/CHMP6.

  8. Testosterone 17beta-N,N-dimethylglycinate hydrochloride: A prodrug with a potential for nasal delivery of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Anwar A; Al-Bayatti, Ansam A; Dakkuri, Adnan; Okochi, Kazuhiro; Hussain, Munir A

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of the nasal route for the systemic delivery of the poorly water-soluble drug testosterone (TS) using a water-soluble prodrug, TS 17beta-N,N-dimethylglycinate hydrochloride. The physicochemical properties of the prodrug, in vitro hydrolysis in human liver homogenate, and in vivo nasal and intravenous experiments were performed in rats. The aqueous solubility of the prodrug was more than 100 mg/mL, compared with 0.01 mg/mL for TS, and its log partition coefficient between 0.05 M, phosphate buffer (pH 6) and octanol was 2.4. The prodrug was found to generate TS in 33% human liver homogenate and was absorbed from the nasal cavity rapidly and quantitatively. The bioavailabilities of both the prodrug and TS after nasal administration of the prodrug were similar to that after equivalent intravenous doses. These studies in rats suggest that this water-soluble prodrug of TS may have therapeutic utility for the management of TS deficiency.

  9. Novel water-soluble prodrugs of acyclovir cleavable by the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26) enzyme.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Cabrera, Silvia; de Castro, Sonia; García-Aparicio, Carlos; Mulder, Gwenn; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2013-01-01

    We herein report for the first time the successful use of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) prodrug approach to guanine derivatives such as the antiviral acyclovir (ACV). The solution- and solid-phase synthesis of the tetrapeptide amide prodrug 3 and the tripeptide ester conjugate 4 of acyclovir are reported. The synthesis of the demanding tetrapeptide amide prodrug of ACV 3 was first established in solution and successfully transferred onto solid support by using Ellman's dihydropyran (DHP) resin. In contrast with the valyl ester prodrug (valacyclovir, VACV), the tetrapeptide amide prodrug 3 and the tripeptide ester conjugate 4 of ACV proved fully stable in PBS. Both prodrugs converted to VACV (for 4) or ACV (for 3) upon exposure to purified DPPIV/CD26 or human or bovine serum. Vildagliptin, a potent inhibitor of DPPIV/CD26 efficiently inhibited the DPPIV/CD26-catalysed hydrolysis reaction. Both amide and ester prodrugs of ACV showed pronounced anti-herpetic activity in cell culture and significantly improved the water solubility in comparison with the parent drug.

  10. Nasal chitosan microparticles target a zidovudine prodrug to brain HIV sanctuaries.

    PubMed

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Fogagnolo, Marco; Ferraro, Luca; Capuzzo, Antonio; Pavan, Barbara; Rassu, Giovanna; Salis, Andrea; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2015-11-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiretroviral drug that is a substrate of active efflux transporters (AETs) that extrude the drug from the central nervous system (CNS) and macrophages, which are considered to be sanctuaries of HIV. The conjugation of AZT to ursodeoxycholic acid is known to produce a prodrug (UDCA-AZT) that is able to elude the AET systems, indicating the potential ability of this prodrug to act as a carrier of AZT in the CNS and in macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that UDCA-AZT is able to permeate and remain in murine macrophages with an efficiency twenty times higher than that of AZT. Moreover, we propose the nasal administration of this prodrug in order to induce its uptake into the CNS. Chitosan chloride-based microparticles (CP) were prepared by spray-drying and were characterized with respect to size, morphology, density, water uptake and the dissolution profile of UDCA-AZT. The CP sample was then nasally administered to rats. All in vitro and in vivo measurements were also performed for a CP parent physical mixture. The CP sample was able to increase the dissolution rate of UDCA-AZT and to reduce water uptake with respect to its parent physical mixture, inducing better uptake of UDCA-AZT into the cerebrospinal fluid of rats, where the prodrug can act as an AZT carrier in macrophages.

  11. Prodrugs of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), More Than Meets the Eye: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Qandil, Amjad M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications. The rich literature about potential NSAID prodrugs clearly shows a shift from alkyl, aryalkyl or aryl esters with the sole role of masking the carboxylic acid group, to more elaborate conjugates that contain carefully chosen groups to serve specific purposes, such as enhancement of water solubility and dissolution, nitric oxide release, hydrogen sulfide release, antioxidant activity, anticholinergic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) activity and site-specific targeting and delivery. This review will focus on NSAID prodrugs that have been designed or were, later, found to possess intrinsic pharmacological activity as an intact chemical entity. Such intrinsic activity might augment the anti-inflammatory activity of the NSAID, reduce its side effects or transform the potential therapeutic use from classical anti-inflammatory action to something else. Reports discussed in this review will be those of NO-NSAIDs, anticholinergic and AChEI-NSAIDs, Phospho-NSAIDs and some miscellaneous agents. In most cases, this review will cover literature dealing with these NSAID prodrugs from the year 2006 and later. Older literature will be used when necessary, e.g., to explain the chemical and biological mechanisms of action. PMID:23247285

  12. Spiral assembly of amphiphilic cytarabine prodrug assisted by probe sonication: Enhanced therapy index for leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ma, Naxin; Zhao, Dujuan; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2015-12-01

    In order to overcome the drawbacks of cytarabine (Ara-C), such as low lipophilicity as well as short plasma half-life and rapid inactivation, a new derivative of Ara-C was designed by incorporation into the non-toxic material, oleic acid (OA), obtaining an amphiphilic small molecular weight prodrug (OA-Ara). By a simple amidation reaction, OA-Ara was synthesized successfully with a yield up to 61.32%. It was for the first time to see that the novel prodrug molecules could assemble into the unexpectedly spiral assembly under probe ultrasonication in aqueous solution. The oil/water partition coefficient (Ko/w) and the permeability of cell membrane of the prodrug were significantly increased compared with Ara-C molecules. In addition, OA-Ara molecules were stable in various pH solutions and artificial digestives, which indicated that it could be administrated orally. Cell viability assay showed that the prodrug displayed much higher antiproliferative effect against K562 and HL60 cells due to its improvement of the lipophilicity and penetrability of cell membrane. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing structural modification to broaden the clinic application of Ara-C and thus provide an effective new therapeutic alternative for leukemia.

  13. Nucleotide Analog Prodrug, Tenofovir Disoproxil, Enhances Lymphoid Cell Loading Following Oral Administration in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Gasselin, Lucie; Van Rompay, Koen K.A.; Vela, Jennifer E.; Henne, Ilana N.; Lee, William A.; Rhodes, Gerry R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2009-01-01

    The antiviral drug tenofovir (TFV) is orally administered as the fumarate salt of its disoproxil prodrug (TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF)). TFV is a di-anion at physiological pH and, as a result, has poor lipid membrane permeability. Administration of the lipophilic and cell permeable prodrug, TFV disoproxil, enhances the oral absorption of TFV. In order to determine if oral administration of TDF also increases distribution to sites of viral infection, the plasma and circulating lymphoid cell pharmacokinetics of TFV and its phosphorylated metabolites were assessed following a single oral TDF or subcutaneous TFV administration at doses yielding equivalent plasma exposures to TFV in macaques. Despite TFV disoproxil’s lack of plasma stability and undetectable levels in the first plasma samples taken, oral administration of TDF resulted in 7.9-fold higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell exposures to the active metabolite, TFV-diphosphate. The apparent plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) of TFV was also longer following oral TDF relative to subcutaneous TFV administration (median t1/2 of 15.3 and 3.9 h, respectively), suggesting broader distribution to cells and tissues outside of the central plasma compartment. In conclusion, the disoproxil pro-moiety not only enhances the oral absorption of TFV but also tissue and lymphoid cell loading. These results illustrate that administration of even a fleeting prodrug can increase target tissue loading and gives valuable insight for future prodrug development. PMID:19545170

  14. Synthesis, Screening and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Potential Prodrugs of Bupropion. Part One: In Vitro Development

    PubMed Central

    O’Byrne, Paul Matthew; Williams, Robert; Walsh, John J.; Gilmer, John F.

    2014-01-01

    In general, prodrugs are developed to circumvent deficiencies associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or toxicological (ADMET) profile associated with the active drug. In our study, we select bupropion, a drug with broad pharmacology incorporating dopaminergic, noradrenergic, nicotinic and cytokine modulation properties, but which is rapidly metabolized in vivo. We exploited its carbonyl and secondary amine functionality to facilitate the synthesis of bioprecursor prodrug forms with the sole objective of identifying analogues with enhanced properties over bupropion. A range of analogues were synthesized, ranging from N-methyl, N-benzyl, oximes, enol acetate and ether forms to examples where both functional groups were utilized to form oxadiazine, oxadiazinone, oxazolone and acetylated derivatives. We then developed an in vitro metabolic screen to simulate the human oral delivery route for these analogues. The selection of media in the screens contained a variety of pH, enzymatic and co-factor systems which mimic metabolic in vivo environments that drugs encounter when delivered orally. By coupling our in vitro screening tool to a selective hyphenated technique such as LC-MS, we were able to quickly select potential prodrugs for further in vitro and in vivo development. From the data generated, the N-alkylated bupropion analogues were shown to have the highest potential to act as bioprecursor prodrugs of bupropion. PMID:24830986

  15. A five-membered lactone prodrug of CBI-based analogs of the duocarmycins

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Mika; Brody, Daniel M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    The preparation, characterization and examination of the CBI-based 5-membered lactone 5 capable of serving as a prodrug or protein (antibody) conjugation reagent are disclosed along with its incorporation into the corresponding CC-1065 and duocarmycin analog 6, and the establishment of their properties. PMID:26069351

  16. Naloxone pro-drug rescues morphine induced respiratory depression in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wallisch, Michael; El Rody, Nehad M; Huang, Baohua; Koop, Dennis R; Baker, James R; Olsen, George D

    2012-01-15

    Respiratory depression is the main obstacle for the safe administration of morphine for acute pain after injury. Due to this complication, new delivery methods are needed to insure that safe and effective doses of opioid analgesics are administered during emergencies. A depot formulation containing a naloxone pro-drug was designed to release the antidote when morphine causes dangerous hypoxic conditions in the blood. The aim of this work was to test the naloxone release in vivo in response to a severe overdose of morphine in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Non-invasive two-chamber plethysmography was used to monitor and record respiration and to test the capability of the naloxone pro-drug to respond to and rescue morphine-induced respiratory depression in the animal. We show that the pro-drug formulation can both prevent and reverse severe morphine induced respiratory depression. The animal model demonstrates that co-administration of the naloxone pro-drug reliably antagonizes profound respiratory depressive effects of morphine.

  17. Utilization of Enzyme-Immobilized Mesoporous Silica Nanocontainers (IBN-4) in Prodrug-Activated Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Bau-Yen; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Kankala, Shravankumar; Deng, Jin-Pei; Liu, Chen-Lun; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    To develop a carrier for use in enzyme prodrug therapy, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (IBN-4: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology), where the nanoparticle surfaces were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and further conjugated with glutaraldehyde. Consequently, the enzymes could be stabilized in nanochannels through the formation of covalent imine bonds. This strategy was used to protect HRP from immune exclusion, degradation and denaturation under biological conditions. Furthermore, immobilization of HRP in the nanochannels of IBN-4 nanomaterials exhibited good functional stability upon repetitive use and long-term storage (60 days) at 4 °C. The generation of functionalized and HRP-immobilized nanomaterials was further verified using various characterization techniques. The possibility of using HRP-encapsulated IBN-4 materials in prodrug cancer therapy was also demonstrated by evaluating their ability to convert a prodrug (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)) into cytotoxic radicals, which triggered tumor cell apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT-29 cell line) cells. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay revealed that cells could be exposed to the IBN-4 nanocomposites without damaging their membranes, confirming apoptotic cell death. In summary, we demonstrated the potential of utilizing large porous mesoporous silica nanomaterials (IBN-4) as enzyme carriers for prodrug therapy. PMID:28347114

  18. A Novel Doxorubicin Prodrug with Controllable Photolysis Activation for Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zahavy, Eran; Wrasdilo, Wolf; Berns, Michael; Chan, Michael; Esener, Sadik

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Doxorubicin (DOX) is a very effective anticancer agent. However, in its pure form, its application is limited by significant cardiotoxic side effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a controllably activatable chemotherapy prodrug of DOX created by blocking its free amine group with a biotinylated photocleavable blocking group (PCB). Methods An n-hydroxy succunamide protecting group on the PCB allowed selective binding at the DOX active amine group. The PCB included an ortho-nitrophenyl group for photo cleavability and a water-soluble glycol spacer arm ending in a biotin group for enhanced membrane interaction. Results This novel DOX-PCB prodrug had a 200-fold decrease in cytotoxicity compared to free DOX and could release active DOX upon exposure to UV light at 350 nm. Unlike DOX, DOX-PCB stayed in the cell cytoplasm, did not enter the nucleus, and did not stain the exposed DNA during mitosis. Human liver microsome incubation with DOX-PCB indicated stability against liver metabolic breakdown. Conclusions The development of the DOX-PCB prodrug demonstrates the possibility of using light as a method of prodrug activation in deep internal tissues without relying on inherent physical or biochemical differences between the tumor and healthy tissue for use as the trigger. PMID:20596761

  19. "Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

  20. Combined strategies of apomorphine diester prodrugs and nanostructured lipid carriers for efficient brain targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wen, Chih-Jen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Sung, K. C.; Ku, Ming-Chuan; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-03-01

    Our aim is to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for loading the apomorphine diester prodrugs, diacetyl apomorphine (DAA) and diisobutyryl apomorphine (DIA), into the brain. NLCs were prepared using sesame oil/cetyl palmitate as the lipid matrices. Experiments were performed with the objective of evaluating the physicochemical characteristics, drug release, safety and brain-targeting efficacy of the NLCs. The size of regular NLCs (N-NLCs) was 214 nm. The addition of Forestall (FE) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the NLCs (P-NLCs) increased the particle diameter to 250 nm. The zeta potentials of N-NLCs and P-NLCs were respectively shown to be - 21 and 48 mV. Diester prodrugs were more lipophilic and more chemically stable than the parent apomorphine. The hydrolysis study indicated that the prodrugs underwent bioconversion in plasma and brain extract, with DAA exhibiting faster degradation than DIA. Sustained release was achieved through the synergistic effect of integrating strategies of prodrugs and NLCs, with the longer carbon chain showing the slower release (DIA < DAA). None of the NLCs tested here exhibited a toxicity problem according to the examination of neutrophil lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and hemolysis. Results of a bioimaging study in mice showed that P-NLCs largely accumulated in the brain. The distribution duration of the fluorescent dye in the brain region was also prolonged by the nanocarriers.

  1. Preparation, characterization, cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics of liposomes containing lipophilic gemcitabine prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Immordino, Maria Laura; Brusa, Paola; Rocco, Flavio; Arpicco, Silvia; Ceruti, Maurizio; Cattel, Luigi

    2004-12-10

    Gemcitabine is a known anticancer agent rapidly deaminated to the inactive metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine; it must therefore be administered at very high dose. Many different approaches have been tried to improve the metabolic stability; we synthesized a series of increasingly lipophilic prodrugs of gemcitabine by linking the 4-amino group with valeroyl, heptanoyl, lauroyl and stearoyl linear acyl derivatives. We studied their stability at storage, in plasma and with the lysosomal intracellular enzyme cathepsins. We studied incorporation of these lipophilic prodrugs in liposomes, where their encapsulation efficiency (EE) closely depends on the length of the saturated 4-(N)-acyl chain, the phospholipids chosen and the presence of cholesterol. A maximum EE of 98% was determined for 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine incorporated in DSPC/DSPG 9:1. This formulation was correlated with the highest stability in vitro and in vivo. Cytotoxicity of gemcitabine prodrugs, free or encapsulated in liposomes, was between two- and sevenfold that of free gemcitabine. Encapsulation of long-chain lipophilic prodrugs of gemcitabine in liposomes protected the drug from degradation in plasma, assuring a long plasma half-time and intracellular release of the free drug.

  2. Water-soluble acacetin prodrug confers significant cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Lei; Wu, Hui-Jun; Chen, Kui-Hao; Lin, Feng; Li, Gang; Sun, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy resulted from ischemia/reperfusion injury are very high. The present study investigates whether our previously synthesized water-soluble phosphate prodrug of acacetin was cardioprotective against ischemia/reperfusion injury in an in vivo rat model. We found that intravenous administration of acacetin prodrug (10 mg/kg) decreased the ventricular arrhythmia score and duration, reduced ventricular fibrillation and infarct size, and improved the impaired heart function induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in anesthetized rats. The cardioprotective effects were further confirmed with the parent compound acacetin in an ex vivo rat regional ischemia/reperfusion heart model. Molecular mechanism analysis revealed that acacetin prevented the ischemia/reperfusion-induced reduction of the anti-oxidative proteins SOD-2 and thioredoxin, suppressed the release of inflammation cytokines TLR4, IL-6 and TNFα, and decreased myocyte apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Our results demonstrate the novel evidence that acacetin prodrug confer significant in vivo cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury by preventing the reduction of endogenous anti-oxidants and the release of inflammatory cytokines, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocytes apoptosis, which suggests that the water-soluble acacetin prodrug is likely useful in the future as a new drug candidate for treating patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27819271

  3. Resistance of herpes simplex virus type 1 to peptidomimetic ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors: selection and characterization of mutant isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, A M; Kibler, P; White, P; Bousquet, C; Dansereau, N; Cordingley, M G

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encodes its own ribonucleotide reductase (RR), which provides the high levels of deoxynucleoside triphosphates required for viral DNA replication in infected cells. HSV RR is composed of two distinct subunits, R1 and R2, whose association is required for enzymatic activity. Peptidomimetic inhibitors that mimic the C-terminal amino acids of R2 inhibit HSV RR by preventing the association of R1 and R2. These compounds are candidate antiviral therapeutic agents. Here we describe the in vitro selection of HSV type 1 KOS variants with three- to ninefold-decreased sensitivity to the RR inhibitor BILD 733. The resistant isolates have growth properties in vitro similar to those of wild-type KOS but are more sensitive to acyclovir, possibly as a consequence of functional impairment of their RRs. A single amino acid substitution in R1 (Ala-1091 to Ser) was associated with threefold resistance to BILD 733, whereas an additional substitution (Pro-1090 to Leu) was required for higher levels of resistance. These mutations were reintroduced into HSV type 1 KOS and shown to be sufficient to confer the resistance phenotype. Studies in vitro with RRs isolated from cells infected with these mutant viruses demonstrated that these RRs bind BILD 733 more weakly than the wild-type enzyme and are also functionally impaired, exhibiting an elevated dissociation constant (Kd) for R1-R2 subunit association and/or reduced activity (kcat). This work provides evidence that the C-terminal end of HSV R1 (residues 1090 and 1091) is involved in R2 binding interactions and demonstrates that resistance to subunit association inhibitors may be associated with compromised activity of the target enzyme. PMID:8551616

  4. Synthesis and in vitro stability of amino acid prodrugs of 6-β-naltrexol for microneedle-enhanced transdermal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Joshua A.; Milewski, Mikolaj; Stinchcomb, Audra L.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    A small library of amino acid ester prodrugs of 6-β-naltrexol (NTXOL, 1) was prepared in order to investigate the candidacy of these prodrugs for microneedle-enhanced transdermal delivery. Six amino acid ester prodrugs were synthesized (6a-f). 6b, 6d, and 6e were stable enough at skin pH (pH 5.0) to move forward to studies in 50% human plasma. The lead compound (6e) exhibited the most rapid bioconversion to NTXOL in human plasma (t½ = 2.2 ± 0.1 h). PMID:25442314

  5. Efficient activation of a visible light-activatable CA4 prodrug through intermolecular photo-unclick chemistry in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bio, Moses; Rajaputra, Pallavi; Lim, Irene; Thapa, Pritam; Tienabeso, Bomaonye; Hurst, Robert E; You, Youngjae

    2017-02-07

    Photo-unclick chemistry mediates visible and near IR-controlled drug release via a singlet oxygen (SO)-cleavable linker. Due to the limited diffusion distance of SO in biological systems, a photosensitizer and the SO-cleavable linker have been conjugated in one molecule or mixed in nano-drug delivery systems. In this communication, we demonstrate a new strategy to activate prodrugs with photo-unclick chemistry in an intermolecular fashion using an SO-cleavable CA4 prodrug and a mitochondria-specific photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, formed from prodrug hexyl-5-aminolevulinate.

  6. Carboxypeptidase-G2-based gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy: a new weapon in the GDEPT armoury.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Douglas; Ogilvie, Lesley; Springer, Caroline

    2007-11-01

    Gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT) aims to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects) of cancer chemotherapy. A gene encoding a 'suicide' enzyme is introduced into the tumour to convert a subsequently administered non-toxic prodrug into an active drug selectively in the tumour, but not in normal tissues. Significant effects can now be achieved in vitro and in targeted experimental models, and GDEPT therapies are entering the clinic. Our group has developed a GDEPT system that uses the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 to convert nitrogen mustard prodrugs into potent DNA crosslinking agents, and a clinical trial of this system is pending.

  7. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Mengfei; Yuan, Zhefan; Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K10), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K10, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.

  8. Synergistic antitumor activity of a self-assembling camptothecin and capecitabine hybrid prodrug for improved efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wang; Su, Hao; Cheetham, Andrew G; Zhang, Weifang; Wang, Yuzhu; Kan, QuanCheng; Cui, Honggang

    2017-01-10

    The direct use of anticancer drugs to create their own nanostructures is an emerging concept in the field of drug delivery to obtain nanomedicines of high drug loading and high reproducibility, and the combination use of two or more drugs has been a proven clinical strategy to enhance therapeutic outcomes. We report here the synthesis, assembly and cytotoxicity evaluation of self-assembling hybrid prodrugs containing both camptothecin (CPT) and a capecitabine (Cap) analogue. CPT and Cap molecules were conjugated onto a short β-sheet-forming peptide (Sup35) to yield three different self-assembling prodrugs (dCPT-Sup35, CPT-Cap-Sup35 and dCap-Sup35). We found that the chemical structure of conjugated drugs could strongly influence their assembled morphology as well as their structural stability in aqueous solution. With a decrease in number of CPT units, the resulting nanostructures exhibited a morphological transformation from nanofibers (dCPT-Sup35) to filaments (CPT-Cap-Sup35) then to spherical particles (dCap-Sup35). Notably, the hybrid CPT-Cap prodrug showed a synergistic effect and significantly enhanced potency against three esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines compared with the two homo-prodrugs (dCPT-Sup35 and dCap-Sup35) as well as free parent drugs (CPT, 5-Fu and CPT/5-FU mixture (1:1)). We believe this work represents a conceptual advancement in integrating two structurally distinct drugs of different action mechanisms into a single self-assembling hybrid prodrug to construct self-deliverable nanomedicines for more effective combination chemotherapy.

  9. Membrane adsorption and binding, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of cell-penetrating peptidomimetics with α-peptide/β-peptoid backbone: effects of hydrogen bonding and α-chirality in the β-peptoid residues.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaona; Yang, Mingjun; Kasimova, Marina R; Malmsten, Martin; Franzyk, Henrik; Jorgensen, Lene; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2012-11-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) provide a promising approach for enhancing intracellular delivery of therapeutic biomacromolecules by increasing transport through membrane barriers. Here, proteolytically stable cell-penetrating peptidomimetics with α-peptide/β-peptoid backbone were studied to evaluate the effect of α-chirality in the β-peptoid residues and the presence of guanidinium groups in the α-amino acid residues on membrane interaction. The molecular properties of the peptidomimetics in solution (surface and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, aqueous diffusion rate and molecular size) were studied along with their adsorption to lipid bilayers, cellular uptake, and toxicity. The surface hydrogen bonding ability of the peptidomimetics reflected their adsorbed amounts onto lipid bilayers as well as with their cellular uptake, indicating the importance of hydrogen bonding for their membrane interaction and cellular uptake. Ellipsometry studies further demonstrated that the presence of chiral centers in the β-peptoid residues promotes a higher adsorption to anionic lipid bilayers, whereas circular dichroism results showed that α-chirality influences their overall mean residue ellipticity. The presence of guanidinium groups and α-chiral β-peptoid residues was also found to have a significant positive effect on uptake in living cells. Together, the findings provide an improved understanding on the behavior of cell-penetrating peptidomimetics in the presence of lipid bilayers and live cells.

  10. Thiazole-valine peptidomimetic (TTT-28) antagonizes multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo by selectively inhibiting the efflux activity of ABCB1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Patel, Bhargav A.; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhang, Guan-Nan; Alqahtani, Saeed; Singh, Satyakam; Shukla, Suneet; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Talele, Tanaji T.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) attenuates the chemotherapy efficacy and increases the probability of cancer recurrence. The accelerated drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is one of the major MDR mechanisms. This study investigated if TTT-28, a newly synthesized thiazole-valine peptidomimetic, could reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR in vitro and in vivo. TTT-28 reversed the ABCB1-mediated MDR and increased the accumulation of [3H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells by selectively blocking the efflux function of ABCB1, but not interfering with the expression level and localization of ABCB1. Animal study revealed that TTT-28 enhanced the intratumoral concentration of paclitaxel and promoted apoptosis, thereby potently inhibiting the growth of ABCB1 overexpressing tumors. But TTT-28 did not induce the toxicity (cardiotoxicity/myelosuppression) of paclitaxel in mice. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated a novel selective inhibitor of ABCB1 (TTT-28) with high efficacy and low toxicity. The identification and characterization of this new thiazole-valine peptidomimetic will facilitate design and synthesis of a new generation of ABCB1 inhibitors, leading to further research on multidrug resistance and combination chemotherapy. Furthermore, the strategy that co-administer MDR-ABCB1 inhibitor to overcome the resistance of one FDA approved, widely used chemotherapeutic paclitaxel, may be promising direction for the field of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28181548

  11. Folate receptor-mediated enhanced and specific delivery of far-red light-activatable prodrugs of combretastatin A-4 to FR-positive tumor.

    PubMed

    Nkepang, Gregory; Bio, Moses; Rajaputra, Pallavi; Awuah, Samuel G; You, Youngjae

    2014-12-17

    We examined the concept of a novel prodrug strategy in which anticancer drug can be locally released by visible/near IR light, taking advantage of the photodynamic process and photo-unclick chemistry. Our most recently formulated prodrug of combretastatin A-4, Pc-(L-CA4)2, showed multifunctionality for fluorescence imaging, light-activated drug release, and the combined effects of PDT and local chemotherapy. In this formulation, L is a singlet oxygen cleavable linker. Here, we advanced this multifunctional prodrug by adding a tumor-targeting group, folic acid (FA). We designed and prepared four FA-conjugated prodrugs 1-4 (CA4-L-Pc-PEGn-FA: n = 0, 2, 18, ∼45) and one non-FA-conjugated prodrug 5 (CA4-L-Pc-PEG18-boc). Prodrugs 3 and 4 had a longer PEG spacer and showed higher hydrophilicity, enhanced uptake to colon 26 cells via FR-mediated mechanisms, and more specific localization to SC colon 26 tumors in Balb/c mice than prodrugs 1 and 2. Prodrug 4 also showed higher and more specific uptake to tumors, resulting in selective tumor damage and more effective antitumor efficacy than non-FA-conjugated prodrug 5. FR-mediated targeting seemed to be an effective strategy to spare normal tissues surrounding tumors in the illuminated area during treatment with this prodrug.

  12. Folate Receptor-Mediated Enhanced and Specific Delivery of Far-Red Light-Activatable Prodrugs of Combretastatin A-4 to FR-Positive Tumor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We examined the concept of a novel prodrug strategy in which anticancer drug can be locally released by visible/near IR light, taking advantage of the photodynamic process and photo-unclick chemistry. Our most recently formulated prodrug of combretastatin A-4, Pc-(L-CA4)2, showed multifunctionality for fluorescence imaging, light-activated drug release, and the combined effects of PDT and local chemotherapy. In this formulation, L is a singlet oxygen cleavable linker. Here, we advanced this multifunctional prodrug by adding a tumor-targeting group, folic acid (FA). We designed and prepared four FA-conjugated prodrugs 1–4 (CA4-L-Pc-PEGn-FA: n = 0, 2, 18, ∼45) and one non-FA-conjugated prodrug 5 (CA4-L-Pc-PEG18-boc). Prodrugs 3 and 4 had a longer PEG spacer and showed higher hydrophilicity, enhanced uptake to colon 26 cells via FR-mediated mechanisms, and more specific localization to SC colon 26 tumors in Balb/c mice than prodrugs 1 and 2. Prodrug 4 also showed higher and more specific uptake to tumors, resulting in selective tumor damage and more effective antitumor efficacy than non-FA-conjugated prodrug 5. FR-mediated targeting seemed to be an effective strategy to spare normal tissues surrounding tumors in the illuminated area during treatment with this prodrug. PMID:25351441

  13. Topical iontophoretic delivery of ionizable, biolabile aciclovir prodrugs: A rational approach to improve cutaneous bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Alberti, Ingo; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the topical iontophoretic delivery of a series of amino acid ester prodrugs of aciclovir (ACV-X, where ACV=aciclovir and X=Arg, Gly, Ile, Phe, Trp and Val) as a means to enhance cutaneous delivery of ACV. The newly synthesized prodrugs were characterized by (1)H NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry. Analytical methods using HPLC-UV were developed for their quantification and each method was validated. Investigation of solution stability as a function of pH showed that all ACV-X prodrugs were relatively stable in acid conditions at pH 2.0 and pH 5.5 for up to 8h but susceptible to extensive hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and under alkaline conditions (pH 10). No ACV-X hydrolysis was observed after contact for 2h with the external surface of porcine stratum corneum. However, there was significant hydrolysis following contact with the dermal surface of dermatomed porcine skin, in particular, for ACV-Arg. Passive transport of ACV and ACV-X prodrugs from aqueous solution after 2h was below the limit of detection. Iontophoresis of ACV at 0.5 mA/cm(2) for 2h led to modest ACV skin deposition (QDEP,ACV) of 4.6 ± 0.3 nmol/cm(2). In contrast, iontophoresis of ACV-X prodrugs under the same conditions produced order of magnitude increases in cutaneous deposition of ACV species, that is, QDEP,TOTAL=QDEP,ACV+QDEP,ACV-X. QDEP,TOTAL for ACV-Gly, ACV-Val, ACV-Ile, ACV-Phe, ACV-Trp and ACV-Arg was 412.8 ± 44.0, 358.8 ± 66.8, 434.1 ± 68.2, 249.8 ± 81.4, 156.1 ± 76.3, 785.9 ± 78.1 nmol/cm(2), respectively. The extent of bioconversion of ACV-X to ACV in the skin was high and the proportion of ACV present ranged from 81% to 100%. The skin retention ratio, a measure of the selectivity of ACV species for deposition over permeation after iontophoretic delivery of ACV-X prodrugs, was dependent on both the rate of transport and the susceptibility to hydrolysis of the prodrugs. Skin deposition of ACV and its six prodrugs were investigated further as a

  14. Preparation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Orally Active Ester Prodrugs of Ketoprofen with Non-Ulcerogenic Property.

    PubMed

    Dhakane, Valmik D; Thakare, Vishnu N; Dongare, Sakharam B; Bhale, Pravin S; Mule, Yoginath B; Bandgar, Babasaheb P; Chavan, Hemant V

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates anti-inflammatory activity with improved pharmacokinetic and non-ulcerogenic properties of various novel synthesized prodrugs of ketoprofen in experimental animals. Prodrugs 3a, 3f and 3k were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity with almost non-ulcerogenic potential than standard drug ketoprofen (1) in both normal and inflammation-induced rats. The experimental findings elicited higher AUC and plasma concentration at 1 and 2 h indicating improved oral bioavailability as compared to parent drug ketoprofen. These prodrugs are found to have no gastric ulceration with retained anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, present experimental findings demonstrated significant improvement of various pharmacokinetic properties with non-ulcerogenic potential of ester prodrugs of ketoprofen.

  15. Nanostructured nanoparticles of self-assembled lipid pro-drugs as a route to improved chemotherapeutic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Kimpton, Kathleen; Waddington, Lynne J.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    We demonstrate that oral delivery of self-assembled nanostructured nanoparticles consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) lipid prodrugs results in a highly effective, target-activated, chemotherapeutic agent, and offers significantly enhanced efficacy over a commercially available alternative that does not self-assemble. The lipid prodrug nanoparticles have been found to significantly slow the growth of a highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast tumour, and essentially halt the growth of a human MDA-MB-231 breast tumour in mouse xenografts. Systemic toxicity is avoided as prodrug activation requires a three-step, enzymatic conversion to 5-FU, with the third step occurring preferentially at the tumour site. Additionally, differences in the lipid prodrug chemical structure and internal nanostructure of the nanoparticle dictate the enzymatic conversion rate and can be used to control sustained release profiles. Thus, we have developed novel oral nanomedicines that combine sustained release properties with target-selective activation.

  16. Design and synthesis of imidazole N-H substituted amide prodrugs as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xi; Cai, Jin; Chen, Junqing; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Gaoxin; Chen, Bo; Li, Wei; Ji, Min

    2015-08-15

    Twenty-five novel imidazole N-H substituted Daclatasvir (BMS-790052, DCV) analogues (8a-8y) were designed and synthesized as potential prodrugs. Structure modifications were performed in order to improve potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. All target compounds were evaluated in a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b replicon, and the 2-oxoethyl acetate substituted compound 8t showed similar anti-HCV activity (EC50 = 0.08 nM) to that of the lead compound Daclatasvir. Moreover, the utility of prodrug 8t was demonstrated through similar exposure of the parent compound when the prodrugs were dosed in vivo. PK studies showed that prodrug 8t was an ideal candidate for a slower and sustained release form of Daclatasvir.

  17. Nanostructured nanoparticles of self-assembled lipid pro-drugs as a route to improved chemotherapeutic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Kimpton, Kathleen; Waddington, Lynne J.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Drummond, Calum J.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that oral delivery of self-assembled nanostructured nanoparticles consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) lipid prodrugs results in a highly effective, target-activated, chemotherapeutic agent, and offers significantly enhanced efficacy over a commercially available alternative that does not self-assemble. The lipid prodrug nanoparticles have been found to significantly slow the growth of a highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast tumour, and essentially halt the growth of a human MDA-MB-231 breast tumour in mouse xenografts. Systemic toxicity is avoided as prodrug activation requires a three-step, enzymatic conversion to 5-FU, with the third step occurring preferentially at the tumour site. Additionally, differences in the lipid prodrug chemical structure and internal nanostructure of the nanoparticle dictate the enzymatic conversion rate and can be used to control sustained release profiles. Thus, we have developed novel oral nanomedicines that combine sustained release properties with target-selective activation.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of brain penetrant prodrug of neuroprotective D-264: Potential therapeutic application in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dholkawala, Fahd; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Dutta, Aloke K

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the major debilitating neurodegenerative disorders affecting millions of people worldwide. Progressive loss of dopamine neurons resulting in development of motor dysfunction and other related non-motor symptoms is the hallmark of PD. Previously, we have reported on the neuroprotective property of a potent D3 preferring agonist D-264. In our goal to increase the bioavailability of D-264 in the brain, we have synthesized a modified cysteine based prodrug of D-264 and evaluated its potential in crossing the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel modified cysteine conjugated prodrug of potent neuroprotective D3 preferring agonist D-264 and systematic evaluation of the hydrolysis pattern of the prodrug to yield D-264 at different time intervals in rat plasma and brain homogenates using HPLC analysis. Furthermore, we have also performed in vivo experiments with the prodrug to evaluate its enhanced brain penetration ability.

  19. Identification of novel enzyme-prodrug combinations for use in cytochrome P450-based gene therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Alex; Huang, Zeqi; Jounaidi, Youssef; Waxman, David J

    2003-01-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy can be used to increase the therapeutic activity of anti-cancer prodrugs that undergo liver cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed prodrug to active drug conversion. The present report describes a cell-culture-based assay to identify CYP gene-CYP prodrug combinations that generate bystander cytotoxic metabolites and that may potentially be useful for CYP-based gene therapy for cancer. A panel of rat liver microsomes, comprising distinct subsets of drug-inducible hepatic CYPs, was evaluated for prodrug activation in a four-day 9L gliosarcoma cell growth inhibition assay. A strong NADPH- and liver microsome-dependent increase in 9L cytotoxicity was observed for the CYP prodrugs cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin (MMDX) but not with three other CYP prodrugs, procarbazine, dacarbazine, and tamoxifen. MMDX activation was potentiated approximately 250-fold by liver microsomes from dexamethasone-induced rats (IC(50) (MMDX) approximately 0.1nM), suggesting that dexamethasone-inducible CYP3A enzymes contribute to activation of this novel anthracycline anti-tumor agent. This CYP3A dependence was verified in studies using liver microsomes from uninduced male and female rats and by using the CYP3A-selective inhibitors troleandomycin and ketoconazole. These findings highlight the advantages of using cell culture assays to identify novel CYP prodrug-CYP gene combinations that are characterized by production of cell-permeable, cytotoxic metabolites and that may potentially be incorporated into CYP-based gene therapies for cancer treatment.

  20. Design, synthesis and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of orally bioavailable prodrugs of a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Leppänen, Jukka; Lehtonen, Marko; Laine, Krista; Koskinen, Mikko; Pystynen, Jarmo; Savolainen, Jouko; Sairanen, Mikko

    2010-04-15

    Compound 1 is an investigational, nanomolar inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that suffers from poor oral bioavailability, most probably due to its low lipophilicity throughout most of the gastrointestinal tract and, to a lesser extent, its rapid systemic clearance. Several lipophilic esters were designed as prodrugs and synthesized in an attempt to optimize presystemic drug absorption. A modest twofold increase in 6-h exposure of 1 was observed with two prodrugs, compared to that of 1, after oral treatment in rats.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: interaction with the transporters on Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Katragadda, Suresh; Jain, Ritesh; Kwatra, Deep; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    In vivo systemic absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) after oral administration was evaluated in rats. Stability of the prodrugs, L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) was evaluated in various tissues. Interaction of these prodrugs with the transporters on Caco-2 cells was studied. In vivo systemic bioavailability of these prodrugs upon oral administration was evaluated in jugular vein cannulated rats. The amino acid ester prodrugs showed affinity towards various amino acid transporters as well as the peptide transporter on the Caco-2 cells. In terms of stability, EACV was most enzymatically stable compared to other prodrugs especially in liver homogenate. In oral absorption studies, ACV and AACV showed high terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately five-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) values relative to ACV (p<0.05). C(max(T)) (maximum concentration) of SACV was observed to be 39+/-22 microM in plasma which is 2 times better than VACV and 15 times better than ACV. C(last(T)) (concentration at the last time point) of SACV was observed to be 0.18+/-0.06 microM in plasma which is two times better than VACV and three times better than ACV. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed at varying amounts (C(max)) and eliminated at varying rates (lambda(z)) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug SACV owing to its enhanced stability, higher AUC and better concentration at last time point seems to be a promising candidate for the oral treatment of herpes infections.

  2. Water-soluble nitric-oxide-releasing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Barbara; Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Marini, Elisabetta; Joseph, Sony; Morini, Giuseppina; Pozzoli, Cristina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    A series of water-soluble (benzoyloxy)methyl esters of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), commonly known as aspirin, are described. The new derivatives each have alkyl chains containing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nitrooxy group and a solubilizing moiety bonded to the benzoyl ring. The compounds were synthesized and evaluated as ASA prodrugs. After conversion to the appropriate salt, most of the derivatives are solid at room temperature and all possess good water solubility. They are quite stable in acid solution (pH 1) and less stable at physiological pH. In human serum, these compounds are immediately metabolized by esterases, producing a mixture of ASA, salicylic acid (SA), and of the related NO-donor benzoic acids, along with other minor products. Due to ASA release, the prodrugs are capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Simple NO-donor benzoic acids 3-hydroxy-4-(3-nitrooxypropoxy)benzoic acid (28) and 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoic acid (48) were also studied as representative models of the whole class of benzoic acids formed following metabolism of the prodrugs in serum. These simplified derivatives did not trigger antiaggregatory activity when tested at 300 μM. Only 28 displays quite potent NO-dependent vasodilatatory action. Further in vivo evaluation of two selected prodrugs, {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl-3-[(3-[aminopropanoyl)oxy]-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate⋅HCl (38) and {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate oxalate (49), revealed that their anti-inflammatory activities are similar to that of ASA when tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. The gastrotoxicity of the two prodrugs was also determined to be lower than that of ASA in a lesion model in rats. Taken together, these results indicated that these NO-donor ASA prodrugs warrant further investigation for clinical application.

  3. Synthesis, stability studies, anti-inflammatory activity and ulcerogenicity of morpholinoalkyl ester prodrugs of niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Talath, Sirajunisa; Gadad, Andanappa K

    2006-01-01

    In search for potential prodrugs for anti-inflammatory drug candidates in the niflumate series, novel morpholinoalkyl ester prodrugs of niflumic acid (CAS 4394-00-7) 5a-b were prepared by esterification of appropriate morpholinylalkyl alcohols 3a-b with niflumic acid 4 in the presence of dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and catalyst dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP) at 0-5 degrees C. The structures were confirmed by elemental and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and EI-MS). The ester prodrugs 5a-b showed better solubility than the parent drug niflumic acid 4 in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The in vitro hydrolysis studies were conducted at pH 1.3 (SGF), phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and in human plasma diluted with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37+/-0.5 degrees C using HPLC with UV detection. The ester prodrugs 5a-b were quantitatively hydrolyzed to the parent drug niflumic acid 4 by enzymatic and/or chemical means. It is observed that an increase in the carbon chain length rendered the prodrugs 5a-b more stable in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) than in pH 1.3 (SGF), but they were rapidly hydrolyzed in human plasma at 37+/-0.5 degrees C. They exhibited longer hydrolytic half-lives of 16.11-53.30 h in aqueous buffer solutions (pH 1.3 and 7.4) and 1.63-2.73 min in human plasma, respectively. The title compounds were evaluated in vivo for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model in rats at the doses 45, 90, 150 mg/kg b.w. The test compounds exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity (46.6-53.2 % at the dose of 150 mg/kg b. w.) with respect to niflumic acid (78.7 % at the dose of 90 mg/kg b.w.). The compounds were also screened for in vivo ulcerogenicity, it was observed that the prodrug 5b was significantly less irritating to gastric mucosa than compound 5a and the parent drug niflumic acid 4 following single and chronic oral administration in rats.

  4. Targeted anti-cancer prodrug based on carbon nanotube with photodynamic therapeutic effect and pH-triggered drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianquan; Zeng, Fang; Xu, Jiangsheng; Wu, Shuizhu

    2013-09-01

    Herein, we describe a multifunctional anti-cancer prodrug system based on water-dispersible carbon nanotube (CNT); this prodrug system features active targeting, pH-triggered drug release, and photodynamic therapeutic properties. For this prodrug system (with the size of 100-300 nm), an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was incorporated onto CNT via a cleavable hydrazone bond; and a targeting ligand (folic acid) was also coupled onto CNT. This prodrug can preferably enter folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells and undergo intracellular release of the drug triggered by the reduced pH. The targeted CNT-based prodrug system can cause lower cell viability toward FR-positive cells compared to the non-targeted ones. Moreover, the CNT carrier exhibits photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) action; and the cell viability of FR-positive cancer cells can be further reduced upon light irradiation. The dual effects of pH-triggered drug release and PDT increase the therapeutic efficacy of the DOX-CNT prodrug. This study may offer some useful insights on designing and improving the applicability of CNT for other drug delivery systems.

  5. NIR Fluorogenic Dye as a Modular Platform for Prodrug Assembly: Real-Time in vivo Monitoring of Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Redy-Keisar, Orit; Ferber, Shiran; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shabat, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The ability to monitor drug release in vivo provides essential pharmacological information. We developed a new modular approach for the preparation of theranostic prodrugs with a turn-ON near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mode of action. The prodrugs release their chemotherapeutic cargo and an active cyanine fluorophore upon reaction with a specific analyte. The prodrug platform is based on the fluorogenic dye QCy7; upon removal of a triggering substrate, the dye fluoresces, and the free drug is released. The evaluated camptothecin prodrug was activated by endogenous hydrogen peroxide produced in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity were correlated with the emitted fluorescence. The prodrug activation was effectively imaged in real time in mice bearing tumors. The modular design of the QCy7 fluorogenic platform should allow the preparation of numerous other prodrugs with various triggering substrates and chemotherapeutic agents. We anticipate that the development of real-time in vivo monitoring tools such as that described herein will pave the way for personalized therapy.

  6. Constitutive Triglyceride Turnover into the Mesenteric Lymph Is Unable to Support Efficient Lymphatic Transport of a Biomimetic Triglyceride Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Hu, Luojuan; Quach, Tim; Simpson, Jamie S; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-02-01

    The triglyceride (TG) mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) biochemically integrates into intestinal lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly pathways and thereby promotes the delivery of mycophenolic acid (MPA) into the lymphatic system. As lipoprotein (LP) formation occurs constitutively, even in the fasted state, the current study aimed to determine whether lymphatic transport of 2-MPA-TG was dependent on coadministered exogenous lipid. In vitro incubation of the prodrug with rat digestive fluid and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments revealed that hydrolysis and absorption of the prodrug were relatively unaffected by the quantity of lipid in formulations. In vivo studies in rats, however, showed that the lymphatic transport of TG and 2-MPA-TG was significantly higher following administration with higher quantities of lipid and that oleic acid (C18:1) was more effective in promoting prodrug transport than lipids with higher degrees of unsaturation. The recovery of 2-MPA-TG and TG in lymph correlated strongly (R(2) = 0.99) and more than 97% of the prodrug was associated with chylomicrons. Inhibition of LP assembly by Pluronic L81 simultaneously inhibited the lymphatic transport of 2-MPA-TG and TG. In conclusion, although the TG mimetic prodrug effectively incorporates into TG resynthetic pathways, lipid coadministration is still required to support efficient lymphatic transport.

  7. Self-assemblies of pH-activatable PEGylated multiarm poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-doxorubicin prodrugs with improved long-term antitumor efficacies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianxun; Li, Di; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2013-10-01

    Two pH-activatable star-shaped prodrugs are synthesized through the condensation reaction between Y- or dumbbell-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) copolymer and acid-sensitive cis-aconityl-doxorubicin. The prodrugs self-assemble into micelles with favorable hydrodynamic radii and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In vitro DOX release from prodrug micelles is accelerated by the decrease of the PLGA content or at the late endosomal pH. The efficient cellular uptake and intracellular DOX release of the prodrug micelles are confirmed and the improved long-term anti-proliferative activities of prodrug micelles are revealed. These features suggest that the prodrugs provide a favorable approach to construct effective polymeric drug delivery systems for malignancy therapy.

  8. Chemoenzymatic Syntheses and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Glucose-Nucleoside Conjugates as Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Tatiana; Fernández, Susana; Sanghvi, Yogesh S.; Detorio, Mervi; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Gotor, Vicente; Ferrero, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Phosphodiester linked conjugates of various nucleosides such as d4U, d4T, IdUrd, ddI, ddA, virazole, ara-A and ara-C containing a glucosyl moiety have been described. These compounds were designed to act as prodrugs, where the corresponding 5′-monophosphates may be generated intracellularly. The synthesis of the glycoconjugates was achieved in good yields by condensation of a glucosyl phosphoramidite 7 with nucleosides in the presence of an activating agent. It was demonstrated that the glucose-conjugates improve water solubility of the nucleoside analogues, for example up to 31-fold for ara-A conjugate compared to ara-A alone. The new conjugates were tested for their anti-HIV-1 activity in human lymphocytes. These derivatives offer a convenient design for potential prodrug candidates with the possibility to improve the physicochemical properties and therapeutic activity of nucleoside analogues. PMID:21077659

  9. Design, synthesis, and application of novel triclosan prodrugs as potential antimalarial and antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Satyendra; Karmodiya, Krishanpal; Parasuraman, Prasanna; Surolia, Avadhesha; Surolia, Namita

    2008-05-15

    A number of new triclosan-conjugated analogs bearing biodegradable ester linkage have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their antimalarial and antibacterial activities. Many of these compounds exhibit good inhibition against Plasmodium falciparum and Escherichia coli. Among them tertiary amine containing triclosan-conjugated prodrug (5) inhibited both P. falciparum (IC(50); 0.62microM) and E. coli (IC(50); 0.26microM) at lower concentrations as compared to triclosan. Owing to the presence of a cleavable ester moiety, these new prodrugs are hydrolyzed under physiological conditions and parent molecule, triclosan, is released. Further, introduction of tertiary/quaternary functionality increases their cellular uptake. These properties impart them with higher potency to their antimalarial as well as antibacterial activities. The best compound among them 5 shows close to four-fold enhanced activities against P. falciparum and E. coli cultures as compared to triclosan.

  10. Far-red light activatable, multifunctional prodrug for fluorescence optical imaging and combinational treatment.

    PubMed

    Bio, Moses; Rajaputra, Pallavi; Nkepang, Gregory; You, Youngjae

    2014-04-24

    We recently developed "photo-unclick chemistry", a novel chemical tool involving the cleavage of aminoacrylate by singlet oxygen, and demonstrated its application to visible light-activatable prodrugs. In this study, we prepared an advanced multifunctional prodrug, Pc-(L-CA4)2, composed of the fluorescent photosensitizer phthalocyanine (Pc), an SO-labile aminoacrylate linker (L), and a cytotoxic drug combretastatin A-4 (CA4). Pc-(L-CA4)2 had reduced dark toxicity compared with CA4. However, once illuminated, it showed improved toxicity similar to CA4 and displayed bystander effects in vitro. We monitored the time-dependent distribution of Pc-(L-CA4)2 using optical imaging with live mice. We also effectively ablated tumors by the illumination with far-red light to the mice, presumably through the combined effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and released chemotherapy drug, without any sign of acute systemic toxicity.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells as cellular vehicles for prodrug gene therapy against tumors.

    PubMed

    Amara, Ikrame; Touati, Walid; Beaune, Philippe; de Waziers, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) consists of targeted delivery to tumor cells of a suicide gene responsible for the in situ conversion of a prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites. One of the major impediments of GDEPT is to target specifically the tumor cells with the suicide gene. Among gene delivery methods, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged recently as potential cellular vehicles for gene delivery. MSCs are particularly suited for gene transduction. They exhibit remarkable migratory property towards tumors and their metastases and they are weakly immunogenic. This review will summarize the current knowledge about MSCs engineered to express different suicide genes (cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase, carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450) to elicit a significant antitumor response against brain tumors, ovarian, hepatocellular, pancreatic, renal or medullary thyroid carcinomas, breast or prostate cancer and pulmonary metastases. The potential side effects of these MSC-based tumor therapies will also be considered to highlight certain aspects that need to be improved prior to clinical use.

  12. Galactosyl prodrug of palmitoylethanolamide: synthesis, stability, cell permeation and cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Elvira; Russo, Roberto; Avagliano, Carmen; Santoro, Anna; Melisi, Daniela; Orefice, Nicola Salvatore; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Meli, Rosaria; Magliocca, Salvatore; Nieddu, Maria; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Boatto, Gianpiero; Calignano, Antonio; Rimoli, Maria Grazia

    2014-10-01

    N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is emerging as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of neuropathic pain and neurodegenerative diseases. Unfortunately, PEA poorly reaches the central nervous system (CNS), after peripheral administration, since it is inactivated through intracellular hydrolysis by lipid amidases. Since prodrug approach is one of the most popular methods used to increase cell permeability, the aim of this paper consists in the synthesis of a new galactosyl prodrug of PEA, the palmitoylethanolamide-succinamyl-D-galactos-6'-yl ester (PEAGAL). Biological experiments both in neuroblastoma and in C6 glioma cells, together with quantitative analyses performed through a LC-MS-MS technique, demonstrate the better efficacy of PEAGAL compared to PEA and its higher cell permeation. Our results encourage further experiments in animal models of neuropathic pain and of neurological disorders and/or neurodegenerative diseases, in order to promote a more effective peripherally administrated derivative of PEA.

  13. Copper-free click-chemistry platform to functionalize cisplatin prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Rakesh K; McNitt, Christopher D; Popik, Vladimir V; Dhar, Shanta

    2014-06-02

    The ability to rationally design and construct a platform technology to develop new platinum(IV) [Pt(IV)] prodrugs with functionalities for installation of targeting moieties, delivery systems, fluorescent reporters from a single precursor with the ability to release biologically active cisplatin by using well-defined chemistry is critical for discovering new platinum-based therapeutics. With limited numbers of possibilities considering the sensitivity of Pt(IV) centers, we used a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition approach to provide a platform, in which new functionalities can easily be installed on cisplatin prodrugs from a single Pt(IV) precursor. The ability of this platform to be incorporated in nanodelivery vehicle and conjugation to fluorescent reporters were also investigated.

  14. Discovery of a new HIV-1 inhibitor scaffold and synthesis of potential prodrugs of indazoles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Ho; Markovitz, Benjamin; Trovato, Richard; Murphy, Brett R; Austin, Harry; Willardsen, Adam J; Baichwal, Vijay; Morham, Scott; Bajji, Ashok

    2013-05-15

    A new oxazole scaffold showing great promise in HIV-1 inhibition has been discovered by cell-based screening of an in-house library and scaffold modification. Follow-up SAR study focusing on the 5-aryl substituent of the oxazole core has identified 4k (EC50=0.42μM, TI=50) as a potent inhibitor. However, the analogues suffered from poor aqueous solubility. To address this issue, we have developed broadly applicable potential prodrugs of indazoles. Among them, N-acyloxymethyl analogue 11b displayed promising results (i.e., increased aqueous solubility and susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis). Further studies are warranted to fully evaluate the analogues as the potential prodrugs with improved physiochemical and PK properties.

  15. Preparation of well-defined ibuprofen prodrug micelles by RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J; Wandrey, Christine; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-09

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat acute pain, fever, and inflammation and are being explored in a new indication in cancer. Side effects associated with long-term use of NSAIDs such as gastrointestinal damage and elevated risk of stroke, however, can limit their use and exploration in new indications. Here we report a facile method to prepare well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymer NSAID prodrugs by direct reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization of the acrylamide derivative of ibuprofen (IBU), a widely used NSAID. The synthesis and self-assembling behavior of amphiphilic diblock copolymers (PEG-PIBU) having a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block and a hydrophobic IBU-bearing prodrug block were investigated. Release profiles of IBU from the micelles by hydrolysis were evaluated. Furthermore, the antiproliferative action of the IBU-containing micelles in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells was assessed.

  16. Far-Red Light Activatable, Multifunctional Prodrug for Fluorescence Optical Imaging and Combinational Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed “photo-unclick chemistry”, a novel chemical tool involving the cleavage of aminoacrylate by singlet oxygen, and demonstrated its application to visible light-activatable prodrugs. In this study, we prepared an advanced multifunctional prodrug, Pc-(L-CA4)2, composed of the fluorescent photosensitizer phthalocyanine (Pc), an SO-labile aminoacrylate linker (L), and a cytotoxic drug combretastatin A-4 (CA4). Pc-(L-CA4)2 had reduced dark toxicity compared with CA4. However, once illuminated, it showed improved toxicity similar to CA4 and displayed bystander effects in vitro. We monitored the time-dependent distribution of Pc-(L-CA4)2 using optical imaging with live mice. We also effectively ablated tumors by the illumination with far-red light to the mice, presumably through the combined effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and released chemotherapy drug, without any sign of acute systemic toxicity. PMID:24694092

  17. Development and Evaluation of Small Peptidomimetic Ligands to Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) through the Use of Lipid Tethering

    PubMed Central

    Boitano, Scott; Hoffman, Justin; Tillu, Dipti V.; Asiedu, Marina N.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Sherwood, Cara L.; Wang, Yan; Dong, Xinzhong; Price, Theodore J.; Vagner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is a G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) activated by proteolytic cleavage to expose an attached, tethered ligand (SLIGRL). We evaluated the ability for lipid-tethered-peptidomimetics to activate PAR2 with in vitro physiological and Ca2+ signaling assays to determine minimal components necessary for potent, specific and full PAR2 activation. A known PAR2 activating compound containing a hexadecyl (Hdc) lipid via three polyethylene glycol (PEG) linkers (2at-LIGRL-PEG3-Hdc) provided a potent agonist starting point (physiological EC50 = 1.4 nM; 95% CI: 1.2–2.3 nM). In a set of truncated analogs, 2at-LIGR-PEG3-Hdc retained potency (EC50 = 2.1 nM; 1.3–3.4 nM) with improved selectivity for PAR2 over Mas1 related G-protein coupled receptor type C11, a GPCR that can be activated by the PAR2 peptide agonist, SLIGRL-NH2. 2at-LIG-PEG3-Hdc was the smallest full PAR2 agonist, albeit with a reduced EC50 (46 nM; 20–100 nM). 2at-LI-PEG3-Hdc retained specific activity for PAR2 with reduced EC50 (310 nM; 260–360 nM) but displayed partial PAR2 activation in both physiological and Ca2+ signaling assays. Further truncation (2at-L-PEG3-Hdc and 2at-PEG3-Hdc) eliminated in vitro activity. When used in vivo, full and partial PAR2 in vitro agonists evoked mechanical hypersensitivity at a 15 pmole dose while 2at-L-PEG3-Hdc lacked efficacy. Minimum peptidomimetic PAR2 agonists were developed with known heterocycle substitutes for Ser1 (isoxazole or aminothiazoyl) and cyclohexylalanine (Cha) as a substitute for Leu2. Both heterocycle-tetrapeptide and heterocycle-dipeptides displayed PAR2 specificity, however, only the heterocycle-tetrapeptides displayed full PAR2 agonism. Using the lipid-tethered-peptidomimetic approach we have developed novel structure activity relationships for PAR2 that allows for selective probing of PAR2 function across a broad range of physiological systems. PMID:24927179

  18. Evaluation of antimalarial activity and toxicity of a new primaquine prodrug.

    PubMed

    Davanço, Marcelo Gomes; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; Dos Santos, Leandro Alves; Padilha, Elias Carvalho; Campos, Michel Leandro; de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chin, Chung Man; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine; Peccinini, Rosangela Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent of the five species causing malaria in humans. The current available treatment for P. vivax malaria is limited and unsatisfactory due to at least two drawbacks: the undesirable side effects of primaquine (PQ) and drug resistance to chloroquine. Phenylalanine-alanine-PQ (Phe-Ala-PQ) is a PQ prodrug with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared to PQ. The toxicity of this prodrug was evaluated in in vitro assays using a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2), a monkey kidney cell line (BGM), and human red blood cells deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD). In addition, in vivo toxicity assays were performed with rats that received multiple doses of Phe-Ala-PQ to evaluate biochemical, hematological, and histopathological parameters. The activity was assessed by the inhibition of the sporogonic cycle using a chicken malaria parasite. Phe-Ala-PQ blocked malaria transmission in Aedes mosquitoes. When compared with PQ, it was less cytotoxic to BGM and HepG2 cells and caused less hemolysis of G6PD-deficient red blood cells at similar concentrations. The prodrug caused less alteration in the biochemical parameters than did PQ. Histopathological analysis of the liver and kidney did show differences between the control and Phe-Ala-PQ-treated groups, but they were not statistically significant. Taken together, the results highlight the prodrug as a novel lead compound candidate for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and as a blocker of malaria transmission.

  19. Evaluation of Antimalarial Activity and Toxicity of a New Primaquine Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Davanço, Marcelo Gomes; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Leandro Alves; Padilha, Elias Carvalho; Campos, Michel Leandro; de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Chin, Chung Man; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine; Peccinini, Rosangela Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent of the five species causing malaria in humans. The current available treatment for P. vivax malaria is limited and unsatisfactory due to at least two drawbacks: the undesirable side effects of primaquine (PQ) and drug resistance to chloroquine. Phenylalanine-alanine-PQ (Phe-Ala-PQ) is a PQ prodrug with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared to PQ. The toxicity of this prodrug was evaluated in in vitro assays using a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2), a monkey kidney cell line (BGM), and human red blood cells deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD). In addition, in vivo toxicity assays were performed with rats that received multiple doses of Phe-Ala-PQ to evaluate biochemical, hematological, and histopathological parameters. The activity was assessed by the inhibition of the sporogonic cycle using a chicken malaria parasite. Phe-Ala-PQ blocked malaria transmission in Aedes mosquitoes. When compared with PQ, it was less cytotoxic to BGM and HepG2 cells and caused less hemolysis of G6PD-deficient red blood cells at similar concentrations. The prodrug caused less alteration in the biochemical parameters than did PQ. Histopathological analysis of the liver and kidney did show differences between the control and Phe-Ala-PQ-treated groups, but they were not statistically significant. Taken together, the results highlight the prodrug as a novel lead compound candidate for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and as a blocker of malaria transmission. PMID:25133630

  20. Platinum(IV) prodrug conjugated Pd@Au nanoplates for chemotherapy and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Saige; Chen, Xiaolan; Wei, Jingping; Huang, Yizhuan; Weng, Jian; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-03-14

    Owing to the excellent near infrared (NIR) light absorption and efficient passive targeting toward tumor tissue, two-dimensional (2D) core-shell PEGylated Pd@Au nanoplates have great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery systems. In this work, we successfully conjugate Pd@Au nanoplates with a platinum(IV) prodrug c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCH2CH2CO2H)2] to obtain a nanocomposite (Pd@Au-PEG-Pt) for combined photothermal-chemotherapy. The prepared Pd@Au-PEG-Pt nanocomposite showed excellent stability in physiological solutions and efficient Pt(IV) prodrug loading. Once injected into biological tissue, the Pt(IV) prodrug was easily reduced by physiological reductants (e.g. ascorbic acid or glutathione) into its cytotoxic and hydrophilic Pt(II) form and released from the original nanocomposite, and the NIR laser irradiation could accelerate the release of Pt(II) species. More importantly, Pd@Au-PEG-Pt has high tumor accumulation (29%ID per g), which makes excellent therapeutic efficiency at relatively low power density possible. The in vivo results suggested that, compared with single therapy the combined thermo-chemotherapy treatment with Pd@Au-PEG-Pt resulted in complete destruction of the tumor tissue without recurrence, while chemotherapy using Pd@Au-PEG-Pt without irradiation or photothermal treatment using Pd@Au-PEG alone did not. Our work highlights the prospects of a feasible drug delivery strategy of the Pt prodrug by using 2D Pd@Au nanoplates as drug delivery carriers for multimode cancer treatment.

  1. In vivo and in situ tracking cancer chemotherapy by highly photostable NIR fluorescent theranostic prodrug.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xumeng; Sun, Xuanrong; Guo, Zhiqian; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing; James, Tony D; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

    2014-03-05

    In vivo monitoring of the biodistribution and activation of prodrugs is urgently required. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence-active fluorophores with excellent photostability are preferable for tracking drug release in vivo. Herein, we describe a NIR prodrug DCM-S-CPT and its polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) loaded nanoparticles as a potent cancer therapy. We have conjugated a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran derivative as the NIR fluorophore with camptothecin (CPT) as the anticancer drug using a disulfide linker. In vitro experiments verify that the high intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations in tumor cells cause cleavage of the disulfide linker, resulting in concomitantly the active drug CPT release and significant NIR fluorescence turn-on with large Stokes shift (200 nm). The NIR fluorescence of DCM-S-CPT at 665 nm with fast response to GSH can act as a direct off-on signal reporter for the GSH-activatable prodrug. Particularly, DCM-S-CPT possesses much better photostability than ICG, which is highly desirable for in situ fluorescence-tracking of cancer chemotherapy. DCM-S-CPT has been successfully utilized for in vivo and in situ tracking of drug release and cancer therapeutic efficacy in living animals by NIR fluorescence. DCM-S-CPT exhibits excellent tumor-activatable performance when intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, as well as specific cancer therapy with few side effects. DCM-S-CPT loaded in PEG-PLA nanoparticles shows even higher antitumor activity than free CPT, and is also retained longer in the plasma. The tumor-targeting ability and the specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-CPT as a promising prodrug, providing significant advances toward deeper understanding and exploration of theranostic drug-delivery systems.

  2. ELQ-300 prodrugs for enhanced delivery and single-dose cure of malaria.

    PubMed

    Miley, Galen P; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf; Nilsen, Aaron; Li, Yuexin; Kelly, Jane X; Stickles, Allison M; Mather, Michael W; Forquer, Isaac P; Pershing, April M; White, Karen; Shackleford, David; Saunders, Jessica; Chen, Gong; Ting, Li-Min; Kim, Kami; Zakharov, Lev N; Donini, Cristina; Burrows, Jeremy N; Vaidya, Akhil B; Charman, Susan A; Riscoe, Michael K

    2015-09-01

    ELQ-300 is a preclinical candidate that targets the liver and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, as well as the forms that are crucial to transmission of disease: gametocytes, zygotes, and ookinetes. A significant obstacle to the clinical development of ELQ-300 is related to its physicochemical properties. Its relatively poor aqueous solubility and high crystallinity limit absorption to the degree that only low blood concentrations can be achieved following oral dosing. While these low blood concentrations are sufficient for therapy, the levels are too low to establish an acceptable safety margin required by regulatory agencies for clinical development. One way to address the challenging physicochemical properties of ELQ-300 is through the development of prodrugs. Here, we profile ELQ-337, a bioreversible O-linked carbonate ester prodrug of the parent molecule. At the molar equivalent dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight, the delivery of ELQ-300 from ELQ-337 is enhanced by 3- to 4-fold, reaching a maximum concentration of drug in serum (C max) of 5.9 μM by 6 h after oral administration, and unlike ELQ-300 at any dose, ELQ-337 provides single-dose cures of patent malaria infections in mice at low-single-digit milligram per kilogram doses. Our findings show that the prodrug strategy represents a viable approach to overcome the physicochemical limitations of ELQ-300 to deliver the active drug to the bloodstream at concentrations sufficient for safety and toxicology studies, as well as achieving single-dose cures.

  3. Direct chemical grafted curcumin on halloysite nanotubes as dual-responsive prodrug for pharmacological applications.

    PubMed

    Massaro, M; Amorati, R; Cavallaro, G; Guernelli, S; Lazzara, G; Milioto, S; Noto, R; Poma, P; Riela, S

    2016-04-01

    Covalently functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were successfully employed as dual-responsive nanocarriers for curcumin (Cur). Particularly, we synthesized HNT-Cur prodrug with a controlled curcumin release on dependence of both intracellular glutathione (GSH) and pH conditions. In order to obtain HNT-Cur produgs, halloysite was firstly functionalized with cysteamine through disulphide linkage. Afterwards, curcumin molecules were chemically conjugated to the amino end groups of halloysite via Schiff's base formation. The successful functionalization of halloysite was proved by thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental data confirmed the presence of curcumin on HNT external surface. Moreover, we investigated the kinetics of curcumin release by UV-vis spectroscopy, which highlighted that HNT-Cur prodrug possesses dual stimuli-responsive ability upon exposure to GSH-rich or acidic environment. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of HNT-Cur prodrug were studied with the aim to explore their potential applications in pharmaceutics. This work puts forward an efficient strategy to prepare halloysite based nanocarriers with controlled drug delivery capacity through direct chemical grafting with stimuli-responsive linkage.

  4. Lymph cancer chemotherapy: delivery of doxorubicin–gemcitabine prodrug and vincristine by nanostructured lipid carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shuqin; Qiu, Lei; Zhang, Guodong; Zhou, Haiyan; Han, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiation and chemotherapy are the most common course of treatment for B-cell lymphoma. Doxorubicin (DOX), gemcitabine (GEM), and vincristine (VCR) are the commonly used antilymphoma chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study is to construct a novel drug delivery system for the combination delivery of the three drugs on lymphoma. Materials and methods DOX–GEM prodrug was synthesized. Novel nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) containing DOX–GEM prodrug and VCR were prepared and used to treat B-cell lymphoma through in vivo treatment to a lymph cancer animal model. The systemic toxicity of the nanomedicine was also evaluated during the treatment. Results DOX–GEM prodrug and VCR-loaded NLCs (DOX–GEM VCR NLCs) exhibited the highest antitumor effect in B-cell lymphoma cells and lymphoma animal xenografts when compared with the single drug-loaded NLCs and the drug solutions. Conclusion It could be concluded that the highest antitumor effect can be achieved by the system due to the stable drug-loading capacity, attractive anticancer therapeutic effects, and reduced toxicities in human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line and mice-bearing cancer model. The resulting DOX–GEM VCR NLCs could be an efficient antilymph cancer agent and could be developed further for the treatment of other tumors. PMID:28280326

  5. A prodrug-doped cellular Trojan Horse for the potential treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Levy, Oren; Brennen, W Nathaniel; Han, Edward; Rosen, David Marc; Musabeyezu, Juliet; Safaee, Helia; Ranganath, Sudhir; Ngai, Jessica; Heinelt, Martina; Milton, Yuka; Wang, Hao; Bhagchandani, Sachin H; Joshi, Nitin; Bhowmick, Neil; Denmeade, Samuel R; Isaacs, John T; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-01

    Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer research, there is a major need for a systemic delivery platform that efficiently targets anti-cancer drugs to sites of disseminated prostate cancer while minimizing host toxicity. In this proof-of-principle study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) that encapsulate the macromolecule G114, a thapsigargin-based prostate specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrug. G114-particles (∼950 nm in size) were internalized by MSCs, followed by the release of G114 as an intact prodrug from loaded cells. Moreover, G114 released from G114 MP-loaded MSCs selectively induced death of the PSA-secreting PCa cell line, LNCaP. Finally, G114 MP-loaded MSCs inhibited tumor growth when used in proof-of-concept co-inoculation studies with CWR22 PCa xenografts, suggesting that cell-based delivery of G114 did not compromise the potency of this pro-drug in-vitro or in-vivo. This study demonstrates a potentially promising approach to assemble a cell-based drug delivery platform, which inhibits cancer growth in-vivo without the need of genetic engineering. We envision that upon achieving efficient homing of systemically infused MSCs to cancer sites, this MSC-based platform may be developed into an effective, systemic 'Trojan Horse' therapy for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to sites of metastatic PCa.

  6. Design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of new imidazolinones as L-DOPA prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Claudi, Francesco; Ruggieri, Sabrina; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Di Stefano, Antonio; Sozio, Piera; Cerasa, Laura S; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Ferrante, Claudio; Orlando, Giustino; Glennon, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    L-DOPA, the immediate biological precursor of dopamine, is still considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, therapy with L-DOPA is associated with a number of acute problems. With the aim to increase the bioavailability after oral administration, we designed a multi-protected L-DOPA prodrugs able to release the drug by both spontaneous chemical or enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis. The new compounds have been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated for their water solubility, log P, chemical stability, and enzymatic stability. The results indicate that the incorporation of the amino acidic moiety of L-DOPA into an imidazoline-4-one ring provides prodrugs sufficiently stable to potentially cross unchanged the acidic environment of the stomach, and to be absorbed from the intestine. They also might be able to release L-DOPA in human plasma after enzymatic hydrolysis. The ability of prodrugs 6a-b to increase basal levels of striatal DA, and influence brain neurochemistry associated with dopaminergic activity following oral administration, as well as the radical-scavenging activity against DPPH for compounds 6a-b and 15a are also reported.

  7. A novel prodrug strategy to improve the oral absorption of O-desmethylvenlafaxine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingyuan; Sun, Yantong; Zhao, Sen; Li, Youxin; Piao, Riyang; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2016-01-01

    O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine, ODV) is the active metabolite of venlafaxine, with similar activity and less risk for pharmacokinetic drug interactions compared to its parent compound venlafaxine. The purpose of this study was to design a series of esters of ODV and assess their potential as ODV prodrugs with improved bioavailability and brain uptake. Seven esters were synthesized and pharmacokinetic screening was performed in rats. The monoester formed on the phenolic hydroxyl of ODV (ODVP-1, ODVP-2, ODVP-3 and ODVP-5) could be degraded to ODV in rat plasma. These four compounds confirmed as possible prodrugs were then studied to evaluated the relative bioavailability of ODV they produced in beagle dogs. ODVP-1, ODVP-2 and ODVP-3 demonstrated higher relative bioavailability of ODV. Finally, ODVP-1, ODVP-2 and ODVP-3 were studied to evaluate their brain uptake in rats. The concentration of ODV in the rat plasma, brain and hypothalamus after administration of ODVP-1, ODVP-2 or ODVP-3 was higher compared with that of ODV. The higher bioavailability, improved pharmacokineics properties and more rapid penetration and translation of ODV suggest that ODVP-1, ODVP-2 or ODVP-3 may warrant further development and application as ODV prodrugs. PMID:27588083

  8. Studies on synthesis, stability, release and pharmacodynamic profile of a novel diacerein-thymol prodrug.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela; Patel, Vriha; Patil, Dipmala; Meena, Gourav

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of oxidative stress, leading to chondrocyte senescence and cartilage ageing has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). New efforts to prevent the development and progression of OA include strategies and interventions aimed at reducing oxidative damage in articular cartilage using antioxidants as adjuncts to conservative therapy. Diacerein is an anthraquinone derivative with a marked disease modifying effect on OA owing to IL-1 β inhibition. In the present work an attempt was made at design and development of a co-drug of diacerein with antioxidant thymol. Structural elucidation was carried out by spectral analysis. When release kinetics of prodrug was studied in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and small intestinal homogenates of rats, 91% and 94% diacerein was available respectively at the end of 4.5 h. Chemical linkage of thymol with diacerein improved its lipophilicity and hence bioavailability. Screening of prodrug in Freud's adjuvant-induced arthritis and ulcerogenic potential by Rainsford's cold stress model exhibited significant reduction in paw volume, joint diameter and ulcer index with superior anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic activities than the standards. Results of histopathology of tibio-tarsal joint indicated that animals treated with diacerein exhibited moderate synovitis while thymol and physical mixture-treated animals showed mild synovitis. Interestingly in prodrug-treated animals synovitis was not observed. The results of this study underline the promising potential of co-drug of diacerein and thymol in the management of OA.

  9. A novel prodrug strategy to improve the oral absorption of O-desmethylvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyuan; Sun, Yantong; Zhao, Sen; Li, Youxin; Piao, Riyang; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2016-09-01

    O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine, ODV) is the active metabolite of venlafaxine, with similar activity and less risk for pharmacokinetic drug interactions compared to its parent compound venlafaxine. The purpose of this study was to design a series of esters of ODV and assess their potential as ODV prodrugs with improved bioavailability and brain uptake. Seven esters were synthesized and pharmacokinetic screening was performed in rats. The monoester formed on the phenolic hydroxyl of ODV (ODVP-1, ODVP-2, ODVP-3 and ODVP-5) could be degraded to ODV in rat plasma. These four compounds confirmed as possible prodrugs were then studied to evaluated the relative bioavailability of ODV they produced in beagle dogs. ODVP-1, ODVP-2 and ODVP-3 demonstrated higher relative bioavailability of ODV. Finally, ODVP-1, ODVP-2 and ODVP-3 were studied to evaluate their brain uptake in rats. The concentration of ODV in the rat plasma, brain and hypothalamus after administration of ODVP-1, ODVP-2 or ODVP-3 was higher compared with that of ODV. The higher bioavailability, improved pharmacokineics properties and more rapid penetration and translation of ODV suggest that ODVP-1, ODVP-2 or ODVP-3 may warrant further development and application as ODV prodrugs.

  10. Mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs via oxidative bromination: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zoufeng; Wang, Zhigang; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zhu, Guangyu

    2015-12-14

    Platinum(IV)-based anticancer prodrugs have attracted much attention due to their relative inertness under physiological conditions, being activated inside cells, and their capacity for functionalization with a variety of small-molecule or macromolecule moieties. Novel asymmetric platinum(IV) compounds synthesized through expedient and unique methods are desired. Here we utilize N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and carry out oxidative bromination on platinum(II) drugs, namely cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, to obtain asymmetric and mono-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs. Different solvents are used to obtain various compounds, and the compounds are further functionalized. Di-bromo compounds are also obtained through NBS-directed oxidative bromination in ethanol. The crystal structures of representative compounds are discussed, and the reduction potentials of some compounds are examined. A cytotoxicity test shows that the mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) compounds are active against human ovarian cancer cells. Our study enriches the family of asymmetric platinum(IV) prodrugs and provides with a convenient strategy to obtain brominated platinum(IV) complexes.

  11. A traceless reversible polymeric colistin prodrug to combat multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chongyu; Schneider, Elena K; Wang, Jiping; Kempe, Kristian; Wilson, Paul; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian; Davis, Thomas P; Whittaker, Michael R; Haddleton, David M

    2017-02-05

    Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) is the only prodrug of colistin available for clinical use for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Owing to its slow and variable release, an alternative is urgently required to improve effectiveness. Herein we describe a PEGylated colistin prodrug whereby the PEG is attached via a cleavable linker (col-aaPEG) introducing an acetic acid terminated poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (aaPEG) onto the Thr residue of colistin. Due to the labile ester containing link, this prodrug is converted back into active colistin in vitro within 24h. Compared to CMS, it showed a similar or better antimicrobial performance against two MDR isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii through in vitro disk diffusion, broth dilution and time-kill studies. In a mouse infection model, col-aaPEG displayed acceptable bacterial killing against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and no nephrotoxicity was found after systemic administration, suggesting it to be a potential alternative for CMS.

  12. Lipophilic pyrazinoic acid amide and ester prodrugs stability, activation and activity against M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Simões, Marta Filipa; Valente, Emília; Gómez, M José Rodríguez; Anes, Elsa; Constantino, Luís

    2009-06-28

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is active against M. tuberculosis and is a first line agent for the treatment of human tuberculosis. PZA is itself a prodrug that requires activation by a pyrazinamidase to form its active metabolite pyrazinoic acid (POA). Since the specificity of cleavage is dependent on a single bacterial enzyme, resistance to PZA is often found in tuberculosis patients. Esters of POA have been proposed in the past as alternatives to PZA however the most promising compounds were rapidly degraded in the presence of serum. In order to obtain compounds that could survive during the transport phase, we synthesized lipophilic ester and amide POA derivatives, studied their activity against M. tuberculosis, their stability in plasma and rat liver homogenate and also their activation by a mycobacterial homogenate. The new lipophilic ester prodrugs were found to be active in concentrations 10-fold lower than those needed for PZA to kill sensitive M. tuberculosis and also have a suitable stability in the presence of plasma. Amides of POA although more stable in plasma have lower activity. The reason can probably be found in the rate of activation of both types of prodrugs; while esters are easily activated by mycobacterial esterases, amides are resistant to activation and are not transformed into POA at a suitable rate.

  13. Synthesis and analysis of activity of a potential anti-melanoma prodrug with a hydrazine linker.

    PubMed

    Frąckowiak-Wojtasek, Bożena; Gąsowska-Bajger, Beata; Mazurek, Magdalena; Raniszewska, Agnieszka; Logghe, Marieke; Smolarczyk, Ryszard; Cichoń, Tomasz; Szala, Stanisław; Wojtasek, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    A potential anti-melanoma prodrug containing a phenolic activator, a hydrazine linker, and a nitrogen mustard effector - (N-{4-[bis-(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzoyl}-N'-(4-hydroxybenzyl)hydrazine) has been synthesized in seven steps. Spectrophotometric measurements of its oxidation by tyrosinase showed a rapid increase of absorbance at 337 nm. HPLC analysis demonstrated that two major products were formed. However, during the reaction one of the products was converted into the other. The stable product with a maximum of absorption at 337 nm was isolated and identified as 5,6-dihydroxy-1H-indazol-1-yl 4-[bis-(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzoate. It was formed by a cyclization of the enzymatically generated o-quinone. This reaction was unexpected, since the acylated hydrazine nitrogen atom should not be sufficiently nucleophilic to attack the o-quinone ring. This cyclization prevented the effector release from the enzyme-activated prodrug. As a result, the prodrug showed only limited specificity for B16-F10 murine melanoma cells compared to reference cell lines. When applied in solid tumors in mice it showed slightly higher activity than the parent mustard drug (4-[bis-(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzoic cid), but significantly lower activity than melphalan, a commercial mustard drug with a structure resembling tyrosine, occasionally used in the treatment of melanoma.

  14. Macromolecular Prodrugs of Ribavirin: Structure-Function Correlation as Inhibitors of Influenza Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Riber, Camilla Frich; Hinton, Tracey M; Gajda, Paulina; Zuwala, Kaja; Tolstrup, Martin; Stewart, Cameron; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2017-01-03

    The requirement for new antiviral therapeutics is an ever present need. Particularly lacking are broad spectrum antivirals that have low toxicity. We develop such agents based on macromolecular prodrugs whereby both the polymer chain and the drug released from the polymer upon cell entry have antiviral effects. Specifically, macromolecular prodrugs were designed herein based on poly(methacrylic acid) and ribavirin. Structure-function parameter space was analyzed via the synthesis of 10 polymer compositions varied by molar mass and drug content. Antiviral activity was tested in cell culture against both low and high pathogenic strains of influenza. Lead compounds were successfully used to counter infectivity of influenza in chicken embryos. The lead composition with the highest activity against influenza was also active against another respiratory pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus, providing opportunity to potentially treat infection by the two pathogens with one antiviral agent. In contrast, structure-function activity against the herpes simplex virus was drastically different, revealing limitations of the broad spectrum antiviral agents based on macromolecular prodrugs.

  15. Harnessing chemoselective imine ligation for tethering bioactive molecules to platinum(IV) prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Lau, Jia Yi; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-05-28

    Platinum(II) anticancer drugs are among the most effective and often used chemotherapeutic drugs. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in exploiting inert platinum(IV) scaffolds as a prodrug strategy to mitigate the limitations of platinum(II) anticancer complexes. In this prodrug strategy, the axial ligands are released concomitantly upon intracellular reduction to the active platinum(II) congener, offering the possibility of conjugating bioactive co-drugs which may synergistically enhance cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Existing techniques of tethering bioactive molecules to the axial positions of platinum(IV) prodrugs suffer from limited scope, poor yields and low reliability. This report explores the applications of current chemoselective ligation chemistries to platinum(IV) anticancer complexes with the aim of addressing the aforementioned limitations. Here, we describe the synthesis of a platinum(IV) complex bearing an aromatic aldehyde functionality and explored the scope of imine ligation with various hydrazide and aminooxy functionalized substrates. As a proof of concept, we tethered a six sequence long peptide mimetic (AMVSEF) of the anti-inflammatory protein, ANXA1.

  16. Dipeptide Prodrug Approach to Evade Efflux Pumps and CYP3A4 Metabolism of Lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Sheng, Ye; Mandava, Nanda K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral absorption of lopinavir (LPV) is limited due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein2 (MRP2) mediated efflux by intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, LPV is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes. In the present study, dipeptide prodrug approach was employed to circumvent efflux pumps (P-gp and MRP2) and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of LPV. Valine-isoleucine-LPV (Val-Ile-LPV) was synthesized and identified by LCMS and NMR techniques. The extent of LPV and Val-Ile-LPV interactions with P-gp and MRP2 was studied by uptake and transport studies across MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2 cells. To determine the metabolic stability, time and concentration dependent degradation study was performed in liver microsomes. Val-Ile-LPV exhibited significantly higher aqueous solubility relative to LPV. This prodrug generated higher stability under acidic pH. Val-Ile-LPV demonstrated significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Ile-LPV was significantly higher in the absorptive direction (apical to basolateral) relative to LPV. Importantly, Val-Ile-LPV was recognized as an excellent substrate by peptide transporter. Moreover, Val-Ile-LPV displayed significantly higher metabolic stability relative to LPV. Results obtained from this study suggested that dipeptide prodrug approach is a viable option to elevate systemic levels of LPV following oral administration PMID:25261710

  17. A Prodrug Approach to the Use of Coumarins as Potential Therapeutics for Superficial Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Derry K.; Robertson, Jennifer; Wright, Kristine; Miller, Lorna; Smith, Shane; Stewart, Colin S.; O′Neil, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20–25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide), inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l) and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones. PMID:24260474

  18. Synthesis and Antitumor Properties of BQC-Glucuronide, a Camptothecin Prodrug for Selective Tumor Activation.

    PubMed

    Prijovich, Zeljko M; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Chou, Hua-Cheng; Huang, Ping-Ting; Chen, Kai-Chuan; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Leu, Yu-Lin; Roffler, Steve R

    2016-04-04

    Major limitations of camptothecin anticancer drugs (toxicity, nonselectivity, water insolubility, inactivation by human serum albumin) may be improved by creating glucuronide prodrugs that rely on beta-glucuronidase for their activation. We found that the camptothecin derivative 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[de]quinoline-camptothecin (BQC) displays greater cytotoxicity against cancer cells than the clinically used camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and topotecan even in the presence of human serum albumin. We synthesized the prodrug BQC-glucuronide (BQC-G), which was 4000 times more water soluble and 20-40 times less cytotoxic than BQC. Importantly, even in the presence of human serum albumin, BQC-G was efficiently hydrolyzed by beta-glucuronidase and produced greater cytotoxicity (IC50 = 13 nM) than camptothecin, 9-aminocamptothecin, SN-38, or topotecan (IC50 > 3000, 1370, 48, and 28 nM, respectively). BQC-G treatment of mice bearing human colon cancer xenografts with naturally or artificially elevated beta-glucuronidase activity produced significant antitumor activity, showing that BQC-G is a potent prodrug suitable for selective intratumoral drug activation.

  19. Synthesis of a Gemcitabine Prodrug for Remote Loading into Liposomes and Improved Therapeutic Effect.

    PubMed

    May, Jonathan P; Undzys, Elijus; Roy, Aniruddha; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2016-01-20

    The chemotherapeutic gemcitabine was actively and stably loaded into lipid nanoparticles through the formation of a prodrug. Gemcitabine was chemically modified to increase the lipophilicity and introduce a weak base moiety for remote loading. Several derivatives were synthesized and screened for their potential to be good liposomal drug candidates for remote loading by studying their solubility, stability, cytotoxicity, and loading efficiency. Two morpholino derivatives of GEM (22 and 23) were chosen as the preferred prodrugs for this purpose as they possessed the best loading efficiencies (100% for drug-to-lipid ratio of 0.36 w/w). This is a considerable improvement over a passive loading strategy where typical loading efficiencies are on the order of ∼10-20% for a drug-to-lipid ratio of ∼0.01. Liposomes loaded with these two prodrugs were studied in an s.c. tumor model in vivo and showed improved therapeutic effect over free GEM (∼2-fold) and saline control (8- to 10-fold). This work demonstrates how chemical modification of a known hydrophilic drug can lead to improved loading, stability, and drug delivery in vivo.

  20. Photo-triggered fluorescent theranostic prodrugs as DNA alkylating agents for mechlorethamine release and spatiotemporal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanting; Pan, Rong; Xuan, Weimin; Wei, Yongyi; Liu, Kejian; Zhou, Jiahong; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-28

    We describe a new theranostic strategy for selective delivery and spatiotemporal monitoring of mechlorethamine, a DNA alkylating agent. A photo-responsive prodrug is designed and composed of a photolabile o-nitrophenylethyl group, a DNA alkylating mechlorethamine drug and a coumarin fluorophore. Masking of the "N" in mechlorethamine in a positively charged state in the prodrug renders it inactive, non-toxic, selective and non-fluorescent. Indeed, the stable prodrug shows negligible cytotoxicity towards normal cells with and without UV activation and is completely non-fluorescent. However, upon photo-irradiation, the active mechlorethamine is released and induces efficient DNA cross-links, accompanied by a strong fluorescence enhancement (152 fold). Furthermore, DNA cross-linking activity from the release can be transformed into anticancer activity observed in in vitro studies of tumor cells. Importantly, the drug release progress and the movement can be conveniently monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The mechanistic study proves that the DNA cross-linking activity is mainly due to the release of DNA alkylating mechlorethamine. Altogether, the studies show the power of the theranostic strategy for efficient therapy in cancer treatment.

  1. Synergistic penetration of ethosomes and lipophilic prodrug on the transdermal delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Wei, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lipophilic prodrug as a means of promoting acyclovir (ACV) that exhibited biphasic insolubility into the ethosomes for optimum skin delivery. Acyclovir Palmitate (ACV-C(16)) was synthesized as the lipophilic prodrug of ACV. The ethosomal system and the liposomal system bearing ACV or ACV-C(16) were prepared, respectively. The systems were characterized for shape, zeta potential value, particle size, and entrapment efficiency. Franz diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the percutaneous absorption studies. The results showed that the entrapment efficiency of ACV-C(16) ethosomes (87.75%) were much higher than that of ACV ethosomes (39.13%). The quantity of drug in the skin from ACV-C(16) ethosomes at the end of the 24 h transdermal experiment (622.89 microg/cm(2)) was 5.30 and 3.43 times higher than that from ACV-C(16) hydroalcoholic solution and ACV ethosomes, respectively. This study indicated that the binary combination of the lipophilic prodrug ACV-C(16) and the ethosomes synergistically enhanced ACV absorption into the skin.

  2. Genetically engineered theranostic mesenchymal stem cells for the evaluation of the anticancer efficacy of enzyme/prodrug systems.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Faranak Salman; Wang, Xing; Hatefi, Arash

    2015-02-28

    Over the past decade, various enzyme/prodrug systems such as thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), yeast cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (yCD/5-FC) and nitroreductase/CB1954 (NTR/CB1954) have been used for stem cell mediated suicide gene therapy of cancer. Yet, no study has been conducted to compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using one system over another. Knowing that each enzyme/prodrug system has its own strengths and weaknesses, we utilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a medium to perform for the first time a comparative study that illustrated the impact of subtle differences among these systems on the therapeutic outcome. For therapeutic purposes, we first genetically modified MSCs to stably express a panel of four suicide genes including TK (TK007 and TK(SR39) mutants), yeast cytosine deaminase:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (yCD:UPRT) and nitroreductase (NTR). Then, we evaluated the anticancer efficacies of the genetically engineered MSCs in vitro and in vivo by using SKOV3 cell line which is sensitive to all four enzyme/prodrug systems. In addition, all MSCs were engineered to stably express luciferase gene making them suitable for quantitative imaging and dose-response relationship studies in animals. Considering the limitations imposed by the prodrugs' bystander effects, our findings show that yCD:UPRT/5-FC is the most effective enzyme/prodrug system among the ones tested. Our findings also demonstrate that theranostic MSCs are a reliable medium for the side-by-side evaluation and screening of the enzyme/prodrug systems at the preclinical level. The results of this study could help scientists who utilize cell-based, non-viral or viral vectors for suicide gene therapy of cancer make more informed decisions when choosing enzyme/prodrug systems.

  3. Prediction of Nanoparticle Prodrug Metabolism by Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Biliary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephan T.; Zou, Peng; Skoczen, Sarah; Xie, Sherwin; Liboiron, Barry; Harasym, Troy; Tardi, Paul; Mayer, LawrenceD.; McNeil, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation is a powerful tool for the prediction of drug concentrations in the absence of analytical techniques that allow for direct quantification. The present study applied this modeling approach to determine active drug release from a nanoparticle prodrug formulation. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of a nanoscale micellar docetaxel (DTX) prodrug, Procet 8, and commercial DTX formulation, Taxotere, was conducted in bile duct cannulated rats. The nanoscale (~40 nm) size of the Procet 8 formulation resulted in confinement within the plasma space and high prodrug plasma concentrations. Ex vivo prodrug hydrolysis during plasma sample preparation resulted in unacceptable error that precluded direct measurement of DTX concentrations. Pharmacokinetic modeling of Taxotere and Procet 8 plasma concentrations, and their associated biliary metabolites, allowed for prediction of the DTX concentration profile and DTX bioavailability, and thereby evaluation of Procet 8 metabolism. Procet 8 plasma decay and in vitro plasma hydrolytic rates were identical, suggesting systemic clearance of the prodrug was primarily metabolic. The Procet 8 and Taxotere plasma profiles, and associated docetaxel hydroxy-tert-butyl carbamate (HDTX) metabolite biliary excretion, were best fit by a two compartment model, with both linear and non-linear DTX clearance, and first order Procet 8 hydrolysis. The model estimated HDTX clearance rate agreed with in vitro literature values, supporting the predictability of the proposed model. Model simulation at the 10 mg DTX equivalent/kg dose level predicted DTX formation rate-limited kinetics and a peak plasma DTX concentration of 39 ng/mL at 4h for Procet 8, in comparison to 2826 ng/mL for Taxotere. As a result of nonlinear DTX clearance, the DTX AUCinf for the Procet 8 formulation was predicted to be 2.6 times lower than Taxotere (775 vs. 2017 h x ng/mL, respectively), resulting in an absolute bioavailability estimate of

  4. Anti-HIV efficacy and biodistribution of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors delivered as squalenoylated prodrug nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Hillaireau, Hervé; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Skanji, Rym; Bekkara-Aounallah, Fawzia; Caron, Joachim; Lepêtre, Sinda; Argote, Sébastien; Bauduin, Laurent; Yousfi, Rahima; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Gref, Ruxandra; Andrieux, Karine; Clayette, Pascal; Couvreur, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Due to their hydrophilic nature, most nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) display a variable bioavailability after oral administration and a poor control over their biodistribution, thus hampering their access to HIV sanctuaries. The limited cellular uptake and activation in the triphosphate form of NRTIs further restrict their efficacy and favour the emergence of viral resistance. We have shown that the conjugation of squalene (sq) to the nucleoside analogues dideoxycytidine (ddC) and didanosine (ddI) leads to amphiphilic prodrugs (ddC-sq and ddI-sq) that spontaneously self-organize in water as stable nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm. These nanoassemblies can also be formulated with polyethylene glycol coupled to either cholesterol (Chol-PEG) or squalene (sq-PEG). When incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro infected with HIV, the NRTI-sq prodrugs enhanced the antiviral efficacy of the parent NRTIs, with a 2- to 3-fold decrease of the 50% effective doses and a nearly 2-fold increase of the selectivity index. This was also the case with HIV-1 strains resistant to ddC and/or ddI. The enhanced antiviral activity of ddI-sq was correlated with an up to 5-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of the corresponding pharmacologically active metabolite ddA-TP. The ddI-sq prodrug was further investigated in vivo by the oral route, the preferred route of administration of NRTIs. Pharmacokinetics studies performed on rats showed that the prodrug maintained low amounts of free ddI in the plasma. Administration of (3)H-ddI-sq led to radioactivity levels higher in the plasma and relevant organs in HIV infection as compared to administration of free (3)H-ddI. Taken together, these results show the potential of the squalenoylated prodrugs of NRTIs to enhance their absorption and improve their biodistribution, but also to enhance their intracellular delivery and antiviral efficacy towards HIV-infected cells.

  5. Design, structure-based focusing and in silico screening of combinatorial library of peptidomimetic inhibitors of Dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-03-01

    Serine protease activity of the NS3 protein of Dengue virus is an important target of antiviral agents that interfere with the viral polyprotein precursor processing catalyzed by the NS3 protease (NS3pro), which is important for the viral replication and maturation. Recent studies showed that substrate-based peptidomimetics carrying an electrophilic warhead inhibit the NS2B-NS3pro cofactor-protease complex with inhibition constants in the low micromolar concentration range when basic amino acid residues occupy P1 and P2 positions of the inhibitor, and an aldehyde warhead is attached to the P1. We have used computer-assisted combinatorial techniques to design, focus using the NS2B-NS3pro receptor 3D structure, and in silico screen a virtual library of more than 9,200 peptidomimetic analogs targeted around the template inhibitor Bz-Nle-Lys-Arg-Arg- H (Bz—benzoyl) that are composed mainly of unusual amino acid residues in all positions P1-P4. The most promising virtual hits were analyzed in terms of computed enzyme-inhibitor interactions and Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) related physico-chemical properties. Our study can direct the interest of medicinal chemists working on a next generation of antiviral chemotherapeutics against the Dengue Fever towards the explored subset of the chemical space that is predicted to contain peptide aldehydes with NS3pro inhibition potencies in nanomolar range which display ADME-related properties comparable to the training set inhibitors.

  6. Design, structure-based focusing and in silico screening of combinatorial library of peptidomimetic inhibitors of Dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    PubMed

    Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-03-01

    Serine protease activity of the NS3 protein of Dengue virus is an important target of antiviral agents that interfere with the viral polyprotein precursor processing catalyzed by the NS3 protease (NS3pro), which is important for the viral replication and maturation. Recent studies showed that substrate-based peptidomimetics carrying an electrophilic warhead inhibit the NS2B-NS3pro cofactor-protease complex with inhibition constants in the low micromolar concentration range when basic amino acid residues occupy P(1) and P(2) positions of the inhibitor, and an aldehyde warhead is attached to the P(1). We have used computer-assisted combinatorial techniques to design, focus using the NS2B-NS3pro receptor 3D structure, and in silico screen a virtual library of more than 9,200 peptidomimetic analogs targeted around the template inhibitor Bz-Nle-Lys-Arg-Arg-H (Bz-benzoyl) that are composed mainly of unusual amino acid residues in all positions P(1)-P(4). The most promising virtual hits were analyzed in terms of computed enzyme-inhibitor interactions and Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) related physico-chemical properties. Our study can direct the interest of medicinal chemists working on a next generation of antiviral chemotherapeutics against the Dengue Fever towards the explored subset of the chemical space that is predicted to contain peptide aldehydes with NS3pro inhibition potencies in nanomolar range which display ADME-related properties comparable to the training set inhibitors.

  7. Platinum(iv) prodrug conjugated Pd@Au nanoplates for chemotherapy and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Saige; Chen, Xiaolan; Wei, Jingping; Huang, Yizhuan; Weng, Jian; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the excellent near infrared (NIR) light absorption and efficient passive targeting toward tumor tissue, two-dimensional (2D) core-shell PEGylated Pd@Au nanoplates have great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery systems. In this work, we successfully conjugate Pd@Au nanoplates with a platinum(iv) prodrug c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCH2CH2CO2H)2] to obtain a nanocomposite (Pd@Au-PEG-Pt) for combined photothermal-chemotherapy. The prepared Pd@Au-PEG-Pt nanocomposite showed excellent stability in physiological solutions and efficient Pt(iv) prodrug loading. Once injected into biological tissue, the Pt(iv) prodrug was easily reduced by physiological reductants (e.g. ascorbic acid or glutathione) into its cytotoxic and hydrophilic Pt(ii) form and released from the original nanocomposite, and the NIR laser irradiation could accelerate the release of Pt(ii) species. More importantly, Pd@Au-PEG-Pt has high tumor accumulation (29%ID per g), which makes excellent therapeutic efficiency at relatively low power density possible. The in vivo results suggested that, compared with single therapy the combined thermo-chemotherapy treatment with Pd@Au-PEG-Pt resulted in complete destruction of the tumor tissue without recurrence, while chemotherapy using Pd@Au-PEG-Pt without irradiation or photothermal treatment using Pd@Au-PEG alone did not. Our work highlights the prospects of a feasible drug delivery strategy of the Pt prodrug by using 2D Pd@Au nanoplates as drug delivery carriers for multimode cancer treatment.Owing to the excellent near infrared (NIR) light absorption and efficient passive targeting toward tumor tissue, two-dimensional (2D) core-shell PEGylated Pd@Au nanoplates have great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery systems. In this work, we successfully conjugate Pd@Au nanoplates with a platinum(iv) prodrug c,c,t-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2(O2CCH2CH2CO2H)2] to obtain a nanocomposite (Pd@Au-PEG-Pt) for combined photothermal-chemotherapy. The

  8. A novel strategy for ADME screening of prodrugs: combined use of serum and hepatocytes to integrate bioactivation and clearance, and predict exposure to both active and prodrug to the systemic circulation.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Edmund; Hewitt, Nicola J; Buchstaller, Hans-Peter; Eggenweiler, Hans-Michael; Sirrenberg, Christian; Zimmermann, Astrid; März, Joachim; Schwartz, Harry; Saal, Christoph; Meyring, Michael; Hecht, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Common strategies to optimize prodrugs use either in vitro or rodent in vivo approaches, which do not consider elimination pathways that do not result in the generation of the desired product or might be misleading because of species differences, respectively. As a step forward, we have incorporated a novel application of hepatocytes into our prodrug optimization strategy to increase the bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug candidate by attaching a charged ester linker. The model involves the incubation of hepatocytes from multiple species in serum-containing medium to mimic formation as well as simultaneous metabolism of both prodrug and active drug. Using this strategy, a correlation between the in vitro AUC and the AUC after intravenous administration was obtained for active drug formation in several species. Moreover, hepatocytes correctly predicted the likelihood of undesired exposure with nonhydrolyzed prodrug. This novel approach enabled us to identify several prodrugs, which showed improved exposure over a wide dose range. Furthermore, a strategy was developed resulting in a decision tree that can be used to determine the applicability of the hepatocyte model in the screening process.

  9. Aqueous Nanomicellar Formulation for Topical Delivery of Biotinylated Lipid Prodrug of Acyclovir: Formulation Development and Ocular Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Cholkar, Kishore; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a clear, aqueous nanomicellar formulation and evaluate its in vitro ocular biocompatibility as a novel carrier for topical ocular delivery of biotinylated lipid prodrug for the treatment of herpetic keratitis. Methods: Micellar formulation of Biotin-12Hydroxystearic acid-acyclovir (B-12HS-ACV) was prepared by solvent evaporation/film hydration method with two nonionic surfactants, vitamin E TPGS and octoxynol-40. The optimized formulation was characterized for various parameters including micelle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta-potential and in vitro prodrug release. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were employed for studying the cytotoxicity of the formulation. Further, mRNA expression levels of various cytokines were also studied with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Results: Average size was 10.46±0.05 nm with a PDI of 0.086 for blank nanomicelles, and 10.78±0.09 nm with a PDI of 0.075 for prodrug-loaded nanomicelles. Both unloaded and prodrug-loaded nanomicelles had low negative zeta potential. Prodrug encapsulation efficiency of mixed nanomicelles was calculated to be ∼90%. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that nanomicelles were spherical, homogenous, and devoid of aggregates. B-12HS-ACV release from nanomicelles was slow with no significant burst effect. Results show a sustained release of the prodrug from nanomicelles over a period of 4 days. Neither the blank formulation nor the prodrug-loaded micellar formulation demonstrated any cytotoxic effects. Further, incubation of HCECs with blank and prodrug-loaded nanomicellar groups did not significantly alter the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Conclusions: In summary, a topical clear, aqueous nanomicellar formulation comprised of vitamin E TPGS and octoxynol-40 loaded with 0.1% B-12HS-ACV was successfully developed. B-12HS-ACV-loaded nanomicelles are small in size

  10. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  11. Self-immolative nitrogen mustards prodrugs cleavable by carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) showing large cytotoxicity differentials in GDEPT.

    PubMed

    Niculescu-Duvaz, Dan; Niculescu-Duvaz, Ion; Friedlos, Frank; Martin, Jan; Lehouritis, Panos; Marais, Richard; Springer, Caroline J

    2003-04-24

    Nineteen novel potential self-immolative prodrugs and their corresponding drugs have been synthesized for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) with carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) as the activating enzyme. The compounds are derived from o- and p-amino and p-methylamino aniline nitrogen mustards. Their aqueous stability, kinetics of drug release by CPG2, and cytotoxicity in the colon carcinoma cell line WiDr, expressing either surface-tethered CPG2 (stCPG2(Q)3) or control beta-galactosidase, are assessed. The effect of various structural features on stability, kinetics of activation, and biological activity is discussed. The p-methylamino prodrugs are the most stable compounds from this series, with the largest cytotoxicity differentials between CPG2-expressing and nonexpressing cells. The most potent compounds in all series are prodrugs of bis-iodo nitrogen mustards. 4-[N-[4'-Bis(2' '-iodoethyl)aminophenyl]-N'-methylcarbamoyloxymethyl]phenylcarbamoyl-l-glutamic acid, compound 39b, is 124-fold more cytotoxic to WiDr cells expressing CPG2 than to cells expressing beta-galactosidase. An additional six compounds show better cytotoxicity differential than the published N-[4-[(2-chloroethyl)(2-mesyloxyethyl)amino]benzoyl]-l-glutamic acid (CMDA) prodrug.

  12. Synthesis of novel pregnane-diosgenin prodrugs via Ring A and Ring A connection: A combined experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Arun; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap; Shukla, Dolly; Singh, Praveer

    2016-12-01

    Novel pregnane-diosgenin prodrugs have been synthesized. The route involved preparation of 3β-25R-spirost-5ene 3yl-benzoate-2-carboxylic acid (2) by the esterification of diosgenin (1) with phthalic anhydride. The pregnane-diosgenin prodrugs 5 &6 were synthesized by treating 3β-25R-spirost-5ene 3yl-benzoate-2-carboxylic acid (2) with 3β-hydroxy16α-methoxy pregn-5-ene-20-one (3) and 3β-hydroxypregn-5, 16-diene-20-one (4) respectively. The synthesized compounds have been characterized with the help of spectroscopic techniques like 1H, 13C NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d, p) basis set has been used for the Quantum chemical calculations. UV-Vis spectra of the synthesized compounds were also recorded and electronic properties such as frontier orbitals and band gap energies were calculated by TD-DFT approach. Intramolecular interactions have been identified by AIM approach and vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated using DFT method. The reactivity and reactive site within the synthesized prodrugs were examined with reactivity descriptors (global and local). Dipole moment, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability were calculated to get a better insight of the properties of synthesized prodrugs. The probable reaction paths of prodrugs were calculated with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface analysis.

  13. Pharmacokinetic studies and LC-MS/MS method development of ganciclovir and dipeptide monoester prodrugs in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Sriram; Earla, Ravinder; Cholkar, Kishore; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-09-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) is utilized as an anti-herpetic agent. Reports from our laboratory have suggested that dipeptide ester prodrugs of GCV exhibit high affinity towards the oligopeptide transporter hPEPT1 and therefore seem to be promising candidates for the treatment of oral herpes virus infections. In this study, we have examined the bio-availability of a dipeptide prodrug of GCV after oral administration in jugular cannulated Sprague-Dawley rats. A new bio-analytical method was developed with Q-TRAP liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneous analysis of GCV, Valine-GCV (VGCV) and Tyrosine-Valine-GCV (YVGCV). Acyclovir (ACV) was used as an internal standard in the analysis. Area under plasma-concentration time curves for total concentration of GCV after oral administration of YVGCV was found to be approximately 200 % more than that of GCV following intestinal absorption. A complete conversion of the dipeptide prodrug (YVGCV) to parent compound, GCV, by hepatic first-pass metabolism was evident due to the absence of intermediate metabolite VGCV and administered prodrug YVGCV. The dipeptide prodrugs of GCV exhibit higher systemic availability of regenerated GCV upon oral administration and thus seem to be promising drug candidate in the treatment of systemic herpes infections.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain-Targeted Thiamine Disulfide Prodrugs of Ampakine Compound LCX001.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dian; Meng, Fan-Hua; Dai, Wei; Yong, Zheng; Liu, Jin-Qiu; Zhou, Xin-Bo; Li, Song

    2016-04-14

    Ampakine compounds have been shown to reverse opiate-induced respiratory depression by activation of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors. However, their pharmacological exploitations are hindered by low blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and limited brain distribution. Here, we explored whether thiamine disulfide prodrugs with the ability of "lock-in" can be used to solve these problems. A series of thiamine disulfide prodrugs 7a-7f of ampakine compound LCX001 was synthesized and evaluated. The trials in vitro showed that prodrugs 7e, 7d, 7f possessed a certain stability in plasma and quickly decomposed in brain homogenate by the disulfide reductase. In vivo, prodrug 7e decreased the peripheral distribution of LCX001 and significantly increased brain distribution of LCX001 after i.v. administration. This compound showed 2.23- and 3.29-fold greater increases in the AUC0-t and MRT0-t of LCX001 in brain, respectively, than did LCX001 itself. A preliminary pharmacodynamic study indicated that the required molar dose of prodrug 7e was only one eighth that of LCX001 required to achieve the same effect in mice. These findings provide an important reference to evaluate the clinical outlook of ampakine compounds.

  15. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26)-activated prodrugs: a successful strategy for improving water solubility and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Sonsoles; de Castro, Sonia; Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Balzarini, Jan; Camarasa, María-José

    2015-01-01

    In the search of novel enzyme-based prodrug approaches to improve pharmacological properties of therapeutic drugs such as solubility and bioavailability, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV, also termed as CD26) enzyme activity provides a previously unexplored successful prodrug strategy. This review covers key aspects of the enzyme useful for the design of CD26-directed prodrugs. The proof-of-concept of this prodrug technology is provided for amine-containing agents by directly linking appropriate di- (or oligo)peptide moieties to a free amino group of a non-peptidic drug through an amide bond which is specifically hydrolized by DPP IV/CD26. Special emphasis is also made in discussing the design and synthesis of more elaborated tripartite prodrug systems, for further extension of the strategy to hydroxy-containing drugs. The application of this technology to improve water solubility and oral bioavailability of prominent examples of antiviral nucleosides is highlighted.

  16. Facile Fabrication of Tumor Redox-Sensitive Nanoassemblies of Small-Molecule Oleate Prodrug as Potent Chemotherapeutic Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Sun, Jin; Sun, Bingjun; Liu, Dan; Miao, Lei; Goodwin, Tyler Jay; Huang, Leaf; He, Zhonggui

    2016-12-01

    The conjugate of paclitaxel (PTX) and docosahexaenoic acid has entered into clinical trials. However, the most recent clinical outcomes fell short of expectations, due to the extremely slow drug release from the hydrophobic conjugates. Herein, a novel prodrug-based nanoplatform self-assembled by the disulfide bond linked conjugates of PTX and oleic acid for rapid and differential release of PTX in tumor cells is reported. This redox-responsive prodrug-nanosystem demonstrates multiple therapeutic advantages, including one-step facile fabrication, high drug-loading efficiency (56%, w/w), on-demand drug release responding to redox stimuli, as well as favorable cellular uptake and biodistribution. These advantages result in significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy in vivo, with the tumor almost completely disappearing in mice. Such a uniquely engineered prodrug-nanosystem has great potential to be used as potent chemotherapeutic nanomedicine in clinical cancer therapy.

  17. Sodium N-(methylsulfonyl)-N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl)sulfamate: a water-soluble nimesulide prodrug for parenteral use.

    PubMed

    Rapposelli, Simona; Digiacomo, Maria; Franchi, Silvia; Moretti, Sara; Pinza, Mario; Sacerdote, Paola; Balsamo, Aldo

    2010-10-04

    Several nimesulide preparations (i.e., tablet form, gels) have been marketed, but no parenteral solution has achieved the market because of their low wettability and unsatisfactory chemical-physical properties required for parenteral use. In this paper we describe the synthesis of the nimesulide prodrug 1 and its anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic properties. Pharmacological studies, carried out to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of compound 1 and nimesulide, showed that sodium sulfamate 1 is an effective nimesulide prodrug that can be administered by parenteral route, undergoing a satisfactory absorption and an extensive transformation into the active nimesulide compound. Moreover, the evaluation of the plasma concentrations of nimesulide after rat treatment with compound 1 showed an increased and dose-dependent release of nimesulide. In contrast, the plasma concentrations of nimesulide, after "native" drug administration, still remain substantially unchanged. These preliminary results prompt further investigations on this prodrug as a possible candidate for parenteral use.

  18. Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine Prodrugs: Strategic Optimization of the Aqueous Solubility of Dual Src/Abl Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of prodrugs of promising drug candidates represents a valid strategy to overcome the lack of favorable ADME properties, in particular aqueous solubility and bioavailability. We report herein the successful application of this strategy with two representative pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives (1 and 2), which led to the development of the corresponding and highly water-soluble antitumor prodrugs (7 and 8). In vitro studies confirmed a significant improvement of aqueous solubility and, for compound 8, good plasma stability, suggesting superior in vivo bioavailability. As expected, the uncleaved water-soluble prodrugs 7 and 8 showed no activity toward the enzymatic targets (c-Src and c-Abl) but revealed promising antiproliferative activity in myeloid cell lines, as a consequence of the in vitro hydrolysis of the selected solubilizing moiety, followed by the release of the active compounds (1 and 2). PMID:24900720

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel chitosan based E. coli cytosine deaminase nanocomposite for potential application in prodrug enzyme therapy.

    PubMed

    Yata, Vinod Kumar; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine deaminase is a non-mammalian enzyme of widespread interest for prodrug enzyme therapy due to its ability to convert prodrug 5-fluorocytosine into anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. Cytosine deaminase enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from E. coli K-12 MTCC 1302 strain. K(m) values for cytosine and 5-fluorocytosine were found to be 0.26 mM and 1.82 mM, respectively. We developed a chitosan-entrapped cytosine deaminase nanocomposite. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed an elongated sphere shape nanocomposite with an average size of 80 nm diameter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirmed gel formation and entrapment of cytosine deaminase within the nanocomposite. Sustained release of cytosine deaminase from the nanocomposite up to one week depicted its potential implication in prodrug inducted enzyme therapy.

  20. Palladium-Mediated Dealkylation of N-Propargyl-Floxuridine as a Bioorthogonal Oxygen-Independent Prodrug Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jason T.; Carragher, Neil O.; Unciti-Broceta, Asier

    2015-03-01

    Herein we report the development and biological screening of a bioorthogonal palladium-labile prodrug of the nucleoside analogue floxuridine, a potent antineoplastic drug used in the clinic to treat advanced cancers. N-propargylation of the N3 position of its uracil ring resulted in a vast reduction of its biological activity (~6,250-fold). Cytotoxic properties were bioorthogonally rescued in cancer cell culture by heterogeneous palladium chemistry both in normoxia and hypoxia. Within the same environment, the reported chemo-reversible prodrug exhibited up to 1,450-fold difference of cytotoxicity whether it was in the absence or presence of the extracellular palladium source, underlining the precise modulation of bioactivity enabled by this bioorthogonally-activated prodrug strategy.

  1. Calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett studies on the interaction of a lipophilic prodrug of LHRH with biomembrane models.

    PubMed

    Sarpietro, Maria G; Accolla, Maria L; Santoro, Nancy; Mansfeld, Friederike M; Pignatello, Rosario; Toth, Istvan; Castelli, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between an amphiphilic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) prodrug that incorporated a lipoamino acid moiety (C12-LAA) with biological membrane models that consisted of multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) and phospholipid monolayers, was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Langmuir-Blodgett film techniques. The effect of the prodrug C12[Q1]LHRH on the lipid layers was compared with the results obtained with the pure precursors, LHRH and C12-LAA. Conjugation of LHRH with a LAA promoiety showed to improve the peptide interaction with biomembrane models. Basing on the calorimetric findings, the LAA moiety aided the transfer of the prodrug from an aqueous solution to the biomembrane model.

  2. Design of Fexofenadine Prodrugs Based on Tissue-Specific Esterase Activity and Their Dissimilar Recognition by P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ohura, Kayoko; Nakada, Yuichiro; Kotani, Shunsuke; Imai, Teruko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a suitable prodrug for fexofenadine (FXD), a model parent drug, that is resistant to intestinal esterase but converted to FXD by hepatic esterase. Carboxylesterases (CESs), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) and human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), are the major esterases in human liver and intestine, respectively. These two CESs show quite different substrate specificities, and especially, hCE2 poorly hydrolyzes prodrugs with large acyl groups. FXD contains a carboxyl group and is poorly absorbed because of low membrane permeability and efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Therefore, two potential FXD prodrugs, ethyl-FXD and 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD, were synthesized by substitution of the carboxyl group in FXD. Both derivatives were resistant to intestinal hydrolysis, indicating their absorption as intact prodrugs. Ethyl-FXD was hydrolyzed by hepatic hCE1, but 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD was not. Both derivatives showed high membrane permeability in human P-gp-negative LLC-PK1 cells. In LLC-GA5-COL300 cells overexpressing human P-gp, ethyl-FXD was transported by P-gp, but its efflux was easily saturated. Whereas 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD showed more efficient P-gp-mediated transport than FXD. Although the structure of 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD only differs from ethyl-FXD by substitution of a hydroxyl group, 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD is unsuitable as a prodrug. However, ethyl-FXD is a good candidate prodrug because of good intestinal absorption and hepatic conversion by hCE1.

  3. Esterase-activatable β-lapachone prodrug micelles for NQO1-targeted lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinpeng; Huang, Xiumei; Moore, Zachary; Huang, Gang; Kilgore, Jessica A.; Wang, Yiguang; Hammer, Suntrea; Williams, Noelle S.; Boothman, David A.; Gao, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer and current chemotherapeutic strategies lack broad specificity and efficacy. Recently, β-lapachone (β-lap) was shown to be highly efficacious in killing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells regardless of their p53, cell cycle and caspase status. Pre-clinical and clinical use of β-lap (clinical form, ARQ501 or 761) is hampered by poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity due to hemolytic anemia. Here, we report the development and preclinical evaluation of β-lap prodrug nanotherapeutics consisting of diester derivatives of β-lap encapsulated in biocompatible and biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles. Compared to the parent drug, diester derivatives of β-lap showed higher drug loading densities inside PEG-b-PLA micelles. After esterase treatment, micelle-delivered β-lap-dC3 and -dC6 prodrugs were converted to β-lap. Cytotoxicity assays using A549 and H596 lung cancer cells showed that both micelle formulations maintained NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-dependent cytotoxicity. However, antitumor efficacy study of β-lap-dC3 micelles against orthotopic A549 NSCLC xenograft-bearing mice showed significantly greater long-term survival over β-lap-dC6 micelles or β-lap-HPβCD complexes. Improved therapeutic efficacy of β-lap-dC3 micelles correlated with higher area under the concentration-time curves of β-lap in tumors, and enhanced pharmacodynamic endpoints (e.g., PARP1 hyperactivation, γH2AX, and ATP depletion). β-Lap-dC3 prodrug micelles provide a promising strategy for NQO1-targeted therapy of lung cancer with improved safety and antitumor efficacy. PMID:25542645

  4. Quinone Induced Activation of Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling by Aspirin Prodrugs Masquerading as Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Tareisha; Piyankarage, Sujeewa C.; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Abdul-Hay, Samer; Vanni, Michael; Litosh, Vladislav; Luo, Jia; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The promising therapeutic potential of the NO-donating hybrid aspirin prodrugs (NO-ASA), includes induction of chemopreventive mechanisms, and has been reported in almost 100 publications. One example, NCX-4040 (pNO-ASA), is bioactivated by esterase to a quinone methide (QM) electrophile. In cell cultures, pNO-ASA and QM-donating X-ASA prodrugs that cannot release NO rapidly depleted intracellular GSH and caused DNA damage; however, induction of Nrf2 signaling elicited cellular defense mechanisms including upregulation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL). In HepG2 cells, the “NO-specific” 4,5-diaminofluorescein reporter, DAF-DA, responded to NO-ASA and X-ASA, with QM-induced oxidative stress masquerading as NO. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated efficient alkylation of Cys residues of proteins including glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GST-P1) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Evidence was obtained for alkylation of Keap1 Cys residues associated with Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, nuclear translocation of Nrf2, activation of antioxidant response element (ARE), and upregulation of cytoprotective target genes. At least in cell culture, pNO-ASA acts as a QM-donor, bioactivated by cellular esterase activity to release salicylates, NO3−, and an electrophilic QM. Finally, two novel aspirin prodrugs were synthesized, both potent activators of ARE, designed to release only the QM and salicylates on bioactivation. Current interest in electrophilic drugs acting via Nrf2 signaling suggests that QM-donating hybrid drugs can be designed as informative chemical probes in drug discovery. PMID:23035985

  5. Facile synthesis of corticosteroids prodrugs from isolated hydrocortisone acetate and their quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Arun; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap; Prakash, Rohit; Amandeep

    2017-02-01

    In the present research paper corticosteroids prodrugs of hydrocortisone acetate (1) have been synthesized, which was isolated from the flowers of Allamanda Violacea. The hydrocortisone acetate (1) was hydrolyzed to hydrocortisone (2) which was subsequently converted to prednisolone (3). Both the hydrocortisone (1) and prednisolone (2) underwent Steglich esterification with naproxen and Ibuprofen yielding compounds 11, 17 dihydroxy-21-(2-(6-methoxynaphthalene-2yl) propionoxy)-pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione (4), 11, 17-dihydroxy-21-(2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionoxy)-pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione (5), 21-(2-(6-methoxynaphthalene-2-yl) propionoxy) 11,17-di-hydroxy-3,20-diketo-pregn-1,4-diene (6) and 11,17-di-hydroxy-3,20-diketo-pregn-1,4-diene-21-yl-2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propanoate (7). The synthesized compounds have been characterized with the help of spectroscopic techniques like 1H, 13C NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d, p) basis set has been used for the Quantum chemical calculations. The electronic properties such as frontier orbitals and band gap energies were calculated by TD-DFT approach. Intramolecular interactions have been identified by AIM (Atoms in Molecule) approach and vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated using DFT method. The reactivity and reactive site within the synthesized prodrugs have been examined with the help of reactivity descriptors. Dipole moment, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability have been calculated to get a better insight of the properties of synthesized prodrugs. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface analysis has also been carried out.

  6. Metabolic Activation of the Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Nucleotide Prodrug PSI-352938

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Congrong; Tolstykh, Tatiana; Bao, Haiying; Park, Yeojin; Babusis, Darius; Lam, Angela M.; Bansal, Shalini; Du, Jinfa; Chang, Wonsuk; Reddy, P. Ganapati; Zhang, Hai-Ren; Woolley, Joseph; Wang, Li-Quan; Chao, Piyun B.; Ray, Adrian S.; Otto, Michael J.; Sofia, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    PSI-352938 is a novel cyclic phosphate prodrug of β-d-2′-deoxy-2′-α-fluoro-2′-β-C-methylguanosine-5′-monophosphate with potent anti-HCV activity. In order to inhibit the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, PSI-352938 must be metabolized to the active triphosphate form, PSI-352666. During in vitro incubations with PSI-352938, significantly larger amounts of PSI-352666 were formed in primary hepatocytes than in clone A hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon cells. Metabolism and biochemical assays were performed to define the molecular mechanism of PSI-352938 activation. The first step, removal of the isopropyl group on the 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate moiety, was found to be cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 dependent, with other CYP isoforms unable to catalyze the reaction. The second step, opening of the cyclic phosphate ring, was catalyzed by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) 2A1, 5A, 9A, and 11A4, all known to be expressed in the liver. The role of these enzymes in the activation of PSI-352938 was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes, where prodrug activation was reduced by inhibitors of CYP3A4 and PDEs. The third step, removal of the O6-ethyl group on the nucleobase, was shown to be catalyzed by adenosine deaminase-like protein 1. The resulting monophosphate was consecutively phosphorylated to the diphosphate and to the triphosphate PSI-352666 by guanylate kinase 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase, respectively. In addition, formation of nucleoside metabolites was observed in primary hepatocytes, and ecto-5′-nucleotidase was able to dephosphorylate the monophosphate metabolites. Since CYP3A4 is highly expressed in the liver, the CYP3A4-dependent metabolism of PSI-352938 makes it an effective liver-targeted prodrug, in part accounting for the potent antiviral activity observed clinically. PMID:22526308

  7. Boronic Prodrug of Endoxifen as an Effective Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changde; Zhong, Qiu; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Miele, Lucio; Wang, Guangdi

    2015-01-01

    As a prodrug, tamoxifen is activated by the P450 enzyme CYP2D6 that is responsible for converting it to the active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. Patients with genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 may not receive the full benefit of tamoxifen therapy. There is increasing evidence that poor metabolizer patients have lower plasma concentrations of endoxifen and suffer worse disease outcome, although some clinical studies reported no correlation between CYP2D6 polymorphism and tamoxifen therapy outcome. Endoxifen is currently undergoing clinical trials as a potentially improved and more potent SERM (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator) for endocrine therapy that is independent of CYP2D6 status in patients. However, direct administration of endoxifen may present the problem of low bioavailability due to its rapid first-pass metabolism via O-glucuronidation. We have designed and synthesized ZB483, a boronic prodrug of endoxifen suitable for oral administration with greatly enhanced bioavailability by increasing the concentration of endoxifen in mouse blood. Our study demonstrated that ZB483 potently inhibited growth of ER+ breast cancer cells in vitro and was efficiently converted to endoxifen in cell culture media by oxidative deboronation. In vivo this metabolic conversion is equally efficient as indicated in the pharmacokinetic study. Moreover, at the same dose, ZB483 afforded a 30-40 fold higher level endoxifen in mouse blood compared to unconjugated endoxifen administration. The significantly enhanced bioavailability of endoxifen conferred by the boronic prodrug was further validated in an in vivo efficacy study. ZB483 was demonstrated to be more efficacious than endoxifen in inhibiting xenograft tumor growth in mice at equal dosage but more so at lower dosage. Together, these preclinical studies demonstrate that ZB483 is a promising endocrine therapy agent with markedly enhanced bioavailability in systemic circulation and superior efficacy compared to

  8. Diabetes mellitus: novel insights, analysis and interpretation of pathophysiology and complications management with imidazole-containing peptidomimetic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Lankin, Vadim Z; Savel'Yeva, Ekaterina L; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-12-01

    peroxidase type of activity and protection of antioxidant enzymes from inactivation (such as in a case of superoxide dismutase). Carnosine biological mimetics react with methylglyoxal and they are described in this study as a glyoxalase mimetics. The imidazole-containing carnosine biological mimetics can react with a number of deleterious aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation and thereby suppress their toxicity. Carnosine and carcinine can also react with glycated proteins and inhibit advanced glycation end product formation. These studies indicate a therapeutic role for imidazole-containing antioxidants (non-hydrolized carnosine, carcinine, D-carnosine, ophthalmic prodrug N-acetylcarnosine, leucyl-histidylhidrazide and patented formulations thereof) in therapeutic management strategies for Type 2 Diabetes.

  9. [Application of phosphates and phosphonates prodrugs in drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xun; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Lin-Xiang; Jiang, Hua-Liang; Liu, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Based on the character of the molecular structure, the prodrugs of phosphates and phosphonates were divided into two categories. The first is the drug which contained the phosphate group, introducing protected groups to increase lipophilicity and improve bioavailability. The other one is the drug which had no phosphate group, introducing the phosphate group into molecules to enhance the solubility, regulate the distribution coefficient and enhance the drug-like property. This review focuses on the application of phosphates and phosphonates in drug research and development based on improvement of physico-chemical property, drug safety and the pharmacokinetics.

  10. Squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies: new prodrug strategy for the delivery of nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Caron, Joachim; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Wack, Séverine; Clayette, Pascal; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Yousfi, Rahima; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier

    2010-05-01

    4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoyldideoxycytidine monophosphate (SQddC-MP) and 4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoylgemcitabine monophosphate (SQdFdC-MP) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled to about hundred nanometers size nanoassemblies in aqueous medium. Nanoassemblies of SQddC-MP displayed significant anti-HIV activity whereas SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies displayed promising anticancer activity on leukemia cells. These results suggested that squalene conjugate of negatively charged nucleotide analogues efficiently penetrated within cells. Thus, we propose a new prodrug strategy for improved delivery of nucleoside analogues to ameliorate their biological efficacy.

  11. Controllable synthesis of polymerizable ester and amide prodrugs of acyclovir by enzyme in organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wu, Qi; Lv, De-shui; Lin, Xian-fu

    2006-05-15

    A facile control of the acylation position at the primary hydroxyl and amino of acyclovir, respectively, was achieved and five polymerizable acyclovir prodrugs were synthesized. Various reaction conditions were studied in detail. Thus, lipase acrylic resin from Candida antarctica (CAL-B) in pyridine or acetone showed high chemo-selectivity toward the primary hydroxyl of acyclovir. However, lipase PS 'Amano' (PS) in DMSO selectively acylated the amino group. The selectivity of PS could be adjusted by changing reaction solvents. The acyclovir vinyl derivatives obtained would be important monomers used for the preparation of macromolecular nucleoside drugs.

  12. Preparation of Conjugated Polymer Grafted with H2O2-Sensitive Prodrug for Cell Imaging and Tumor Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Li, Shengliang; Chen, Hui; Hu, Rong; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-13

    In this work, a new conjugated polymer poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) derivative containing pendent quaternized chlormethine (PFP-Chl) was synthesized by covalent linking small molecular prodrug groups onto conjugated polymer side chains. H2O2-sensitive prodrug with an eight-member-cyclic boronate ester structure could suffer from H2O2-triggered nitrogen mustard release and further DNA cross-linking and alkylation. PFP-Chl combines therapeutic characteristic with excellent optical property of conjugated polymers. It is found that PFP-Chl could enter into cells by endocytosis to simultaneously exhibit abilities of fluorescent imaging and tumor cell inhibition.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of sulfonylethyl-containing phosphotriesters of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine as anticancer prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Wang, Yi-Jun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Kwon, Chul-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A series of bis(sulfonylethyl) and mono(sulfonylethyl) phenyl phosphotriesters of zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, AZT) were synthesized as potential anticancer prodrugs that liberate AZT monophosphate via nonenzymatic β-elimination mechanism. Stability studies demonstrated that all the synthesized prodrugs spontaneously liberate AZT monophosphate with half-lives in the range of 0.07-278.8h under model physiological conditions in 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. Analogous to aldophosphamide, the elimination rates were accelerated in the presence of reconstituted human plasma under the same conditions. Among the compounds, 3, 4, 8, and 10 were comparable or superior to AZT against five established human cancerous cell lines in vitro. Moreover, the selected compounds were equally sensitive to both the wild-type osteosarcoma 143 B and the thymidine kinase-deficient 143 B/TK(-) cell lines. The findings are consistent with that these compounds deliver AZT monophosphate intracellularly.

  14. Successful Treatment of Intracranial Glioblastoma Xenografts With a Monoamine Oxidase B-Activated Pro-Drug

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Martyn A.; Livingston, Andrew D.; Gist, Taylor L.; Ghosh, Pardip; Han, Junyan; Baskin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The last major advance in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was the introduction of temozolomide in 1999. Treatment with temozolomide following surgical debulking extends survival rate compared to radiotherapy and debulking alone. However, virtually all glioblastoma patients experience disease progression within 7 to 10 months. Although many salvage treatments, including bevacizumab, rechallenge with temozolomide, and other alkylating agents, have been evaluated, none of these clearly improves survival. Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) is highly expressed in glioblastoma cell mitochondria, and mitochondrial function is intimately tied to treatment-resistant glioblastoma progression. These glioblastoma properties provide a strong rationale for pursuing a MAOB-selective pro-drug treatment approach that, upon drug activation, targets glioblastoma mitochondria, especially mitochondrial DNA. MP-MUS is the lead compound in a family of pro-drugs designed to treat GBM that is converted into the mature, mitochondria-targeting drug, P+-MUS, by MAOB. We show that MP-MUS can successfully kill primary gliomas in vitro and in vivo mouse xenograft models. PMID:26501110

  15. Targeting the hypoxic fraction of tumours using hypoxia-activated prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of a microenvironment within most tumours containing regions of low oxygen tension or hypoxia has profound biological and therapeutic implications. Tumour hypoxia is known to promote the development of an aggressive phenotype, resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Paradoxically, it is recognised as a high-priority target and one of the therapeutic strategies designed to eradicate hypoxic cells in tumours is a group of compounds known collectively as hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) or bioreductive drugs. These drugs are inactive prodrugs that require enzymatic activation (typically by 1 or 2 electron oxidoreductases) to generate cytotoxic species with selectivity for hypoxic cells being determined by (1) the ability of oxygen to either reverse or inhibit the activation process and (2) the presence of elevated expression of oxidoreductases in tumours. The concepts underpinning HAP development were established over 40 years ago and have been refined over the years to produce a new generation of HAPs that are under preclinical and clinical development. The purpose of this article is to describe current progress in the development of HAPs focusing on the mechanisms of action, preclinical properties and clinical progress of leading examples.

  16. Polymeric prodrug-functionalized polypropylene films for sustained release of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Hector; Palomino, Kenia; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose M; Díaz-Gómez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Zavala-Lagunes, Edgar; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Bucio, Emilio

    2016-09-10

    Medical devices decorated with salicylic acid-based polymer chains (polymeric prodrug) that slowly release this anti-inflammatory and anti-biofilm drug at the implantation site were designed. A "grafting from" method was implemented to directly grow chains of a polymerizable derivative of salicylic acid (2-methacryloyloxy-benzoic acid, 2MBA) onto polypropylene (PP). PP was modified both at bulk and on the surface with poly(2MBA) by means of an oxidative pre-irradiation method ((60)Co source), in order to obtain a grafted polymer in which salicylic acid units were linked by means of labile ester bonds. The grafting percent depended on absorbed dose, reaction time, temperature and monomer concentration. The functionalized films were analyzed regarding structure (FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDX, fluorescence microscopy), temperature stability (TGA), interaction with aqueous medium (water contact angle and swelling), pH-responsive release and cytocompatibility (fibroblasts). In the obtained poly(2MBA)-grafted biomaterial, poly(2MBA) behaved as a polymeric prodrug that regulates salicylic acid release once in contact with aqueous medium, showing pH-dependent release rate.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of sulfate conjugated metronidazole as a colon-specific prodrug of metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjeong; Lee, Yonghyun; Yoo, Hansun; Kim, Jihye; Kong, Hyesik; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Young Mi

    2012-04-01

    For an effort to improve therapeutic property of metronidazole (MTZ) which is a drug of choice for protozoal infections such as luminal amoebiasis, sulfate conjugated metronidazole (MTZS) was prepared and evaluated as a colon-specific prodrug of MTZ. The apparent partition coefficient of MTZ was greatly reduced by the sulfate conjugation. While (bio)chemically stable in the contents of the upper intestine, MTZS was rapidly cleaved to liberate MTZ on incubation with the cecal contents of rats. MTZ liberated from MTZS metabolized quickly at least partly by a microbial nitroreductase, suggesting the relevance of the metabolism to bioactivation of MTZ for antimicrobial action. Consistent with the hypothesis, MTZS elicited antibacterial activity in the cecal contents, which was as potent as free MTZ. The systemic absorption of MTZS was very low after oral administration of MTZS. In parallel with this, whereas MTZ disappeared mostly during the transit of the proximal small intestine, a substantial amount of MTZS remained in the small intestine, moving down to the large intestine where it metabolized rapidly. In addition to the efficient colonic delivery of MTZS, MTZS markedly reduced the systemic absorption of MTZ. Taken together, MTZS may be a potential colon-specific prodrug of MTZ which possesses improved therapeutic and toxicological properties.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia induced cytosine deaminase expression in microencapsulated E. coli for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Ennis, Riley C; Griswold, Karl E; Gimi, Barjor

    2015-06-10

    Engineered bacterial cells that are designed to express therapeutic enzymes under the transcriptional control of remotely inducible promoters can mediate the de novo conversion of non-toxic prodrugs to their cytotoxic forms. In situ cellular expression of enzymes provides increased stability and control of enzyme activity as compared to isolated enzymes. We have engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli), designed to express cytosine deaminase at elevated temperatures, under the transcriptional control of thermo-regulatory λpL-cI857 promoter cassette which provides a thermal switch to trigger enzyme synthesis. Enhanced cytosine deaminase expression was observed in cultures incubated at 42°C as compared to 30°C, and enzyme expression was further substantiated by spectrophotometric assays indicating enhanced conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil. The engineered cells were subsequently co-encapsulated with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in immunoprotective alginate microcapsules, and cytosine deaminase expression was triggered remotely by alternating magnetic field-induced hyperthermia. The combination of 5-fluorocytosine with AMF-activated microcapsules demonstrated tumor cell cytotoxicity comparable to direct treatment with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Such enzyme-prodrug therapy, based on engineered and immunoisolated E. coli, may ultimately yield an improved therapeutic index relative to monotherapy, as AMF mediated hyperthermia might be expected to pre-sensitize tumors to chemotherapy under appropriate conditions.

  19. Involvement of Carboxylesterase in Hydrolysis of Propranolol Prodrug during Permeation across Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Teruko; Takase, Yuko; Iwase, Harunobu; Hashimoto, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The use of a prodrug, a conjugate of an active drug with a lipophilic substituent, is a good way of increasing the cutaneous absorption of a drug. However, the activity of dermal hydrolases has rarely been investigated in humans, or experimental animals. In the present study, we focused on the identification of rat dermal esterases and the hydrolysis of a prodrug during permeation across rat skin. We found that carboxylesterase (CES), especially the rat CES1 isozyme, Hydrolase A, is expressed in rat skin and that the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acyl derivatives and caproyl-propranolol (PL) was 20-fold lower in the 9000g supernatant fraction of skin homogenate than in liver microsomes. A permeation study of caproyl-PL was performed in rat full-thickness and stripped skin using a flow-through diffusion cell. Caproyl-PL was easily partitioned into the stratum corneum and retained, not only in the stratum corneum, but also in viable epidermis and dermis. Caproyl-PL could barely be detected in the receptor fluid after application to either full-thickness or stripped skin. PL, derived from caproyl-PL, was, however, detected in receptor fluid after extensive hydrolysis of caproyl-PL in viable skin. Permeation of PL was markedly decreased under CES inhibition, indicating that the net flux of caproyl-PL is dependent on its conversion rate to PL. PMID:24300511

  20. Crystal Structure of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus Carboxylesterase Est55 and Its Activation of Prodrug CPT-11

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Ewis, Hosam E.; Tai, Phang C.; Lu, Chung-Dar; Weber, Irene T.

    2007-01-01

    Several mammalian carboxylesterases were shown to activate the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11) to produce SN-38, a topoisomerase inhibitor used in cancer therapy. However, the potential use of bacterial carboxylesterases, which have the advantage of high stability, has not been explored. We present the crystal structure of the carboxyesterase Est55 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus and evaluation of its enzyme activity on CPT-11. Crystal structures were determined at pH 6.2 and 6.8 and resolution of 2.0 and 1.58 Å, respectively. Est55 folds into three domains, a catalytic domain, an α/β domain and a regulatory domain. The structure is in an inactive form; the side chain of His409, one of the catalytic triad residues, is directed away from the other catalytic residues Ser194 and Glu310. Moreover, the adjacent Cys408 is triply oxidized and lies in the oxyanion hole, which would block the binding of substrate, suggesting a regulatory role. However, Cys408 is not essential for enzyme activity. Mutation of Cys408 showed that hydrophobic side chains were favorable, while polar serine was unfavorable for enzyme activity. Est55 was shown to hydrolyze CPT-11 into the active form SN-38. The mutant C408V provided a more stable enzyme for activation of CPT-11. Therefore, engineered thermostable Est55 is a candidate for use with irinotecan in enzyme-prodrug cancer therapy. PMID:17239398

  1. Initial development of a cytotoxic amino-seco-CBI warhead for delivery by prodrug systems.

    PubMed

    Twum, Elvis A; Nathubhai, Amit; Wood, Pauline J; Lloyd, Matthew D; Thompson, Andrew S; Threadgill, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    Cyclopropabenzaindoles (CBIs) are exquisitely potent cytotoxins which bind and alkylate in the minor groove of DNA. They are not selective for cancer cells, so prodrugs are required. CBIs can be formed at physiological pH by Winstein cyclisation of 1-chloromethyl-3-substituted-5-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo[e]indoles (5-OH-seco-CBIs). Corresponding 5-NH2-seco-CBIs should also undergo Winstein cyclisation similarly. A key triply orthogonally protected intermediate on the route to 5-NH2-seco-CBIs has been synthesised, via selective monotrifluoroacetylation of naphthalene-1,3-diamine, Boc protection, electrophilic iodination, selective allylation at the trifluoroacetamide and 5-exo radical ring-closure with TEMPO. This intermediate has potential for introduction of peptide prodrug masking units (deactivating the Winstein cyclisation and cytotoxicity), addition of diverse indole-amide side-chains (enhancing non-covalent binding prior to alkylation) and use of different leaving groups (replacing the usual chlorine, allowing tuning of the rate of Winstein cyclisation). This key intermediate was elaborated into a simple model 5-NH2-seco-CBI with a dimethylaminoethoxyindole side-chain. Conversion to a bio-reactive entity and the bioactivity of this system were confirmed through DNA-melting studies (ΔTm=13°C) and cytotoxicity against LNCaP human prostate cancer cells (IC50=18nM).

  2. Synthesis of Bisethylnorspermine Lipid Prodrug as Gene Delivery Vector Targeting Polyamine Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanmei; Zhu, Yu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Wu, Chao; Oupický, David

    2013-01-01

    Progress in the development of nonviral gene delivery vectors continues to be hampered by low transfection activity and toxicity. Here we proposed to develop a lipid prodrug based on a polyamine analogue bisethylnorspermine (BSP) that can function dually as gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We synthesized a prodrug of BSP (LS-BSP) capable of intracellular release of BSP using thiolytically sensitive dithiobenzyl carbamate linker. Biodegradability of LS-BSP contributed to decreased toxicity compared with nondegradable control L-BSP. BSP showed a strong synergistic enhancement of cytotoxic activity of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human breast cancer cells. Decreased enhancement of TRAIL activity was observed for LS-BSP when compared with BSP. LS-BSP formed complexes with plasmid DNA and mediated transfection activity comparable to DOTAP and L-BSP. Our results show that BSP-based vectors are promising candidates for combination drug/gene delivery. PMID:22545813

  3. Development and bioorthogonal activation of palladium-labile prodrugs of gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jason T; Dawson, John C; Fraser, Craig; Rybski, Witold; Torres-Sánchez, Carmen; Bradley, Mark; Patton, E Elizabeth; Carragher, Neil O; Unciti-Broceta, Asier

    2014-06-26

    Bioorthogonal chemistry has become one of the main driving forces in current chemical biology, inspiring the search for novel biocompatible chemospecific reactions for the past decade. Alongside the well-established labeling strategies that originated the bioorthogonal paradigm, we have recently proposed the use of heterogeneous palladium chemistry and bioorthogonal Pd(0)-labile prodrugs to develop spatially targeted therapies. Herein, we report the generation of biologically inert precursors of cytotoxic gemcitabine by introducing Pd(0)-cleavable groups in positions that are mechanistically relevant for gemcitabine's pharmacological activity. Cell viability studies in pancreatic cancer cells showed that carbamate functionalization of the 4-amino group of gemcitabine significantly reduced (>23-fold) the prodrugs' cytotoxicity. The N-propargyloxycarbonyl (N-Poc) promoiety displayed the highest sensitivity to heterogeneous palladium catalysis under biocompatible conditions, with a reaction half-life of less than 6 h. Zebrafish studies with allyl, propargyl, and benzyl carbamate-protected rhodamines confirmed N-Poc as the most suitable masking group for implementing in vivo bioorthogonal organometallic chemistry.

  4. Dissociable effects of the prodrug phendimetrazine and its metabolite phenmetrazine at dopamine transporters

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Ernesto; Suyama, Julie A.; Lazenka, Matthew F.; DeFelice, Louis J.; Negus, S. Stevens; Blough, Bruce E.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Phendimetrazine (PDM) is a clinically available anorectic and a candidate pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. PDM has been hypothesized to function as a prodrug that requires metabolism to the amphetamine-like monoamine transporter substrate phenmetrazine (PM) to produce its pharmacological effects; however, whether PDM functions as an inactive prodrug or has pharmacological activity on its own remains unclear. The study aim was to determine PDM pharmacological mechanisms using electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral procedures. PDM blocked the endogenous basal hDAT (human dopamine transporter) current in voltage-clamped (−60 mV) oocytes consistent with a DAT inhibitor profile, whereas its metabolite PM induced an inward hDAT current consistent with a DAT substrate profile. PDM also attenuated the PM-induced inward current during co-application, providing further evidence that PDM functions as a DAT inhibitor. PDM increased nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and facilitated electrical brain stimulation reinforcement within 10 min in rats, providing in vivo evidence supporting PDM pharmacological activity. These results demonstrate that PDM functions as a DAT inhibitor that may also interact with the pharmacological effects of its metabolite PM. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanism for PDM therapeutic effects via initial PDM DAT inhibition followed by PM DAT substrate-induced dopamine release. PMID:27514281

  5. May glutamine addiction drive the delivery of antitumor cisplatin-based Pt(IV) prodrugs?

    PubMed

    Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Tinello, Stefano; Zanellato, Ilaria; Osella, Domenico

    2017-02-01

    A small series of Pt(IV) prodrugs containing Gln-like (Gln=glutamine) axial ligands has been designed with the aim to take advantage of the increased demand of Gln showed by some cancer cells (glutamine addiction). In complex 4 the Gln, linked through the α-carboxylic group is recognized by the Gln transporters, in particular by the solute carrier transporter SLC1A5. All compounds showed cellular accumulation, as well as antiproliferative activity, related to their lipophilicity, as already demonstrated for the majority of Pt(IV) prodrugs, that enter cells mainly by passive diffusion. On the contrary, when the Gln concentration in cell medium is near or lower to the physiological value, complex 4 acts as a Trojan horse: it enters SLC1A5-overexpressing cells, where, upon reduction, it releases the active metabolite cisplatin and the Gln-containing ligand, thus preventing any possible extrusion by the L-type amino acid transporter LAT1. This selective mechanism could decrease off-target accumulation of 4 and, consequently, Pt-associated side-effects.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide-activatable antioxidant prodrug as a targeted therapeutic agent for ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Park, Seunggyu; Bae, Soochan; Jeong, Dahee; Park, Minhyung; Kang, Changsun; Yoo, Wooyoung; Samad, Mohammed A.; Ke, Qingen; Khang, Gilson; Kang, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes oxidative stress and is the main culprit in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Suppression of oxidative stress is therefore critical in the treatment of I/R injury. Here, we report H2O2-activatable antioxidant prodrug (BRAP) that is capable of specifically targeting the site of oxidative stress and exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. BRAP with a self-immolative boronic ester protecting group was designed to scavenge H2O2 and release HBA (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. BRAP exerted potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and H2O2-stimulated cells by suppressing the generation of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In mouse models of hepatic I/R and cardiac I/R, BRAP exerted potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities due to the synergistic effects of H2O2-scavenging boronic esters and therapeutic HBA. In addition, administration of high doses of BRAP daily for 7 days showed no renal or hepatic function abnormalities. Therefore BRAP has tremendous therapeutic potential as H2O2-activatable antioxidant prodrug for the treatment of I/R injuries. PMID:26563741

  7. Evaluation of carbohydrate-cysteamine thiazolidines as pro-drugs for the treatment of cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Ramazani, Yasaman; Levtchenko, Elena N; Van Den Heuvel, Lambertus; Van Schepdael, Ann; Paul, Prasanta; Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Pastore, Anna; Hartman, Trina M; Price, Neil P J

    2017-02-01

    Cystinosis is a genetic disorder caused by malfunction of cystinosin and is characterized by accumulation of cystine. Cysteamine, the medication used in cystinosis, causes halitosis resulting in poor patient compliance. Halitosis is mainly caused by the formation of dimethylsulfide as the final product in the cysteamine metabolism pathway. We have synthesized carbohydrate-cysteamine thiazolidines, and hypothesized that the hydrolytic breakdown of cysteamine-thiazolidines can result in free cysteamine being released in target organs. To examine our hypothesis, we tested these analogs in vitro in patient-derived fibroblasts. Cystinotic fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations of arabinose-cysteamine, glucose-cysteamine and maltose-cysteamine. We demonstrated that the analogs break down into cysteamine extracellularly and might therefore not be fully taken up by the cells under the form of the pro-drug. Potential modifications of the analogs that enable their intracellular rather than extracellular breakdown, is necessary to pursue the potential of these analogs as pro-drugs.

  8. The nitric oxide prodrug JS-K and its structural analogues as cancer therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Maciag, Anna E; Saavedra, Joseph E; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) prodrugs of the diazeniumdiolate class are routinely used as reliable sources of nitric oxide in chemical and biological laboratory settings. O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diazeniumdiolates, which are derivatized forms of ionic diazeniumdiolates, have been found to show potent anti-proliferative activity in a variety of cancer cells, presumably through the effects of NO. One important member of this class of diazeniumdiolates, O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K), has shown promise as a novel cancer therapeutic agent in a number of animal models. This review describes the developments in chemical and biochemical characterization and structure-activity relationship of JS-K and its analogues. In addition, some molecular mechanistic insights into the observed anti-proliferative activity of JS-K are discussed. Finally, a structural motif is presented for O(2)-(aryl) diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide prodrugs that show potency comparable with that of JS-K.

  9. Aspartic acid based nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs as potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Munmun; Maiti, Mohitosh; Rozenski, Jef; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-05-14

    In view of a persistent threat to mankind, the development of nucleotide-based prodrugs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a constant effort in many medicinal chemistry groups. In an attempt to identify novel nucleoside phosphoramidate analogues for improving the anti-HCV activity, we have explored, for the first time, aspartic acid (Asp) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) esters as amidate counterparts by considering three 2'-C-methyl containing nucleosides, 2'-C-Me-cytidine, 2'-C-Me-uridine and 2'-C-Me-2'-fluoro-uridine. Synthesis of these analogues required protection for the vicinal diol functionality of the sugar moiety and the amino group of the cytidine nucleoside to regioselectively perform phosphorylation reaction at the 5'-hydroxyl group. Anti-HCV data demonstrate that the Asp-based phosphoramidates are ∼550 fold more potent than the parent nucleosides. The inhibitory activity of the Asp-ProTides was higher than the Ala-ProTides, suggesting that Asp would be a potential amino acid candidate to be considered for developing novel antiviral prodrugs.

  10. Successful Treatment of Intracranial Glioblastoma Xenografts With a Monoamine Oxidase B-Activated Pro-Drug.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Martyn A; Livingston, Andrew D; Gist, Taylor L; Ghosh, Pardip; Han, Junyan; Baskin, David S

    2015-09-01

    The last major advance in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was the introduction of temozolomide in 1999. Treatment with temozolomide following surgical debulking extends survival rate compared to radiotherapy and debulking alone. However, virtually all glioblastoma patients experience disease progression within 7 to 10 months. Although many salvage treatments, including bevacizumab, rechallenge with temozolomide, and other alkylating agents, have been evaluated, none of these clearly improves survival. Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) is highly expressed in glioblastoma cell mitochondria, and mitochondrial function is intimately tied to treatment-resistant glioblastoma progression. These glioblastoma properties provide a strong rationale for pursuing a MAOB-selective pro-drug treatment approach that, upon drug activation, targets glioblastoma mitochondria, especially mitochondrial DNA. MP-MUS is the lead compound in a family of pro-drugs designed to treat GBM that is converted into the mature, mitochondria-targeting drug, P(+)-MUS, by MAOB. We show that MP-MUS can successfully kill primary gliomas in vitro and in vivo mouse xenograft models.

  11. Propyphenazone-Based Analogues as Prodrugs and Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Improving the gastrointestinal safety profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is an important goal. Herein, we report two strategies, using the nonacidic propyphenazone structure, with potential to overcome the side effects of NSAIDs. Propyphenazone was employed to temporarily mask the free acid group of the widely used NSAIDs ibuprofen, diclofenac, and ketoprofen to develop three mutual prodrugs hypothesized to have minimal GI irritation. The three prodrugs exhibit in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with improved potency over each parent drug when compared to a nonhydrolyzable control betahistine–propyphenazone (BET–MP). Additionally, ANT–MP formed by the irreversible coupling of propyphenazone and 4-aminoantipyrine, displayed exceptional COXII selectivity (COXII IC50 of 0.97 ± 0.04 μM, compared to no observed inhibition of COXI at 160 μM). Inhibition of COXII suppresses inflammatory diseases without affecting COXI-mediated GI tract events. ANT–MP exhibited maximal analgesic effect when tested in vivo in an abdominal writhing assay (100% protection) and its anti-inflammatory activity showed a peak at 2 h in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Its unique selectivity toward the COXII enzyme was investigated using molecular modeling techniques. PMID:25221653

  12. Activation of adriamycin by the pH-dependent formaldehyde-releasing prodrug hexamethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Swift, Lonnie P; Cutts, Suzanne M; Rephaeli, Ada; Nudelman, Abraham; Phillips, Don R

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that Adriamycin can react with formaldehyde to yield an activated form of Adriamycin that can further react with DNA to yield Adriamycin-DNA adducts. Because hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is known to hydrolyze under cellular conditions and release six molecules of formaldehyde in a pH-dependent manner, we examined this clinical agent for its potential as a formaldehyde-releasing prodrug for the activation of Adriamycin. In IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells in culture, increasing levels of HMTA resulted in enhanced levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts. These adducts were formed in a pH-dependent manner, with 4-fold more detected at pH 6.5 compared with pH 7.4, consistent with the known acid lability of HMTA. The resulting drug-DNA lesion was shown to be cytotoxic, with combined Adriamycin and prodrug treatment resulting in a 3-fold lower IC(50) value compared with that of Adriamycin alone. Given the acidic nature of solid tumors and the preferential release of formaldehyde from HMTA in acidic environments, HMTA therefore has some potential for localized activation of Adriamycin in solid tumors.

  13. Ester Prodrugs of Ketoprofen: Synthesis, In Vitro Stability, In Vivo Biological Evaluation and In Silico Comparative Docking Studies Against COX-1 and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Musa; Azam, Faizul; Gbaj, Abdul; Zetrini, Abdulmottaleb E; Abodlal, Amna Salem; Rghigh, Abir; Elmahdi, Eman; Hamza, Amel; Salama, Mabruk; Bensaber, Salah M

    2016-01-01

    Prompted by the ineptness of the currently used non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to control gastric mucosal and renal adverse reactions, several ester prodrugs of ketoprofen were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. Physicochemical properties such as aqueous solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient log P, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthesized molecules have been studied to assess their potential as prodrugs. The obtained results confirmed that all ester prodrugs are chemically stable, possess increased lipophilicity compared to their parent compounds and converted to the active drugs in vivo. All of the tested ester prodrugs exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity ranging from 91.8% to 113.3% in comparison with the parent drug, ketoprofen. A mutual prodrug obtained from two antiinflammatory molecules, ketoprofen and salicylic acid has been noted to potentiate the activity making it most active molecule of the series. The ulcerogenic index of the ester prodrugs was significantly lower than the parent drug, ketoprofen. Comparative docking studies against X-ray crystal structures of COX-1 and COX-2 further provided understanding of their interaction with the cyclooxygenases that will facilitate design of better inhibitors (or prodrugs) with sufficient specificity for COX-2 against COX-1. The study offers an innovative strategy for finding a molecule with safer therapeutic profile for longterm treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV-activated prodrugs of anti-varicella zoster virus bicyclic nucleoside analogues containing different self-cleavage spacer systems.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Cabrera, Silvia; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2012-09-01

    A new type of double prodrug of the antiviral family of bicyclic nucleoside analogues (BCNA) bearing cyclization self-cleavage spacers between the Val-Pro dipeptide sequence as well as the parent compound were synthesized and evaluated with regard to activation by the DPPIV/CD26 enzyme and for their stability in human and bovine serum. In buffer solution, carbamate and ester prodrugs were found to be chemically stable. Most prodrugs containing a dipeptidyl linker efficiently converted into the BCNA parent drug. In contrast, the Val-Pro alkyldiamino prodrugs converted predominantly into their alkyldiamino prodrug intermediates in the presence of CD26 and human serum. A marked increase in water solubility was observed for all prodrugs. In contrast to the parent compound, a tetrapeptide prodrug containing the Val-Val dipeptide as a self-cleavage spacer released substantial amounts of the BCNA parent drug at the basolateral side of Caco-2 cell cultures and exhibited 15- to 20-fold increased bioavailability in mice relative to the poorly bioavailable parent compound.

  15. Lipophilic prodrug conjugates allow facile and rapid synthesis of high loading capacity liposomes without the need for post-assembly purification

    PubMed Central

    Mikhalin, Alexander A.; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.; Frolova, Liliya V.; Magedov, Igor V.; Kornienko, Alexander; Johnston, Robert; Rogelj, Snezna; Tartis, Michaelann S.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydropyridopyrazoles are simplified synthetic analogues of podophyllotoxin that can effectively mimic its molecular scaffold and act as potent mitotic spindle poisons in dividing cancer cells. However, despite nanomolar potencies and ease of synthetic preparation, further clinical development of these promising anticancer agents is hampered due to their poor aqueous solubility. In this paper, we developed a prodrug strategy that enables incorporation of dihydropyridopyrazoles into liposome bilayers to overcome the solubility issues. The active drug was covalently connected to either myristic or palmitic acid anchor via carboxylesterase hydrolyzable linkage. The resulting prodrugs were self assembled into liposome bilayers from hydrated lipid films using ultrasound without the need for post-assembly purification. The average particle size of the prodrug-loaded liposomes was about 90 nm. The prodrug incorporation was verified by differential scanning calorimetry, spectrophotometry and gel filtration reaching maximum at 0.3 and 0.35 prodrug/lipid molar ratios for myristic and palmitic conjugates, respectively. However, the ratio of 0.2 was used in the particle size and biological activity experiments to maintain long-term stability of the prodrug-loaded liposomes against phase separation during storage. Antiproliferative activity was tested against HeLa and Jurkat cancer cell lines in vitro showing that the liposomal prodrug retained antitubulin activity of the parent drug and induced apoptosis mediated cancer cell death. Overall, the established data provide a powerful platform for further clinical development of dihydropyridopyrazoles using liposomes as the drug delivery system. PMID:25534989

  16. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  17. Targeting (cellular) lysosomal acid ceramidase by B13: Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel DMG-B13 ester prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Szulc, Zdzislaw, M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S.; Rembisa, Barbara; Terzieva, Silva; Mao, Cungui; Xu, Ruijuan; Wu, Bill; Clarke, Christopher J.; Newcomb, Benjamin; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Bielawska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (ACDase) is being recognized as a therapeutic target for cancer. B13 represents a moderate inhibitor of ACDase. The present study concentrates on the lysosomal targeting of B13 via its N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) esters (DMG-B13 prodrugs). Novel analogs, the isomeric mono-DMG-B13, LCL522 (3-O-DMG-B13•HCl) and LCL596 (1-O-DMG-B13•HCl) and di-DMG-B13, LCL521 (1,3-O, O-DMG-B13•2HCl) conjugates, were designed and synthesized through N, N-dimethyl glycine (DMG) esterification of the hydroxyl groups of B13. In MCF7 cells, DMG-B13 prodrugs were efficiently metabolized to B13. The early inhibitory effect of DMG-B13 prodrugs on cellular ceramidases was ACDase specific by their lysosomal targeting. The corresponding dramatic decrease of cellular Sph (80-97% Control/1h) by DMG-B13 prodrugs was mainly from the inhibition of the lysosomal ACDase. PMID:25456083

  18. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin by pH-sensitive prodrug nanoparticle for combination therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumin; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Fan; Chu, Liping; Gao, Honglin; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Liu, Qian; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff’s base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff’s base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy. PMID:26876480

  19. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine TN; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a ‘magic bullet’ to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a ‘Grail Quest’ by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made ‘made the turn’ toward meaningful translational success. PMID:26296541

  20. Utilization of peptide carrier system to improve intestinal absorption: targeting prolidase as a prodrug-converting enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, J. P.; Hu, M.; Subramanian, P.; Mosberg, H. I.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of targeting prolidase as a peptide prodrug-converting enzyme has been examined. The enzymatic hydrolysis by prolidase of substrates for the peptide transporter L-alpha-methyldopa-pro and several dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group (phenylpropionylproline, phenylacetylproline, N-benzoylproline, and N-acetylproline) was investigated. The Michaelis-Menten parameters Km and Vmax for L-alpha-methyldopa-pro are 0.09 +/- 0.02 mM and 3.98 +/- 0.25 mumol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, no hydrolysis of the dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group is observed, suggesting that an N-terminal alpha-amino group is required for prolidase activity. These results demonstrate that prolidase may serve as a prodrug-converting enzyme for the dipeptide-type prodrugs, utilizing the peptide carrier for transport of prodrugs into the mucosal cells and prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme, to release the drug. However, a free alpha-amino group appears to be necessary for prolidase hydrolysis.

  1. Amino Acid Derivatives as Palmitoylethanolamide Prodrugs: Synthesis, In Vitro Metabolism and In Vivo Plasma Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vacondio, Federica; Bassi, Michele; Silva, Claudia; Castelli, Riccardo; Carmi, Caterina; Scalvini, Laura; Lodola, Alessio; Vivo, Valentina; Flammini, Lisa; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has antinflammatory and antinociceptive properties widely exploited in veterinary and human medicine, despite its poor pharmacokinetics. Looking for prodrugs that could progressively release PEA to maintain effective plasma concentrations, we prepared carbonates, esters and carbamates at the hydroxyl group of PEA. Chemical stability (pH 7.4) and stability in rat plasma and liver homogenate were evaluated by in vitro assays. Carbonates and carbamates resulted too labile and too resistant in plasma, respectively. Ester derivatives, prepared by conjugating PEA with various amino acids, allowed to modulate the kinetics of PEA release in plasma and stability in liver homogenate. L-Val-PEA, with suitable PEA release in plasma, and D-Val-PEA, with high resistance to hepatic degradation, were orally administered to rats and plasma levels of prodrugs and PEA were measured at different time points. Both prodrugs showed significant release of PEA, but provided lower plasma concentrations than those obtained with equimolar doses of PEA. Amino-acid esters of PEA are a promising class to develop prodrugs, even if they need further chemical optimization.

  2. Amino Acid Derivatives as Palmitoylethanolamide Prodrugs: Synthesis, In Vitro Metabolism and In Vivo Plasma Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vacondio, Federica; Bassi, Michele; Silva, Claudia; Castelli, Riccardo; Carmi, Caterina; Scalvini, Laura; Lodola, Alessio; Vivo, Valentina; Flammini, Lisa; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has antinflammatory and antinociceptive properties widely exploited in veterinary and human medicine, despite its poor pharmacokinetics. Looking for prodrugs that could progressively release PEA to maintain effective plasma concentrations, we prepared carbonates, esters and carbamates at the hydroxyl group of PEA. Chemical stability (pH 7.4) and stability in rat plasma and liver homogenate were evaluated by in vitro assays. Carbonates and carbamates resulted too labile and too resistant in plasma, respectively. Ester derivatives, prepared by conjugating PEA with various amino acids, allowed to modulate the kinetics of PEA release in plasma and stability in liver homogenate. L-Val-PEA, with suitable PEA release in plasma, and D-Val-PEA, with high resistance to hepatic degradation, were orally administered to rats and plasma levels of prodrugs and PEA were measured at different time points. Both prodrugs showed significant release of PEA, but provided lower plasma concentrations than those obtained with equimolar doses of PEA. Amino-acid esters of PEA are a promising class to develop prodrugs, even if they need further chemical optimization. PMID:26053855

  3. Phosphonooxymethyl Prodrug of Triptolide: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Efficacy in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma and Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A disodium phosphonooxymethyl prodrug of the antitumor agent triptolide was prepared from the natural product in three steps (39% yield) and displayed excellent aqueous solubility at pH 7.4 (61 mg/mL) compared to the natural product (17 μg/mL). The estimated shelf life (t90) for hydrolysis of the prodrug at 4 °C and pH 7.4 was found to be two years. In a mouse model of human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), the prodrug administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing or eliminating xenograft tumors at dose levels as low as 0.3 mg/kg when given daily and at 0.9 mg/kg when given less frequently. When given via intraperitoneal and oral routes at daily doses of 0.6 and 0.9 mg/kg, the prodrug was also effective and well tolerated in a mouse model of human ovarian cancer (A2780). PMID:26596892

  4. Expression of Carboxylesterase Isozymes and Their Role in the Behavior of a Fexofenadine Prodrug in Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Imai, Teruko; Ariyoshi, Satomi; Ohura, Kayoko; Sawada, Takashi; Nakada, Yuichiro

    2016-02-01

    The expression of carboxylesterase (CES) and the transdermal movement of an ester prodrug were studied in rat skin. Ethyl-fexofenadine (ethyl-FXD) was used as a model lipophilic prodrug that is slowly hydrolyzed to its parent drug, FXD (MW 502). Among the CES1 and CES2 isozymes, Hydrolase A is predominant in rat skin and this enzyme was involved in 65% of the cutaneous hydrolysis of ethyl-FXD. The similarity of the permeation behavior of ethyl-FXD in full thickness and stripped skin indicated that the stratum corneum was not a barrier to penetration. However, only FXD was observed in receptor fluid, not ethyl-FXD, presumably because of the high degree of binding of ethyl-FXD in viable skin. The rate of hydrolysis of ethyl-FXD was much faster than steady-state flux, such that the influx rate was the rate-limiting process for transdermal permeation. Although Hydrolase A levels gradually increased in skin taken from rats aged from 8 to 90 weeks, variations in the expression levels of the esterase hardly affected the conversion of prodrug. The present data suggest that the slow hydrolysis of the prodrug of an active ingredient in viable skin followed by slow diffusion of active drug may provide a useful approach to topical application.

  5. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin by pH-sensitive prodrug nanoparticle for combination therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumin; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Fan; Chu, Liping; Gao, Honglin; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Liu, Qian; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-02-01

    Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff’s base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff’s base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy.

  6. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, skin permeation and accumulation profiles of salicylic acid amide prodrugs as sunscreen agent.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Dong; Sung, Jun Ho; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Jong Oh; Piao, Ming Guan; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han Gon

    2011-10-31

    Various amide prodrugs of salicylic acid were synthesised, and their physicochemical properties including lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. In vivo skin permeation and accumulation profiles were also evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a supersaturated solution of permeants in an enhancer vehicle, a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of the stratum corneum and delipidisation of skin. Their capacity factor values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these amides were highly stable in acetonitrile and glycerine. Amide prodrugs were converted to salicylic acid both in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates. N-dodecyl salicylamide (C12SM) showed the lowest permeation of salicylic acid in skin compared to the other prodrugs, probably due to its low aqueous solubility. It had a high affinity for the stratum corneum and its accumulation was restricted to only the uppermost layer of skin. Thus, this amide prodrug could be a safer topical sunscreen agent with minimum potential for systemic absorption.

  7. Synthesis, Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis, and Aqueous Solubility of Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Abd alla, Mosaad S. M.; Tjarks, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Various water-soluble L-valine-, L-glutamate-, and glycine ester prodrugs of two 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues (3-CTAs), designated N5 and N5-2OH, were synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors since the water solubilities of the parental compounds proved to be insufficient in preclinical studies. The amino acid ester prodrugs were prepared and stored as hydrochloride salts. The water solubilities of these amino acid ester prodrugs, evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.4, improved 48 to 6600 times compared with parental N5 and N5-2OH. The stability of the amino acid ester prodrugs was evaluated in PBS at pH 7.4, Bovine serum, and Bovine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The rate of the hydrolysis in all three incubation media depended primarily on the amino acid promoiety and, to a lesser extend, on the site of esterification at the deoxyribose portion of the 3-CTAs. In general, 3'-amino acid ester prodrugs were less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis than 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs and the stabilities of the latter decreased in the following order: 5'-valine > 5'-glutamate > 5'-glycine. The rate of the hydrolysis of the 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs in Bovine CSF was overall higher than in PBS and somewhat lower than in Bovine serum. Overall, 5'-glutamate ester prodrug of N5 and the 5'-glycine ester prodrugs of N5 and N5-2OH appeared to be the most promising candidates for preclinical BNCT studies. PMID:22889558

  8. Formulating a new basis for the treatment against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication: 3,4-diaminopyridine prodrug design and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Zakhari, Joseph S.; Kinoyama, Isao; Hixon, Mark S.; Di Mola, Antonia; Globisch, Daniel; Janda, Kim D.

    2011-01-01

    Botulism is a disease characterized by neuromuscular paralysis and is produced from botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) found within the Gram positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This bacteria produces the most deadliest toxin known, with lethal doses as low as 1 ng/kg. Due to the relative ease of production and transport, the use of these agents as potential bioterrorist weapons has become of utmost concern. No small molecule therapies against BoNT intoxication have been approved to date. However, 3,4-diaminopyridine, (3,4-DAP), a potent reversible inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium channels, is an effective cholinergic agonist used in the treatment of neuromuscular degenerative disorders that require cholinergic enhancement. 3,4-DAP has also been shown to facilitate recovery of neuromuscular action potential post botulinum intoxication by blocking K+ channels. Unfortunately, 3,4-DAP displays toxicity largely due to blood-brain-barrier (BBB) penetration. As a dual-action prodrug approach to cholinergic enhancement we have designed carbamate and amide conjugates of 3,4-DAP. The carbamate prodrug is intended to be a slowly reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) along the lines of the stigmines thereby allowing increased persistence of released acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft. As a secondary activity, cleavage of the carbamate prodrug by AChE will afford the localized release of 3,4-DAP, which in turn, will enhance the pre-synaptic release of additional acetylcholine. Being a competitive inhibitor with respect to acetylcholine, the activity of the prodrug will be greatest at the synaptic junctions most depleted of acetylcholine. Here we report upon the synthesis and biochemical characterization of three new classes of prodrugs intended to limit previously reported stability and toxicity issues. Of the prodrugs examined, compound 32, demonstrated the most clinically relevant half-life of 2.76 h, while selectively inhibiting AChE over

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of prodrugs of corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist BMS-665053 leading to improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Richard A; Vrudhula, Vivekananda M; Ahuja, Vijay T; Grace, James E; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E

    2017-03-15

    A series of phosphate and ester-based prodrugs of anilinopyrazinone 1 (BMS-665053) containing either a methylene or an (acyloxy)alkoxy linker was prepared and evaluated in rat pharmacokinetic studies with the goal of improving the oral bioavailability of the parent (1). The prodrugs, in general, had improved aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability compared to 1. Prodrug 12, which contains an (acyloxy)alkoxy linker, showed the greatest improvement in the oral bioavailability relative to the parent (1), with a seven-fold increase (from 5% to 36%) in rat pharmacokinetic studies.

  10. Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-beta-glucuronide prodrugs with a potential for selective therapy of solid tumors by PMT and ADEPT strategies.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Tekumalla, Venkatesh; Raju, P; Naidu, V G M; Diwan, Prakash V; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2008-07-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-beta-glucuronide prodrugs 15a-b, with a potential for selective therapy of solid tumors by PMT and ADEPT have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for selective cytotoxicity in the presence of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. The prodrugs have been found to possess reduced cytotoxicity compared to the parent moieties, and are excellent substrates for the enzyme, exhibiting cytotoxicity selectively in the presence of the enzyme. Enhanced water solubility and improved stability are the other important outcomes upon modifying these molecules as their prodrugs.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation (in vitro and in vivo) of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptidomimetic-paclitaxel conjugates targeting integrin αVβ3.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Raffaele; Mingozzi, Michele; Belvisi, Laura; Arosio, Daniela; Piarulli, Umberto; Carenini, Nives; Perego, Paola; Zaffaroni, Nadia; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Castiglioni, Vittoria; Scanziani, Eugenio; Gennari, Cesare

    2012-12-13

    A small library of integrin ligand-paclitaxel conjugates 10-13 was synthesized with the aim of using the tumor-homing cyclo[DKP-RGD] peptidomimetics for site-directed delivery of the cytotoxic drug. All the paclitaxel-RGD constructs 10-13 inhibited biotinylated vitronectin binding to the purified αVβ3 integrin receptor at low nanomolar concentration and showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines similar to that of paclitaxel. Among the cell lines, the cisplatin-resistant IGROV-1/Pt1 cells expressed high levels of integrin αVβ3, making them attractive to be tested in in vivo models. cyclo[DKP-f3-RGD]-PTX 11 displayed sufficient stability in physiological solution and in both human and murine plasma to be a good candidate for in vivo testing. In tumor-targeting experiments against the IGROV-1/Pt1 human ovarian carcinoma xenotransplanted in nude mice, compound 11 exhibited a superior activity compared with paclitaxel, despite the lower (about half) molar dosage used.

  12. Insights into the Binding of Cyclic RGD Peptidomimetics to α5β1 Integrin by using Live‐Cell NMR And Computational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Guzzetti, Ileana; Civera, Monica; Vasile, Francesca; Arosio, Daniela; Tringali, Cristina; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Pignataro, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interaction of a small library of cyclic DKP–RGD peptidomimetics with α5β1 integrin has been investigated by means of an integrated experimental and computational approach. Bioaffinity NMR techniques, including saturation transfer difference (STD) and transferred NOESY, were applied to the ligands in a suspension of intact MDA‐MB‐231 breast cancer cells, in which integrin α5β1 is highly expressed. The NMR data were compared with the docking calculations of the RGD ligands in the crystal structure of the α5β1 binding site, and were integrated with competitive binding assays to the purified α5β1 integrin. Ligand binding epitopes involve protons of both the RGD moiety and the DKP scaffold, although the stereochemistry and the functionalization of the DKP scaffold as well as the macrocycle conformation determine a great variability in the interaction. The ligand showing the highest number of STD signals is also the most potent α5β1 ligand of the series, displaying a nanomolar IC 50 value. PMID:28168158

  13. Long-lasting rescue of age-associated deficits in cognition and the CNS cholinergic phenotype by a partial agonist peptidomimetic ligand of TrkA.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Martin A; Clarke, Paul B S; Seltzer, Alicia; Quirion, Rémi; Burgess, Kevin; Cuello, A Claudio; Saragovi, H Uri

    2004-09-15

    Previously, we developed a proteolytically stable small molecule peptidomimetic termed D3 as a selective ligand of the extracellular domain of the TrkA receptor for the NGF. Ex vivo D3 was defined as a selective, partial TrkA agonist. Here, the in vivo efficacy of D3 as a potential therapeutic for cholinergic neurons was tested in cognitively impaired aged rats, and we compared the consequence of partial TrkA activation (D3) versus full TrkA/p75 activation (NGF). We show that in vivo D3 binds to TrkA receptors and affords a significant and long-lived phenotypic rescue of the cholinergic phenotype both in the cortex and in the nucleus basalis. The cholinergic rescue was selective and correlates with a significant improvement of memory/learning in cognitively impaired aged rats. The effects of the synthetic ligand D3 and the natural ligand NGF were comparable. Small, proteolytically stable ligands with selective agonistic activity at a growth factor receptor may have therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. An Overview of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL Protease Inhibitors: Peptidomimetics and Small Molecule Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Manickam, Manoj; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Hayashi, Yoshio; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-28

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a newly emerged coronavirus that infected more than 8000 individuals and resulted in more than 800 (10-15%) fatalities in 2003. The causative agent of SARS has been identified as a novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and its viral protease, SARS-CoV 3CL(pro), has been shown to be essential for replication and has hence been recognized as a potent drug target for SARS infection. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this epidemic despite the intensive research that has been undertaken since 2003 (over 3500 publications). This perspective focuses on the status of various efficacious anti-SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) chemotherapies discovered during the last 12 years (2003-2015) from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, natural products, and virtual screening. We describe here mainly peptidomimetic and small molecule inhibitors of SARS-CoV 3CL(pro). Attempts have been made to provide a complete description of the structural features and binding modes of these inhibitors under many conditions.

  15. The peptidomimetic Vasotide targets two retinal VEGF receptors and reduces pathological angiogenesis in murine and nonhuman primate models of retinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Richard L.; Li, Jianxue; Lawrence, Matthew; Hu, Wenzheng; Musso, Gary F.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel growth from preexisting vessels (angiogenesis) underlies many severe diseases including major blinding retinal diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and aged macular degeneration (AMD). This observation has driven development of antibody inhibitors that block a central factor in AMD, named vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), from binding to its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. However, some patients are insensitive to current anti-VEGF drugs or develop resistance, and the required repeated intravitreal injection of these large molecules is costly and clinically problematic. Here, we have evaluated a small cyclic retro-inverted peptidomimetic, D(Cys-Leu-Pro-Arg-Cys), abbreviated as D(CLPRC), and hereafter named Vasotide, that inhibits retinal angiogenesis by binding selectively to the VEGF receptors, VEGFR-1 and Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Delivery of Vasotide in eye drops or via intraperitoneal injection in a laser-induced monkey model of human wet AMD, a mouse genetic knockout model of the AMD subtype called retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and a mouse oxygen-induced model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) markedly decreased retinal angiogenesis in all three animal models. This prototype drug candidate is a promising new dual receptor inhibitor of the VEGF ligand with potential for translation into safer, less invasive applications to combat pathological angiogenesis in retinal disorders. PMID:26468327

  16. Design, synthesis and in vitro kinetic study of tranexamic acid prodrugs for the treatment of bleeding conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik; Ghareeb, Hiba; Dajani, Khuloud Kamal; Scrano, Laura; Hallak, Hussein; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.

    2013-07-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of several maleamic acid amide derivatives four tranexamic acid prodrugs were designed. The DFT results on the acid catalyzed hydrolysis revealed that the reaction rate-limiting step is determined on the nature of the amine leaving group. When the amine leaving group was a primary amine or tranexamic acid moiety, the tetrahedral intermediate collapse was the rate-limiting step, whereas in the cases by which the amine leaving group was aciclovir or cefuroxime the rate-limiting step was the tetrahedral intermediate formation. The linear correlation between the calculated DFT and experimental rates for N-methylmaleamic acids 1- 7 provided a credible basis for designing tranexamic acid prodrugs that have the potential to release the parent drug in a sustained release fashion. For example, based on the calculated B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) rates the predicted t1/2 (a time needed for 50 % of the prodrug to be converted into drug) values for tranexamic acid prodrugs ProD 1- ProD 4 at pH 2 were 556 h [50.5 h as calculated by B3LYP/311+G(d,p)] and 6.2 h as calculated by GGA: MPW1K), 253 h, 70 s and 1.7 h, respectively. Kinetic study on the interconversion of the newly synthesized tranexamic acid prodrug ProD 1 revealed that the t1/2 for its conversion to the parent drug was largely affected by the pH of the medium. The experimental t1/2 values in 1 N HCl, buffer pH 2 and buffer pH 5 were 54 min, 23.9 and 270 h, respectively.

  17. Lipid nanoparticles with different oil/fatty ester ratios as carriers of buprenorphine and its prodrugs for injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jhi-Joung; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Sung, K C; Tsai, Chia-Yin; Fang, Jia-You

    2009-09-10

    Buprenorphine is a promising drug for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid dependence. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of lipid nanoparticles with different oil/fatty ester ratios for injection of buprenorphine. To improve the release properties and analgesic duration of the drug, ester prodrugs were also incorporated into the nanoparticles for evaluation. Linseed oil and cetyl palmitate were respectively chosen as the liquid lipid and solid lipid in the inner phase of the nanoparticulate systems. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed, and the particle size, zeta potential, molecular environment, and lipid/water partitioning were determined to characterize the state of the drug/prodrug and lipid modification. The in vitro release kinetics were measured by a Franz assembly. DSC showed that systems without oil (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLNs) had a more ordered crystalline lattice in the inner matrix compared to those with oil (nanostructured lipid carriers, NLCs and lipid emulsion, LE). The mean diameter of the nanoparticles ranged between 180 and 200nm. The in vitro drug/prodrug release occurred in a delayed manner in decreasing order as follows: SLN>NLC>LE. It was found that the release rate was reduced following an increase in alkyl ester chains in the prodrugs. The in vivo antinociception was examined by a cold ethanol tail-flick test in rats. Compared to an aqueous solution, a prolonged analgesic duration was detected after an intravenous injection of buprenorphine-loaded SLNs and buprenorphine propionate (Bu-C3)-loaded NLCs (with 10% linseed oil in the lipid phase). The Bu-C3 in NLCs even showed a maximum antinociceptive activity for 10h. In vitro erythrocyte hemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from neutrophils demonstrated a negligible toxicity of these carriers. Our results indicate the feasibility of using lipid nanoparticles, especially SLNs and NLCs, as parenteral delivery systems for

  18. Effect of ion pairing on in vitro transcorneal permeability of a Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol prodrug: potential in glaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Tushar; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and improve the in vitro transcorneal permeability characteristics of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) through prodrug derivatization and formulation approaches. In vitro corneal permeability of THC and its hemisuccinate (THC-HS) and hemiglutarate (THC-HG) ester prodrugs and WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), a synthetic cannabinoid, was determined using isolated rabbit cornea. The formulations studied included hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD) or randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMβCD), as well as prodrug-ion-pair complexes with l-arginine or tromethamine. Corneal permeability of WIN was found to be two-fold higher than THC in the presence of HPβCD. THC-HS and THC-HG exhibited pH-dependent permeability. In the presence of HPβCD, at pH 5 (donor solution pH), both prodrugs exhibited six-fold higher permeability compared with THC. However, permeability of the prodrugs was about three-fold lower than that of THC at pH 7.4. RMβCD, at pH 7.4, led to a significant improvement in permeability. Formation of ion-pair complexes markedly improved the solubility and permeability of THC-HG (sevenfold and threefold greater permeability compared with THC and WIN, respectively) at pH 7.4. The in vitro results demonstrate that the use of an ion-pair complex of THC-HG could be an effective strategy for topical delivery of THC.

  19. Interaction of dipeptide prodrugs of saquinavir with multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2): evasion of MRP-2 mediated efflux.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ritesh; Agarwal, Sheetal; Mandava, Nanda Kishore; Sheng, Ye; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), the first protease inhibitor approved by FDA to treat HIV-1 infection. This drug is a well-known substrate for multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2). The objective of this study was to investigate whether derivatization of SQV to dipeptide prodrugs, valine-valine-saquinavir (Val-Val-SQV) and glycine-valine-saquinavir (Gly-Val-SQV), targeting peptide transporter can circumvent MRP-2 mediated efflux. Uptake and transport studies were carried out across MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers to investigate the interaction of SQV and its prodrugs with MRP-2. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion experiments in rat jejunum were performed to calculate intestinal absorption rate constants and permeabilities of SQV, Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV. Uptake studies demonstrated that the prodrugs have significantly lower interaction with MRP-2 relative to SQV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV across MDCKII-MRP2 cells exhibited an enhanced absorptive flux and reduced secretory flux as compared to SQV. Intestinal perfusion studies revealed that synthesized prodrugs have higher intestinal permeabilities relative to SQV. Enhanced absorption of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV relative to SQV can be attributed to their translocation by the peptide transporter in the jejunum. In the presence of MK-571, a MRP family inhibitor, there was a significant increase in the permeabilities of SQV and Gly-Val-SQV indicating that these compounds are probably substrates for MRP-2. However, there was no change in the permeability of Val-Val-SQV with MK-571 indicating lack of any interaction of Val-Val-SQV with MRP-2. In conclusion, peptide transporter targeted prodrug modification of MRP-2 substrates may lead to shielding of these drug molecules from MRP-2 efflux pumps.

  20. Simultaneous modulation of transport and metabolism of acyclovir prodrugs across rabbit cornea: An approach involving enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Katragadda, Suresh; Talluri, Ravi S; Mitra, Ashim K

    2006-08-31

    The aim of this study is to identify the class of enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) and to modulate transport and metabolism of amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir by enzyme inhibitors across rabbit cornea. l-Valine ester of acyclovir, valacyclovir (VACV) and l-glycine-valine ester of acyclovir, gly-val-acyclovir (GVACV) were used as model compounds. Hydrolysis studies of VACV and GVACV in corneal homogenate were conducted in presence of various enzyme inhibitors. IC(50) values were determined for the enzyme inhibitors. Transport studies were conducted with isolated rabbit corneas at 34 degrees C. Complete inhibition of VACV hydrolysis was observed in the presence of Pefabloc SC (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl-fluoride) and PCMB (p-chloromercuribenzoic acid). Similar trend was also observed with GVACV in the presence of bestatin. IC(50) values of PCMB and bestatin for VACV and GVACV were found to be 3.81+/-0.94 and 0.34+/-0.08muM respectively. Eserine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) also produced significant inhibition of VACV hydrolysis. Transport of VACV and GVACV across cornea showed decreased metabolic rate and modulation of transport in presence of PCMB and bestain respectively. The principle enzyme classes responsible for the hydrolysis of VACV and GVACV were carboxylesterases and aminopeptidases respectively. Enzyme inhibitors modulated the transport and metabolism of prodrugs simultaneously even though their affinity towards prodrugs was distinct. In conclusion, utility of enzyme inhibitors to modulate transport and metabolism of prodrugs appears to be promising strategy for enhancing drug transport across cornea.

  1. Azido- and chlorido-cobalt complex as carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pires, Bianca M; Giacomin, Letícia C; Castro, Frederico A V; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos S; Pereira, Marcos D; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Faria, Roberto B; Scarpellini, Marciela

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes are well-suited systems for cytotoxic drug release under hypoxic conditions. Here, we investigate the effect of cytotoxic azide release by cobalt-containing carrier-prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs. In addition, we study the species formed after reduction of Co(3+) → Co(2+) in the proposed models for these prodrugs. Three new complexes, [Co(III)(L)(N3)2]BF4(1), [{Co(II)(L)(N3)}2](ClO4)2(2), and [Co(II)(L)Cl]PF6(3), L=[(bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)methyl)(2-(pyridyl-2-yl)ethyl)amine], were synthesized and studied by several spectroscopic, spectrometric, electrochemical, and crystallographic methods. Reactivity and spectroscopic data reveal that complex 1 is able to release N3(-) either after reduction with ascorbic acid, or by ambient light irradiation, in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH6.2, 7.0 and 7.4) and acetonitrile solutions. The antitumoral activities of compounds 1-3 were tested in normoxia on MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate) and A-549 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial) cell lines, after 24h of exposure. Either complexes or NaN3 presented IC50 values higher than 200 μM, showing lower cytotoxicity than the clinical standard antitumoral complex cisplatin, under the same conditions. Complexes 1-3 were also evaluated in hypoxia on A-549 and results indicate high IC50 data (>200 μM) after 24h of exposure. However, an increase of cancer cell susceptibility to 1 and 2 was observed at 300 μM. Regarding complex 3, no cytotoxic activity was observed in the same conditions. The data presented here indicate that the tridentate ligand L is able to stabilize both oxidation states of cobalt (+3 and +2). In addition, the cobalt(III) complex generates the low cytotoxic cobalt(II) species after reduction, which supports their use as as carrier prototypes for antitumoral prodrugs.

  2. Development of a Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Amino Acid-Dicarboxylate Prodrug With Improved Ocular Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Adelli, Goutham R.; Bhagav, Prakash; Taskar, Pranjal; Hingorani, Tushar; Pettaway, Sara; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Repka, Michael A.; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. THC, timolol, and pilocarpine eye drops were used as controls. Methods THC-Val, THC-Val-Val, and THC-Val-HS were synthesized and chemically characterized. Aqueous solubility and in vitro transcorneal permeability of THC and the prodrugs, in the presence of various surfactants and cyclodextrins, were determined. Two formulations were evaluated for therapeutic activity in the α-chymotrypsin induced rabbit glaucoma model, and the results were compared against controls comprising of THC emulsion and marketed timolol maleate and pilocarpine eye drops. Results THC-Val-HS demonstrated markedly improved solubility (96-fold) and in vitro permeability compared to THC. Selected formulations containing THC-Val-HS effectively delivered THC to the anterior segment ocular tissues in the anesthetized rabbits: 62.1 ng/100 μL of aqueous humor (AH) and 51.4 ng/50 mg of iris ciliary bodies (IC) (total THC). The duration and extent of IOP lowering induced by THC-Val-HS was 1 hour longer and 10% greater, respectively, than that obtained with THC and was comparable with the pilocarpine eye drops. Timolol ophthalmic drops, however, exhibited a longer duration of activity. Both THC and THC-Val-HS were detected in the ocular tissues following multiple dosing of THC-Val-HS in conscious animals. The concentration of THC in the iris-ciliary bodies at the 60- and 120-minute time points (53 and 57.4 ng/50 mg) were significantly greater than that of THC-Val-HS (24.2 and 11.3 ng/50 mg). Moreover, at the two time points studied, the concentration of THC was observed to increase or stay relatively constant, whereas THC-Val-HS concentration decreased

  3. Role of glutamate 64 in the activation of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine by yeast cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jifeng; Sklenak, Stepan; Liu, Aizhuo; Felczak, Krzysztof; Wu, Yan; Li, Yue; Yan, Honggao

    2012-01-10

    Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil as well as the deamination of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. In this study, the role of Glu64 in the activation of the prodrug 5FC was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational studies. Steady-state kinetics studies showed that the mutation of Glu64 causes a dramatic decrease in k(cat) and a dramatic increase in K(m), indicating Glu64 is important for both binding and catalysis in the activation of 5FC. (19)F NMR experiments showed that binding of the inhibitor 5-fluoro-1H-pyrimidin-2-one (5FPy) to the wild-type yCD causes an upfield shift, indicating that the bound inhibitor is in the hydrated form, mimicking the transition state or the tetrahedral intermediate in the activation of 5FC. However, binding of 5FPy to the E64A mutant enzyme causes a downfield shift, indicating that the bound 5FPy remains in an unhydrated form in the complex with the mutant enzyme. (1)H and (15)N NMR analysis revealed trans-hydrogen bond D/H isotope effects on the hydrogen of the amide of Glu64, indicating that the carboxylate of Glu64 forms two hydrogen bonds with the hydrated 5FPy. ONIOM calculations showed that the wild-type yCD complex with the hydrated form of the inhibitor 1H-pyrimidin-2-one is more stable than the initial binding complex, and in contrast, with the E64A mutant enzyme, the hydrated inhibitor is no longer favored and the conversion has a higher activation energy, as well. The hydrated inhibitor is stabilized in the wild-type yCD by two hydrogen bonds between it and the carboxylate of Glu64 as revealed by (1)H and (15)N NMR analysis. To explore the functional role of Glu64 in catalysis, we investigated the deamination of cytosine catalyzed by the E64A mutant by ONIOM calculations. The results showed that without the assistance of Glu64, both proton transfers before and

  4. Aromatic nitrogen mustard-based prodrugs: activity, selectivity, and the mechanism of DNA cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbing; Han, Yanyan; Peng, Xiaohua

    2014-06-10

    Three novel H2O2-activated aromatic nitrogen mustard prodrugs (6-8) are reported. These compounds contain a DNA alkylating agent connected to a H2O2-responsive trigger by different electron-withdrawing linkers so that they are inactive towards DNA but can be triggered by H2O2 to release active species. The activity and selectivity of these compounds towards DNA were investigated by measuring DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) formation in the presence or absence of H2O2. An electron-withdrawing linker unit, such as a quaternary ammonia salt (6), a carboxyamide (7), and a carbonate group (8), is sufficient to deactivate the aromatic nitrogen mustard resulting in less than 1.5 % cross-linking formation. However, H2O2 can restore the activity of the effectors by converting a withdrawing group to a donating group, therefore increasing the cross-linking efficiency (>20 %). The stability and reaction sites of the ICL products were determined, which revealed that alkylation induced by 7 and 8 not only occurred at the purine sites but also at the pyrimidine site. For the first time, we isolated and characterized the monomer adducts formed between the canonical nucleosides and the aromatic nitrogen mustard (15) which supported that nitrogen mustards reacted with dG, dA, and dC. The activation mechanism was studied by NMR spectroscopic analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that compound 7 with a carboxyamide linker dramatically inhibited the growth of various cancer cells with a GI50 of less than 1 μM, whereas compound 6 with a charged linker did not show any obvious toxicity in all cell lines tested. These data indicated that a neutral carboxyamide linker is preferable for developing nitrogen mustard prodrugs. Our results showed that 7 is a potent anticancer prodrug that can serve as a model compound for further development. We believe these novel aromatic nitrogen mustards will inspire further and effective applications.

  5. Gastroprotective [6]-Gingerol Aspirinate as a Novel Chemopreventive Prodrug of Aspirin for Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingdong; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Pei; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests daily low-dose aspirin (ASA) reduces heart diseases and colorectal cancers. However, the major limitation to the use of aspirin is its side effect to cause ulceration and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Preclinical studies have shown that ginger constituents ameliorate ASA-induced gastric ulceration. We here report the design and synthesis of a novel prodrug of aspirin, [6]-gingerol aspirinate (GAS). Our data show that GAS exerts enhanced anti-cancer properties in vitro and superior gastroprotective effects in mice. GAS was also able to survive stomach acid and decomposed in intestinal linings or after absorption to simultaneously release ASA and [6]-gingerol. We further present that GAS inactivates both COX-1 and COX-2 equally. Our results demonstrate the enhanced anticancer properties along with gastroprotective effects of GAS, suggesting that GAS can be a therapeutic equivalent for ASA in inflammatory and proliferative diseases without the deleterious effects on stomach mucosa. PMID:28067282

  6. Discovery of an L-alanine ester prodrug of the Hsp90 inhibitor, MPC-3100.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Ho; Tangallapally, Rajendra; Kim, In Chul; Trovato, Richard; Parker, Daniel; Patton, J Scott; Reeves, Leslie; Bradford, Chad; Wettstein, Daniel; Baichwal, Vijay; Papac, Damon; Bajji, Ashok; Carlson, Robert; Yager, Kraig M

    2015-11-15

    Various types of Hsp90 inhibitors have been and continue to undergo clinical investigation. One development candidate is the purine-based, synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor 1 (MPC-3100), which successfully completed a phase I clinical study. However, further clinical development of 1 was hindered by poor solubility and consequent formulation issues and promoted development of a more water soluble prodrug. Towards this end, numerous pro-moieties were explored in vitro and in vivo. These studies resulted in identification of L-alanine ester mesylate, 2i (MPC-0767), which exhibited improved aqueous solubility, adequate chemical stability, and rapid bioconversion without the need for solubilizing excipients. Based on improved physical characteristics and favorable PK and PD profiles, 2i mesylate was selected for further development. A convergent, scalable, chromatography-free synthesis for 2i mesylate was developed to support further clinical evaluation.

  7. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Caroll B; Gustin, Kortney M; Wan, William B; Ciesla, Stephanie L; Beadle, James R; Hostetler, Karl Y; Kern, Earl R

    2005-02-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV) and its closely related analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine ([S]-HPMPA) have been reported to have activity against many adenovirus (AdV) serotypes. A new series of orally active ether lipid-ester prodrugs of CDV and of (S)-HPMPA that have slight differences in the structure of their lipid esters were evaluated, in tissue-culture cells, for activity against 5 AdV serotypes. The results indicated that, against several AdV serotypes, the most active compounds were 15-2500-fold more active than the unmodified parent compounds and should be evaluated further for their potential to treat AdV infections in humans.

  8. N-Acyl-phosphoramidates as potential novel form of gemcitabine prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Baraniak, Janina; Pietkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kaczmarek, Renata; Radzikowska, Ewa; Kulik, Katarzyna; Krolewska, Karolina; Cieslak, Marcin; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Gemcitabine (dFdC) is a cytidine analog remarkably active against a wide range of solid tumors. Inside a cell, gemcitabine is phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to yield gemcitabine monophosphate, further converted to gemcitabine di- and triphosphate. The most frequent form of acquired resistance to gemcitabine in vitro is the deoxycytidine kinase deficiency. Thus, proper prodrugs carrying the 5'-pdFdC moiety may help to overcome this problem. A series of new derivatives of gemcitabine possessing N-acyl(thio)phosphoramidate moieties were prepared and their cytotoxic properties were determined. N-Acyl-phosphoramidate derivatives of gemcitabine have similar cytotoxicity as gemcitabine itself, and have been found accessible to the cellular enzymes. The nicotinic carboxamide derivative of gemcitabine 5'-O-phosphorothioate occurred to be the best inhibitor of bacterial DNA polymerase I and human DNA polymerase α.

  9. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of (S)-naproxen ester prodrug by transesterification in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S W; Tsai, C S; Chang, C S

    1999-06-01

    A lipase-catalyzed enantioselective transesterification process was developed for the synthesis of (S)-naproxen 2-N-morpholinoethyl ester prodrug from racemic 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl naproxen ester in organic solvents. By selecting isooctane and 37 degrees C as the best solvent and temperature, the apparent fits of the initial conversion rates for transesterification and hydrolysis side reaction suggest a ping-pong Bi-Bi enzymatic mechanism with the alcohol as a competitive enzyme inhibitor. Improvements in the initial conversion rate and the productivity for the desired (S)-ester product were obtained after comparing with the result of an enantioselective esterification process. Studies of water content in isooctane and alcohol containing various N,N-dialkylamino groups on the enzyme activity and enantioselectivity, as well as the recovery of (S)-ester product by using extraction, were also reported.

  10. Novel triclabendazole prodrug: A highly water soluble alternative for the treatment of fasciolosis.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Vera-Montenegro, Yolanda; Castillo, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, aqueous solubility and stability, hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase, and in vivo fasciolicidal activity in sheep of a highly water soluble phosphate salt prodrug of triclabendazole (MFR-5). The aqueous solubility of MFR-5 at pH 7 was 88,000-fold that of triclabendazole. MFR-5 showed excellent aqueous stability (>95% after 26h) at pH 7, making it ideal for developing pharmaceutical compositions in the form of solutions that can easily be hydrolyzed by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (t=13.6s) to liberate the precursor compound. An aqueous solution of MFR-5 administered intramuscularly to sheep at concentrations of 4, 6 and 8mg/kg presented a fasciolicidal efficiency of 96.5%, 98.4% and 99.2%, respectively. In the in vivo experiments, MFR-5 reduced 100% the excretion of eggs in all of the above concentrations.

  11. Imaging of doxorubicin release from theranostic macromolecular prodrugs via fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Harald R; Schütz, Irene; Justies, Aileen; Licha, Kai; Welker, Pia; Haucke, Volker; Calderón, Marcelo

    2014-11-28

    Herein we present a FRET-based theranostic macromolecular prodrug (TMP) composed of (a) dendritic polyglycerol (PG) as polymeric nanocarrier, (b) doxorubicin (Dox) linked via a pH-sensitive hydrazone to (c) a tri-functional linker, and (d) an indodicarbocyanine dye (IDCC) attached in close proximity to Dox. The drug fluorescence is quenched via intramolecular FRET until the pH-sensitive hydrazone bond between the TMP and Dox is cleaved at acidic pH. By measuring its fluorescence, we characterized the TMP cleavage kinetics at different pH values in vitro. The intracellular release of Dox from the carrier was monitored in real time in intact cancer cells, giving more insight into the mode of action of a polymer drug conjugate.

  12. Excited‐State Dynamics of a Two‐Photon‐Activatable Ruthenium Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Simon E.; Horbury, Michael D.; Smith, Nichola A.; Sadler, Peter J.; Paterson, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present a new approach to investigate how the photodynamics of an octahedral ruthenium(II) complex activated through two‐photon absorption (TPA) differ from the equivalent complex activated through one‐photon absorption (OPA). We photoactivated a RuII polypyridyl complex containing bioactive monodentate ligands in the photodynamic therapy window (620–1000 nm) by using TPA and used transient UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy to elucidate its reaction pathways. Density functional calculations allowed us to identify the nature of the initially populated states and kinetic analysis recovers a photoactivation lifetime of approximately 100 ps. The dynamics displayed following TPA or OPA are identical, showing that TPA prodrug design may use knowledge gathered from the more numerous and easily conducted OPA studies. PMID:26632426

  13. Lipophilic prodrugs of nucleoside triphosphates as biochemical probes and potential antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Gollnest, Tristan; de Oliveira, Thiago Dinis; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The antiviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is often limited by ineffective phosphorylation. We report on a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) prodrug approach in which the γ-phosphate of NTPs is bioreversibly modified. A series of TriPPPro-compounds bearing two lipophilic masking units at the γ-phosphate and d4T as a nucleoside analogue are synthesized. Successful delivery of d4TTP is demonstrated in human CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell extracts by an enzyme-triggered mechanism with high selectivity. In antiviral assays, the compounds are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in CD4+ T-cell (CEM) cultures. Highly lipophilic acyl residues lead to higher membrane permeability that results in intracellular delivery of phosphorylated metabolites in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK− cells with higher antiviral activity than the parent nucleoside. PMID:26503889

  14. Carbapenem-based prodrugs. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Hakimelahi, Gholam Hossein; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Osetrov, Valeriy; Khodarahmi, Ghadam Ali; Shia, Kak-Shan

    2005-04-01

    Syntheses of racemic trans-3-hydroxycarbonyl-6-(phenylacetamido)carbapenem (13), trans-3-phosphono-6-(phenylacetamido)carbapenem (17), and beta-lactam based prodrugs 19 and 22 were accomplished. Carbapenem 13 was found to possess antibacterial activity, comparable with imipenem (+)-3, against Staphylococcus aureus FDA 209P, S. aureus 95, Escherichia coli ATCC 39188, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCTC 418, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1101-75, P. aeruginosa 18S-H, and Xanthomonas maltophilia GN 12873. Like imipenem ((+)-3), carbapenem 13 was not stable to X. maltophilia oxyiminocephalosporinase type II. Its phosphonate analog 17, however, was neither a significant antibacterial agent nor a good beta-lactamase inhibitor. Chemical combinations of trans carbapenem 13 with cis carbapenem 6 (compound 19) as well as clavulanic acid (20) with cis carbapenem 6 (compound 22) via a tetrachloroethane linker exhibited remarkable activity against beta-lactamase producing microorganisms in vitro.

  15. Far-Red Light-Activatable Prodrug of Paclitaxel for the Combined Effects of Photodynamic Therapy and Site-Specific Paclitaxel Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Pritam; Li, Mengjie; Bio, Moses; Rajaputra, Pallavi; Nkepang, Gregory; Sun, Yajing; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-14

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most useful chemotherapeutic agents approved for several cancers, including ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and nonsmall cell lung cancer. However, it causes systemic side effects when administered parenterally. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new strategy for treating local cancers using light and photosensitizer. Unfortunately, PDT is often followed by recurrence due to incomplete ablation of tumors. To overcome these problems, we prepared the far-red light-activatable prodrug of PTX by conjugating photosensitizer via singlet oxygen-cleavable aminoacrylate linker. Tubulin polymerization enhancement and cytotoxicity of prodrugs were dramatically reduced. However, once illuminated with far-red light, the prodrug effectively killed SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells through the combined effects of PDT and locally released PTX. Ours is the first PTX prodrug that can be activated by singlet oxygen using tissue penetrable and clinically useful far-red light, which kills the cancer cells through the combined effects of PDT and site-specific PTX chemotherapy.

  16. First-In-Human Study Demonstrating Tumor-Angiogenesis by PET/CT Imaging with 68Ga-NODAGA-THERANOST, a High-Affinity Peptidomimetic for αvβ3 Integrin Receptor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Richard P.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Müller, Dirk; Danthi, Narasimhan; Kim, Young-Seung; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 68Ga-NODAGA-THERANOST™ is an αvβ3 integrin antagonist and the first radiolabeled peptidomimetic to reach clinical development for targeting integrin receptors. In this first-in-human study, the feasibility of integrin receptor peptidomimetic positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging was confirmed in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and breast cancer. Methods: Patients underwent PET/CT imaging with 68Ga NODAGA-THERANOST. PET images were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively and compared to 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG) findings. Images were obtained 60 minutes postinjection of 300–500 MBq of 68Ga-NODAGA-THERANOST. Results: 68Ga-NODAGA-THERANOST revealed high tumor-to-background ratios (SUVmax=4.8) and uptake at neoangiogenesis sites. Reconstructed fused images distinguished cancers with high malignancy potential and enabled enhanced bone metastasis detection. 18F-FDG-positive lung and lymph node metastases did not show uptake, indicating the absence of neovascularization. Conclusions: 68Ga-NODAGA-THERANOST was found to be safe and effective, exhibiting in this study rapid blood clearance, stability, rapid renal excretion, favorable biodistribution and PK/PD, low irradiation burden (μSv/MBq/μg), and convenient radiolabeling. This radioligand might enable theranostics, that is, a combination of diagnostics followed by the appropriate therapeutics, namely antiangiogenic therapy, image-guided presurgical assessment, treatment response evaluation, prediction of pathologic response, neoadjuvant-peptidomimetic-radiochemotherapy, and personalized medicine strategies. Further clinical trials evaluating 68Ga-NODAGA-THERANOST are warranted. PMID:25945808

  17. Sulforaphane Preconditioning Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer Cells towards the Bioreductive Anticancer Prodrug PR-104A

    PubMed Central

    Erzinger, Melanie M.; Bovet, Cédric; Hecht, Katrin M.; Senger, Sabine; Winiker, Pascale; Sobotzki, Nadine; Cristea, Simona; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Shay, Jerry W.; Marra, Giancarlo; Wollscheid, Bernd; Sturla, Shana J.

    2016-01-01

    The chemoprotective properties of sulforaphane (SF), derived from cruciferous vegetables, are widely acknowledged to arise from its potent induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes. However, much less is known about the impact of SF on the efficacy of cancer therapy through the modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. To identify proteins modulated by a low concentration of SF, we treated HT29 colon cancer cells with 2.5 μM SF. Protein abundance changes were detected by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture. Among 18 proteins found to be significantly up-regulated, aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3), bioactivating the DNA cross-linking prodrug PR-104A, was further characterized. Preconditioning HT29 cells with SF reduced the EC50 of PR-104A 3.6-fold. The increase in PR-104A cytotoxicity was linked to AKR1C3 abundance and activity, both induced by SF in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was reproducible in a second colon cancer cell line, SW620, but not in other colon cancer cell lines where AKR1C3 abundance and activity were absent or barely detectable and could not be induced by SF. Interestingly, SF had no significant influence on PR-104A cytotoxicity in non-cancerous, immortalized human colonic epithelial cell lines expressing either low or high levels of AKR1C3. In conclusion, the enhanced response of PR-104A after preconditioning with SF was apparent only in cancer cells provided that AKR1C3 is expressed, while its expression in non-cancerous cells did not elicit such a response. Therefore, a subset of cancers may be susceptible to combined food-derived component and prodrug treatments with no harm to normal tissues. PMID:26950072

  18. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus expressing yeast cytosine deaminase: relationship between viral replication, transgene expression, prodrug bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Kuroda, T; Fuchs, B C; He, X; Supko, J G; Schmitt, A; McGinn, C M; Lanuti, M; Tanabe, K K

    2012-03-01

    Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) is a well-characterized prodrug/enzyme system that converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has been combined with oncolytic viruses. However, in vivo studies of the interactions between 5-FC bioactivation and viral replication have not been previously reported, nor have the kinetics of transgene expression and the pharmacokinetics of 5-FC and 5-FU. We constructed a replication-conditional Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expressing yCD and examined cytotoxicity when 5-FC was initiated at different times after viral infection, and observed that earlier 5-FC administration led to greater cytotoxicity than later 5-FC administration in vitro and in vivo. In animal models, 12 days of 5-FC administration was superior to 6 days, but dosing beyond 12 days did not further enhance efficacy. Consistent with the dosing-schedule results, both viral genomic DNA copy number and viral titers were observed to peak on Day 3 after viral injection and gradually decrease thereafter. The virus is replication-conditional and was detected in tumors for as long as 2 weeks after viral injection. The maximum relative extent of yCD conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU in tumors was observed on Day 6 after viral injection and it decreased progressively thereafter. The observation that 5-FU generation within tumors did not lead to appreciable levels of systemic 5-FU (<10 ng ml⁻¹) is important and has not been previously reported. The approaches used in these studies of the relationship between the viral replication kinetics, transgene expression, prodrug administration and anti-tumor efficacy are useful in the design of clinical trials of armed, oncolytic viruses.

  19. Pharmacological Properties of a New Antimalarial Bisthiazolium Salt, T3, and a Corresponding Prodrug, TE3

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Olivier; Margout, Delphine; Taudon, Nicolas; Wein, Sharon; Calas, Michèle; Vial, Henri J.; Bressolle, Françoise M. M.

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to malarial chemotherapy based on quaternary ammonium that targets membrane biogenesis during intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum development has recently been developed. To increase the bioavailability, nonionic chemically modified prodrugs were synthesized. In this paper, the pharmacological properties of a bisthiazolium salt (T3) and its bioprecursor (TE3) were studied. Their antimalarial activities were determined in vitro against the growth of P. falciparum and in vivo against the growth of P. vinckei in mice. Pharmacokinetic evaluations were performed after T3 (1.3 and 3 mg/kg of body weight administered intravenously; 6.4 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally) and TE3 (1.5 and 3 mg/kg administered intravenously; 12 mg/kg administered orally) administrations to rats. After intraperitoneal administration, very low doses offer protection in a murine model of malaria (50% efficient dose [ED50] of 0.2 to 0.25 mg/kg). After oral administration, the ED50 values were 13 and 5 mg/kg for T3 and TE3, respectively. Both compounds exerted antimalarial activity in the low nanomolar range. After TE3 administration, rapid prodrug-drug conversion occurred; the mean values of the pharmacokinetic parameters for T3 were as follows: total clearance, 1 liter/h/kg; steady-state volume of distribution, 14.8 liters/kg; and elimination half-life, 12 h. After intravenous administration, T3 plasma concentrations increased in proportion to the dose. The absolute bioavailability was 72% after intraperitoneal administration (T3); it was 15% after oral administration (TE3). T3 plasma concentrations (8 nM) 24 h following oral administration of TE3 were higher than the 50% inhibitory concentrations for the most chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum (6.3 nM). PMID:16127032

  20. Colistin Methanesulfonate Is an Inactive Prodrug of Colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Phillip J.; Li, Jian; Rayner, Craig R.; Nation, Roger L.

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on the pharmacodynamics of “colistin,” despite its increasing use as a last line of defense for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms. The antimicrobial activities of colistin and colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) were investigated by studying the time-kill kinetics of each against a type culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth. The appearance of colistin from CMS spiked at 8.0 and 32 mg/liter was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, which generated colistin concentration-time profiles. These concentration-time profiles were subsequently mimicked in other incubations, independent of CMS, by incrementally spiking colistin. When the cultures were spiked with CMS at either concentration, there was a substantial delay in the onset of the killing effect which was not evident until the concentrations of colistin generated from the hydrolysis of CMS had reached approximately 0.5 to 1 mg/liter (i.e., ∼0.5 to 1 times the MIC for colistin). The time course of the killing effect was similar when colistin was added incrementally to achieve the same colistin concentration-time course observed from the hydrolysis of CMS. Given that the killing kinetics of CMS can be accounted for by the appearance of colistin, CMS is an inactive prodrug of colistin with activity against P. aeruginosa. This is the first study to demonstrate the formation of colistin in microbiological media containing CMS and to demonstrate that CMS is an inactive prodrug of colistin. These findings have important implications for susceptibility testing involving “colistin,” in particular, for MIC measurement and for microbiological assays and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. PMID:16723551

  1. Comparison of two self-assembled macromolecular prodrug micelles with different conjugate positions of SN38 for enhancing antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Piao, Hongyu; Gao, Ying; Xu, Caihong; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Jinwen; Tang, Bo; Zou, Meijuan; Cheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), is a remarkably potent antitumor agent. The clinical application of SN38 has been extremely restricted by its insolubility in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized two macromolecular prodrugs of SN38 with different conjugate positions (chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 and chitosan-(C20-OH)SN38) to improve the water solubility and antitumor activity of SN38. These prodrugs can self-assemble into micelles in aqueous medium. The particle size, morphology, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release of SN38 and its derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo antitumor activity in a xenograft BALB/c mouse model were studied. In vitro, chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 (CS-(10s)SN38) and chitosan-(C20-OH) SN38 (CS-(20s)SN38) were 13.3- and 25.9-fold more potent than CPT-11 in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line CT26, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC)0-24 of SN38 after intravenously administering CS-(10s)SN38 and CS-(20s)SN38 to Sprague Dawley rats was greatly improved when compared with CPT-11 (both P<0.01). A larger AUC0-24 of CS-(20s)SN38 was observed when compared to CS-(10s)SN38 (P<0.05). Both of the novel self-assembled chitosan-SN38 prodrugs demonstrated superior anticancer activity to CPT-11 in the CT26 xenograft BALB/c mouse model. We have also investigated the differences between these macromolecular prodrug micelles with regards to enhancing the antitumor activity of SN38. CS-(20s)SN38 exhibited better in vivo antitumor activity than CS-(10s)SN38 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (P<0.05). In conclusion, both macromolecular prodrug micelles improved the in vivo conversion rate and antitumor activity of SN38, but the prodrug in which C20-OH was conjugated to macromolecular materials could be a more promising platform for SN38 delivery.

  2. Genetically engineered pre-microRNA-34a prodrug suppresses orthotopic osteosarcoma xenograft tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Tu, Mei-Juan; Wang, Wei-Peng; Qiu, Jing-Xin; Yu, Ai-Xi; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children, and microRNA-34a (miR-34a) replacement therapy represents a new treatment strategy. This study was to define the effectiveness and safety profiles of a novel bioengineered miR-34a prodrug in orthotopic OS xenograft tumor mouse model. Highly purified pre-miR-34a prodrug significantly inhibited the proliferation of human 143B and MG-63 cells in a dose dependent manner and to much greater degrees than controls, which was attributed to induction of apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of OS cell growth and invasion were associated with release of high levels of mature miR-34a from pre-miR-34a prodrug and consequently reduction of protein levels of many miR-34a target genes including SIRT1, BCL2, c-MET, and CDK6. Furthermore, intravenous administration of in vivo-jetPEI formulated miR-34a prodrug significantly reduced OS tumor growth in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition, mouse blood chemistry profiles indicated that therapeutic doses of bioengineered miR-34a prodrug were well tolerated in these animals. The results demonstrated that bioengineered miR-34a prodrug was effective to control OS tumor growth which involved the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, supporting the development of bioengineered RNAs as a novel class of large molecule therapeutic agents. PMID:27216562

  3. In Vitro and Clinical Evaluations of the Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of a Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptor Agonist Prodrug with Intestinal Peptide Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Amanda J.; Annes, William F.; Witcher, Jennifer W.; Knadler, Mary Pat; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun A.; Mitchell, Malcolm I.; Leese, Phillip; Hillgren, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) being responsible for the bioavailability for a variety of drugs, there has been little study of its potential involvement in drug-drug interactions. Pomaglumetad methionil, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist prodrug, utilizes PEPT1 to enhance absorption and bioavailability. In vitro studies were conducted to guide the decision to conduct a clinical drug interaction study and to inform the clinical study design. In vitro investigations determined the prodrug (LY2140023 monohydrate) is a substrate of PEPT1 with Km value of approximately 30 µM, whereas the active moiety (LY404039) is not a PEPT1 substrate. In addition, among the eight known PEPT1 substrates evaluated in vitro, valacyclovir was the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 0.46 mM) of PEPT1-mediated uptake of the prodrug. Therefore, a clinical drug interaction study was conducted to evaluate the potential interaction between the prodrug and valacyclovir in healthy subjects. No effect of coadministration was observed on the pharmacokinetics of the prodrug, valacyclovir, or either of their active moieties. Although in vitro studies showed potential for the prodrug and valacyclovir interaction via PEPT1, an in vivo study showed no interaction between these two drugs. PEPT1 does not appear to easily saturate because of its high capacity and expression in the intestine. Thus, a clinical interaction at PEPT1 is unlikely even with a compound with high affinity for the transporter. PMID:27895114

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of a CBZ-AAN-Dox Prodrug and its in vitro Effects on SiHa Cervical Cancer Cells Under Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyuan; Liu, Xiao; Clayman, Eric S; Shao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Manshan; Tian, Xuyan; Fu, Wuyu; Zhang, Caiyun; Ruan, Bibo; Zhou, Pengjun; Liu, Zhong; Wang, Yifei; Rui, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Although doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used in clinical treatment for solid tumors, it causes many side-effects such as heart and kidney damage, bone marrow suppression, and drug resistance. Legumain is a lysosomal protease that is elevated and associated with an invasive and metastatic phenotype in a number of solid tumors. In this study, we designed and synthesized a Dox prodrug, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ala-Ala-Asn-Doxorubicin (CBZ-AAN-Dox), with 94% purity. Single substrate kinetic assays demonstrated hLegumain-specific enzymatic cleavage and activation of the prodrug in vitro, and this enzymatic cleavage of the prodrug substrate was more sensitive in acidic conditions, releasing more than 70% of Dox after 24 h. Treatment of tumor cells with our prodrug demonstrated a much higher IC50 value, significantly enhanced uptake of the prodrug, and considerably less cellular toxicity compared to Dox treatment alone. Our study presents a novel prodrug, CBZ-AAN-Dox, to potentially increase both the safety and efficacy of clinical treatment of tumors by exploiting the tumor's innate expression of legumain.

  5. Effect of SI-591, a new class of cathepsin K inhibitor with peptidomimetic structure, on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Mizuho; Kubo, Akiko; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-12-01

    SI-591[N-[1-[[[(1S)-3-[[(3S)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-azepin-3-yl]amino]-1-(1-methylethyl)-2,3-dioxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]cyclohexyl]-2-furancarboxamide] is an orally bioavailable compound that was synthesized as one of several unique peptidomimetic compounds without a basic group. This compound was found to have the ability to inhibit cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease. Cathepsin K is known to be expressed in osteoclasts and involved in bone loss processes. In this study, SI-591 was shown to inhibit the activity of various purified cathepsin molecules at nanomolar concentrations but had high selectivity for cathepsin K over other subtypes including B and L. SI-591 also decreased the level of CTX-I, a bone resorption marker, which was released from osteoclasts in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The mobilization of calcium from the bones to the blood stream is known to increase in rats fed with a low calcium diet; SI-591 inhibited this increase in serum calcium level at an oral dose of 3mg/kg. Furthermore, SI-591 significantly decreased the level of CTX-I and DPD, bone resorption markers, at oral doses of 10mg/kg or less in ovariectomized rats, while it did not affect the level of BGP, a bone formation marker. In addition, SI-591 prevented bone mineral density loss in the lumber vertebrae and femurs in ovariectomized rats. These results suggest that SI-591 inhibits bone resorption without affecting osteoblast maturation. Therefore, SI-591, a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, could be a promising agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Nβ-methylation changes the recognition pattern of aza-β3-amino acid containing peptidomimetic substrates by protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The protein kinase A (PKA)-catalyzed phosphorylation of peptide substrate RRASVA analogs, containing Nβ-Me-aza-β3-amino acid residues in all subsequent positions, was studied. This work follows along the lines of our previous research of the phosphorylation of aza-β3-analogs of RRASVA (the shortest active substrate of PKA) and allows characterizing the influence of Nβ-methylation of aza-β3-amino acid residues on substrate recognition by PKA on substrate binding and phosphorylation steps. It was found that the effect of Nβ-methylation was dependent upon the position of the structure alteration. Moreover, the presence of a single Nβ-methylation site in the substrate changed the recognition pattern of this series of peptidomimetics, strongly affecting the phosphorylation step. Structure modeling of aza-β3- and Nβ-Me-aza-β3-containing substrates revealed that Nβ-methylation of aza-β3-moieties changed the peptide bond geometry from trans- to cis-configuration in -CO-NMe- fragments, with an exception for the N-terminally methylated Nβ-Me-aza-β3-RRRASVA (with the N-terminal amino group not participating in the peptide bond) and RRAS-Nβ-Me-aza-β3-VA. As has been shown in literature, this conformational preference of the backbone has a significant influence on the flexibility of the peptide substrate chain. Following our results, this property seems to have significant influence on the recognition of the amino acid side groups by the enzyme binding site, and in the case of PKA this structural modification was decisive for the phosphate transfer step of the catalytic process. PMID:22373236

  7. Reduction of in-source collision-induced dissociation and thermolysis of sulopenem prodrugs for quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis by promoting sodium adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, Chad E; Kadar, Eugene P

    2008-10-01

    Six chromatographically resolved sulopenem prodrugs were monitored for their potential to undergo both in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) and thermolysis. Initial Q1 scans for each prodrug revealed the formation of intense [Prodrug2 + H]+, [Prodrug2 + Na]+, [Prodrug + Na]+, and [Sulopenem + Na]+ ions. Non-adduct-associated sulopenem ([Sulopenem + H]+) along with several additional lower mass ions were also observed. Product ion scans of [Prodrug3 + Na]+ showed the retention of the sodium adduct in the collision cell continuing down to opening of the beta-lactam ring. In-source CID and temperature experiments were conducted under chromatographic conditions while monitoring several of the latter ion transitions (i.e., adducts, dimers and degradants/fragments) for a given prodrug. The resulting ion profiles indicated the regions of greatest stability for temperature and declustering potential (DP) that provided the highest signal intensity for each prodrug and minimized in-source degradation. The heightened stability of adduct ions, relative to their appropriate counterpart (i.e., dimer to dimer adduct and prodrug to prodrug adduct ions), was observed under elevated temperature and DP conditions. The addition of 100 microM sodium to the mobile phase further enhanced the formation of these more stable adduct ions, yielding an optimal [Prodrug + Na]+ ion signal at temperatures from 400 to 600 degrees C. A clinical liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for sulopenem prodrug PF-04064900 in buffered whole blood was successfully validated using sodium-fortified mobile phase and the [PF-04064900 + Na]+ ion for quantitation. A conservative five-fold increase in sensitivity from previously validated preclinical assays using the [PF-04064900 + H]+ precursor ion was achieved.

  8. Clinical potential of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to improve radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Alice; Marignol, Laure; Foley, Ruth; Lynch, Thomas H; Lawler, Mark; Hollywood, Donal

    2011-12-01

    Despite the advances in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, current therapies are not curative in a significant proportion of patients. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), when combined with radiation therapy, could improve the outcome of treatment for prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the western world. GDEPT involves the introduction of a therapeutic transgene, which can be targeted to the tumour cells. A prodrug is administered systemically and is converted to its toxic form only in those cells containing the transgene, resulting in cell kill. This review will discuss the clinical trials which have investigated the potential of GDEPT at various stages of prostate cancer progression. The advantages of using GDEPT in combination with radiotherapy will be examined, as well as some of the recent advances which enhance the potential utility of GDEPT.

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of a CBI-Based Cyclic N-Acyl O-Amino Phenol Duocarmycin Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of a cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug subject to reductive activation based on the simplified 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (CBI) DNA alkylation subunit is described. A key element of the approach entailed treatment of iodo-epoxide 7, prepared by N-alkylation of 6 with (S)-glycidal 3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature to directly provide the optically pure alcohol 8 in 78% yield (99% ee) derived from an effective metal–halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. Following O-debenzylation, introduction of a protected N-methylhydroxamic acid, direct trannannular spirocyclization, and subsequent stereoelectronically controlled acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting cyclopropane (HCl), further improvements in a unique intramolecular cyclization with N–O bond formation originally introduced for formation of the reductively labile prodrug functionality are detailed. PMID:25247380

  10. Effect of the butyrate prodrug pivaloyloxymethyl butyrate (AN9) on a mouse model for spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jonathan D.; Butchbach, Matthew E. R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an early-onset motor neuron disease that leads to loss of muscle function. Butyrate (BA)-based compounds markedly improve the survival and motor phenotype of SMA mice. In this study, we examine the protective effects of the BA prodrug pivaloyloxymethyl butyrate (AN9) on the survival of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. Oral administration of AN9 beginning at PND04 almost doubled the average lifespan of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. AN9 treatment also increased the growth rate of SMNΔ7 SMA mice when compared to vehicle-treated SMNΔ7 SMA mice. In conclusion, BA prodrugs like AN9 have ameliorative effects on SMNΔ7 SMA mice. PMID:27911337

  11. Synthesis, spectral studies and anti-inflammatory activity of glycolamide esters of niflumic acid as potential prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Gadad, Andanappa K; Bhat, Shailija; Tegeli, Varsha S; Redasani, Vivek V

    2002-01-01

    In order to reduce the gastric irritation caused by direct contact mechanism of the carboxylic acid group, a series of glycolamide esters of niflumic acid (CAS 4394-00-7) (1) have been prepared as bio-labile prodrugs by reacting appropriate 2-chloroacetamides with niflumic acid. The required 2-chloroacetamides were obtained by the condensation of chloroacetyl chloride and corresponding amine. Their structures were confirmed by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Selected compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats at the doses of 45, 90 and 150 mg/kg b.w. Prodrugs showed comparable anti-inflammatory activity (67.1-79.4%) at 150 mg/kg b.w. with respect to niflumic acid (70.3%) at 45 mg/kg b.w., indicating moderate release of niflumic acid in vivo. The highest activity was observed with diethylamine (4) and pyrrolidine (9) derivatives.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of niflumic acid lipophilic prodrugs in brain edema.

    PubMed

    el Kihel, L; Bourass, J; Richomme, P; Petit, J Y; Letourneux, Y

    1996-11-01

    Five new lipophilic prodrugs of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, niflumic acid (Nifluril, CAS 4394-00-7), were synthetized and evaluated on the experimental brain edema (injection of phospholipase A2). The effect of these drugs in comparison with dexamethasone which elicits a marked effect on clinical and experimental brain edema was evaluated. Niflumic acid was vectorised by cholesterol, hexadecanol and by three 1,3-diacylglycerols. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds on experimental brain edema was evaluated by determination of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) brain tissue concentration. Niflumic acid reduced the prostaglandin E2 production more significantly than dexamethasone. Niflumic acid prodrug forms (1,3-dihexadecanoyl-2-[2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)anilino]nicotinoyl] glycerol and 1,3-dihexadecanoyl-2-[2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)anilino]nicotinoyloxybuta noyl] glycerol also showed a marked anti-inflammatory activity at low concentrations.

  13. Strong enhancement of recombinant cytosine deaminase activity in Bifidobacterium longum for tumor-targeting enzyme/prodrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamaji, Yoshinori; Fujimori, Minoru; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsuhashi, Hitomi; Matsui-Seki, Keiichi; Shimatani-Shibata, Yuko; Kano, Yasunobu; Amano, Jun; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro

    2007-04-01

    In our previous studies, a strain of the nonpathogenic, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), was found to be localized selectively and to proliferate within solid tumors after systemic administration. In addition, B. longum transformed with the shuttle-plasmid encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene expressed active CD, which deaminated the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We also reported antitumor efficacy with the same plasmid in several animal experiments. In this study, we constructed a novel shuttle-plasmid, pAV001-HU-eCD-M968, which included the mutant CD gene with a mutation at the active site to increase the enzymatic activity. In addition, the plasmid-transformed B. longum produces mutant CD and strongly increased (by 10-fold) its 5-FC to 5-FU enzymatic activity. The use of B. longum harboring the new shuttle-plasmid increases the effectiveness of our enzyme/prodrug strategy.

  14. A prodrug approach to improve the physico-chemical properties and decrease the genotoxicity of nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Chin; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; dos Santos, Jean Leandro

    2011-01-01

    In therapeutics research, the nitro compounds are part of an important group of drugs with multiple pharmacological activities. However, in drug design, the inclusion of a nitro group in a molecule changes the physico-chemical and electronic properties and is associated with increased mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. In addition, several studies have related the relationship between the antimicrobial and/or anti-protozoal activity and the mutagenic effect to reduction of the nitro group. This work reviews the toxicity of nitro compounds and shows how the use of prodrugs can increase the biological activity and decrease the genotoxicity of nitro compounds, without any modification in nitro reduction behavior, but rather by physico-chemical improvement. Examples are given of metronidazole and nitrofurazone prodrugs.

  15. The prodrug DHED selectively delivers 17β-estradiol to the brain for treating estrogen-responsive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Laszlo; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Garg, Puja; Sabnis, Gauri; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; McLaughlin, Katie J.; Talboom, Joshua S.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Shughrue, Paul J.; Gould, Todd D.; Brodie, Angela; Merchenthaler, Istvan; Koulen, Peter; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric maladies originate from the deprivation of the human brain from estrogens. However, current hormone therapies cannot be used safely to treat these conditions commonly associated with menopause because of detrimental side-effects in the periphery. The latter also prevents the use of the hormone for neuroprotection. Here we show that a small-molecule bioprecursor prodrug, 10β,17β-dihydroxyestra-1,4-dien-3-one (DHED), converts to 17β-estradiol in the brain after systemic administration, but remains inert in the rest of the body. The localized and rapid formation of estrogen from the prodrug was revealed by a series of in vivo bioanalytical assays and through in vivo imaging in rodents. DHED treatment efficiently alleviated symptoms originated from brain estrogen deficiency in animal models of surgical menopause and provided neuroprotection in a rat stroke model. Concomitantly, we determined that 17β-estradiol formed in the brain from DHED elicited changes in gene expression and neuronal morphology identical to those obtained after direct 17β-estradiol treatment. Altogether, complementary functional and mechanistic data show that our approach is highly relevant therapeutically, because administration of the prodrug selectively produces estrogen in the brain independently from the route of administration and treatment regimen. Therefore, peripheral responses associated with the use of systemic estrogens, such as stimulation of the uterus and estrogen-responsive tumor growth, were absent. Collectively, our brain-selective prodrug approach may safely provide estrogen neuroprotection and medicate neurological and psychiatric symptoms developing from estrogen deficiency, particularly those encountered after surgical menopause, without the adverse side-effects of current hormone therapies. PMID:26203081

  16. Transcorneal Permeation of L - and D - Aspartate Ester Prodrugs of Acyclovir: Delineation of Passive Diffusion versus Transporter Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Soumyajit; Hingorani, Tushar; Srirangam, Ramesh; Gadepalli, Rama Sarma; Rimoldi, John M; Repka, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of amino acid transporters in the transcorneal permeation of the aspartate (Asp) ester acyclovir (ACV) prodrug. Methods Physicochemical characterization, solubility and stability of acyclovir L-aspartate (L-Asp-ACV) and acyclovir D-aspartate (D-Asp-ACV) were studied. Transcorneal permeability was evaluated across excised rabbit cornea. Results Solubility of L-Asp-ACV and D-Asp-ACV were about 2-fold higher than that of ACV. The prodrugs demonstrated greater stability under acidic conditions. Calculated pKa and logP values for both prodrugs were identical. Transcorneal permeability of L-Asp-ACV (12.1±1.48×10−6 cm/s) was 4-fold higher than D-Asp-ACV (3.12±0.36×10−6 cm/s) and ACV (3.25±0.56×10−6 cm/s). ACV generation during the transport process was minimal. L-Asp-ACV transport was sodium and energy dependent but was not inhibited by glutamic acid. Addition of BCH, a specific Bo,+ and L amino acid transporter inhibitor, decreased transcorneal L-Asp-ACV permeability to 2.66±0.21×10−6 cm/s. L-Asp-ACV and D-Asp-ACV did not demonstrate significant difference in stability in ocular tissue homogenates. Conclusion The results demonstrate that enhanced transport of L-Asp-ACV is as a result of corneal transporter involvement (probably amino acid transporter B0,+) and not as a result of changes in physicochemical properties due to prodrug derivatization (permeability of D-Asp-ACV and ACV were not significantly different). PMID:18839288

  17. Nanoassemblies containing a fluorouracil/zidovudine glyceryl prodrug with phospholipase A2-triggered drug release for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiguang; Yang, Fang; Du, Lina

    2013-12-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which is overexpressed in many tumors, cleaves ester bonds at the sn-2 position of phospholipids. A PLA2-sensitive amphiphilic prodrug, 1-O-octadecyl-2-(5-fluorouracil)-N-acetyl-3-zidovudine-phosphorylglycerol (OFZG), was synthesized and used to prepare nanoassemblies through the injection of a mixture of OFZG/cholesterol/Tween 80 (2:1:0.1, mol:mol:mol) into water. Cholesterol and Tween 80 was incorporated into the OFZG monolayers at the air/water interface to yield nanoassemblies. The resulting nanoassemblies exhibited a narrow size distribution with a mean size of 77.8nm and were stable due to their high surface charges. The in vitro experiments showed that PLA2 degraded OFZG. The nanoassemblies exhibited higher anticancer activity than the parent drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in COLO205, HT-28, and HCT-116 cells. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the nanoassemblies into mice resulted in the rapid elimination of OFZG from the circulation and its distribution mainly in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. After their injection into tumor-bearing mice, the nanoassemblies exhibited anticancer efficiency comparable to that of 5-FU, even though the nanoassemblies contained concentrations of only 1/10 of the molar amount of 5-FU. The lessons learned from the study and methods for the design of PLA2-sensitive amphiphilic prodrugs are also discussed. Enzyme-sensitive amphiphilic combinatorial prodrugs and prodrug-loaded nanoassemblies may represent a new strategy for anticancer drug design.

  18. New Enzyme Prodrug and Methionine-Depletion Combination Therapy of Breast Cancer Designed for Effective Delivery to the Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    the prodrug. Annexin V is known to bind with high affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS) in phospholipids bilayers. PS has recently been shown to be...We have tested a procedure to quantify the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of the tumor vasculature in nude mice with MDA-MB-231... Phosphatidylserine is a marker of t umor vasculature and a potential target for cancer imaging and ttherapy, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Bioi. Phys. 54

  19. Carrier-Mediated Prodrug Uptake to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Polar Drugs: An Application to an Oseltamivir Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Incecayir, Tuba; Sun, Jing; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Xu, Hao; Gose, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi; Hilfinger, John; Lipka, Elke; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve the intestinal mucosal cell membrane permeability of the poorly absorbed guanidino analogue of a neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir carboxylate (GOC) using a carrier mediated strategy. Valyl amino acid prodrug of GOC with isopropyl-methylenedioxy linker (GOC-ISP-Val) was evaluated as the potential substrate for intestinal oligopeptide transporter, hPEPT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing hPEPT1 and an intestinal mouse perfusion system. The diastereomers of GOC-ISP-Val were assessed for chemical and metabolic stability. Permeability of GOC-ISP-Val was determined in Caco-2 cells and mice. Diastereomer 2 was about two times more stable than diastereomer 1 in simulated intestinal fluid and rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug in cell homogenates. The prodrug had a nine times enhanced apparent permeability (Papp) in Caco-2 cells compared to the parent drug. Both diastereomer exhibited high effective permeability (Peff ) in mice, 6.32±3.12 and 5.20±2.81 x10−5 cm/s for diastereomer 1 and 2, respectively. GOC-ISP-Val was found to be a substrate of hPEPT1. Overall, this study indicates that the prodrug, GOC-ISP-Val seems to be a promising oral anti-influenza agent that has sufficient stability at physiologically relevant pHs prior to absorption, significantly improved permeability via hPEPT1 and potentially rapid activation in the intestinal cells. PMID:26869437

  20. PSMA-Specific Theranostic Nanoplex for Combination of TRAIL Gene and 5-FC Prodrug Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihang; Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Banerjee, Sangeeta R.; Pomper, Martin G.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality and there is a critical unmet need for effective treatments. We have developed a theranostic nanoplex platform for combined imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Our prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted nanoplex is designed to deliver plasmid DNA encoding tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), together with bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) as a prodrug enzyme. Nanoplex specificity was tested using two variants of human PC3 prostate cancer cells in culture and in tumor xenografts, one with high PSMA expression and the other with negligible expression levels. The expression of EGFP-TRAIL was demonstrated by fluorescence optical imaging and real-time PCR. Noninvasive 19F MR spectroscopy detected the conversion of the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by bCD. The combination strategy of TRAIL gene and 5-FC/bCD therapy showed significant inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cells and tumors. These data demonstrate that the PSMA-specific theranostic nanoplex can deliver gene therapy and prodrug enzyme therapy concurrently for precision medicine in metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26706476

  1. Gelatin-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for platinum (IV) prodrug delivery, enzyme-stimulated release and MRI.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ziyong; Dai, Yunlu; Kang, Xiaojiao; Li, Chunxia; Huang, Shanshan; Lian, Hongzhou; Hou, Zhiyao; Ma, Pingan; Lin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    A facile method for transferring hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) from chloroform to aqueous solution via encapsulation of FITC-modified gelatin based on the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction is described in this report. Due to the existence of large amount of active groups such as amine groups in gelatin, the fluorescent labeling molecules of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and platinum (IV) prodrug functionalized with carboxylic groups can be conveniently conjugated on the IONPs. The nanoparticles carrying Pt(IV) prodrug exhibit good anticancer activities when the Pt(IV) complexes are reduced to Pt(II) in the intracellular environment, while the pure Pt(IV) prodrug only presents lower cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence of FITC on the surface of nanoparticles was completely quenched due to the possible Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism and showed a fluorescence recovery after gelatin release and detachment from IONPs. Therefore FITC as a fluorescence probe can be used for identification, tracking and monitoring the drug release. In addition, adding pancreatic enzyme can effectively promote the gelatin release from IONPs owing to the degradation of gelatin. Noticeable darkening in magnetic resonance image (MRI) was observed at the tumor site after in situ injection of nanoparticles, indicating the IONPs-enhanced T2-weighted imaging. Our results suggest that the gelatin encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have potential applications in multi-functional drug delivery system for disease therapy, MR imaging and fluorescence sensor.

  2. Enzyme-Sensitive and Amphiphilic PEGylated Dendrimer-Paclitaxel Prodrug-Based Nanoparticles for Enhanced Stability and Anticancer Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Cai, Hao; Jiang, Lei; Hu, Jiani; Bains, Ashika; Hu, Jesse; Gong, Qiyong; Luo, Kui; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we prepared a smart polymeric vehicle for the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX) that allowed a maximum steady-state circulation and a fast intracellular release in tumors. PTX was linked to the Janus PEGylated (PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)) peptide dendrimer via an enzyme-sensitive linker glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine tetrapeptide by efficient click reaction, resulting in Janus dendritic prodrug with 20.9% PTX content. The prodrug self-assembled into nanoscale particles with appropriate nanosizes, compact morphology, and negative surface charge. In addition to high stability during circulation, as demonstrated by protein adsorption assays and drug release studies in the cancer's intracellular environment, the nanoparticles were able to quickly release the drug intact in its original molecular structure, as verified via high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. Compared to free PTX, the enzyme-responsive feature of nanoparticles promoted higher cytotoxicity against 4T1 cancer cells and much lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. The nanoparticles accumulated in the tumor and were retained for an extended period of time, as confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Therefore, these nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced antitumor efficiency in the 4T1 breast cancer model as indicated by the observed inhibition of angiogenesis and proliferation as well as induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the nanoparticles reduced the occurrence of side effects, particularly dose-limited toxicities, as monitored by body weight and hematological features. Hence, our Janus PEGylated dendrimer-PTX prodrug-based nanoparticles may potentially serve as nanoscale vehicles for breast cancer therapy.

  3. Lipophilic prodrugs of a triazole-containing colchicine analogue in liposomes: biological effects on human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, N R; Svirshchevskaya, E V; Sitnikov, N S; Abodo, L; Sutorius, H; Zapke, J; Velder, J; Thomopoulou, P; Oschkinat, H; Prokop, A; Schmalz, H G; Fedorov, A Yu; Vodovozova, E L

    2013-01-01

    Colchicine site binders--blockers of tubulin polymerization--are potential antimitotic agents for anticancer therapy. To reduce their systemic toxicity and improve biodistribution, encapsulation in nanosized liposomes may be employed. Liposomes present a convenient means for preparation of injectable formulations of hydrophobic compounds, however colchicine as such is known to leak through the lipid bilayer. In this study, newly synthesized triazole-containing analogues of colchicine and allocolchicine, and their palmitic and oleic esters (lipophilic prodrugs) were tested for anti-proliferative activity and apoptosis-inducing potential. In contrast to colchicine conjugates, whose activities ranged with those of colchicine, allocolchicine derivatives exhibited drastically lower effects and were discarded. Liposomes of about 100 nm in diameter composed of egg phosphatidylcholine--yeast phosphatidylinositol--palmitic or oleic prodrug, 8 : 1: 1, by mol, were prepared by standard extrusion technique and tested in a panel of four human tumor cell lines. Liposome formulations preserved the biological activities of the parent colchicinoid the most towards human epithelial tumor cells. Moreover, liposomal form of the oleoyl bearing colchicinoid inhibited cell proliferation more efficiently than free lipophilic prodrug. Due to substantial loading capacity of the liposomes, the dispersions contain sufficient concentration of the active agent to test wide dose range in experiments on systemic administration to animals.

  4. Influence of bromoethyl group on biological acti