Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott
The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)
Contents: Multi-sensors and systems in remote sensing ; Radar sensing systems over land; Remote sensing techniques in oceanography; Influence of...propagation media and background; Infrared techniques in remote sensing ; Photography in remote sensing ; Analytical studies in remote sensing .
Howkins, John, Ed.
Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…
Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)
The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.
remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and
Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna
'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).
The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.
A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.
Roller, N. E. G.
The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.
Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)
Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.
The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.
Rickman, Douglas L.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.
Perry, Cortes L.
The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.
Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.
Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...
Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.
Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.
The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.
Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)
This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.
Rosen, Paul A.
This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.
Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)
A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.
Graff, W. J. (Compiler)
Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.
The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...
This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.
Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.
A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.
What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...
Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.
There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.
One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.
One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.
conducted studies of the sediments, seagrass and corals . The objective is to correlate the hyperspectral imagery with the detailed in-situ measurements...seagrass and coral reefs (Mazel, 1998). In addition to the basic science there is a directed effort in remote sensing for seafloor imaging and...area includes different bottom types – coral , sand, seagrass – sometimes within the same local area, at a variety of depths. Most of the region is quite
Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.
Kong, J. A.
Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.
Carter, David J.
Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…
Brosius, Craig A.; And Others
This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…
Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…
Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would
Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.
Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)
A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.
The physical principles describing the propagation of EM waves in the atmosphere and their interactions with matter are discussed as they apply to remote sensing, in an introductory text intended for graduate science students, environmental-science researchers, and remote-sensing practitioners. The emphasis is on basic effects rather than an specific remote-sensing techniques or observational results. Chapters are devoted to basic relations, the spectral lines of atmospheric gases, the spectral properties of condensed matter, and radiative transfer.
Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.
The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.
Contents: Foundations of Remote Sensing : Data Acquisition and Interpretation; Availability of Remote Sensing Technology for Disaster Response...Imaging Systems, Current and Near Future Satellite and Aircraft Remote Sensing Systems; Utilization of Remote Sensing in Disaster Response: Categories of...Disasters, Phases of Monitoring Activities; Recommendations for Utilization of Remote Sensing Technology in Disaster Response; Selected Reading List.
McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)
The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.
Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel
Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…
This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it
Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...
The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...
Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Shin, Robert T.
Abstracts from 46 refereed journal and conference papers are presented for research on remote sensing of earth terrain. The topics covered related to remote sensing include the following: mathematical models, vegetation cover, sea ice, finite difference theory, electromagnetic waves, polarimetry, neural networks, random media, synthetic aperture radar, electromagnetic bias, and others.
The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.
Atwell, B. H.
The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.
The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)
Kong, J. A.
Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.
Rees, W. G.
Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition includes a discussion of the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques and interferometric radar, an expanded list of problems (with solutions), and a discussion of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This book forms the basis of an introductory course in remote sensing. The main readership will be students and researchers in remote sensing, geography, cartography, surveying, meteorology, earth sciences and environmental sciences generally, as well as physicists, mathematicians and engineers.
Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.
Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.
Bishop, Peter C.
The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.
Bi, Siwen; Lin, Xuling; Yang, Song; Wu, Zhiqiang
According to remote sensing science and technology development and application requirements, quantum remote sensing is proposed. First on the background of quantum remote sensing, quantum remote sensing theory, information mechanism, imaging experiments and prototype principle prototype research situation, related research at home and abroad are briefly introduced. Then we expounds compress operator of the quantum remote sensing radiation field and the basic principles of single-mode compression operator, quantum quantum light field of remote sensing image compression experiment preparation and optical imaging, the quantum remote sensing imaging principle prototype, Quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging technology is brought forward, mainly including quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging system composition and working principle, preparation and injection compression light active imaging device and quantum noise amplification device. Finally, the summary of quantum remote sensing research in the past 15 years work and future development are introduced.
North, G. W.
Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.
Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.
Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan
Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.
Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.
Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.
A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.
Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.
Kahn, Ralph A.
Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.
White, P. G.
Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.
Latham, J. P.
Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.
Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.; Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.
This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.
Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.
The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.
Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.
Huber, Thomas P.
Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)
With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...
Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.
Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.
Bethel, Glenn R.
A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.
Rango, A. (Editor)
Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.
Six essential processes that must be accomplished if use of a remote - sensing system is to result in useful information are defined as problem...to be useful in remote - sensing projects are described. An overview of the current state-of-the-art of remote sensing is presented.
This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires.
remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,
Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.
Curran, Paul J.
Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.
Wegener, Steve; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)
The science and application of remote sensing is flourishing in the digital age. Geographical information systems can provide a broad range of information tailored to the specific needs of disaster managers. Recent advances in airborne platforms, sensors and information technologies have come together provide the ability to put geo-registered, multispectral imagery on the web in near real-time. Highlights of a demonstration of NASA's First Response Experiment (FiRE) will be presented.
Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin
This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.
Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.
Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Han, Hsiu C.; Lim, Harold H.; Arnold, David V.
Remote sensing of earth terrain is examined. The layered random medium model is used to investigate the fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from vegetation. The model is used to interpret the measured data for vegetation fields such as rice, wheat, or soybean over water or soil. Accurate calibration of polarimetric radar systems is essential for the polarimetric remote sensing of earth terrain. A polarimetric calibration algorithm using three arbitrary in-scene reflectors is developed. In the interpretation of active and passive microwave remote sensing data from the earth terrain, the random medium model was shown to be quite successful. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar returns from earth terrain. In the terrain cover classification using the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, the applications of the K-distribution model will provide better performance than the conventional Gaussian classifiers. The layered random medium model is used to study the polarimetric response of sea ice. Supervised and unsupervised classification procedures are also developed and applied to synthetic aperture radar polarimetric images in order to identify their various earth terrain components for more than two classes. These classification procedures were applied to San Francisco Bay and Traverse City SAR images.
Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.
Peterson, D. L.
Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.
Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.
Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.
Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.
Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU
In remote sensing, the encountered geophysical media such as agricultural canopy, forest, snow, or ice are inhomogeneous and contain scatters in a random manner. Furthermore, weather conditions such as fog, mist, or snow cover can intervene the electromagnetic observation of the remotely sensed media. In the modelling of such media accounting for the weather effects, a multi-layer random medium model has been developed. The scattering effects of the random media are described by three-dimensional correlation functions with variances and correlation lengths corresponding to the fluctuation strengths and the physical geometry of the inhomogeneities, respectively. With proper consideration of the dyadic Green's function and its singularities, the strong fluctuation theory is used to calculate the effective permittivities which account for the modification of the wave speed and attenuation in the presence of the scatters. The distorted Born approximation is then applied to obtain the correlations of the scattered fields. From the correlation of the scattered field, calculated is the complete set of scattering coefficients for polarimetric radar observation or brightness temperature in passive radiometer applications. In the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems, the development of microwave remote sensing technology and the potential of SAR to measure vegetation structure and biomass have increased effort to conduct experimental and theoretical researches on the interactions between microwave and vegetation canopies. The overall objective is to develop inversion algorithms to retrieve biophysical parameters from radar data. In this perspective, theoretical models and experimental data are methodically interconnected in the following manner: Due to the complexity of the interactions involved, all theoretical models have limited domains of validity; the proposed solution is to use theoretical models, which is validated by experiments, to establish the region in which
Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman
Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.
Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in
Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo
illustrated in relation toIother oceanographic parameters. > reevavy programs which have supported the Remote Sensing Branch’s developments in water ...optics are described. The Navy relevance of water optics to these programs is indicated.’ "I 1 ’ ( ;j "IJl: ,t n ! /H i.i OCEAN OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING...Development Activity (NORDA) Remote Sensing Branch (Code 321) has been conducting investigative programs in water optics since 1977. The major thrust of
Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.
A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.
The surface emissivity and reflectivity of soil are strong functions of its moisture content. Changes in emissivity, observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry), and changes in reflectivity, observed by active microwave techniques (radar), can provide information on the moisture content of the 0 to 5 cm surface layer. In addition, the thermal inertia of the surface layer, which can be remotely sensed by observing the diurnal range of surface temperature, is an indicator of soil moisture content. The thermal infrared approach to remote sensing of soil moisture has little utility in the presence of cloud cover, but provides soil moisture data at high spatial resolutions and thermal data which are a potentially useful indicator of crop status. Microwave techniques can penetrate cloud covers. The passive technique has been demonstrated by both aircraft and spacecraft instruments, but spatial resolution is limited by the size of the antenna which can be flown. Active microwave systems offer the possibility of better spatial resolution, but have yet to be demonstrated from aircraft or spacecraft platforms.
Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.
Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.
Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.
Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.
Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.
Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.
Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is
Thorne, J. F.
State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.
Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.
The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.
Raney, W. P.
In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.
Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.
Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.
Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.
The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.
Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.
Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.
Thomas, R. H.
Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.
Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.
The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.
Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.
Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites
Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.
Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan
The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats
Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.
Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...
Post, Brian Nelson; Smith, Jody Lynn; Geib, Peter L.; Nandy, Prabal; Wang, Nancy Nairong
This remote sensing science and exploitation work focused on exploitation algorithms and methods targeted at the analyst. SMART is a 'plug-in' to commercial remote sensing software that provides algorithms to enhance the utility of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) and other multispectral satellite data. This toolkit has been licensed to 22 government organizations.
Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.
Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.
The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.
Contents: TEKTITE II experiment-upwelling detection (NASA Mx 138); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 159); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 165); Experiments on thermal pollution; Remote sensing newsletter; Symposium on remote sensing in marine biology and fishery resources.
This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of August 1, 1984...active and passive microwave remote sensing , (2) used the strong fluctuation theory and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to calculate the brightness
The long-term goal of this project is to obtain ionospheric profiles from ultraviolet remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms... Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a more straightforward process because of the absence of the complications brought about by daytime
This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of February 1, 1984...the emissivities as functions of viewing angles and polarizations. They are used to interpret the passive microwave remote sensing data from
Leachtenauer, J.; And Others
A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…
Hammen, John L., III.
Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…
Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.
The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.
The purpose of a Navy R&D remote sensing plan should be to set forth the requirements and direction of basic and exploratory research in satellite... remote sensing which supports the overall Navy oceanographic research and operational programs. The aim of the plan would be to outline the established...addressed. The plan should help serve as a single technology and program reference for implementation and planning of Navy related satellite remote
Rush, M.; Vernon, S.
Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.
Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Murali Krishna Gumma,; Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,
Remote sensing data are considered hyperspectral when the data are gathered from numerous wavebands, contiguously over an entire range of the spectrum (e.g., 400–2500 nm). Goetz (1992) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element of an image it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum.” However, Jensen (2004) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The simultaneous acquisition of images in many relatively narrow, contiguous and/or non contiguous spectral bands throughout the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Rush, M.; Vernon, S.
The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.
Sun, Quan-sen; Liu, Ji-xin
High resolution and large field of view are two major development trends in optical remote sensing imaging. But these trends will cause the difficult problem of mass data processing and remote sensor design under the limitation of conventional sampling method. Therefore, we will propose a novel optical remote sensing imaging method based on compressed sensing theory and fractal feature extraction in this study. We could utilize the result of fractal classification to realize the selectable partitioned image recovery with undersampling measurement. The two experiments illustrate the availability and feasibility of this new method.
92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice NO0014-89-J-l 107 6. AUTHOR(S) 425f023-08 Prof. J.A. Kong 7... REMOTE SENSING OF ICE Sponsored by: Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-89-J-1107 Research Organization: Center for...J. A. Kong Period covered: October 1, 1988 - November 30, 1992 St ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING OF ICE FINAL REPORT This annual report covers
Vaughan, A.; Cracknell, A.P.
This book, based on lectures from the Dundee Summer Schools in Remote Sensing in 1992, focuses on aspects of remote sensing related to climatic change. The organization of the book focuses on particular parts of the climate system and then discusses the different satellite systems relevant to their measurement. The following subject areas are included in the book: background information about the climate system and remote sensing; atmospheric applications in both lower and upper atmosphere; land surface including snow and ice, altimetry in Antarctica, land surface energy budget and albedo; marine science; ecological monitoring in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Goetz, A. F. H.; Rock, B. N.; Rowan, L. C.
The use of remote sensing in resource exploration is reviewed, with emphasis placed on new developments in high spectral resolution remote-sensing techniques for mineralogic and vegetation mapping. Topics discussed include aerial photography and satellite remote sensing, concepts and principles of spectral data collection, spectral properties of rocks and minerals, spectral properties of vegetation, and botanical aspects of geochemical stress. The discussion also covers applications of Landsat multispectral scanner data to lithologic and geobotanic studies and the future development of data acquisition and data interpretation techniques.
Baibatsha, A. B.
For work materials used multispectral satellite imagery Landsat (7 channels), medium spatial resolution (14,25-90 m) and a digital elevation model (data SRTM). For interpretation of satellite images and especially their infrared and thermal channels allocated buried paleovalleys pre-paleogene age. Their total length is 228 km. By manifestation of the content of remote sensing paleovalleys distinctly divided into two types, long ribbon-like read in materials and space survey highlights a network of small lakes. By the nature of the relationship established that the second type of river paleovalleys flogs first. On this basis, proposed to allocate two uneven river paleosystem. The most ancient paleovalleys first type can presumably be attributed to karst erosion, blurry chalk and carbon deposits foundation. Paleovalleys may include significant groundwater resources as drinking and industrial purposes. Also we can control the position paleovalleys zinc and bauxite mineralization area and alluvial deposits include uranium mineralization valleys infiltration type and placer gold. Direction paleovalleys choppy, but in general they have a north-east orientation, which is controlled by tectonic zones of the foundation. These zones are defined as the burial place themselves paleovalleys and position of karst cavities in areas interfacing with other structures orientation. The association of mineralization to the caverns in the beds paleovalleys could generally present conditions of formation of mineralization and carry it to the "Niagara" type. The term is obviously best reflects the mechanism of formation of these ores.
Hawat, Toufic-Michel; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Torguet, Roger J.
A heliostat is designed and built to track the sun for optical remote sensing of the stratosphere from a balloon- borne pointed gondola. The tracking mechanism is controlled by two direct torque motors used to drive a single flat acquisition mirror. A horizontal turntable, rigidly attached to the azimuth drive, supports the elevation assembly. A position sensor receiving a small part of the solar beam reflected off the main acquisition mirror is used for the fine servo control. Using a CCD camera prepointing of the acquisition mirror is achieved when the sun is in the field of view of the heliostat. This system is coupled with a high-resolution (0.02-cm-1) Fourier transform IR spectrometer to retrieve stratospheric trace species concentration profiles. The suntracker directs the solar radiation in a stable direction along the spectrometer optical axis. The pointing precision is 1 arcmin from a stratospheric gondola, which has static and dynamic angular excursions up to 6 deg. The heliostat coupled to the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere instrument performs successfully on several balloon flights. The description, ground tests, and balloon flight results of the suntracker are presented.
Kong, J. A.
Two monographs and 85 journal and conference papers on remote sensing of earth terrain have been published, sponsored by NASA Contract NAG5-270. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric data from earth terrain with polarizations HH, HV, VH, and VV. In this approach, correlated polarizations of radar signals, as characterized by a covariance matrix, are treated as the sum of N n-dimensional random vectors; N obeys the negative binomial distribution with a parameter alpha and mean bar N. Subsequently, and n-dimensional K-distribution, with either zero or non-zero mean, is developed in the limit of infinite bar N or illuminated area. The probability density function (PDF) of the K-distributed vector normalized by its Euclidean norm is independent of the parameter alpha and is the same as that derived from a zero-mean Gaussian-distributed random vector. The above model is well supported by experimental data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the form of polarimetric measurements.
Hughes, T. H. (Editor)
Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.
Cehelsky, M.; Kiebler, J.
This overview begins with a brief look at remote sensing to date, focusing on the state of the art and the benefits that have been derived from it. Current and future microwave sensing developments are discussed pointing out special advantages and capabilities and noting the anticipated benefits. The frequency requirements of microwave sensing are outlined and the particular need to both allocate, and when necessary, protect active and passive operational sensing frequencies is emphasized.
Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.
The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct
Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.
Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)
The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.
Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.
An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.
Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.
The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.
The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.
This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.
Spann, G. W.
The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.
Topics in this brief reports include: Kalman filtering of oceanographic data; Remote sensing of sea surface temperature; Altimetry and Surface heat fluxes; Ocean models of the marine mixed layer; Radar altimetry; Mathematical model of California current eddies.
Weeks, W. F.; And Others
Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)
GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.
Curran, Paul J.
Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)
Kirman, Joseph M.
Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)
Schmugge, T. (Editor)
The use of snowmelt runoff models from both the U.S. and Japan for simulating discharge on basins in both countries is discussed as well as research in snowpack properties and evapotranspiration using remotely sensed data.
This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.
of Cross-Correlation and Signal Averaging Appendix B: Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Ammonia using a 33 C02 LIDAR System Ac-’,i- n For AVE...of CO2 differential-absorption LIDAR (DIAL) for the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants was continued during FY84 and consisted of two...individual LIDAR signals and then taking the ratios of the averaged signals in order to deduce the differential-absorption value. This is in contrast to
Delamare, J. M.; Bied-Charreton, M.; Couzy, A.; Jahan, A.; Ledder, J.; Pasquet, J.
Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of obtaining required information for land and resources management and the possibilities of remote sensing are discussed. The services available, organization and objectives of the pilot operation are presented. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary dialog among designers, builders, operators, interpreters and users in all phases. The principles, operation and practical applications of remote sensing systems and processing systems under the pilot operation are presented.
Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.
I. Remote Sensing Basics
A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
Barnes, Norman P.
NASA is developing active remote sensors to monitor the health of Planet Earth and for exploration of other planets. Development and deployment of these remote sensors can have a huge economic impact. Lasers for these active remote sensors span the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared spectral regions. Development activities range from quantum mechanical modeling and prediction of new laser materials to the design, development, and demonstration be deployed in the field.
A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave
Partial Contents: Short Introduction to Nation’s Remote Sensing Units, Domestic Airborne Remote - Sensing System, Applications in Monitoring Natural...Disasters, Applications of Imagery From Experimental Satellites Launched in 1985, 1986, Current Status, Future Prospects for Domestic Remote - Sensing -Satellite...Ground Station, and Radar Remote - Sensing Technology Used to Monitor Yellow River Delta,
In this review of developments in the field of remote sensing from a geophysical perspective, the subject is limited to the electromagnetic spectrum from 0.4 mu m to 25cm. Three broad energy categories are covered: solar reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave.-from Authorremote sensing electromagnetic spectrum solar reflected thermal infrared microwave geophysics
Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; Van de water, Peter K.; Levetin, Estelle; Crimmins, Theresa
This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.
Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.
Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.
Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.
References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.
The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.
Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc
Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).
Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc
Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432
Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.
Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.
Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.
An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.
Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )
This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.
Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.
Basic hydrological research and water resources management may reap tremendous benefits from remote sensing technology, studies are showing. Satellite coverage may allow unprecedented accuracy in the quantification of the global hydrological cycle, for example. Yet despite such benefits, few hydrologists currently use such data. This is partly because the needed tools and algorithms are not fully developed. Such development requires field experiments that combine remotely sensed data with detailed in situ observations. AGU's Remote Sensing in Hydrology Committee has constructed a Web site (http://Iand.gsfc.nasa.gov/RSHC.html) that gives an overview of many such experiments. Included on the site is information on each experiment's overall goal, the types of in situ and remotely sensed measurements taken, relevant climate and vegetation conditions, and so forth. Links to additional relevant Web sites are included. The site is designed to be a suitable starting point for those interested in learning more about remote sensing in hydrology. It lists members of the committee who can be contacted for further information. Hydrologists have recognized the potential of remote sensing technology since the 1970s. It offers a way to avoid the logistical and economic difficulties associated with obtaining continuous in situ measurements of various hydrological variables, difficulties that are particularly pronounced in remote regions. Microwave instruments in particular can potentially provide all-weather, areally averaged estimates of certain variables (such as precipitation, soil moisture, and snow water content) that have been essentially unattainable in the past. In remote sensing, the conversion of emitted and reflected radiances into useful hydrological data is a complex problem. The measured radiances, for example, reflect the integrated character of a pixel area, a scale inconsistent with the point measurements of traditional hydrology. To develop the needed algorithms
Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.
The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.
Goillot, C C
Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.
Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.
Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.
Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.
Shaffer, Lisa R.; Backlund, Peter
Access to space-based remote sensing data is critical for earth science and the study of global change. This article summarizes a variety of U.S. government earth science data policies and problems. The authors examine current efforts to develop data policies for the next generation of U.S. remote sensing programs, noting likely problems based on past experiences. They argue that the goal of U.S. earth science data policy should be to provide the widest possible dissemination of data. Setting such a goal permits the development of a simple, coherent data policy that serves scientific, commercial, and U.S. government interests.
Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Jansen, Robert
With the proliferation of easily accessible remotely sensed imagery over the last several years, image analysts from a wide variety of working environments are in high demand. These analysts do not always have advanced technical backgrounds in science. Robert Arnold's useful and timely laboratory manual serves as an adequate introduction to interpreting remotely sensed photographs and imagery. The book poses a graduated set of examples and questions with a generally increasing but low level of sophistication. It is easy to read, and considerable care has been exercised in the layout of the subject index and overall organization of the manual.
Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Vitorelli, I.
The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.
remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms. Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a relatively straightforward process due to the absence of the complications brought about by daytime solar radiation. Further, during the nighttime hours, the O(+)-H(+) transition level in both the mid- and low-latitude ionospheres lies around 750 km, which is within the range of accuracy of the path matrix inversion. The intensity of the O(+)-e(-) recombination radiation as observed from orbiting space platforms can now be used to
Miyazaki, T; Shimizu, H; Yasuoka, Y
A high-speed spectroradiometer designed for spectral reflectance measurement in remote sensing is described. This instrument uses a monochromatic grating and a photomultiplier system for light detection and sweeps over the 400-850-nm wavelength spectral range with the spectral resolution of 2 nm within 1 s. The instrument has the inherent advantage of portability and speed of operation which make it particularly suitable for field work in the area of fast moving surfaces, e.g., water with wave motion. Some applications of its use in laboratory and field experiments also have been presented. The instrument would seem to be an appropriate instrument for ground data collection in remote sensing.
Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)
Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.
REMOTE SENSING OF BODY SIGNS AND SIGNATURES LPrepared For Naval Medical Research and Development Command National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda...BODY SIGNS AND SIGNATURES S~By James C. Lin and Karen H. Chan Department of Bioengineering University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL 60680 Abstract...Filters Di-t lb io. I AN!ý,z.biiity Codes I’ A.IDist jor p REMOTE SENSING OF BODY SIGNS AND SIGNATURES By James C. Lin and Karen H. Chan Department
Meier, G.A.; Brown, J.F.
Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.
Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A
This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.
Parker, I. E.
The CALVEG classification system for identification of vegetation is described. This hierarchical system responds to classification requirements and to interpretation of vegetation at various description levels, from site description to broad identification levels. The system's major strength is its flexibility in application of remote sensing technology to assess, describe and communicate data relative to vegetative resources on a state-wide basis. It is concluded that multilevel remote sensing is a cost effective tool for assessment of the natural resource base. The CLAVEG system is found to be an economically efficient tool for both existing and potential vegetation.
Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.
As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…
The report presents the unclassified findings from the Investigation of Airborne Wind Sensing Systems conducted under AIRTASK A30303/323/70F17311002. Included is a summary of the current accuracy of wind speed and direction forecasts, a list of possible methods for remote sensing meteorological data, a list of areas of application of the given methods and a list of contacts made for information relevant to this evaluation. (Author)
Classen, Hans George
Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)
The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.
Remote sensing is being used more and more for decision-making and policy development. Specific examples are: (1) Providing constraints on climate models used in IPCC assessments (2) Framing discussions about greenhouse gas monitoring (3) Providing support for hazard assessment and recovery.
A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise Michael G...frequency sound propagation in the ocean , and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. We seek to understand the...fundamental limits to signal processing imposed by ocean variability to enable advanced signal processing techniques, including matched field processing
Mooneyhan, D. W.
Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.
Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...
Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.
Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.
Imperatore, Pasquale; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele
The response of natural stratification to electromagnetic wave has received much attention in last decades, due to its crucial role played in the remote sensing arena. In this context, when the superficial structure of the Earth, whose formation is inherently layered, is concerned, the most general scheme that can be adopted includes the characterization of layered random media. Moreover, a key issue in remote sensing of Earth and other Planets is to reveal the content under the surface illuminated by the sensors. For such a purpose, a quantitative mathematical analysis of wave propagation in three-dimensional layered rough media is fundamental in understanding intriguing scattering phenomena in such structures, especially in the perspective of remote sensing applications. Recently, a systematic formulation has been introduced to deal with the analysis of a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces. Specifically, the results of the Boundary Perturbation Theory (BPT) lead to polarimetric, formally symmetric and physical revealing closed form analytical solutions. The comprehensive scattering model based on the BPT methodologically permits to analyze the bi-static scattering patterns of 3D multilayered rough media. The aim of this paper is to systematically show how polarimetric models obtainable in powerful BPT framework can be successfully applied to several situations of interest, emphasizing its wide relevance in the remote sensing applications scenario. In particular, a proper characterization of the relevant interfacial roughness is adopted resorting to the fractal geometry; numerical examples are then presented with reference to representative of several situations of interest.
Arden, D. D., Jr.; Westra, R. N.
The application of remote sensing to geological investigations, with special attention to geobotanical factors, was evaluated. The general areas of investigation included: (1) recognition of mineral deposits; (2) geological mapping; (3) delineation of geological structure, including areas of complex tectonics; and (4) limestone areas where ground withdrawal had intensified surface collapse.
The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...
Landgrebe, D. A.
Information is provided on how a potential user of remote sensing technology can gain access to all of the products and services he will need to get started. It was envisioned that these include data, training, hardware, and software. A very brief tutorial summary of the fundamentals of the technology is presented.
Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.
The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.
Cao, Xibin; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhaowei; Xu, Guodong
Optical Remote Sensing Small Satellite is for high-tech flight demonstration's test and three dimensions mapping. Its system overview is presented in the paper, and it includes such items as mission objective and mission requirements, satellite system scheme, reliability, cost budget project schedule and management and operation.
McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart
Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.
Sparks, W. B.; Hough, J. H.; Kolokolova, L.; Germer, T.; Robb, F.
A high quality biosignature arises uniquely from biological processes. If a biosignature can additionally be used in remote sensing, then it can be useful for future telescopic studies of extrasolar planets where remote sensing is a necessity. The remarkable phenomenon of homochirality may be such a biosignature. The optical activity of biological molecules, together with their handedness, can yield a unique signature in circular polarization. Photosynthesis, a surface phenomenon relying on strong polarization-sensitive transitions in the visible, where light from the host star is abundant, is a natural remote sensing target for this approach. Both microbial photosynthesis, which has dominated terrestrial life for much of the history of Earth, and macroscopic vegetation, may in principle be observed. Precision polarimetry from space is likely to be needed, and we describe a promising, innovative approach to acquire sensitive full Stokes polarimetry with a compact, robust configuration well-suited to space application. The homochirality phenomenon is likely to be generic to all biochemical life, and pure in that abiotic processes do not result in homochirality nor do abiotic processes produce circular polarization features with similar character to the biological ones. This uniquely powerful biosignature is amenable to remote sensing, in principle, through circular polarization spectroscopy.
Smith, A. D.
The basic philosophy and some current activities of MSFC Technology Transfer with regard to remote sensing technology are briefly reviewed. Among the problems that may be alleviated through such technology transfer are the scarcity of energy and mineral resources, the alteration of the environment by man, unpredictable natural disasters, and the effect of unanticipated climatic change on agricultural productivity.
Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...
Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.
Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…
Schertler, Ronald J.
Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…
Barstow, S.F.; Krogstad, H.E.
Satellite remote sensing is quickly becoming a major information source for wave climate assessments. The present paper surveys various measurement principles and illustrates applications of satellite altimeter wave data from both the GEOSAT, Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 Exact Repeat missions. The paper also discusses use of Wave Mode and Image Mode SAR data obtained by ERS-1.
Scott, D. W.
Current efforts to develop methods and computer algorithms to effectively represent multivariate data commonly encountered in remote sensing applications are described. While this may involve scatter diagrams, multivariate representations of nonparametric probability density estimates are emphasized. The density function provides a useful graphical tool for looking at data and a useful theoretical tool for classification. This approach is called a thunderstorm data analysis.
Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)
The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.
Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)
The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.
Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)
Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.
Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.
A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.
Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B
A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.
NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series Tuesday, July 12, 2016 ... you of a free training opportunity: Introduction to Remote Sensing for Air Quality Applications Webinar Series Beginning in ...
Linlor, W. I.
The present work describes the use of an airborne electromagnetic sensing system for measuring snowpack depth, density, and water content. A transmitter sends a sequence of pulses of stepped frequencies, and the reflections are measured by a sensitive receiver. The combination of the snowpack and the earth interacts with the electromagnetic wave so as to modify the characteristics of the reflected signals. The variation of the reflected intensity with frequency provides the desired data. A theoretical analysis of return signal and snowpack parameter relationships is given, and the results of experimental verification of the theory are discussed.
remote sensing technology for detecting changes in wetland environments. This report documents a bibliographic search conducted as part of that work unit on applications of remote sensing techniques in wetland research. Results were used to guide research efforts on the use of remote sensing technology for wetland change detection and assessment. The citations are presented in three appendixes, organized by wetland type, sensor type, and author.... Change detection, Wetland assessment, Remote sensing ,
Campbell, J. W.; Esaias, W. E.; Hypes, W. D.
The Chesapeake Bay plume study called Superflux is described. The study was initiated to incorporate the disciplines of both resources management and remote sensing in accomplishing the following objectives: (1) process oriented research to understand the impact of estuarine outflows on continental shelf ecosystems; (2) monitoring and assessment to delineate the role of remote sensing in future monitoring and assessment programs; and (3) remote sensing research: to advance the state of the art in remote sensing systems as applied to sensing of the marine environment, thereby hastening the day when remote sensing can be used operationally for monitoring and assessment and for process oriented research.
A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.
Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.
In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.
Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D
A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.
Colwell, R. N.
A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.
Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.
Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)
Campbell, Bruce A.
Points out the uses of remote sensing in different areas, and introduces the program "Reflections on Earth" which provides access to basic and instructional information on remote sensing to students and teachers. Introduces students to concepts related to remote sensing and measuring distances. (YDS)
Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...
Wieczorek, Gerald F.; McWreath, Harry; Davenport, Clay
Methods of assessing landslide hazards and providing warnings are becoming more advanced as remote sensing of rainfall provides more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Two recent landslide disasters are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. For the June 27, 1995, storm in Madison County, Virginia, USA, National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar provided rainfall estimates based on a relation between cloud reflectivity and moisture content on a 1 sq. km. resolution every 6 minutes. Ground-based measurements of rainfall intensity and precipitation total, in addition to landslide timing and distribution, were compared with the radar-derived rainfall data. For the December 14-16, 1999, storm in Vargas State, Venezuela, infrared sensing from the GOES-8 satellite of cloud top temperatures provided the basis for NOAA/NESDIS rainfall estimates on a 16 sq. km. resolution every 30 minutes. These rainfall estimates were also compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and landslide distribution. In both examples, the remotely sensed data either overestimated or underestimated ground-based values by up to a factor of 2. The factors that influenced the accuracy of rainfall data include spatial registration and map projection, as well as prevailing wind direction, cloud orientation, and topography.
Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.
Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.
Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.
Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.
This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.
Phelps, R. A.
Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.
Rose, William I.
A second international workshop on the remote sensing of volcanic clouds was recently held to improve and expand the use of satellite-based remote sensing data for hazard mitigation and other research purposes, such as volcano-atmosphere interactions and chemical and meteorological effects on the troposphere and stratosphere. Forty-six researchers attended, representing 11 countries, 10 universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations. Also represented were the Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers in Washington, D.C.; Anchorage; Montreal; Darwin; London; and Tokyo, which monitor volcanic ash plumes and predict their displacement within their areas of responsibility The nine VAACs were established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to address various aviation concerns related to volcanic ash.
Rose, William I.
An international workshop on the Remote Sensing of Volcanic Clouds was held July 29-August 3, 2001, at Michigan Technological University The workshop's goal was to improve and expand the use of satellite-based remote sensing data for hazard mitigation and other research purposes, such as volcano-atmosphere interactions and chemical and meteorological effects on the troposphere and stratosphere. Forty-six researchers attended, representing 11 countries, 9 universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations, as well as the Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers in Washington, D.C., Anchorage, Montreal, Darwin, London, and Toulouse. (The Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers monitor volcanic ash plumes within their assigned airspace. There are 9 in all and they were created at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other aviation concerns.)
Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P
A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics.
The history of remote sensing is reviewed and the scope and versatility of the several remote sensing systems already in orbit are discussed, especially those with sensors operating in other EM spectral modes. The multisensor approach is examined by interrelating LANDSAT observations with data from other satellite systems. The basic principles and practices underlying the use of thermal infrared and radar sensors are explored and the types of observations and interpretations emanating from the Nimbus, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, and SEASAT programs are examined. Approved or proposed Earth resources oriented missions for the 1980's previewed include LANDSAT D, Stereosat, Gravsat, the French satellite SPOT-1, and multimission modular spacecraft launched from space shuttle. The pushbroom imager, the linear array pushbroom radiometer, the multispectral linear array, and the operational LANDSAT observing system, to be designed the LANDSAT-E series are also envisioned for this decade.
Wells, J. B.
The project was designed to train federal, state and regional agency managers, scientists and engineers. A one-week seminar was designed and implemented to build vocabulary, introduce technical subject areas and give students enough training to allow them to relate remote sensing technology to operational agency projects. The seminar was designed to perform the dual function of conveying enough remote sensing information to be of value as a stand-alone and preparing students for detailed pattern recognition training. The LARSYS III portion of the training project was executed exactly as designed in the LARSYS training materials package; the LARSYS package did not contain a LANDSAT training module. Two LANDSAT training modules were developed using Texas LANDSAT data. One module contained central Texas data and the second module contained coastal zone data.
Hirschfeld, T.; Haugen, G.; Milanovich, F. P.
The sensing and analytical abilities of the laser-fluorescence spectrometer was extended beyond the physical confines of the laboratory by means of communications-grade optical fibers. These fiber probes are extremely rugged, compared with sensitive laboratory equipment, and also extremely inexpensive. Sensitive chemical analyses may be performed in hostile environments without risking damage to the laser and the spectrometer. Special-purpose optrodes that are sensitive to selected chemicals were produced. With multiplexing, a number of fibers whose terminals are at widely scattered locations, gathering information in one central instrument without the expense and delay involved in manual sample gathering are scanned. A remote analyzer for monitoring rare earth ion migration in a nuclear-waste repository, an environment too hostile for any previous remote sensing device is being developed. Optrodes sensitive to a wide variety of non-chemical stimuli are being developed.
Danielson, R. L.
Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.
Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl
Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.
Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.
Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.
Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.
Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.
Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.
The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.
Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.
The USDA, the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), the Remote Sensing Research Program of the University of California (UCB) and NASA have completed a 4-yr cooperative project on the use of remote sensing in monitoring California agriculture. This report is a summary of the project and the final report of NASA's contribution to it. The cooperators developed procedures that combined the use of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery and digital data with good ground survey data for area estimation and mapping of the major crops in California. An inventory of the Central Valley was conducted as an operational test of the procedures. The satellite and survey data were acquired by USDA and UCB and processed by CDWR and NASA. The inventory was completed on schedule, thus demonstrating the plausibility of the approach, although further development of the data processing system is necessary before it can be used efficiently in an operational environment.
Romanowski, Gregory J.
SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which
Cicone, R. C.
A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.
Short, N. M. (Editor)
The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.
The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and
Raulston, H. S.; Pace, M. O.; Gonzalez, R. C.
An algorithm is developed for a learning, adaptive, statistical pattern classifier for remotely sensed data. The estimation procedure consists of two steps: (1) an optimal stochastic approximation of the parameters of interest, and (2) a projection of the parameters in time and space. The results reported are for Gaussian data in which the mean vector of each class may vary with time or position after the classifier is trained.
Gausman, H. W.
Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.
remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed
LIDAR Appendix 8: Limitations of Signal Averaging due to Temporal 26 Correlation in Laser Remote-Sensing Measurements Ac cessiol For ICTAB :16t is et ion...following: (1) the initial development of a heterodyne-detection, differential-absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system, (2) the development of a computerized data...near 10 pm. The outputs from these two lasers were directed out the laboratory window and the LIDAR returns collected with a telescope. Through use of
Tucker, C. J.
Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.
Pettinger, Lawrence R.
Objectives: To present an overview of the essential steps in the remote sensing data analysis process, and to compare and contrast manual (visual) and automated analysis methods Rationale: This overview is intended to provide a framework for choosing a manual of digital analysis approach to collecting resource information. It can also be used as a basis for understanding/evaluating invited papers and poster sessions during the Symposium
Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.
Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures
With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.
Gaffar, Eddy Z.
Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.
Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng
Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications.
Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.
NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.
A brief review of the federal government's role in developing remote sensing activities in Canada over the years is given. The struggle to map a large country, together with an interest in space, brought about the Canadian remote sensing program. In particular, the paper focuses on the role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada in coordinating research activities by all levels of government in remote sensing, thus fostering the growth of the remote sensing industry in Canada. An overview is given of the expanding remote sensing market. In addition, the paper looks at the present applications of remote sensing to agriculture, forestry and the study of ice caps and fresh water, for example, as well as its use in assessing and preventing environmental disasters. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of remote sensing in meeting the "Challenge of the 90's"—making sustainable development a way of life.
Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; Roberts, Christine C.; Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Nemer, Martin B.
Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of nine magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.
Jones, Benjamin M.
Amplified warming in the Arctic has likely increased the rate of landscape change and disturbances in northern high latitude regions. Remote sensing provides a valuable tool for assessing the spatial and temporal patterns associated with arctic landscape dynamics over annual, decadal, and centennial time scales. In this dissertation, I focused on remote sensing studies associated with four primary components of arctic landscape change and disturbance: (1) permafrost coastline erosion, (2) thermokarst lake dynamics, (3) tundra fires, and (4) using repeat airborne LiDAR for the measurement of vertical deformation in an arctic coastal lowland landscape. By combining observations from several high resolution satellite images for a 9 km segment of the Beaufort Sea Coast between 2008 and 2012, I demonstrated that the report of heightened erosion at the beginning of the 2000s was equaled or exceeded in every year except 2010 and that the mean annual erosion rate was tightly coupled to the number of open water days and the number of storms. By combining historical aerial photographs from the 1950s and 1980s with recent high-resolution satellite imagery from the mid-2000s, I assessed the expansion and drainage of thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula. I found that more than half of the lakes in the study area were expanding as a result of permafrost degradation along their margins but that the rate of expansion was fairly consistent (0.35 and 0.39 m/yr) between the 1950s and 1980s and 1980s and mid-2000s, respectively. However, it appeared that in a number of instances that expansion of lakes led to the lateral drainage and that over the 55-year study period the total lake area decreased by 24%. While these studies highlight the utility of quantifying disturbance during the remotely sensed image archive period (~1950s to present) they are inherently limited temporally. Thus, I also demonstrated techniques in which field studies and remote sensing data could be
The papers presented at the symposium focus on remote sensing, particularly on global monitoring of the earth with emphasis on the solution of environmental problems. Topics discussed include remote sensing of clouds and earth troposphere, sea ice remote sensing, optical remote sensing, land monitoring and thermal sensing, atmospheric sounding and monitoring, atmospheric correction, and satellite imaging data. Other subject areas are ecosystems and vegetation monitoring; ocean winds and surface scattering; ocean waves, currents and bathymetry; satellite oceanography; SAR for remote sensing; neural nets application to remote sensing; geographical information systems; and electromagnetic wave propagation. Also discussed environmental monitoring using ERS-1; Topex/Poseidon results; spaceborne instruments; image processing and classification algorithms; and future space missions.
Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.
The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote
Colwell, Robert N.
Provides information about the field of remote sensing, including discussions of geo-synchronous and sun-synchronous remote-sensing platforms, the actual physical processes and equipment involved in sensing, the analysis of images by humans and machines, and inexpensive, small scale methods, including aerial photography. (CS)
Anderson, Paul S.
A classification of remote sensing courses throughout the world, the world-wide need for sensing instruction, and alternative instructional methods for meeting those needs are discussed. Remote sensing involves aerial photointerpretation or the use of satellite and other non-photographic imagery; its focus is to interpret what is in the photograph…
Holland, Stephen Keith
The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background
Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet
The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes
Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent
The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal
Glackin, David L.
The field of Earth remote sensing is evolving from one that contains purely governmental and military standalone systems of high complexity and expense to one that includes an increasing number of commercial systems, focused missions using small satellites, and systems of lower complexity and cost. The evolution of the field from 1980 - 2007 is summarized in this paper, with emphasis on the rapid changes of international scope that are taking place in 1997 which will shape the future of the field. As of three years ago, seven counties had built and flown free-flying earth observation satellite systems. Projections are for the number of countries operating such systems to approximately double by three years from now. Rapid changes are taking place in terms of spatial resolution, spectral resolution, proliferation of small satellites, ocean color, commercialization and privatization. Several fully commercial high-resolution systems will be launched over the next three years. Partly commercial synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems became a reality with the launch of Radarsat in 1995. Only a handful of small satellite remote sensing missions have been launched to date, while a large number will be launched over the next few years, including minisats from Australia, Brazil, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and the USA, as well as microsats from many countries including Malaysia, Pakistan and South Africa. Systems with far greater spectral resolution will also become a reality as hyperspectral instruments are launched. In 1997, we truly stand on the cusp of tremendous change in the burgeoning field of Earth remote sensing.
Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara
Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.
Campbell, J.; Ehrich, R. W.; Elliott, D.; Haralick, R. M.; Wang, S.
Photointerpreters employ a variety of implicit spatial models to provide interpretations from remotely sensed aerial or satellite imagery. In this paper one application is illustrated: how ridges and valleys can be automatically interpreted from Landsat imagery of a mountainous area, and how a relative elevation terrain model can be constructed from this interpretation. How to examine valleys for the possible presence of streams or rivers is shown, and how a spatial relational model can be set up to make a final interpretation of the river drainage network is explored.
Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.
Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.
Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.; Hennigar, H. F.
Remote sensing was used in the resolution of estuarine problems facing federal and Virginia governmental agencies. A prototype Elizabeth River Surface Circulation Atlas was produced from photogrammetry to aid in oil spill cleanup and source identification. Aerial photo analysis twice led to selection of alternative plans for dredging and spoil disposal which minimized marsh damage. Marsh loss due to a mud wave from a highway dyke was measured on sequential aerial photographs. An historical aerial photographic sequence gave basis to a potential Commonwealth of Virginia legal claim to accreting and migrating coastal islands.
Ulaby, F. T.
A perspective on the implementation of microwave sensors in future airborne and spaceborne observations of hydrologic parameters is presented. The rationale is based on a review of the status and future trends of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave research as applied to the remote sensing of soil moisture content, snowpack water equivalent, freeze/thaw boundaries, lake ice thickness, surface water area, and the specification of watershed runoff coefficients. Analyses and observations based on data acquired from ground based, airborne and spaceborne platforms, and an evaluation of advantages and limitations of microwave sensors are included.
Cicone, R. C.
The incorporation of remotely sensed digital data in a computer based information system is seen to be equivalent to the incorporation of any other spatially oriented layer of data. The growing interest in such systems indicates a need to develop a generalized geographically oriented data base management system that could be made commercially available for a wide range of applications. Some concepts that distinguish geographic information systems were reviewed, and a simple model which can serve as a conceptual framework for the design of a generalized geographic information system was examined.
Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)
Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.
Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.
LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.
Xu, Sheng; Hong, Huo; Fang, Tao; Li, Deren
In this paper, a shape saliency measure for only shape feature of each object in the image is described. Instead biologically-inspired bottom-up Itti model, the dissimilarity is measured by the shape feature. And, Fourier descriptor is used for measuring dissimilarity in this paper. In the model, the object is determined as a salient region, when it is far different from others. Different value of the saliency is ranged to generate a saliency map. It is shown that the attention shift processing can be recorded. Some results from psychological images and remote sensing images are shown and discussed in the paper.
Chahine, M. T.
Recent advances in remote atmospheric sensing are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to vertical temperature and humidity profiles, cloud structure, and wind. Present capabilities and projections of future improvements in accuracy and resolution are given for the Microwave Sounding Unit, High Resolution Infrared Sounder, Defence Meteorological Satellite Project, and VISSR Atmospheric Sounder. It is noted that future sounding systems will require (1) high spectral resolution; (2) multispectral observations of the atmosphere and the surface in order to correct for most of the geophysical processes contaminating the outgoing radiance; and (3) a control algorithm capable of using information from multispectral channels to identify those parameters that have errors larger than a specified value.
The Applied Sciences Directorate, part of NASA s Science Mission Directorate, makes use of the Agency s remote-sensing capabilities to acquire detailed information about our home planet. It uses this information for a variety of purposes, ranging from increasing agricultural efficiency to protecting homeland security. Sensors fly over areas of interest to detect and record information that sometimes is not even visible from the ground with the human eye. Scientists analyze these data for a variety of purposes and make maps of the areas. These maps are often used to answer questions about the environment, weather, natural resources, community growth, and natural disasters.
Mccord, T. B.; Cruikshank, D. P.
The most recent comprehensive results on spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites are reviewed. The moon and terrestrial planets are considered in terms of individual surface elements, reflectance spectra being analyzed to show the composition of the soils of these bodies. For more distant, unresolved objects, including the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, the small satellites of Jupiter, the rings and satellites of Saturn and Uranus, as well as Triton and Pluto, the global or hemispheric averages of surface composition are the objects of study. The absorptions due to methane gas and frost are indicated.
Colloquium 133 held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August, 1991, Z. Svestka, B.V. Jackson and M.E. Machado, eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, (1992) (pg. 322 - 328...Physics, 399, the proceedings of IAU Colloquium 133 held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August, 1991, Z. Svestka, B.V. Jackson and M.E. Machado, eds...133 on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 Au- gust (1991). 9. Jackson, B.V. "Remote Sensing Observations of Mass Ejections and Shocks
Solar Mass Ejection hnager in Low-Earth Orbit", in press in the IAU Colloquium 133 proceedings on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6...Colloquium 133 proceedings on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August (1991) (10 pages). + Work In Progress 1. Jackson, B.V. and H.R...34, presented at IAU Colloquium 133 on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August (1991). 9. Jackson, B.V. "Remote Sensing Observations of
Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.
The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.
Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.
The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.
Giddings, L. E.
Remotely sensed information is discussed which has potential for aiding in the control or eradication of tsetse flies. Data are available from earth resources meteorological, and manned satellites, from airborne sensors, and possibly from data collection platforms. A new zone discrimination technique, based on data from meteorological satellites may also allow the identification of zones hospitable to one or another species of tsetse. For background, a review is presented of the vegetation of Tanzania and Zanzibar, and illustrations presented of automatic processing of data from these areas. In addition, a review is presented of the applicability of temperature data to tsetse areas.
Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy
In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.
Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)
Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.
Spectrometric, radiometric and polarimetric remote sensing observations of wavelengths from gamma-rays to microwaves are addressed. The basic form of the data is one dimensional arrays. At the high energy end of the spectrum, data are typically presented as pulse count versus energy, and at lower energies, as intensity versus wavelength. High spectral resolution measurements (better 1% of wavelength) are particularly useful for identifying atomic, molecular, and ionic species while broader band measurements are adequate for identifying minerals and for determining total energy fluxes. Polarization data permit the study of finely divided material such as clouds and surfaces.
Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.
A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.
Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN
A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.
Kiefer, R. W.
The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.
Thompson, M. D.
A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.
Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.
It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.
Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.
A project to determine the ways in which remote sensing can contribute to solutions of urban public health problems in time of natural disaster is discussed. The objectives of the project are to determine and describe remote sensing standard operating procedures for public health assistance during disaster relief operations which will aid the agencies and organizations involved in disaster intervention. Proposed tests to determine the validity of the remote sensing system are reported.
Experimental slicks with various surface properties were generated in the North Sea as part of the MARSEN (Maritime Remote Sensing ) exercise. The one...with remote sensing instrumentation. Because of the numerous effects of surface films on air-sea interfacial processes, these experiments were designed...information was obtained on the influence of sea surface films on the interpretation of signals received by remote sensing systems. Criteria for the
The Arctic Institute of North America long has been interested in encouraging full and specific attention to applications of remote sensing to polar...research problems. The major purpose of the symposium was to acquaint scientists and technicians concerned with remote sensing with some of the...special problems of the polar areas and, in turn, to acquaint polar scientists with the potential of the use of remote sensing . The Symposium therefore was
NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) METHODS OF DETERMINING PLAYA SURFACE CONDITIONS USING REMOTE SENSING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J. PONDER...PLAYA SURFACE CONDITIONS USING REMOTE SENSING J. Ponder Henley U. S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060-5546 "ABSTRACT...geochemistry, hydrology and remote sensing but all of these are important to the understanding of these unique geomorphic features. There is a large body
Stefanov, William L.
This slide presentation reviews some of the current usages of remote sensing, and the science of remote sensing. Included as examples of remote sensing, are emissivity (i.e., infrared) and reflectance (i.e., visible to shortwave infrared) graphs of several minerals, and vegetation spectra. Also, there are pictures of several places on Earth from the photographs that were taken by Astronauts during the earliest missions to later missions.
Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao
Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies.
Fischer, W. A.; Hemphill, W.R.; Kover, Allan
This report concerns the progress in remote sensing during the period 1972–1976. Remote sensing has been variously defined but is basically the art or science of telling something about an object without touching it. During the past four years, the major research thrusts have been in three areas: (1) computer-assisted enhancement and interpretation systems; (2) earth science applications of Landsat data; (3) and investigations of the usefulness of observations of luminescence, thermal infrared, and microwave energies. Based on the data sales at the EROS Data Center, the largest users of the Landsat data are industrial companies, followed by government agencies (both national and foreign), and academic institutions. Thermal surveys from aircraft have become largely operational, however, significant research is being undertaken in the field of thermal modeling and analysis of high altitude images. Microwave research is increasing rapidly and programs are being developed for satellite observations. Microwave research is concentrating on oil spill detection, soil moisture measurement, and observations of ice distributions. Luminescence investigations offer promise for becoming a quantitative method of assessing vegetation stress and pollutant concentrations.
Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.
NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.
Jacobs, J. M.; Myers, D. A.; Anderson, M. C.
The application of remote sensing methods to estimate evapotranspiration has the advantage of good spatial resolution and excellent spatial coverage, but may have the disadvantage of infrequent sampling and considerable expense. The GOES satellites provide enhanced temporal resolution with hourly estimates of solar radiation and have a spatial resolution that is significantly better than that available from most ground-based pyranometer networks. As solar radiation is the primary forcing variable in wetland evapotranspiration, the opportunity to apply GOES satellite data to wetland hydrologic analyses is great. An accuracy assessment of the remote sensing product is important and the subsequent validation of the evapotranspiration estimates are a critical step for the use of this product. A wetland field experiment was conducted in the Paynes Prairie Preserve, North Central Florida during a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. Evapotranspiration and other surface energy balance components of a wet prairie community dominated by Panicum hemitomon (maiden cane), Ptilimnium capillaceum (mock bishop's weed), and Eupatorium capillifolium (dog fennel) were investigated. Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite observations, in combination with local meteorological measurements, were used to model evapotranspiration from a wetland. The satellite solar radiation, derived net radiation and estimated evapotranspiration estimates were compared to measured data at 30-min intervals and daily times scales.
Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.
Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.
Paylor, E. D.
Rocky Mountain foreland basins are somewhat unique in that the basins may exhibit a variety of structural styles. It is generally agreed that shortening has occurred in the foreland basement but the cause is controversial: vertical vs compressional horizontal tectonics. Even when shortening is attributed to compression, the attitude (dip) of the fault plane and whether the horizontal or vertical component of movement is dominant is unconstrained. The controversy is difficult to resolve from surface data alone due to the variety of possible interpretations. Detailed surface mapping and geologic modeling are needed to constrain subsurface interpretations. In many areas of the Wind River and Bighorn basins detailed geologic maps do not exist. State-of-the-art remote sensing data could potentially provide an efficient means of mapping surface geology. State-of-the-art remote sensing systems now provide geometrically correct data at 30 meter pixel size and increased spectral coverage, capable of more detailed geologic analyses. These data can be photographically enlarged to 1:24,000 scale and combined with 7 1/2' uses topographic quads to provide an excellent base map for geologic interpretations.
Wang, Huan-jiong; Fan, Wen-jie; Cui, Yao-kui; Zhou, Lei; Yan, Bin-yan; Wu, Dai-hui; Xu, Xi-ru
The distributing of China's grassland is abroad and the status of grassland degradation is in serious condition. So achieving real-time and exactly grassland ecological monitoring is significant for the carbon cycle, as well as for climate and on regional economies. With the field measured spectra data as data source, hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation was researched in the present article. The warm meadow grassland in Hulunbeier was chosen as a study object. Reflectance spectra of leaves and pure canopies of some dominant grassland species such as Leymus chinensis, Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigid, as well as reflectance spectra of mixed grass community were measured. Using effective spectral feature parametrization methods, the spectral feature of leaves and pure canopies were extracted, so the constructive species and degenerate indicator species can be exactly distinguished. Verification results showed that the accuracy of spectral identification was higher than 95%. Taking it as the foundation, the spectra of mixed grass community were unmixed using linear mixing models, and the proportion of all the components was calculated, and the errors were less than 5%. The research results of this article provided the evidence of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation.
Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.
In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.
Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.
Braverman, A. J.; Katzfuss, M.; Nguyen, H.
Remote sensing data are inherently spatial, and a substantial portion of their value for scientific analyses derives from the information they can provide about spatially dependent processes. Geophysical variables such as atmopsheric temperature, cloud properties, humidity, aerosols and carbon dioxide all exhibit spatial patterns, and satellite observations can help us learn about the physical mechanisms driving them. However, remote sensing observations are often noisy and incomplete, so inferring properties of true geophysical fields from them requires some care. These data can also be massive, which is both a blessing and a curse: using more data drives uncertainties down, but also drives costs up, particularly when data are stored on different computers or in different physical locations. In this talk I will discuss a methodology for spatial inference on massive, distributed data sets that does not require moving large volumes of data. The idea is based on a combination of ideas including modeling spatial covariance structures with low-rank covariance matrices, and distributed estimation in sensor or wireless networks.
Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.
The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.
Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.
Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.
Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Wang, James R.
Hurricanes, blizzards and other weather events are important to understand not only for disaster preparation, but also to track the global energy balance and to improve weather and climate forecasts. For several decades, passive radiometers and active radars on aircraft and satellites have been employed to remotely sense rain rates and the properties of liquid particles. In the past few years the relationships between frozen particles and millimeter-wave observations have become understood well enough to estimate the properties of ice in clouds. A brief background of passive remote sensing of precipitation will be presented followed by a focused discussion of recent research at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center estimating the properties of frozen particles in clouds. The retrievals are for (1) ice that will eventually melt into rain, (2) for solid precipitation falling in northern climates, and (3) cirrus ice clouds. The electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties and differences of liquid rain versus frozen particles will be summarized for frequencies from 6 to 340+ GHz. Challenges of this work including surface emissivity variability, non-linear and under-constrained relationships, and frozen particle unknowns will be discussed. Retrieved cloud particle contents and size distributions for ice above the melting layer in hurricanes, retrieved snowfall rates for a blizzard, and cirrus ice estimates will be presented. Future directions of this work will also be described.
This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.
Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.
A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.
Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.
Sturdevant, James A.; Holm, Thomas M.
For decades Federal and State agencies have been collecting aerial photographs of various film types and scales over parts of the United States. More recently, worldwide Earth resources data acquired by orbiting satellites have inundated the remote sensing community. Determining the types of remotely sensed data that are publicly available can be confusing to the land-resource manager, planner, and scientist. This paper is a summary of the more commonly used types of remotely sensed data (aircraft and satellite) and their public availability. Special emphasis is placed on the National High-Altitude Photography (NHAP) program and future remote-sensing satellites.
Although remote sensing is currently multidisciplinary in its applications, many of its terms come from the engineering sciences, particularly from the field of pattern recognition. Scholars from fields such as the social sciences, botany, and biology, may experience initial difficulty with remote sensing terminology, even though parallel concepts exist in their own fields. Some parallel concepts and terminologies from nonengineering fields, which might enhance the understanding of remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary situation are identified. Feedbacks which this analogue strategy might have on remote sensing itself are explored.
Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.
Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California, Earth Observing System (EOS) programs, the Deep Space Network (DSN), and various Department of Defense (DOD) technology demonstration programs, combined their technical expertise to develop SEASCRAPE, a software program that obtains data when thermal infrared radiation passes through the Earth's atmosphere and reaches a sensor. Licensed by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), SEASCRAPE automatically inverts complex infrared data and makes it possible to obtain estimates of the state of the atmosphere along the ray path. Former JPL staff members created a small entrepreneurial firm, Remote Sensing Analysis Systems, Inc., of Altadena, California, to commercialize the product. The founders believed that a commercial version of the software was needed for future U.S. government missions and the commercial monitoring of pollution. With the inversion capability of this software and remote sensing instrumentation, it is possible to monitor pollution sources from safe and secure distances on a noninterfering, noncooperative basis. The software, now know as SEASCRAPE_Plus, allows the user to determine the presence of pollution products, their location and their abundance along the ray path. The technology has been cleared by the Department of Commerce for export, and is currently used by numerous research and engineering organizations around the world.
Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; ...
Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of ninemore » magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.« less
Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.
Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the
Edwards, David P.
Recent advances in tropospheric remotesensing have opened the way for measuring,monitoring, and understanding processesthat lead to atmospheric pollution.As part of an integrated observing strategy,satellite measurements provide a contextfor localized observations and help toextend these observations to continentaland global scales. The challenge for futurespace-borne missions will be directlyaccessing the local scale and facilitatingthe use of remotely sensed information forimproving local- and regional-scale airquality (AQ) forecasts. Achieving this goalcould provide important societal dividendsfor public health, for policy applicationsrelated to managing national AQ, and forassessing the impact of daily human activityon the distributions of important tracegases and aerosols and their short-timescalevariability-known as `chemicalweather'-as well as on climate.
Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.
The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.
Brennan, P. A.; Lintz, J., Jr.
Sedimentary rocks including varying sized clastics and carbonates were overflown by aircraft between 1966 and 1971 producing data in the ultraviolet to microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reports that multispectral analysis increases the ease and rapidity of discrimination of rock types having subtle differences in physical characteristics, but fails to enhance and may degrade distinctions where physical characteristics are significantly different. Brief resumes of color and color IR photographic data are presented. Thermal infrared is found to be useful in the mapping of rock units, but limitations such as moisture variation, soil cover, and vegetation may exceed in one formation the distinction between differing lithologies. A brief review of previously published SLAR data is included for completeness. Remote sensing techniques should reduce field geological effort by as much as 50%.
Loats, H., Jr.; Fowler, T.; Castruccio, P.
The transfer of LANDSAT remote sensing technology from the research sector to user operational applications requires demonstration of the utility and accuracy of LANDSAT data in solving real problems. This report describes such a demonstration project in the area of water resources, specifically the estimation of non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutants were estimated from land cover data from LANDSAT images. Classification accuracies for three small watersheds were above 95%. Land cover was converted to pollutant loads for a fourth watershed through the use of coefficients relating significant pollutants to land use and storm runoff volume. These data were input into a simulator model which simulated runoff from average rainfall. The result was the estimation of monthly expected pollutant loads for the 17 subbasins comprising the Magothy watershed.
Zuev, Vladimir V.; Nakhtigalova, Daria P.; Shelekhov, Alexander P.; Shelekhova, Evgeniya A.; Baranov, Nikolay A.; Kizhner, Lubov I.
Remote sensing technique of detection of potential aircraft icing areas based on temperature profile measurements, using meteorological temperature profiler, and the data of the Airfield Measuring and Information System (AMIS-RF), was proposed, theoretically described and experimentally validated during the field project in 2012 - 2013 in the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport. Spatial areas of potential aircraft icing were determined using the RAP algorithm and Godske formula. The equations for the reconstruction of profiles of relative humidity and dew point using data from AMIS-RF are given. Actual data on the aircraft icing for the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport on 11 October 2012 and 17 March 2013 are presented in this paper. The RAP algorithm and Godske formula show similar results for the location of spatial areas of potential icing. Though, the results obtained using the RAP algorithm are closer to the actual data on the icing known from aircraft crew reports.
In this work, we present a complete analysis of a new signal processing method for MSK-modulated VLF signals with the purpose to produce reliable amplitude and phase measurements for ionospheric remote sensing. We analyze the bit-error rate and the resulting amplitude and phase measurements as a function of signal-to-noise ratio under different background noise environments. We also compare the new method to other methods presently in use. We highlight the transient response characteristics by analyzing naturally occurring ionospheric events observed in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We apply the method to observations of solar X-ray flares, lightning-induced electron precipitation, and transient luminous events.
Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong
The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.
Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John
A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.
Schmugge, T. J.
Because of the large contrast between the dielectric constant of liquid water and that of dry soil at microwave wavelength, there is a strong dependence of the thermal emission and radar backscatter from the soil on its moisture content. This dependence provides a means for the remote sensing of the moisture content in a surface layer approximately 5 cm thick. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated from field, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. The soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetative cover affect the sensitivity of the microwave response to moisture variations with vegetation being the most important. It serves as an attenuating layer which can totally obscure the surface. Research indicates that it is possible to obtain five or more levels of moisture discrimination and that a mature corn crop is the limiting vegetation situation.
Stork, Christopher L.; Van Benthem, Mark H.
A fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm is applied to remotely sensed spectral data. The algorithm is applicable in the solar-reflective spectral region, comprising the visible to the shortwave infrared (ranging from approximately 0.4 to 2.5 .mu.m), midwave infrared, and thermal emission spectral region, comprising the thermal infrared (ranging from approximately 8 to 15 .mu.m). For example, employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, MCR can be used to successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. Further, MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of a gas plume component near the minimum detectable quantity.
Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.
Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.
Su, M. Y.
The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.
Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.
Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.
Porter, Reid B; Hush, Do; Harvey, Neal; Theile, James
To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.
Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.
Tilton, James C. (Editor)
Papers presented at the workshop on Multisource Data Integration in Remote Sensing are compiled. The full text of these papers is included. New instruments and new sensors are discussed that can provide us with a large variety of new views of the real world. This huge amount of data has to be combined and integrated in a (computer-) model of this world. Multiple sources may give complimentary views of the world - consistent observations from different (and independent) data sources support each other and increase their credibility, while contradictions may be caused by noise, errors during processing, or misinterpretations, and can be identified as such. As a consequence, integration results are very reliable and represent a valid source of information for any geographical information system.
Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.
Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.
Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.
An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.
Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.
The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.
The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.
Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin; Zheng, Gang; Wang, He; He, Shuangyan; Wang, Juan; Li, Xiaohui
It is presented in this paper the recent progresses of Dragon 3 Program (ID. 10412) in the field of microwave marine remote sensing including (1) ocean surface wind fields from full polarization synthetic aperture radars (SAR), (2) joint retrieval of directional ocean wave spectra from SAR and wave spectrometer, (3) error analysis on ENVISAT ASAR wave mode significant wave height (SWH) retrievals using triple collocation model, (4) typhoon observation from SAR and optical sensors, (5) ocean internal wave observation from SAR and optical sensors, (6) ocean eddy observation from SAR and optical sensors, (7) retrieval models of water vapor and wet tropospheric path delay for the HY-2A calibration microwave radiometer, (8) calibration of SWH from HY-2A satellite altimeter.
Hall, F. G.
Relations between spectroscopy and the concept of inferring surface cover type and condition from measurements of reflected or emitted radiation are examined, taking into account the observation of 'spectral signatures'. It has now become evident that the paradigm which had provided the basis for the spectroscopic identification of materials, is incomplete when applied to the inference of type and condition of materials in a natural environment. It was found that one could not collect a remote sensing signature from an unknown ground cover class at a particular time and place and match that signature with an a priori catalog value to infer the properties of the unknown cover class. The spectroscopy paradigm was, therefore, largely abandoned in favor of decision theoretic approaches. Attention is given to the temporal greenness profile feature space, the crop stage of development estimation using a temporal greenness profile, the temporal greenness profile for crop yield, and applications to regional scales.
Genco, S.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.
The use of CFCs, which are the main responsible for the ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and the formation of the so-called "ozone hole" over Antarctic Region, was phase out by Montreal Protocol (1989). CFCs' concentration is recently reported to decrease in the free atmosphere, but severe episodes of ozone depletion in both Arctic and Antarctic regions are still occurring. Nevertheless the complete recovery of the Ozone layer is expected by about 2050. Recent simulation of perturbations in stratospheric chemistry highlight that circulation, temperature and composition are strictly correlated and they influence the global climate changes. Chemical composition plays an important role in the thermodynamic of the atmosphere, as every gaseous species can absorb and emit in different wavelengths, so their different concentration is responsible for the heating or cooling of the atmosphere. Therefore long-term observations are required to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. Measurements from satellite remote sensing instruments, which provide wide coverage, are supplementary to selective ground-based observations which are usually better calibrated, more stable in time and cover a wider time span. The combination of the data derived from different space-borne instruments calibrated with ground-based sensors is needed to produce homogeneous and consistent long-term data records. These last are required for robust investigations and especially for trend analysis. Here, we perform a review of the major remote-sensing techniques and of the principal datasets available to study the evolution of ozone layer in the past decades and predict future behavio
Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama
We propose an early warning system for approaching rogue waves using the remote sensing of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) - progressive sound waves that propagate at the speed of sound in the ocean. It is believed that AGWs are generated during the formation of rogue waves, carrying information on the rogue waves at near the speed of sound, i.e. much faster than the rogue wave. The capability of identifying those special sound waves would enable detecting rogue waves most efficiently. A lot of promising work has been reported on AGWs in the last few years, part of which in the context of remote sensing as an early detection of tsunami. However, to our knowledge none of the work addresses the problem of rogue waves directly. Although there remains some uncertainty as to the proper definition of a rogue wave, there is little doubt that they exist and no one can dispute the potential destructive power of rogue waves. An early warning system for such extreme waves would become a demanding safety technology. A closed form expression was developed for the pressure induced by an impulsive source at the free surface (the Green's function) from which the solution for more general sources can be developed. In particular, we used the model of the Draupner Wave of January 1st, 1995 as a source and calculated the induced AGW signature. In particular we studied the AGW signature associated with a special feature of this wave, and characteristic of rogue waves, of the absence of any local set-down beneath the main crest and the presence of a large local set-up.
Mortimer, Hugh; Reininger, F.; Calcutt, S.
A breadboard model of a miniaturised space based Fourier Transform spectrometer, with a mass of 2kgs and spectral resolution of 2cm-1, has been designed and built. This unique imaging spectrometer has been designed for use on a micro-satellite platform and is intended for atmospheric remote sensing applications. In this poster the first results from this instrument are presented, and its potential application and benefits over existing technologies, demonstrated. The "Spatially Modulated Interferometer" (SMI) is a Fourier transform spectrometer with no moving parts. It uses a rigid optical system to shear an input beam into two halves that are recombined to form a spatially modulated interference pattern more commonly referred as an interferogram. The interferogram is produced at the focal plane of the optical system where a detector array is situated. A line of pixels in the array measures a single interferogram, and so by using a two dimensional array multiple interferograms simultaneously be recorded, where each interferogram represents a different image pixel. In the SMI instrument the interferogram is sampled using mid-infrared MCT detector array with 2 x 512 pixels. Since any change in the measured radiation leads to a corresponding change in the interferogram, the SMI can effectively perform "roll out” measurements at a sampling rate limited only by the detector itself. This makes the interferometer time-invariant with respect to a fluctuating target scene or an unstable observation platform, and presents the opportunity to perform measurements with a very high temporal resolution. The SMI has been designed to be a compact and light and highly stable remote sensing instrument. With high spectral and temporal resolution, the instrument is ideally suited for both Earth and planetary based applications. Acknowledgements: This work is funded by the UK Science Technology Facilities Council.
Green, J.; Gentine, P.
While a major source of uncertainty in global climate model predictions is due to the coarseness of their resolution, a significant amount of error is also generated due to the lack of information regarding the interactions between atmospheric and land parameters over time. When the behavior of a certain parameter is not clearly understood it is frequently estimated as one specific value while in reality it may vary with time and space. Remote sensing is allowing researchers to better estimate each of these parameters so one can see how they change with time. This study is an effort to improve our knowledge of the inter-annual and seasonal variability in radiation, water and the carbon cycle using remote sensing products on a global scale. By examining monthly data over a multi-year period (data parameter and source are listed in Table 1) for fluorescence, groundwater, net radiation, vegetation indices, precipitation, soil moisture and evapotranspiration, we should be able to determine the behavior and interactions between these parameters and better understand how they vary together seasonally, annually and year to year. With this information it is our hope that global climate models can be improved to better understand what is occurring climatologically in the present as well as more accurately make predictions about future conditions. Table 1. Parameters and Sources Parameter Source Fluorescence Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)1 Groundwater Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Net Radiation Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Vegetation Indices Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Precipitation Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Soil Moisture Water Cycle Mutimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) Evapotranspiration Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM) 1In future work, we hope to use fluorescence data from
Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.
This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.
Beginning in 2004, NASA has supported the development of an international network of ground-based remote sensing installations for the measurement of greenhouse gas columns. This collaboration has been successful and is currently used in both carbon cycle investigations and in the efforts to validate the GOSAT space-based column observations of CO2 and CH4. With the support of a grant, this research group has established a network of ground-based column observations that provide an essential link between the satellite observations of CO2, CO, and CH4 and the extensive global in situ surface network. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) was established in 2004. At the time of this report seven sites, employing modern instrumentation, were operational or were expected to be shortly. TCCON is expected to expand. In addition to providing the most direct means of tying the in situ and remote sensing data sets together, TCCON provides a means of testing the retrieval algorithms of SCIAMACHY and GOSAT over the broadest variation in atmospheric state. TCCON provides a critically maintained and long timescale record for identification of temporal drift and spatial bias in the calibration of the space-based sensors. Finally, the global observations from TCCON are improving our understanding of how to use column observations to provide robust estimates of surface exchange of C02 and CH4 in advance of the launch of OCO and GOSAT. TCCON data are being used to better understand the impact of both regional fluxes and long-range transport on gradients in the C02 column. Such knowledge is essential for identifying the tools required to best use the space-based observations. The technical approach and methodology of retrieving greenhouse gas columns from near-IR solar spectra, data quality and process control are described. Additionally, the impact of and relevance to NASA of TCCON and satellite validation and carbon science are addressed.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard both Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). Equipped with direct broadcast capability, the MODIS measurements can be received worldwide real time. There are 82 ingest sites (over 900 users, listed on the Direct Readout Portal) around the world for Terra/Aqua-MODIS Direct Broadcast DB) downlink. This represents 27 (6 from EOS science team members) science research organizations for DB land, ocean and atmospheric processing, and 53 companies that base their application algorithms and value added products on DB data. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of aerosol/cloud optical properties, especially optical thickness and effective particle size. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional-to-global climatic effects.
Kwok, Ronald; Yueh, Simon H.; Fu, Lee-Lueng
Spaceborne remote sensing instruments allow the acquisition of global and synoptic information for Earth Science investigations. In particular, active microwave remote sensing that have contributed geophysical measurements of a scale and accuracy which surpass what could be accomplished with ariborne or in-situ observations.
Mooneyhan, D. W.
A brief review of remote sensing state-of-the-art is presented. Emphasis is placed on an understanding of remote sensing terminology. Passive and active sensors and sensor platforms from the spacecraft program to the ground truth program are described.
Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.
Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors
Duggan, I. E.; Minter, T. C., Jr.; Moore, B. H.; Nosworthy, C. T.
A short-term technical study was performed by the MSC Earth Observations Division to determine the feasibility of the proposed Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Automatic Remote Sensing/Compliance Determination System. For the study, the term automatic was interpreted as applying to an automated remote-sensing system that includes data acquisition, processing, and management.
Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Zhaorong; Yao, Yigang
With the development of network information, the era of big data is coming, and this has high demand to the information quantity and the diversity of the remote sensing images. Currently the available remote sensing system focuses on the convenience and the celerity of the acquiring images, and lacking the remote sensing system which can acquire the image with the diversity and large amount of information. In this paper, a new small light multifunction integrated remote sensing and the remote sensing information network system of multi-sensor are proposed to meet the new developing requirements of the current network information. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system consists of a load platform, the integrated sensor system, the airborne control system, the stabilized platform, the transmission system and the ground processing system. The components, function and the principle of the system are introduced, and the key technologies of the integrated remote sensing system are analyzed, in the last the applications of the system are described in order to make a contribution to the industrialization of the big data remote sensing.
Morrison, D. R.; Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.
It is shown that the technology of remote sensing can be of great importance to the field of public health. This possibility is based on the deepened understanding of the biologies and ecologies of the vector/organism/host interelationships of arthropod-, soil-, and water-borne diseases to result from the information that remote sensing can provide.
Lindenlaub, J. C.; Davis, S. M.; Morrison, D. B.
The procedures and services available for educating and training potential users of remote sensing technology are discussed along with approaches for achieving an in-house capability for the analysis of remotely sensed data using numerical techniques based on pattern recognition principles. Cost estimates are provided where appropriate.
Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.
Citations of 165 selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications on remote sensing applications for wildlife management are presented in a bibliography. These materials summarize developments in the use of remotely sensed data for wildlife habitat mapping, habitat inventory, habitat evaluation, and wildlife census. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1947 and 1979.
This report is on a pilot study to demonstrate some of the capabilities of remote sensing in intelligence gathering. A wide variety of issues, both...colour images. The procedure will be presented in a companion report. Remote sensing , Satellite imagery, Image analysis, Military applications, Military intelligence.
In recent years, polarimetric radiometry has shown great potential to revolutionize passive remote sensing of the ocean surface. As a result, several...polarimetric radiometer, in 2001. This project explores the possibility of applying this new technology to remote sensing in the Polar Regions by investigating the polarimetric signature of ice and snow.
Jones, J. Richard
Remote sensing analysis and statistical methods were used to analyze the coastal dunes of Plum Island, Massachusetts. The research methodology used provides an example of a student project for remote sensing, geomorphology, or spatial analysis courses at the university level. (RM)
Perez, J. A. D.
Remote sensing, or the collection of information from objectives at a distance, crystallizes the interest in implementing techniques which assist in the search for solutions to the problems raised by the detection, exploitation, and conservation of the natural resources of the earth. An attempt is made to present an overview of the studies and achievements which have been obtained with remote sensing in Mexico.
Kelly, P.M.; White, J.M.
Interpreting remotely-sensed data typically requires expensive, specialized computing machinery capable of storing and manipulating large amounts of data quickly. In this paper, we present a method for accurately analyzing and categorizing remotely-sensed data on much smaller, less expensive platforms. Data size is reduced in such a way an efficient, interactive method of data classification.
The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...
Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.
Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.
Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.
The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.
Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.
We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.
Kirman, Joseph M.
Discusses remote sensing technology use in teaching elementary school students about science and social studies. Reviews findings dealing with the use of remote sensing and considering children's abilities, teacher training, computer applications, gifted children, and sex-related differences. Concludes that children as young as grade three can…
Kirman, Joseph M.
Argues that remote sensing images are a powerful tool for teaching geography. Discusses the use of remote sensing images in the classroom and provides a number of sources for them, some free, many on the World Wide Web. Reviews each source's usefulness for different grade levels and geographic topics. (DSK)
The application of remotely sensed data in conjunction with in situ data greatly enhances the ability of the USDA Forest Service to meet the demands of field staff, customers, and others for groundwater information. Generally, the use of remotely sensed data to inventory and monitor groundwater reso...
Eisgruber, L. M.
A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.
Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.
A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.
Jacobson, Craig A.
This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.
Latchininsky, Alexandre V.
A dozen species of locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are a major threat to food security worldwide. Their outbreaks occur on every continent except Antarctica, threatening the livelihood of 10% of the world's population. The locusts are infamous for their voracity, polyphagy, and capacity for long-distance migrations. Decades of research revealed very complex bio-ecology of locusts. They exist in two, inter-convertible and density-dependent states, or "phases." Despite the evident progress in understanding locust behavior, our ability to predict and manage locust outbreaks remains insufficient, as evidenced by locust plagues still occurring during the 21st century. One of the main reasons is that locusts typically inhabit remote and scarcely populated areas, and their distribution ranges often spread across continents. This creates tremendous obstacles for locust population monitoring and control. Traditional ground locust surveys are inadequate to address the enormous spatial scale of the locust problem in a limited window of time dictated by the pest's development. Remote sensing (satellite information) appears a promising tool in locust monitoring. Satellite data are increasingly used for monitoring and forecasting two locust species, the desert and the Australian plague locust. However, applications of this geospatial technology to other locust species remain rare.
Fingas, M.F.; Brown, C.E.
Remote-sensors for application to oil spills are reviewed. The capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets is the most important assessment criterion. A common sensor is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions oil is not detected. The laser fluorosensor is recommended because of its unique capability to identify oil on most backgrounds. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing. Radar is costly and requires a dedicated aircraft. Radar is prone to many interferences. Equipment operating in the visible spectrum, such as a camera or scanner, is useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It is not useful beyond this, because oil shows no spectral characteristics in the visible region.
Aerosols constitute the largest unknown factor within climate change, and may pose severe health hazards. Remote sensing of aerosols can be performed by analyzing the sunlight that has been scattered by them. Many aerosol properties are accessible by measuring the polarization of the scattered light as a function of scattering angle and wavelength. Information on the number density, size distribution and the chemical composition (through the refractive index) can thus be obtained. I provide an overview of ground-based and space-based polarimetric instrumentation that is built for remote observations of aerosols. In particular, I introduce our range of SPEX instruments. One version currently operates on the ground, and the development for operation of SPEX on a satellite platform is ongoing. Now we also have a version that operates on a smartphone: iSPEX. In the summer of 2013 we will organize a large citizen science experiment in the Netherlands during which thousands of participants perform a polarimetric measurement of the blue sky. The goal is to create a flexible measurement network that can produce detailed maps of aerosols.
Jia, Kun; Li, Qiang-Zi; Tian, Yi-Chen; Wu, Bing-Fang
Remote sensing data classification is an important way of information extraction and a hot research topic of remote sensing technique. Classification method of remote sensing data is an important issue, and effective selection of appropriate classifier is especially significant for improving classification accuracy. Along with the development of remote sensing technique, traditional parametric classifier is difficult to meet accuracy requirement, leading to the rapid development of intelligent algorithm based non-parametric classifiers. Recently, combined classifiers become a new hot topic for its ability of utilizing complement information of single classifier. In the present paper, characters and advantages of different classifiers as well as the research prospect are analyzed. The paper provides a scientific reference for the development of remote sensing data classification technique.
Pettinger, L. R.
Field data collected in support of remote sensing projects are generally used for the following purposes: (1) calibration of remote sensing systems, (2) evaluation of experimental applications of remote sensing imagery on small test sites, and (3) designing and evaluating operational regional resource studies and inventories which are conducted using the remote sensing imagery obtained. Field data may be used to help develop a technique for a particular application, or to aid in the application of that technique to a resource evaluation or inventory problem for a large area. Scientists at the Forestry Remote Sensing Laboratory have utilized field data for both purposes. How meaningful field data has been collected in each case is discussed.
Peck, E. L.; Keefer, T. N.; Johnson, E. R. (Principal Investigator)
Present and planned remote sensing capabilities were evaluated. The usefulness of six remote sensing capabilities (soil moisture, land cover, impervious area, areal extent of snow cover, areal extent of frozen ground, and water equivalent of the snow cover) with seven hydrologic models (API, CREAMS, NWSRFS, STORM, STANFORD, SSARR, and NWSRFS Snowmelt) were reviewed. The results indicate remote sensing information has only limited value for use with the hydrologic models in their present form. With minor modifications to the models the usefulness would be enhanced. Specific recommendations are made for incorporating snow covered area measurements in the NWSRFS Snowmelt model. Recommendations are also made for incorporating soil moisture measurements in NWSRFS. Suggestions are made for incorporating snow covered area, soil moisture, and others in STORM and SSARR. General characteristics of a hydrologic model needed to make maximum use of remotely sensed data are discussed. Suggested goals for improvements in remote sensing for use in models are also established.
Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, Jason S.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Mendoza, Albert
Standoff detection and characterization of chemical plumes using Frequency Modulated Differential Absorption Lidar (FM-DIAL) is a promising technique for the detection of nuclear proliferation activities. For the last several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been developing an FM-DIAL based remote sensing system as part of PNNL's Infrared Sensors project within NA-22's Enabling Technologies portfolio. In FY06 the remote sensing effort became a stand-alone project within the Plutonium Production portfolio with the primary goal of transitioning technology from the laboratory to the user community. Current systems remotely detect trace chemicals in the atmosphere over path lengths of hundreds of meters for monostatic operation (without a retro-reflector target) and up to ten kilometers for bistatic operation (with a retro-reflector target). The FM-DIAL sensor is sensitive and highly selective for chemicals with narrow-band absorption features on the order of 1-2 cm-1; as a result, the FM-DIAL sensors are best suited to simple di-atomic or tri-atomic molecules and other molecules with unusually narrow absorption features. A broadband sensor is currently being developed. It is designed to detect chemicals with spectral features on the order of several 10s of wavenumbers wide. This will expand the applicability of this technology to the detection of more complicated molecules. Our efforts in FY07 focused on the detection of chemicals associated with the PUREX process. The highest value performance measure for FY07, namely the demonstration of the Broadband Laser Spectrometer (BLS) during chemical release experiments, was successfully achieved in June, July and August of this year. Significant advancements have been made with each of the other tasks as well. A short-wave infrared version of the miniature FM-DIAL (FM-Mini) instrument was successfully demonstrated during field tests in June. During FY07 another version of the FM-Mini was built using
Swain, P. H.; Phillips, T. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.
It has been hypothesized that computer networks can be used to make data processing facilities available to the remote sensing community both quickly and effectively. An experiment to test this hypothesis is being conducted by the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing at Purdue University, with the participation of potential users at several remote sites. Initial indications have been highly favorable, although final evaluation awaits further experience and the accumulation of usage data.
Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.
Spectroscopic chemical sensing research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing advanced sensors for detecting the production of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons; use of chemical weapons; or the presence of explosives, firearms, narcotics, or other contraband of significance to homeland security in airports, cargo terminals, public buildings, or other sensitive locations. For most of these missions, the signature chemicals are expected to occur in very low concentrations, and in mixture with ambient air or airborne waste streams that contain large numbers of other species that may interfere with spectroscopic detection, or be mistaken for signatures of illicit activity. PNNL’s emphasis is therefore on developing remote and sampling sensors with extreme sensitivity, and resistance to interferents, or selectivity. PNNL’s research activities include: 1. Identification of signature chemicals and quantification of their spectral characteristics, 2. Identification and development of laser and other technologies that enable breakthroughs in sensitivity and selectivity, 3. Development of promising sensing techniques through experimentation and modeling the physical phenomenology and practical engineering limitations affecting their performance, and 4. Development and testing of data collection methods and analysis algorithms. Close coordination of all aspects of the research is important to ensure that all parts are focused on productive avenues of investigation. Close coordination of experimental development and numerical modeling is particularly important because the theoretical component provides understanding and predictive capability, while the experiments validate calculations and ensure that all phenomena and engineering limitations are considered.
Douglass, R. W.
A speech is given on operational remote sensing programs in forest management and the importance of remote sensing in forestry is emphasized. Forest service priorities in using remote sensing are outlined.
The rapid growth of commercial remote sensing has made high quality digital sensing data widely available -- now, remote sensing must become and remain a strong, commercially viable industry. However, this new industry cannot survive without an educated consumer base. To access markets, remote sensing providers must make their product more accessible, both literally and figuratively: Potential customers must be able to find the data they require, when they require it, and they must understand the utility of the information available to them. The Internet and the World Wide Web offer the perfect medium to educate potential customers and to sell remote sensing data to those customers. A well-designed web presence can provide both an information center and a market place for companies offering their data for sale. A very high potential web-based market for remote sensing lies in media. News agencies, web sites, and a host of other visual media services can use remote sensing data to provide current, relevant information regarding news around the world. This paper will provide a model for promotion and sale of remote sensing data via the Internet.
Rose, Robert A; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara
In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners' use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to
Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Wang; Shen, Weimin
The remote camera developed by us is the exclusive functional load of the micro-satellite. The remote camera is based on the frame transfer CCD sensor DALSA FT18, and for the purpose of insuring system reliability, the development of the remote camera indispensably simplifies the design of mechanical and electrical shutter, which causes the problem of CCD smearing in remote sensors, and leads to the distortion of remote sensing images. In this paper we present a reversely stepwise method to solve the CCD smearing problem in remote sensors. The images retrieved from data after correction show great improvement in image contrast and quality.
Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. Electron density is a complex function of spatial and temporal variations of solar, geomagnetic, and seismic activities. Ionosphere is the main source of error for navigation and positioning systems and satellite communication. Therefore, characterization and constant monitoring of variability of the ionosphere is of utmost importance for the performance improvement of these systems. Since ionospheric electron density is not a directly measurable quantity, an important derivable parameter is the Total Electron Content (TEC), which is used widely to characterize the ionosphere. TEC is proportional to the total number of electrons on a line crossing the atmosphere. IONOLAB is a research group is formed by Hacettepe University, Bilkent University and Kastamonu University, Turkey gathered to handle the challenges of the ionosphere using state-of-the-art remote sensing and signal processing techniques. IONOLAB group provides unique space weather services of IONOLAB-TEC, International Reference Ionosphere extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model based IRI-Plas-MAP, IRI-Plas-STEC and Online IRI-Plas-2015 model at www.ionolab.org. IONOLAB group has been working for imaging and monitoring of ionospheric structure for the last 15 years. TEC is estimated from dual frequency GPS receivers as IONOLAB-TEC using IONOLAB-BIAS. For high spatio-temporal resolution 2-D imaging or mapping, IONOLAB-MAP algorithm is developed that uses automated Universal Kriging or Ordinary Kriging in which the experimental semivariogram is fitted to Matern Function with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). For 3-D imaging of ionosphere and 1-D vertical profiles of electron density, state-of-the-art IRI-Plas model based IONOLAB-CIT algorithm is developed for regional reconstruction that employs Kalman Filters for state
Erkmen, Baris I.
This work relates to the generic problem of remote active imaging; that is, a source illuminates a target of interest and a receiver collects the scattered light off the target to obtain an image. Conventional imaging systems consist of an imaging lens and a high-resolution detector array [e.g., a CCD (charge coupled device) array] to register the image. However, conventional imaging systems for remote sensing require high-quality optics and need to support large detector arrays and associated electronics. This results in suboptimal size, weight, and power consumption. Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a computational alternative to this traditional imaging concept that has a very simple receiver structure. In CGI, the transmitter illuminates the target with a modulated light source. A single-pixel (bucket) detector collects the scattered light. Then, via computation (i.e., postprocessing), the receiver can reconstruct the image using the knowledge of the modulation that was projected onto the target by the transmitter. This way, one can construct a very simple receiver that, in principle, requires no lens to image a target. Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging modality that has been receiving much attention owing to a rich interconnection of novel physical characteristics and novel signal processing algorithms suitable for active computational imaging. The original ghost imaging experiments consisted of two correlated optical beams traversing distinct paths and impinging on two spatially-separated photodetectors: one beam interacts with the target and then illuminates on a single-pixel (bucket) detector that provides no spatial resolution, whereas the other beam traverses an independent path and impinges on a high-resolution camera without any interaction with the target. The term ghost imaging was coined soon after the initial experiments were reported, to emphasize the fact that by cross-correlating two photocurrents, one generates an image of the target. In
Gnauck, Gary E.
Over 25 years of research have clearly shown that an analysis of remote sensing imagery can provide information on agricultural crops. Most of this research has been funded by and directed toward the needs of government agencies. Commercial use of agricultural remote sensing has been limited to very small-scale operations supplying remote sensing services to a few selected customers. Datron/Transco Inc. undertook an internally funded remote sensing program directed toward the California cash crop industry (strawberries, lettuce, tomatoes, other fresh vegetables and cotton). The objectives of this program were twofold: (1) to assess the need and readiness of agricultural land managers to adopt remote sensing as a management tool, and (2) determine what technical barriers exist to large-scale implementation of this technology on a commercial basis. The program was divided into three phases: Planning, Engineering Test and Evaluation, and Commercial Operations. Findings: Remote sensing technology can deliver high resolution multispectral imagery with rapid turnaround, that can provide information on crop stress insects, disease and various soil parameters. The limiting factors to the use of remote sensing in agriculture are a lack of familiarization by the land managers, difficulty in translating 'information' into increased revenue or reduced cost for the land manager, and the large economies of scale needed to make the venture commercially viable.
Bi, Siwen; Zhang, Ying
High signal to noise ratio and high resolution have been the goal of remote sensing. Since the classical electromagnetic wave is influenced by the diffraction limit and quantum noise limit, increasing the resolution has been close to the limit of remote sensing, In this situation, in 14 years, the author through quantum remote sensing based theory, scientific experiment and the key technology research of the three phases, before the end of December 2014 completed the study of quantum remote sensing principle prototype. Quantum remote sensing prototype is based on the theory of quantum optics, which takes manipulation, preparation and control in quantum optical field as the experimental method. Through the experiment, the results obtained are the coherent light detection imaging resolution 2-3 times. Based on a large number of experimental studies, we completed the key technology of quantum remote sensing principle prototype, scheme design and principle prototype system. Through the test, the technical indicators of the principle prototype meet the requirements, which provide technical foundation for quantum remote sensing engineering principle prototype.
Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.
The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.
Mumby, Peter J; Skirving, William; Strong, Alan E; Hardy, John T; LeDrew, Ellsworth F; Hochberg, Eric J; Stumpf, Rick P; David, Laura T
There has been a vast improvement in access to remotely sensed data in just a few recent years. This revolution of information is the result of heavy investment in new technology by governments and industry, rapid developments in computing power and storage, and easy dissemination of data over the internet. Today, remotely sensed data are available to virtually anyone with a desktop computer. Here, we review the status of one of the most popular areas of marine remote sensing research: coral reefs. Previous reviews have focused on the ability of remote sensing to map the structure and habitat composition of coral reefs, but have neglected to consider the physical environment in which reefs occur. We provide a holistic review of what can, might, and cannot be mapped using remote sensing at this time. We cover aspects of reef structure and health but also discuss the diversity of physical environmental data such as temperature, winds, solar radiation and water quality. There have been numerous recent advances in the remote sensing of reefs and we hope that this paper enhances awareness of the diverse data sources available, and helps practitioners identify realistic objectives for remote sensing in coral reef areas.
Non-standard radio wave propagation in the atmosphere is caused by anomalous changes of the atmospheric refractivity index. These changes, if not accounted for, can cause major problems in detection of the location of flying targets. Direct sensing of the atmospheric refractivity index by measuring humidity and temperature has been common practice in past. Refractivity from clutter (RFC) was developed in recent years to complement traditional ways of measuring the refractivity profile in maritime environments. The ability to track the refractivity profile in time and space, together with a lower cost and convenience of operations have been the promising factors that brought RFC under consideration. Presented is an overview of the basic concepts, research and achievements in the field of RFC. A multiple angle clutter model is derived that is constructed by angular spectral estimation on the propagating power. This model is shown to perform better than conventional clutter models in remote sensing applications. Examples are either based on synthetically generated radar clutter or a set of S-band radar measurements from Wallops Island, 1998. Finally, an approach for fusing RFC output with evaporation duct characterization based on ensemble forecasts from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model is examined. Relative humidity at a reference height and air-sea temperature difference (ASTD) are identified as state variables. Probability densities of atmospheric parameters and propagation factor obtained from an NWP ensemble, RFC, and joint inversions are compared. It is demonstrated that characterization of the near surface atmosphere by combining RFC and NWP reduces the estimation uncertainty of the refractivity index structure in an evaporation duct using either method alone.
Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter
Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.
Brown, Molly E.
Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The
Wieczorek, G.F.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; ,
Recent advances in remote sensing of rainfall provide more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Four case studies of abundant debris flows over relatively small areas triggered during intense rainstorms are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. Three examples with rainfall estimates from National Weather Service Doppler radar and one example with rainfall estimates from infrared imagery from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite are compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and with landslide distribution. The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing of rainfall for landslide hazard analysis are discussed. ?? 2003 Millpress,.
Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.
The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.
A122 579 CHEMICAL REMOTE SENSING ;PROOF OF CONCEPT’(U) UTAH 1/I \\ STATE UNIV LOGAN ELECTRO-DYNAMICS LAB BARTSCHI ET AL. 31 MAR 81 SCIENTIFC-8...STANDARDS -I963-A AFGL-TR-81-021 2 CHEMICAL REMOTE SENSING "Proof of Concept" B.Y. Bartschi F. P. DelGreco M. Ahmadjian Electro-Dynamics Laboratories...Applications of remote sensing 2 2.2 Program Development 4 -O 3.1 Optical Layout 6 3.2 Block Diagram of Sensor System 7 3.3 Sensor Facility 10 3.4
Andréfouët, Serge; Hochberg, E.J.; Chevillon, Christophe; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Brock, John C.; Hu, Chuanmin
In this chapter we present how both direct and indirect remote sensing can be integrated to address two major coral reef applications - coral bleaching and assessment of biodiversity. This approach reflects the current non-linear integration of remote sensing for environmental assessment of coral reefs, resulting from a rapid increase in available sensors, processing methods and interdisciplinary collaborations (Andréfouët and Riegl, 2004). Moreover, this approach has greatly benefited from recent collaborations of once independent investigations (e.g., benthic ecology, remote sensing, and numerical modeling).
Thomson, F. J.; Sellman, A. N.
Computer-aided corridor selection techniques, utilizing digitized data bases of socio-economic, census, and cadastral data, and developed for highway corridor routing are considered. Land resource data generated from various remote sensing data sources were successfully merged with the ancillary data files of a corridor selection model and prototype highway corridors were designed using the combined data set. Remote sensing derived information considered useful for highway corridor location, special considerations in geometric correction of remote sensing data to facilitate merging it with ancillary data files, and special interface requirements are briefly discussed.
Gibson, Carl H.
It is generally agreed that natural fluids including the atmosphere, ocean, and astrophysical objects are mixed by turbulence against the forces of gravity. However, the basic mechanisms, definition, and even the direction of the turbulence kinetic energy cascade remain controversial. Broadband remote sensing gives strong evidence to resolve such questions. Turbulence is found to be an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Irrotational flows are non-turbulent by definition. Because turbulent vorticity is always produced at the Kolmogorov scale, the direction of the turbulent energy cascade is always from small scales to large. Fossilization of the turbulence occurs at its largest scales. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation of a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. In the ocean, fossil vorticity turbulence internal waves carry bottom turbulence energy to the sea surface by means of beamed zombie turbulence maser action mixing chimneys, a generic process of natural fluids. Spectral analysis of the sea surface brightness from space satellites combined with simultaneous ocean microstructure sea truth reveals the generic mechanism, also supported by recent astrophysical observations http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.2772v4.
Vazquez, Gabriel J.
Human activities are altering the earth system at the local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore of the utmost importance to track the workings of mother earth in order to detect any changes at their early stages so that appropriate actions are taken to understand, assess, control or prevent the adverse effects. A number of deleterious effects to the environment can, at least in part, be ascribed to air pollution, namely, the thinning of the ozone layer, the related increase in the occurrence of skin cancer, the warming of the earth system, photochemical smog, acid rain/fog, acidification of soils and waters, forest decline, etc. It is therefore necessary to monitor the most relevant processes of the earth's atmosphere, namely, the energy input, the dynamics and the chemistry. In this contribution I mainly focus on the latter, specifically, on the measurement/monitoring of atmospheric compounds. To understand atmospheric chemistry and air pollution it is necessary to have reliable and accurate values of the mixing ratios of the numerous atmospheric gases and of their diurnal/seasonal variations and long-term trends. In this contribution I present an overview of the most relevant optical remote sensing techniques that are rapidly becoming the methods of choice to probe the chemical composition and physical state of the atmosphere, especially when high selectivity, sensitivity and fast-time response are required.
Toanca, Florica; Vasilescu, Jeni; Nicolae, Doina; Stefan, Sabina
Severe weather events like fog have a high impact on all kinds of traffic operations. During the last decade was proven the capability of remote sensing equipments to detect fog cases in terms of duration, occurrence and dissipation. Therefore, in this study the data from Väïsälä CL31 ceilometer and Raman Depolarization Lidar installed at Magurele, Romania (44.35 N, 26.03 E) were used. The backscatter coefficient from Ceilometer and extinction coefficient and different lidar ratios (LR) values from Lidar were used in order to determine horizontal visibility during the fog events in Magurele area. Ceilometer backscatter coefficient profiles are obtained with a time resolution of 16 s and up to 7.5 km altitude. . A neural network algorithm was used to calculate the lidar ratio values for different aerosol types and also for different relative humidity. Thus, for continental aerosol the LR value is 58srad, for continental polluted is 60srad and for smoke LR is 55srad. The average visibility computed for radiation fog , dominant type (57 cases) occurring in Magurele, during 2012-2014 was 50m. An important result is that the dependence of horizontal visibility for radiation fog at Magurele on LR is insignificant. This means that radiation, meteorological and geographical factors influence fog generation more much than aerosol type.
Morey, Mark; O'Neill, Mary; Hahn, Mark; DiBenedetto, John
There is a need for stable test standards for many remote sensing applications that can be used both in the laboratory and in rugged test environments. Ideally these standards would be stable over time such that the same standard could be used from year to year for comparison of system performance. While ink-jet and spray gun methods can disperse controlled doses of dissolved analytes, methods to maintain particle size spectral variations are lacking. In addition, standards that are environmentally robust and stable over time are limited. As part of the recent Lighthouse work toward a Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) proximal handheld sensor, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) was tasked to do preliminary work toward a rugged, transportable, waterproof target board. This involved developing test standards using minerals of known particle sizes that have spectrally relevant features. Mineral powders were dispersed in binders that did not change their spectral characteristics. These standards were packaged such that they could be transported and used repeatedly. This paper discusses the methodology for developing this preliminary set of targets. Target sizes were limited to the proximal case, and further work is required to finalize the optimum binder and examine other possible appropriate minerals.
Esaias, W. E.
Instruments used in ocean color remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and data acquisition which have the potential for further commercial development and marketing are discussed. The Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is an aircraft-borne radiometer system suitable for light aircraft, which has applications for rapid measurement of chlorophyll pigment concentrations along the flight line. The instrument package includes a three channel radiometer system for upwelling radiance, an infrared temperature sensor, a three-channel downwelling irradiance sensor, and Loran-C navigation. Data are stored on a PC and processed to transects or interpolated 'images' on the ground. The instrument has been in operational use for two and one half years. The accuracy of pigment concentrations from the instrument is quite good, even in complex Chesapeake Bay waters. To help meet the requirement for validation of future satellite missions, a prototype air-deployable drifting buoy for measurement of near-surface upwelled radiance in multiple channnels is undergoing test deployment. The optical drifter burst samples radiance, stores and processes the data, and uses the Argos system as a data link. Studies are underway to explore the limits to useful lifetime with respect to power and fouling.
Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.
To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.
Garegnani, Jerry; Gualtney, Lawrence
In order for remotely sensed data to be useful in a practical application for agriculture, an information product must be made available to the land management decision maker within 24 to 48 hours of data acquisition. Hyperspectral imagery data is proving useful in differentiation of plant species potentially allowing identification of non-healthy areas and pest infestations within crop fields that may require the farm managers attention. Currently however, extracting the needed site-specific feature information from the vast spectral content of large hyperspectral image files is a labor intensive and time consuming task prohibiting the necessary fast turnaround from raw data to final product. We illustrate the methods, techniques and technologies necessary to produce field-level information products from imagery and other related spatial data that are useful to the farm manager for specific decisions that must be made throughout the growing season. We also propose to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of an integrated system, from acquisition to final product distribution, to utilize imagery for decisions on a working farm in conjunction with a commercial agricultural services company and their crop scouts. The demonstration farm is Chesapeake Farms, a 3000 acre research farm in Chestertown, Maryland on the Eastern Shore and is owned by the DuPont Corporation.
Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Nguyen, D. T.
Polarimetric remote sensing of structures in geophysical media is studied in this paper based on their symmetry properties. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Experimental observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented to illustrate the use of symmetry properties. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mount Shasta area and mixed forests near Presque Isle show evidence of the centrical symmetry at C band. In sea ice from the Beaufort Sea, multiyear sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e0, calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. For first-year sea ice, e is much smaller than e0 as a result of preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering sea, it is observed that e and e0 are increasing with incident angle and e is greater than e0 at L band because of the directional feature of sea surface waves. Use of symmetry properties of geophysical media for polarimetric radar calibration is also suggested.
I utilized state the art remote sensing and GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques to study large scale biological, physical and ecological processes of coastal, nearshore, and offshore waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. These processes ranged from chlorophyll alpha and primary production time series analysies in Lake Michigan to coastal stamp sand threats on Buffalo Reef in Lake Superior. I used SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) satellite imagery to trace various biological, chemical and optical water properties of Lake Michigan during the past decade and to investigate the collapse of early spring primary production. Using spatial analysis techniques, I was able to connect these changes to some important biological processes of the lake (quagga mussels filtration). In a separate study on Lake Superior, using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, we examined natural coastal erosion in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and discussed a variety of geological features that influence general sediment accumulation patterns and interactions with migrating tailings from legacy mining. These sediments are moving southwesterly towards Buffalo Reef, creating a threat to the lake trout and lake whitefish breeding ground.
Somkuti, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) emitted by plants as a by-product during photosynthesis carries information about their photosynthetic activity. It is possible to exploit space-based remote sensing measurements to retrieve the fluorescence signal and thus indirectly study carbon fluxes on a global scale. We implement a fluorescence retrieval based on the method pioneered by Frankenberg et al. (2011) into the framework of the University of Leicester Full-Physics GOSAT CO2 retrieval (UoL-FP). This physically-based approach is applied to high-resolution spectra at the edges of the O2 A-Band in the red to NIR range, that feature strong solar as well as a few weak O2 absorption lines. The fluorescence signal, which acts as an additional source, results in an in-filling of the measured solar absorption lines that are used to distinguish Fs from reflectance effects. By analysing GOSAT soundings from 2009 onwards, we examine global and regional long-term trends of Fs and compare them with parameters related to plant physiology, such as spectral vegetation indices and MODIS-derived model GPP values. Following Guanter et al. (2012) and Frankenberg et al. (2011), different regions and biomes are considered and we find that seasonal trends of both model GPP data as well as greenness indicators are well reproduced by our GOSAT-retrieved Fs.
Paxton, L. J.
The far ultraviolet is commonly taken to be that spectral range from 115 nm to 185 nm. This definition reflects the practical nature and origin of the measurement technique. The short wavelength cut-off is defined by the transmittance cut-off of window materials (about 115 nm). The long wavelength end of the region is defined by the desire to exclude the orders-of-magnitude brighter signal at around 195 nm, which, happily, coincides with the fall-off in CsI photocathode efficiency at around 185 nm. The FUV allows us to probe the atmosphere down to about 130 km (as low as 80 km in H Lyman alpha). In this paper I will discuss what we have learned by using a novel imager, GUVI, on TIMED to study the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system, how we see the IT coupled to geospace and the solar input, and what we can learn from a future FUV system. In particular, I want to stress that FUV remote sensing is an important COMPONENT of a complete system for exploring the connections between the Sun, geospace, and the IT system. To that end, I will briefly discuss how those data need to be integrated into a virtual observatory that will enable new investigations into the near-Earth environment.
Smit, P. B.; Bland, R.; Janssen, T. T.; Laughlin, B.
Wave focusing of energetic swell fields can result in small-scale variations associated with coherent interference that can be important for nearshore circulation and beach dynamics. However, coherent interference is difficult to measure with conventional in situ instruments and is not accounted for in operational wave models. As a result, such effects are generally ignored. In this work, we analyze X-band radar observations collected at Ocean Beach, San Francisco using a Wigner-Ville or coupled-mode spectrum, to show how long-dwell remote sensing technology allows us to identify coherent wave interference. Our analysis demonstrates that during energetic swell events, the nearshore wave field consists of two noncollinear, but coherent, swell patterns that originate from the same offshore source but are directionally separated due to refraction over the San Francisco Bar. The length scale of the associated alongshore wave height variability (200 m) is consistent with the wavenumber separation obtained from the coupled mode analysis. This confirms that the small-scale variability is primarily due to coherent interference. In addition, our analysis shows that the shoreline exhibits a strong localized response near the radar site on the 200 m scale, which suggests that coherent interference effects can affect wave-driven nearshore transport processes and localized erosion.
A set of hardware similar to the SEASAT A configuration requirement, suitable for installation and operation aboard a NOAA-D bus and a budgetary cost for one (1) protoflight model was provided. The scatterometer sensor is conceived as one of several sensors for the Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System (NROSS) Satellite Program. Deliverables requested were to include a final report with appropriate sketches and block diagrams showing the scatterometer design/configuration and a budgetary cost for all labor and materials to design, fabricate, test, and integrate this hardware into a NOAA-D satellite bus. This configuration consists of two (2) hardware assembles - a transmitter/receiver (T/R) assembly and an integrated electronics assembly (IEA). The T/R assembly as conceived is best located at the extreme opposite end of the satellite away from the solar array assembly and oriented in position to enable one surface of the assembly to have unobstructed exposure to space. The IEA is planned to be located at the bottom (Earth viewing) side of the satellite and requires a radiating plate.
Schuler, Dale L.; Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Lee, Jong-Sen; Grunes, Mitchell R.; de Grandi, Gianfranco D.
A new remote sensing technique using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has been developed which can measure terrain slopes in the azimuthal, or along-track, direction. Terrain elevation maps can then be generated by integrating these slopes. The processing of both single- pass, and orthogonal two-pass, datasets is investigated. When single-pass SAR data is used elevation groundtruth must be available for at least one point of each profile formed in the azimuthal direction. When orthogonal two-pass slope data is employed, the elevation surface may be generated as an iterative solution of the Poisson equation and only a single elevation tie-point is required. The study presented uses orthogonal two-pass NASA/JPL AIRSAR P-band data as a test of the Poisson equation approach for an area in Death Valley National Park, California. The orthogonal two-pass results have been compared with a co-registered, conventional, U.S. Geological Survey product. Technique accuracy and potential applications are discussed.
Luo, Qiuhua; Shao, Xiaopeng; Peng, Ligen; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lin
A new effective image super resolution (SR) algorithm which is a hybrid of multiple frame Variational Bayesian (VB) reconstruction and single frame Dictionary Learning (DL) reconstruction method is developed to reconstruct a high resolution (HR) satellite image in this article. Firstly, by employing a variational Bayesian analysis, the unknown high resolution image, the acquisition process, the motion parameters and the unknown model parameters are built together in a single mathematical model with a Bayesian formula, and then the distributions of all unknowns are jointly estimated. Without any parameter adjustment, an HR image is adaptively reconstructed from multiple frame low resolution (LR) images. Secondly, by taking the above HR image as input, a higher resolution image can be rebuilt utilizing the statistical correlation between the HR and LR images which is obtained via the DL method. The VB method effectively uses non-redundant information between LR images to recover HR satellite images. Benefit from the dictionary training of magnanimity image, the DL algorithm is able to provide more high-frequency image details, which means this hybrid of VB and DL method combines the above advantages. The experiments show that this proposed algorithm can effectively increase the image resolution of remote sensing images by 0.5times at least comparing with low resolution image.
Hernandezfilho, P. (Principal Investigator)
The development of methodologies to classify reforested areas using remotely sensed data is discussed. A preliminary study was carried out in northeast of the Sao Paulo State in 1978. The reforested areas of Pinus spp and Eucalyptus spp were based on the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics fo LANDSAT imagery. Afterwards, a more detailed study was carried out in the Mato Grosso do Sul State. The reforested areas were mapped in functions of the age (from: 0 to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, 3 to 4 years, 4 to 5 years and 5 to 6 years) and of the heterogeneity stand (from: 0 to 20%, 20 to 40%, 40 to 60%, 60 to 80% and 80 to 100%). The relative differences between the artificial forest areas, estimated from LANDSAT data and ground information, varied from -8.72 to +9.49%. The estimation of forest volume through a multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, is also discussed.
Smith, James A.
Remote sensing has proved a fruitful tool for understanding the distribution and functioning of plant communities at multiple scales and to understand their coupling to bioclimatic and anthropogenic factors. But a similar approach to understanding the distribution and abundance of bird species as well as many other animal organisms is lacking. The increasing need for such understanding is evident with the recent examples of threats to human health via avian vector transmission and the increasing emphasis on global conservation biology. From experimental observations we know that species richness tends to track biological or environmental gradients. In this paper, we explore the fundamental idea that thermal and water-relation environments of birds, as estimated from satellite data and biophysical models, can define the constraints on their Occurrences and richness. We develop individual bird energy budget models and use these models to define the climate space niche of birds. Using satellite data assimilation products to drive our models, we disperse a distribution of virtual or actual bird species across the landscape in accordance to the limits expressed by their climate space niche. Here, we focus on the North American summer breeding season and give two examples to illustrate our approach. The first is a tundra loving bird, e.g. corresponding to the Culidris genus, and a second genus example, Myiurchus, that corresponds to arid or semi-arid regions. We define these birds in terms of their basic physiology and morphological characteristics, construct avian energetic simulations to predict their allowable metabolic ranges and climate space limits.
Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul
Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.
In identifying and characterizing wetland and adjacent features, the use of remote sensor and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies has been valuable. Remote sensors such as photographs and computer-sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, exten...
The concepts of radar remote sensing and microwave radiometry are discussed and their utility in earth resource sensing is examined. The direct relationship between the character of the remotely sensed data and the level of decision making for which the data are appropriate is considered. Applications of active and a passive microwave sensing covered include hydrology, land use, mapping, vegetation classification, environmental monitoring, coastal features and processes, geology, and ice and snow. Approved and proposed microwave sensors are described and the use of space shuttle as a development platform is evaluated.
Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.
The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.
Ragan, R. M.; Salomonson, V. V.
The reported investigation is concerned with the use of Landsat remote sensing to define input parameters for an array of hydrologic models which are used to synthesize streamflow and water quality parameters in the planning or management process. The ground truth sampling and problems involved in translating the remotely sensed information into hydrologic model parameters are discussed. Questions related to the modification of existing models for compatibility with remote sensing capabilities are also examined. It is shown that the input parameters of many models are presently overdefined in terms of the sensitivity and accuracy of the model. When this overdefinition is recognized many of the models currently considered to be incompatible with remote sensing capabilities can be modified to make possible use with sensors having rather low resolutions.
Carlson, C. W.
The effects of soil moisture as it relates to agriculture is briefly discussed. The use of remote sensing to predict scheduling of irrigation, runoff and soil erosion which contributes to the prediction of crop yield is also discussed.
Gou, Shuiping; Wang, Yuqin; Jiao, Licheng
The target recognition accuracy of remote sensing images is not satisfied. The labels of images acquisition and recollecting are difficult and expensive. In order to solve the problem, we introduce transfer learning into Network Boosting algorithm (NB) and propose Transfer Network Learning algorithm (TNL), in which other out-date data are reused to instruct the remote sensing target recognition. TNL is suitable to improve the performance of remote sensing target recognition, in which instances transfer learning is adopted for domain adaptation. The experimental results on the MSTAR SAR data set and remote sensing data set including two-class planes show that the proposed algorithm has better performance and achieves different domains learning.
These eleven papers were given at a conference on remote sensing of geographical data. Subjects include fingerprinting of oil spills using fluorescence spectroscopy, satellites, air pollution monitoring, uranium exploration, geomorphology, water pollution, forest diseases and ecology, plumes, and optical techniques.
The NEMO hyperspectral remote sensing program will provide unclassified, space-based hyperspectral passive imagery at moderate resolution that offers substantial potential for direct use by Naval forces and the Civil Sector.
for the delineation and analysis of bottom features in coastal areas. The focus is on the development of remote sensing techniques for delineating and classifying bottom features in the nearshore zone.
droplet solutions and chemical reactions if the complex indices of refraction are known. The technique seems most applicable in the Rayleigh regime. Remote ... sensing , Isosbestics, Infrared, Infrared spectra, Atmosphere, Water, Aerosols, Rayleigh regime.
Remote sensing has facilitated extraordinary advances in modeling, mapping, and the understanding of ecosystems. Conventional sensors have significant limitations for ecological and forest applications. The sensitivity and accuracy of these devices have repeatedly been shown to fall with increasing ...
The fundamental goals of the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Remote Sens-ing (LRS) Program are to provide the Federal Government and the public with a primary source of remotely sensed data and applications and to be a leader in defining the future of land remote sensing, nationally and internationally. Remotely sensed data provide information that enhance the understand-ing of ecosystems and the capabilities for predicting ecosystem change. The data promote an understanding of the role of the environment and wildlife in human health issues, the requirements for disaster response, the effects of climate variability, and the availability of energy and mineral resources. Also, as land satellite systems acquire global coverage, the program coordinates a network of international receiving stations and users of the data. It is the responsibility of the program to assure that data from land imaging satellites, airborne photography, radar, and other technologies are available to the national and global science communities.
The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...
Kurenkov, Vladimir I.; Kucherov, Alexander S.
The paper deals with the problem of estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency. Appropriate mathematical models have been developed. Some results obtained with the help of the software worked out in Delphi programming support environment are presented.
Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...
Timucin, Dogan A.
A Bayesian data-analysis framework is described for atmospheric and surface retrievals from remotely-sensed hyper-spectral data. Some computational techniques are high- lighted for improved accuracy in the forward physics model.
Mick, Mark; Alexander, Timothy M.; Woolley, Stan
Since 1986, NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center has supported commercial remote sensing partnerships with industry. CRSP's mission is to maximize U.S. market exploitation of remote sensing and related space-based technologies and to develop advanced technical solutions for spatial information requirements. Observation, geolocation, and communications technologies are converging and their integration is critical to realize the economic potential for spatial informational needs. Global positioning system (GPS) technology enables a virtual revolution in geopositionally accurate remote sensing of the earth. A majority of states are creating GPS-based reference networks, or high accuracy reference networks (HARN). A HARN can be defined for a variety of local applications and tied to aerial or satellite observations to provide an important contribution to geographic information systems (GIS). This paper details CRSP's experience in the design and implementation of a HARN in Mississippi and the design and support of future applications of integrated earth observations, geolocation, and communications technology.
Rottweiler, Kurt A.; Wilson, Jerry C.
Discusses the latest in remote sensing technology including multispectral scanners, thermal scanners, aero magnetometers and side looking radar. Describes the application of this technology to preconstruction site surveys. (JF)
The presentation describes results of an intercomparison of three optical remote sensing systems for measurements of nitric oxide emitted from passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The intercomparison included a standards comparison to establish comparability of standards, follo...
Howard, W. B.; Driscoll, L. B.
The usefulness of remote sensing in urban planning and development relative to social and economic factors as well as physical factors is examined. Particular attention was given to environmental quality assessment and land use problems.
Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody
Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945
Bouchillon, C. W.; Miller, W. F.; Landphair, H.; Zitta, V. L.
The use of remote sensing techniques to help the state of Mississippi recognize and solve its environmental, resource, and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring is suggested.
Walter, Steven J.
Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily
Carmichael, J. J.; Eldridge, R. G.; Frey, E. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Ghovanlou, A. H.
The capabilities of specific NASA remote sensing systems to provide appropriate measurements of stratospheric parameters for potential user needs were assessed. This was used to evaluate the capabilities of the remote sensing systems to perform global monitoring of the stratosphere. The following conclusions were reached: (1) The performance of current remote stratospheric sensors, in some cases, compares quite well with identified measurement requirements. Their ability to measure other species has not been demonstrated. (2) None of the current, in-situ methods have the capability to satisfy the requirements for global monitoring and the temporal constraints derived from the users needs portion of the study. (3) Existing, non-remote techniques will continue to play an important role in stratospheric investigations for both corroboration of remotely collected data and in the evolutionary development of future remote sensors.
Hoffer, R. M.
Surface observation data is discussed as an essential part of remote sensing research. One of the most important aspects of ground truth is the collection of measurements and observations about the type, size, condition and other physical or chemical properties of importance concerning the materials on the earth's surface that are being sensed remotely. The use of a variety of sensor systems in combination at different altitudes is emphasized.
Aubé, Martin; Kocifaj, Miroslav
This special issue contains papers related to the measurement, prediction, consequences and control of light pollution. The main underlying question of the special issue is: How remote sensing and field experiments can help us to understand and monitor light pollution? Through the papers published herein, you will find answers related to the use of remote sensing techniques as diverse as hyperspectral measurements, broadband photometry, along with DSLR color cameras image analysis.
Lowe, D. S.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E.; Sattinger, I. J.; Sellman, A. N.; Wagner, T. W.
The application of NASA earth resource survey technology to resource management and environmental protection in Michigan was investigated. Remote sensing techniques to aid Michigan government agencies were applied in the following activities: (1) land use inventory and management, (2) great lakes shorelands protection and management, (3) wetlands protection and management, and (4) soil survey. In addition, information was disseminated on remote sensing technology, and advice and assistance was provided to a number of users.
Barnes, Norman P.
NASA remote sensing missions involving laser systems and their economic impact are outlined. Potential remote sensing missions include: green house gasses, tropospheric winds, ozone, water vapor, and ice cap thickness. Systems to perform these measurements use lanthanide series lasers and nonlinear devices including second harmonic generators and parametric oscillators. Demands these missions place on the laser and nonlinear optical materials are discussed from a materials point of view. Methods of designing new laser and nonlinear optical materials to meet these demands are presented.
Boylan, M.; Vlasin, R. D.
Uses of remote sensing imagery were investigated based on exploring and evaluating the capability and reliability of all kinds of imagery for improving decision making on issues of land use at all scales of governmental administration. Emphasis was placed on applications to solving immediate problems confronting public agencies and private organizations. Resulting applications of remote sensing use by public agencies, public organizations, and related private corporations are described.
In 2002, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched a program to enhance the acquisition, preservation, and use of remotely sensed data for USGS science programs, as well as for those of cooperators and customers. Remotely sensed data are fundamental tools for studying the Earth's land surface, including coastal and near-shore environments. For many decades, the USGS has been a leader in providing remotely sensed data to the national and international communities. Acting on its historical topographic mapping mission, the USGS has archived and distributed aerial photographs of the United States for more than half a century. Since 1972, the USGS has acquired, processed, archived, and distributed Landsat and other satellite and airborne remotely sensed data products to users worldwide. Today, the USGS operates and manages the Landsats 5 and 7 missions and cooperates with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to define and implement future satellite missions that will continue and expand the collection of moderate-resolution remotely sensed data. In addition to being a provider of remotely sensed data, the USGS is a user of these data and related remote sensing technology. These data are used in natural resource evaluations for energy and minerals, coastal environmental surveys, assessments of natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides), biological surveys and investigations, water resources status and trends analyses and studies, and geographic and cartographic applications, such as wildfire detection and tracking and as a source of information for The National Map. The program furthers these distinct but related roles by leading the USGS activities in providing remotely sensed data while advancing applications of such data for USGS programs and a wider user community.
Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.
This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.
Murtha, P. A.
The development, current status, and organization of the University of British Columbia's interdisciplinary graduate program in remote sensing are described. Specialized programs are tailored to meet student's needs and interest and can range from the theoretical development of technology (sensor development, modelling, and computer analysis) to specialized application of remote sensing in resource analysis such as the determination of vegetation damage, land classification, and land use. The courses and faculty members are listed.
van Brug, Hedser; Visser, Huib
This paper describes one of the issues that are facing the remote sensing community in the not so far future; scientists ask for certain requirement that cannot be fulfilled either due to cost issues or technological issues. The paper starts with giving a short and quick historical overview of the development of spectrometer based remote sensing systems. Next, the likely end of the spectrometers will be explained, followed by a possible alternative.
Perry, Eileen M.; Rupp, Richard; Davenport, Joan; Leal, Juliano; Pierce, Francis J.; Schulthess, Urs
Fresh market fruit crops such as apples have not employed precision agriculture tools, partially due to the labor intensive nature of the cropping systems. In this paper we describe new research in the development of precision agriculture tools for tree fruit, including the ability to track spatially variable orchard data before harvest through to the packing plant. Remote sensing is a key component of this system, and remote sensing products are being evaluated for their usefulness in guiding orchard management.
Leonard, D. A.; Caputo, B.; Hoge, F. E.
The application of Raman scattering to remote sensing of subsurface water temperature and salinity is considered, and both theoretical and experimental aspects of the technique are discussed. Recent experimental field measurements obtained in coastal waters and on a trans-Atlantic/Mediterranean research cruise are correlated with theoretical expectations. It is concluded that the Raman technique for remote sensing of subsurface water temperature has been brought from theoretical and laboratory stages to the point where practical utilization can now be developed.
Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.
The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.
Miller, W. F.; Carter, B. D.; Solomon, J. L.; Williams, S. G.; Powers, J. S.; Clark, J. R. (Principal Investigator)
Progress is reported in the following areas: remote sensing applications to land use planning Lowndes County, applications of LANDSAT data to strip mine inventory and reclamation, white tailed deer habitat evaluation using LANDSAT data, remote sensing data analysis support system, and discrimination of unique forest habitats in potential lignite areas of Mississippi. Other projects discussed include LANDSAT change discrimination in gravel operations, environmental impact modeling for highway corridors, and discrimination of fresh water wetlands for inventory and monitoring.
Yuanfu, S.; Quanan, Z.
In order to monitor marine pollution by airborne remote sensing techniques, some comprehensive test of airborne remote sensing, involving monitoring marine oil pollution, were performed at several bay areas of China. This paper presents some typical results of monitoring marine oil pollution. The features associated with the EM spectrum (visible, thermal infrared, and microwave) response of marine oil spills is briefly analyzed. It has been verified that the airborne oil surveillance systems manifested their advantages for monitoring the oil pollution of bay environments.
Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing
Johannsen, Chris J.
The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.
Gao, Min-guang; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Tian-shu; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Jian-guo; Wei, Qing-nong; Lu, Yi-huai; Wang, Ya-ping; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Liang
The principle and techniques of passive remote sensing of gaseous pollutant in heated plume was illustrated and discussed in this paper. The algorithm of radiance spectra and transmittance spectra in measured region was proposed, and the method of retrieving gas concentrations with NLLS fitting algorithm was also proposed. The remote senseing of actual gaseous pollutant of smokestack was done, and the quantitative analysis of SO2 and CO2 was completed.
Loveland, Thomas R.; Carter, Daniel B.; Draeger, William C.
The bibliography contains approximately 200 references dealing with the application of remote sensing technology to the identification and analysis of soils. The scientific papers and reports listed describe procedures and methods used in data collection and include specific applications of those data to soil studies. Most citations discuss current work from 1970 to 1978 and all references are categorized according to the type of remotely sensed data used and their application.
Duggin, M. J.; Whitehead, V.
Although considerable progress has been made in applying remote sensing technology to vegetation monitoring, considerable problems still exist in the improvement of techniques for crop type discrimination, stress detection on a large scale, and stress quantification. In this paper, some of the problems remaining in the operational use of remote sensing technology for vegetation stress detection are discussed, and directions in which some of these problems might be solved are proposed.
Jakab, Gergely; Kertész, Ádám; Madarász, Balázs; Pálinkás, Melinda; Tóth, Adrienn
Soil erosion is one of the most effective soil degradation processes reducing crop production on arable fields significantly. It also leads to serious environmental hazards such as eutrophication, mud and flesh floods. Beyond the processes there is an urgent need to survey and descript the current degree of erosion of arable lands in order to provide adequate land use techniques and mitigate the harmful effects. Surveying soil erosion is a very time consuming process since soil loss and deposition take place next to each other resulting a rather diverse erosion pattern even within a plot. Remote sensing is a possible way to determine the degree of soil erosion without special efforts taken in the field. The application of images can provide high resolution erosion maps of almost any type of arable fields. The method is based on the identification of the origin of the surface soil layer, i.e. whether it represents an originally deeper laying horizon (e.g. B horizon), or the parent material. A case study was carried out on a Cambisol formed on loess parent material. The soil and the parent rock have various reflectance spectra in the visible range, so this strip was used for the investigations. For map creation "training sites" were used in ArcMap environment. The obtained results suggest that the method is highly effective and useful, however, other properties like moisture content and plant cover can limit automated application. In this case new training sites are needed. The study was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH),), project Nr. 108755 and the support is gratefully acknowledged here. G. Jakab was supported by the János Bolyai Fellowship.
Hasekamp, O. P.; Stap, A.; di Noia, A.; Rietjens, J.; Smit, M.; van Harten, G.; Snik, F.
To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. Satellite instruments that perform multi-angle photopolarimetric measurements have the capability to provide these aerosol properties with sufficient accuracy. The only satellite instrument that provided a multi-year data set of multi-angle photopolarimetric measurements is the POLDER-3 instrument onboard the PARASOL microsatellite that operated between 2005-2013. PARASOL provides measurements of a ground scene under (up to) 16 viewing geometries in 9 spectral bands (3 for polarization). In order to make full use of the capability of PARASOL measurements of intensity and polarization properties of reflected light at multiple viewing angles and multiple wavelengths, we developed a retrieval algorithm that considers a continuous parameter space for aerosol microphysical properties (size distribution and refractive index) and properly accounts for land or ocean reflection by retrieving land and ocean parameters simultaneously with aerosol properties. Here, we present the key aspects of our PARASOL retrievals (inverse method, forward model, information content, cloud screening, computational aspects) as well as a validation of retrieved aerosol properties with ground-based measurements of the AERONET network. Also, we discuss required improvements for the next generation of polarimetric instruments dedicated to aerosol remote sensing and introduce a new spectropolarimetric instrument named SPEX. We will demonstrate the capabilities of SPEX based on ground based field measurements and characterization measurements in the labatory.
Schutgens, N.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Weigum, N.; Veira, A.; Partridge, D.; Stier, P.
We present an in-depth evaluation of AEROCOM models with a variety of remote sensing datasets: MODIS AOT (& AE over ocean), AERONET, AOT, AE & SSA and Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) AOT & AE. Together these datasets provide extensive global and temporal coverage and measure both extensive (AOT) as well as intensive aerosol properties (AE & SSA). Models and observations differ strongly in their spatio-temporal sampling. Model results are typical of large gridboxes (100 by 100 km), while observations are made over much smaller areas (10 by 10 km for MODIS, even smaller for AERONET and MAN). Model results are always available in contrast to observations that are intermittent due to orbital constraints, retrieval limitations and instrument failure/maintenance. We find that differences in AOT due to sampling effects can be 100% for instantaneous values and can still be 40% for monthly or yearly averages. Such differences are comparable to or larger than typical retrieval errors in the observations. We propose strategies (temporal colocation, spatial aggregation) for reducing these sampling errors Finally, we evaluate one year of co-located AOT, AE and SSA from several AEROCOM models against MODIS, AERONET and MAN observations. Where the observational datasets overlap, they give similar results but in general they allow us to evaluate models in very different spatio-temporal domains. We show that even small datasets like MAN AOT or AERONET SSA, provide a useful standard for evaluating models thanks to temporal colocation. The models differ quite a bit from the observations and each model differs in its own way. These results are presented through global maps of yearly averaged differences, time-series of modelled and observed data, scatter plots of correlations among observables (e.g. SSA vs AE) and Taylor diagrams. In particular, we find that the AEROCOM emissions substantially underestimate wildfire emissions and that many models have aerosol that is too absorbing.
Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía
Hailstorms are meteorological phenomena of great interest to the scientific community, owing to their socioeconomic impact, which is mainly on agricultural production. With its global coverage and high spatial and temporal resolution, satellite remote sensing can contribute to monitoring of such events through the development of appropriate techniques. This paper presents an extensive validation in the south of France of a hail detection tool (HDT) developed for the Middle Ebro Valley (MEV). The HDT is based on consecutive application of two filters, a convection mask (CM) and hail mask (HM), using spectral channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The south of France is an ideal area for studying hailstorms, because there is a robust database of hail falls recorded by an extensive network of hailpads managed by the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA). The results show noticeably poorer performance of the HDT in France relative to that in the MEV, with probability of detection (POD) 60.4% and false alarm rate (FAR) 26.6%. For this reason, a new tool to suit the characteristics of hailstorms in France has been developed. The France Hail Detection Tool (FHDT) was developed using logistic regression from channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor of the MSG. The FHDT was validated, resulting in POD 69.3% and FAR 15.4%, thus improving hail detection in the study area as compared with the previous tool. The new tool was tested in a case study with satisfactory results, supporting its future practical application.
Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.
In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.
Gehring, A. L.; Wang, J.; Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.
The last decade has seen a rapid growth in the use of satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements for estimating surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations for air quality and health studies. Although the two properties may be correlated, physically connecting the two quantities requires prior knowledge of aerosol type and relative humidity. AOD is an ambient, column-integrated optical property, and PM is a dry mass quantity measured at the surface. Surface visibility, however, is an ambient optical property, and may have closer physical ties to AOD. Since ambient visibility is so important for the safety of both aviation and ground transportation, there are near-continuous measurements at airports and other sites of commercial interest. Yet, like ground PM monitors, measurements of visibility have limited spatial coverage. In this study, we evaluate whether remote sensing techniques can help to determine surface visibility. AOD measurements from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are compared with one-minute extinction coefficient data (visibility = 3.0/σext) from the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS). However, since ASOS data lack quality control regulations, we first develop methods for quality control, including steps to limit unrealistic variability, poor calibration, and inconsistent formatting. Then we test different protocols for temporal averaging of the ASOS data (±10, 30, and 60 minutes) and spatial averaging of the MODIS data (1x1, 3x3, and 5x5 pixels) to collocate and compare the two data sets. Preliminary results for the U.S. mid-Atlantic show overall moderate correlation between MODIS AOD and ASOS extinction coefficient with higher correlations during summer months and lower correlations during winter months.
Fullekrug, M.; Whitley, T.; Mezentsev, A.; van der Velde, O. A.; Soula, S.; Chanrion, O.; Neubert, T.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.
Transient Luminous Events are investigated by remote sensing with several networks of radio receivers. Spectacular sprites are detected by use of their characteristic signatures following the continuing current of their parent positive cloud to ground lightning discharges which are recorded with a global network of four radio receivers operating at a frequency range from ~1-1000 Hz. This novel data set reveals a new class of sprites, where the intensity of the sprite exceeds the intensity of the parent lightning discharge, presumably as a result of continued horizontal lightning activity. These Mega-Sprites occur mainly during night-time and with a likelihood of less than ~10% during day-time. The spectra of Mega-Sprites are inferred from the electromagnetic recordings. Sprites with more moderate luminousity are occaisonally associated with weak electromagnetic signatures in the frequency range from ~40-400 kHz. It is shown that one of these signatures coincides with an extremely weak rebrightening of an ongoing sprite. The rebrightening exhibits an emission of ~50 photons over ~1 ms as measured with a fast scanning photomultiplier tube. This optical signature may result from relativisitc electrons in the mesosphere in agreement with corresponding model calculations. To test this hypothesis in more detail, a network of ten wideband digital radio receivers is deployed in southern France to operate as a small scale interferometer. The first results are obatined at a frequency of 100 kHz and show the bearings to radio transmitters and lightning discharges from distant thunderstorms and reveal an anisotropic wave propagation velocity.
Strauss, Karl F.
This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.
Gultepe, I.; Minnis, P.; Milbrandt, J.; Cober, S. G.; Nguyen, L.; Flynn, C.; Hansen, B.
The main objective of this work is to describe a research project on fog and visibility, and to summarize the results. The Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project was designed to focus on 1) development of microphysical parameterizations for model applications, 2) development of remote sensing methods for fog nowcasting/forecasting, 3) understanding of issues related to instrument capabilities and improvement of the analysis, and 4) integration of model data with observations. The FRAM was conducted over three regions of Canada and US. These locations were: 1) Center for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), Egbert, Ontario 2005-2006, 2) Lunenburg, Nova Scotia June of 2006 and 2007, and 3) U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE) ARM Climate Research Facility at Barrow, Alaska, US during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) field program April of 2008; FRAM C, FRAM-L, and ISDAC-FRAM-B, respectively. FRAM-C was undertaken in a continental fog environment while FRAM-L was in a marine environment. The FRAM-B was undertaken to study ice fog conditions. During the project, numerous in-situ measurements were obtained, including droplet and aerosol spectra, precipitation, and visibility. Analysis of satellite microphysical retrievals and visibility parameterizations suggested that improved scientific understanding of fog formation can lead to better forecasting/nowcasting skills benefiting both aviation and public forecasting applications.
Remote sensing as a science and as a paradigm was borne from the critical need for battlefield intelligence and grew and thrived as one of the fundamental cornerstones of national security. To a great extent, the development ofmany aspects and accepted principals of remote sensin...
Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. M.
The main applications of remote sensors to hydrology are identified as well as the principal spectral bands and their advantages and disadvantages. Some examples of LANDSAT data applications to flooding-risk evaluation are cited. Because hydrology studies the amount of moisture and water involved in each phase of hydrological cycle, remote sensing must be emphasized as a technique for hydrological data acquisition.
Moore, Gerald K.
Remote sensing is the use of electromagnetic energy to measure the physical properties of distant objects. It includes photography and geophysical surveying as well as newer techniques that use other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The history of remote sensing begins with photography. The origin of other types of remote sensing can be traced to World War II, with the development of radar, sonar, and thermal infrared detection systems. Since the 1960s, sensors have been designed to operate in virtually all of the electromagnetic spectrum. Today a wide variety of remote sensing instruments are available for use in hydrological studies; satellite data, such as Skylab photographs and Landsat images are particularly suitable for regional problems and studies. Planned future satellites will provide a ground resolution of 10–80 m. Remote sensing is currently used for hydrological applications in most countries of the world. The range of applications includes groundwater exploration determination of physical water quality, snowfield mapping, flood-inundation delineation, and making inventories of irrigated land. The use of remote sensing commonly results in considerable hydrological information at minimal cost. This information can be used to speed-up the development of water resources, to improve management practices, and to monitor environmental problems.
Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin
Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges. PMID:25386759
Saunders, T.; Feuquay, J.; Kelmelis, J.A.
The U.S. Geological Survey has been a provider of remotely sensed information for decades. As the availability and use of satellite data has grown, USGS has placed increasing emphasis on expanding the knowledge about the science of remote sensing and on making remotely sensed data more accessible. USGS encourages widespread availability and distribution of these data and through its programs, encourages and enables a variety of research activities and the development of useful applications of the data. The science of remote sensing has great potential for assisting in the monitoring and assessment of the impacts of natural disasters, management and analysis of environmental, biological, energy, and mineral investigations, and supporting informed public policy decisions. By establishing the Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) as a major unit of the USGS Geography Program, USGS has taken the next step to further increase support for the accessibility, understanding, and use of remotely sensed data. This article describes the LRS Program, its mission and objectives, and how the program has been structured to accomplish its goals.
Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong
Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community. PMID:22666057
Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.
Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin
Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.
Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong
Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.
The symposium was conducted as part of a continuing program investigating the field of remote sensing , its potential in scientific research and...information on all aspects of remote sensing , with special emphasis on such topics as needs for remotely sensed data, data management, and the special... remote sensing programs, data acquisition, data analysis and application, and equipment design, were presented. (Author)
... Policy Act of 1992, 15 U.S.C. 5621 et seq., but now recodified by the National and Commercial Space... space-based remote sensing industry, space-based remote sensing data users, government (state and local... about the commercial space- based remote sensing industry and uses of space-based remote sensing data...
Polhemus, J. T.
Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.
Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)
The Technology Application Center reviewed abstracted literature sources, and selected document data and data gathering techniques which were performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft or groundbased stations. All of the documentation was related to remote sensing sensors or the remote sensing of the natural resources. Sensors were primarily those operating within the 10 to the minus 8 power to 1 meter wavelength band. Included are NASA Tech Briefs, ARAC Industrial Applications Reports, U.S. Navy Technical Reports, U.S. Patent reports, and other technical articles and reports.
Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.
Exploration for uranium, thorium, oil, gas and geothermal activity through remote sensing techniques is considered; satellite monitoring of coal-derived CO2 in the atmosphere, and the remote assessment of strip mining and land restoration are also mentioned. Reference is made to color ratio composites based on Landsat data, which may aid in the detection of uranium deposits, and to computer-enhanced black and white airborne scanning imagery, which may locate geothermal anomalies. Other applications of remote sensing to energy resources management, including mapping of transportation networks and power plant siting, are discussed.
Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry
The present invention provides a system and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind field using a first remote sensing device and a second remote sensing device. Coordinated data is collected from the first and second remote sensing devices and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind field. The first remote sensing device is positioned to have a portion of the wind field within a first scanning sector of the first remote sensing device. The second remote sensing device is positioned to have the portion of the wind field disposed within a second scanning sector of the second remote sensing device.
Lobitz, Brad; Johnson, Lee; Hlavka, Chris; Armstrong, Roy; Bell, Cindy
High spatial resolution airborne imagery was acquired in California's Napa Valley in 1993 and 1994 as part of the Grapevine Remote sensing Analysis of Phylloxera Early Stress (GRAPES) project. Investigators from NASA, the University of California, the California State University, and Robert Mondavi Winery examined the application of airborne digital imaging technology to vineyard management, with emphasis on detecting the phylloxera infestation in California vineyards. Because the root louse causes vine stress that leads to grapevine death in three to five years, the infested areas must be replanted with resistant rootstock. Early detection of infestation and changing cultural practices can compensate for vine damage. Vineyard managers need improved information to decide where and when to replant fields or sections of fields to minimize crop financial losses. Annual relative changes in leaf area due to phylloxera infestation were determined by using information obtained from computing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. Two other methods of monitoring vineyards through imagery were also investigated: optical sensing of the Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP), and thermal sensing. These did not convey the stress patterns as well as the NDVI imagery and require specialized sensor configurations. NDVI-derived products are recommended for monitoring phylloxera infestations.
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
This publication identifies some of the general concepts of remote sensing and explains the image collection process and computer-generated reconstruction of the data. Monitoring the ecological collapse in coral reefs, weather phenomena like El Nino/La Nina, and U.S. Space Shuttle-based sensing projects are some of the areas for which remote…
A rationale is developed for the use of active microwave sensing in future aerospace applications programs for the remote sensing of the world's oceans, lakes, and polar regions. Summaries pertaining to applications, local phenomena, and large-scale phenomena are given along with a discussion of orbital errors.
Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio
A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring  and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy . The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the
Valenti, G.L.; Phelps, J.C.; Eisenberg, L.L.
One of the most active hydrocarbon exploration provinces of the last decade has been the fold and thrust belt of Papua New Guinea. Geologic remote sensing is an indispensable part of the exploration process in that remote and rugged area where usable seismic data are obtainable only locally, if at all. Photointerpretation of stereo synthetic aperture radar imagery has been especially useful in conventional lithostratigraphic mapping, both local and regional. Results of remote sensing imagery interpretation, integrated with surface geologic data, limited seismic, and balanced structural cross sections, facilitated the documentation of structural styles and provided the basis for a new, regional structural model. The role of remote sensing during various stages of the exploration process is summarized; imagery and map examples are presented.
Progress in studies for using remotely sensed data for assessing crop stress and in crop estimation is reported. The estimation of acreage of small forested areas in the southern lower peninsula of Michigan using LANDSAT data is evaluated. Damage to small grains caused by the cereal leaf beetle was assessed through remote sensing. The remote detection of X-disease of peach and cherry trees and of fire blight of pear and apple trees was investigated. The reliability of improving on standard methods of crop production estimation was demonstrated. Areas of virus infestation in vineyards and blueberry fields in western and southwestern Michigan were identified. The installation and systems integration of a microcomputer system for processing and making available remotely sensed data are described.
Haque, Saad Ul
The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality
Muller, A. W.
product with a high-energy phosphate bond, released upon an external work input. The first ATPsynthases are proposed to have similarly synthesized a bound peptide bond product during thermal cycling, released upon the thermal unfolding. In a simple model for the origin of life the first ATPsynthases, the first replicators, synthesize randomly constituted daughter polypeptides of which a small fraction has the same synthetic capabilities as their mothers. Hence thermosynthesis is not implausible, the Solar System may be teeming with thermosynthesizers, and IR remote sensing methods should permit to locate their niches.
Bresciani, Mariano; Matta, Erica; Giardino, Claudia
EULAKES Project (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors), funded by Central Europe Programme 2010-2013, includes four European lakes study: Garda Lake (Italy), Charzykowskie Lake (Poland), Neusiedl Lake (Austria) and Balaton Lake (Hungary). Aim of the Project is to evaluate lakes exposure to different type of risks in order to provide some useful tools to improve natural resources planning and management. The goal is to build an informatics system to support decision makers' purposes, which also provides a list of possible measures to be undertaken for water quality protection. Thanks to remote sensing techniques water quality characteristics have been assessed. Our activity provided photosynthetic cyanobacteria specific pigments spatial distribution in Charzykowskie Lake, macrophyte mapping in Garda Lake using MIVIS images, and common reeds change detection in Neusiedl Lake through Landsat satellite images analysis. 4800 MODIS 11A products, from 2004 to 2010, have been acquired to evaluate surface water temperature trends, significant input data for future global change scenarios. Temperature analysis allowed the evaluation of lakes different characteristics, temperature temporal trends and temperature spatial variability inside each lake. Optical active parameters (Chlorophyll-a, Total Suspended Matter, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter), as well as water transparency, have been estimated from 250 MERIS images processing. Satellite images, acquired following Water Frame Directive monitoring rules, have been corrected for adjacent effects using ESA Beam-Visat software (ICOL tool). Atmospheric correction has been performed applying different softwares: 6S radiative transfer code and Beam Neural-Network. Different algorithms for the water quality parameters estimation have been applied to reflectance values, after their validation with spectroradiometric field measures. Garda Lake has been analysed with ESA Case 2 Regional algorithm, while for Balaton and
Predos, Don; Ryan, Robert E.; Ross, Kenton W.
programmers to bypass the GUI and to create more user-specific output products, such as comparison time plots or images. This type of time series analysis tool for remotely sensed imagery could be the basis of a large-area vegetation surveillance system. The TSPT has been used to generate NDVI time series over growing seasons in California and Argentina and for hurricane events, such as Hurricane Katrina.
Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Tanre, Didier; Levy, Robert; Li, Rong-Rong; Martins, Jose V.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)
The physical characteristics, composition, abundance, spatial distribution and dynamics of global aerosols are still very poorly known, and new data from satellite sensors have long been awaited to improve current understanding and to give a boost to the effort in future climate predictions. The derivation of aerosol parameters from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites ushers in a new era in aerosol remote sensing from space. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution (level 2) from MODIS daytime data. The MODIS aerosol algorithm employs different approaches to retrieve parameters over land and ocean surfaces, because of the inherent differences in the solar spectral radiance interaction with these surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 micron over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. To ensure the quality of these parameters, a substantial part of the Terra-MODIS aerosol products were validated globally and regionally, based on cross correlation with corresponding parameters derived from ground-based measurements from AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometers. Similar validation efforts are planned for the Aqua-MODIS aerosol products. The MODIS level 2 aerosol products are operationally aggregated to generate global daily, eight-day (weekly), and monthly products at one-degree spatial resolution (level 3). MODIS aerosol data are used for the detailed study of local, regional, and global aerosol concentration
Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.
The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute
Spiers, G. D.
Laser Remote Sensing and lidar have been used for earth remote sensing for a number of years however the inefficiency of laser devices has limited their application to planetary sensing where power is at a premium. The potential availability of a large amount of power for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) opens up the potential to implement laser remote sensing for planetary bodies. Lidars have been and can be used to map terrain, measure atmospheric and surface parameters including velocity and composition. In this paper we will provide an overview of the lidar capabilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and address the types of lidar measurements that could be relevant to JIMO science investigations.
Henderson, Frederick B.
Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources
Wade, J.E.; Maule, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.; Rosenfeld, C.L.; Woolley, S.G.; McClenahan, M.R.
Remote sensing can aid in identifying and locating indicators of wind power potential from the terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments (i.e.: wind-deformed trees, white caps, and areas of thermal flux). It is not considered as a tool for determining wind power potential. A wide variety of remotely sensed evidence is described in terms of the scale at which evidence of wind power can be identified, and the appropriate remote sensors for finding such evidence. Remote sensing can be used for regional area prospecting using small-scale imagery. The information from such small-scale imagery is most often qualitative, and if it is transitory, examination of a number of images to verify presistence of the feature may be required. However, this evidence will allow rapid screening of a large area. Medium-scale imagery provides a better picture of the evidence obtained from small-scale imagery. At this level it is best to use existing imagery. Criteria relating to land use, accessibility, and proximity of candidate sites to nearby transmission lines can also be effectively evaluated from medium-scale imagery. Large-scale imagery provides the most quantitative evidence of the strength of wind. Wind-deformed trees can be identified at a large number of sites using only a few hours in locally chartered aircraft. A handheld 35mm camera can adequately document any evidence of wind. Three case studies that employ remote sensing prospecting techniques are described. Based on remotely sensed evidence, the wind power potential in three geographically and climatically diverse areas of the United States is estimated, and the estimates are compared to actual wind data in those regions. In addition, the cost of each survey is discussed. The results indicate that remote sensing for wind power potential is a quick, cost effective, and fairly reliable method for screening large areas for wind power potential.
Liu, Jin; Sun, Jing; Xu, Zheng Q.
The use of remote sensing images collected by space platforms is becoming more and more widespread. The increasing value of space data and its use in critical scenarios call for adoption of proper security measures to protect these data against unauthorized access and fraudulent use. In this paper, based on the characteristics of remote sensing image data and application requirements on secure distribution, a secure distribution method is proposed, including users and regions classification, hierarchical control and keys generation, and multi-level encryption based on regions. The combination of the three parts can make that the same remote sensing images after multi-level encryption processing are distributed to different permission users through multicast, but different permission users can obtain different degree information after decryption through their own decryption keys. It well meets user access control and security needs in the process of high resolution remote sensing image distribution. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method which is suitable for practical use in the secure transmission of remote sensing images including confidential information over internet.
Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Qing; Li, Hai-feng; Zhao, Wen-hao
As remote sensing technology become ever more powerful with multi-platform and multi-sensor, it has been widely recognized for contributing to geospatial information efforts. Because the remotely sensed image processing demands large-scale, collaborative processing and massive storage capabilities to satisfy the increasing demands of various applications, the effect and efficiency of the remotely sensed image processing is far from the user's expectation. The emergence of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) may make this challenge manageable. It encapsulate all processing function into services and recombine them with service chain. The service composition on demand has become a hot topic. Aiming at the success rate, quality and efficiency of processing service composition for remote sensing application, a remote sensed image processing service composition method is proposed in this paper. It composes services for a user requirement through two steps: 1) dynamically constructs a complete service dependency graph for user requirement on-line; 2) AO* based heuristic searches for optimal valid path in service dependency graph. These services within the service dependency graph are considered relevant to the specific request, instead of overall registered services. The second step, heuristic search is a promising approach for automated planning. Starting with the initial state, AO* uses a heuristic function to select states until the user requirement is reached. Experimental results show that this method has a good performance even the repository has a large number of processing services.
Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.
Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.
Zoffoli, Maria Laura; Frouin, Robert; Kampel, Milton
Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application. PMID:25215941