Science.gov

Sample records for photogrammetric control measurements

  1. Medical photogrammetric measurement: overview and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, H. L.; Newton, I.

    Since the earliest days of photogrammetry, there have been photogrammetrists who have directed research effort towards medical measurement. Although the specific motivation for these studies has not always been disclosed, it is probably because of the various benefits that photogrammetry can offer to humanity as a painless and non-invasive means of providing medical practitioners with spatial measurement relating to the human body. The intention of this paper is to reflect on the place of the many medical developments within the photogrammetric world. The various photogrammetric applications in medicine are summarised to identify the characteristics of medical photogrammetry, and it becomes evident that medical photogrammetrists have developed a range of body measurements using widely varying photogrammetric techniques, in response to the demands for specialised spatial measurement tools for a wide variety of medical ends. This volume of research activity has made medical measurement a substantial and varied sector of non-mapping photogrammetry. It is also clear that there are numerous challenges to the design of medical photogrammetric systems. They must give paramount consideration to the human patients and their comfort; they must yield not simply spatial data about the body but rather specific medical information. At the same time, it is of concern that non-photogrammetric scientists and engineers have developed medical measurement systems based on both photogrammetric and other optical techniques. Fortunately, photogrammetrists can also contribute to medical problems through their spatial data experiences. It is concluded that the many distinctive challenges mean that medical photogrammetry has not yet been as successful at changing the world as the extensive efforts applied to it suggest, but nevertheless, medical photogrammetry deserves to be recognised as a category of close range photogrammetry which remains a valuable pursuit which should not be abandoned

  2. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  3. Photogrammetric Measurements of CEV Airbag Landing Attenuation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  5. NASA High-Speed 2D Photogrammetric Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismond, Harriett R.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this report is to provide users of the NASA high-speed 2D photogrammetric measurement system with procedures required to obtain drop-model trajectory and impact data for full-scale and sub-scale models. This guide focuses on use of the system for vertical drop testing at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility.

  6. In-flight photogrammetric measurement of wing ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. C.; Palko, R. L.; Humes, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A photographic instrumentation system was developed for the Lewis icing research aircraft to measure wind ice accretions during flight. The system generates stereo photographs of the accretions which are then photogrammetrically measured by the Air Force Arnold Engineering and Development Center. The measurements yield a survey of spatial coordinates of an accretion's surface to an accuracy of at least + or - 0.08 cm. The accretions can then be matched to corresponding icing cloud and aerodynamic measurements. The system is being used to measure rime, mixed, and clear natural ice accretions.

  7. Experimental Methods Using Photogrammetric Techniques for Parachute Canopy Shape Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Downey, James M.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Desabrais, Kenneth J.; Noetscher, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in partnership with the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center has collaborated on the development of a payload instrumentation package to record the physical parameters observed during parachute air drop tests. The instrumentation package records a variety of parameters including canopy shape, suspension line loads, payload 3-axis acceleration, and payload velocity. This report discusses the instrumentation design and development process, as well as the photogrammetric measurement technique used to provide shape measurements. The scaled model tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Plum Brook Space Propulsion Facility, OH.

  8. Photogrammetric recession measurements of ablative materials in arcjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Heineck, James T.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes an optical method for measuring the recession time histories of ablative thermal protection system (TPS) materials as they are tested in an arcjet facility. The method is non-intrusive and requires no external light source or modifications to the test article. It does require, first, a test article that exhibits texture as it ablates, and, second, high-resolution video images of the ablating surface from at least two directions. Software automatically reads the sequences of images and, by successive image cross correlation, tracks the deformation of a surface grid that conforms to the shape of the test article. Standard photogrammetric transformations are used to convert image-plane displacements of the surface grid to object-space displacements. The method yields a time history of the displacement of each node of the grid for the full time that the test article is exposed to the arcjet flow. Measurements have been made during many tests in the 60 MW arcjet at NASA Ames Research Center, including tests of TPS materials for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Mars Science Laboratory. The photogrammetric recession measurements have been in good agreement with post-test measurements of the change in thickness of the test articles.

  9. Photogrammetric Data Set, 1957-2000, and Bathymetric Measurements for Columbia Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Major changes in the length, speed, surface altitude, and calving rate of Columbia Glacier, Alaska have been recorded with stereo vertical photography acquired on 119 dates from 1957 to 2000. Photogrammetric analysis of this photographic record has resulted in precise measurement of these changes. From 1982 to 2000 Columbia Glacier retreated 12 kilometers, reduced its thickness by as much as 400 meters, increased its speed from about 5 to 30 meters per day, and increased its calving rate from 3 to 18 million cubic meters per day. All photogrammetric data for Columbia Glacier from 1957 to 2000 are included in this report, as well as supplemental data of ice-dammed lake surface levels, stagnant ice ablation rate, forebay bathymetry, ground control, and camera calibrations. These data are contained in 481 files, all preserved on a CD-ROM included with this report.

  10. Photogrammetric methods for measurements in fluid physics experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, H.-G.; Virant, M.; Becker, J.; Bösemann, W.; Gatti, L.; Henrichs, A.

    2002-02-01

    Methods of digital close-range photogrammetry allow for manifold real 3-D measurements in dynamic processes. Based on the acquisition of multi-camera digital image sequences, image analysis with subpixel accuracy image measurement operators, photogrammetric multi-image matching and point determination techniques, strict geometric modeling of complex environments and thorough system calibration techniques, time-resolved accurate 3-D coordinates of a large number of objects in a scene can be determined fully automatically. The paper will first give a short review on basic principles of digital photogrammetry and discuss the application and accuracy potential. After that, practical examples will be given from several breadboard experiments conducted in the frame of the ESA Technological Research and Development Programme to show the applicability of the technique to typical experiments in the field of fluid physics. These experiments focus on the investigation of experiments on Marangoni convection; they include the determination of 3-D velocity fields near a hanging drop within a fluid matrix and the observation of the tangential tension on the boundary surface by measuring changes in shape and/or position of liquid bodies like drops, bubbles or liquid columns in a fluid matrix.

  11. Photogrammetric Measurements of an EH-60L Brownout Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2010-01-01

    There is a critical lack of quantitative data regarding the mechanism of brownout cloud formation. Recognizing this, tests were conducted during the Air Force Research Lab 3D-LZ Brownout Test at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground. Photogrammetry was utilized during two rounds of flight tests with an instrumented EH-60L Black Hawk to determine if this technique could quantitatively measure the formation and evolution of a brownout cloud. Specific areas of interest include the location, size, and average convective velocity of the cloud, along with the characteristics of any defined structures within it. Following the first flight test, photogrammetric data were validated through comparison with onboard vehicle data. Lessons learned from this test were applied to the development of an improved photogrammetry system. A second flight test, utilizing the improved system, demonstrated that obtaining quantitative measurements of the brownout cloud are possible. Results from these measurements are presented in the paper. Flow visualization with chalk dust seeding was also tested. It was observed that pickup forces of the brownout cloud appear to be very low. Overall, these tests demonstrate the viability of photogrammetry as a means for quantifying brownout cloud formation and evolution.

  12. Precision Analysis of Point-And Photogrammetric Measurements for Corridor Mapping: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Blázquez, M.; Sastre, J.; Colomina, I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the key aspects of the sensor orientation and calibration approach within the mapKITE concept for corridor mapping, focusing on the contribution analysis of point-and-scale measurements of kinematic ground control points. MapKITE is a new mobile, simultaneous terrestrial and aerial, geodata acquisition and post-processing method. On one hand, the acquisition system is a tandem composed of a terrestrial mobile mapping system and an unmanned aerial system, the latter equipped with a remote sensing payload, and linked through a 'virtual tether', that is, a real-time waypoint supply from the terrestrial vehicle to the unmanned aircraft. On the other hand, mapKITE entails a method for geodata post-processing (specifically, sensor orientation and calibration) based on the described acquisition paradigm, focusing on few key aspects: the particular geometric relationship of a mapKITE network - the aerial vehicle always observes the terrestrial one as they both move -, precise air and ground trajectory determination - the terrestrial vehicle is regarded as a kinematic ground control point - and new photogrammetric measurements - pointing on and measuring the scale of an optical target on the roof of the terrestrial vehicle - are exploited. In this paper, we analyze the performance of aerial image orientation and calibration in mapKITE for corridor mapping, which is the natural application niche of mapKITE, based on the principles and procedures of integrated sensor orientation with the addition of point-and-scale photogrammetric measurements of the kinematic ground control points. To do so, traditional (static ground control points, photogrammetric tie points, aerial control) and new (pointing-and-scaling of kinematic ground control points) measurements have been simulated for mapKITE corridor mapping missions, consisting on takeoff and calibration pattern, single-pass corridor operation potentially performing calibration patterns, and landing and

  13. A comparison of two photogrammetric algorithms for the measurement of model deformation in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteith, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made of two photogrammetric measurement techniques which can be used for the determination of the spatial loctions of targets. One technique is known as the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT), and the other is referred to as the Bundle method. Each technique utilizes triangulation of image data from two or more cameras, but they differ in their method of determining camera parameters. While the study was performed with simulated data, the geometries, image data accuracies and other parameters were set to simulate conditions for a two-camera, photogrammetric system which will be used at the National Transonic Facility at the NASA's Langley Research Center. For the conditions studied the Bundle technique was found to have smaller errors. Both methods were sensitive to the spatial distribution of control-point targets, but this effected the accuracy of the Bundle algorithm less than that of the DLT algorithm.

  14. Close-Range Photogrammetric Measurement of Static Deflections for an Aeroelastic Supercritical Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, Thomas A.; Adams, Richard R.; Sandford, Maynard C.

    1990-01-01

    Close range photogrammetric measurements were made for the lower wing surface of a full span aspect ratio 10.3 aeroelastic supercritical research wing. The measurements were made during wind tunnel tests for quasi-steady pressure distributions on the wing. The tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers up to 0.90 and dynamic pressures up to 300 pounds per square foot. Deflection data were obtained for 57 locations on the wing lower surface using dual non-metric cameras. Representative data are presented as graphical overview to show variations and trends of spar deflection with test variables. Comparative data are presented for photogrammetric and cathetometric results of measurements for the wing tip deflections. A tabulation of the basic measurements is presented in a supplement to this report.

  15. A Photogrammetric System for Model Attitude Measurement in Hypersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, and a review of the measurement results obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.

  16. Photogrammetric Deflection Measurements for the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) Multi-Component Rotor Balance Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solis, Eduardo; Meyn, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Calibrating the internal, multi-component balance mounted in the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) required photogrammetric measurements to determine the location and orientation of forces applied to the balance. The TTR, with the balance and calibration hardware attached, was mounted in a custom calibration stand. Calibration loads were applied using eleven hydraulic actuators, operating in tension only, that were attached to the forward frame of the calibration stand and the TTR calibration hardware via linkages with in-line load cells. Before the linkages were installed, photogrammetry was used to determine the location of the linkage attachment points on the forward frame and on the TTR calibration hardware. Photogrammetric measurements were used to determine the displacement of the linkage attachment points on the TTR due to deflection of the hardware under applied loads. These measurements represent the first photogrammetric deflection measurements to be made to support 6-component rotor balance calibration. This paper describes the design of the TTR and the calibration hardware, and presents the development, set-up and use of the photogrammetry system, along with some selected measurement results.

  17. A digital photogrammetric method for measuring horizontal surficial movements on the slumgullion earthflow, Hinsdale county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, P.S.; Chiarle, M.; Savage, W.Z.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional approach to making aerial photographic measurements uses analog or analytic photogrammetric equipment. We have developed a digital method for making measurements from aerial photographs which uses geographic information system (GIS) software, and primarily DOS-based personal computers. This method, which is based on the concept that a direct visual comparison can be made between images derived from two sets of aerial photographs taken at different times, was applied to the surface of the active portion of the Slumgullion earthflow in Colorado to determine horizontal displacement vectors from the movements of visually identifiable objects, such as trees and large rocks. Using this method, more of the slide surface can be mapped in a shorter period of time than using the standard photogrammetric approach. More than 800 horizontal displacement vectors were determined on the active earthflow surface using images produced by our digital photogrammetric technique and 1985 (1:12,000-scale) and 1990 (1:6,000-scale) aerial photographs. The resulting displacement field shows, with a 2-m measurement error (??? 10%), that the fastest moving portion of the landslide underwent 15-29 m of horizontal displacement between 1985 and 1990. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  19. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lou; Yuan, Qian; Sheng-hong, Fan; Chang-ru, Liu; Hai-ren, Wang; Ying-xi, Zuo; Jin-quan, Cheng; Ji, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the test equipment, most of high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be put into application under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high-resolution industrial camera sitting on the automatic testing platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm (rms) is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, the surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under the room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness differences of the targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C to obtain the rule of variation of surface deformation of the panel under low temperatures.

  20. The development of an UAV borne direct georeferenced photogrammetric platform for Ground Control Point free applications.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Chu, Chien-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. In this study, a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based spatial information acquisition platform that can operate in Ground Control Point (GCP) free environments is developed and evaluated. The proposed UAV based photogrammetric platform has a Direct Georeferencing (DG) module that includes a low cost Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated system. The DG module is able to provide GPS single frequency carrier phase measurements for differential processing to obtain sufficient positioning accuracy. All necessary calibration procedures are implemented. Ultimately, a flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using GCPs. The preliminary results of positioning accuracy in DG mode illustrate that horizontal positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m at 300 m flight height above the ground. The positioning accuracy of the z axis is below 10 m. Therefore, the proposed platform is relatively safe and inexpensive for collecting critical spatial information for urgent response such as disaster relief and assessment applications where GCPs are not available.

  1. The Development of an UAV Borne Direct Georeferenced Photogrammetric Platform for Ground Control Point Free Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Chu, Chien-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate applications such as environment detection or disaster monitoring, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. In this study, a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based spatial information acquisition platform that can operate in Ground Control Point (GCP) free environments is developed and evaluated. The proposed UAV based photogrammetric platform has a Direct Georeferencing (DG) module that includes a low cost Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated system. The DG module is able to provide GPS single frequency carrier phase measurements for differential processing to obtain sufficient positioning accuracy. All necessary calibration procedures are implemented. Ultimately, a flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using GCPs. The preliminary results of positioning accuracy in DG mode illustrate that horizontal positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 m at 300 m flight height above the ground. The positioning accuracy of the z axis is below 10 m. Therefore, the proposed platform is relatively safe and inexpensive for collecting critical spatial information for urgent response such as disaster relief and assessment applications where GCPs are not available. PMID:23012538

  2. A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.

    PubMed

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  3. Polarization and Color Filtering Applied to Enhance Photogrammetric Measurements of Reflective Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Jeffrey M.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Techniques for enhancing photogrammetric measurement of reflective surfaces by reducing noise were developed utilizing principles of light polarization. Signal selectivity with polarized light was also compared to signal selectivity using chromatic filters. Combining principles of linear cross polarization and color selectivity enhanced signal-to-noise ratios by as much as 800 fold. More typical improvements with combining polarization and color selectivity were about 100 fold. We review polarization-based techniques and present experimental results comparing the performance of traditional retroreflective targeting materials, cornercube targets returning depolarized light, and color selectivity.

  4. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes. PMID:22319349

  5. The investigation of active Martian dune fields using very high resolution photogrammetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungrack; Kim, Younghwi; Park, Minseong

    2016-10-01

    At the present time, arguments continue regarding the migration speeds of Martian dune fields and their correlation with atmospheric circulation. However, precisely measuring the spatial translation of Martian dunes has succeeded only a very few times—for example, in the Nili Patera study (Bridges et al. 2012) using change-detection algorithms and orbital imagery. Therefore, in this study, we developed a generic procedure to precisely measure the migration of dune fields with recently introduced 25-cm resolution orbital imagery specifically using a high-accuracy photogrammetric processor. The processor was designed to trace estimated dune migration, albeit slight, over the Martian surface by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on hierarchical geodetic control for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout the sensor model refinement with a non-rigorous bundle block adjustment, which makes possible the co-alignment of all images in a time series; and 3) improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Moreover, volumetric changes of Martian dunes were additionally traced by means of stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using high-resolution HIRISE time-series images over several Martian dune fields. Dune migrations were iteratively processed both spatially and volumetrically, and the results were integrated to be compared to the Martian climate model. Migrations over well-known crater dune fields appeared to be almost static for the considerable temporal periods and were weakly correlated with wind directions estimated by the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al. 2015). As a result, a number of measurements over dune fields in the Mars Global Dune Database (Hayward et al. 2014) covering polar areas and mid-latitude will be demonstrated

  6. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  7. Validation of two independent photogrammetric techniques for determining body measurements of gorillas.

    PubMed

    Galbany, Jordi; Stoinski, Tara S; Abavandimwe, Disier; Breuer, Thomas; Rutkowski, William; Batista, Nicholas V; Ndagijimana, Felix; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2015-12-14

    The ability to accurately measure morphological characteristics of wild primates in the field is challenging, yet critical for understanding fundamental aspects of their biology and behavior. Recent studies have shown that digital photogrammetry can be used to non-invasively measure morphological traits of wild primates, as it allows for the determination of geometric properties of objects remotely from photographic images. We report here on a rare opportunity to test this methodology by comparing measurements obtained directly from living great apes to those obtained from photographs. We test the accuracy and precision of two independent photogrammetric techniques, employing the use of parallel lasers and a distance meter, respectively, for obtaining measurements of static objects and captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (n = 4) at Zoo Atlanta. For static objects, the mean percent error between corresponding measurements collected by the same observer directly versus using photogrammetry was 0.49-0.74% for the parallel laser method and 0.62-0.76% for the distance meter method. For gorillas, mean percent error between corresponding direct and remote measurements was 2.72-5.20% for the parallel laser method and 2.20-7.51% for the distance meter method. Correlations between direct measurements and corresponding parallel laser and distance meter measurements of gorillas were highly significant with R(2) values and slopes approaching 1.0 (parallel lasers: R(2)  = 0.9989, P < 0.0001; distance-meter: R(2)  = 0.9990, P < 0.0001). Further, variation between measurements of the same targets collected repeatedly by the same observer, and between different observers, was uniformly low across methods (CV, range = 0.003-0.013). While errors are slightly higher for the distance meter technique, both methods show great promise for addressing a wide range of questions requiring the non-invasive collection of morphological data from

  8. Dot Projection Photogrammetric Technique for Shape Measurements of Aerospace Test Articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Results from initial laboratory investigations with the dot projection photogrammetric technique are presented for three wind-tunnel test articles with a range of surface scattering and reflection properties. These test articles are a semispan model and a micro air vehicle with a latex wing that are both diffusely reflecting, and a highly polished specularly reflecting model used for high Reynolds number testing. Results using both white light and laser illumination are presented. Some of the advantages and limitations of the dot projection technique are discussed. Although a desirable final outcome of this research effort is the characterization of dynamic behavior, only static laboratory results are presented in this preliminary effort.

  9. A close-range photogrammetric system for 3-D measurements and perspective diagramming in biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K

    1983-01-01

    Criteria considered in developing a close-range photogrammetric three-dimensional mapping system and its overall performance are discussed. The system consists of a stereophotographic capability of two cameras with synchronized shutters, a stereoplotting instrument with three-dimensional digitizing capability and a Calcomp plotter. Mapping of human knee-bones (femur and tibia) and perspective diagramming for various attitudes of one bone head with regard to the other are illustrated. The system works off-line with respect to the three principal components. The system is fully operational and is considered very efficient with regard to the current needs. Various possibilities are discussed.

  10. a Method to Achieve Large Volume, High Accuracy Photogrammetric Measurements Through the Use of AN Actively Deformable Sensor Mounting Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, B.; Robson, S.; Szigeti, E.; Richardson, P.; El-Nounu, A.; Rafla, M.

    2016-06-01

    When using any optical measurement system one important factor to consider is the placement of the sensors in relation to the workpiece being measured. When making decisions on sensor placement compromises are necessary in selecting the best placement based on the shape and size of the object of interest and the desired resolution and accuracy. One such compromise is in the distance the sensors are placed from the measurement surface, where a smaller distance gives a higher spatial resolution and local accuracy and a greater distance reduces the number of measurements necessary to cover a large area reducing the build-up of errors between measurements and increasing global accuracy. This paper proposes a photogrammetric approach whereby a number of sensors on a continuously flexible mobile platform are used to obtain local measurements while the position of the sensors is determined by a 6DoF tracking solution and the results combined to give a single set of measurement data within a continuous global coordinate system. The ability of this approach to achieve both high accuracy measurement and give results over a large volume is then tested and areas of weakness to be improved upon are identified.

  11. Acquisition strategies for terrestrial photogrammetric surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Livia; Karel, Wilfried; Vettore, Antonio; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    Close-range photogrammetry based on Structure from Motion (SfM) and dense image matching algorithms is being rapidly adopted in the fields of geosciences thanks to its characteristics of low costs, portability of the instrumentation, high level of automation, and high levels of detail. However, special care should be taken while planning photogrammetric surveys to optimize the 3D model quality and spatial coverage. This means that the geometric configurations of the multi-view camera network and the control data have to be designed in accordance with the required accuracy, resolution and completeness. From a practical application point of view, a proper planning (of both photos and control data) of the photogrammetric survey especially for ground-based acquisition, is not always ensured due to limited accessibility of the target object and the presence of occlusions. In this work, we investigate how to solve these practical problems of a ground-based photogrammetric survey. We propose a different image acquisition strategy based on image sequences acquired in panorama mode. This means that at each established position a series of pictures with overlapping fields of view are taken on a conventional tripod, turning the camera about a common point of rotation, to cover the object of interest. While due to the offset of the pivot point from the projection center, these images cannot be stitched into a panorama, we demonstrate how to still take advantage of this capturing mode. Additionally, we test different geo-referencing procedures using i) different ground control points (GCP) configurations i.e. number and distribution of artificial targets measured with topographic instrumentation, ii) natural features employed as GCPs whose coordinates are extracted from a modern terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point cloud, and iii) directly observed coordinates of the camera positions. Images of the test field in a low-slope artificial hill were acquired from the ground using

  12. Measuring body length of male sperm whales from their clicks: the relationship between inter-pulse intervals and photogrammetrically measured lengths.

    PubMed

    Growcott, Abraham; Miller, Brian; Sirguey, Pascal; Slooten, Elisabeth; Dawson, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) emit short, broadband clicks which often include multiple pulses. The time interval between these pulses [inter-pulse interval (IPI)] represents the two-way time for a pulse to travel between the air sacs located at either end of the sperm whale's head. The IPI therefore, is a proxy of head length which, using an allometric relationship, can be used to estimate total body length. Previous studies relating IPI to an independent measure of length have relied on very small sample sizes and manual techniques for measuring IPI. Sound recordings and digital stereo photogrammetric measurements of 21 individuals were made off Kaikoura, New Zealand, and, in addition, archived recordings of whales measured with a previous photogrammetric system were reanalyzed to obtain a total sample size of 33 individuals. IPIs were measured automatically via cepstral analysis implemented via a software plug-in for pamguard, an open-source software package for passive acoustic monitoring. IPI measurements were highly consistent within individuals (mean CV=0.63%). The new regression relationship relating IPI (I) and total length (T) was found to be T=1.258I+5.736 (r(2)=0.77, p<0.001). This new regression provides a better fit than previous studies of large (> 11 m) sperm whales.

  13. Application of Digital Industrial Photogrammetric Technology to Measure the Surface Accuracy of 13.7 m Millimeter-wave Radio Telescope Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Q. H.; Fang, S. H.; Zuo, Y. X.; Li, Y.; Sun, J. X.; Yang, J.; Li, J. J.; Xu, Y.; He, D. Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the surface accuracy of 13.7 m millimeter-wave radio telescope antenna is measured by digital industrial photogrammetric technology. In order to overcome the inconvenience introduced by local conditions, the circular orbits are used to transport the camera and wireless transmission is used to take on-line photos. Measuring targets are made of retro-reflective material. All camera stations are orientated and the homologous image points are matched automatically by the coded targets. The 3D point coordinates are calculated by the bundle adjustment method. Using the methods of CAD surface conversion algorithm and best fitting to calculate the deviation value of the surface, the RMS of the 480 points gotten from CAD best fitting algorithm is adjusted to 0.083 mm. The feasibility and superiority of photogrammetric technology, which is used to measure the radio astronomy antenna's surface, is demonstrated.

  14. A Photogrammetric Approach to Measuring Temporal Change in Tree Kill Areas at Mammoth Mountain and Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clor, L. E.; Barefoot, J. D.; Hurwitz, S.; Diefenbach, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    A zone of dead trees and bare ground near Horseshoe Lake on the southeast flank of Mammoth Mountain in California is attributed to high emissions of volcanic CO2 and has been characterized and studied since the 1990s. Measurements of diffuse CO2 emissions have been made since 1994, but tree kills occurred following a large earthquake swarm in 1989 and before these first measurements. In order to track vegetation changes over time, fifteen aerial images of the Horseshoe Lake tree kill from 1951 to 2014 were analyzed using photogrammetric techniques which allow us to quantify the extent of bare ground and provide an indirect analysis of tree mortality, possibly related to CO2 emissions. The aerial images were assigned a uniform spatial reference, then image pixels were classified into two main categories, trees or bare ground, and the aerial extent quantified using the GIS software ArcMap. Between 1951 and 1987, there was little change in area of bare ground or tree density near Horseshoe Lake. The tree kill area appeared in 1992 and expanded rapidly to about 0.20 km2 by 1998, which is similar to its present extent. In images from 2012 and onward, a large increase in bare ground was identified and correlated with a powerful windstorm that occurred in 2011. Overlaying CO2 flux maps on the GIS classified images shows that the area of diffuse emission generally correlates with the tree kill area. This method was applied to imagery of thermal tree kill areas within Long Valley Caldera as well. Tree kill near Shady Rest Park in Mammoth Lakes expanded incrementally to the east, southeast and west between 1993 and 2014 to its present extent of about 0.053 km2, but this area also includes significant tree thinning by the city. In Basalt Canyon, southeast of Shady Rest, tree kill area has slowly expanded since 1995 to its present extent of about 0.041 km2.

  15. Photogrammetric and Global Positioning System Measurements of Active Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement on Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Basalt is the most common rock type on the surface of terrestrial bodies throughout the solar system and -- by total volume and areal coverage -- pahoehoe flows are the most abundant form of basaltic lava in subaerial and submarine environments on Earth. A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement processes is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards associated with active lava flows, and interpreting the significance of lava flow morphology on Earth and other planetary bodies. Here, we examine the active emplacement of pahoehoe lobes along the margins of the Hook Flow from Pu'u 'O'o on Kilauea, Hawaii. Topographic data were acquired between 21 and 23 February 2006 using stereo-imaging and differential global positing system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the average discharge rate for the Hook Flow was 0.01-0.05 cubic m/s. Using stereogrammetric point clouds and interpolated digital terrain models (DTMs), active flow fronts were digitized at 1 minute intervals. These areal spreading maps show that the lava lobe grew by a series of breakouts tha t broadly fit into two categories: narrow (0.2-0.6 m-wide) toes that grew preferentially down-slope, and broad (1.4-3.5 m-wide) breakouts that formed along the sides of the lobe, nearly perpendicular to the down-flow axis. These lobes inflated to half of their final thickness within approx 5 minutes, with a rate of inflation that generally deceased with time. Through a combination of down-slope and cross-slope breakouts, lobes developed a parabolic cross-sectional shape within tens of minutes. We also observed that while the average local discharge rate for the lobe was generally constant at 0.0064 +/- 0.0019 cubic m/s, there was a 2 to 6 fold increase in the areal coverage rate every 4.1 +/- 0.6 minutes. We attribute this periodicity to the time required for the dynamic pressurization of the liquid core of the lava lobe to exceed the cooling-induced strength of the

  16. Uncertainty modelling of real-time observation of a moving object: photogrammetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Photogrametric systems are widely used in the field of industrial metrology to measure kinematic tasks such as tracking robot movements. In order to assess spatiotemporal deviations of a kinematic movement, it is crucial to have a reliable uncertainty of the kinematic measurements. Common methods to evaluate the uncertainty in kinematic measurements include approximations specified by the manufactures, various analytical adjustment methods and Kalman filters. Here a hybrid system estimator in conjunction with a kinematic measurement model is applied. This method can be applied to processes which include various types of kinematic behaviour, constant velocity, variable acceleration or variable turn rates. Additionally, it has been shown that the approach is in accordance with GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). The approach is compared to the Kalman filter using simulated data to achieve an overall error calculation. Furthermore, the new approach is used for the analysis of a rotating system as this system has both a constant and a variable turn rate. As the new approach reduces overshoots it is more appropriate for analysing kinematic processes than the Kalman filter. In comparison with the manufacturer’s approximations, the new approach takes account of kinematic behaviour, with an improved description of the real measurement process. Therefore, this approach is well-suited to the analysis of kinematic processes with unknown changes in kinematic behaviour.

  17. Photogrammetric Verification of Fiber Optic Shape Sensors on Flexible Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jason P.; Rogge, Matthew D.; Jones, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-core fiber (MCF) optic shape sensing offers the possibility of providing in-flight shape measurements of highly flexible aerospace structures and control surfaces for such purposes as gust load alleviation, flutter suppression, general flight control and structural health monitoring. Photogrammetric measurements of surface mounted MCF shape sensing cable can be used to quantify the MCF installation path and verify measurement methods.

  18. Three-dimensional photogrammetric measurement of magnetic field lines in the WEGA stellarator.

    PubMed

    Drewelow, Peter; Bräuer, Torsten; Otte, Matthias; Wagner, Friedrich; Werner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    The magnetic confinement of plasmas in fusion experiments can significantly degrade due to perturbations of the magnetic field. A precise analysis of the magnetic field in a stellarator-type experiment utilizes electrons as test particles following the magnetic field line. The usual fluorescent detector for this electron beam limits the provided information to two-dimensional cut views at certain toroidal positions. However, the technique described in this article allows measuring the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field by means of close-range photogrammetry. After testing and optimizing the main diagnostic components, measurements of the magnetic field lines were accomplished with a spatial resolution of 5 mm. The results agree with numeric calculations, qualifying this technique as an additional tool to investigate magnetic field configurations in a stellarator. For a possible future application, ways are indicated on how to reduce experimental error sources.

  19. Photogrammetric Reconstruction with Bayesian Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays photogrammetry and laser scanning methods are the most wide spread surveying techniques. Laser scanning methods usually allow to obtain more accurate results with respect to photogrammetry, but their use have some issues, e.g. related to the high cost of the instrumentation and the typical need of high qualified personnel to acquire experimental data on the field. Differently, photogrammetric reconstruction can be achieved by means of low cost devices and by persons without specific training. Furthermore, the recent diffusion of smart devices (e.g. smartphones) embedded with imaging and positioning sensors (i.e. standard camera, GNSS receiver, inertial measurement unit) is opening the possibility of integrating more information in the photogrammetric reconstruction procedure, in order to increase its computational efficiency, its robustness and accuracy. In accordance with the above observations, this paper examines and validates new possibilities for the integration of information provided by the inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the photogrammetric reconstruction procedure, and, to be more specific, into the procedure for solving the feature matching and the bundle adjustment problems.

  20. Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

  1. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  2. Photogrammetric camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.; Ziemann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Section 2 (Calibration) of the document "Recommended Procedures for Calibrating Photogrammetric Cameras and Related Optical Tests" from the International Archives of Photogrammetry, Vol. XIII, Part 4, is reviewed in the light of recent practical work, and suggestions for changes are made. These suggestions are intended as a basis for a further discussion. ?? 1984.

  3. Terrestrial Mobile Mapping: photogrammetric simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taglioretti, C.; Manzino, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays many types of sensors are used for terrestrial mobile mapping (TMM): IMU, odometers, GNSS, cameras, etc., and it is essential to understand how these sensors can improve the solution in terms of precision, accuracy and reliability. TMM issues are characterized by many variables: vehicle trajectory, the height of the buildings and the distance between them, traffic conditions, the presence or absence of trees, the level of illumination, etc. The aim of this study is to determine how photogrammetric measurements can improve the quality of TMM solution at least concerning magnitude and error propagation when there is no GNSS signal (for example in an urban canyon). Another purpose of the study was to determine the most suitable design project for a specific relief in order to obtain the best possible photogrammetric results. By analyzing the error propagation in the various components of relative orientation along the trajectory and considering a sequence of images characterized by an overlap varying between 60 to 90% and the same number of tie points, results were obtained which confirmed the reliability of the data produced by the simulator. These results are shown in this paper.

  4. The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.; Moore, Christopher L.

    1995-09-01

    The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) is a Hitchhiker payload scheduled to fly as part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase-1 flight program to the Russian Space Station Mir. The objective of the first flight of PASDE on STS-74 is to obtain video images of the Mir Kvant-2 solar array response to various structural dynamic excitation events. This experiment will demonstrate the use of photogrammetric techniques for on-orbit structural dynamics measurements. Photogrammetric measurements will provide a low cost alternative to appendage mounted accelerometers to the ISS program. The PASDE experiment hardware consists of three instruments each containing two video cameras, two video tape recorders, a modified video signal time inserter, and associated avionics boxes. The instruments were designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center, and are integrated into standard Hitchhiker canisters at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Hitchhiker canisters are then installed into the Space Shuttle cargo bay in locations selected to achieve good video coverage and photogrammetric geometry. The measurement resolution of the instruments is expected to be on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1 in.).

  5. The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.; Moore, Christopher L.

    1995-01-01

    The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) is a Hitchhiker payload scheduled to fly as part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase-1 flight program to the Russian Space Station Mir. The objective of the first flight of PASDE on STS-74 is to obtain video images of the Mir Kvant-2 solar array response to various structural dynamic excitation events. This experiment will demonstrate the use of photogrammetric techniques for on-orbit structural dynamics measurements. Photogrammetric measurements will provide a low cost alternative to appendage mounted accelerometers to the ISS program. The PASDE experiment hardware consists of three instruments each containing two video cameras, two video tape recorders, a modified video signal time inserter, and associated avionics boxes. The instruments were designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center, and are integrated into standard Hitchhiker canisters at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Hitchhiker canisters are then installed into the Space Shuttle cargo bay in locations selected to achieve good video coverage and photogrammetric geometry. The measurement resolution of the instruments is expected to be on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1 in.).

  6. Panorama Image Sets for Terrestrial Photogrammetric Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, L.; Karel, W.; Vettore, A.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution 3D models produced from photographs acquired with consumer-grade cameras are becoming increasingly common in the fields of geosciences. However, the quality of an image-based 3D model depends on the planning of the photogrammetric surveys. This means that the geometric configuration of the multi-view camera network and the control data have to be designed in accordance with the required accuracy, resolution and completeness. From a practical application point of view, a proper planning (of both photos and control data) of the photogrammetric survey especially for terrestrial acquisition, is not always ensured due to limited accessibility of the target object and the presence of occlusions. To solve these problems, we propose a different image acquisition strategy and we test different geo-referencing scenarios to deal with the practical issues of a terrestrial photogrammetric survey. The proposed photogrammetric survey procedure is based on the acquisition of a sequence of images in panorama mode by rotating the camera on a standard tripod. The offset of the pivot point from the projection center prevents the stitching of these images into a panorama. We demonstrate how to still take advantage of this capturing mode. The geo-referencing investigation consists of testing the use of directly observed coordinates of the camera positions, different ground control point (GCP) configurations, and GCPs with different accuracies, i.e. artificial targets vs. natural features. Images of the test field in a low-slope hill were acquired from the ground using an SLR camera. To validate the photogrammetric results a terrestrial laser scanner survey is used as benchmark.

  7. Method for Correcting Control Surface Angle Measurements in Single Viewpoint Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W. (Inventor); Barrows, Danny A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of determining a corrected control surface angle for use in single viewpoint photogrammetry to correct control surface angle measurements affected by wing bending. First and second visual targets are spaced apart &om one another on a control surface of an aircraft wing. The targets are positioned at a semispan distance along the aircraft wing. A reference target separation distance is determined using single viewpoint photogrammetry for a "wind off condition. An apparent target separation distance is then computed for "wind on." The difference between the reference and apparent target separation distances is minimized by recomputing the single viewpoint photogrammetric solution for incrementally changed values of target semispan distances. A final single viewpoint photogrammetric solution is then generated that uses the corrected semispan distance that produced the minimized difference between the reference and apparent target separation distances. The final single viewpoint photogrammetric solution set is used to determine the corrected control surface angle.

  8. Elevation change estimates of the Barnes Ice Cap from combined CryoSat-2 altimetry measurements and high resolution stereo-photogrammetric DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Peña, S.; Howat, I. M.; Noh, M. J.; Shum, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mass losses from glaciers and small ice caps in the Canadian Arctic have accelerated dramatically in the last decade due to warming. The Barnes Ice Cap, a remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, contains the oldest ice in the Canadian Arctic, and has been particularly sensitive to changes in atmospheric temperature. Although relatively flat at the top, the ice cap is located along the Arctic Cordillera, dominated by alpine mountains with sharp peaks and ridges which limited the accuracy of measurements from past satellite radar altimeter missions. The interferometric capabilities of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter has improved our capacity to measure volume changes over steep topography, but still face potential limitations over irregular terrain and glaciated areas with high surface roughness, which in the Arctic has increased as a consequence of intensified surface melt. Over rough topography, such as the one characterized by crevassed fields, surface roughness is high relative to the altimeter footprint, and estimating the incidence angle of the altimeter signal is not always possible. Here, a high-resolution stereo-photogrammetric DEM generated from stereo-mode Worldview satellite imagery is used to estimate surface slope of the glaciated terrain and derive the across-track incidence angle of the CryoSat-2 radar echo. The unprecedented accuracy of the DEM allows it to then be used as a reference to increase spatial density of elevation change measurements. Elevation change estimates for the period of 2011-2015 show a thinning of 1.46 ± 0.21 yr-1 on average, more than twice the thinning rates estimated a decade ago. The methodology increase spatial coverage of repeated altimetry measurements, and may improve elevation retrieval from altimetry signals in glaciated areas subject to summer surface melt.

  9. Assessment of the Accuracy of Close Distance Photogrammetric JRC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Poropat, George; Gratchev, Ivan; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-11-01

    By using close range photogrammetry, this article investigates the accuracy of the photogrammetric estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC), a measure of the degree of roughness of rock joint surfaces. This methodology has proven to be convenient both in laboratory and in site conditions. However, the accuracy and precision of roughness profiles obtained from photogrammetric 3D images have not been properly established due to the variances caused by factors such as measurement errors and systematic errors in photogrammetry. In this study, the influences of camera-to-object distance, focal length and profile orientation on the accuracy of JRC values are investigated using several photogrammetry field surveys. Directional photogrammetric JRC data are compared with data derived from the measured profiles, so as to determine their accuracy. The extent of the accuracy of JRC values was examined based on the error models which were previously developed from laboratory tests and revised for better estimation in this study. The results show that high-resolution 3D images (point interval ≤1 mm) can reduce the JRC errors obtained from field photogrammetric surveys. Using the high-resolution images, the photogrammetric JRC values in the range of high oblique camera angles are highly consistent with the revised error models. Therefore, the analysis indicates that the revised error models facilitate the verification of the accuracy of photogrammetric JRC values.

  10. Automatic fusion of photogrammetric imagery and laser scanner point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    Close-range photogrammetry and the relatively new technology of terrestrial laser scanning can be considered as complementary rather than competitive technologies. For instance, terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have the ability to rapidly collect high-resolution 3D surface information about an object. The same type of data can be generated using close-range photogrammetric (CRP) techniques, but image disparities common to close-range scenes makes this an operator intensive task. The imaging systems of some TLSs do not have very high radiometric resolution whereas high-resolution digital cameras used in modern CRP do. Finally, TLSs are essentially earth-bound whereas cameras can be moved at will around the object being imaged. This thesis, therefore, explores and attempts to provide a solution to the problems of developing a methodology to fuse terrestrial laser scanner generated 3D data and high-resolution digital images. Four phases of the methodology have been investigated: data pre-processing (fusion of data from the two sensors), automatic measurements (feature detection and correspondence matching), mapping (creation of point cloud visual index), and orientation (calculation of exterior orientation parameters). Individual phases were initially investigated in a manually controlled environment, typically using commercial photogrammetric software, and then combined in a completely automated system. Focusing on the amount of geometric primitives, three different scenes (data set A, data set B, and data set C) representing three levels of complexity (low, medium and high) were scanned with the laser scanner, and for each scan, a 2D photographic image was taken with a digital camera. To overcome the differences in datasets, a hybrid matching (both feature and area-based) algorithm was successfully developed and implemented. The fidelity of the concept of generating synthetic camera images has been tested by determining the exterior orientation of the synthetic

  11. Development and application of a photogrammetric endoscopic system for measurement of misalignment and internal profile of welded joints in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.; Hofmann, Allan C.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Santos, João M. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a new optical system to measure internal cylindrical surfaces combining photogrammetry and fringe projection. The device uses two identical cameras, equipped with spherical and conical lenses, facing each other and aligned with the optical axis. A 360° helical fringe projector is used to project a sequence of phase shifted helical fringe pattern in the inner surface to be measured. The phase patterns are used to identify corresponding points and to reconstruct the surface in a regular cylindrical mesh using an alternative approach. A prototype was built, calibrated and tested. The paper presents the results of an application where two welded joints were measured in a 150 mm (6") diameter pipe. The goal was to inspect for defects in the internal part of the welding seams and to measure the transversal misalignment between the jointed parts.

  12. Imaging characteristics of photogrammetric camera systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, R.; Halliday, J.

    1973-01-01

    In view of the current interest in high-altitude and space photographic systems for photogrammetric mapping, the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) undertook a comprehensive research project designed to explore the practical aspects of applying the latest image quality evaluation techniques to the analysis of such systems. The project had two direct objectives: (1) to evaluate the imaging characteristics of current U.S.G.S. photogrammetric camera systems; and (2) to develop methodologies for predicting the imaging capabilities of photogrammetric camera systems, comparing conventional systems with new or different types of systems, and analyzing the image quality of photographs. Image quality was judged in terms of a number of evaluation factors including response functions, resolving power, and the detectability and measurability of small detail. The limiting capabilities of the U.S.G.S. 6-inch and 12-inch focal length camera systems were established by analyzing laboratory and aerial photographs in terms of these evaluation factors. In the process, the contributing effects of relevant parameters such as lens aberrations, lens aperture, shutter function, image motion, film type, and target contrast procedures for analyzing image quality and predicting and comparing performance capabilities. ?? 1973.

  13. Photogrammetric Archaeological Survey with UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouget, A.; Lucet, G.

    2014-05-01

    This document describes a way to obtain various photogrammetric products from aerial photograph using a drone. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology to obtain information for the study of the architecture of pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico combining the manoeuvrability and low cost of a drone with the accuracy of the results of the open source photogrammetric MicMac software. It presents the UAV and the camera used, explains how to manipulate it to carry out stereoscopic photographs, the flight and camera parameters chosen, the treatments performed to obtain orthophotos and 3D models with a centimetric resolution, and finally outlines the quality of the results.

  14. Photogrammetric measurement of 3D freeform millimetre-sized objects with micro features: an experimental validation of the close-range camera calibration model for narrow angles of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percoco, Gianluca; Sánchez Salmerón, Antonio J.

    2015-09-01

    The measurement of millimetre and micro-scale features is performed by high-cost systems based on technologies with narrow working ranges to accurately control the position of the sensors. Photogrammetry would lower the costs of 3D inspection of micro-features and would be applicable to the inspection of non-removable micro parts of large objects too. Unfortunately, the behaviour of photogrammetry is not known when photogrammetry is applied to micro-features. In this paper, the authors address these issues towards the application of digital close-range photogrammetry (DCRP) to the micro-scale, taking into account that in literature there are research papers stating that an angle of view (AOV) around 10° is the lower limit to the application of the traditional pinhole close-range calibration model (CRCM), which is the basis of DCRP. At first a general calibration procedure is introduced, with the aid of an open-source software library, to calibrate narrow AOV cameras with the CRCM. Subsequently the procedure is validated using a reflex camera with a 60 mm macro lens, equipped with extension tubes (20 and 32 mm) achieving magnification of up to 2 times approximately, to verify literature findings with experimental photogrammetric 3D measurements of millimetre-sized objects with micro-features. The limitation experienced by the laser printing technology, used to produce the bi-dimensional pattern on common paper, has been overcome using an accurate pattern manufactured with a photolithographic process. The results of the experimental activity prove that the CRCM is valid for AOVs down to 3.4° and that DCRP results are comparable with the results of existing and more expensive commercial techniques.

  15. Photogrammetric system and method used in the characterization of a structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, Adrian A. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas W. (Inventor); Danehy, Paul M. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Pappa, Richard S. (Inventor); Belvin, W. Keith (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A photogrammetric system uses an array of spaced-apart targets coupled to a structure. Each target exhibits fluorescence when exposed to a broad beam of illumination. A photogrammetric imaging system located remotely with respect to the structure detects and processes the fluorescence (but not the illumination wavelength) to measure the shape of a structure.

  16. The Structure of the Kaali Impact Crater (Estonia) based on 3D Laser Scanning, Photogrammetric Modelling and Strike and Dip Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Michael; Wilk, Jakob; Joeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Losiak, Anna; Wisniowski, Tomek; Huber, Matthew; Pavel, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Plado, Jüri; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Realworks software. A DEM, Hillshade, Slope Map and Contour Map were created in ESRI ArcScene software. Photogrammetry: Photogrammetric techniques from images of key outcrops were used to create texture, photorealistic 3D representations using Agisoft PhotoScan software. Acknowledgements: We extend our sincerest gratitude to the Estonian National Heritage Board for permission to dig and make measurements at the crater. References: [1] I.Kolkun (1922) Üldine geologia. Tallin, 170. [2] J. A.Reinwald (1933) Publications of the Geological Institution of the University of Tartu, 30:1-20. [3] J.A.Reinwald (1928) thesis; Univ of Tartu [4] L.J.Spencer (1938) Miner. Mag., 25:75-80. [5] A.Aaloe (1959) ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused, 2:105-117. [6] A.Raukas et al. (2002) Impact Studies 2005, 341-355.

  17. Robot pose correction using photogrammetric tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefele, Juergen; Brenner, Claus

    2001-02-01

    Traditionally, one of the driving forces behind the development of industry robots was the goal to replace tedious or hazardous manual work such as welding or varnishing. However, as robot prices are falling constantly, the use of robots becomes an economically sound solution in more and more applications - including areas which have nothing in common with the traditional "harsh environment" scenario. With the wider application scope, there also come more and tighter requirements, one of them certainly being accuracy. The accuracy of a robot can be asserted by measuring the position and orientation of its end effector. For this purpose there exist a number of techniques, one of them being photogrammetric measurement. Robot manufacturers have used photogrammetry since several years in order to carry out a factory calibration. However, there is a growing need for systems which are able to calibrate and constantly monitor a robot on the factory floor. This paper describes the possibilities which are offered by recent developments in sensors, image processing and close range photogrammetry. It then shows first results towards an on-line photogrammetric robot tracking system which have been obtained by a research group at the University of Stuttgart, Germany.

  18. Error Due to Wing Bending in Single-Camera Photogrammetric Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W., Jr.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The error due to wing bending introduced into single-camera photogrammetric computations used for the determination of wing twist or control surface angular deformation is described. It is shown that the error due to wing bending when determining main wing element-induced twist is typically less than 0.05deg at the wing tip and may not warrant additional correction. It is also shown that the angular error in control surface deformation due to bending can be as large as 1deg or more if the control surface is at a large deflection angle compared to the main wing element. A correction procedure suitable for control surface measurements is presented. Simulations of the error based on typical wind tunnel measurement geometry, and results from a controlled experimental test in the test section of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are presented to confirm the validity of the method used for correction of control surface photogrammetric deformation data. An example of a leading edge (LE) slat measurement is presented to illustrate the error due to wing bending and its correction.

  19. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  20. Photogrammetric Method and Software for Stream Planform Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonedahl, S. H.; Stonedahl, F.; Lohberg, M. M.; Lusk, K.; Miller, D.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately characterizing the planform of a stream is important for many purposes, including recording measurement and sampling locations, monitoring change due to erosion or volumetric discharge, and spatial modeling of stream processes. While expensive surveying equipment or high resolution aerial photography can be used to obtain planform data, our research focused on developing a close-range photogrammetric method (and accompanying free/open-source software) to serve as a cost-effective alternative. This method involves securing and floating a wooden square frame on the stream surface at several locations, taking photographs from numerous angles at each location, and then post-processing and merging data from these photos using the corners of the square for reference points, unit scale, and perspective correction. For our test field site we chose a ~35m reach along Black Hawk Creek in Sunderbruch Park (Davenport, IA), a small, slow-moving stream with overhanging trees. To quantify error we measured 88 distances between 30 marked control points along the reach. We calculated error by comparing these 'ground truth' distances to the corresponding distances extracted from our photogrammetric method. We placed the square at three locations along our reach and photographed it from multiple angles. The square corners, visible control points, and visible stream outline were hand-marked in these photos using the GIMP (open-source image editor). We wrote an open-source GUI in Java (hosted on GitHub), which allows the user to load marked-up photos, designate square corners and label control points. The GUI also extracts the marked pixel coordinates from the images. We also wrote several scripts (currently in MATLAB) that correct the pixel coordinates for radial distortion using Brown's lens distortion model, correct for perspective by forcing the four square corner pixels to form a parallelogram in 3-space, and rotate the points in order to correctly orient all photos of

  1. An Accuracy Assessment of Automated Photogrammetric Techniques for 3d Modeling of Complex Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgantas, A.; Brédif, M.; Pierrot-Desseilligny, M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of automatic photogrammetric techniques to terrestrial laser scanning for 3D modelling of complex interior spaces. We try to evaluate the automated photogrammetric techniques not only in terms of their geometric quality compared to laser scanning but also in terms of cost in money, acquisition and computational time. To this purpose we chose as test site a modern building's stairway. APERO/MICMAC ( ©IGN )which is an Open Source photogrammetric software was used for the production of the 3D photogrammetric point cloud which was compared to the one acquired by a Leica Scanstation 2 laser scanner. After performing various qualitative and quantitative controls we present the advantages and disadvantages of each 3D modelling method applied in a complex interior of a modern building.

  2. Simulation of the photogrammetric appendage structural dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) uses six video cameras in the Space Shuttle cargo bay to measure vibration of the Russian Mir space station Kvant-ll solar array. It occurs on Shuttle/Mir docking mission STS-74 scheduled for launch in November 1995. The objective of PASDE is to demonstrate photogrammetric technology for measuring 'untargeted' spacecraft appendage structural dynamics. This paper discusses a pre-flight simulation test conducted in July 1995, focusing on the image processing aspects. The flight camera system recorded vibrations of a full-scale structural test article having grids of white lines on black background, similar in appearance to the Mir solar array. Using image correlation analysis, line intersections on the structure are tracked in the video recordings to resolutions of less than 0.1 pixel. Calibration and merging of multiple camera views generated 3-dimensional displacements from which structural modal parameters are then obtained.

  3. Photogrammetric Network for Evaluation of Human Faces for Face Reconstruction Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrott, P.; Detrekői, Á.; Fekete, K.

    2012-08-01

    Facial reconstruction is the process of reconstructing the geometry of faces of persons from skeletal remains. A research group (BME Cooperation Research Center for Biomechanics) was formed representing several organisations to combine knowledgebases of different disciplines like anthropology, medical, mechanical, archaeological sciences etc. to computerize the face reconstruction process based on a large dataset of 3D face and skull models gathered from living persons: cranial data from CT scans and face models from photogrammetric evaluations. The BUTE Dept. of Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics works on the method and technology of the 3D data acquisition for the face models. In this paper we will present the research and results of the photogrammetric network design, the modelling to deal with visibility constraints, and the investigation of the developed basic photogrammetric configuration to specify the result characteristics to be expected using the device built for the photogrammetric face measurements.

  4. Digital photogrammetric analysis of the IMP camera images: Mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Hare, T.; Dorrer, E.; Cook, D.; Becker, K.; Thompson, K.; Redding, B.; Blue, J.; Galuszka, D.; Lee, E.M.; Gaddis, L.R.; Johnson, J. R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Ward, A.W.; Smith, P.H.; Britt, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes our photogrammetric analysis of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder data, part of a broader program of mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in support of geoscience investigations. This analysis, carried out primarily with a commercial digital photogrammetric system, supported by our in-house Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS), consists of three steps: (1) geometric control: simultaneous solution for refined estimates of camera positions and pointing plus three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of ???103 features sitewide, based on the measured image coordinates of those features; (2) topographic modeling: identification of ???3 ?? 105 closely spaced points in the images and calculation (based on camera parameters from step 1) of their 3-D coordinates, yielding digital terrain models (DTMs); and (3) geometric manipulation of the data: combination of the DTMs from different stereo pairs into a sitewide model, and reprojection of image data to remove parallax between the different spectral filters in the two cameras and to provide an undistorted planimetric view of the site. These processes are described in detail and example products are shown. Plans for combining the photogrammetrically derived topographic data with spectrophotometry are also described. These include photometric modeling using surface orientations from the DTM to study surface microtextures and improve the accuracy of spectral measurements, and photoclinometry to refine the DTM to single-pixel resolution where photometric properties are sufficiently uniform. Finally, the inclusion of rover images in a joint photogrammetric analysis with IMP images is described. This challenging task will provide coverage of areas hidden to the IMP, but accurate ranging of distant features can be achieved only if the lander is also visible in the rover image used. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Scalable Photogrammetric Motion Capture System "mosca": Development and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment) has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  6. Photogrammetric portrayal of Mars topography.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Special photogrammetric techniques have been developed to portray Mars topography, using Mariner and Viking imaging and nonimaging topographic information and earth-based radar data. Topography is represented by the compilation of maps at three scales: global, intermediate, and very large scale. The global map is a synthesis of topographic information obtained from Mariner 9 and earth-based radar, compiled at a scale of 1:25,000,000 with a contour interval of 1 km; it gives a broad quantitative view of the planet. At intermediate scales, Viking Orbiter photographs of various resolutions are used to compile detailed contour maps of a broad spectrum of prominent geologic features; a contour interval as small as 20 m has been obtained from very high resolution orbital photography. Imagery from the Viking lander facsimile cameras permits construction of detailed, very large scale (1:10) topographic maps of the terrain surrounding the two landers; these maps have a contour interval of 1 cm. This paper presents several new detailed topographic maps of Mars.-Author

  7. Photogrammetric Evaluation of Multi-Temporal Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülch, E.

    2011-09-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germatics, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. Investigations have been performed to improve the image quality estimates by the PAMS software and extend it to whole images. This gives the user a reliable basis when deciding on rejecting images with low quality for the follow-up process. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was first to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. In a second stage the results are compared to GPS measurements on the ground. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an

  8. Discontinuity characterisation in metamorphic rock based on scanline and photogrammetric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppensteiner, Matthias; Zangerl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The Ötztal-Stubai crystalline basement (Tyrol, Austria) is characterised by several ductile and brittle deformation phases. Concerning slope stability, landslide formation as well as engineering projects e.g. dam and tunnel construction brittle deformation phases forming brittle fault zones and fractures are highly relevant. These are the structures, which control failure processes, deformation behaviour and groundwater flow in fractured rock masses. A high alpine area of about two square kilometres in size, and located mostly in fractured granodioritic rock was selected to study the discontinuity pattern of faults and joints. Within this area, brittle fault zones are mapped by field survey and analyses of remote sensing data i.e. aerial views and high resolution digital elevation models based on airborne laser scanning. Concerning the joint pattern, sampling points for investigating the geometrical properties are distributed evenly over the area covered with granodioritic gneiss. Whereas most of the collected data is gathered through conventional scanline mapping, at some selected outcrops photogrammetric mapping methods (window mapping) are applied. Among the recorded and analysed parameters of the discontinuities are: orientation, number of joint sets, spacing, frequency, trace length, size, termination, roughness and waviness, block size and GSI. A systematic pattern of recurring discontinuity sets can be observed in the outcrops throughout the whole investigation area. Thus, spatial uniformity is assumed for the whole granodioritic gneiss lithology. Based on this the orientation of the discontinuities and their respective estimated sets are compared between scanline and photogrammetric measurements. For certain representative joint sets, calculated spacing data (mean and probability distribution) as well as joint trace lengths are compared between the scanline surveys and computed parameters from the photogrammetric models. This will help to understand the

  9. STS-74/MIR Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Preliminary Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.; Pappa, Richard S.; Demeo, Martha E.

    1997-01-01

    The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment was designed, developed, and flown to demonstrate and prove measurement of the structural vibration response of a Russian Space Station Mir solar array using photogrammetric methods. The experiment flew on the STS-74 Space Shuttle mission to Mir in November 1995 and obtained video imagery of solar array structural response to various excitation events. The video imagery has been digitized and triangulated to obtain response time history data at discrete points on the solar array. This data has been further processed using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm modal identification technique to determine the natural vibration frequencies, damping, and mode shapes of the solar array. The results demonstrate that photogrammetric measurement of articulating, nonoptically targeted, flexible solar arrays and appendages is a viable, low-cost measurement option for the International Space Station.

  10. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  11. Photogrammetric Analysis of Historical Image Repositories for Virtual Reconstruction in the Field of Digital Humanities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, F.; Vietze, T.; Schneider, D.; Henze, F.; Münster, S.; Niebling, F.

    2017-02-01

    Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi-) automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city) photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate") of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM). Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  12. High resolution multispectral photogrammetric imagery: enhancement, interpretation and evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Arthur; Haefele, Martin; Bostater, Charles; Becker, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    A variety of aerial mapping cameras were adapted and developed into simulated multiband digital photogrammetric mapping systems. Direct digital multispectral, two multiband cameras (IIS 4 band and Itek 9 band) and paired mapping and reconnaissance cameras were evaluated for digital spectral performance and photogrammetric mapping accuracy in an aquatic environment. Aerial films (24cm X 24cm format) tested were: Agfa color negative and extended red (visible and near infrared) panchromatic, and; Kodak color infrared and B&W (visible and near infrared) infrared. All films were negative processed to published standards and digitally converted at either 16 (color) or 10 (B&W) microns. Excellent precision in the digital conversions was obtained with scanning errors of less than one micron. Radiometric data conversion was undertaken using linear density conversion and centered 8 bit histogram exposure. This resulted in multiple 8 bit spectral image bands that were unaltered (not radiometrically enhanced) "optical count" conversions of film density. This provided the best film density conversion to a digital product while retaining the original film density characteristics. Data covering water depth, water quality, surface roughness, and bottom substrate were acquired using different measurement techniques as well as different techniques to locate sampling points on the imagery. Despite extensive efforts to obtain accurate ground truth data location errors, measurement errors, and variations in the correlation between water depth and remotely sensed signal persisted. These errors must be considered endemic and may not be removed through even the most elaborate sampling set up. Results indicate that multispectral photogrammetric systems offer improved feature mapping capability.

  13. Accounting for surface roughness on measurements conducted with PI-SWERL: Evaluation of a subjective visual approach and a photogrammetric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etyemezian, V.; Gillies, J. A.; Shinoda, M.; Nikolich, G.; King, J.; Bardis, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of small-scale surface roughness on measurements with PI-SWERL (The Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory) was investigated using a viscometer-type device. The relationship between shear stress at the soil surface and PI-SWERL rate of rotation (RPM) was determined empirically with test surfaces of varying roughness including fine to coarse sandpaper, small domed structures (H = 2.5-2.9 mm) arranged in arrays, small (H ≈ 2 mm) and large pebbles (H ≈ 5-7 mm), thin cylinders representing blades of grass (D ≈ 2 mm), and wave-like surfaces intended to represent small ripples. An empirical equation that uses a single parameter α was developed to relate RPM to the shear stress experienced by a test surface. Two methods were presented for estimating α. The first relies on a user’s ability to estimate α by comparing to a catalog of standards of roughness. The second uses a digital photogrammetry technique in combination with image processing to parameterize roughness. The photographic method offers a factor of two improvement in estimation of α compared to the first method. Although a limited number of surfaces was tested, the photogrammetry technique appears to warrant further development. Additional findings relate to the optimal effective area for use in calculating wind erosion parameters from field tests and an estimate of errors for both dust emissions measurements and the associated friction velocity (u∗) when using the PI-SWERL. Overall, this work serves to reduce the uncertainties associated with using the PI-SWERL as a tool for estimating windblown dust emissions.

  14. Methodology for Orientation and Fusion of Photogrammetric and Lidardatas for Multitemporal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomo-Jiménez, C.; Pérez-García, J. L.; Fernández-del Castillo, T.; Gómez-López, J. M.; Mozas-Calvache, A. T.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, data fusion is one of the trends in geomatics sciences, due to the necessity of merging data from different kind of sensors and periods of time. Also, to extrract the maximum information from data and useful multitemporal analysis, an exact geoconnection of all datasets in a common and stable reference system is essential. The results of the application of a methodology for an integrated orientation into a common reference system using data obtained by LiDAR systems, digital and historical photogrammetric flights dataset, used for proper analysis in multitemporal studies, are presented in this paper. In order to analyse the results of the presented methodology, several photogrammetric datasets have been used. This data corresponds with digital and analogic data. The most current flight (2010) combines data obtained with digital photogrammetric camera and LiDAR sensor which will be used as reference model for all subsequent photogrammetry flights. The philosophy of the methodology consists of orientating all photogrammetric flights to the DEM obtained by LiDAR data. All the models obtained from every photogrammetric block are comparable in terms of the geometric resolution of each one. For that reason, altimetric stable points are extracted automatically from the LiDAR points cloud to use these points such as altimetric control point in the different flights that must be oriented. Using LiDAR control points, we demonstrate the improvement in the results between initial orientation and final results. Also it is possible to improve the planimetric correspondence between different photogrammetric blocks using only altimetric control points iteratively.

  15. Photogrammetric detection technique for rotor blades structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enei, C.; Bernardini, G.; Serafini, J.; Mattioni, L.; Ficuciello, C.; Vezzari, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an innovative use of photogrammetric detection techniques to experimentally estimate structural/inertial properties of helicopter rotor blades. The identification algorithms for the evaluation of mass and flexural stiffness distributions are an extension of the ones proposed by Larsen, whereas the procedure for torsional properties determination (stiffness and shear center position) is based on the Euler-Prandtl beam theory. These algorithms rely on measurements performed through photogrammetric detection, which requires the collection of digital photos allowing the identification of 3D coordinates of labeled points (markers) on the structure through the correlation of 2D pictures. The displacements are evaluated by comparing the positions of markers in loaded and reference configuration. Being the applied loads known, the structural characteristics can be directly obtained from the measured displacements. The accuracy of the proposed identification algorithms has been firstly verified by comparison with numerical and experimental data, and then applied to the structural characterization of two main rotor blades, designed for ultra-light helicopter applications.

  16. A Photogrammetrically Based Model for Predicting Total Body Mass Centroid Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan J.; Depauw, Karen P.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical 18-link model of the human body was designed as a sex-generalized predictor of segmental inertial parameters. Body measurements of 40 male and female subjects from 6 to 35 years of age were used. The results were similar to those reported in other studies and the photogrammetric procedure was found to be facilitative. (Authors/JN)

  17. Influence of Digital Camera Errors on the Photogrammetric Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Jūratė; Bručas, Domantas

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the calibration of digital camera Canon EOS 350D, often used for the photogrammetric 3D digitalisation and measurements of industrial and construction site objects. During the calibration data on the optical and electronic parameters, influencing the distortion of images, such as correction of the principal point, focal length of the objective, radial symmetrical and non-symmetrical distortions were obtained. The calibration was performed by means of the Tcc software implementing the polynomial of Chebichev and using a special test-field with the marks, coordinates of which are precisely known. The main task of the research - to determine how parameters of the camera calibration influence the processing of images, i. e. the creation of geometric model, the results of triangulation calculations and stereo-digitalisation. Two photogrammetric projects were created for this task. In first project the non-corrected and in the second the corrected ones, considering the optical errors of the camera obtained during the calibration, images were used. The results of analysis of the images processing is shown in the images and tables. The conclusions are given.

  18. Evaluating Photogrammetric Approach of Image-Based Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, J.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, researches in the domain of location-based services have increasingly focused on developing and utilizing alternative positioning techniques for in GPS-denied environment. Image based positioning technique holds good promise for such applications. In this paper, a previously proposed image-based positioning system using photogrammetric methods has been put into rigorous evaluation. The precision and accuracy of such photogrammetric approach of image-based positioning is depending on the precision and accuracy of final space resection process, which is a function of PGCP distribution and measurement accuracy, and any factor that has certain impact on either of these two major components will to certain degree influence final positioning accuracy. Therefore in this article, the way that different factors influencing the positioning accuracy are analysed through both mathematical model and experiments, which includes simulations and tests based on real data. Through evaluation of such system, we aims at better understanding image-based positioning system alike so as to find its strength, weaknesses and ways to improve the overall performance for it to realize its full potential.

  19. Improved CPAS Photogrammetric Capabilities for Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Bretz, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on two key improvements to the photogrammetric analysis capabilities of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the Orion vehicle. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) system deploys Drogue and Pilot parachutes via mortar, where an important metric is the muzzle velocity. This can be estimated using a high speed camera pointed along the mortar trajectory. The distance to the camera is computed from the apparent size of features of known dimension. This method was validated with a ground test and compares favorably with simulations. The second major photogrammetric product is measuring the geometry of the Main parachute cluster during steady-state descent using onboard cameras. This is challenging as the current test vehicles are suspended by a single-point attachment unlike earlier stable platforms suspended under a confluence fitting. The mathematical modeling of fly-out angles and projected areas has undergone significant revision. As the test program continues, several lessons were learned about optimizing the camera usage, installation, and settings to obtain the highest quality imagery possible.

  20. Quality control system preparation for photogrammetric and laser scanning missions of Spanish national plan of aerial orthophotogpaphy (PNOA). (Polish Title: Opracowanie systemu kontroli jakości realizacji nalotów fotogrametrycznych i skaningowych dla hiszpańskiego narodowego planu ortofotomapy lotniczej (PNOA))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzonca, A.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents the state of the art of quality control of photogrammetric and laser scanning data captured by airborne sensors. The described subject is very important for photogrammetric and LiDAR project execution, because the data quality a prior decides about the final product quality. On the other hand, precise and effective quality control process allows to execute the missions without wide margin of safety, especially in case of the mountain areas projects. For introduction, the author presents theoretical background of the quality control, basing on his own experience, instructions and technical documentation. He describes several variants of organization solutions. Basically, there are two main approaches: quality control of the captured data and the control of discrepancies of the flight plan and its results of its execution. Both of them are able to use test of control and analysis of the data. The test is an automatic algorithm controlling the data and generating the control report. Analysis is a less complicated process, that is based on documentation, data and metadata manual check. The example of quality control system for large area project was presented. The project is being realized periodically for the territory of all Spain and named National Plan of Aerial Orthophotography (Plan Nacional de Ortofotografía Aérea, PNOA). The system of the internal control guarantees its results soon after the flight and informs the flight team of the company. It allows to correct all the errors shortly after the flight and it might stop transferring the data to another team or company, for further data processing. The described system of data quality control contains geometrical and radiometrical control of photogrammetric data and geometrical control of LiDAR data. According to all specified parameters, it checks all of them and generates the reports. They are very helpful in case of some errors or low quality data. The paper includes the author experience

  1. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  2. Photogrammetric Processing of Apollo 15 Metric Camera Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Alexandrov, O.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete cartographic development of Apollo mapping system data into versatile digital map products. These will enable a variety of scientific/engineering uses of the data including mission planning, geologic mapping, geophysical process modelling, slope dependent correction of spectral data, and change detection. Here we describe efforts to control the oblique images acquired from the Apollo 15 Metric Camera.

  3. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    PubMed

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-09-18

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  4. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  5. Integration of Point Clouds Originated from Laser Scaner and Photogrammetric Images for Visualization of Complex Details of Historical Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, C.

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of historical buildings are created for documentation and virtual realization of them. Laser scanning and photogrammetry are extensively used to perform for these aims. The selection of the method that will be used in threedimensional modelling study depends on the scale and shape of the object, and also applicability of the method. Laser scanners are high cost instruments. However, the cameras are low cost instruments. The off-the-shelf cameras are used for taking the photogrammetric images. The camera is imaging the object details by carrying on hand while the laser scanner makes ground based measurement. Laser scanner collect high density spatial data in a short time from the measurement area. On the other hand, image based 3D (IB3D) measurement uses images to create 3D point cloud data. The image matching and the creation of the point cloud can be done automatically. Historical buildings include more complex details. Thus, all details cannot be measured by terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) due to the blocking the details with each others. Especially, the artefacts which have complex shapes cannot be measured in full details. They cause occlusion on the point cloud model. However it is possible to record photogrammetric images and creation IB3D point cloud for these areas. Thus the occlusion free 3D model is created by the integration of point clouds originated from the TLS and photogrammetric images. In this study, usability of laser scanning in conjunction with image based modelling for creation occlusion free three-dimensional point cloud model of historical building was evaluated. The IB3D point cloud was created in the areas that could not been measured by TLS. Then laser scanning and IB3D point clouds were integrated in the common coordinate system. The registration point clouds were performed with the iterative closest point (ICP) and georeferencing methods. Accuracy of the registration was evaluated by convergency and its

  6. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  7. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Harvel, Charles; Clark, John

    2011-12-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the ac counting values.

  8. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Harvel, Charles; Clark, John

    2012-09-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the accounting values.

  9. Photogrammetric Analysis of a Heritage Ceiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L.; Hosseininaveh Ahmadabadian, A.; Robson, S.

    2014-06-01

    Conservation of the painted ceiling at the historic Hampton Court Palace requires the condition of the ceiling to be monitored for signs of formation of cracks and flakes in the surface. Miniature monochrome cameras and LED lights were mounted on a horizontal bar, and raised by a telescopic mast to 60 cm below the ceiling. Images from the cameras were captured simultaneously by purposedeveloped software in a laptop computer at floor level. A series of image pairs was acquired at each location, rotating the mast between each pair. Images were enhanced in local contrast by a modified Wallis filter. From the image set a dense and accurate point cloud was generated, using a photogrammetric bundle adjustment procedure, from which 3D surface details could be visualised.

  10. Accuracy Assessment of Underwater Photogrammetric Three Dimensional Modelling for Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, T.; Capra, A.; Troyer, M.; Gruen, A.; Brooks, A. J.; Hench, J. L.; Schmitt, R. J.; Holbrook, S. J.; Dubbini, M.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in automation of photogrammetric 3D modelling software packages have stimulated interest in reconstructing highly accurate 3D object geometry in unconventional environments such as underwater utilizing simple and low-cost camera systems. The accuracy of underwater 3D modelling is affected by more parameters than in single media cases. This study is part of a larger project on 3D measurements of temporal change of coral cover in tropical waters. It compares the accuracies of 3D point clouds generated by using images acquired from a system camera mounted in an underwater housing and the popular GoPro cameras respectively. A precisely measured calibration frame was placed in the target scene in order to provide accurate control information and also quantify the errors of the modelling procedure. In addition, several objects (cinder blocks) with various shapes were arranged in the air and underwater and 3D point clouds were generated by automated image matching. These were further used to examine the relative accuracy of the point cloud generation by comparing the point clouds of the individual objects with the objects measured by the system camera in air (the best possible values). Given a working distance of about 1.5 m, the GoPro camera can achieve a relative accuracy of 1.3 mm in air and 2.0 mm in water. The system camera achieved an accuracy of 1.8 mm in water, which meets our requirements for coral measurement in this system.

  11. Advance Control Measures & Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As areas develop their path forward or action plan, they should consider a variety of voluntary and mandatory measures and programs. The resources on this page can help, and participants are also encouraged to talk with their EPA Advance contact

  12. Use of a Light Uav and Photogrammetric Techniques to Study the Evolution of a Landslide in JAÉN (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, T.; Pérez, J. L.; Cardenal, F. J.; López, A.; Gómez, J. M.; Colomo, C.; Delgado, J.; Sánchez, M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a methodology for slope instability monitoring using photogrammetric techniques with very high resolution images from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). An unstable area located in La Guardia (Jaen, Southern Spain), where an active mud flow has been identified, was surveyed between 2012 and 2014 by means of four UAV flights. These surveys were also compared with those data from a previous conventional aerial photogrammetric and LiDAR survey. The UAV was an octocopter equipped with GPS, inertial units and a mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera. The flight height was 90 m, which allowed covering an area of about 250 x 100 m with a ground pixel size of 2.5 cm. The orientation of the UAV flights were carried out by means of ground control points measured with GPS, but the previous aerial photogrammetric/LiDAR flight was oriented by means of direct georeferencing with in flight positioning and inertial data, although some common ground control points were used to adjust all flights in the same reference system. The DSMs of all surveys were obtained by automatic image correlation and then the differential models were calculated, allowing estimate changes in the surface. At the same time, orthophotos were obtained so horizontal and vertical displacements between relevant points were registered. Significant displacements were observed between some campaigns (some centimeters on the vertical and meters on the horizontal). Finally, we have analyzed the relation of displacements to rainfalls in recent years in the area, finding a significant temporal correlation between the two variables.

  13. A rapid method for obtaining frequency-response functions for multiple input photogrammetric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroen, M. L.; Tripp, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A two-digital-camera photogrammetric technique for measuring the motion of a vibrating spacecraft structure or wing surface and an applicable data-reduction algorithm are presented. The 3D frequency-response functions are obtained by coordinate transformation from averaged cross and autopower spectra derived from the 4D camera coordinates by Fourier transformation. Error sources are investigated analytically, and sample results are shown in graphs.

  14. 117. NORTH FACADE, WEST END Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. NORTH FACADE, WEST END Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-T-2626-205R. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. NAWCAD photogrammetrics: Methods and applications for aviation test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, John J.; Forsman, Alec E.; Stancil, Robert F.

    Photogrammetrics, the science of extracting quantitative and qualitative data from multiple sequential recorded images, has been an integral part of flight test and evaluation at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) at Patuxent River, MD for over 35 years. Photogrammetrics analysis is used for evaluation of stores separation, carrier suitability, range tracking, overhead impact scoring, and mishap reconstruction. The NAWCAD photogrammetrics team is pursuing strategies to reduce the time and increase the accuracies of solution processes that historically have been labor-intensive, prone to repetition of effort, and difficult to present This paper describes how NAWCAD scientists have applied a clearly defined process for photogrammetrics efforts, and have implemented state-of-the-art hardware and software methodologies that reduce the turnaround time, increase the accuracy, and facilitate the delivery of custom formatted products to the flight test engineer's desktop.

  16. High Resolution Photogrammetric Digital Elevation Models Across Calving Fronts and Meltwater Channels in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bel, D. A.; Brown, S.; Zappa, C. J.; Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Photogrammetric digital elevation models (DEMs) are a powerful approach for understanding elevation change and dynamics along the margins of the large ice sheets. The IcePod system, mounted on a New York Air National Guard LC-130, can measure high-resolution surface elevations with a Riegl VQ580 scanning laser altimeter and Imperx Bobcat IGV-B6620 color visible-wavelength camera (6600x4400 resolution); the surface temperature with a Sofradir IRE-640L infrared camera (spectral response 7.7-9.5 μm, 640x512 resolution); and the structure of snow and ice with two radar systems. We show the use of IcePod imagery to develop DEMs across calving fronts and meltwater channels in Greenland. Multiple over-flights of the Kangerlussaq Airport ramp have provided a test of the technique at a location with accurate, independently-determined elevation. Here the photogrammetric DEM of the airport, constrained by ground control measurements, is compared with the Lidar results. In July 2014 the IcePod ice-ocean imaging system surveyed the calving fronts of five outlet glaciers north of Jakobshavn Isbrae. We used Agisoft PhotoScan to develop a DEM of each calving front using imagery captured by the IcePod systems. Adjacent to the ice sheet, meltwater plumes foster mixing in the fjord, moving warm ocean water into contact with the front of the ice sheet where it can undercut the ice front and trigger calving. The five glaciers provide an opportunity to examine the calving front structure in relation to ocean temperature, fjord circulation, and spatial scale of the meltwater plumes. The combination of the accurate DEM of the calving front and the thermal imagery used to constrain the temperature and dynamics of the adjacent plume provides new insights into the ice-ocean interactions. Ice sheet margins provide insights into the connections between the surface meltwater and the fate of the water at the ice sheet base. Surface meltwater channels are visualized here for the first time using

  17. A generic approach for photogrammetric survey using a six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Ahmad, A.; Akib, W. A. A. W. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses a rapid production of slope mapping using multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric results based on novel method of multi-rotor UAV images as well as to analyze the slope error distribution that are obtained from the UAV images. This study only concentrates on multi-rotor UAV which also known as Hexacopter. An operator can control the speed of multi-rotor UAV during flight mission. Several ground control points and checkpoints were established using Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK- GPS) at the slope area. Ground control points were used in exterior orientation during image processing in sequence to transform image coordinates into local coordinate system. Checkpoints were established at the slope area for accuracy assessment. A digital camera, Sony NEX-5N was used for image acquisition of slope area from UAV platforms. The digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. All acquired images went through photogrammetric processing including interior orientation, exterior orientation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Photogrammetric results such as digital elevation model, and digital orthophoto including slope map were assessed. UAV is able to acquire data within short period of time with low budget compared to the previous methods such as satellite images and airborne laser scanner. Analysis on slope analysis and error distribution analysis are discussed in this paper to determine the quality of slope map in the area of interest. In summary, multi-rotor UAV is suited in slope mapping studies.

  18. Development of AN All-Purpose Free Photogrammetric Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Aguilera, D.; López-Fernández, L.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.; Guerrero, D.; Hernandez-Lopez, D.; Remondino, F.; Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Toschi, I.; Ballabeni, A.; Gaiani, M.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is currently facing some challenges and changes mainly related to automation, ubiquitous processing and variety of applications. Within an ISPRS Scientific Initiative a team of researchers from USAL, UCLM, FBK and UNIBO have developed an open photogrammetric tool, called GRAPHOS (inteGRAted PHOtogrammetric Suite). GRAPHOS allows to obtain dense and metric 3D point clouds from terrestrial and UAV images. It encloses robust photogrammetric and computer vision algorithms with the following aims: (i) increase automation, allowing to get dense 3D point clouds through a friendly and easy-to-use interface; (ii) increase flexibility, working with any type of images, scenarios and cameras; (iii) improve quality, guaranteeing high accuracy and resolution; (iv) preserve photogrammetric reliability and repeatability. Last but not least, GRAPHOS has also an educational component reinforced with some didactical explanations about algorithms and their performance. The developments were carried out at different levels: GUI realization, image pre-processing, photogrammetric processing with weight parameters, dataset creation and system evaluation. The paper will present in detail the developments of GRAPHOS with all its photogrammetric components and the evaluation analyses based on various image datasets. GRAPHOS is distributed for free for research and educational needs.

  19. Network design and quality checks in automatic orientation of close-range photogrammetric blocks.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Elisa; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Forlani, Gianfranco; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo

    2015-04-03

    Due to the recent improvements of automatic measurement procedures in photogrammetry, multi-view 3D reconstruction technologies are becoming a favourite survey tool. Rapidly widening structure-from-motion (SfM) software packages offer significantly easier image processing workflows than traditional photogrammetry packages. However, while most orientation and surface reconstruction strategies will almost always succeed in any given task, estimating the quality of the result is, to some extent, still an open issue. An assessment of the precision and reliability of block orientation is necessary and should be included in every processing pipeline. Such a need was clearly felt from the results of close-range photogrammetric surveys of in situ full-scale and laboratory-scale experiments. In order to study the impact of the block control and the camera network design on the block orientation accuracy, a series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed. Two image block configurations were investigated: a single pseudo-normal strip and a circular highly-convergent block. The influence of surveying and data processing choices, such as the number and accuracy of the ground control points, autofocus and camera calibration was investigated. The research highlights the most significant aspects and processes to be taken into account for adequate in situ and laboratory surveys, when modern SfM software packages are used, and evaluates their effect on the quality of the results of the surface reconstruction.

  20. Network Design and Quality Checks in Automatic Orientation of Close-Range Photogrammetric Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Elisa; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Forlani, Gianfranco; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the recent improvements of automatic measurement procedures in photogrammetry, multi-view 3D reconstruction technologies are becoming a favourite survey tool. Rapidly widening structure-from-motion (SfM) software packages offer significantly easier image processing workflows than traditional photogrammetry packages. However, while most orientation and surface reconstruction strategies will almost always succeed in any given task, estimating the quality of the result is, to some extent, still an open issue. An assessment of the precision and reliability of block orientation is necessary and should be included in every processing pipeline. Such a need was clearly felt from the results of close-range photogrammetric surveys of in situ full-scale and laboratory-scale experiments. In order to study the impact of the block control and the camera network design on the block orientation accuracy, a series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed. Two image block configurations were investigated: a single pseudo-normal strip and a circular highly-convergent block. The influence of surveying and data processing choices, such as the number and accuracy of the ground control points, autofocus and camera calibration was investigated. The research highlights the most significant aspects and processes to be taken into account for adequate in situ and laboratory surveys, when modern SfM software packages are used, and evaluates their effect on the quality of the results of the surface reconstruction. PMID:25855036

  1. Volumetric measurement of rock movement using photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Benton, Donovan J; Iverson, Stephen R; Martin, Lewis A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Raffaldi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH ground control safety research program at Spokane, Washington, is exploring applications of photogrammetry to rock mass and support monitoring. This paper describes two ways photogrammetric techniques are being used. First, photogrammetric data of laboratory testing is being used to correlate energy input and support deformation. This information can be used to infer remaining support toughness after ground deformation events. This technique is also demonstrated in a field application. Second, field photogrammetric data is compared to crackmeter data from a deep underground mine. Accuracies were found to average 8 mm, but have produced results within 0.2 mm of true displacement, as measured by crackmeters. Application of these techniques consists of monitoring overall fault activity by monitoring multiple points around the crackmeter. A case study is provided in which a crackmeter is clearly shown to have provided insufficient information regarding overall fault ground deformation. Photogrammetry is proving to be a useful ground monitoring tool due to its unobtrusiveness and ease of use.

  2. Validating Photogrammetric Orientation Steps by the Use of Relevant Theoretical Models. Implementation in the "ARPENTEUR" Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahiddine, A.; Seinturier, J.; Peloso, D.; Boulaassal, H.; Boï, J.-M.; Merad, D.; Drap, P.

    2013-07-01

    The new advance in photogrammetry using the automatic procedures such as the famous algorithm which was proposed by David Lowe (Lowe, 2004) features descriptors and matching (SIFT) and then the recent development of external orientation (Nister (Stewenius et alii, 2006) or Snavely (Snavely et alii, 2010)) have changed drastically the way of measuring space with photogrammetry. The complexity of the process and the huge quantity of processed data (thousands of photographs) makes difficult validating the different process steps. We propose in this paper several theoretical model generation methods in order to validate the complete photogrammetric orientation process. A theoretical photogrammetric model generation has been developed in order to produce photographs, photo orientation, 3D points and 2D observations according to some defined camera and a parametric photograph distribution in the scene. In addition the use of synthesis image software generation as POV-Ray allow us to generate set of photographs with pre-computed internal and external orientation in order to check the whole pipeline from feature extraction to Photographs External Orientation. We apply this model generation approach to several typical geometry of photogrammetric scene, stereo, parallel triplet, parallel strip and convergent models.

  3. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  4. The effect of spinal curvature on the photogrammetric assessment on static balance in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Involutional changes to the body in elderly patients affect the shape of the spine and the activity of postural muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age-related changes in spinal curvature on postural balance in elderly women. Methods The study population consisted of 90 women, with a mean age of 70 ± 8.01 years. Static balance assessments were conducted on a tensometric platform, and posturographic assessments of body posture were performed using a photogrammetric method based on the Projection Moiré method. Results The results obtained were analysed using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. We found a statistically significant correlation between body posture and the quality of the balance system response based on the corrective function of the visual system. The shape of the spinal curvature influenced postural stability, as measured by static posturography. Improvement in the quality of the balance system response depended on corrective information from the visual system and proprioceptive information from the paraspinal muscles. Conclusions The sensitivity of the balance system to the change of centre of pressure location was influenced by the direction of the change in rotation of the shoulder girdle and spine. Development of spinal curvature in the sagittal plane and maintenance of symmetry in the coronal and transverse planes are essential for correct balance control, which in turn is essential for the development of a properly proportioned locomotor system. PMID:24885433

  5. NAWCAD photogrammetrics: methods and applications for aviation test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Robert F.; Forsman, Alec E.; Williams, James W.

    1997-12-01

    Photogrammetry using multiple sequential recorded film and video images has been an integral part of flight test and evaluation at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) at Patuxent River, Maryland for nearly 40 years. Photogrammetric analysis is used for evaluation of stores separation, carrier suitability, ballistic trajectory tracking, overhead impact scoring, and mishap reconstruction. NAWCAD, Patuxent River, Maryland recently began flight testing for the F/A-18 E/F development program. The initial phase of the weapons separation portion of the F/A-18 E/F development program is a 13 month project consisting of two aircraft flying 256 flights during which 2000 stores will be dropped. To meet the challenge of processing high volumes of photogrammetric data and delivering solutions within 72 hours of each flight, the NAWCAD Photogrammetric Team initiated strategies to reduce the time and to increase the volume of data analysis, and to increase the accuracies of solution processes that historically have been labor intensive and difficult to present. The NAWCAD Photogrammetric Team is developing an image enhancement and data analysis system, and the on-line database which will provide near real-time access and retrievability of test data. This paper describes how NAWCAD scientists have applied a clearly defined process for photogrammetric efforts, and implemented state-of-the-art hardware and software methodologies and architecture that reduce the turnaround time, reduce the cost, increase the accuracy, and facilitate the delivery of custom-formatted products to the flight test engineer.

  6. Photogrammetric Analysis of Attractiveness in Indian Faces

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Shveta; Kapoor, DN; Verma, Santosh; Sagar, Mahesh; Lee, Yung-Seop; Moon, Hyoungjin

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the attractive facial features of the Indian population. We tried to evaluate subjective ratings of facial attractiveness and identify which facial aesthetic subunits were important for facial attractiveness. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 150 samples (referred to as candidates). Frontal photographs were analyzed. An orthodontist, a prosthodontist, an oral surgeon, a dentist, an artist, a photographer and two laymen (estimators) subjectively evaluated candidates' faces using visual analog scale (VAS) scores. As an objective method for facial analysis, we used balanced angular proportional analysis (BAPA). Using SAS 10.1 (SAS Institute Inc.), the Turkey's studentized range test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed to detect between-group differences in VAS scores (Experiment 1), to identify correlations between VAS scores and BAPA scores (Experiment 2), and to analyze the characteristic features of facial attractiveness and gender differences (Experiment 3); the significance level was set at P=0.05. Results Experiment 1 revealed some differences in VAS scores according to professional characteristics. In Experiment 2, BAPA scores were found to behave similarly to subjective ratings of facial beauty, but showed a relatively weak correlation coefficient with the VAS scores. Experiment 3 found that the decisive factors for facial attractiveness were different for men and women. Composite images of attractive Indian male and female faces were constructed. Conclusions Our photogrammetric study, statistical analysis, and average composite faces of an Indian population provide valuable information about subjective perceptions of facial beauty and attractive facial structures in the Indian population. PMID:27019809

  7. Photogrammetric Accuracy and Modeling of Rolling Shutter Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, W.; Qiao, G.; Kong, F.; Guo, S.; Ma, X.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2016-06-01

    Global climate change is one of the major challenges that all nations are commonly facing. Long-term observations of the Antarctic ice sheet have been playing a critical role in quantitatively estimating and predicting effects resulting from the global changes. The film-based ARGON reconnaissance imagery provides a remarkable data source for studying the Antarctic ice-sheet in 1960s, thus greatly extending the time period of Antarctica surface observations. To deal with the low-quality images and the unavailability of camera poses, a systematic photogrammetric approach is proposed to reconstruct the interior and exterior orientation information for further glacial mapping applications, including ice flow velocity mapping and mass balance estimation. Some noteworthy details while performing geometric modelling using the ARGON images were introduced, including methods and results for handling specific effects of film deformation, damaged or missing fiducial marks and calibration report, automatic fiducial mark detection, control point selection through Antarctic shadow and ice surface terrain analysis, and others. Several sites in East Antarctica were tested. As an example, four images in the Byrd glacier region were used to assess the accuracy of the geometric modelling. A digital elevation model (DEM) and an orthophoto map of Byrd glacier were generated. The accuracy of the ground positions estimated by using independent check points is within one nominal pixel of 140 m of ARGON imagery. Furthermore, a number of significant features, such as ice flow velocity and regional change patterns, will be extracted and analysed.

  8. Calibration of Low Cost Digital Camera Using Data from Simultaneous LIDAR and Photogrammetric Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Debiasi, P.; Hainosz, F.; Centeno, J.

    2012-07-01

    Digital photogrammetric products from the integration of imagery and lidar datasets are a reality nowadays. When the imagery and lidar surveys are performed together and the camera is connected to the lidar system, a direct georeferencing can be applied to compute the exterior orientation parameters of the images. Direct georeferencing of the images requires accurate interior orientation parameters to perform photogrammetric application. Camera calibration is a procedure applied to compute the interior orientation parameters (IOPs). Calibration researches have established that to obtain accurate IOPs, the calibration must be performed with same or equal condition that the photogrammetric survey is done. This paper shows the methodology and experiments results from in situ self-calibration using a simultaneous images block and lidar dataset. The calibration results are analyzed and discussed. To perform this research a test field was fixed in an urban area. A set of signalized points was implanted on the test field to use as the check points or control points. The photogrammetric images and lidar dataset of the test field were taken simultaneously. Four strips of flight were used to obtain a cross layout. The strips were taken with opposite directions of flight (W-E, E-W, N-S and S-N). The Kodak DSC Pro SLR/c digital camera was connected to the lidar system. The coordinates of the exposition station were computed from the lidar trajectory. Different layouts of vertical control points were used in the calibration experiments. The experiments use vertical coordinates from precise differential GPS survey or computed by an interpolation procedure using the lidar dataset. The positions of the exposition stations are used as control points in the calibration procedure to eliminate the linear dependency of the group of interior and exterior orientation parameters. This linear dependency happens, in the calibration procedure, when the vertical images and flat test field are

  9. Photogrammetric recognition of subglacial drainage channels during glacier lake outburst events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, Ellen; Koschitzki, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, many glaciers all over the world have been distinctly retreating and thinning. One of the consequences of this is the increase of so called glacier lake outburst flood events (GLOFs): Lakes that have been dammed by a glacier spontaneously start to drain through a subglacial channel underneath the glacier due to their outweighing hydrostatic pressure. In a short period of time, the lake water drains under the glacier and causes floods in downstream valleys. In many cases the latter become hazardous for people and their property. Due to glacier movement, the tunnel will soon collapse, and the glacier lake refills, thus starting a new GLOF cycle. The mechanisms ruling GLOF events are yet still not fully understood by glaciologists. Thus, there is a demand for data and measurement values that can help to understand and model the phenomena. In view of the above, we will show how photogrammetric image sequence analysis can be used to collect data which allows for drawing conclusions about the location and development of a subglacial channel. The work is a follow-up on earlier work on a photogrammetric GLOF early warning system (Mulsow et. al., 2013). For the purpose of detecting the subglacial tunnel, a camera has been installed in a pilot study to observe the area of the Colonia glacier (Northern Patagonian ice field) where it dams the lake Lago Cachet II. To verify the hypothesis, that the course of the subglacial tunnel is indicated by irregular surface motion patterns during its collapse, the camera acquired image sequences of the glacier surface during several GLOF events. Applying LSM-based tracking techniques to these image sequences, surface feature motion trajectories could be obtained for a dense raster of glacier points. Since only a single camera has been used for image sequence acquisition, depth information is required to scale the trajectories. Thus, for scaling and georeferencing of the measurements a GPS-supported photogrammetric network

  10. Examination of the Compatibility of the Photogrammetric Method with the Phenomenon of Mora Projection in the Evaluation of Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Banaś, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of external measurements of parameters characterizing scoliosis using the photogrammetric method. Material. The study involved 120 children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Podkarpackie (Poland). Method. Measurements of body posture characteristics were performed using the photogrammetric method with mora projection. Each person was examined twice, once by two different therapists, with a time lapse of 20 minutes in between examinations. Results. High accuracy and no statistical significance were found among different measurements of asymmetry parameters characterizing the shoulder blades and hips. Regularities were also found in the characteristic measurements of curves of scoliosis. The POSTI parameter showed a significant variation and lack of compatibility of results. Conclusions. (1) The photogrammetric method used to assess the pathological changes caused by scoliosis gives significant results in terms of parameters characterizing the position of the shoulder blades and shoulders, as well as pelvis rotation. (2) High compliance measurements are also characterized by the length of the right and left arcs of scoliosis. PMID:24949421

  11. BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2010-12-01

    In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate

  12. Assessing the Accuracy of Ortho-image using Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. H.; Park, J. W.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Smart-camera can not only be operated under network environment anytime and any place but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study's proposed UAV photogrammetric method, low-cost UAV and smart camera were used. The elements of interior orientation were acquired through camera calibration. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration, The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed using the image data photographed at the target area and the results of the ground control point survey. This study also analyzes the proposed method's application possibility by comparing a Ortho-image the results of the ground control point survey. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  13. Introduction of a Photogrammetric Camera System for Rpas with Highly Accurate Gnss/imu Information for Standardized Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Geßner, M.; Meißner, H.; Przybilla, H. J.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present the evaluation of DLR's modular airborne camera system MACS-Micro for remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) less than 5kg. The main focus is on standardized calibration and test procedures as well as on standardized photogrammetric workflows as a proof of feasibility for this aerial camera concept. The prototype consists of an industrial grade frame imaging camera and a compact GNSS/IMU solution which are operated by an embedded PC. The camera has been calibrated pre- and post- flight using a three dimensional test field. The validation of the latest prototype is done by a traditional photogrammetric evaluation of an aerial survey using 39 ground control points. The results, concerning geometric and radiometric features of the present system concept as well as the quality of the aero triangulation, fulfill many of the aimed keyspecifications.

  14. Stability Analysis for a Multi-Camera Photogrammetric System

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Ayman; Detchev, Ivan; Kwak, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    Consumer-grade digital cameras suffer from geometrical instability that may cause problems when used in photogrammetric applications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of this issue of interior orientation parameter variation over time, it explains the common ways used for coping with the issue, and describes the existing methods for performing stability analysis for a single camera. The paper then points out the lack of coverage of stability analysis for multi-camera systems, suggests a modification of the collinearity model to be used for the calibration of an entire photogrammetric system, and proposes three methods for system stability analysis. The proposed methods explore the impact of the changes in interior orientation and relative orientation/mounting parameters on the reconstruction process. Rather than relying on ground truth in real datasets to check the system calibration stability, the proposed methods are simulation-based. Experiment results are shown, where a multi-camera photogrammetric system was calibrated three times, and stability analysis was performed on the system calibration parameters from the three sessions. The proposed simulation-based methods provided results that were compatible with a real-data based approach for evaluating the impact of changes in the system calibration parameters on the three-dimensional reconstruction. PMID:25196012

  15. Assessing the Photogrammetric Potential of Cameras in Portable Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there have been an increasing number of portable devices, tablets and Smartphone's employing high-resolution digital cameras to satisfy consumer demand. In most cases, these cameras are designed primarily for capturing visually pleasing images and the potential of using Smartphone and tablet cameras for metric applications remains uncertain. The compact nature of the host's devices leads to very small cameras and therefore smaller geometric characteristics. This also makes them extremely portable and with their integration into a multi-function device, which is part of the basic unit cost often makes them readily available. Many application specialists may find them an attractive proposition where some modest photogrammetric capability would be useful. This paper investigates the geometric potential of these cameras for close range photogrammetric applications by: • investigating their geometric characteristics using the self-calibration method of camera calibration and comparing results from a state-of-the-art Digital SLR camera. • investigating their capability for 3D building modelling. Again, these results will be compared with findings from results obtained from a Digital SLR camera. The early results presented show that the iPhone has greater potential for photogrammetric use than the iPad.

  16. Photogrammetric Technique for Center of Gravity Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Shemwell, Dave; Shreves, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    A new measurement technique for determination of the center of gravity (CG) for large scale objects has been demonstrated. The experimental method was conducted as part of an LS-DYNA model validation program for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module. The test was conducted on the full scale crew module concept at NASA Langley Research Center. Multi-camera photogrammetry was used to measure the test article in several asymmetric configurations. The objective of these measurements was to provide validation of the CG as computed from the original mechanical design. The methodology, measurement technique, and measurement results are presented.

  17. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies-A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Dueholm, K.S.; Jepsen, H.S.; Schuch, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photogrammetry has played an important role in geologic mapping for many years; however, only recently have attempts been made to automate mapping functions for geology. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies have been developed and are currently in use in offices of the Geological Survey of Greenland at Copenhagen, Denmark, and the U.S. Geological Survey at Denver, Colorado. Though differing somewhat, the systems are similar in that they integrate Kern PG-2 photogrammetric plotting instruments and small desk-top computers that are programmed to perform special geologic functions and operate flat-bed plotters by means of specially designed hardware and software. A z-drive capability, in which stepping motors control the z-motions of the PG-2 plotters, is an integral part of both systems. This feature enables the computer to automatically position the floating mark on computer-calculated, previously defined geologic planes, such as contacts or the base of coal beds, throughout the stereoscopic model in order to improve the mapping capabilities of the instrument and to aid in correlation and tracing of geologic units. The common goal is to enhance the capabilities of the PG-2 plotter and provide a means by which geologists can make conventional geologic maps more efficiently and explore ways to apply computer technology to geologic studies. ?? 1981.

  18. Photogrammetric 3d Acquisition and Analysis of Medicamentous Induced Pilomotor Reflex ("goose Bumps")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Hecht, A.

    2016-06-01

    In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps). Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost) photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE) of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  19. Underwater photogrammetric theoretical equations and technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya-bing; Huang, Guiping; Qin, Gui-qin; Chen, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In order to have a high level of accuracy of measurement in underwater close-range photogrammetry, this article deals with a study of three varieties of model equations according to the way of imaging upon the water. First, the paper makes a careful analysis for the two varieties of theoretical equations and finds out that there are some serious limitations in practical application and has an in-depth study for the third model equation. Second, one special project for this measurement has designed correspondingly. Finally, one rigid antenna has been tested by underwater photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the precision of 3D coordinates measurement is 0.94mm, which validates the availability and operability in practical application with this third equation. It can satisfy the measurement requirements of refraction correction, improving levels of accuracy of underwater close-range photogrammetry, as well as strong antijamming and stabilization.

  20. Validation of Laser-Induced Fluorescent Photogrammetric Targets on Membrane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Shortis, Mark R.; Hendricks, Aron R.

    2004-01-01

    The need for static and dynamic characterization of a new generation of inflatable space structures requires the advancement of classical metrology techniques. A new photogrammetric-based method for non-contact ranging and surface profiling has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to support modal analyses and structural validation of this class of space structures. This full field measurement method, known as Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) photogrammetry, has previously yielded promising experimental results. However, data indicating the achievable measurement precision had not been published. This paper provides experimental results that indicate the LIF-photogrammetry measurement precision for three different target types used on a reflective membrane structure. The target types were: (1) non-contact targets generated using LIF, (2) surface attached retro-reflective targets, and (3) surface attached diffuse targets. Results from both static and dynamic investigations are included.

  1. The observation of Martian dune migration using very high resolution image analysis and photogrammetric data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungrack; Yun, Hyewon; Kim, Younghwi; Baik, Hyunseob

    2016-04-01

    Although the origins and processes of Martian aeolian features, especially dunes, have not been fully identified yet, it has been better understood by the orbital observation method which has led to the identification of Martian dune migration such as a case in Nili Patera (Bridges, 2012), and the numerical model employing advanced computational fluid dynamics (Jackson et al., 2015). Specifically, the recent introduction of very high-resolution image products, such as 25 cm-resolution HiRISE imagery and its precise photogrammetric processor, allows us to trace the estimated, although tiny, dune migration over the Martian surface. In this study, we attempted to improve the accuracy of active dune migration measurements by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on the hierarchical geodetic control (Kim and Muller, 2009) for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout polynomial image control; and 3) the improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Consequently, this scheme not only measured Martian dune migration more precisely, but it will further achieve the extension of 3D observations combining stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using the HiRISE time series images over several dune fields, such as the Kaiser, Procter, and Wirtz craters, which were reported by the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (Hayward et al., 2013). The detected dune migrations were significantly larger than previously reported values and slightly correlated with the wind directions estimated by Martian Climate Database (Bingham et al., 2003). The outcomes in our study will be demonstrated with the quantified values in 2D and volumetric direction. In the future, the method will be further applied to the dune fields in the Mars Global dune database comprehensively and

  2. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  3. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  4. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  5. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  6. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  7. Comparison of Photogrammetric Techniques for Rockfalls Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buill, Felipe; Amparo Núñez-Andrés, María; Lantada, Nieves; Prades, Albert

    2016-10-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs to image capture for monitoring natural hazards has had a major boost for its wide possibilities in the last decade. These are, for example, the studying and monitoring of unstable slopes, glaciers and rocky escarpments. Moreover, to evaluate the risk after a rockfall or debris flow event, for example measuring volume of displaced material, trajectories of blocks or building and/or infrastructure damaged. But the use of these devices requires a specific treatment regarding the studied case and geomatic techniques suitable to get the adequate precision of the movement, size of items or events to study. For each application it is necessary to determine what kind of capture is the most appropriate to obtain an optimal benefit-cost ratio. A comparison of the use of terrestrial photogrammetry, UAV photogrammetry and video from UAV has been done. The best result has been obtained combining techniques aerial and terrestrial since ground points with a best quality can be identified and measured and all the surface has a best image coverage.

  8. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and...

  9. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  10. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... child's exposure to cockroaches: Remove all food and water sources that can attract cockroaches. Use a suitable pesticide. Seal any cracks in walls and floors. Outdoor Controls When mold or pollen ...

  11. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and home improvement stores. continue Controlling pollens and molds Another reason to avoid humidifiers is that high levels of humidity promote mold growth. If you must use a humidifier, change ...

  12. Sensor-agnostic photogrammetric image registration with applications to population modeling

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin A; Moehl, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Photogrammetric registration of airborne and spaceborne imagery is a crucial prerequisite to many data fusion tasks. While embedded sensor models provide a rough geolocation estimate, these metadata may be incomplete or imprecise. Manual solutions are appropriate for small-scale projects, but for rapid streams of cross-modal, multi-sensor, multi-temporal imagery with varying metadata standards, an automated approach is required. We present a high-performance image registration workflow to address this need. This paper outlines the core development concepts and demonstrates its utility with respect to the 2016 data fusion contest imagery. In particular, Iris ultra-HD video is georeferenced to the Earth surface via registration to DEIMOS-2 imagery, which serves as a trusted control source. Geolocation provides opportunity to augment the video with spatial context, stereo-derived disparity, spectral sensitivity, change detection, and numerous ancillary geospatial layers. We conclude by leveraging these derivative data layers towards one such fusion application: population distribution modeling.

  13. Ground point filtering of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Seijmonsbergen, Arie; Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have proved invaluable for generating high-resolution and multi-temporal imagery. Based on photographic surveys, 3D surface reconstructions can be derived photogrammetrically so producing point clouds, orthophotos and surface models. For geomorphological or ecological applications it may be necessary to separate ground points from vegetation points. Existing filtering methods are designed for point clouds derived using other methods, e.g. laser scanning. The purpose of this paper is to test three filtering algorithms for the extraction of ground points from point clouds derived from low-altitude aerial photography. Three subareas were selected from a single flight which represent different scenarios: 1) low relief, sparsely vegetated area, 2) low relief, moderately vegetated area, 3) medium relief and moderately vegetated area. The three filtering methods are used to classify ground points in different ways, based on 1) RGB color values from training samples, 2) TIN densification as implemented in LAStools, and 3) an iterative surface lowering algorithm. Ground points are then interpolated into a digital terrain model using inverse distance weighting. The results suggest that different landscapes require different filtering methods for optimal ground point extraction. While iterative surface lowering and TIN densification are fully automated, color-based classification require fine-tuning in order to optimize the filtering results. Finally, we conclude that filtering photogrammetric point clouds could provide a cheap alternative to laser scan surveys for creating digital terrain models in sparsely vegetated areas.

  14. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obstruction or restriction. Stickers with markers, there was a five-point mapping for anatomical modeling and photogrammetry, with each evaluated in supine position, was sought to test the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The test was filmed and repeated three times. Images of the films were extracted for the moment of maximum exhalation and inhalation of proof with better breathing. With the use of a commercial software, defined the respiratory volumes to the thorax and abdomen. Results The photogrammetric analysis has found values strongly correlated with the spirometric measurements of FVC (0.812), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 – 0.708), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF – 0.762) in addition to post test performed Inspiration (IP- 0.816). There was a higher ventilatory mobility for boys than girls for Lower Chest and Lower and Upper Abdomen. It was possible to reach a regression R2 = 0.866 for proof of FVC and R2 = 0.776 for IP with the use of photogrammetry, presenting a standard error of 0.353 and 0.451, respectively. Conclusions Photogrammetry can be used to study thoracoabdominal movements by applying analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional images acquired using a video camera being, applicable and reproducible. PMID:24571595

  15. Inter-Ethnic/Racial Facial Variations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Photogrammetric Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi Feng; Wong, Hai Ming; Lin, Ruitao; Yin, Guosheng; McGrath, Colman

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous facial photogrammetric studies have been published around the world. We aimed to critically review these studies so as to establish population norms for various angular and linear facial measurements; and to determine inter-ethnic/racial facial variations. Methods and Findings A comprehensive and systematic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus was conducted to identify facial photogrammetric studies published before December, 2014. Subjects of eligible studies were either Africans, Asians or Caucasians. A Bayesian hierarchical random effects model was developed to estimate posterior means and 95% credible intervals (CrI) for each measurement by ethnicity/race. Linear contrasts were constructed to explore inter-ethnic/racial facial variations. We identified 38 eligible studies reporting 11 angular and 18 linear facial measurements. Risk of bias of the studies ranged from 0.06 to 0.66. At the significance level of 0.05, African males were found to have smaller nasofrontal angle (posterior mean difference: 8.1°, 95% CrI: 2.2°–13.5°) compared to Caucasian males and larger nasofacial angle (7.4°, 0.1°–13.2°) compared to Asian males. Nasolabial angle was more obtuse in Caucasian females than in African (17.4°, 0.2°–35.3°) and Asian (9.1°, 0.4°–17.3°) females. Additional inter-ethnic/racial variations were revealed when the level of statistical significance was set at 0.10. Conclusions A comprehensive database for angular and linear facial measurements was established from existing studies using the statistical model and inter-ethnic/racial variations of facial features were observed. The results have implications for clinical practice and highlight the need and value for high quality photogrammetric studies. PMID:26247212

  16. Influence of Raw Image Preprocessing and Other Selected Processes on Accuracy of Close-Range Photogrammetric Systems According to Vdi 2634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznicek, J.; Luhmann, T.; Jepping, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of raw image preprocessing and other selected processes on the accuracy of close-range photogrammetric measurement. The examined processes and features includes: raw image preprocessing, sensor unflatness, distance-dependent lens distortion, extending the input observations (image measurements) by incorporating all RGB colour channels, ellipse centre eccentricity and target detecting. The examination of each effect is carried out experimentally by performing the validation procedure proposed in the German VDI guideline 2634/1. The validation procedure is based on performing standard photogrammetric measurements of high-accurate calibrated measuring lines (multi-scale bars) with known lengths (typical uncertainty = 5 μm at 2 sigma). The comparison of the measured lengths with the known values gives the maximum length measurement error LME, which characterize the accuracy of the validated photogrammetric system. For higher reliability the VDI test field was photographed ten times independently with the same configuration and camera settings. The images were acquired with the metric ALPA 12WA camera. The tests are performed on all ten measurements which gives the possibility to measure the repeatability of the estimated parameters as well. The influences are examined by comparing the quality characteristics of the reference and tested settings.

  17. In situ growth rates of deep-water octocorals determined from 3D photogrammetric reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennecke, Swaantje; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Metaxas, Anna; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2016-12-01

    Growth rates of deep-water corals provide important information on the recovery potential of these ecosystems, for example from fisheries-induced impacts. Here, we present in situ growth dynamics that are currently largely unknown for deep-water octocorals, calculated by applying a non-destructive method. Videos of a boulder harbouring multiple colonies of Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis in the Northeast Channel Coral Conservation Area at the entrance to the Gulf of Maine at 863 m depth were collected in 2006, 2010 and 2014. Photogrammetric reconstructions of the boulder and the fauna yielded georeferenced 3D models for all sampling years. Repeated measurements of total length and cross-sectional area of the same colonies allowed the observation of growth dynamics. Growth rates of total length of Paragorgia arborea decreased over time with higher rates between 2006 and 2010 than between 2010 and 2014, while growth rates of cross-sectional area remained comparatively constant. A general trend of decreasing growth rates of total length with size of the coral colony was documented. While no growth was observed for the largest colony (165 cm in length) between 2010 and 2014, a colony 50-65 cm in length grew 3.7 cm yr-1 between 2006 and 2010. Minimum growth rates of 1.6-2.7 cm yr-1 were estimated for two recruits (<23 cm in 2014) of Primnoa resedaeformis. We successfully extracted biologically meaningful data from photogrammetric models and present the first in situ growth rates for these coral species in the Northwest Atlantic.

  18. A methodology for luminance map retrieval using airborne hyperspectral and photogrammetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipia, Luca; Alamús, Ramon; Tardà, Anna; Pérez, Fernando; Palà, Vicenç; Corbera, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    This paper puts forward a methodology developed at the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) to quantify upwelling light flux using hyperspectral and photogrammetric airborne data. The work was carried out in the frame of a demonstrative study requested by the municipality of Sant Cugat del Vallès, in the vicinity of Barcelona (Spain), and aimed to envisage a new approach to assess artificial lighting policies and actions as alternative to field campaigns. Hyperspectral and high resolution multispectral/panchromatic data were acquired simultaneously over urban areas. In order to avoid moon light contributions, data were acquired during the first days of new moon phase. Hyperspectral data were radiometrically calibrated. Then, National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) atmospheric profiles were employed to estimate the actual Column Water Vapor (CWV) to be passed to ModTran5.0 for the atmospheric transmissivity τ calculation. At-the-ground radiance was finally integrated using the photopic sensitivity curve to generate a luminance map (cdm-2) of the flown area by mosaicking the different flight tracks. In an attempt to improve the spatial resolution and enhance the dynamic range of the luminance map, a sensor-fusion strategy was finally looked into. DMC Photogrammetric data acquired simultaneously to hyperspectral information were converted into at-the-ground radiance and upscaled to CASI spatial resolution. High-resolution (HR) luminance maps with enhanced dynamic range were finally generated by linearly fitting up-scaled DMC mosaics to the CASI-based luminance information. In the end, a preliminary assessment of the methodology is carried out using non-simultaneous in-situ measurements.

  19. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    georeferenced geological field data acquired along mountain trail transects, mainly using the MVE Field Move software application. In our experience, vertical aerophotos were sufficient to generate precise surface models in all but the steepest mountain cliffs. Therefore, using existing vertical photoimagery (where available) is a very cost-effective alternative to organizing shooting campaigns with rented aircraft. For handling reasonably large models (cca 3 x 3 km, up to 10 million triangles), a low-end computer workstation with mid-range professional 3D graphic card is sufficient. The biggest bottleneck is the photogrammetric processing step which is time-consuming (10s of hrs) and has large RAM requirements, although those can be offset by dividing models into smaller parts. The major problem with geological modeling software like Gocad or Move is that it at present does not handle well projecting of phototextures. Whereas Photoscan-generated orthophotos can be vertically projected onto mesh models, this results in unacceptable distortions and gaps in subvertical or overhanging parts of the mountain cliff models. A real 3D UV texture mapping method, such as implemented in Photoscan, would be required to realistically model such areas. This limitations notwithstanding, digital geological mapping of photogrammetric models of mountains is a very promising, cost- and time-effective method for rapid structural interpretation and mapping of barren mountainous terrains, particularly when it is complemented by field measurements and observations.

  20. Towards a Low-Cost Real-Time Photogrammetric Landslide Monitoring System Utilising Mobile and Cloud Computing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidburee, P.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.; Fieber, K. D.

    2016-06-01

    Close-range photogrammetric techniques offer a potentially low-cost approach in terms of implementation and operation for initial assessment and monitoring of landslide processes over small areas. In particular, the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) pipeline is now extensively used to help overcome many constraints of traditional digital photogrammetry, offering increased user-friendliness to nonexperts, as well as lower costs. However, a landslide monitoring approach based on the SfM technique also presents some potential drawbacks due to the difficulty in managing and processing a large volume of data in real-time. This research addresses the aforementioned issues by attempting to combine a mobile device with cloud computing technology to develop a photogrammetric measurement solution as part of a monitoring system for landslide hazard analysis. The research presented here focusses on (i) the development of an Android mobile application; (ii) the implementation of SfM-based open-source software in the Amazon cloud computing web service, and (iii) performance assessment through a simulated environment using data collected at a recognized landslide test site in North Yorkshire, UK. Whilst the landslide monitoring mobile application is under development, this paper describes experiments carried out to ensure effective performance of the system in the future. Investigations presented here describe the initial assessment of a cloud-implemented approach, which is developed around the well-known VisualSFM algorithm. Results are compared to point clouds obtained from alternative SfM 3D reconstruction approaches considering a commercial software solution (Agisoft PhotoScan) and a web-based system (Autodesk 123D Catch). Investigations demonstrate that the cloud-based photogrammetric measurement system is capable of providing results of centimeter-level accuracy, evidencing its potential to provide an effective approach for quantifying and analyzing landslide hazard at a local-scale.

  1. D Hyperspectral Frame Imager Camera Data in Photogrammetric Mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkeläinen, A.; Saari, H.; Hippi, I.; Sarkeala, J.; Soukkamäki, J.

    2013-08-01

    A new 2D hyperspectral frame camera system has been developed by VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland) and Rikola Ltd. It contains frame based and very light camera with RGB-NIR sensor and it is suitable for light weight and cost effective UAV planes. MosaicMill Ltd. has converted the camera data into proper format for photogrammetric processing, and camera's geometrical accuracy and stability are evaluated to guarantee required accuracies for end user applications. MosaicMill Ltd. has also applied its' EnsoMOSAIC technology to process hyperspectral data into orthomosaics. This article describes the main steps and results on applying hyperspectral sensor in orthomosaicking. The most promising results as well as challenges in agriculture and forestry are also described.

  2. Designing Digital Control Systems With Averaged Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1990-01-01

    Rational criteria represent improvement over "cut-and-try" approach. Recent development in theory of control systems yields improvements in mathematical modeling and design of digital feedback controllers using time-averaged measurements. By using one of new formulations for systems with time-averaged measurements, designer takes averaging effect into account when modeling plant, eliminating need to iterate design and simulation phases.

  3. Measurement process error determination and control

    SciTech Connect

    Everhart, J.

    1992-01-01

    Traditional production processes have required repeated inspection activities to assure product quality. A typical production process follows this pattern: production makes product; production inspects product; Quality Control (QC) inspects product to ensure production inspected properly QC then inspects the product on a different gage to ensure the production gage performance; and QC often inspects on a different day to determine environmental effect. All of these costly inspection activities are due to the lack of confidence in the initial production measurement. The Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP) is a method of determining and controlling measurement error in design, development, and production. It is a preventive rather than an appraisal method that determines, improves, and controls the error in the measurement process, including measurement equipment, environment, procedure, and personnel. PMAP expands the concept of the Measurement Assurance Program developed in the 1960's by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), today known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). PMAP acts as a bridge in the gap between the Metrology Laboratory and the production environment by introducing standards (or certified parts) into the production process. These certified control standards are then measured as part of the production process. A control system is present to examine the measurement results of the control standards before, during, and after the manufacturing and measuring of the product. The results of the PMAP control charts determine random uncertainty and systematic (bias from the standard) error of the measurement process. The combinations of these uncertainties determine the margin of error of the measurement process. The total measurement process error is determined by combining the margin of error and the uncertainty in the control standard.

  4. Measurement process error determination and control

    SciTech Connect

    Everhart, J.

    1992-11-01

    Traditional production processes have required repeated inspection activities to assure product quality. A typical production process follows this pattern: production makes product; production inspects product; Quality Control (QC) inspects product to ensure production inspected properly QC then inspects the product on a different gage to ensure the production gage performance; and QC often inspects on a different day to determine environmental effect. All of these costly inspection activities are due to the lack of confidence in the initial production measurement. The Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP) is a method of determining and controlling measurement error in design, development, and production. It is a preventive rather than an appraisal method that determines, improves, and controls the error in the measurement process, including measurement equipment, environment, procedure, and personnel. PMAP expands the concept of the Measurement Assurance Program developed in the 1960`s by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), today known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). PMAP acts as a bridge in the gap between the Metrology Laboratory and the production environment by introducing standards (or certified parts) into the production process. These certified control standards are then measured as part of the production process. A control system is present to examine the measurement results of the control standards before, during, and after the manufacturing and measuring of the product. The results of the PMAP control charts determine random uncertainty and systematic (bias from the standard) error of the measurement process. The combinations of these uncertainties determine the margin of error of the measurement process. The total measurement process error is determined by combining the margin of error and the uncertainty in the control standard.

  5. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  6. Quantum control by von Neumann measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechen, Alexander; Il'in, Nikolai; Shuang, Feng; Rabitz, Herschel

    2006-11-01

    A general scheme is presented for controlling quantum systems using evolution driven by nonselective von Neumann measurements, with or without an additional tailored electromagnetic field. As an example, a two-level quantum system controlled by nonselective quantum measurements is considered. The control goal is to find optimal system observables such that consecutive nonselective measurement of these observables transforms the system from a given initial state into a state which maximizes the expected value of a target operator (the objective). A complete analytical solution is found including explicit expressions for the optimal measured observables and for the maximal objective value given any target operator, any initial system density matrix, and any number of measurements. As an illustration, upper bounds on measurement-induced population transfer between the ground and the excited states for any number of measurements are found. The anti-Zeno effect is recovered in the limit of an infinite number of measurements. In this limit the system becomes completely controllable. The results establish the degree of control attainable by a finite number of measurements.

  7. Measurement and control of electrostatic patch potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph L.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    Electrostatic patch potentials hinder many precision measurements, particularly measurements of the Casimir force. Despite the improved force sensitivity achieved over the last decade, only recently have attempts been made to measure and quantify the effects of patch potentials. Here we present an analysis of patch potentials measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and discuss methods to control these potentials (e.g. humidity, material choice, etc).

  8. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  9. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  10. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  11. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  12. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  13. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  14. Photogrammetric Assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Arrays During the Second Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, C. A.; Dragg, J. L.; Snyder, M. W.; Gaunce, M. T.; Decker, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the photogrammetric assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays conducted by the NASA c Center Image Science and Analysis Group during Second Servicing Mission 2 (SM-2) on STS-82 in February 1997. Two type solar array analyses were conducted during the mission using Space Shuttle payload bay video: (1) measurement of solar array motion due to induced loads, and (2) measurement of the solar array static or geometric twist caused by the cumulative array loading. The report describes pre-mission planning and analysis technique development activities conducted to acquire and analyze solar array imagery data during SM-2. This includes analysis of array motion obtained during SM-1 as a proof-of-concept of the SM-2 measurement techniques. The report documents the results of real-time analysis conducted during the mission and subsequent analysis conducted post-flight. This report also provides a summary of lessons learned on solar array imagery analysis from SM-2 and recommendations for future on-orbit measurements applicable to HST SM-3 and to the International Space Station. This work was performed under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  15. Photogrammetric Retrieval of Etna's Plume Height from SEVIRI and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaksek, K.; Ganci, G.; Hort, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Even remote volcanoes can impact the modern society due to volcanic ash dispersion in the atmosphere. A lot of research is currently dedicated to minimizing the impact of volcanic ash on air traffic. But the ash transport in the atmosphere and its deposition on land and in the oceans may also significantly influence the climate through modifications of atmospheric CO2. The emphasis of this contribution is the retrieval of volcanic ash plume height. This is important information for air traffic, to predict ash transport and to estimate the mass flux of the ejected material. The best way to monitor volcanic ash cloud top height (ACTH) on the global level is using satellite remote sensing. The most commonly used method for satellite ACTH compares brightness temperature of the cloud with the atmospheric temperature profile. Because of well-known uncertainties of this method we propose photogrammetric methods based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary (SEVIRI, HRV band; 1000 m spatial resolution) and polar orbiting satellites (MODIS, band 1; 250 m spatial resolution). The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously butMODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection in the atmosphere we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval) and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. ACTH is then estimated by intersection of corresponding lines-of-view from MODIS and interpolated SEVIRI data. The proposed method has already been tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This case study had almost perfect conditions as the plume was vast and stretching over a homogeneous background - ocean. Here we show results of ACTH estimation during lava fountaining activity of Mount Etna in years 2011-2013. This activity resulted in volcanic ash plumes that are much smaller than

  16. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  17. Reactivity measurement using a programmable logic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bobek, L.M.; Miraglia, P.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The application of digital systems for measuring reactor dynamics has been used at experimental and research reactors for almost 30 yr. At the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) nuclear reactor facility (NRF), a recent modernization effort included the installation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and an operator interface terminal (OIT). The PLC systems are increasingly being used to replace relay-based monitoring and control systems at nuclear power plants. At WPI, the PLC and OIT provide a digital reactor monitoring system that is remote from the reactor`s analog control instrumentation. The NRF staff has programmed the monitoring system for several reactor-related applications, including reactivity measurement.

  18. Implementation of a close range photogrammetric system for 3D reconstruction of a scoliotic torso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detchev, Ivan Denislavov

    Scoliosis is a deformity of the human spine most commonly encountered with children. After being detected, periodic examinations via x-rays are traditionally used to measure its progression. However, due to the increased risk of cancer, a non-invasive and radiation-free scoliosis detection and progression monitoring methodology is needed. Quantifying the scoliotic deformity through the torso surface is a valid alternative, because of its high correlation with the internal spine curvature. This work proposes a low-cost multi-camera photogrammetric system for semi-automated 3D reconstruction of a torso surface with sub-millimetre level accuracy. The thesis describes the system design and calibration for optimal accuracy. It also covers the methodology behind the reconstruction and registration procedures. The experimental results include the complete reconstruction of a scoliotic torso mannequin. The final accuracy is evaluated through the goodness of fit between the reconstructed surface and a more accurate set of points measured by a coordinate measuring machine.

  19. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  20. Adaptive measurement control for calorimetric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    The performance of a calorimeter is usually evaluated by constructing a Shewhart control chart of its measurement errors for a collection of reference standards. However, Shewhart control charts were developed in a manufacturing setting where observations occur in batches. Additionally, the Shewhart control chart expects the variance of the charted variable to be known or at least well estimated from previous experimentation. For calorimetric assay, observations are collected singly in a time sequence with a (possibly) changing mean, and extensive experimentation to calculate the variance of the measurement errors is seldom feasible. These facts pose problems in constructing a control chart. In this paper, the authors propose using the mean squared successive difference to estimate the variance of measurement errors based solely on prior observations. This procedure reduces or eliminates estimation bias due to a changing mean. However, the use of this estimator requires an adjustment to the definition of the alarm and warning limits for the Shewhart control chart. The authors propose adjusted limits based on an approximate Student`s t-distribution for the measurement errors and discuss the limitations of this approximation. Suggestions for the practical implementation of this method are provided also.

  1. A simplified close range photogrammetric technique for soil erosion assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface reconstruction using digital photogrammetry offers a great advantage for soil erosion research. The technology can be cumbersome for field application as it relies on the accurate measurement of control points often using a survey grade instruments. Also, even though digital photogrammetry h...

  2. A simplified close range photogrammetric technique for soil erosion assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface reconstruction using digital photogrammetry offers a great advantage for soil erosion research. The technology can be cumbersome for field application as it relies on the accurate measurement of control points often using a survey grade instrument. Also, even though digital photogrammetry ha...

  3. Volumetric measurement of rock movement using photogrammetry

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Donovan J.; Iverson, Stephen R.; Martin, Lewis A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Raffaldi, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH ground control safety research program at Spokane, Washington, is exploring applications of photogrammetry to rock mass and support monitoring. This paper describes two ways photogrammetric techniques are being used. First, photogrammetric data of laboratory testing is being used to correlate energy input and support deformation. This information can be used to infer remaining support toughness after ground deformation events. This technique is also demonstrated in a field application. Second, field photogrammetric data is compared to crackmeter data from a deep underground mine. Accuracies were found to average 8 mm, but have produced results within 0.2 mm of true displacement, as measured by crackmeters. Application of these techniques consists of monitoring overall fault activity by monitoring multiple points around the crackmeter. A case study is provided in which a crackmeter is clearly shown to have provided insufficient information regarding overall fault ground deformation. Photogrammetry is proving to be a useful ground monitoring tool due to its unobtrusiveness and ease of use. PMID:27110429

  4. Automatic Single Tree Detection in Plantations using UAV-based Photogrammetric Point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattenborn, T.; Sperlich, M.; Bataua, K.; Koch, B.

    2014-08-01

    For reasons of documentation, management and certification there is a high interest in efficient inventories of palm plantations on the single plant level. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology facilitate spatial and temporal flexible acquisition of high resolution 3D data. Common single tree detection approaches are based on Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite or Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. However, VHR data is often limited to clouds and does commonly not allow for height measurements. VHR and in particualar ALS data are characterized by high relatively high acquisition costs. Sperlich et al. (2013) already demonstrated the high potential of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds for single tree detection using pouring algorithms. This approach was adjusted and improved for an application on palm plantation. The 9.4ha test site on Tarawa, Kiribati, comprised densely scattered growing palms, as well as abundant undergrowth and trees. Using a standard consumer grade camera mounted on an octocopter two flight campaigns at 70m and 100m altitude were performed to evaluate the effect Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) and image overlap. To avoid comission errors and improve the terrain interpolation the point clouds were classified based on the geometric characteristics of the classes, i.e. (1) palm, (2) other vegetation (3) and ground. The mapping accuracy amounts for 86.1 % for the entire study area and 98.2 % for dense growing palm stands. We conclude that this flexible and automatic approach has high capabilities for operational use.

  5. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  6. Lightweight Hyperspectral Mapping System and a Novel Photogrammetric Processing Chain for UAV-based Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Anders, Niels; Iqbal, Shahzad; Wenting, Philip; Becker, Rolf; Kooistra, Lammert

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a lightweight Hyperspectral Mapping System (HYMSY) and a novel processing chain for UAV based mapping. The HYMSY consists of a custom pushbroom spectrometer (range 450-950nm, FWHM 9nm, ~20 lines/s, 328 pixels/line), a consumer camera (collecting 16MPix raw image every 2 seconds), a GPS-Inertia Navigation System (GPS-INS), and synchronization and data storage units. The weight of the system at take-off is 2.0kg allowing us to mount it on a relatively small octocopter. The novel processing chain exploits photogrammetry in the georectification process of the hyperspectral data. At first stage the photos are processed in a photogrammetric software producing a high-resolution RGB orthomosaic, a Digital Surface Model (DSM), and photogrammetric UAV/camera position and attitude at the moment of each photo. These photogrammetric camera positions are then used to enhance the internal accuracy of GPS-INS data. These enhanced GPS-INS data are then used to project the hyperspectral data over the photogrammetric DSM, producing a georectified end product. The presented photogrammetric processing chain allows fully automated georectification of hyperspectral data using a compact GPS-INS unit while still producingin UAV use higher georeferencing accuracy than would be possible using the traditional processing method. During 2013, we have operated HYMSY on 150+ octocopter flights at 60+ sites or days. On typical flight we have produced for a 2-10ha area: a RGB orthoimagemosaic at 1-5cm resolution, a DSM in 5-10cm resolution, and hyperspectral datacube at 10-50cm resolution. The targets have mostly consisted of vegetated targets including potatoes, wheat, sugar beets, onions, tulips, coral reefs, and heathlands,. In this poster we present the Hyperspectral Mapping System and the photogrammetric processing chain with some of our first mapping results.

  7. Assessment of Pneumatic Controller Emission Measurements ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons (HCs) to the atmosphere. ONG production sites have multiple emission sources including storage tank venting, enclosed combustion devices, engine exhaust, pneumatic controllers and uncontrolled leaks. Accounting for up to 37.8 percent of CH4 emissions, pneumatic controllers are one of the most significant sources of CH4 in ONG production field operations. Recent measurement studies used the only commercially-available high volume sampling (HVS) technology (Bacharach Hi Flow Sampler, Bacharach, Inc., New Kensington, PA) to quantify CH4 emission rates of pneumatic devices on ONG production pads and compare to inventory estimates. Other studies indicate that this HVS may malfunction, causing underestimates of emissions in certain scenarios encountered in ONG production and should not be used for some sources such as heavy emissions from condensate storage tanks. The HVS malfunction can occur on relatively large emissions, where the measured leak concentrations exceed 5%, and is ascribed to a sensor transition failure in the instrument. The HVS malfunction is believed to be exacerbated by several factors (large emission rates, amount of non-CH4 HCs in the emission stream, non-optimal HVS calibration frequency, firmware, and emission measurement coupling geometries). The degree to which HVS measurements of emissions from pneumatic co

  8. Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Rick; Daniel, Alice; Batts, Frank E., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System (MCDAS) is an application program that integrates the functions of two stand-alone programs: one for acquisition of data, the other for controls. MCDAS facilitates and improves testing of complex engineering systems by helping to perform calibration and setup of test systems and acquisition, dissemination, and processing of data. Features of MCDAS include an intuitive, user-friendly graphical user interface, a capability for acquiring data at rates greater than previously possible, cooperation between the data-acquisition software subsystem and alarm-checking and analytical components of the control software subsystem, and a capability for dissemination of data through fiber optics and virtual and wide-area networks, including networks that contain hand-held display units. The integration of the data acquisition and control software offers a safety advantage by making alarm information available to the control software in a more timely manner. By enabling the use of hand-held devices, MCDAS reduces the time spent by technicians asking for screen updates to determine effects of setup actions. Previously recorded data can be processed without interruption to current acquisition of data. Analysts can continue to view test parameters while test-data files are being generated.

  9. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Arel Weisberg

    2007-04-26

    ERCo has developed a laser-based technology for rapid compositional measurements of batch, real-time sorting of cullet, and in-situ measurements of molten glass. This technology, termed LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) can determine whether or not the batch was formulated accurately in order to control glass quality. It can also be used to determine if individual batch ingredients are within specifications. In the case of cullet feedstocks, the sensor can serve as part of a system to sort cullet by color and ensure that it is free of contaminants. In-situ compositional measurements of molten glass are achieved through immersing a LIBS probe directly into the melt in a glass furnace. This technology has been successfully demonstrated in ERCo’s LIBS laboratory for batch analysis, cullet sorting, and glass melt measurements. A commercial batch analyzer has been operating in a PPG fiberglass plant since August 2004. LIBS utilizes a highly concentrated laser pulse to rapidly vaporize and ionize nanograms of the material being studied. As this vapor cools, it radiates light at specific wavelengths corresponding to the elemental constituents (e.g. silicon, aluminum, iron) of the material. The strengths of the emissions correlate to the concentrations of each of the elemental constituents. By collecting the radiated light with a spectrometer capable of resolving and measuring these wavelengths, the elemental composition of the sample is found.

  10. Validation of Bim Components by Photogrammetric Point Clouds for Construction Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Construction progress monitoring is a primarily manual and time consuming process which is usually based on 2D plans and therefore has a need for an increased automation. In this paper an approach is introduced for comparing a planned state of a building (as-planned) derived from a Building Information Model (BIM) to a photogrammetric point cloud (as-built). In order to accomplish the comparison a triangle-based representation of the building model is used. The approach has two main processing steps. First, visibility checks are performed to determine whether or not elements of the building are potentially built. The remaining parts can be either categorized as free areas, which are definitely not built, or as unknown areas, which are not visible. In the second step it is determined if the potentially built parts can be confirmed by the surrounding points. This process begins by splitting each triangle into small raster cells. For each raster cell a measure is calculated using three criteria: the mean distance of the points, their standard deviation and the deviation from a local plane fit. A triangle is confirmed if a sufficient number of raster cells yield a high rating by the measure. The approach is tested based on a real case inner city scenario. Only triangles showing unambiguous results are labeled with their statuses, because it is intended to use these results to infer additional statements based on dependencies modeled in the BIM. It is shown that the label built is reliable and can be used for further analysis. As a drawback this comes with a high percentage of ambiguously classified elements, for which the acquired data is not sufficient (in terms of coverage and/or accuracy) for validation.

  11. Object-Based Coregistration of Terrestrial Photogrammetric and ALS Point Clouds in Forested Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewski, P.; Erickson, A.; Yao, W.; Coops, N.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and terrestrial photogrammetry are methods applicable for mapping forested environments. While ground-based techniques provide valuable information about the forest understory, the measured point clouds are normally expressed in a local coordinate system, whose transformation into a georeferenced system requires additional effort. In contrast, ALS point clouds are usually georeferenced, yet the point density near the ground may be poor under dense overstory conditions. In this work, we propose to combine the strengths of the two data sources by co-registering the respective point clouds, thus enriching the georeferenced ALS point cloud with detailed understory information in a fully automatic manner. Due to markedly different sensor characteristics, coregistration methods which expect a high geometric similarity between keypoints are not suitable in this setting. Instead, our method focuses on the object (tree stem) level. We first calculate approximate stem positions in the terrestrial and ALS point clouds and construct, for each stem, a descriptor which quantifies the 2D and vertical distances to other stem centers (at ground height). Then, the similarities between all descriptor pairs from the two point clouds are calculated, and standard graph maximum matching techniques are employed to compute corresponding stem pairs (tiepoints). Finally, the tiepoint subset yielding the optimal rigid transformation between the terrestrial and ALS coordinate systems is determined. We test our method on simulated tree positions and a plot situated in the northern interior of the Coast Range in western Oregon, USA, using ALS data (76 x 121 m2) and a photogrammetric point cloud (33 x 35 m2) derived from terrestrial photographs taken with a handheld camera. Results on both simulated and real data show that the proposed stem descriptors are discriminative enough to derive good correspondences. Specifically

  12. Spatial analysis of fractured rock around fault zones based on photogrammetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, H.; Gessner, K.; Drews, M.; Wellmann, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The location of hydrocarbon, geothermal or hydrothermal fluids is often bound to fault zones. The fracture systems along these faults play an important role in providing pathways to fluids in the Earth's crust. Thus an evaluation of the change in permeability due to rock deformation is of particular interest in these zones. Recent advances in digital imaging using modern techniques like photogrammetry provide new opportunities to view, analyze and present high resolution geological data in three dimensions. Our method is an extension of the one-dimensional scan-line approach to quantify discontinuities in rock outcrops. It has the advantage to take into account a larger amount of spatial data than conventional manual measurement methods. It enables to recover the entity of spatial information of a 3D fracture pattern, i.e. position, orientation, extent and frequency of fractures. We present examples of outcrop scale datasets in granitic and sedimentary rocks and analyse changes in fracture patterns across fault zones from the host rock to the damage zone. We also present a method to generate discontinuity density maps from 3D surface models generated by digital photogrammetry methods. This methodology has potential for application in rock mass characterization, structural and tectonic studies, the formation of hydrothermal mineral deposits, oil and gas migration, and hydrogeology. Our analysis methods represent important steps towards developing a toolkit to automatically detect and interpret spatial rock characteristics, by taking advantage of the large amount of data that can be collected by photogrammetric methods. This acquisition of parameters defining a 3D fracture pattern allows the creation of synthetic fracture networks following these constraints. The mathematical description of such a synethtical network can be implemented into numerical simulation tools for modeling fluid flow in fracture media. We give an outline of current and future applications of

  13. Classification of Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Scaffolds for Construction Site Monitoring Using Subspace Clustering and PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tuttas, S.; Heogner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM). The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  14. Tuning quantum measurements to control chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Jessica K.; Hope, Joseph J.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-03-01

    Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes.

  15. Tuning quantum measurements to control chaos

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Jessica K.; Hope, Joseph J.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes. PMID:28317933

  16. Statistical assessment of soil surface roughness for environmental applications using photogrammetric imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, Philip; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk; Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. Recent soil erosion studies have shown the impact of micro topography on soil erosion rates as well as overland flow generation due to soil crusting effects. Besides the above mentioned, it is widely recognized that the backscattered signal in SAR remote sensing is strongly influenced by soil surface roughness and by regular higher order tillage patterns. However, there is an ambiguity in the appropriate measurement technique and scale for roughness studies and SAR backscatter model parametrization. While different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscatter. In the presented study, we computed high resolution digital elevation models (DEM) using a consumer grade digital camera in the frame of photogrammetric imaging techniques to represent soil micro topography from different soil surfaces (ploughed, harrowed, seedbed and crusted) . The retrieved DEMs showed sufficient accuracy, with an RMSE of a 1.64 mm compared to high accurate reference points,. For roughness characterization, we calculated different roughness indices (RMS height (s), autocorrelation length (l), tortuosity index (TB)). In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behaviour of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes. Compared to results from profile measurements taken from literature and profiles generated out of the dataset, results indicate,that by using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust against outliers and even saturate faster with increasing acquisition size. Dependent on the roughness condition, the calculated values for the RMS-height saturate for ploughed fields at 2.3 m, for harrowed fields at 2.0 m and for crusted fields at 1.2 m. Results also

  17. Photogrammetric discharge monitoring of small tropical mountain rivers: A case study at Rivière des Pluies, Réunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, André; Augereau, Emmanuel; Delacourt, Christophe; Bonnier, Julien

    2016-06-01

    Reliable discharge measurements are indispensable for an effective management of natural water resources and floods. Limitations of classical current meter profiling and stage-discharge ratings have stimulated the development of more accurate and efficient gauging techniques such as nonintrusive photogrammetric techniques. Despite many successful applications of large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) for short-term measurements during flood events, there are still very few studies that address its use for long-term monitoring of small mountain rivers. To fill this gap, this study targets the development and testing of largely autonomous photogrammetric discharge measurement system with a special focus on the application to small mountain river with high discharge variability in the tropics. It proposes several enhancements concerning camera calibration, more efficient processing in image geometry, the automatic detection of the water level as well as the statistical calibration and estimation of the discharge from multiple profiles. A case study which comprises the analysis of several thousand videos spanning over 2.5 year is carried out to test the robustness and accuracy of different processing steps. Comparisons against classical current meter profiling show a mean absolute percentage error of 9.0% after the statistical calibration of the system. The study suggests that LSPIV can already be considered as a valuable tool for the monitoring of torrential flows, whereas further research is still needed to fully integrate nighttime observation and stereophotogrammetric capabilities.

  18. A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. J.; Roberts, F. P.; Merrill, J. A.; Brown, W. B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

  19. Laser safety: Risks, hazards, and control measures

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Penny J.

    2011-01-01

    Now that laser technology has emerged from hospital operating rooms, and has become available to office practices, clinics, and private enterprises, the burden of responsibility for safety has shifted from hospital staff to the individual user, often without benefit of appropriate or adequate resources. What remains, regardless of the practice site, application, or system in use, is the constant goal of establishing and maintaining a laser safe environment for the patient, the staff, and the user, at all times. This should be the goal of all who are involved with the sale, purchase, application, and management of all medical laser systems–under all circumstances. Laser safety is EVERYONE'S concern! A laser is as safe or as hazardous as the user–and that user's knowledge and skill, defines how well laser safety is managed. Of all hazards, complacency is the most dangerous, and it is imperative to develop a risk management perspective on laser safety. Proper safety management requires a fourfold approach including: knowledge of standards, identification of hazards and risks, implementation of appropriate control measures, and consistent program audit to demonstrate quality assurance. PMID:24155518

  20. Photogrammetric technique for in-flight ranging of trailing vortices using entrained balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Walter L.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Goad, William K.

    A method for experimentally determining the radial distance of a probe aircraft from a trailing vortex is described. The method relies on photogrammetric triangulation of targets entrained in the vortex core. The theory and preliminary testing were described using laboratory mock-ups. Solid state video cameras were to provide data at 300 Hz rates. Practical methods for seeding the vortex are under separate investigation and are not addressed.

  1. Photogrammetric technique for in-flight ranging of trailing vortices using entrained balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Walter L.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Goad, William K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for experimentally determining the radial distance of a probe aircraft from a trailing vortex is described. The method relies on photogrammetric triangulation of targets entrained in the vortex core. The theory and preliminary testing were described using laboratory mock-ups. Solid state video cameras were to provide data at 300 Hz rates. Practical methods for seeding the vortex are under separate investigation and are not addressed.

  2. Photogrammetric Accuracy and Modeling of Rolling Shutter Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, Jonas; Rutishauser, Simon; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Choi, Hon Fai; Chovancova, Venera; Glass, Alexis; Strecha, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular in professional mapping for stockpile analysis, construction site monitoring, and many other applications. Due to their robustness and competitive pricing, consumer UAVs are used more and more for these applications, but they are usually equipped with rolling shutter cameras. This is a significant obstacle when it comes to extracting high accuracy measurements using available photogrammetry software packages. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the rolling shutter cameras of typical consumer UAVs on the accuracy of a 3D reconstruction. Hereto, we use a beta-version of the Pix4Dmapper 2.1 software to compare traditional (non rolling shutter) camera models against a newly implemented rolling shutter model with respect to both the accuracy of geo-referenced validation points and to the quality of the motion estimation. Multiple datasets have been acquired using popular quadrocopters (DJI Phantom 2 Vision+, DJI Inspire 1 and 3DR Solo) following a grid flight plan. For comparison, we acquired a dataset using a professional mapping drone (senseFly eBee) equipped with a global shutter camera. The bundle block adjustment of each dataset shows a significant accuracy improvement on validation ground control points when applying the new rolling shutter camera model for flights at higher speed (8m=s). Competitive accuracies can be obtained by using the rolling shutter model, although global shutter cameras are still superior. Furthermore, we are able to show that the speed of the drone (and its direction) can be solely estimated from the rolling shutter effect of the camera.

  3. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.111 Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of control measures....

  4. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.111 Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of control measures....

  5. Correction and Densification of Uas-Based Photogrammetric Thermal Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, O.; Erenoglu, R. C.; Erenoglu, O.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetric processing algorithms can suffer problems due to either the initial image quality (noise, low radiometric quality, shadows and so on) or to certain surface materials (shiny or textureless objects). This can result in noisy point clouds and/or difficulties in feature extraction. Specifically, dense point clouds which are generated with photogrammetric method using a lightweight thermal camera, are more noisy and sparse than the point clouds of high-resolution digital camera images. In this paper, new method which produces more reliable and dense thermal point cloud using the sparse thermal point cloud and high resolution digital point cloud was considered. Both thermal and digital images were obtained with UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) based lightweight Optris PI 450 and Canon EOS 605D camera images. Thermal and digital point clouds, and orthophotos were produced using photogrammetric methods. Problematic thermal point cloud was transformed to a high density thermal point cloud using image processing methods such as rasterizing, registering, interpolation and filling. The results showed that the obtained thermal point cloud - up to chosen processing parameters - was 87% more densify than the original point cloud. The second improvement was gained at the height accuracy of the thermal point cloud. New densified point cloud has more consistent elevation model while the original thermal point cloud shows serious deviations from the expected surface model.

  6. Comparison of Computer Vision and Photogrammetric Approaches for Epipolar Resampling of Image Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-In; Kim, Taejung

    2016-01-01

    Epipolar resampling is the procedure of eliminating vertical disparity between stereo images. Due to its importance, many methods have been developed in the computer vision and photogrammetry field. However, we argue that epipolar resampling of image sequences, instead of a single pair, has not been studied thoroughly. In this paper, we compare epipolar resampling methods developed in both fields for handling image sequences. Firstly we briefly review the uncalibrated and calibrated epipolar resampling methods developed in computer vision and photogrammetric epipolar resampling methods. While it is well known that epipolar resampling methods developed in computer vision and in photogrammetry are mathematically identical, we also point out differences in parameter estimation between them. Secondly, we tested representative resampling methods in both fields and performed an analysis. We showed that for epipolar resampling of a single image pair all uncalibrated and photogrammetric methods tested could be used. More importantly, we also showed that, for image sequences, all methods tested, except the photogrammetric Bayesian method, showed significant variations in epipolar resampling performance. Our results indicate that the Bayesian method is favorable for epipolar resampling of image sequences. PMID:27011186

  7. D Recording, Modelling and Visualisation of the Fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (norway) by Photogrammetric Methods and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the Framework of Erasmus Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Lindstaedt, M.; Maziull, L.; Schreyer, K.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Holm, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution the 3D recording, 3D modelling and 3D visualisation of the fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (Norway) by digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are presented. The fortification Kristiansten was built after the large city fire in the year 1681 above the city and has been a museum since 1997. The recording of the fortress took place in each case at the end of August/at the beginning of September 2010 and 2011 during two two-week summer schools with the topic "Digital Photogrammetry & Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation" at NTNU Trondheim with international students in the context of ERASMUS teaching programs. For data acquisition, a terrestrial laser scanner and digital SLR cameras were used. The establishment of a geodetic 3D network, which was later transformed into the Norwegian UTM coordinate system using control points, ensured a consistent registration of the scans and an orientation of the photogrammetric images. The fortress buildings were constructed in detail from photogrammetric photographs and point clouds using AutoCAD, while the fortress area and walls were modelled by triangle meshing in Geomagic. The visualisation of the fortress was carried out 2013 with the software Cinema 4D in the context of a lecture in the Master study programme Geomatics. The 3D model was textured and afterwards presented in a video. This 3D model was finally transferred into the game engine Unity for an interactive 3D visualisation on 3D monitors.

  8. Automated 3D architecture reconstruction from photogrammetric structure-and-motion: A case study of the One Pilla pagoda, Hanoi, Vienam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, T.; Nguyen, D.; Tran, G.

    2015-04-01

    Heritage system of Vietnam has decline because of poor-conventional condition. For sustainable development, it is required a firmly control, space planning organization, and reasonable investment. Moreover, in the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used. With the potential of high-resolution, low-cost, large field of view, easiness, rapidity and completeness, the derivation of 3D metric information from Structure-and- Motion images is receiving great attention. In addition, heritage objects in form of 3D physical models are recorded not only for documentation issues, but also for historical interpretation, restoration, cultural and educational purposes. The study suggests the archaeological documentation of the "One Pilla" pagoda placed in Hanoi capital, Vietnam. The data acquired through digital camera Cannon EOS 550D, CMOS APS-C sensor 22.3 x 14.9 mm. Camera calibration and orientation were carried out by VisualSFM, CMPMVS (Multi-View Reconstruction) and SURE (Photogrammetric Surface Reconstruction from Imagery) software. The final result represents a scaled 3D model of the One Pilla Pagoda and displayed different views in MeshLab software.

  9. A comparison of photogrammetrically determined astronomical refraction of sunlight at high zenith angles with a ray-tracing computer model employing rawinsonde profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Russell Dean

    2001-11-01

    Many important areas of science such as geodesy, astrometry, satellite navigation, and remote sensing require accurate understanding of the amount of astronomical refraction. However, very little work has been done to actually compare the observed and modelled astronomical refraction at high zenith angles. In this study, a ray tracing model using atmospheric data from rawinsondes is for the first time compared with the measured astronomical refraction presented by the setting Sun. These measurements were obtained on December 8, 14 and 22, 1998 from the campus of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, and the Stony Plain Upper Air Station, about 25 km west of Edmonton, Alberta. Astronomical refraction values were measured through a theodolite survey (Edmonton) and photogrammetry (Stony Plain). Photogrammetric images were obtained using a Questar 3.5 inch telescopic lens and then scanned on an Agfa Studio Scan 11 si flat bed colour scanner. Before accurate measurements could be extracted from the negatives, the camera and scanner required calibration. The calibration of the scanner found systematic linear and non-linear distortions of less than 0.6%. The calibration of a consumer grade flatbed scanner has so far, not appeared in the literature. Photographs of star fields were used to determine the focal length (1445.3 +/- 3.6 mm) and the distortions of the Questar lens. A terrestrial calibration method helped verify these results. Both methods showed no measurable lens distortion. The photogrammetric calibration of a Questar 3.5 inch telescopic lens has not appeared in the literature. The theodolite measurements of astronomical refraction from Edmonton and photogrammetric measurements from Stony Plain showed good agreement with the refraction model for the December 14 and 22 sunsets. The poorest fit occurred during the December 8 sunset when a substantial horizontal temperature gradient was present. From conversations with Environment Canada employees it is also

  10. A Microcomputer-Controlled Measurement of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, A. Jared; Stoner, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Describes apparatus and method used to allow rapid and repeated measurement of acceleration of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. Acceleration measurements can be performed in an hour with the apparatus interfaced to a Commodore PET microcomputer. A copy of the BASIC program is available from the authors. (Author/JN)

  11. Thermoelectric property measurements with computer controlled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Wood, C.

    1984-01-01

    A joint JPL-NASA program to develop an automated system to measure the thermoelectric properties of newly developed materials is described. Consideration is given to the difficulties created by signal drift in measurements of Hall voltage and the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient. The benefits of a computerized system were examined with respect to error reduction and time savings for human operators. It is shown that the time required to measure Hall voltage can be reduced by a factor of 10 when a computer is used to fit a curve to the ratio of the measured signal and its standard deviation. The accuracy of measurements of the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity was also enhanced by the use of computers.

  12. Photogrammetric monitoring of lava dome growth during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Bull, Katharine F.; Wessels, Rick L.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, began with a phreatic explosion on 15 March followed by a series of at least 19 explosive events and growth and destruction of at least two, and likely three, lava domes between 22 March and 4 April. On 4 April explosive activity gave way to continuous lava effusion within the summit crater. We present an analysis of post-4 April lava dome growth using an oblique photogrammetry approach that provides a safe, rapid, and accurate means of measuring dome growth. Photogrammetric analyses of oblique digital images acquired during helicopter observation flights and fixed-wing volcanic gas surveys produced a series of digital elevation models (DEMs) of the lava dome from 16 April to 23 September. The DEMs were used to calculate estimates of volume and time-averaged extrusion rates and to quantify morphological changes during dome growth. Effusion rates ranged from a maximum of 35 m3 s- 1 during the initial two weeks to a low of 2.2 m3 s- 1 in early summer 2009. The average effusion rate from April to July was 9.5 m3 s- 1. Early, rapid dome growth was characterized by extrusion of blocky lava that spread laterally within the summit crater. In mid-to-late April the volume of the dome had reached 36 × 106 m3, roughly half of the total volume, and dome growth within the summit crater began to be limited by confining crater walls to the south, east, and west. Once the dome reached the steep, north-sloping gorge that breaches the crater, growth decreased to the south, but the dome continued to inflate and extend northward down the gorge. Effusion slowed during 16 April-1 May, but in early May the rate increased again. This rate increase was accompanied by a transition to exogenous dome growth. From mid-May to July the effusion rate consistently declined. The decrease is consistent with observations of reduced seismicity, gas emission, and thermal anomalies, as well as declining rates of geodetic deflation or inflation. These trends

  13. The control network of Mars: April 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Rogers, Patricia G.

    1991-01-01

    The modern geodetic control network of Mars was first established based on Mariner 9 images with 1-2 km/pixel resolutions and covered almost the entire Martian surface. The introduction of higher resolution (10-200 meter/pixel) Viking Orbiter images greatly improved the accuracy and density of points in the control network. Analysis of the Viking Lander radio tracking data led to more accurate measurements of Mars' rotation period, spin axis direction, and the lander coordinates relative to the inertial reference frame. The prime meridian on Mars was defined by the Geodesy/Cartography Group of the Mariner 9 Television Team as the crater Airy-0, located about 5 degrees south of the equator. The Viking 1 Lander site was identified on a high resolution Viking frame. The control point measurements form the basis of a least squares solution determined by analytical triangulation after the pixel measurements are corrected for geometric distortions and converted to millimeter coordinates in the camera focal plane. Photogrammetric strips encircling Mars at the equator and at 60 degree north south were used to strengthen the overall net and improve the accuracy of the coordinates of points. In addition, photogrammetric strips along 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees longitude to the Viking 1 Lander site have all significantly strengthened the control network. Most recently, photogrammetric strips were added to the net along 30 degrees north latitude between 0 and 180 degrees, and along 30 degrees between 180 and 360 degrees. The Viking 1 Lander site and Airy-0 are linked through photogrammetric strips occurring along the 0 degree meridian from Airy-0 to 65 degrees north, from that point through the Viking 1 Lander site to the equator, and along the equator to 180 degrees longitude. The Viking 1 lander site is thus a well calibrated area with coordinates of points accurate to approximately 200 meters relative to the J2000 inertial coordinate system. This will be a useful

  14. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) promises a new way for glass manufacturers to significantly increase productivity. By measuring the chemical makeup in raw materials and recycled glass cullet, LIBS can quickly detect contaminants and batch non...

  15. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    An attempt is made to define and measure pupil control "behavior." In order to measure pupil control behavior, an instrument called the Pupil Control Behavior (PCB) Form was developed and tested. The 31 custodial and 34 humanistic items were randomized, and the initial version of the PCB Form was administered in 20 schools in Illinois…

  16. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  17. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  18. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  19. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  20. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  1. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  2. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  3. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  4. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  5. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations, (3) Minimize erosion to the extent possible. (b) Sediment control measures include practices... reclamation techniques are applied to reduce erosion and control sediment. Sediment control measures consist... protected channels or pipes through disturbed areas so as not to cause additional erosion; (6) Using...

  6. Shadow photogrammetric apparatus for the quantitative evaluation of corneal buttons.

    PubMed

    Denham, D; Mandelbaum, S; Parel, J M; Holland, S; Pflugfelder, S; Parel, J M

    1989-11-01

    We have developed a technique for the accurate, quantitative, geometric evaluation of trephined and punched corneal buttons. A magnified shadow of the frontal and edge views of a corneal button mounted on the rotary stage of a modified optical comparator is projected onto the screen of the comparator and photographed. This process takes approximately three minutes. The diameters and edge profile at any meridian photographed can subsequently be analyzed from the film. The precision in measuring the diameters of well cut corneal buttons is +/- 23 microns, and in measuring the angle of the edge profile is +/- 1 degree. Statistical analysis of inter observer variability indicated excellent reproducibility of measurements. Shadow photogrammetry offers a standardized, accurate, and reproducible method for analysis of corneal trephination.

  7. Traffic Control Measures for Crisis Relocation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Computer Simulation Models to Large-Scale Evacuation Planning; * Special Studies in Large Risk Areas; and a Preparation of Simplified Transportation...PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS SYSTAN, Inc. P.O. Box U Work Unit 2311 E Los Altos, CA 94022 11. CONTROLLING OFrICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...both normal and emergency conditions. DO j 1473 EmtOrno Or I NOV SS IS OBSMOETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When De. Enered)-1- U

  8. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.

  9. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  10. TOWARDS MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE BASED ON SEMIOTIC CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    C. JOSLYN

    2000-08-01

    We address the question of how to identify and measure the degree of intelligence in systems. We define the presence of intelligence as equivalent to the presence of a control relation. We contrast the distinct atomic semioic definitions of models and controls, and discuss hierarchical and anticipatory control. We conclude with a suggestion about moving towards quantitative measures of the degree of such control in systems.

  11. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  14. Photogrammetric Metrology for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Crane, Allen; Davila, Pam; Eichhorn, William; Gill, James; Herrera, Acey; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Jetten, Mark; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Quigley, Rob; Redman, Kevin; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approximately 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2m, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISIM structure must meet its requirements at the approximately 40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISIM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified. We report on the planning for and preliminary testing of a cryogenic metrology system for ISIM based on photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is the measurement of the location of custom targets via triangulation using images obtained at a suite of digital camera locations and orientations. We describe metrology system requirements, plans, and ambient photogrammetric measurements of a mock-up of the ISIM structure to design targeting and obtain resolution estimates. We compare these measurements with those taken from a well known ambient metrology system, namely, the Leica laser tracker system. We also describe the data reduction algorithm planned to interpret cryogenic data from the Flight structure. Photogrammetry was

  15. Analytical and Photogrammetric Characterization of a Planar Tetrahedral Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Adams, Richard R.; Rhodes, Marvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Future space science missions are likely to require near-optical quality reflectors which are supported by a stiff truss structure. This support truss should conform closely with its intended shape to minimize its contribution to the overall surface error of the reflector. The current investigation was conducted to evaluate the planar surface accuracy of a regular tetrahedral truss structure by comparing the results of predicted and measured node locations. The truss is a 2-ring hexagonal structure composed of 102 equal-length truss members. Each truss member is nominally 2 meters in length between node centers and is comprised of a graphite/epoxy tube with aluminum nodes and joints. The axial stiffness and the length variation of the truss components were determined experimentally and incorporated into a static finite element analysis of the truss. From this analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface error of the truss was predicted to be 0.11 mm (0004 in). Photogrammetry tests were performed on the assembled truss to measure the normal displacements of the upper surface nodes and to determine if the truss would maintain its intended shape when subjected to repeated assembly. Considering the variation in the truss component lengths, the measures rms error of 0.14 mm (0.006 in) in the assembled truss is relatively small. The test results also indicate that a repeatable truss surface is achievable. Several potential sources of error were identified and discussed.

  16. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  17. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-11-11

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied.

  18. Photogrammetric analysis of the articular surface of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Ege, A; Seker, D Z; Tuncay, I; Duran, Z

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional measurements made using photogrammetry have recently gained popularity with the development of real-time detection facilities and up-to-date equipment. The modelling of human bones presents a particular challenge as the measurements required are difficult to obtain, especially from uneven surfaces. In this study, the articular surfaces of 12 radius bones were evaluated using photogrammetry to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of certain points. Morphometric characteristics of the digital topography of the articular surface were analysed using three-dimensional data from more than 200 points for each specimen. The coronal plane curve, from the tip of the styloid process to the centre of the distal radioulnar articular notch, was found to be similar to the fourth degree polynomial function. A mathematical expression representing the sagittal curve passing through scapholunate border could not be found. Close-range photogrammetry is a safe and precise technique that can provide reliable, reproducible and accurate data for evaluating complex morphological surfaces.

  19. Refined Satellite Image Orientation in the Free Open-Source Photogrammetric Tools Apero/micmac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnik, E.; Pierrot Deseilligny, M.; Delorme, A.; Klinger, Y.

    2016-06-01

    This publication presents the RPC-based bundle adjustment implemented in the freeware open-source photogrammetric tool Apero/MicMac. The bundle adjustment model is based on some polynomial correction functions, enriched with a physical constraint that introduces the notion of a global sensor rotation into the model. The devised algorithms are evaluated against two datasets consisting of two stereo and a triplet pair of the Pleiades images. Two sets of correction functions and a number of GCPs configurations are examined. The obtained geo-referencing accuracy falls below the size of 1GSD.

  20. Combination of photogrammetric and geoelectric methods to assess 3d structures associated to natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargier, Yannick; Dore, Ludovic; Antoine, Raphael; Palma Lopes, Sérgio; Fauchard, Cyrille

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of subsurface materials is a key element for the economy of a nation. However, natural degradation of underground quarries is a major issue from an economic and public safety point of view. Consequently, the quarries stakeholders require relevant tools to define hazards associated to these structures. Safety assessment methods of underground quarries are recent and mainly based on rock physical properties. This kind of method leads to a certain homogeneity assumption of pillar internal properties that can cause an underestimation of the risk. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) is a widely used method that possesses two advantages to overcome this limitation. The first is to provide a qualitative understanding for the detection and monitoring of anomalies in the pillar body (e.g. faults). The second is to provide a quantitative description of the electrical resistivity distribution inside the pillar. This quantitative description can be interpreted with constitutive laws to help decision support (water content decreases the mechanical resistance of a chalk). However, conventional 2D and 3D Imaging techniques are usually applied to flat surface surveys or to surfaces with moderate topography. A 3D inversion of more complex media (case of the pillar) requires a full consideration of the geometry that was never taken into account before. The Photogrammetric technique presents a cost effective solution to obtain an accurate description of the external geometry of a complex media. However, this method has never been fully coupled with a geophysical method to enhance/improve the inversion process. Consequently we developed a complete procedure showing that photogrammetric and ERI tools can be efficiently combined to assess a complex 3D structure. This procedure includes in a first part a photogrammetric survey, a processing stage with an open source software and a post-processing stage finalizing a 3D surface model. The second part necessitates the

  1. Accurate documentation in cultural heritage by merging TLS and high-resolution photogrammetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Alby, Emmanuel; Assali, Pierre; Poitevin, Valentin; Hullo, Jean-François; Smigiel, Eddie

    2011-07-01

    Several recording techniques are used together in Cultural Heritage Documentation projects. The main purpose of the documentation and conservation works is usually to generate geometric and photorealistic 3D models for both accurate reconstruction and visualization purposes. The recording approach discussed in this paper is based on the combination of photogrammetric dense matching and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) techniques. Both techniques have pros and cons, and criteria as geometry, texture, accuracy, resolution, recording and processing time are often compared. TLS techniques (time of flight or phase shift systems) are often used for the recording of large and complex objects or sites. Point cloud generation from images by dense stereo or multi-image matching can be used as an alternative or a complementary method to TLS. Compared to TLS, the photogrammetric solution is a low cost one as the acquisition system is limited to a digital camera and a few accessories only. Indeed, the stereo matching process offers a cheap, flexible and accurate solution to get 3D point clouds and textured models. The calibration of the camera allows the processing of distortion free images, accurate orientation of the images, and matching at the subpixel level. The main advantage of this photogrammetric methodology is to get at the same time a point cloud (the resolution depends on the size of the pixel on the object), and therefore an accurate meshed object with its texture. After the matching and processing steps, we can use the resulting data in much the same way as a TLS point cloud, but with really better raster information for textures. The paper will address the automation of recording and processing steps, the assessment of the results, and the deliverables (e.g. PDF-3D files). Visualization aspects of the final 3D models are presented. Two case studies with merged photogrammetric and TLS data are finally presented: - The Gallo-roman Theatre of Mandeure, France); - The

  2. The control network of Rhea. [surface feature coordinates for satellite mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A control network of the Saturnian satellite Rhea has been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft. Coordinates of 288 control points on Rhea have been computed and listed; some of these are identified on the preliminary U.S. Geological Survey map of Rhea and many of the control point features have been named. Pixel measurements of these points were made on 81 Voyager 1 and 3 Voyager 2 pictures. The longitude system on Rhea is defined by the crater Tore; the 340 deg meridian passes through the center of this crater. The mean radius of Rhea has been determined at 764 + or - 4 km.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1890 - Removed control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1890 Removed control measures. On the dates listed below, Ohio requested that the indicated control measures be removed from the Ohio State Implementation Plan (SIP). (a) On February 21, 1997, the State of Ohio requested that...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1890 - Removed control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1890 Removed control measures. On the dates listed below, Ohio requested that the indicated control measures be removed from the Ohio State Implementation Plan (SIP). (a) On February 21, 1997, the State of Ohio requested that...

  5. Factors That Affect Patient Attitudes toward Infection Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated patient attitudes toward different disease control measures taken in dental school clinics (n=272 patients) and private practices (n=107 patients). Variables examined included sex, age, educational background, and knowledge of infectious diseases. Patients tended to accept the control measures being used in each context. (MSE)

  6. Self-Control and Impulsivity in Children: Multiple Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, L. B.; Michels, Jennifer L.; Carapella, R. K.; Conway, Patrick; Chelonis, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the relationship between laboratory measures of self-control and delay of gratification in children and explored several other factors that may influence self-control. In the self-control paradigm, 30 four-year-old children repeatedly chose between three reinforcers received after a delay and one reinforcer…

  7. A robust close-range photogrammetric target extraction algorithm for size and type variant targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyarko, Kofi; Thomas, Clayton; Torres, Gilbert

    2016-05-01

    The Photo-G program conducted by Naval Air Systems Command at the Atlantic Test Range in Patuxent River, Maryland, uses photogrammetric analysis of large amounts of real-world imagery to characterize the motion of objects in a 3-D scene. Current approaches involve several independent processes including target acquisition, target identification, 2-D tracking of image features, and 3-D kinematic state estimation. Each process has its own inherent complications and corresponding degrees of both human intervention and computational complexity. One approach being explored for automated target acquisition relies on exploiting the pixel intensity distributions of photogrammetric targets, which tend to be patterns with bimodal intensity distributions. The bimodal distribution partitioning algorithm utilizes this distribution to automatically deconstruct a video frame into regions of interest (ROI) that are merged and expanded to target boundaries, from which ROI centroids are extracted to mark target acquisition points. This process has proved to be scale, position and orientation invariant, as well as fairly insensitive to global uniform intensity disparities.

  8. Experimental Photogrammetric Techniques Used on Five Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Between 2013 and 2015, full-scale crash tests were conducted on five aircraft at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two tests were conducted on CH-46E airframes as part of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) project, and three tests were conduced on Cessna 172 aircraft as part of the Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project. Each test served to evaluate a variety of crashworthy systems including: seats, occupants, restraints, composite energy absorbing structures, and Emergency Locator Transmitters. As part of each test, the aircraft were outfitted with a variety of internal and external cameras that were focused on unique aspects of the crash event. A subset of three camera was solely used in the acquisition of photogrammetric test data. Examples of this data range from simple two-dimensional marker tracking for the determination of aircraft impact conditions to entire full-scale airframe deformation to markerless tracking of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs, a.k.a. crash test dummies) during the crash event. This report describes and discusses the techniques used and implications resulting from the photogrammetric data acquired from each of the five tests.

  9. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications.

    PubMed

    Lingua, Andrea; Marenchino, Davide; Nex, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc.) and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model) generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A(2) SIFT) has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems.

  10. Cultural Heritage: An example of graphical documentation with automated photogrammetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    In the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used, in particular for the study and for the documentation of the ancient ruins. This work has been carried out during the PhD cycle that was produced the "Carta Archeologica del territorio intorno al monte Massico". The study suggests the archeological documentation of the mausoleum "Torre del Ballerino" placed in the south-west area of Falciano del Massico, along the Via Appia. The graphic documentation has been achieved by using photogrammetric system (Image Based Modeling) and by the classical survey with total station, Nikon Nivo C. The data acquisition was carried out through digital camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II with Canon EF 17-40 mm f/4L USM @ 20 mm with images snapped in RAW and corrected in Adobe Lightroom. During the data processing, the camera calibration and orientation was carried out by the software Agisoft Photoscans and the final result has allowed to achieve a scaled 3D model of the monument, imported in software MeshLab for the different view. Three orthophotos in jpg format were extracted by the model, and then were imported in AutoCAD obtaining façade's surveys.

  11. Feasibility of Close-Range Photogrammetric Models for Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Luke; /Rice U.

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close-range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model was not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.

  12. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lingua, Andrea; Marenchino, Davide; Nex, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc.) and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model) generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A2 SIFT) has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems. PMID:22412336

  13. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  14. Coupling photogrammetric data with DFN-DEM model for rock slope hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donze, Frederic; Scholtes, Luc; Bonilla-Sierra, Viviana; Elmouttie, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Structural and mechanical analyses of rock mass are key components for rock slope stability assessment. The complementary use of photogrammetric techniques [Poropat, 2001] and coupled DFN-DEM models [Harthong et al., 2012] provides a methodology that can be applied to complex 3D configurations. DFN-DEM formulation [Scholtès & Donzé, 2012a,b] has been chosen for modeling since it can explicitly take into account the fracture sets. Analyses conducted in 3D can produce very complex and unintuitive failure mechanisms. Therefore, a modeling strategy must be established in order to identify the key features which control the stability. For this purpose, a realistic case is presented to show the overall methodology from the photogrammetry acquisition to the mechanical modeling. By combining Sirovision and YADE Open DEM [Kozicki & Donzé, 2008, 2009], it can be shown that even for large camera to rock slope ranges (tested about one kilometer), the accuracy of the data are sufficient to assess the role of the structures on the stability of a jointed rock slope. In this case, on site stereo pairs of 2D images were taken to create 3D surface models. Then, digital identification of structural features on the unstable block zone was processed with Sirojoint software [Sirovision, 2010]. After acquiring the numerical topography, the 3D digitalized and meshed surface was imported into the YADE Open DEM platform to define the studied rock mass as a closed (manifold) volume to define the bounding volume for numerical modeling. The discontinuities were then imported as meshed planar elliptic surfaces into the model. The model was then submitted to gravity loading. During this step, high values of cohesion were assigned to the discontinuities in order to avoid failure or block displacements triggered by inertial effects. To assess the respective role of the pre-existing discontinuities in the block stability, different configurations have been tested as well as different degree of

  15. Model Deformation Measurements at a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. Data reduction procedures and the results of tunnel tests at the NTF are presented.

  16. Measurement of control system response using an analog operational circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    Ten basic steps are established for an analog method that measures control system response parameters. An example shows how these steps were used on a speed control portion of an auxiliary power unit. The equations and calculations necessary to describe this subsystem are given. The mechanization schematic and simulation diagram for obtaining the measured response parameters of the control system using an analog circuit are explained. Methods for investigating the various effects of the control parameters are described. It is concluded that the optimum system should be underdamped enough to be slightly oscillatory during transients.

  17. Applications of radiation measurements in arms control and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, D.; Reinitz, K.; Barnette, S.; O'Connell, M.; Sheely, K.

    1994-12-01

    Radiation measurements play a vital role in the development and implementation of U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy. The President's Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy reflects the changing realities of a post-Cold-War world and makes nonproliferation one of our nation's highest priorities. Key elements of the Policy concern international controls on plutonium and highly-enriched uranium. Current DOE work contributing to arms control and nonproliferation policy implementation is described with an emphasis on the role of radiation measurements.

  18. Measuring asthma control. Clinic questionnaire or daily diary?

    PubMed

    Juniper, E F; O'Byrne, P M; Ferrie, P J; King, D R; Roberts, J N

    2000-10-01

    Daily symptom, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and medication diaries are often used in clinical trials of treatments for asthma on the assumption that they provide a better estimate of clinical status than does a questionnaire completed in the clinic. We conducted a study with the aim of comparing the measurement properties of the clinic-completed Asthma Control Questionnaire with those of the Asthma Control Diary. The diary is composed of questions and response options almost identical to those of the questionnaire, but uses PEFR instead of FEV(1) as the measure of airway caliber. In an observational study, 50 adults with symptomatic asthma attended a McMaster University asthma clinic at 0, 1, 5, and 9 wk to complete the Asthma Control Questionnaire and other measures of asthma status. For 1 wk before each follow-up visit, patients completed the Asthma Control Diary every morning and evening. Concordance between the questionnaire and diary was high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87). Both reliability (ICC: questionnaire = 0.90; diary = 0.86) and responsiveness (responsiveness index: questionnaire = 1.06; diary = 0.90; p = 0.005) were better with the questionnaire than with the diary. Correlations between the two instruments and other measures of clinical asthma status were similar and close to a priori predictions. Both the Asthma Control Questionnaire and the Asthma Control Diary are valid instruments for measuring asthma control, but the questionnaire has slightly better discriminative and evaluative measurement properties than does the diary.

  19. The control network of Iapetus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A control network of the Saturnian satellite Iapetus has been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft. Coordinates of 62 control points have been computed and listed; pixel measurements of these points were made on 14 Voyager 1 and 66 Voyager 2 pictures. Some of these points are identified on the preliminary U.S. Geological Survey map of Iapetus and many are identified by name. The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 pictures covered limited regions of the satellite's surface and contained no overlapping areas. The longitude system on Iapetus is defined by the crater Almeric; the 276 deg meridian passes through the center of this crater. The obliquity of Iapetus has been measured as 0.4 deg + or - 1.6 deg. The mean radius of Iapetus has been determined at 718 + or - 8 km.

  20. Comparing Icesat/glas Based Elevation Heights with Photogrammetric Terrain Heights from Uav-Imagery on the East Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, F.; Fritz, A.; Koch, B.

    2015-08-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) and height measurements are broadly used in environmental studies. Two common elevation sources are the Ice Cloud and land elevation Satellite (ICESat), which acquired laser range measurements with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) across the globe and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Current developments of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide the opportunity to collect aerial images of remote areas at a high spatial resolution. These can be further processed to digital surface models by stereophotogrammetry and provide a reliable data source to evaluate coarse scale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). This study compares ICESat/GLAS and SRTM90 elevation data against photogrammetric terrain heights within GLAS footprints on high altitudes on the East Tibetan Plateau. Without vegetation-bias, we were able to examine height differences under different topographic conditions and of different acquisition dates. Several resampling techniques were applied to SRTM90 data and averaged height within each footprint was calculated. ICESat/GLAS heights (n = 148) are most similar to UAV data based elevations with an averaged difference of -0.8m ±3.1m. Results furthermore indicate the validity of ICESat/GLAS heights, which are usually removed from analyses by applying different quality flags. Smallest difference of SRTM90 to UAV based heights could be observed by a natural neighbour resampling technique (averaged 3.6m ±14m), whereat other techniques achieved quite similar results. It can be confirmed that within a range of 3,800-4,200m above mean sea level the ICESat/GLAS heights are a precise source to determine elevation at footprint geolocation.

  1. Adaptive control of a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate.

  2. Modelling and designing digital control systems with averaged measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the control systems engineering methods applicable to the design of digital feedback controllers for aerospace deterministic systems in which the output, rather than being an instantaneous measure of the system at the sampling instants, instead represents an average measure of the system over the time interval between samples. The averaging effect can be included during the modeling of the plant, thereby obviating the iteration of design/simulation phases.

  3. Accuracy Assessment of Direct Georeferencing for Photogrammetric Applications on Small Unmanned Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, O.; Lutes, J.; Lipa, G.; Hutton, J. J.; Gavelle, E.; Borghini, S.

    2016-03-01

    post-processed in Single Base mode, using a base station located in the project area via POSPac UAV. For the block and railway corridor, the basestation's position was precisely determined by processing a 12-hour session using the CSRS-PPP Post Processing service. Similarly, for the flight over Fryer Dam, the base-station's position was also precisely determined by processing a 4-hour session using the CSRS-PPP Post Processing service. POSPac UAV's camera calibration and quality control (CalQC) module was used to refine the camera interior orientation parameters using an Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) approach. POSPac UAV was also used to generate the Exterior Orientation parameters for images collected during the test flight. The Inpho photogrammetric software package was used to develop the final map products for both corridors under various scenarios. The imagery was first imported into an Inpho project, with updated focal length, principal point offsets and Exterior Orientation parameters. First, a Digital Terrain/Surface Model (DTM/DSM) was extracted from the stereo imagery, following which the raw images were orthorectified to produce an orthomosaic product.

  4. Discrete-time infinity control problem with measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, A. A.; Saberi, A.; Chen, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with measurement feedback. The authors extend previous results by having weaker assumptions on the system parameters. The authors also show explicitly the structure of H(sub infinity) controllers. Finally, they show that it is in certain cases possible, without loss of performance, to reduce the dynamical order of the controllers.

  5. Statistical process control (SPC) for coordinate measurement machines

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, R.N.

    2000-01-04

    The application of process capability analysis, using designed experiments, and gage capability studies as they apply to coordinate measurement machine (CMM) uncertainty analysis and control will be demonstrated. The use of control standards in designed experiments, and the use of range charts and moving range charts to separate measurement error into it's discrete components will be discussed. The method used to monitor and analyze the components of repeatability and reproducibility will be presented with specific emphasis on how to use control charts to determine and monitor CMM performance and capability, and stay within your uncertainty assumptions.

  6. Control System Upgrade for a Mass Property Measurement Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Mass Property Measurement Facility (MPMF) at the Goddard Space Flight Center has undergone modifications to ensure the safety of Flight Payloads and the measurement facility. The MPMF has been technically updated to improve reliability and increase the accuracy of the measurements. Modifications include the replacement of outdated electronics with a computer based software control system, the addition of a secondary gas supply in case of a catastrophic failure to the gas supply and a motor controlled emergency stopping feature instead of a hard stop.

  7. Web interface for control of spent fuel measurements at FCF.

    SciTech Connect

    Soltys, I. E.; Yacout, A. M.; McKnight, R. D.

    1999-10-11

    The material control and accountancy system for the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) initially uses calculated values for the mass flows of irradiated EBR-11 driver fuel to be processed in the electrorefiner. These calculated values are continually verified by measurements performed by the Analytical Laboratory (AL) on samples from the fuel element chopper retained for each chopper batch. Measured values include U and Pu masses, U and Pu isotopic fractions, and burnup (via La and Tc). When the measured data become available, it is necessary to determine if the measured and calculated data are consistent. This verification involves accessing two databases and performing standard statistical analyses to produce control charts for these measurements. These procedures can now be invoked via a Web interface providing: a timely and efficient control of these measurements, a user-friendly interface, off-site remote access to the data, and a convenient means of studying correlations among the data. This paper will present the architecture of the interface and a description of the control procedures, as well as examples of the control charts and correlations.

  8. The possibility of using photogrammetric and remote sensing techniques to model lavaka (gully erosion) development in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveloson, Andrea; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Rasztovits, Sascha

    2013-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide problem for it has a number of undesirable effects and their development is hard to follow. Madagascar is one of the most affected countries for its highlands are densely covered with gullies named lavakas. Lavaka formation and development seems to be triggered by many regional and local causes but the actual reasons are still poorly understood. Furthermore lavakas differ from normal gullies due to their enormous size and special shape. Field surveys are time consuming and data from two-dimensional measurements and pictures (even aerial) might lack major information for morphologic studies. Therefore close range surveying technologies should be used to get three-dimensional information about these unusual and complex features. This contribution discusses which remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques are adequate to survey the development of lavakas, their volume change and sediment budget. Depending on the types and properties (such as volume, depth, shape, vegetation) of the lavaka different methods will be proposed showing pros and cons of each one of them. Our goal is to review techniques to model, survey and analyze lavakas development to better understand the cause of their formation, special size and shape. Different methods are evaluated and compared from field survey through data processing, analyzing cost-effectiveness, potential errors and accuracy for each one of them. For this purpose we will also consider time- and cost-effectiveness of the softwares able to render the images into 3D model as well as the resolution and accuracy of the outputs. Further studies will concentrate on using the three dimensional models of lavakas which will be later on used for geomorphological studies in order to understand their special shape and size. This is ILARG-contribution #07.

  9. Comparing Multi-Source Photogrammetric Data during the Examination of Verticality in a Monumental Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, J.; Zawieska, D.; Podlasiak, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of source photogrammetric data in relation to the examination of verticality in a monumental tower. In the proposed data processing methodology, the geometric quality of the point clouds relating to the monumental tower of the castle in Iłżawas established by using terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006h, Leica C10), terrestrial photographs and digital images sourced via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) (Leica Aibot X6 Hexacopter). Tests were performed using the original software, developed by the authors, which allows for the automation of 3D point cloud processing. The software also facilitates the verification of the verticality of the tower and the assessment of the quality of utilized data.

  10. External Verification of the Bundle Adjustment in Photogrammetric Software Using the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börlin, Niclas; Grussenmeyer, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM) and PhotoScan (PS). For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  11. Photogrammetric Trajectory Estimation of Foam Debris Ejected From an F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Photogrammetric analysis of high-speed digital video data was performed to estimate trajectories of foam debris ejected from an F-15B aircraft. This work was part of a flight test effort to study the transport properties of insulating foam shed by the Space Shuttle external tank during ascent. The conical frustum-shaped pieces of debris, called "divots," were ejected from a flight test fixture mounted underneath the F-15B aircraft. Two onboard cameras gathered digital video data at two thousand frames per second. Time histories of divot positions were determined from the videos post flight using standard photogrammetry techniques. Divot velocities were estimated by differentiating these positions with respect to time. Time histories of divot rotations were estimated using four points on the divot face. Estimated divot position, rotation, and Mach number for selected cases are presented. Uncertainty in the results is discussed.

  12. Computer and photogrammetric general land use study of central north Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R.; Larsen, P. A.; Campbell, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The object of this report is to acquaint potential users with two computer programs, developed at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center. They were used in producing a land use survey and maps of central north Alabama from Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) digital data. The report describes in detail the thought processes and analysis procedures used from the initiation of the land use study to its completion, as well as a photogrammetric study that was used in conjunction with the computer analysis to produce similar land use maps. The results of the land use demonstration indicate that, with respect to computer time and cost, such a study may be economically and realistically feasible on a statewide basis.

  13. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  14. Volume-controlled hydrologic property measurements in triaxial systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.; Willden, Arthur T.; Kiusalaas, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Karl R.; Poeter, Eileen P.

    1994-01-01

    New capabilities for hydrologic property measurements in triaxial systems include: (1) volume-controlled and simultaneous measurements of hydraulic conductivity and one-dimensional consolidation (or specific storage) of a saturated test specimen; and (2) volume-controlled measurements of hydraulic conductivity, matric potential, and the variation of these properties with the moisture content of an unsaturated test specimen. Data on saturated kaolinite demonstrate simultaneous hydraulic-conductivity and one-dimensional consolidation tests with continuous monitoring of both vertical and horizontal effective stresses. Data on well-graded silty sand demonstrate the feasibility of concurrent constant-flow hydraulic conductivity and mattic potential measurements, and the variation of these properties with moisture content, for undisturbed and unsaturated specimens mounted in triaxial cells. Refinements needed to realize the full potential of these capabilities include a more rigid triaxial cell to minimize compliance, and an improved technique for measuring hydraulic-head differences within an unsaturated test specimen.

  15. Automatic control and detector for three-terminal resistance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1976-10-26

    A device is provided for automatic control and detection in a three-terminal resistance measuring instrument. The invention is useful for the rapid measurement of the resistivity of various bulk material with a three-terminal electrode system. The device maintains the current through the sample at a fixed level while measuring the voltage across the sample to detect the sample resistance. The three-electrode system contacts the bulk material and the current through the sample is held constant by means of a control circuit connected to a first of the three electrodes and works in conjunction with a feedback controlled amplifier to null the voltage between the first electrode and a second electrode connected to the controlled amplifier output. An A.C. oscillator provides a source of sinusoidal reference voltage of the frequency at which the measurement is to be executed. Synchronous reference pulses for synchronous detectors in the control circuit and an output detector circuit are provided by a synchronous pulse generator. The output of the controlled amplifier circuit is sampled by an output detector circuit to develop at an output terminal thereof a D.C. voltage which is proportional to the sample resistance R. The sample resistance is that segment of the sample between the area of the first electrode and the third electrode, which is connected to ground potential.

  16. Photogrammetric Measurement of Recession Rates of Low Temperature Ablators Subjected to High Speed Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Perspective (3rd Edition ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Antόn, P. S., Johnson, D. J ., Block, M., Brown, M., Drezner, J ., Dryden, J ., et al . (2004). Wind... et al , and sublimation based heating rates for a spherically blunted cylinder...200 Figure 112: Comparison of heating rates on a spherically blunted cylinder for Johnson, Scott , et al , and sublimation based equations

  17. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  18. Phobos and Deimos control networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.; Callahan, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Viking Orbiter images of Phobos and Deimos have been measured to establish global control networks for 98 surface features of the former and 53 of the latter; photogrammetric triangulation has yielded body-fixed coordinates of these control-points, as well as mean triaxial radii of 13.3 x 11.1 x 9.3 km for Phobos and 7.5 x 6.2 x 5.4 for Deimos. Expressions are also obtained for the inertial orientations of these bodies' spin axes and prime meridians. While these expressions should be accurate to a few tenths of a deg for the 1971-1980 period, their accuracy will degrade with time as the orbit accuracy degrades.

  19. System for controllable magnetic measurement with direct field determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupakov, O.

    2012-02-01

    This work describes a specially designed setup for magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise measurements. The setup combines two main elements: an improved fast algorithm to control the waveform of magnetic induction and simultaneous direct determination of the magnetic field. The digital feedback algorithm uses only the previous measurement cycle to correct the magnetization voltage without any additional correlation parameter; it usually converges after several tens of cycles. The magnetic field is measured at the sample surface using a vertically mounted array of sensitive Hall sensors. Linear extrapolation of the tangential field profile to the sample surface determines the true waveform of the magnetic field. This unique combination of physically based control for both parameters of the magnetization process provides stable and reliable results, which are independent of a specified experimental configuration. This is illustrated for the industrially attractive measurements of non-oriented electrical steels with a 50 Hz sinusoidal induction waveform.

  20. Microstrip filters for measurement and control of superconducting qubits.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Luigi; Bennett, Douglas A; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Wei; Lukens, James E

    2013-01-01

    Careful filtering is necessary for observations of quantum phenomena in superconducting circuits at low temperatures. Measurements of coherence between quantum states require extensive filtering to protect against noise coupled from room temperature electronics. We demonstrate distributed transmission line filters which cut off exponentially at GHz frequencies and can be anchored at the base temperature of a dilution refrigerator. The compact design makes them suitable to filter many different bias lines in the same setup, necessary for the control and measurement of superconducting qubits.

  1. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  2. Microprocessor controlled optical measuring system for large mirror modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehne, R.; Rach, E.; Reich, F.

    1985-10-01

    A microprocessor controlled contactless measuring system was developed in order to determine how the beam quality of mirrors influences the performance of solar plants with focusing collectors. The system was installed to investigate large flat and curved mirror surfaces ( or = 10 sq m). An algorithm to evaluate the measured data was derived. The very accurate method is based on laser ray tracing to determine the ripple and the deviations from the ideal contour which can be expressed as a root mean square value. Measurements on parabolic trough mirrors and heliostat segments yield rms values of 10 and 3.7 mrad, respectively.

  3. Radio-controlled boat for measuring water velocities and bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej

    2016-04-01

    Radio-controlled boat named "Hi3" was designed and developed in order to facilitate water velocity and bathymetry measurements. The boat is equipped with the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 instrument that is designed for measuring open channel hydraulics (discharge and bathymetry). Usually channel cross sections measurements are performed either from a bridge or from a vessel. However, these approaches have some limitations such as performing bathymetry measurements close to the hydropower plant turbine or downstream from a hydropower plant gate where bathymetry changes are often the most extreme. Therefore, the radio-controlled boat was designed, built and tested in order overcome these limitations. The boat is made from a surf board and two additional small balance support floats. Additional floats are used to improve stability in fast flowing and turbulent parts of rivers. The boat is powered by two electric motors, steering is achieved with changing the power applied to left and right motor. Furthermore, remotely controlled boat "Hi3" can be powered in two ways, either by a gasoline electric generator or by lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are lighter, quieter, but they operation time is shorter compared to an electrical generator. With the radio-controlled boat "Hi3" we can perform measurements in potentially dangerous areas such as under the lock gates at hydroelectric power plant or near the turbine outflow. Until today, the boat "Hi3" has driven more than 200 km in lakes and rivers, performing various water speed and bathymetry measurements. Moreover, in future development the boat "Hi3" will be upgraded in order to be able to perform measurements automatically. The future plans are to develop and implement the autopilot. With this approach the user will define the route that has to be driven by the boat and the boat will drive the pre-defined route automatically. This will be possible because of the very accurate differential GPS from the Sontek River

  4. Photogrammetric discharge monitoring of small tropical mountain rivers - A case study at Rivière des Pluies, Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, André; Augereau, Emmanuel; Delacourt, Christophe; Bonnier, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Reliable discharge measurements are indispensable for an effective management of natural water resources and floods. Limitations of classical current meter profiling and stage-discharge ratings have stimulated the development of more accurate and efficient gauging techniques. While new discharge measurements technologies such as acoustic doppler current profilers and large-scale image particle velocimetry (LSPIV) have been developed and tested in numerous studies, the continuous monitoring of small mountain rivers and discharge dynamics during strong meteorological events remains challenging. More specifically LSPIV studies are often focused on short-term measurements during flood events and there are still very few studies that address its use for long-term monitoring of small mountain rivers. To fill this gap this study targets the development and testing of largely autonomous photogrammetric discharge measurement system with a special focus on the application to small mountain river with high discharge variability and a mobile riverbed in the tropics. It proposes several enhancements among previous LSPIV methods regarding camera calibration, more efficient processing in image geometry, the automatic detection of the water level as well as the statistical calibration and estimation of the discharge from multiple profiles. To account for changes in the bed topography the riverbed is surveyed repeatedly during the dry seasons using multi-view photogrammetry or terrestrial laser scanners. The presented case study comprises the analysis of several thousand videos spanning over two and a half year (2013-2015) to test the robustness and accuracy of different processing steps. An analysis of the obtained results suggests that the quality of the camera calibration reaches a sub-pixel accuracy. The median accuracy of the watermask detections is F1=0.82, whereas the precision is systematically higher than the recall. The resulting underestimation of the water surface area

  5. Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.

    PubMed

    Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

    1988-02-01

    Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed.

  6. Closed-loop snowplow applicator control using road condition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Alexander, Lee; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    Closed-loop control of a snowplow applicator, based on direct measurement of the road surface condition, is a valuable technology for the optimisation of winter road maintenance costs and for the protection of the environment from the negative impacts of excessive usage of de-icing chemicals. To this end, a novel friction measurement wheel is designed to provide a continuous measurement of road friction coefficient, which is, in turn, utilised to control the applicator automatically on a snowplow. It is desired that the automated snowplow applicator deploy de-icing materials right from the beginning of any slippery surface detected by the friction wheel, meaning that no portion of the slippery road surface should be left untreated behind, as the snowplow travels over it at a reasonably high speed. This paper describes the developed wheel-based measurement system, the friction estimation algorithm and the expected performance of the closed-loop applicator system. Conventional and zero velocity applicators are introduced and their hardware time delays are measured in addition to the time delay of the friction estimation algorithm. The overall performance of the closed-loop applicator control system is shown to be reliable at typical snowplowing speeds if the zero velocity applicator is used.

  7. Optimal Load Control via Frequency Measurement and Neighborhood Area Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, CH; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-11-01

    We propose a decentralized optimal load control scheme that provides contingency reserve in the presence of sudden generation drop. The scheme takes advantage of flexibility of frequency responsive loads and neighborhood area communication to solve an optimal load control problem that balances load and generation while minimizing end-use disutility of participating in load control. Local frequency measurements enable individual loads to estimate the total mismatch between load and generation. Neighborhood area communication helps mitigate effects of inconsistencies in the local estimates due to frequency measurement noise. Case studies show that the proposed scheme can balance load with generation and restore the frequency within seconds of time after a generation drop, even when the loads use a highly simplified power system model in their algorithms. We also investigate tradeoffs between the amount of communication and the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation-based experiments.

  8. A 3D photogrammetric reconstruction attempt of specimens of Badenian echinoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonkai, Bálint; Raveloson, Andrea; Görög, Ágnes; Bodor, Emese; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    photogrammetric technologies have been used as our initial experiments showed that it could be a good tool to get three dimensional information about the collected fossils. This contribution discusses which photogrammetric techniques are adequate to study and compare the studied echinoid specimens. Our goal is to review modern techniques and current software solutions to model the fossils and also to study the resulting 3D point cloud. Different methods are evaluated and compared from taking the pictures (with different camera types and different target tables) through data processing, analyzing potential errors, resolution and accuracy for each one of them. Time- and cost-effectiveness of the software packages were also taken into account in order to render the images into 3D model effectively. Preliminary results show that 3D analysis using photogrammetrical method is a good tool to study the collected echinoid specimens showing more information than the classical morphometry studies, especially in the convex part of the studied fossils. Furthermore, the resulting 3D point clouds of different fossils make it possible to compare and maybe even quantify the differences across the specimens. Balázs Székely contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow.

  9. Close-range photogrammetry in underground mining ground control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Donovan J.; Chambers, Amy J.; Raffaldi, Michael J.; Finley, Seth A.; Powers, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring underground mine deformation and support conditions has traditionally involved visual inspection and geotechnical instrumentation. Monitoring displacements with conventional instrumentation can be expensive and time-consuming, and the number of locations that can be effectively monitored is generally limited. Moreover, conventional methods typically produce vector rather than tensor descriptions of geometry changes. Tensor descriptions can provide greater insight into hazardous ground movements, particularly in recently excavated openings and in older workings that have been negatively impacted by high stress concentrations, time-dependent deformation, or corrosion of ground support elements. To address these issues, researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane Mining Research Division are developing and evaluating photogrammetric systems for ground control monitoring applications in underground mines. This research has demonstrated that photogrammetric systems can produce millimeter-level measurements that are comparable to conventional displacement-measuring instruments. This paper provides an overview of the beneficial use of close-range photogrammetry for the following three ground control applications in underground mines: monitoring the deformation of surface support, monitoring rock mass movement, and monitoring the corrosion of surface support. Preliminary field analyses, case studies, limitations, and best practices for these applications are also discussed.

  10. Measurement and Control of the Variability of Scanning Pressure Transducer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, David D.; Everhart, Joel L.; Hallissy, James B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the new wall pressure measurement system and data-quality monitoring software installed at 14x22 Ft subsonic tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The monitoring software was developed to enable measurement and control of the variability of the reference pressures and approximately 400 tunnel wall pressure measurements. Variability of the system, based upon data acquired over a year of wind tunnel tests and calibrations, is presented. The level of variation of the wall pressure measurements is shown to be predictable.

  11. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  12. Assisted Control Point Measurement for Close Range Photogrammetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, E.; Hernandez, M. A.; Cardenal, J.; Perez, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the automation and optimization in control points measurement and elaboration of sketches in Close Range Photogrammetry. The system can be controlled by an operator alone and it integrates a robotized and reflectorless total station, two digital cameras, a laptop computer and the control software. The measured data with the station are registered and the control point will get associated to their marks in the images. So, it is possible to eliminate the handmade sketches since the marking of control points in the image is instantaneously made. The sketch includes object images with enlargements so the point is clearly identified and marked with the support of a virtual reticle. Also the sketch includes object coordinates, image coordinates, identification code (ID) and some additional information about the point. The use of the system by only one operator allows the reduction of costs, organization and time in control point surveying. Different tests have been made in order to check the system. TDC: this test has been made in close range conditions with targets and artificial illumination. EDIF: in this case the test includes long range conditions and control points targeted at natural points in building façade. The tests have allowed several analyses to study the feasibility and the improvement of the system. So we have made in situ tests by comparing direct observations with and without the camera telescope, with targets and natural points, close and long distances and different conditions of illumination. Moreover in one of these tests we include the observation and sketch realization with a manual method. With respect to the use of the aiming eyepiece camera, the tests (TDC) realized in laboratory (close distance -4 m- and good light conditions) show very small spatial differences (below the nominal precision of the total station) comparing the direct aim through the telescope without camera. Other test (EDIF) made over longer distance (130

  13. A comparative study of photogrammetric methods using panoramic photography in a forensic context.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Kayleigh; Cassella, John P; Fieldhouse, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Taking measurements of a scene is an integral aspect of the crime scene documentation process, and accepted limits of accuracy for taking measurements at a crime scene vary throughout the world. In the UK, there is no published accepted limit of accuracy, whereas the United States has an accepted limit of accuracy of 0.25 inch. As part of the International organisation for Standardisation 17020 accreditation competency testing is required for all work conducted at the crime scene. As part of this, all measuring devices need to be calibrated within known tolerances in order to meet the required standard, and measurements will be required to have a clearly defined limit of accuracy. This investigation sought to compare measurement capabilities of two different methods for measuring crime scenes; using a tape measure, and a 360° camera with complimentary photogrammetry software application. Participants measured ten fixed and non-fixed items using both methods and these were compared to control measurements taken using a laser distance measure. Statistical analysis using a Wilcoxon Signed Rank test demonstrated statistically significant differences between the tape, software and control measurements. The majority of the differences were negligible, amounting to millimetre differences. The tape measure was found to be more accurate than the software application, which offered greater precision. Measurement errors were attributed to human error in understanding the operation of the software, suggesting that training be given before using the software to take measurements. Transcription errors were present with the tape measure approach. Measurements taken using the photogrammetry software were more reproducible than the tape measure approach, and offered flexibility with regards to the time and location of the documentation process, unlike manual tape measuring.

  14. A Clinical Tool to Measure Trunk Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Trunk Control Measurement Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyrman, Lieve; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat; Verheyden, Geert; De Cat, Jos; Monbaliu, Elegast; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study the psychometric properties of the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined. Twenty-six children with spastic CP (mean age 11 years 3 months, range 8-15 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n = 11, level II n = 5, level III n = 10) were included in this study. To…

  15. Accuracy assessment of airborne photogrammetrically derived high-resolution digital elevation models in a high mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Johann; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Thee, Patrick; Ginzler, Christian

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by airborne remote sensing are frequently used to analyze landform structures (monotemporal) and geomorphological processes (multitemporal) in remote areas or areas of extreme terrain. In order to assess and quantify such structures and processes it is necessary to know the absolute accuracy of the available DEMs. This study assesses the absolute vertical accuracy of DEMs generated by the High Resolution Stereo Camera-Airborne (HRSC-A), the Leica Airborne Digital Sensors 40/80 (ADS40 and ADS80) and the analogue camera system RC30. The study area is located in the Turtmann valley, Valais, Switzerland, a glacially and periglacially formed hanging valley stretching from 2400 m to 3300 m a.s.l. The photogrammetrically derived DEMs are evaluated against geodetic field measurements and an airborne laser scan (ALS). Traditional and robust global and local accuracy measurements are used to describe the vertical quality of the DEMs, which show a non Gaussian distribution of errors. The results show that all four sensor systems produce DEMs with similar accuracy despite their different setups and generations. The ADS40 and ADS80 (both with a ground sampling distance of 0.50 m) generate the most accurate DEMs in complex high mountain areas with a RMSE of 0.8 m and NMAD of 0.6 m They also show the highest accuracy relating to flying height (0.14‰). The pushbroom scanning system HRSC-A produces a RMSE of 1.03 m and a NMAD of 0.83 m (0.21‰ accuracy of the flying height and 10 times the ground sampling distance). The analogue camera system RC30 produces DEMs with a vertical accuracy of 1.30 m RMSE and 0.83 m NMAD (0.17‰ accuracy of the flying height and two times the ground sampling distance). It is also shown that the performance of the DEMs strongly depends on the inclination of the terrain. The RMSE of areas up to an inclination <40° is better than 1 m. In more inclined areas the error and outlier occurrence

  16. ADVANCES TOWARDS THE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL LHC TUNE AND CHROMATICITY

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON, P.; CUPOLO, J.; DEGEN, C.; DELLAPENNA, A.; HOFF, L.; MEAD, J.; SIKORA, R.

    2005-06-06

    Requirements for tune and chromaticity control in most superconducting hadron machines, and in particular the LHC, are stringent. In order to reach nominal operation, the LHC will almost certainly require feedback on both tune and chromaticity. Experience at RHIC has also shown that coupling control is crucial to successful tune feedback. A prototype baseband phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement system has recently been brought into operation at RHIC as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). We report on the performance of that system and compare it with the extensive accumulation of data from the RHIC 245MHz PLL.

  17. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system. [using optical coupling circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A quadrature component cancellation and measuring system comprising a detection system for detecting the quadrature component from a primary signal, including reference circuitry to define the phase of the quadrature component for detection is described. A Raysistor optical coupling control device connects an output from the detection system to a circuit driven by a signal based upon the primary signal. Combining circuitry connects the primary signal and the circuit controlled by the Raysistor device to subtract quadrature components. A known current through the optically sensitive element produces a signal defining the magnitude of the quadrature component.

  18. Controlling quantum flux through measurement: An idealised example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilloy, A.; Bauer, M.; Bernard, D.

    2014-07-01

    Classically, no transfer occurs between two equally filled reservoirs, no matter how one looks at them, but the situation can be different quantum-mechanically. This paradoxically surprising phenomenon rests on the distinctive property of the quantum world that one cannot stare at a system without disturbing it. It was recently discovered that this seemingly annoying feature could be harnessed to control small quantum systems using weak measurements. Here we present one of the simplest models —an idealised double quantum dot—where by toying with the dot measurement strength, i.e. the intensity of the look, it is possible to create a particle flux in an otherwise completely symmetric system. The basic property underlying this phenomena is that measurement disturbances are very different on a system evolving unitarily and a system evolving dissipatively. This effect shows that adaptive measurements can have dramatic effects enabling transport control but possibly inducing biases in the measurement of macroscopic quantities if not handled with care.

  19. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  20. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  1. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  2. Photogrammetric and photometric investigation of a smoke plume viewed from space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, D.; Garcia, J. G.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1971-01-01

    Use of detailed analyses of an Apollo 6 stereographic photograph of a smoke plume which originated in southern Arizona and crossed over into Mexico to illustrate how high-resolution photography can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. Photogrammetric analysis of the visible smoke plume revealed that the plume was 8.06 miles long and attained a maximum width of 4000 ft, 3.0 miles from the 570-ft chimney emitting the effluent. Stereometric analysis showed that the visible top of the plume rose nearly 2400 ft above stack top, attaining 90% of this total rise 1.75 miles downwind from the source. Photometric analysis of the plume revealed a field of plume optical density that portrayed leptokurtic and bimodal distributions rather than a true Gaussian distribution. A horizontal eddy diffusivity of about 650,000 sq cm/sec and a vertical eddy diffusivity of 230,000 sq cm/sec were determined from the plume dimensions. Neutron activation analysis of plume samples revealed the elemental composition of the smoke to be copper, arsenic, selenium, indium and antimony, with trace amounts of vanadium and scandium.

  3. Photogrammetrically Derived Estimates of Glacier Mass Loss in the Upper Susitna Drainage Basin, Alaska Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolken, G. J.; Whorton, E.; Murphy, N.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in Alaska are currently experiencing some of the highest rates of mass loss on Earth, with mass wastage rates accelerating during the last several decades. Glaciers, and other components of the hydrologic cycle, are expected to continue to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming, thus, affecting the quantity and timing of river runoff. This study uses sequential digital elevation model (DEM) analysis to estimate the mass loss of glaciers in the upper Susitna drainage basin, Alaska Range, for the purpose of validating model simulations of past runoff changes. We use mainly stereo optical airborne and satellite data for several epochs between 1949 and 2014, and employ traditional stereo-photogrammetric and structure from motion processing techniques to derive DEMs of the upper Susitna basin glaciers. This work aims to improve the record of glacier change in the central Alaska Range, and serves as a critical validation dataset for a hydrological model that simulates the potential effects of future glacier mass loss on changes in river runoff over the lifespan of the proposed Susitna-Watana Hydroelectric Project.

  4. Measurement of a weak transition moment using Coherent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antypas, Dionysios

    We have developed a two-pathway Coherent Control technique for measurements of weak optical transition moments. We demonstrate this technique through a measurement of the transition moment of the highly-forbidden magnetic dipole transition between the 6s2S 1/21/2 and 7s2S 1/21/2 states in atomic Cesium. The experimental principle is based on a two-pathway excitation, using two phase-coherent laser fields, a fundamental field at 1079 nm and its second harmonic at 539.5 nm. The IR field induces a strong two-photon transition, while the 539.5 nm field drives a pair of weak one-photon transitions: a Stark-induced transition of controllable strength as well as the magnetic dipole transition. Observations of the interference between these transitions for different Stark-induced transition amplitudes, allow a measurement of the ratio of the magnetic dipole to the Stark-induced moment. The interference between the transitions is controlled by modulation of the phase-delay between the two optical fields. Our determination of the magnetic dipole moment is at the 0.4% level and in good agreement with previous measurements, and serves as a benchmark for our technique and apparatus. We anticipate that with further improvement of the apparatus detection sensitivity, the demonstrated scheme can be used for measurements of the very weak Parity Violation transition moment on the Cesium 6s2 S1/2→7s2 S1/2 transition.

  5. The spacecraft control laboratory experiment optical attitude measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Barsky, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    A stereo camera tracking system was developed to provide a near real-time measure of the position and attitude of the Spacecraft COntrol Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE). The SCOLE is a mockup of the shuttle-like vehicle with an attached flexible mast and (simulated) antenna, and was designed to provide a laboratory environment for the verification and testing of control laws for large flexible spacecraft. Actuators and sensors located on the shuttle and antenna sense the states of the spacecraft and allow the position and attitude to be controlled. The stereo camera tracking system which was developed consists of two position sensitive detector cameras which sense the locations of small infrared LEDs attached to the surface of the shuttle. Information on shuttle position and attitude is provided in six degrees-of-freedom. The design of this optical system, calibration, and tracking algorithm are described. The performance of the system is evaluated for yaw only.

  6. Control networks for the Galilean satellites, November 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Hauge, T. A.; Katayama, F. Y.; Roth, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Pictures of the four Galilean satellites taken as the two Voyager spacecraft approached Jupiter during March and July 1979 are presented. Control nets of the Galilean satellites, computed photogrammetrically, and measurements of the mean radii are presented. The pictures in the control nets are identified, the coordinates of the control points are given, and identifications of some of the control points are shown on figures. The use of star field pictures to compute the focal lengths of the camera is discussed and the geometric relationship between the narrow and wide and angle cameras is reported. A description of the coordinate systems of the Galilean satellites is presented and the status of the control net computations is reported.

  7. Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

  8. Measurement and control systems for an imaging electromagnetic flow metre.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Y; Lucas, G; Leeungculsatien, T

    2014-03-01

    Electromagnetic flow metres based on the principles of Faraday's laws of induction have been used successfully in many industries. The conventional electromagnetic flow metre can measure the mean liquid velocity in axisymmetric single phase flows. However, in order to achieve velocity profile measurements in single phase flows with non-uniform velocity profiles, a novel imaging electromagnetic flow metre (IEF) has been developed which is described in this paper. The novel electromagnetic flow metre which is based on the 'weight value' theory to reconstruct velocity profiles is interfaced with a 'Microrobotics VM1' microcontroller as a stand-alone unit. The work undertaken in the paper demonstrates that an imaging electromagnetic flow metre for liquid velocity profile measurement is an instrument that is highly suited for control via a microcontroller.

  9. Photogrammetric Processing of IceBridge DMS Imagery into High-Resolution Digital Surface Models (DEM and Visible Overlay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Dotson, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The DMS (Digital Mapping System) has been a sensor component of all DC-8 and P-3 IceBridge flights since 2009 and has acquired over 3 million JPEG images over Arctic and Antarctic land and sea ice. The DMS imagery is primarily used for identifying and locating open leads for LiDAR sea-ice freeboard measurements and documenting snow and ice surface conditions. The DMS is a COTS Canon SLR camera utilizing a 28mm focal length lens, resulting in a 10cm GSD and swath of ~400 meters from a nominal flight altitude of 500 meters. Exterior orientation is provided by an Applanix IMU/GPS which records a TTL pulse coincident with image acquisition. Notable for virtually all IceBridge flights is that parallel grids are not flown and thus there is no ability to photogrammetrically tie any imagery to adjacent flight lines. Approximately 800,000 Level-3 DMS Surface Model data products have been delivered to NSIDC, each consisting of a Digital Elevation Model (GeoTIFF DEM) and a co-registered Visible Overlay (GeoJPEG). Absolute elevation accuracy for each individual Elevation Model is adjusted to concurrent Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) Lidar data, resulting in higher elevation accuracy than can be achieved by photogrammetry alone. The adjustment methodology forces a zero mean difference to the corresponding ATM point cloud integrated over each DMS frame. Statistics are calculated for each DMS Elevation Model frame and show RMS differences are within +/- 10 cm with respect to the ATM point cloud. The DMS Surface Model possesses similar elevation accuracy to the ATM point cloud, but with the following advantages: · Higher and uniform spatial resolution: 40 cm GSD · 45% wider swath: 435 meters vs. 300 meters at 500 meter flight altitude · Visible RGB co-registered overlay at 10 cm GSD · Enhanced visualization through 3-dimensional virtual reality (i.e. video fly-through) Examples will be presented of the utility of these advantages and a novel use of a cell phone camera for

  10. A photogrammetric DEM of Greenland based on 1978-1987 aerial photos: validation and integration with laser altimetry and satellite-derived DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjaer, K. H.; Nuth, C.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of kilometers into the interior due to the large footprints of the photos (30 x 30 km) and control provided by the aero-triangulation. Thus, the data are ideal for providing information for analysis of ice marginal elevation change and also control for satellite-derived DEMs.The results of the validation, error assessments and predicted uncertainties are presented. We test the DEM using Airborne Topographic Mapper (IceBridge ATM) as reference data; evaluate the a posteriori covariance matrix from the aero-triangulation; and co-register DEM blocks of 50 x 50 km to ICESat laser altimetry in order to evaluate the coherency.We complement the aero-photogrammetric DEM with modern laser altimetry and DEMs derived from stereoscopic satellite imagery (AST14DMO) to examine the mass variability of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Our analysis suggests that dynamically-induced mass loss started around 2003 and continued throughout 2014.

  11. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  12. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  13. Geomorphological mapping with a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS): Feature detection and accuracy assessment of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Whitehead, Ken; Brown, Owen W.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Moorman, Brian J.; LeClair, Adam; Riddell, Kevin; Hamilton, Tayler

    2013-07-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) are a relatively new type of aerial platform for acquiring high-resolution remote sensing measurements of Earth surface processes and landforms. However, despite growing application there has been little quantitative assessment of sUAS performance. Here we present results from a field experiment designed to evaluate the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain model (DTM) developed from imagery acquired with a low-cost digital camera onboard an sUAS. We also show the utility of the high-resolution (0.1 m) sUAS imagery for resolving small-scale biogeomorphic features. The experiment was conducted in an area with active and stabilized aeolian landforms in the southern Canadian Prairies. Images were acquired with a Hawkeye RQ-84Z Areohawk fixed-wing sUAS. A total of 280 images were acquired along 14 flight lines, covering an area of 1.95 km2. The survey was completed in 4.5 h, including GPS surveying, sUAS setup and flight time. Standard image processing and photogrammetric techniques were used to produce a 1 m resolution DTM and a 0.1 m resolution orthorectified image mosaic. The latter revealed previously un-mapped bioturbation features. The vertical accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 99 Real-Time Kinematic GPS points, while 20 of these points were used to quantify horizontal accuracy. The horizontal root mean squared error (RMSE) of the orthoimage was 0.18 m, while the vertical RMSE of the DTM was 0.29 m, which is equivalent to the RMSE of a bare earth LiDAR DTM for the same site. The combined error from both datasets was used to define a threshold of the minimum elevation difference that could be reliably attributed to erosion or deposition in the seven years separating the sUAS and LiDAR datasets. Overall, our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR for geomorphological mapping.

  14. Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and diabetes complications. Nearly one in three Americans adults has high blood pressure, and the cost associated with treating this condition is staggering. The Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control is a resource developed by the American Medical Group Foundation in partnership with the American Medical Group Association. The goal of this toolkit is to mobilize health care practitioners to work together through team-based approaches to achieve an 80% control rate of high blood pressure among their patient population. The toolkit can be used by health educators, clinic administrators, physicians, students, and other clinic staff as a step-by-step resource for developing the infrastructure needed to better identify and treat individuals with high blood pressure or other chronic conditions.

  15. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized.

  16. Theileriosis in Zambia: etiology, epidemiology and control measures.

    PubMed

    Nambota, A; Samui, K; Sugimoto, C; Kakuta, T; Onuma, M

    1994-06-01

    In Zambia, theileriosis manifests itself in the form of Corridor disease (CD), caused by Theileria parva lawrencei, and East Coast fever (ECF), caused by T. parva parva. Of the approximately 3 million cattle in Zambia, 1.4 million are at risk to theileriosis. ECF is found in the Northern and Eastern provinces of the country, while CD appears in Southern, Central, Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces. Theileriosis is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in Zambia, with losses of about 10,000 cattle per annum. The disease is spreading at a very fast rate, over-flowing its original borders. The epidemiology is complicated by, among other factors, the wide distribution of the tick vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, which is found all over the country. The current strategy of relying on tick control and therapeutic drugs as a way of controlling the disease is becoming increasingly difficult for Zambia. This is because both curative drugs and acaricides are very costly. Immunization against theileriosis using the infection and treatment method as a way of controlling the disease is becoming increasingly accepted, provided local Theileria stocks are used. This paper reviews the incidence of theileriosis in the last 2 years, 1991 and 1992. It also gives a historical perspective of the disease, epidemiology and control measures presently in use.

  17. [Control measures for a VRE outbreak in a haemodialysis unit].

    PubMed

    Diguio, N; Chanet, P; Hautemanière, A; Cao-Huu, T; Hartemann, P; Kessler, M

    2009-06-01

    We report an outbreak of colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) in the Haemodialysis unit of our hospital. From October 2004 to September 2008, 19 patients were found positive. The risk of acquiring this multi-resistant bacterium is extremely important in patients undergoing haemodialysis, heightened measures have gradually been set to control cross transmissions: first isolation, then geographic clustering of carriers and finally creating cohorting sectors with different staff for carriers, contacts and VRE free patients. This re-organization was supplemented by strengthening procedures for hand hygiene, active screening of patients and enhanced cleaning. Monitoring of the epidemic curve has allowed us to demonstrate the effectiveness of measures introduced. However, deleterious effects were observed in patients whose habits were changed; we could also highlight significant impact on the activity of the unit.

  18. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  19. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 3; Noise Control Measure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported herein is an extension to the work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG1-2091 on the development of noise/source/path identification techniques for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft. The previous work developed a Conditioned Response Analysis (CRA) technique to identify potential noise sources that contributed to the dominating tonal responses within the aircraft cabin. The objective of the present effort was to improve and verify the findings of the CRA and develop and demonstrate noise control measures for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft.

  20. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  1. Faulty measurement substitution and control reconfiguration by using a multivariate flow control loop.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Sergio R P; Upadhyaya, Belle R; Hines, J Wesley

    2014-03-01

    A two-tank multivariate loop was designed and built to support research related to instrumentation and control, equipment and sensor monitoring. This test bed provides the framework necessary to investigate and test control strategies and fault detection methods applicable to sensors, equipment, and actuators, and was used to experimentally develop and demonstrate a fault-tolerant control strategy using six correlated variables in a single-tank configuration. This work shows the feasibility of using data-based empirical models to perform fault detection and substitute faulty measurements with predictions and to perform control reconfiguration in the presence of actuator failure in a real system. These experiments were particularly important because they offered the opportunity to prove that a system, such as the multivariate control loop, could survive degraded conditions, provided the empirical models used were accurate and representative of the process dynamics.

  2. Assessment of Restoration Methods of X-Ray Images with Emphasis on Medical Photogrammetric Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinian, S.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, various medical X-ray imaging methods such as digital radiography, computed tomography and fluoroscopy are used as important tools in diagnostic and operative processes especially in the computer and robotic assisted surgeries. The procedures of extracting information from these images require appropriate deblurring and denoising processes on the pre- and intra-operative images in order to obtain more accurate information. This issue becomes more considerable when the X-ray images are planned to be employed in the photogrammetric processes for 3D reconstruction from multi-view X-ray images since, accurate data should be extracted from images for 3D modelling and the quality of X-ray images affects directly on the results of the algorithms. For restoration of X-ray images, it is essential to consider the nature and characteristics of these kinds of images. X-ray images exhibit severe quantum noise due to limited X-ray photons involved. The assumptions of Gaussian modelling are not appropriate for photon-limited images such as X-ray images, because of the nature of signal-dependant quantum noise. These images are generally modelled by Poisson distribution which is the most common model for low-intensity imaging. In this paper, existing methods are evaluated. For this purpose, after demonstrating the properties of medical X-ray images, the more efficient and recommended methods for restoration of X-ray images would be described and assessed. After explaining these approaches, they are implemented on samples from different kinds of X-ray images. By considering the results, it is concluded that using PURE-LET, provides more effective and efficient denoising than other examined methods in this research.

  3. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  4. Post harvest spoilage of sweetpotato in tropics and control measures.

    PubMed

    Ray, R C; Ravi, V

    2005-01-01

    Sweetpotato storage roots are subjected to several forms of post harvest spoilage in the tropical climate during transportation from farmers' field to market and in storage. These are due to mechanical injury, weight loss, sprouting, and pests and diseases. Sweetpotato weevil is the single most important storage pest in tropical regions for which no control measures or resistant variety are yet available. Several microorganisms (mostly fungi) have been found to induce spoilage in stored sweetpotatoes. The most important among them are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus oryzae. The other less frequently occurring spoilage microorganisms include Cochliobolus lunatus (Curvularia lunata), Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, Plenodomus destruens. Microbial spoilage of sweetpotato is found associated with decrease in starch, total sugar, organic acid (ascorbic acid and oxalic acid) contents with concomitant increase in polyphenols, ethylene, and in some instances phytoalexins. Several methods are used to control microbial spoilage. Curing to promote wound healing is found as the most suitable method to control microbial spoilage. Curing naturally occurs in tropical climates where mean day temperature during sweetpotato harvesting season (February-April) invariably remains at 32-35 degrees C and relative humidity at 80-95%. Sweetpotato varieties varied in their root dry matter content, and low root dry matter content attributed for their high curing efficiency. Curing efficiency of varieties also differed in response to curing periods. Fungicide treatment, bio-control, gamma irradiation, hydro warming, and storage in sand and saw dust were found to have intermediate impacts in controlling spoilage and enhancing shelf life of sweetpotato roots. Breeding program has to be chalked out to develop new varieties suitable to curing under tropical conditions in addition to developing varieties having multi

  5. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  6. Economic value of norovirus outbreak control measures in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, B Y; Wettstein, Z S; McGlone, S M; Bailey, R R; Umscheid, C A; Smith, K J; Muder, R R

    2011-04-01

    Although norovirus is a significant cause of nosocomial viral gastroenteritis, the economic value of hospital outbreak containment measures following identification of a norovirus case is currently unknown. We developed computer simulation models to determine the potential cost-savings from the hospital perspective of implementing the following norovirus outbreak control interventions: (i) increased hand hygiene measures, (ii) enhanced disinfection practices, (iii) patient isolation, (iv) use of protective apparel, (v) staff exclusion policies, and (vi) ward closure. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of varying intervention efficacy, number of initial norovirus cases, the norovirus reproductive rate (R(0)), and room, ward size, and occupancy. Implementing increased hand hygiene, using protective apparel, staff exclusion policies or increased disinfection separately or in bundles provided net cost-savings, even when the intervention was only 10% effective in preventing further norovirus transmission. Patient isolation or ward closure was cost-saving only when transmission prevention efficacy was very high (≥ 90%), and their economic value decreased as the number of beds per room and the number of empty beds per ward increased. Increased hand hygiene, using protective apparel or increased disinfection practices separately or in bundles are the most cost-saving interventions for the control and containment of a norovirus outbreak.

  7. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  8. Photogrammetric Comparison of Facial Soft Tissue Profile before and after Protraction Facemask Therapy in Class III Children (6-11 Years Old)

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Raoof, Arghavan; Sardarian, Ahmadreza; Salehi, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Achieving a normal soft tissue facial profile is considered to be the main concern of class III patients and the goal of most class III treatments. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of facemask treatment on profile with photogrammetric method. Materials and Method: Before (T0) and after (T1) treatment photograms of 40 class III patients profiles (20 male and 20 female individuals) treated with protraction face mask that met the inclusion criteria were digitized and analyzed using Aesthetic Analyzer software. Selected linear and angular measurements were performed for each patient and the changes were noted. Results: An increase in inferior facial height (p< 0.001) and inferior facial angle (p< 0.001) was observed. Nasal prominence and upper lip prominence also increased significantly (p< 0.001). Advancement of sub nasal area was observed to be significant in females (p< 0.05) in contrast to males. Conclusion: Remarkable advancement in the middle face and consequent fullness in the soft-tissue profile can be achieved by using protraction face mask. The response to treatment is not different between males and females. PMID:28280754

  9. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  10. Speech intelligibility measure for vocal control of an automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Michel; Tsirigotis, Georgios

    1998-07-01

    The acceleration of investigations in Speech Recognition allows to augur, in the next future, a wide establishment of Vocal Control Systems in the production units. The communication between a human and a machine necessitates technical devices that emit, or are submitted to important noise perturbations. The vocal interface introduces a new control problem of a deterministic automaton using uncertain information. The purpose is to place exactly the automaton in a final state, ordered by voice, from an unknown initial state. The whole Speech Processing procedure, presented in this paper, has for input the temporal speech signal of a word and for output a recognised word labelled with an intelligibility index given by the recognition quality. In the first part, we present the essential psychoacoustic concepts for the automatic calculation of the loudness of a speech signal. The architecture of a Time Delay Neural Network is presented in second part where we also give the results of the recognition. The theory of the fuzzy subset, in third part, allows to extract at the same time a recognised word and its intelligibility index. In the fourth part, an Anticipatory System models the control of a Sequential Machine. A prediction phase and an updating one appear which involve data coming from the information system. A Bayesian decision strategy is used and the criterion is a weighted sum of criteria defined from information, minimum path functions and speech intelligibility measure.

  11. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  12. Comparison of 3D point clouds obtained by photogrammetric UAVs and TLS to determine the attitude of dolerite outcrops discontinuities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Gonçalves, Gil; Duarte, Diogo; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are two emerging technologies that allows the production of dense 3D point clouds of the sensed topographic surfaces. Although image-based stereo-photogrammetric point clouds could not, in general, compete on geometric quality over TLS point clouds, fully automated mapping solutions based on ultra-light UAVs (or drones) have recently become commercially available at very reasonable accuracy and cost for engineering and geological applications. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two point clouds generated by these two technologies, in order to automatize the manual process tasks commonly used to detect and represent the attitude of discontinuities (Stereographic projection: Schmidt net - Equal area). To avoid the difficulties of access and guarantee the data survey security conditions, this fundamental step in all geological/geotechnical studies, applied to the extractive industry and engineering works, has to be replaced by a more expeditious and reliable methodology. This methodology will allow, in a more actuated clear way, give answers to the needs of evaluation of rock masses, by mapping the structures present, which will reduce considerably the associated risks (investment, structures dimensioning, security, etc.). A case study of a dolerite outcrop locate in the center of Portugal (the dolerite outcrop is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones) will be used to assess this methodology. The results obtained show that the 3D point cloud produced by the Photogrammetric UAV platform has the appropriate geometric quality for extracting the parameters that define the discontinuities of the dolerite outcrops. Although, they are comparable to the manual extracted parameters, their quality is inferior to parameters extracted from the TLS point cloud.

  13. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility. PMID:27399701

  14. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-07-05

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units-IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors' signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients' mobility.

  15. Monitoring Change on Hydrothermal Edifices by Photogrammetric Time Series: Case Studies from the Endeavour Segment (Juan de Fuca Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Kwasnitschka, T.; Kelley, D. S.; Mihaly, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution photogrammetric surveys derived from ROV or AUV imagery yield seafloor geometry at centimeter resolution with full color texture while modeling overhangs and crevasses, generating vastly more detailed terrain models compared to most acoustic methods. The models furthermore serve as geographic reference frames for localized studies. Repetitive surveys consequently facilitate the precise, quantitative study of edifice buildup and erosion as well as the development of the biological habitat. We compare data gathered by the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruises with earlier surveys at two sites (Mothra, Main Endeavour Field) along the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  16. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  17. Control and Measurement of an Exchange-Only Spin Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medford, James

    2015-03-01

    Gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots have proven to be a versatile testbed for exploring quantum systems and quantum information. We demonstrate the fast all-electrical control of a spin qubit using the two coherent exchange interactions in a triple quantum dot. Our measurements identify the role of nuclear spins from the host GaAs in this system as a mechanism for both dephasing and leakage out of the qubit subspace. We also show that by increasing both exchange interactions in a balanced fashion, we enter a second regime of operation. In this regime, leakage from the subspace has been suppressed, resulting in a spin qubit with a tunable electric dipole moment, which we refer to as the resonant exchange qubit.

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  19. Fluidic Control of Nozzle Flow: Some Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federspiel, John; Bangert, Linda; Wing, David; Hawkes, Tim

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental program that investigated the use of a secondary air stream to control the amount of flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle. These static tests utilized high pressure, ambient temperature air that was injected at the throat of the nozzle through an annular slot. Multiple injection slot sizes and injection angles were tested. The introduction of secondary flow was made in an opposing direction to the primary flow and the resulting flow field caused the primary stream to react as though the physical throat size had been reduced. The percentage reduction in primary flow rate was generally about twice the injected flow rate. The most effective throttling was achieved by injecting through the smallest slot in an orientation most nearly opposed to the approaching primary flow. Thrust edliciency, as measured by changes in nozzle thrust coefficient, was highest at high nozzle pressure ratios, NPR. The static test results agreed with predictions obtained prior from PABSD, a fully viscous computational fluid dynamics program. Since use of such an injection system on gas turbine engine exhaust nozzles would be primarily at high NPRs, it was concluded that fluidic control holds promise for reducing nozzle weight and complexity on future systems.

  20. Temperature Measurement and Control System for Transtibial Prostheses: Functional Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Lee, Tat Hing; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-03

    The accumulation of heat inside the prosthetic socket increases skin temperature and fosters perspiration, which consequently leads to high tissue stress, friction blister, discomfort, unpleasant odor, and decreased prosthesis suspension and use. In the present study, the prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was designed, fabricated, and functionally evaluated in a phantom model of the transtibial prosthetic socket. The TM&C system was comprised of 12 thermistors divided equally into two groups that arranged internal and external to a prosthetic silicone liner. Its control system was programmed to select the required heating or cooling function of a thermal pump to provide thermal equilibrium based on the amount of temperature difference from a defined set temperature, or the amount of difference between the mean temperature recorded by inside and outside thermistors. A thin layer of aluminum was used for thermal conduction between the thermal pump and different sites around the silicone liner. The results showed functionality of the TM&C system for thermoregulation inside the prosthetic socket. However, enhancing the structure of this TM&C system, increasing its thermal power, and decreasing its weight and cost are main priorities before further development.

  1. Hydrologic response to stormwater control measures in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Colin D.; McMillan, Sara K.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Jefferson, Anne J.

    2016-10-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are designed to mitigate deleterious effects of urbanization on river networks, but our ability to predict the cumulative effect of multiple SCMs at watershed scales is limited. The most widely used metric to quantify impacts of urban development, total imperviousness (TI), does not contain information about the extent of stormwater control. We analyzed the discharge records of 16 urban watersheds in Charlotte, NC spanning a range of TI (4.1-54%) and area mitigated with SCMs (1.3-89%). We then tested multiple watershed metrics that quantify the degree of urban impact and SCM mitigation to determine which best predicted hydrologic response across sites. At the event time scale, linear models showed TI to be the best predictor of both peak unit discharge and rainfall-runoff ratios across a range of storm sizes. TI was also a strong driver of both a watershed's capacity to buffer small (e.g., 1-10 mm) rain events, and the relationship between peak discharge and precipitation once that buffering capacity is exceeded. Metrics containing information about SCMs did not appear as primary predictors of event hydrologic response, suggesting that the level of SCM mitigation in many urban watersheds is insufficient to influence hydrologic response. Over annual timescales, impervious surfaces unmitigated by SCMs and tree coverage were best correlated with streamflow flashiness and water yield, respectively. The shift in controls from the event scale to the annual scale has important implications for water resource management, suggesting that overall limitation of watershed imperviousness rather than partial mitigation by SCMs may be necessary to alleviate the hydrologic impacts of urbanization.

  2. Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Gladysz, S.; Almeida de Sá Barros, R.; Matt, S.; Nootz, G. A.; Josset, D. B.; Hou, W.

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam propagation underwater is becoming an important research topic because of high demand for its potential applications. Namely, ability to image underwater at long distances is highly desired for scientific and military purposes, including submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Optical communication in the ocean can provide covert data transmission with much higher rates than that available with acoustic techniques, and it is now desired for certain military and scientific applications that involve sending large quantities of data. Unfortunately underwater environment presents serious challenges for propagation of laser beams. Even in clean ocean water, the extinction due to absorption and scattering theoretically limit the useful range to few attenuation lengths. However, extending the laser light propagation range to the theoretical limit leads to significant beam distortions due to optical underwater turbulence. Experiments show that the magnitude of the distortions that are caused by water temperature and salinity fluctuations can significantly exceed the magnitude of the beam distortions due to atmospheric turbulence even for relatively short propagation distances. We are presenting direct measurements of optical underwater turbulence in controlled conditions of laboratory water tank using two separate techniques involving wavefront sensor and LED array. These independent approaches will enable development of underwater turbulence power spectrum model based directly on the spatial domain measurements and will lead to accurate predictions of underwater beam propagation.

  3. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-12-31

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency.

  4. The control networks of Tethys and Dione

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Control networks of the Saturnian satellites Tethys and Dione have been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft during their flybys. Coordinates of 110 points on Tethys and 126 points on Dione are listed; selected points are identified on U.S. Geological Survey maps of the satellites, and many are identified by name. Measurements of these points were made on six pictures from Voyager 1 and 21 from Voyager 2 for Tethys, and on 27 pictures from Voyager 1 and one from Voyager 2 for Dione. The longitude systems on the satellites have been defined by craters on their surfaces. The mean radii have been determined as 524 + or - 5 km for Tethys and 559 + or - 5 km for Dione.

  5. Development of an operational digital photogrammetric system for the North Sea oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John

    1993-02-01

    The Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the North Sea has many requirements for three- dimensional measurements in air and underwater. A market audit found that use of conventional photogrammetry was being rejected for many applications because the information was not available fast enough. A development project was set up to replace the photographic cameras with a choice of video or high resolution digital electronic cameras, and the analysis system with a personal computer based image processing system. This solution is now in operation. The paper details the in-house development of the high resolution digital electronic camera and the personal computer based measurement hardware and software. It includes a discussion of the technological parameters, including the method for pixel for pixel correlation within the digital system, camera calibration techniques, the system algorithms, sub-pixel measurement and dimensional accuracy. It introduces the work that was carried out to make the final product acceptable to structural engineers, who now use it to transfer three- dimensional measurements to their CAD systems. It also looks at the work that is being carried out to transform the system into a closed loop control system for underwater robotic manipulators, which includes binary conversion, convolution filtering and tracking functions.

  6. 40 CFR 721.30 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the substance. (3) The citation for the specific section in subpart E of this part which pertains to... release control measures. (6) An analysis justifying why such alternative control measures...

  7. 40 CFR 721.30 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the substance. (3) The citation for the specific section in subpart E of this part which pertains to... release control measures. (6) An analysis justifying why such alternative control measures...

  8. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  9. Measurement of performance using acceleration control and pulse control in simulated spacecraft docking operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Nine commercial airline pilots served as test subjects in a study to compare acceleration control with pulse control in simulated spacecraft maneuvers. Simulated remote dockings of an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) to a space station were initiated from 50, 100, and 150 meters along the station's -V-bar (minus velocity vector). All unsuccessful missions were reflown. Five way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) with one between factor, first mode, and four within factors (mode, bloch, range, and trial) were performed on the data. Recorded performance measures included mission duration and fuel consumption along each of the three coordinate axes. Mission duration was lower with pulse mode, while delta V (fuel consumption) was lower with acceleration mode. Subjects used more fuel to travel faster with pulse mode than with acceleration mode. Mission duration, delta V, X delta V, Y delta V., and Z delta V all increased with range. Subjects commanded the OMV to 'fly' at faster rates from further distances. These higher average velocities were paid for with increased fuel consumption. Asymmetrical transfer was found in that the mode transitions could not be predicted solely from the mission duration main effect. More testing is advised to understand the manual control aspects of spaceflight maneuvers better.

  10. Possibilities for Using LIDAR and Photogrammetric Data Obtained with AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Levee Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Ostrowski, W.; Szender, M.; Plutecki, W.; Salach, A.; Górski, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multirotor, unmanned platform the Hawk Moth, constructed by MSP company. LiDAR data and images of levees the length of several hundred metres were acquired during testing of the platform. Flights were performed in several variants. Control points measured with the use of the GNSS technique were considered as reference data. The obtained results are presented in this paper; the methodology of processing the acquired LiDAR data, which increase in accuracy when low accuracy of the navigation systems occurs as a result of systematic errors, is also discussed. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, as well as measurements of control points, were used to georeference the LiDAR data. Final accuracy in the order of centimetres was obtained for generation of the digital terrain model. The final products of the proposed UAV data processing are digital elevation models, an orthophotomap and colour point clouds. The authors conclude that such a platform offers wide possibilities for low-budget flights to deliver the data, which may compete with typical direct surveying measurements performed during monitoring of such objects. However, the biggest advantage is the density and continuity of data, which allows for detection of changes in objects being monitored.

  11. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N W; Mackenzie, A; Honey, I D

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm(-1) ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10(-5) mm(2) (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm(-1), with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm(-1), while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm(-1) for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and

  12. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, N. W.; Mackenzie, A.; Honey, I. D.

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm-1 ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10-5 mm2 (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm-1, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm-1, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm-1 for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and gave an in

  13. Controlled image design: The measurement of time-frequency responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Eng, C.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the measurement of acoustic events in a three-dimensional measurement domain. An outline of the general theoretical background is followed by a description of the special requirements for the measurement of short-term acoustic responses in rooms. The results of measurements on an experimental synthesis of a single room reflection are also presented. It is shown that the measurement and presentation of the result in terms of amplitude/time, amplitude/frequency, and three-dimensional time/frequency/amplitude responses accurately portray the true situation, within the theoretical limitations of the Fourier transform. It is shown that the achievable time and frequency resolutions are probably just adequate for the measurement of those effects thought to be important for the perception of the stereophonic illusion.

  14. Measuring Joint Stimulus Control by Complex Graph/Description Correspondences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Spear, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Joint stimulus control occurs when responding is determined by the correspondence of elements of a complex sample and a complex comparison stimulus. In academic settings, joint stimulus control of behavior would be evidenced by the selection of an accurate description of a complex graph in which each element of a graph corresponded to particular…

  15. A Comparison of Four Measures of Self-Control Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezo, Peter G.; Heiby, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the psychometric characteristics of four questionnaires designed to assess self-control skills: the Self-Control Questionnaire, the Frequency of Self-Reinforcement Questionnaire, the Cognitive Self-Management Test, and the Lifestyle Approaches Inventory. Content validity was judged to be fairly comparable by three raters in…

  16. Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of Microjets Can we eliminate/minimize flow separation? Is the flow unsteadiness reduced? Guidelines for an active control Search for an appropriate sensor. Examine for means to develop a flow model for identifying the state of flow over the surface Guidelines toward future development of a Simple and Robust control methodology

  17. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each MARSEC Level, including those points where TWIC access control provisions will be applied. Each... escorting them; (4) Procedures for identifying authorized and unauthorized persons at any MARSEC level; and... access controls, particularly if they are to be applied on a random or occasional basis. (f) MARSEC...

  18. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  19. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  20. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  1. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.255 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  2. Process control measurements in the SRP fuel separations plants

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J.M.; Pickett, C.E.; Dickert, H.D.

    1982-02-01

    Programs were started to develop new in-line and at-line analytical techniques. Among the more promising techniques being investigated are: (1) an in-line instrument to analyze for percent tributyl phosphate in process solvent, (2) remote laser optrode techniques (using lazer light transmitted to and from the sample cell via light pipes) for a variety of possible analyses, and (3) sonic techniques for concentration analyses in two component systems. A subcommittee was also formed to investigate state-of-the-technology for process control. The final recommendation was to use a distributed control approach to upgrade the process control sytem. The system selected should be modular, easy to expand, and simple to change control strategies. A distributed system using microprocessorbased controllers would allow installation of the control intelligence near the process, thereby simplifying field wiring. Process information collected and stored in the controllers will be transmitted to operating consoles, via a data highway, for process management and display. The overall program has a number of distinct benefits. There are a number of cost savings that will be realized. Excellent annual return on investment - up to 110% - has been predicted for several of the projects in this program that are already funded. In addition, many of the instrument modifications will improve safety performance and production throughput in the specific ways shown.

  3. The control networks of the satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.

    1987-01-01

    Geodetic control networks are being computed photogrammetrically for the large satellites of Jupiter, using pictures from the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters. Control points have been identified on the satellites and their coordinates computed by single-block analytical triangulation. The data sets have been converted from the B1950 to the J2000 inertial coordinate system to be compatible with future flight missions.

  4. Measuring and controlling the transport of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Jason R.

    increases with pore diameter. We find that fluxes are faster in aqueous solutions than in hexane, which is attributed to the hydrophilic nature of the porous membranes and differences in wettability. The impact of an applied magnetic flux gradient, which induces magnetization and motion, on permeation is also examined. Surface chemistry plays an important role in determining flux through porous media such as in the environment. Diffusive flux of nanoparticles through alkylsilane modified porous alumina is measured as a model for understanding transport in porous media of differing surface chemistries. Experiments are performed as a function of particle size, pore diameter, attached hydrocarbon chain length and chain terminus, and solvent. Particle fluxes are monitored by the change in absorbance of the solution in the receiving side of a diffusion cell. In general, flux increases when the membranes are modified with alkylsilanes compared to untreated membranes, which is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the porous membranes and differences in wettability. We find that flux decreases, in both hexane and aqueous solutions, when the hydrocarbon chain lining the interior pore wall increases in length. The rate and selectivity of transport across these membranes is related to the partition coefficient (Kp) and the diffusion coefficient (D) of the permeating species. By conducting experiments as a function of initial particle concentration, we find that KpD increases with increasing particle size, is greater in alkylsilane--modified pores, and larger in hexane solution than water. The impact of the alkylsilane terminus (--CH3, --Br, --NH2, --COOH) on permeation in water is also examined. In water, the highest KpD is observed when the membranes are modified with carboxylic acid terminated silanes and lowest with amine terminated silanes as a result of electrostatic effects during translocation. Finally, the manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles for the controlled formation

  5. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  6. The measured energy savings from two lighting control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.M.; Karayel, M.

    1984-09-01

    The energy-saving benefits of two lighting control strategies--scheduling and daylighting--were investigated at demonstration sites in two large commercial buildings. A continuously dimmable lighting control system was installed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company Building in San Francisco, and an on/off switching system was installed at the World Trade Center in New York City. By automatically scheduling the operation of the lighting systems to conform with occupancy patterns, lighting energy consumption was reduced 10-40 percent. Several scheduling techniques were investigated, and the influence of switching the zone size on energy savings was examined. Using photoelectrically controlled lighting systems, which switch or dim lighting in accordance with available daylight, the energy consumed for lighting in daylit areas was reduced to 25-35 percent. The influence of clear and overcast conditions on the energy savings associated with daylight-linked controls is discussed.

  7. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  8. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  9. Organization of nosocomial infection control measures and local networks for infectious disease control in middle-scale hospitals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori-Yoshikawa, Namiko; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess nosocomial infection control measures at middle-scale hospitals throughout Japan. Of the 823 hospitals participating in this questionnaire-based survey, more than half of the middle-scale hospitals have implemented nosocomial infection control measures, including infection surveillance or infection control rounds, while acknowledging a shortage of infection control staff. These hospitals most frequently consulted public health centers to obtain information and advice. Improved nosocomial infection control in middle-scale hospitals requires sufficient staffing and a local network, with active participation by public health centers.

  10. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the case of measures based on traffic flow changes or reductions in vehicle use, the data must include observed changes in vehicle miles traveled and average speeds. (c) The data must be maintained in such...

  11. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the case of measures based on traffic flow changes or reductions in vehicle use, the data must include observed changes in vehicle miles traveled and average speeds. (c) The data must be maintained in such...

  12. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the case of measures based on traffic flow changes or reductions in vehicle use, the data must include observed changes in vehicle miles traveled and average speeds. (c) The data must be maintained in such...

  13. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the case of measures based on traffic flow changes or reductions in vehicle use, the data must include observed changes in vehicle miles traveled and average speeds. (c) The data must be maintained in such...

  14. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the case of measures based on traffic flow changes or reductions in vehicle use, the data must include observed changes in vehicle miles traveled and average speeds. (c) The data must be maintained in such...

  15. The control network of Mercury: April 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Rogers, Patricia G.

    1991-01-01

    Features identified on Mariner 10 high resolution images of Mercury, acquired during three flybys between 1974 and 1975, form the basis of Mercury's planetwide control network. Although images from all three flybys are used in the net, the large amount of contiguous coverage from the second flyby, a southern bright-side pass, make these images the strongest contributors to the control net. Mercury is in synchronous rotation with a period of 58.6462 days and its spin axis is approximately normal to the equatorial plane. The 20 degree meridian is defined by the crater Hun Kal, located just south of the equator. The control network computations involve the photogrammetric determination of control point coordinates and an analytical triangulation solution. The current control network computations for Mercury are performed in the J2000 coordinate system according to the International Astronomical Union (IAU) convention. In recent years, updates to the control network have included improved trajectory solutions and modification of the standard radii (2439) at several points based on Earth-based radar altimetry data. The current status of the control network calculations is presented. Improvements were made to existing control points and new control points were added to the net to strengthen the overall network and improve the standard error of measurement.

  16. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  17. Program control on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, Dorothy J.; Majerowicw, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an integral part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall. TRMM will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms through which tropical rainfall influences global circulation and climate. Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate is responsible for establishing a Project Office for the TRMM to manage, coordinate, and integrate the various organizations involved in the development and operation of this complex satellite. The TRMM observatory, the largest ever developed and built inhouse at GSFC, includes state-of-the-art hardware. It will carry five scientific instruments designed to determine the rate of rainfall and the total rainfall occurring between the north and south latitudes of 35 deg. As a secondary science objective, TRMM will also measure the Earth's radiant energy budget and lightning.

  18. Level measurement and control strategies for subsea separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjertaker, Bjorn T.; Johansen, Geir A.; Jackson, Peter

    2001-07-01

    Level monitoring instrumentation is an essential part of hydrocarbon processing facilities, and has, together with separator technology, been widely addressed over the last decade. Key issues are production capacity, product enhancement, and well-flow control. The reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation, and its ability to monitor all the interface layers of the separator, including the thickness of the foam and the oil-water emulsion, are particularly important when considering the level instrumentation as the main sensing element in the automatic control of the separator vessel. Lately, industry focus has been placed on optimal automatic control to improve the quality of the production output, and to minimize the use of expensive and environmentally undesirable separation enhancing chemicals. Recent developments in hydrocarbon production include subsea separation stations, where the constraints placed on the reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation are especially demanding. This paper presents level interface monitoring developments based on electrical, ultrasonic, thermal, and nucleonic physical principles for three-phase hydrocarbon separators, and introduces the notion of tomometry, meaning multi-point cross-sectional metering aiming to acquire information on the cross-sectional flow-component distribution in the process vessel intended for control purposes.

  19. An Empirical Examination of the Construct Validity of Two Alternative Self-Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    Contrasted a new measure of self-control, the Retrospective Behavioral Self-Control scale (RBS), with the most widespread measure of this construct (H. Grasmick and others, 1993). Results show that the RBS measured the general factor of behavior across samples of 214 and 213 undergraduates and 76 employees, but the other scale, used with only one…

  20. Control of experimental uncertainties in filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.

    1995-01-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering is a technique which allows for measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure in unseeded flows, spatially resolved in 2-dimensions. We present an overview of the major components of a Filtered Rayleigh Scattering system. In particular, we develop and discuss a detailed theoretical model along with associated model parameters and related uncertainties. Based on this model, we then present experimental results for ambient room air and for a Mach 2 free jet, including spatially resolved measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure.

  1. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  2. Calibration and verification of thermographic cameras for geometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagüela, S.; González-Jorge, H.; Armesto, J.; Arias, P.

    2011-03-01

    Infrared thermography is a technique with an increasing degree of development and applications. Quality assessment in the measurements performed with the thermal cameras should be achieved through metrology calibration and verification. Infrared cameras acquire temperature and geometric information, although calibration and verification procedures are only usual for thermal data. Black bodies are used for these purposes. Moreover, the geometric information is important for many fields as architecture, civil engineering and industry. This work presents a calibration procedure that allows the photogrammetric restitution and a portable artefact to verify the geometric accuracy, repeatability and drift of thermographic cameras. These results allow the incorporation of this information into the quality control processes of the companies. A grid based on burning lamps is used for the geometric calibration of thermographic cameras. The artefact designed for the geometric verification consists of five delrin spheres and seven cubes of different sizes. Metrology traceability for the artefact is obtained from a coordinate measuring machine. Two sets of targets with different reflectivity are fixed to the spheres and cubes to make data processing and photogrammetric restitution possible. Reflectivity was the chosen material propriety due to the thermographic and visual cameras ability to detect it. Two thermographic cameras from Flir and Nec manufacturers, and one visible camera from Jai are calibrated, verified and compared using calibration grids and the standard artefact. The calibration system based on burning lamps shows its capability to perform the internal orientation of the thermal cameras. Verification results show repeatability better than 1 mm for all cases, being better than 0.5 mm for the visible one. As it must be expected, also accuracy appears higher in the visible camera, and the geometric comparison between thermographic cameras shows slightly better

  3. Juvenile Delinquency and Some Measures to Control Its Increasing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baginda, Abdullah Malim

    Based mainly on personal experience and conditions prevailing in Malaysia, this discussion of juvenile delinquency explores (1) the extent of the problem; (2) some causative factors from a theoretical viewpoint; (3) criminal justice system provisions for dealing with the problem; and (4) preventive measures. In Malaysia, between 1960 and 1980 the…

  4. Control x-ray deformable mirrors with few measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Idir, Mourad

    2016-09-01

    After years of development from a concept to early experimental stage, X-ray Deformable Mirrors (XDMs) are used in many synchrotron/free-electron laser facilities as a standard x-ray optics tool. XDM is becoming an integral part of the present and future large x-ray and EUV projects and will be essential in exploiting the full potential of the new sources currently under construction. The main objective of using XDMs is to correct wavefront errors or to enable variable focus beam sizes at the sample. Due to the coupling among the N actuators of a DM, it is usually necessary to perform a calibration or training process to drive the DM into the target shape. Commonly, in order to optimize the actuators settings to minimize slope/height errors, an initial measurement need to be collected, with all actuators set to 0, and then either N or 2N measurements are necessary learn each actuator behavior sequentially. In total, it means that N+1 or 2N+1 scans are required to perform this learning process. When the actuators number N is important and the actuator response or the necessary metrology is slow then this learning process can be time consuming. In this work, we present a fast and accurate method to drive an x-ray active bimorph mirror to a target shape with only 3 or 4 measurements. Instead of sequentially measuring and calculating the influence functions of all actuators and then predicting the voltages needed for any desired shape, the metrology data are directly used to "guide" the mirror from its current status towards the particular target slope/height via iterative compensations. The feedback for the iteration process is the discrepancy in curvature calculated by using B-spline fitting of the measured height/slope data. In this paper, the feasibility of this simple and effective approach is demonstrated with experiments.

  5. Control response measurements of the Skyship-500 airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Hogue, J. R.; Gelhausen, P.

    1985-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the Skyship 500's dynamic response to control inputs from elevators, rudders, and throttles at zero, 25, and 40 kts indicated airspeed. Input frequency sweeps were made with pitch and turn controls at 25 and 40 kts, ranging in frequency from about 0.03 to 1.5 Hz. FFT data analysis was then applied to compute describing functions for each run. Frequency responses are noted to be very smooth, and comparisons between repeat runs indicate excellent agreement. Summary plots of the faired describing functions from each run form the core of the data presented. These data constitute a comprehensive and reliable data base on which to predicate future dynamic simulation mathematical models of small airship dynamic response.

  6. Navy Flying Clubs: Management Control Systems and Performance Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    BUPERS Instruction 1710.22. The budget is not combined with the local MWR budget when the overall MWR budget is submitted to MWR headquarters. The...to evaluate Monterey Navy Flying Clubs control systems is a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. The strengths and...on the local MWR business office to provide the business guidance for each flying club. [Ref. 1] The implied assumption is that the business office

  7. Terminal Radar Approach Control: Measures of Voice Communications System Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    communication. — Marshall McLuhan Canadian communications and media theorist and Quentin Fiore The Medium Is the Massage, Random House (967...communicaTions sysTem performance Societies have always been shaped more by the nature of the media by which men communicate than by the content of the...and repetitive nature of ATC communications and its constrained phraseology, controllers and pilots have the ability to understand distorted, and

  8. Measurement methodology in children's health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Bases, Hugh; Schonfeld, David J

    2002-06-01

    Health locus of control scales for children are often constructed in an agree/disagree format. It was hypothesized that the structure of the instrument may be in part responsible for the finding that young children (7-8 yr) have an external health locus of control relevant to children several years older. The original version and a revised version, using a choice of attribution format, were both administered to 444 students (98% of eligible students) attending 10 second-grade classes. Although the mean scores for the two formats were the same, 32.0 (SD = 3.3), item level analyses showed poor agreement (kappa, -.005-.41) and significant bias in disagreements on 15 of the 20 items. Changes in the wording of the questions led to different results, indicating possible limitations in either format. The observation that young children likely have a mixed health locus of control indicates that health educators may benefit from employing both internal and external sources of reinforcement to promote healthy behaviors in young children.

  9. Measurement and control of plasma oscillations in femtosecond filaments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B; Houard, A; Liu, Y; Prade, B; Mysyrowicz, A; Couairon, A; Mora, P; Smeenk, C; Arissian, L; Corkum, P

    2011-06-24

    The short-lived longitudinal plasma oscillations generated during filamentation in argon and nitrogen gas are measured with a specially designed current monitor. The magnitude and initial direction of the corresponding currents depend sensitively on laser polarization and nature of the gas. The results are interpreted as resulting from the competition between two forces acting on free electrons born during the filamentation process: the Lorentz laser force and a Coulomb wake force resulting from a lateral expansion of the plasma.

  10. Measurement and Control of Plasma Oscillations in Femtosecond Filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, B.; Houard, A.; Liu, Y.; Prade, B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Couairon, A.; Mora, P.; Smeenk, C.; Arissian, L.; Corkum, P.

    2011-06-24

    The short-lived longitudinal plasma oscillations generated during filamentation in argon and nitrogen gas are measured with a specially designed current monitor. The magnitude and initial direction of the corresponding currents depend sensitively on laser polarization and nature of the gas. The results are interpreted as resulting from the competition between two forces acting on free electrons born during the filamentation process: the Lorentz laser force and a Coulomb wake force resulting from a lateral expansion of the plasma.

  11. Measures of Similarity for Command and Control Situation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Resnik proposed to use information content[17]. He reasoned that if we consider the taxon- omy to be a source of information, that we could effectively...determined by the specific probabilistic profile of that source2. From this, Resnik proposed that the degree of similarity between concepts within a...379–423,623–656, 1948. [17] Philip Resnik . Semantic similarity in a taxonomy: An information-based measure and its application to problems of

  12. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  13. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  14. An Improved Tumour Temperature Measurement and Control Method for Superficial Tumour Ultrasound Hyperthermia Therapeutic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen1, G. F.; Chen, Y. Z.; Ren, G. X.

    2006-10-01

    In tumour hyperthermia therapy, the research on measurement and control of tumour temperature is very important. Based on the hardware platform of superficial tumour ultrasound hyperthermia therapeutic system, an improved tumour temperature measurement and control method is presented in this paper. The experiment process, data and results are discussed in detail. The improved method will greatly reduce the pain and dread of the patients during the therapy period on the tumour temperature measurement and control by using the pinhead sensor.

  15. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have

  16. Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Inbody, M. A.; Borup, R. L.; Tafoya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

  17. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  18. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  19. Measurements of fluid transport by controllable vertical migrations of plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isabel A.; Dabiri, John O.

    2016-11-01

    Diel vertical migration of zooplankton has been proposed to be a significant contributor to local and possibly large-scale fluid transport in the ocean. However, studies of this problem to date have been limited to order-of-magnitude estimates based on first principles and a small number of field observations. In this work, we leverage the phototactic behavior of zooplankton to stimulate controllable vertical migrations in the laboratory and to study the associated fluid transport and mixing. Building upon a previous prototype system, a laser guidance system induces vertical swimming of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in a 2.1 meter tall, density-stratified water tank. The animal swimming speed and spacing during the controlled vertical migration is characterized with video analysis. A schlieren imaging system is utilized to visualize density perturbations to a stable stratification for quantification of fluid displacement length scales and restratification timescales. These experiments can add to our understanding of the dynamics of active particles in stratified flows. NSF and US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  20. Fed-batch control based upon the measurement of intracellular NADH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armiger, W. B.; Lee, J. F.; Montalvo, L. M.; Forro, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments demonstrating that on-line measurements of intracellular NADH by culture fluorescence can be used to monitor and control the fermentation process are described. A distinct advantage of intercellular NADH measurements over other monitoring techniques such as pH and dissolved oxygen is that it directly measures real time events occurring within the cell rather than changes in the environment. When coupled with other measurement parameters, it can provide a finer degree of sophistication in process control.

  1. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  2. The Importance of Optical Pathlength Control for Plasma Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, M.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An inductively coupled GEC Cell with modified viewing ports has been used to measure in-situ absorption in CF4 plasmas via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and the results compared to those obtained in a standard viewport configuration. The viewing ports were modified so that the window boundary is inside, rather than outside, of the GEC cell. Because the absorption obtained is a spatially integrated absorption, measurements made represent an averaging of absorbing species inside and outside of the plasma. This modification is made to reduce this spatial averaging and thus allow a more accurate estimation of neutral species concentrations and temperatures within the plasmas. By reducing this pathlength, we find that the apparent CF4 consumption increases from 65% to 95% and the apparent vibrational temperature of CF4 rises by 50-75 K. The apparent fraction of etch product SiF4 decreases from 4% to 2%. The data suggests that these density changes may be due to significant temperature gradients between the plasma and chamber viewports.

  3. Clonal mixtures of Salix - a control measure for rust

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, A.R.; Dawson, W.M.; Allen C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Willow grown in short rotation coppice can be used as a renewable energy source. However, disease caused by Melampsora epitea var. epitea can be a severely limiting factor on its productivity. Populations of this pathogen in N. Ireland have been shown to be composed of at least fourteen pathotypes. Pathotype composition was influenced by time, age and clone. Fungicides were unacceptable to control disease, therefore the use of clonal mixtures was employed as an alternative strategy. When grown in mixtures the onset of disease was delayed, its build up slowed and final levels reduced. This was reflected in increased yield. Current work investigating the effect of planting density and increasing mixture diversity indicates that neither have a major impact on disease.

  4. Overview of Zika infection, epidemiology, transmission and control measures.

    PubMed

    Rabaan, Ali A; Bazzi, Ali M; Al-Ahmed, Shamsah H; Al-Ghaith, Mohamed H; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    The current Zika virus outbreak in the Americas and the proposed link to increases in microcephaly and neurological disorders have prompted the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and potentially by transfusion, perinatal and sexual transmission. The potential for spread into countries where Aedes mosquitoes are endemic is high. Previously, cases tended to be sporadic and associated with mild, non-specific symptoms. Prior outbreaks occurred in Yap Island in Micronesia in 2007, the first time Zika arose outside of Africa and Asia, and in French Polynesia in 2013. A birth data review has confirmed that the latter outbreak was followed by an increase in microcephaly cases. A coordinated international response is needed to address mosquito control; expedite development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and specific treatments for Zika; and address the proposed link to microcephaly and neurological diseases.

  5. Lava Flow Hazard Assessment at Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde on the Base of Combined Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Photogrammetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, N.; Favalli, M.; De Zeeuw van Dalfsen, E.; Fornaciai, A.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Perez, N. M.; Levy, J.; Victoria, S. S.; Walter, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    On November 23, 2014, after almost 20 years of dormancy, a major Hawaiian- to Strombolian-type eruption started at Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The eruption was very similar in style to previous eruptions and occurred from a vent at the western flank of the Pico do Fogo stratocone (2829 m). During this eruption, about 200 residential buildings and a significant portion of agricultural land were destroyed by lava flows. Also, the only road was blocked by lava, impeding evacuation and emergency response. As future eruptions could follow a similar pattern, and reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure has commenced, a detailed analysis of the pre- and post-eruptive topography, as well as a comprehensive lava flow hazard and risk assessment are needed. During a field campaign in January 2015, we collected Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and photogrammetric data. We construct a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from almost 165 million TLS data points, covering 87.7 % of the new lava flows and most of the Chã das Caldeiras. We use the photogrammetric data and the Structure from Motion (SfM) method to cover the remaining 12.3 % of the affected area. By combining the TLS and SfM datasets, we construct an updated and high-quality DEM, including details on the lava flow morphology and the 2014/2015 eruptive vent. We estimate the total erupted lava volume and area by subtracting a pre-eruptive from the post-eruptive DEM. Based on this dataset, we are able to assess the lava flow hazard by simulating possible lava flow paths using the DOWNFLOW probabilistic code. We use a pre-eruptive DEM to reconstruct the flow paths of the 2014/2015 eruption. The new post-eruptive DEM is used to forecast possible future lava flow paths. We combine the hazard map with information on existing infrastructure (i.e. roads and settlements) in order to estimate the lava flow risk. As a final result we provide up-to-date lava flow hazard and risk maps for Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde.

  6. 4D photogrammetric technique to study free surface water in open channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, Damien; Berkaoui, Amine; Vinatier, Fabrice; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Belaud, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of three-dimensional surface water are considered as the most valuable information to understand hydrodynamic phenomena in open channel flow. An accurate and coherent description of the free water surface morphology improves the accuracy of hydraulic models which study river processes. However, amongst existing techniques to measure three-dimensional surface, stereo-photogrammetry is clearly the most effective technique to obtain an instantaneous and high accurate 3D free water surface and it's suitable to both flume and field condition. Our study aims at developing this technique in two controlled channels, one in interior with glass borders (length: 6 m, width: 0.3 m and depth: 0.5 m) and one outside with cement borders (length: 13 m, width: 0.7 m and depth: 0.4 m). A system consisting in three NIKON-D3200 cameras, mounted to an adjustable tripod head, which is fixed to an inverted aluminium T-bar with the center camera higher than the two side cameras. Each camera is fitted with a 28 mm lens and cameras are synchronized using a Phottix(R) system. The system was mounted at a downstream position from the channel with an oblique configuration. A series of pictures taken at a 3 s interval during the water weight bearing were reported and analyzed using the Photoscan Pro(R) software for image matching. Validation procedure of the technique was realized using an orthophotography of the lateral border of the interior channel to delimit the line of water surface, and using a video capture of a slide fixed inside the outside channel. A high resolution and dynamic elevation map of the surface water was constructed. Our study give encouraging results, with a good capture of water surface morphology and a limited occlusion issues. The confrontation of the results with the validation dataset highlight limitations that need to be discussed with the audience.

  7. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Powis, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Spacesuit navigation is one component of NASA s efforts to return humans to the Moon. Studies performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) considered various navigation technologies and filtering approaches to enable navigation on the lunar surface. As part of this effort, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) were studied to determine if they could supplement a radiometric infrastructure. MEMS IMUs were included in the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System (LECLDS) testbed during NASA s annual Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) event in 2009 and 2010. The testbed included one IMU in 2009 and three IMUs in 2010, along with a custom circuit board interfacing between the navigation processor and each IMU. The board was revised for the 2010 test, and this paper documents the design details of this latest revision of the interface circuit board and firmware.

  8. Well-being and control in older persons: the prediction of well-being from control measures.

    PubMed

    Smits, C H; Deeg, D J; Bosscher, R J

    1995-01-01

    The interrelation of six facets of control and their ability to predict well-being in older persons were studied in an age and gender stratified community sample aged fifty-five to eighty-nine. An extended conceptual framework of control facets is introduced including "established" facets, such as mastery, self-efficacy and internal health locus of control and "new" control facets such as neuroticism, social inadequacy, and sense of coherence. An interview and a postal questionnaire included measures of the control facets and the Affect Balance Scale. Correlations between control measures were mostly modest. Negative affect was predicted by neuroticism and sense of coherence. Tendencies of independent association of mastery with global well-being and of social inadequacy with positive affect were established.

  9. Salmonella control measures with special focus on vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures.

    PubMed

    Hotes, S; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2011-10-01

    This study focussed on the effectiveness of Salmonella control measures to decrease Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. Considered measures were the control of hygiene and husbandry management as well as vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures. Results emphasized the capabilities of the farrowing stage to influence slaughter pig prevalence. Limited Salmonella entry by the implementation of hygiene control measures at farrowing farms obtained a significant decrease in prevalence after lairage at slaughterhouse. In contrast, hygiene control measures at finishing stage were less effective. Husbandry control measures, preventing physical contacts between pigs, were proved to decrease slaughter pig prevalence whether they were implemented at farrowing or finishing stage. Furthermore, the vaccination of sows and piglets was an appropriate control measure to decrease slaughter pig prevalence, if a large part of farms established this control measure. Simultaneous implementation of control measures showed that vaccination and especially hygiene measures are mutually supportive. Concerning logistic slaughter procedures it became obvious that with decreasing prevalence, infections at transport and lairage become more and more important. The herd status separation significantly decreased the percentage of infected pigs that became infected at lairage.

  10. Rotavirus vaccine: a cost effective control measure for India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Goel, Manish K; Jain, Ram Bilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Vibha, Vibha

    2012-04-01

    Globally, rotavirus diarrhea results in 453,000 deaths in children younger than 5 y—37% of deaths attributable to diarrhea and 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 y. India alone accounts for 22% (~100,000 deaths) of all deaths attributable to rotavirus infection. Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available: Rotarix, a monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline), and RotaTeq, a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine (Merck). Rotarix is administered in a 2-dose schedule with the first and second doses of DTP (DTP1, DTP2). RotaTeq requires a 3-dose schedule with DTP1, DTP2 and DTP3 with an interval of 4–10 weeks between doses. The first dose of either vaccine should be administered to infants aged 6–15 weeks irrespective of the history of previous rotavirus infection, and the maximum age for administering the last dose of either vaccine should be 32 weeks. Although India would require funding from international health organizations/GAVI until new indigenous rotavirus vaccine candidates are developed at a cheaper price, introduction of vaccination into the national immunization program would be a cost-effective step toward control of the rotavirus diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in India.

  11. NSF nanomanufacturing program and its implications for measurement and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2013-09-01

    The NSF Nanomanufacturing Program supports fundamental research in novel methods and techniques for batch and continuous processes, and top-down and bottom-up processes leading to the formation of complex nanostructures, nanodevices and nanosystems. The program leverages advances in the understanding of nano-scale phenomena and processes, nanomaterials discovery, novel nanostructure architectures, innovative nanodevice and nanosystem design. It seeks to address issues such as quality, efficiency, scalability, reliability, safety and affordability. The program encourages research in the development of new nano-scale processes and production systems based on computation, modeling and simulation and use of process sensing, monitoring, and control. Research in instrumentation and metrology is an integral part of the program. Additionally, the program supports education of the next generation of researchers, and encourages building a workforce trained in nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing systems. It is also interested in understanding long-term societal implications of large-scale production and use of nano-scale materials. For this, it encourages the development of standards. This paper will describe the program philosophy.

  12. Specification, Measurement, and Control of Electrical Switching Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, K.

    1999-01-01

    There have been several instances of susceptibility to switching transients. The Space Shuttle Spacelab Remote Acquisition Unit (RAU-A standard interface between Spacelab payloads and the Shuttle communications system) will shut down if the input 28 Vdc bus drops below 22 volts for more than 80 gs. Although a MIL-STD-461 derivative CS06 requirement was levied on the RAU, it failed to find this susceptibility. A heavy payload on one aircraft sags the 28 volt bus below 20 volts for milliseconds. Dc-dc converters have an operating voltage. A typical 28 Vdc-to-5 Vdc converter operates within tolerance when input potential is between 17-40 Vdc, A hold-up capacitor can be used to extend the time this range is presented to the convener when the line potential sags or surges outside this range. The designer must know the range of normal transients in order to choose the correct value of hold-up. This report describes the phenomena of electrical power bus transients induced by the switching of loads both on and off the bus, and control thereof.

  13. EPA Summaries and Reports on Several State and Local PM Control Measures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A sample of existing control measures and their effectiveness, along with recommendations for improvement, can help states develop better control measures for reducing PM2.5 in order to attain 2012 PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

  14. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling…

  15. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  16. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  17. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  19. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the National Capital Air Quality Control Region. I - Measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Lamontagne, R. A.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Carbon Monoxide Pollution Experiment (COPE) and the National Capital Air Quality Control Region (NCAQCR) undertook a series of measurements of atmospheric CO and CH4 to determine the accuracy of the airborne COPE Correlation Interfer4meter. The device, a modified Michelson interferometer, measures the atmospheric column density of CO and CH4 at 2.3 microns with tropospheric measurement sensitivities of 70 and 10 PPB, respectively. Data for evaluating the remote measurements included atmospheric column density measurements at a ground truth site using a van-mounted infrared Fourier spectrometer; continuous ground level gas chromatographic measurements; and chromatographic data from atmospheric grab samples collected by aircraft and at ground locations. The instruments and sampling techniques used in the experiment are described in detail.

  20. Fluorescence measurements of the thermal control experiments coatings on LDEF S0069 and A0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.; Mell, R. J.; Peters, P. N.; Gregory, J. C.; Wilkes, D. R.; Miller, E. R.

    1993-01-01

    Fluorescence measurements were made on the thermal control coatings from the Long Duration Experiment Facility (LDEF) S0069, Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE); and the A0114, Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Material Surfaces in Low Earth orbit. Fluorescence was observed in two types of thermal control coatings and is attributed to pigments or binders. In addition, fluorescence measurement on the silver Teflon from the front cover of TCSE led to confirmation of damage (cracking) to the metal layers during application.

  1. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  2. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  3. The 1982 control network of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to a planet-wide control network of Mars that was computed in September 1982 using a large single-block analytical triangulation with 47,524 measurements of 6853 control points on 1054 Mariner 9 and 757 Viking pictures. In all, 19,139 normal equations were solved, with a resulting standard error of measurement of 18.06 microns. The control points identified by name and letter designation are given, as are the aerographic coordinates of the control points. In addition, the coordinates of the Viking I lander site are given: latitude, 22.480 deg; longitude, 47.962 deg (radius, 3389.32 km). This study expands and updates the previously published network (1978). It is noted that the computation differs in many respects from standard aerial mapping photogrammetric practice. In comparison with aerial mapping photography, the television formats are small and the focal lengths are long; stereo coverage is rare, the scale of the pictures varies greatly, and the residual camera distortions are large.

  4. Measurement and control system design for the assembly of stator can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. H.; Jiang, W.

    2017-01-01

    Stator can assembly is one of difficult issues in the manufacturing of AP1000 nuclear reactor coolant pumps. A new measurement and control system is developed to ensure precise assembly of the ultrathin stator can with large length to thickness ratio on the stator core. The system includes three parts: hydraulic pressure measurement and control, deformation measurement of the can and displacement measurement of valve core. Since deformation of the can is hard to measure, a new method by measuring the bulge displacement of the can is proposed. With the help of the system, the loading path can be accurately controlled and the deformation can be precisely measured. The system provides possibility for the detailed study of assembly process. Finally, the feasibility of the system in the experiment rig of a reduced scale is verified.

  5. 75 FR 35092 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Performance Measurement Surveys. As required... high quality and diverse workforce. Performance measurement surveys are valuable tools to...

  6. Accuracy of Measurements in Oblique Aerial Images for Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, W.

    2016-10-01

    Oblique aerial images have been a source of data for urban areas for several years. However, the accuracy of measurements in oblique images during this time has been limited to a single meter due to the use of direct -georeferencing technology and the underlying digital elevation model. Therefore, oblique images have been used mostly for visualization purposes. This situation changed in recent years as new methods, which allowed for a higher accuracy of exterior orientation, were developed. Current developments include the process of determining exterior orientation and the previous but still crucial process of tie point extraction. Progress in this area was shown in the ISPRS/EUROSDR Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry and is also noticeable in the growing interest in the use of this kind of imagery. The higher level of accuracy in the orientation of oblique aerial images that has become possible in the last few years should result in a higher level of accuracy in the measurements of these types of images. The main goal of this research was to set and empirically verify the accuracy of measurements in oblique aerial images. The research focused on photogrammetric measurements composed of many images, which use a high overlap within an oblique dataset and different view angles. During the experiments, two series of images of urban areas were used. Both were captured using five DigiCam cameras in a Maltese cross configuration. The tilt angles of the oblique cameras were 45 degrees, and the position of the cameras during flight used a high grade GPS/INS navigation system. The orientation of the images was set using the Pix4D Mapper Pro software with both measurements of the in-flight camera position and the ground control points (measured with GPS RTK technology). To control the accuracy, check points were used (which were also measured with GPS RTK technology). As reference data for the whole study, an area of the city-based map was used. The archived results

  7. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  8. Automatic Control System of Ion Electrostatic Accelerator and Anti-Interference Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenwu; Huo, Yuping; Liu, Gencheng; Li, Yuxiao; Li, Tao

    2007-02-01

    An automatic control system for the electrostatic accelerator has been developed by adopting the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technique, infrared and optical-fibre transmission technique and network communication with the purpose to improve the intelligence level of the accelerator and to enhance the ability of monitoring, collecting and recording parameters. In view of the control system' structure, some anti-interference measures have been adopted after analyzing the interference sources. The measures in hardware include controlling the position of the corona needle, using surge arresters, shielding, ground connection and stabilizing the voltage. The measures in terms of software involve inter-blocking protection, soft-spacing, time delay, and diagnostic and protective programs. The electromagnetic compatible ability of the control system has thus been effectively improved.

  9. Measurement and Control System Based on Wireless Senor Network for Granary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian

    A wireless measurement and control system for granary is developed for the sake of overcoming the shortcoming of the wired measurement and control system such as complex wiring and low anti-interference capacity. In this system, Zigbee technology is applied with Zigbee protocol stack development platform by TI, and wireless senor network is used to collect and control the temperature and the humidity. It is composed of the upper PC, central control node based on CC2530, sensor nodes, sensor modules and the executive device. The wireless sensor node is programmed by C language in IAR Embedded Workbench for MCS-51 Evaluation environment. The upper PC control system software is developed based on Visual C++ 6.0 platform. It is shown by experiments that data transmission in the system is accurate and reliable and the error of the temperature and humidity is below 2%, meeting the functional requirements for the granary measurement and control system.

  10. LANL's near-real-time measurement control bolt-on to LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, Ruel D; Boyle, Caroline M

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has created a near-real-time Measurement Control Program (MCP) that integrates with Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS). The program was designed to take the place of an aging accounting system at LANL which incorporated the measurement control. LANL's Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) group developed many bolt-on features to enhance LANMAS called LAM CAS (Los Alamos Material Control and Accounting System), one of those bolt-on enhancements was to develop the MCP to replace the previous version. MCP was developed with the multiple end-user groups in mind by creating a near-real-time system that was user friendly, provided access controls, and account status of the measurement control systems.

  11. A Laser-Based Measuring System for Online Quality Control of Car Engine Block

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Lu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    For online quality control of car engine production, pneumatic measurement instrument plays an unshakeable role in measuring diameters inside engine block because of its portability and high-accuracy. To the limitation of its measuring principle, however, the working space between the pneumatic device and measured surface is too small to require manual operation. This lowers the measuring efficiency and becomes an obstacle to perform automatic measurement. In this article, a high-speed, automatic measuring system is proposed to take the place of pneumatic devices by using a laser-based measuring unit. The measuring unit is considered as a set of several measuring modules, where each of them acts like a single bore gauge and is made of four laser triangulation sensors (LTSs), which are installed on different positions and in opposite directions. The spatial relationship among these LTSs was calibrated before measurements. Sampling points from measured shaft holes can be collected by the measuring unit. A unified mathematical model was established for both calibration and measurement. Based on the established model, the relative pose between the measuring unit and measured workpiece does not impact the measuring accuracy. This frees the measuring unit from accurate positioning or adjustment, and makes it possible to realize fast and automatic measurement. The proposed system and method were finally validated by experiments. PMID:27834839

  12. A Laser-Based Measuring System for Online Quality Control of Car Engine Block.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Lu-Hua

    2016-11-08

    For online quality control of car engine production, pneumatic measurement instrument plays an unshakeable role in measuring diameters inside engine block because of its portability and high-accuracy. To the limitation of its measuring principle, however, the working space between the pneumatic device and measured surface is too small to require manual operation. This lowers the measuring efficiency and becomes an obstacle to perform automatic measurement. In this article, a high-speed, automatic measuring system is proposed to take the place of pneumatic devices by using a laser-based measuring unit. The measuring unit is considered as a set of several measuring modules, where each of them acts like a single bore gauge and is made of four laser triangulation sensors (LTSs), which are installed on different positions and in opposite directions. The spatial relationship among these LTSs was calibrated before measurements. Sampling points from measured shaft holes can be collected by the measuring unit. A unified mathematical model was established for both calibration and measurement. Based on the established model, the relative pose between the measuring unit and measured workpiece does not impact the measuring accuracy. This frees the measuring unit from accurate positioning or adjustment, and makes it possible to realize fast and automatic measurement. The proposed system and method were finally validated by experiments.

  13. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  14. Use of inert C&D materials for seawall foundation: quality control measures.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert T; Tham, L G; Lee, Peter K K; Mok, K Y; Pei, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    The technical viability of using inert construction and demolition (C&D) materials for the construction of seawall and breakwater foundations has been established by laboratory testing of the materials, numerical analysis of foundation stability, and a pilot field-scale engineering performance evaluation. However, quality control measures are still required so that only suitable materials are used for seawall and breakwater foundation construction. The development of different quality control measures for different site conditions is presented in this paper. The rationale, practicality, and implementation of these quality control measures are also discussed.

  15. Brief Report: Negative Controls to Detect Selection Bias and Measurement Bias in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Colford, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical laboratory experiments routinely use negative controls to identify possible sources of bias, but epidemiologic studies have infrequently used this type of control in their design or measurement approach. Recently, epidemiologists proposed the routine use of negative controls in observational studies and defined the structure of negative controls to detect bias due to unmeasured confounding. We extend this previous study and define the structure of negative controls to detect selection bias and measurement bias in both observational studies and randomized trials. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of negative controls in this context using examples from the epidemiologic literature. Given their demonstrated utility and broad generalizability, the routine use of prespecified negative controls will strengthen the evidence from epidemiologic studies. PMID:27182642

  16. Controlled banked turns in coleopteran flight measured by a miniature wireless inertial measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Cao, Feng; Thang Vo Doan, Tat; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-09-28

    The mechanisms and principles of insect flight have long been investigated by researchers working on micro and nano air vehicles (MAVs/NAVs). However, studies of insect flight maneuvers require high speed filming and high spatial resolution in a small experimental space, or the tethering of the insect to a fixed place. Under such artificial conditions, the insects may deviate its flying behavior from that of regular flight. In this study, we mounted a tiny wireless system, or 'backpack', on live beetles (Mecynorrhina torquata; length 62 ± 8 mm; mass 7.4 ± 1.3 g) freely flying in a large laboratory space. The backpack contains a micro inertial measurement unit (IMU) that was especially designed and manufactured for this purpose. Owing to the small mass (∼1.30 g) and dimensions (∼2.3 cm(2)) of the backpack and the high accuracy of the IMU, we could remotely record the beetle in free flight. The free flight data revealed a strong linear correlation between the roll angle and yaw angular velocity. The strength of the correlation was quantified by the correlation coefficients and mean values. The change in roll angle preceded the change in yaw angular velocity. Moreover, there were frequent fluctuations in the roll angular velocity, which were uncorrelated with the yaw angular velocity. Apart from the strong correlation, these findings imply that Mecynorrhina torquata actively manipulates its roll rotation without coupling to the yaw rotation.

  17. Comparing data of terrestrial LiDAR and UAV (photogrammetric) in the context of the project "SedAlp"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Judith; Wegner, Kerstin; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Becht, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The project "SedAlp" (Sediment management in Alpine basins: integrating sediment continuum, risk mitigation and hydropower) concentrates on problems and approaches related to sediment transfer in the alpine region and is embedded in the European transnational cooperation program "Alpine Space". The catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt contributes the German part to this project on behalf of the Bavarian Environment Agency and in collaboration with the Authority of Water Resources Weilheim. The area of interest is the river Isar between the Sylvenstein reservoir and the city of Bad Tölz, Bavaria, Germany. The main aim of the activities is to quantify the transfer of sediments from the tributary catchments to the river Isar, specifically in light of the fact that the construction of the Sylvenstein reservoir in the mid 1950ies has created a barrier to longitudinal sediment transfer, thus heavily impacting the sediment budget and morphodynamics of the Isar reaches downstream. Moreover, the further development of artificially inserted gravel deposits and the effect of dismantling reinforcement structures at the river banks need investigation. Therefore, the dynamics of alluvial fans and gravel bars in the areas of confluence of tributary torrents are monitored using multitemporal surveys with terrestrial laserscanners and drone-based imagery. The latter is used both for the generation of high-resolution digital elevation models and for the mapping of changes in comparison to historical aerial photos. This study focuses on a comparison of TLS and UAV-based photogrammetric digital elevation models in order to highlight advantages and disadvantages of the two methods in relation to the SedAlp-specific research problems. It is shown that UAV-based elevation models are highly accurate alternatives to TLS-based models; due to their favourable acquisition geometry with respect to the topography in floodplain areas, and their large areal coverage, their use is seen as

  18. Effects of urbanization and stormwater control measures on streamflows in the vicinity of Clarksburg, Maryland, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the efficacy of revised watershed management methods is important to mitigating the impacts of urbanization on streamflow. We evaluated the influence of land use change, primarily as urbanization, and stormwater control measures on the relationship between precipita...

  19. Automatic control of a drop-foot stimulator based on angle measurement using bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Nahrstaedt, Holger; Schauer, Thomas; Shalaby, Raafat; Hesse, Stefan; Raisch, Jörg

    2008-08-01

    The topic of this contribution is iterative learning control of a drop-foot stimulator in which a predefined angle profile during the swing phase is realized. Ineffective dorsiflexion is compensated by feedback-controlled stimulation of the muscle tibialis anterior. The ankle joint measurement is based on changes in the bioimpedance (BI) caused by leg movements. A customized four-channel BI measurement system was developed. The suggested control approach and the new measurement method for the joint angle were successfully tested in preliminary experiments with a neurologically intact subject. Reference angle measurements were taken with a marker-based optical system. An almost linear relation between joint angle and BI was found for the angle range applicable during gait. The desired angle trajectory was closely tracked by the iterative learning controller after three gait cycles. The final root mean square tracking error was below 5 degrees.

  20. Spatial and temporal structure within moisture measurements of a stormwater control system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture sensing is a mature soil research technology commonly applied to agriculture. Such sensors may be appropriated for use in novel stormwater research applications. Knowledge of moisture (with respect to space and time) in infiltration based stormwater control measures (SCM...

  1. Field Test Results from Lidar Measured Yaw Control for Improved Yaw Alignment with the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Slinger, C.; Medley, J.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes field tests of a light detection and ranging (lidar) device placed forward looking on the nacelle of a wind turbine and used as a wind direction measurement to directly control the yaw position of a wind turbine. Conventionally, a wind turbine controls its yaw direction using a nacelle-mounted wind vane. If there is a bias in the measurement from the nacelle-mounted wind vane, a reduction in power production will be observed. This bias could be caused by a number of issues such as: poor calibration, electromagnetic interference, rotor wake, or other effects. With a lidar mounted on the nacelle, a measurement of the wind could be made upstream of the wind turbine where the wind is not being influenced by the rotor's wake or induction zone. Field tests were conducted with the lidar measured yaw system and the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system. Results show that a lidar can be used to effectively measure the yaw error of the wind turbine, and for this experiment, they also showed an improvement in power capture because of reduced yaw misalignment when compared to the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system.

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  3. Photogrammetric Tracking of Aerodynamic Surfaces and Aerospace Models at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortis, Mark R.; Robson, Stuart; Jones, Thomas W.; Goad, William K.; Lunsford, Charles B.

    2016-06-01

    Aerospace engineers require measurements of the shape of aerodynamic surfaces and the six degree of freedom (6DoF) position and orientation of aerospace models to analyse structural dynamics and aerodynamic forces. The measurement technique must be non-contact, accurate, reliable, have a high sample rate and preferably be non-intrusive. Close range photogrammetry based on multiple, synchronised, commercial-off-the-shelf digital cameras can supply surface shape and 6DoF data at 5-15Hz with customisable accuracies. This paper describes data acquisition systems designed and implemented at NASA Langley Research Center to capture surface shapes and 6DoF data. System calibration and data processing techniques are discussed. Examples of experiments and data outputs are described.

  4. Modular Implementation of Feature Extraction and Matching Algorithms for Photogrammetric Stereo Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    features determined by the "Moravec interest" of a point. The interest is a measure of how much the point stands out from its local neighbourhood in a... neighbourhood . If any other point in the neighbourhood is bigger, then the current value is set to zero. Prune_Feature_Points source code file...S calls to: None Description: This routine creates space for the neighbourhoods . S GetNeighbourhood source code file: relaxation.c, relaxation-NN.c

  5. Beam Physics Dissertation Award Talk: Feedback Control of Coupled-Bunch Instabilities: Measurement of System Dynamics and Controller Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2004-05-01

    Modern light sources and circular colliders incorporate high currents with large numbers of populated bunches. At the design currents coupling of bunches via resonant structures causes unstable motion so that operation of these accelerators requires active feedback instability control. Design of stabilizing feedback algorithms is a challenging optimization and control problem involving multiple trade-offs. In this talk the process of feedback controller design will be presented starting from quantifying the behavior of unstable eigenvalues as a function of beam current, beam energy, and other accelerator parameters. I will describe how the the diagnostic capabilities of the longitudinal feedback system are used to measure relevant beam and feedback system parameters. These measurements allow one to create a model of the closed-loop system for off-line testing of the proposed controllers. Comparison of the models with experimental measurements will be presented. Next I will present a method for design of robust stabilizing feedback controllers based on the approximation of a frequency-domain transfer function. The method will be illustrated with design examples and operational results from ALS, DAΦNE, and BESSY-II.

  6. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  7. Thermal monitoring, measurement, and control system for a Volatile Condensable Materials (VCM) test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermal monitoring and control concept is described for a volatile condensable materials (VCM) test apparatus where electric resistance heaters are employed. The technique is computer based, but requires only proportioning ON/OFF relay control signals supplied through a programmable scanner and simple quadrac power controllers. System uniqueness is derived from automatic temperature measurements and the averaging of these measurements in discrete overlapping temperature zones. Overall control tolerance proves to be better than + or - 0.5 C from room ambient temperature to 150 C. Using precisely calibrated thermocouples, the method provides excellent temperature control of a small copper VCM heating plate at 125 + or - 0.2 C over a 24 hr test period. For purposes of unattended operation, the programmable computer/controller provides a continual data printout of system operation. Real time operator command is also provided for, as is automatic shutdown of the system and operator alarm in the event of malfunction.

  8. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  9. Statistical Process Control Charts for Measuring and Monitoring Temporal Consistency of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, M. Hafidz

    2010-01-01

    Methods of statistical process control were briefly investigated in the field of educational measurement as early as 1999. However, only the use of a cumulative sum chart was explored. In this article other methods of statistical quality control are introduced and explored. In particular, methods in the form of Shewhart mean and standard deviation…

  10. Measurement of asthma control according to global initiative for asthma guidelines: a comparison with the asthma control questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a validated tool to measure asthma control. Cut-off points that best discriminate “well-controlled” or “not well-controlled” asthma have been suggested from the analysis of a large randomized clinical trial but they may not be adequate for daily clinical practice. Aims To establish cut-off points of the ACQ that best discriminate the level of control according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2006 guidelines in patients with asthma managed at Allergology and Pulmonology Departments as well as Primary Care Centers in Spain. Patients and methods An epidemiological descriptive study, with prospective data collection. Asthma control following GINA-2006 classification and 7-item ACQ was assessed. The study population was split in two parts: 2/3 for finding the cut-off points (development population) and 1/3 for validating the results (validation population). Results A total of 1,363 stable asthmatic patients were included (mean age 38 ± 14 years, 60.3% women; 69.1% non-smokers). Patient classification according to GINA-defined asthma control was: controlled 13.6%, partially controlled 34.2%, and uncontrolled 52.3%. The ACQ cut-off points that better agreed with GINA-defined asthma control categories were calculated using receiver operating curves (ROC). The analysis showed that ACQ < 0.5 was the optimal cut-off point for “controlled asthma” (sensitivity 74.1%, specificity 77.5%) and 1.00 for “uncontrolled asthma” (sensitivity 73%, specificity 88.2%). Kappa index between GINA categories and ACQ was 0.62 (p < 0.001). Conclusion The ACQ cut-off points associated with GINA-defined asthma control in a real-life setting were <0.5 for controlled asthma and ≥1 for uncontrolled asthma. PMID:22726416

  11. 10 CFR 71.125 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 71.125 Section 71.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE... holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments,...

  12. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.2 Measures in the event of inadequate...

  13. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.2 Measures in the event of inadequate...

  14. A Comparison of Self-Report Measures of Two Family Dimensions: Control and Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Kathleen Doherty; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined the relationships among measures designed to assess two important aspects of family functioning: cohesion and control. Included these measures: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales-II (FACES-II), Family Environment Scale (FES), family sculpture task, and social desirability scale. Found preliminary convergent and discriminant validity…

  15. A photogrammetric method for monitoring changes in the residual alveolar ridge form.

    PubMed

    Adams, L P; Wilding, R J

    1985-09-01

    Resorption of the residual alveolar ridge calls for regular attention to the fitting surface of a denture. In the case of distal extension partial dentures, changes which occur in less than a year may require attention. These changes are apparent, though difficult to measure using radiographic techniques. Stereophotogrammetry is a means of recording and measuring contours of land masses. A short focus non-metric camera was used in this study to produce stereoscopic paired pictures of four casts of the same partial dentition. Additional casts were made 2 and 12 months after a partial denture had been made. A stereophotogrammetric plotting instrument was used to map the alveolar ridge area of each cast. A prescribed area for each map was traced out and the volume above a reference height was calculated. The percentage error between the four columns for the pre-treatment casts was +/- 2%. A 10% loss of ridge volume was observed after wearing a partial denture for 2 months. The same area observed 12 months later revealed an 18% volume reduction. Short range stereophotogrammetry may be applied to study changes in alveolar ridge morphology which may result from wearing a partial denture.

  16. A three-dimensional photogrammetric analysis of the facial esthetics of the Miss Korea pageant contestants

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kab Soo; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Park, Ki-Ho; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to measure and compare the facial dimensions of the Miss Korea pageant contestants and a selected group of women from the general population by using three-dimensional (3D) image analysis, as well as to compare various facial ratios to the golden ratio within each group. Methods Three-dimensional images of 52 Miss Korea pageant contestants (MK group) and 41 young female adults selected from the general population (GP group) were acquired. Fifty-four variables and ratios were measured and calculated. Intergroup comparisons were performed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results Compared to the GP group, the MK group showed greater total facial height and eye width, lesser lower-facial height, and lesser facial, lower-facial, and nasal widths. Moreover, compared to the GP group, the MK group had more protruded noses with greater nasolabial angle, greater vertical curvature of the foreheads, lesser horizontal curvature of the cheek, and lesser lower-lip-and-chin volume. Conclusions The MK group had longer faces but smaller lower lips and chins than did the GP group. The golden ratio was not matching the current facial esthetic standards. These data might be beneficial for treatment planning of patients undergoing orthognathic and plastic surgeries. PMID:28337418

  17. Influence of explanatory and confounding variables on HRQoL after controlling for measurement bias and response shift in measurement.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Pranav K; Ried, L Douglas; Kimberlin, Carole L; Kauf, Teresa L; Huang, I-Chan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of explanatory and confounding variables on health-related quality of life after accounting for response shift, measurement bias and response shift in measurement using structural equation modeling. Hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease randomized to anti-hypertensive treatment, completed the ShortForm-36 questionnaire at both baseline and 1 year (n = 788). Three measurement biases were found and all three were considered as response shift in measurement. Older patients reported worse scores for both physical functioning (PF) and role-physical at baseline and 1 year later compared to younger patients; and males reported better PF than females after conditioning on the latent trait of general physical health. Before controlling for response shift, patients' PF scores were not statistically different over time; however, PF scores significantly improved (p < 0.01) after controlling for recalibration response shift. Assessment of how patients perceive their change in health-related quality of life over time is warranted.

  18. The sanctuary of Punta Stilo at Kaulonia-Monasterace (Rc, Italy): preliminary results of the close range photogrammetric surveys 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccola, E.; Parra, M. C.; Ampolo, C.

    2014-06-01

    During the 2012-2013 excavations at the Sanctuary of Punta Stilo at Kaulonia, carried out by the University of Pisa and the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, close range aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric surveys were tested for the first time. The aim of the test was to verify the accuracy of the site planimetry currently used, dating back also to a century ago. The 3D data obtained have allowed new data to be acquired for correcting and updating the mapping of the site.

  19. Super precise measurement system controlled by computer in a servo writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lian X.; Yu, Shengsheng; Yuan, Zhimin

    1993-09-01

    The paper gives a realization of the positioning system in a servo-writer, and discusses the Super Precise Measurement System controlled by a computer in detail. It gives a parallel 16-bit interface circuit with higher data transmission ratio, and analyses the facters which affect the measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy of the system for the position is O.O2μm.

  20. MASS MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY FOR PLUTONIUM ALIQUOTS ASSAYED BY CONTROLLED-POTENTIAL COULOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, M.; Cordaro, J.

    2009-03-18

    Minimizing plutonium measurement uncertainty is essential to nuclear material control and international safeguards. In 2005, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO 12183 'Controlled-potential coulometric assay of plutonium', 2nd edition. ISO 12183:2005 recommends a target of {+-}0.01% for the mass of original sample in the aliquot because it is a critical assay variable. Mass measurements in radiological containment were evaluated and uncertainties estimated. The uncertainty estimate for the mass measurement also includes uncertainty in correcting for buoyancy effects from air acting as a fluid and from decreased pressure of heated air from the specific heat of the plutonium isotopes.

  1. Preliminary estimates of range measurements to a spacecraft by means of ground digitally controlled oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, A.; Pease, G.

    1974-01-01

    Range measurements to the Pioneer 10 and Mariner 10 spacecraft were made, without the use of a ranging system per se, by using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network's new digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) device. These measurements were accomplished by controlling the linear ramps of the transmitted carrier frequency with a recently installed DCO instrument at the Goldstone facility and analyzing the received linearly ramped Doppler data with a computer program. The accuracy of these range measurements is on the order of 1.5 km.

  2. Application and flight test of linearizing transformations using measurement feedback to the nonlinear control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Duke, Eugene L.; Menon, P. K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The design of nonlinear controllers has relied on the use of detailed aerodynamic and engine models that must be associated with the control law in the flight system implementation. Many of these controllers were applied to vehicle flight path control problems and have attempted to combine both inner- and outer-loop control functions in a single controller. An approach to the nonlinear trajectory control problem is presented. This approach uses linearizing transformations with measurement feedback to eliminate the need for detailed aircraft models in outer-loop control applications. By applying this approach and separating the inner-loop and outer-loop functions two things were achieved: (1) the need for incorporating detailed aerodynamic models in the controller is obviated; and (2) the controller is more easily incorporated into existing aircraft flight control systems. An implementation of the controller is discussed, and this controller is tested on a six degree-of-freedom F-15 simulation and in flight on an F-15 aircraft. Simulation data are presented which validates this approach over a large portion of the F-15 flight envelope. Proof of this concept is provided by flight-test data that closely matches simulation results. Flight-test data are also presented.

  3. Using a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of TB control measures.

    PubMed Central

    Gammaitoni, L.; Nucci, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of recommended tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures by using a deterministic mathematical model for airborne contagion. We examined the percentage of purified protein derivative conversions under various exposure conditions, environmental controlstrategies, and respiratory protective devices. We conclude that environmental control cannot eliminate the risk for TB transmission during high-risk procedures; respiratory protective devices, and particularly high-efficiency particulate air masks, may provide nearly complete protection if used with air filtration or ultraviolet irradiation. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these control measures decreases as the infectivity of the source case increases. Therefore, administrative control measures (e.g., indentifying and isolating patients with infectious TB) are the most effective because they substantially reduce the rate of infection. PMID:9284378

  4. New techniques to measure cliff change from historical oblique aerial photographs and structure-from-motion photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan; Ritchie, Andy; Adelman, Gabrielle; Adelman, Ken; Limber, Patrick W

    2017-01-01

    Oblique aerial photograph surveys are commonly used to document coastal landscapes. Here it is shown that adequate overlap may exist in these photographic records to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques. Using photographs of Fort Funston, California, from the California Coastal Records Project, imagery were combined with ground control points in a four-dimensional analysis that produced topographic point clouds of the study area’s cliffs for 5 years spanning 2002 to 2010. Uncertainty was assessed by comparing point clouds with airborne LIDAR data, and these uncertainties were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses. With six or more ground control points, the root mean squared errors between the SfM and LIDAR data were less than 0.30 m (minimum 1⁄4 0.18 m), and the mean systematic error was less than 0.10 m. The SfM results had several benefits over traditional airborne LIDAR in that they included point coverage on vertical- to-overhanging sections of the cliff and resulted in 10–100 times greater point densities. Time series of the SfM results revealed topographic changes, including landslides, rock falls, and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach. Thus, it was concluded that SfM photogrammetric techniques with historical oblique photographs allow for the extraction of useful quantitative information for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change. The new techniques presented here are likely applicable to many photograph collections and problems in the earth sciences.

  5. On the evaluation of photogrammetric methods for dense 3D surface reconstruction in a metrological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, I.; Capra, A.; De Luca, L.; Beraldin, J.-A.; Cournoyer, L.

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses a methodology to evaluate the accuracy of recently developed image-based 3D modelling techniques. So far, the emergence of these novel methods has not been supported by the definition of an internationally recognized standard which is fundamental for user confidence and market growth. In order to provide an element of reflection and solution to the different communities involved in 3D imaging, a promising approach is presented in this paper for the assessment of both metric quality and limitations of an open-source suite of tools (Apero/MicMac), developed for the extraction of dense 3D point clouds from a set of unordered 2D images. The proposed procedural workflow is performed within a metrological context, through inter-comparisons with "reference" data acquired with two hemispherical laser scanners, one total station, and one laser tracker. The methodology is applied to two case studies, designed in order to analyse the software performances in dealing with both outdoor and environmentally controlled conditions, i.e. the main entrance of Cathédrale de la Major (Marseille, France) and a custom-made scene located at National Research Council of Canada 3D imaging Metrology Laboratory (Ottawa). Comparative data and accuracy evidence produced for both tests allow the study of some key factors affecting 3D model accuracy.

  6. Comparision of photogrammetric point clouds with BIM building elements for construction progress monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2014-08-01

    For construction progress monitoring a planned state of the construction at a certain time (as-planed) has to be compared to the actual state (as-built). The as-planed state is derived from a building information model (BIM), which contains the geometry of the building and the construction schedule. In this paper we introduce an approach for the generation of an as-built point cloud by photogrammetry. It is regarded that that images on a construction cannot be taken from everywhere it seems to be necessary. Because of this we use a combination of structure from motion process together with control points to create a scaled point cloud in a consistent coordinate system. Subsequently this point cloud is used for an as-built - as-planed comparison. For that voxels of an octree are marked as occupied, free or unknown by raycasting based on the triangulated points and the camera positions. This allows to identify not existing building parts. For the verification of the existence of building parts a second test based on the points in front and behind the as-planed model planes is performed. The proposed procedure is tested based on an inner city construction site under real conditions.

  7. Measurement control program for new special recovery. [Plutonium scrap recovery facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Comparison of Angle of Attack Measurements for Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas, W.; Hoppe, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Two optical systems capable of measuring model attitude and deformation were compared to inertial devices employed to acquire wind tunnel model angle of attack measurements during the sting mounted full span 30% geometric scale flexible configuration of the Northrop Grumman Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) installed in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The overall purpose of the test at TDT was to evaluate smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. The optical techniques that were compared to inertial devices employed to measure angle of attack for this test were: (1) an Optotrak (registered) system, an optical system consisting of two sensors, each containing a pair of orthogonally oriented linear arrays to compute spatial positions of a set of active markers; and (2) Video Model Deformation (VMD) system, providing a single view of passive targets using a constrained photogrammetric solution whose primary function was to measure wing and control surface deformations. The Optotrak system was installed for this test for the first time at TDT in order to assess the usefulness of the system for future static and dynamic deformation measurements.

  9. An efficient photogrammetric stereo matching method for high-resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingsong; Zheng, Shunyi; Wang, Xiaonan; Ma, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Stereo matching of high-resolution images is a great challenge in photogrammetry. The main difficulty is the enormous processing workload that involves substantial computing time and memory consumption. In recent years, the semi-global matching (SGM) method has been a promising approach for solving stereo problems in different data sets. However, the time complexity and memory demand of SGM are proportional to the scale of the images involved, which leads to very high consumption when dealing with large images. To solve it, this paper presents an efficient hierarchical matching strategy based on the SGM algorithm using single instruction multiple data instructions and structured parallelism in the central processing unit. The proposed method can significantly reduce the computational time and memory required for large scale stereo matching. The three-dimensional (3D) surface is reconstructed by triangulating and fusing redundant reconstruction information from multi-view matching results. Finally, three high-resolution aerial date sets are used to evaluate our improvement. Furthermore, precise airborne laser scanner data of one data set is used to measure the accuracy of our reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that our method remarkably outperforms in terms of time and memory savings while maintaining the density and precision of the 3D cloud points derived.

  10. Doing fieldwork on the seafloor: Photogrammetric techniques to yield 3D visual models from ROV video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) have proven to be highly effective in recovering well localized samples and observations from the seafloor. In the course of ROV deployments, however, huge amounts of video and photographic data are gathered which present tremendous potential for data mining. We present a new workflow based on industrial software to derive fundamental field geology information such as quantitative stratigraphy and tectonic structures from ROV-based photo and video material. We demonstrate proof of principle tests for this workflow on video data collected during dives with the ROV Kiel 6000 on a new hot spot volcanic field that was recently identified southwest of the island of Santo Antão in the Cape Verdes. Our workflow allows us to derive three-dimensional models of outcrops facilitating quantitative measurements of joint orientation, bedding structure, grain size comparison and photo mosaicking within a georeferenced framework. The compiled data facilitate volcanological and tectonic interpretations from hand specimen to outcrop scales based on the quantified optical data. The demonstrated procedure is readily replicable and opens up possibilities for post-cruise "virtual fieldwork" on the seafloor.

  11. Impact of Mindfulness Training on Physiological Measures of Stress and Objective Measures of Attention Control in a Military Helicopter Unit

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Anders; Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Wagstaff, Anthony; Fonne, Vivianne; Garde, Anne Helene; Harris, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to determine if mindfulness training (MT) has a measurable impact on stress and attentional control as measured by objective physiological and psychological means. Background: Periods of persistent, intensive work demands are known to compromise recovery and attentional capacity. The effects of 4-month MT on salivary cortisol and performance on 2 computer-based cognitive tasks were tested on a military helicopter unit exposed to a prolonged period of high workload. Methods: MT participants were compared to a wait list control group on levels of saliva cortisol and performance on a go–no go test and a test of stimulus-driven attentional capture. Participants also reported mental demands on the go–no go test, time of wakeup, sleep duration, quality of sleep, outcome expectancies, physical activity level, self-perceived mindfulness, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results: The results from a mixed between–within analysis revealed that the MT participants compared to the control group had a larger pre to post increase in high- and low-cortisol slopes, and decrease in perceived mental demand imposed by the go–no go test. Conclusion: MT alleviates some of the physiological stress response and the subjective mental demands of challenging tasks in a military helicopter unit during a period of high workload. PMID:27226703

  12. Backscattering of Individual LIDAR Pulses from Forest Canopies Explained by Photogrammetrically Derived Vegetation Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, I.; Hovi, A.; Korhonen, L.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, airborne LiDAR sensors have shown remarkable performance in the mapping of forest vegetation. This experimental study looks at LiDAR data at the scale of individual pulses to elucidate the sources behind interpulse variation in backscattering. Close-range photogrammetry was used for obtaining the canopy reference measurements at the ratio scale. The experiments illustrated different orientation techniques in the field, LiDAR acquisitions and photogrammetry in both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions, and two-waveform recording LiDAR sensors. The intrafootprint branch silhouettes in zenith-looking images, in which the camera, footprint, and LiDAR sensor were collinear, were extracted and contrasted with LiDAR backscattering. An enhanced planimetric match (refinement of strip matching) was achieved by shifting the pulses in a strip and searching for the maximal correlation between the silhouette and LiDAR intensity. The relative silhouette explained up to 80-90% of the interpulse variation. We tested whether accounting for the Gaussian spread of intrafootprint irradiance would improve the correlations, but the effect was blurred by small-scale geometric noise. Accounting for receiver gain variations in the Leica ALS60 sensor data strengthened the dependences. The size of the vegetation objects required for triggering a LiDAR observation was analyzed. We demonstrated the use of LiDAR pulses adjacent to canopy vegetation, which did not trigger a canopy echo, for canopy mapping. Pulses not triggering an echo constitute the complement to the actual canopy. We conclude that field photogrammetry is a useful tool for mapping forest canopies from below and that quantitative analysis is feasible even at the scale of single pulses for enhanced understanding of LiDAR observations from vegetation.

  13. Development of distance accuracy measurement program for quality control of diagnostic ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yon-Min; Kim, Moon-Chan; Han, Dong-Kyoon; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of a diagnostic ultrasound system is important. Above all, establishing standards for such evaluations in an objective and systematic way is critical. However, quality control is currently measured based on subjective judgment of an observer. Against this background, this study intended to suggest quantified and objective data that would enable inter-observer variation to be overcome. Five radiological technologists used an ATS-539 multi-purpose ultrasound phantom to conduct measurements in the predetermined method. A digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard image was obtained in an ultrasound system by using a self-developed software to measure the accuracy of the distance before the 95% confidence interval was calculated. In order to examine the accuracy of the distance in longitudinal and transverse measurements, we conducted t-tests to evaluate the significance for the results of quality control that was performed manually for the past one year and for the results of quality control that was performed by using software with the same equipment. For the longitudinal and the transverse measurements, the 95% confidence intervals were 100.96-101.29 mm and 83.18-84.26 mm, respectively. The computerized longitudinal measurement showed no significant difference from the manual measurement ( p > 0.05). The results of measurements using of software showed a higher reproducibility.

  14. Mariner 9 control net of Mars, August 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented for a planet-wide geodetic control net of Mars which is based on Mariner 9 pictures as of August 1972. Aerocentric and aerographic coordinate of 809 control points were computed from 407 television frames. Photogrammetric parameters and methodology used in the computations are discussed. The coordinates of the features are given and figures that show the locations of the control points on the surface of Mars are included.

  15. [Practices and effects of different measures for blood pressure control in hypertension patients in Beijing, 2014].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Dong, Z; Ma, A J; Dong, J; Fang, K; Xie, C; Qi, K; Xie, J; Zhou, Y; Zhao, Y

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To understand the practices and effects of different measures for blood pressure control in hypertension patients. Methods: Patients who have known hypertension from the subjects of "2014 Beijing adult (aged 18-79 years) chronic diseases and risk factors survey" were selected. The choices of different hypertension control measures, the relationship between the measures and demographic characteristics of hypertension patients, and the effects of different control measures were analyzed. Results: A total of 2 229 known hypertension patients were included, the analysis was conducted through a questionnaire survey. Those who answered "never taking any measures" , "taking medication according to doctor's instructions" and "taking medication when blood pressure rose" accounted for 7.0%, 79.8% and 8.3%, respectively. Those who had "diet control" , "physical exercises" and "blood pressure monitoring" accounted for 22.4%, 23.7% and 22.1%, respectively. In terms of "taking medicine according to doctor's instructions" , women (84.3%), those aged ≥60 years (87.6%), those living in urban area (81.5%), those living alone (83.8%), and Beijing local residents (82.3%) had higher compliance rates. As for "diet control" , women (24.4%), those aged ≥60 years (25.8%) and those with educational level of college or above (29.5%) had better practices. In terms of "physical exercise" , those aged ≥60 years (27.9%), those living in urban area (25.3%), those with educational level of college or above (32.5%) had better practice. Women (24.2%) and those aged ≥60 years (28.4%) had higher "blood pressure monitoring" rate. More men (9.7%), those aged 18-44 years (14.7%), those with educational level of high school (9.3%), the unmarried (18.2%), and non-Beijing local residents (14.7%) answered "never taking any measure" , and in terms of "taking medication when blood pressure rose" , non-Beijing local residents (12.8%) had higher rate. In the field survey, more patients who

  16. Photogrammetric analysis of slope failures feeding the head of the Illgraben debris flow channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. L.; Molnar, P.; Eisenbeiss, H.; McArdell, B. W.

    2012-04-01

    Our understanding of slope failure is restricted by a lack of inventories of sufficient size and directly measured volumes. We used digital photogrammetry to produce a multi-temporal record of erosion of a rock slope in the Illgraben. From this we extracted an inventory of ~2500 slope failures for 3 epochs of 6/7 years between 1986 and 2005 ranging over 6 orders of magnitude in volume. Through analysis of their magnitude-frequency, volume-area and depth-slope gradient relations we aimed to understand the characteristics of slope failure at the head of this active alpine debris-flow catchment. The slope failure volumes follow a characteristic magnitude-frequency distribution with a roll-over at 50m3 and a power-law tail between ~200m3 and 1.6x106m3 with an exponent of 1.65. We compared different methods to estimate the power law scaling exponent and found the maximum likelihood estimator to be the most accurate. Conversely, least squares regression on the probability density function consistently underestimated the exponent. Slope failure volume scales with failure area as a power law with an exponent of 1.1. This exponent is low for the bedrock nature of the slope in comparison with worldwide studies of bedrock and soil landslides and likely results from the highly fractured and incohesive nature of the quartzitic bedrock of the study slope. Comparing the results for different epochs we find that the magnitude-frequency and volume-area relationships are reasonably time-invariant demonstrating their general nature for the setting. We interpret the magnitude-frequency distribution of slope failure volumes as the result of two separate slope failure processes. Type (1) failures are frequent, small slides and slumps within the weathered layer of highly fractured rock and loose sediment. These make up the roll-over of the distribution. Type (2) failures are less frequent rockslides and rockfalls within the internal bedded and fractured slope along pre

  17. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation.

  18. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will

  19. Digital photogrammetric analysis and electrical resistivity tomography for investigating a landslide located in Basilicata region (southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bari, C.; Lapenna, V.; Perrone, A.; Puglisi, C.; Sdao, F.

    2009-04-01

    The combined application of the most modern methodologies and techniques in the field of the remote sensing, of the geomorphology and of the applied geophysics is fundamental to define correct and practicable strategies for the hazard evaluation and for the damages estimate produced by a mass movements. The purpose is to consolidate and/or mitigate the landslide affected areas. The aim of this job has been to reconstruct the volumetric history and the geomorphologic evolution of the main landslide parts of a complex roto-translational slide that, because of the hard weather, in March of 2006 occurred in an area located in the Picerno (PZ) territory. The landslide is 600 m length and 230 m wide with a range of altimetry varying between 1072 m s.l.m. in the main crown and 978 m s.l.m. in the toe of the landslide. For studying this landslide, a multitemporal analysis on aerial photo of the years 1997, 2004 and 2007, in an apparent scale of 1:18000, has been applied by using the digital photogrammetric technique via the software SOCETSET version 5.4.1. For each year, the morphological characterization of the landslide body through digital photo interpretation at a maximum scale of 1:5000 has been performed, with the aim to identify the different geomorphological features (scarps, terraces, trench) and their development, and mainly the morphological units (displaced material) characterizing the investigated landslide. Then DEMs have been produced choosing a 5 x 5 m pixel by means of a grid adaptive inside the same polygon containing the whole landslide area. DEMs allowed us to generate correspondent orthophotos related to the three years too. By using the difference of DEMs in a GIS environment it has been possible to recognize areas affected by uplift (accumulation zone) or lowering (depleted zone), then to estimate for every geomorphological unit the altimetry variation during the time considered. Moreover, the volume of the material involved in the movement can be

  20. Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case study of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.; Lee, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Traffic related air pollution is one of major environmental issues in densely populated urban areas including Hong Kong. A series of control measures has been implemented by Hong Kong government to cut traffic related air pollutants, including retrofitting the Euro II and Euro III buses with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices to lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. In order to reveal the real-life roadside air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, this study first analyzed the recent six-year data regarding concentrations of pollutants typically associated with traffic recorded in two governmental roadside monitoring stations and second conducted on-site measurements of concentration of pollutants at pedestrian level near five selected roads. Given that there is a possibility of ammonia leakage as a secondary pollutant from SCR devices, a special attention was paid to the measurements of ammonia level in bus stations and along roadsides. Important influencing factors, such as traffic intensity, street configuration and season, were analyzed. Control measures implemented by the government are effective to decrease the traffic emissions. In 2014, only NO2 cannot achieve the annual air quality objective of Hong Kong. However, it is important to find that particulate matters, rather than NO2, post potentially a short-term exposure risk to passengers and pedestrians. Based on the findings of this study, specific control measures are suggested, which are intended to further improve the roadside air quality.

  1. Results of Dose Control and Measurement Plans Appliedfor SPEAR3 Commissioning Year (FY04)

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Liu, James; Prinz, Alyssa; Allan, Jim; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Dose control and measurement plans for the SPEAR3 Booster and storage ring have taken place during the SPEAR3 commissioning. The initial commissioning period (SPEAR3 start-up) covered the time period from the beginning of November 2003 to the early part of March 2004. The period from the beginning of March to the beginning of August 2004 has been mostly dedicated to the scientific program. The initial commissioning period was characterized with frequent injection and significantly higher losses. In comparison, the scientific program period was characterized with more stable beam operation with limited number of injections per day and lower beam losses. Three types of dose measurements, passive, active and special measurements, were implemented around the SPEAR3 Booster and storage ring. Based on the expected radiation hazards, several dose control measures were adopted at several stages of the commissioning. In the early stages of commissioning, areas within 4.5 m from the walls of the Booster and storage ring were designated as Radiation Areas (RA). Areas outside RA were classified as Radiologically Controlled Area (RCA). Access to these areas required less training than the radiation areas. A monthly review of the accelerator operation conditions and radiation measurement results were used to determine the changes needed for the RA classification status and associated dose control measures.

  2. Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from

  3. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  4. Measurement and control of pressure driven flows in microfluidic devices using an optofluidic flow sensor

    PubMed Central

    Cheri, Mohammad Sadegh; Shahraki, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mohammadreza Salehi; Latifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Measurement and control of pressure-driven flow (PDF) has a great potential to enhance the performance of chemical and biological experiments in Lab on a Chip technology. In this paper, we present an optofluidic flow sensor for real-time measurement and control of PDF. The optofluidic flow sensor consists of an on-chip micro Venturi and two optical Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometers. Flow rate was measured from the fringe shift of FP interferometers resulted from movement fluid in the on-chip micro Venturi. The experimental results show that the optofluidic flow sensor has a minimum detectable flow change of 5 nl/min that is suitable for real time monitoring and control of fluids in many chemical and biological experiments. A Finite Element Method is used to solve the three dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes and continuity equations to validate the experimental results. PMID:25584118

  5. Use of force-measuring transducers in manipulator control. I - Theory. II - Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, John; Kress, Reid

    Two types of control structures for teleoperated manipulators are investigated using force-measuring transducers with each type targeting specific properties of the manipulator. One approach is to measure torque in the drive train of the manipulator to increase backdriveability, sensitivity, and stiffness. The second is to measure the forces and torques at the wrist of the manipulator. This force/torque vector is then employed in a stiffness control algorithm which resolves dissimilar kinematics and increases sensitivity. It is shown that torque feedback can be used to reduce the apparent friction in a manipulator drive train caused by gear boxes, bearings, and transmissions. For teleoperated systems, drive-train torque feedback yields improved backdriveability, better sensitivity, and improved stiffness. Cartesian stiffness control allows the operator to specify the relationship between force and displacement in any direction at the manipulator end effector.

  6. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  7. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  8. Relative position finite-time coordinated tracking control of spacecraft formation without velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates finite-time relative position coordinated tracking problem by output feedback for spacecraft formation flying without velocity measurement. By employing homogeneous system theory, a finite-time relative position coordinated tracking controller by state feedback is firstly developed, where the desired time-varying trajectory given in advance can be tracked by the formation. Then, to address the problem of lack of velocity measurements, a finite-time output feedback controller is proposed by involving a novel filter to recover unknown velocity information in a finite time. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed control law ensures global stability and guarantees the position of spacecraft formation to track a time-varying reference in finite time. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  9. Three-dimensional shape optical measurement using constant gap control and error compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyihwan; Kim, Sangyoo; Choi, Kyosoon

    2008-03-15

    The optical laser displacement sensor is widely used for noncontact measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) shape profile of the object surface. When the surface of an object has a slope variation, the sensor gain is proportionally varied according to that of the object surface. In order to solve the sensor gain variation problem, the constant gap control method is applied to adjust the gap to the nominal distance. Control error compensation is also proposed to cope with the situation even when the gap is not perfectly controlled to the nominal distance using an additional sensor attached to the actuator. 3D shape measurement applying the proposed constant gap control method shows better performances rather than the constant sensor height method.

  10. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. DAY; J.D. GILPATRICK; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles.

  11. Robust tracking control for a class of electrically driven flexible-joint robots without velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yeong-Chan; Yen, Hui-Min

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses the motion tracking control for a class of flexible-joint robotic manipulators actuated by brushed direct current motors. This class of electrically driven flexible-joint robots is perturbed by time-varying parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. A novel observer-based robust dynamic feedback tracking controller without velocity measurements will be developed such that the resulting closed-loop system is locally stable, all the states and signals are bounded and the trajectory tracking errors can be made as small as possible. Only the measurements of link position and armature current are required for feedback and so the number of sensors in the practical implementation of the developed control scheme can be greatly reduced. The observer structure is of reduced order in the sense that the observer is constructed only to estimate the velocity signals and whose dimension is half of the dimension of flexible-joint robots. Especially, for the set-point regulation problem, the developed controller is simplified to a linear time-invariant controller. Consequently, the robust tracking control scheme developed in this study can be extended to handle a broader class of uncertain electrically driven flexible-joint robots and the developed robust control schemes possess the properties of computational simplicity and easy implementation. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  12. Flexible, low-latency architecture for qubit control and measurement in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlothuizen, Wouter; Deurloo, D.; Sterke, J. De; Vermeulen, R.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, Leo

    Increasing qubit numbers in circuit QED requires an extensible architecture for digital waveform generation of qubit control and measurement signals. For quantum error correction, the ability to select from a number of predetermined waveforms based on measurement results will become paramount. We present a room-temperature architecture with very low latency from measurement to waveform output. This modular FPGA-based system can generate both baseband and RF modulated signals using DACs clocked at 1 GHz. A backplane that interconnects several modules allows exchange of (measurement) information between modules and maintains deterministic timing across those modules. We replace the typical line based sequencer used in arbitrary waveform generators by a user programmable processor that treats waveforms and measurements as instructions added to a conventional CPU architecture. This allows for flexible coding of triggering, repetitions, delays and interactions between measurement and signal generation. We acknowledge funding from the Dutch Research Organization (NWO), an ERC Synergy Grant, and European project SCALEQIT.

  13. Feedback control of torsion balance in measurement of gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li-Di; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Wang, Yong-Ji; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to [Formula: see text] at the signal frequency of 2 mHz, which contributes a [Formula: see text] uncertainty to the G value.

  14. Generalized variables for controlling Government Transfer Services with respect to performance measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.

    1981-01-01

    The term Government Transfer Services is used in reference to any of the organized streams of public resources that flow into private economic activity. This includes such activities as offshore leasing, Social Security, and NASA technology transfer services. This paper describes a performance measure, empirical results, a theory, and a control model for such services. These are illustrated by a specific example (NASA). An agenda for developing this service control method is also presented.

  15. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  16. The global swine flu pandemic 2: infection control measures and preparedness strategies.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This second in a two-part unit on swine flu looks at infection control measures for nurses. During late spring and early summer, increasing numbers of people became infected with novel swine origin influenza type A virus (influenza A(H1N1)v 2009) and a global pandemic started. Part 1 of this unit explored the biology of influenza viruses and the origins and characteristics of flu pandemics. This part reviews viral transmission, infection prevention and control and pandemic preparedness.

  17. Discrete-time H(infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Chen, Ben M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback. The authors derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a strictly proper compensator which achieves a given H(sub infinity) norm bound. Note that contrary to the continuous time, in discrete time there might exist a suitable proper compensator but no suitable strictly proper compensator. Finally, they give an explicit formula for one controller which achieves this bound.

  18. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds †

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Jared A.; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  19. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jared A; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-08-20

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability.

  20. Visualized Multiprobe Electrical Impedance Measurements with STM Tips Using Shear Force Feedback Control

    PubMed Central

    Botaya, Luis; Coromina, Xavier; Samitier, Josep; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Otero, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Here we devise a multiprobe electrical measurement system based on quartz tuning forks (QTFs) and metallic tips capable of having full 3D control over the position of the probes. The system is based on the use of bent tungsten tips that are placed in mechanical contact (glue-free solution) with a QTF sensor. Shear forces acting in the probe are measured to control the tip-sample distance in the Z direction. Moreover, the tilting of the tip allows the visualization of the experiment under the optical microscope, allowing the coordination of the probes in X and Y directions. Meanwhile, the metallic tips are connected to a current–voltage amplifier circuit to measure the currents and thus the impedance of the studied samples. We discuss here the different aspects that must be addressed when conducting these multiprobe experiments, such as the amplitude of oscillation, shear force distance control, and wire tilting. Different results obtained in the measurement of calibration samples and microparticles are presented. They demonstrate the feasibility of the system to measure the impedance of the samples with a full 3D control on the position of the nanotips. PMID:27231911

  1. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  2. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  3. Implementation guide. Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria for Contract Performance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This document provides guidance for implementation of DOE Order 2250.1B, Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) for Contract Performance Measurement. Its use assists DOE and contractor representatives in fulfilling their responsibilities for meeting CSCSC requirements. The CSCSC are designed to avoid the necessity for imposition of specific management control systems on contractors. Implementation of the CSCSC consistent with this guidance and compliance with the contractual requirements for work definition, cost and schedule control, and performance reporting provide DOE assurance that a contractor's cost and schedule progress is sufficiently visible to provide a reliable basis for timely and meaningful management decisions.

  4. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  5. Farmers' Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal movement

  6. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Willem, Henry; Price, Phillip N.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h-1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m-3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m-3 and 30 μg m-3 for conventional.

  7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: in-home measurements of ventilation control and source control.

    PubMed

    Hult, E L; Willem, H; Price, P N; Hotchi, T; Russell, M L; Singer, B C

    2015-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration was 33 μg/m(3) and 22 μg/m(3) for low-VOC homes and 45 μg/m(3) and 30 μg/m(3) for conventional.

  8. Assessing methods for measuring compliance with a fat-controlled diet.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M D; Insull, W; Palmer, R H; O'Brien, J; Gordon, L; Levine, B

    1982-01-01

    This study assessed the relative validity of the following non-laboratory measures of compliance with a fat-controlled diet by hypercholesterolemic males: quantitative and qualitative measures of compliance derived from three-day food records and structured interviews, and summary ratings by nutritionists and interviewers. The quantitative measures of consumption referred to: saturated fat, linoleic acid, polyunsaturated fat, P/S ratio and cholesterol. The non-laboratory measures were assessed using the following two laboratory measures as criteria of validity: serum cholesterol concentration and the proportion of linoleic acid among the fatty acids of the serum cholesteryl esters. The results showed that, with respect to quantitative measures, the food record and interview manifested approximately equal validity, with the former marginally more valid. However, under certain conditions qualitative measures, such as patients' self-ratings, were about as valid as the more rigorous and expensive quantitative measures. Characteristics of the patient influenced the validity of the various measures. Validity was enhanced by the simultaneous use of certain combinations of measures. PMID:7055316

  9. Computer-controlled system for measuring bulk resistivity of insulating solids as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ahmed

    1986-07-01

    A computer-controlled system for measuring bulk resistivity of insulating solids as a function of temperature is described. The measuring circuit is a modification of that given in the ASTM standard D257-66, to allow for a number of operations during the data-acquisition cycle. The bulk resistivity of an acceptor-doped morphotropic lead zirconate-titanate piezoelectric composition has been measured over the temperature range +40 to +200 °C. The activation energy derived from the experimental data is compared to the published values of similar morphotropic compositions.

  10. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simley, Eric J.

    Wind turbines typically rely on feedback controllers to maximize power capture in below-rated conditions and regulate rotor speed during above-rated operation. However, measurements of the approaching wind provided by Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) can be used as part of a preview-based, or feedforward, control system in order to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce structural loads. But the effectiveness of preview-based control depends on how accurately lidar can measure the wind that will interact with the turbine. In this thesis, lidar measurement error is determined using a statistical frequency-domain wind field model including wind evolution, or the change in turbulent wind speeds between the time they are measured and when they reach the turbine. Parameters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5-MW reference turbine model are used to determine measurement error for a hub-mounted circularly-scanning lidar scenario, based on commercially-available technology, designed to estimate rotor effective uniform and shear wind speed components. By combining the wind field model, lidar model, and turbine parameters, the optimal lidar scan radius and preview distance that yield the minimum mean square measurement error, as well as the resulting minimum achievable error, are found for a variety of wind conditions. With optimized scan scenarios, it is found that relatively low measurement error can be achieved, but the attainable measurement error largely depends on the wind conditions. In addition, the impact of the induction zone, the region upstream of the turbine where the approaching wind speeds are reduced, as well as turbine yaw error on measurement quality is analyzed. In order to minimize the mean square measurement error, an optimal measurement prefilter is employed, which depends on statistics of the correlation between the preview measurements and the wind that interacts with the turbine. However, because the wind speeds encountered by

  11. Reflection, transmission and color measurement system for the online quality control of float glass coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedbeili, Izmir; Cakiroglu, Fahrettin; Bektas, Gokhan; Riza, Dadash; Hacizade, Fikret

    2013-04-01

    Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for float glass in many fields of industry. Usually, 10 to 30% of produced float glass is coated with various coatings for different purposes. As a consequence quality control of the coatings is one of the most current issues during the process of float glass manufacturing. In this work we describe a system designed for the online control of reflectivity, transmittance and color coordinates of the coatings during the glass production process. The working principle of the system is based on the measurement of the spectral characteristics of reflectivity and transmittance of coatings within the 400-700 nm spectrophotometer spectral range during the online coating process. The measurement unit consists of two microspectrometers (one for the measurements of the spectral characteristics of the reference source, and the other for the measurements of the reflectance spectrum), illumination head (consisting of one white 1W LED and collimating lenses), stabilized power supply, microprocessor and 18 bits precision ADC. The use of the reference channel allows us to stabilize the intensity of the incident light up to 10-4 level. The repeatability of the measurement of reflectivity coefficient in laboratory conditions was in range of +/- 0.001. However, in the measurements in the factory environment, due to the vibration of the glass ribbon on the conveyer, the measurement reproducibility was about +/- 0.005.

  12. Measuring Learned Resourcefulness in College Students: Factor Structure of the Self-Control Schedule (SCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Benedict T.; Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Townsend, Katesy C.

    2008-01-01

    Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS) has been used as a unidimensional measure of Learned Resourcefulness (LR) in previous research. In this study we clarified the factor structure of the SCS among college students (N = 583) by conducting a principal axis factor analysis with oblique (Oblimin) rotation on the SCS. Results revealed a…

  13. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...”) shall each submit to the Regional Administrator a study or studies of various alternative strategies to... consistent with the national primary ambient air quality standards. These studies may be combined into one or more joint studies. These studies shall contain recommendations for control measures to be...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...”) shall each submit to the Regional Administrator a study or studies of various alternative strategies to... consistent with the national primary ambient air quality standards. These studies may be combined into one or more joint studies. These studies shall contain recommendations for control measures to be...

  15. Measures of Anomie and Locus-of-Control for Adolescents: Evidence of Factorial Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Lynda Henley; Klein, Alice E.

    1981-01-01

    Two scales were submitted together for factor analyses in order to determine the extent to which the dimensions of locus of control and anomie were related from the perspective of adolescents. It was concluded that the instruments measure different constructs and are factorially valid when considered together. (Author/AL)

  16. Evaluation of Deoxygenation as a Corrosion Control Measure for Ballast Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-07

    electrode and a platinum/ niobium (Pt/Nb) oxygenation as a corrosion control measure for un- mesh were used as reference and counter electrodes, coated...bering System, published by the Society of Automotive Engineers -fill/drain cycles of alternating natural oxygen- (SAE International) and cosponsored

  17. 40 CFR 721.30 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental release which EPA has determined provide substantially the same degree of protection as the... why such alternative control measures provide substantially the same degree of protection as the... reviewed by EPA within 45 days. Determinations under this paragraph will be made by the Director, Office...

  18. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  19. 78 FR 78416 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0253

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0253 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other Federal agencies the opportunity to...

  20. 75 FR 65039 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other federal agencies the opportunity to...