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Sample records for photoinduced spectral change

  1. Photoinduced spectral changes of photoluminescent gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Matulionytė, Marija; Marcinonytė, Raminta; Rotomskis, Ričardas

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasmall photoluminescent gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), composed of several atoms with sizes up to a few nanometers, have recently stimulated extensive interest. Unique molecule-like behaviors, low toxicity, and facile synthesis make photoluminescent Au NCs a very promising alternative to organic fluorophores and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in broad ranges of biomedical applications. However, using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for bioimaging might cause their degradation under continuous excitation with UV light, which might result in toxicity. We report spectral changes of photoluminescent 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES)-coated (Au-MES) NCs under irradiation with UV/blue light. Photoluminescent water soluble Au- MES NCs with a photoluminescence (PL) band maximum at 476 nm (λex = 420 nm) were synthesized. Under irradiation with 402 nm wavelength light the size of photoluminescent Au-MES NCs decreased (λem = 430 nm). Irradiating the sample solution with 330 nm wavelength light, nonluminescent Au NPs were disrupted, and photoluminescent Au NCs (λem = 476 nm) were formed. Irradiation with 330 nm wavelength light did not directly affect photoluminescent Au-MES NCs, however, increase in PL intensity indicated the formation of photoluminescent Au NCs from the disrupted nonluminescent Au NPs. This study gives a good insight into the photostability of MES-coated Au NPs under continuous excitation with UV/blue light.

  2. Photoinduced spectral changes of photoluminescent gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulionytė, Marija; Marcinonytė, Raminta; Rotomskis, Ričardas

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasmall photoluminescent gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), composed of several atoms with sizes up to a few nanometers, have recently stimulated extensive interest. Unique molecule-like behaviors, low toxicity, and facile synthesis make photoluminescent Au NCs a very promising alternative to organic fluorophores and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in broad ranges of biomedical applications. However, using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for bioimaging might cause their degradation under continuous excitation with UV light, which might result in toxicity. We report spectral changes of photoluminescent 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES)-coated (Au-MES) NCs under irradiation with UV/blue light. Photoluminescent water soluble Au-MES NCs with a photoluminescence (PL) band maximum at 476 nm (λex=420 nm) were synthesized. Under irradiation with 402 nm wavelength light the size of photoluminescent Au-MES NCs decreased (λem=430 nm). Irradiating the sample solution with 330 nm wavelength light, nonluminescent Au NPs were disrupted, and photoluminescent Au NCs (λem=476 nm) were formed. Irradiation with 330 nm wavelength light did not directly affect photoluminescent Au-MES NCs, however, increase in PL intensity indicated the formation of photoluminescent Au NCs from the disrupted nonluminescent Au NPs. This study gives a good insight into the photostability of MES-coated Au NPs under continuous excitation with UV/blue light.

  3. Time-evolving photo-induced changes of luminescent and spectral properties of PbS quantum dots sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstropiev, S. K.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Bagrov, I. V.; Belousova, I. M.; Kiselev, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Light irradiation influence on spectral and luminescent properties of PbS sol, stabilized by high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone, was studied as a time-evolving process. Uniform and stable for at least three months PbS/PVP suspensions were obtained with an average quantum dots size of 4 nm. Photoluminescent spectra of the suspensions showed wide intensive emission at 1000-1400 nm upon excitation by visible light. Luminescence intensities of all the suspensions demonstrate nonlinear dependences on the exciting radiation intensity. Experimental results show that light irradiation during luminescence measurements even with low excitation power density can significantly change luminescent and spectral properties of PbS quantum dots. The dependences found can be useful in preparation of a variety of quantum dots-containing photonics materials.

  4. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  5. Measurements of Photo-induced Changes in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seager, C. H.; Sinclair, M. B.; Mc Branch, D.; Heeger, A. J.; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    We have used the highly sensitive technique of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) to measure changes in the infrared absorption spectra of MEHPPV, P3HT and Polydiacetylene-4BCMU induced by pumping these polymers with light above the {pi} - {pi}* transition energy. In contrast to previous chopped light transmission measurements of these effects, the PDS technique can directly measure the buildup or decay of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}, on the time scale of second to days. In the case of MEHPPV we observe that the time scale of seconds to days. In the case of MEHPPV we observe that above-gap light causes the appearance of a broad infrared peak in {alpha}, which continues to grow-in hours after the pump light is first applied. For this polymer the general shape of the absorption spectra in the unpumped state mimics the photo-induced changes, suggesting that remnant photo-induced states determine the maximum transparency observed under normal experimental conditions. For P3HT and to a lesser extent, MEHPPV, we also observe irreversible photo-induced absorption components which we tentatively identify with photo-induced oxidation of the polymer matrix.

  6. Photoinduced changes in the Raman spectra of germanosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Sergei A; Dianov, Evgenii M; Koltashev, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Medvedkov, O I; Plotnichenko, V G; Pyrkov, Yu N; Sazhin, O D; Frolov, A A; Marchenko, V M

    1998-04-30

    An investigation was made of changes in the Raman spectra of germanosilicate optical fibres as a result of UV irradiation. The photoinduced changes in the spectra were of the same nature for all types of irradiation used. These changes increased with increase in the radiation dose and in the GeO{sub 2} concentration in the fibre core and were evidence of a structural modification of glass. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  7. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  8. Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yoo, M.; Shin, H.-W.; Ahn, K.-H.; Kim, Y.-R.; Kim, E.

    2003-01-01

    Diarylethene copolymers were synthesized from 1-(6 '-vinyl-2 '-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3 '-yl)-2-(2 ''-methylbenzo [ b]thiophene-3 ''-yl)hexafluorocyclopentene (VMBTF6) and 1-[6 '-(4 '''-vinylbenzoyl)-2 '-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3 '-yl]-2-(2 ''-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3 ''-yl)hexafluorocyclopentene (VBMBTF6) via living free radical techniques using stable TEMPO derivatives. The diarylethene content was controlled by the feed ratio of diarylethene derivatives and styrene. Transparent photochromic polymer films were prepared from the diarylethene copolymers with narrow molecular weight dispersion (PD˜1.3) by spin coating method. Photoinduced refractive index changes (Δ nTE) of the polymer films, with 25 mol% of diaryethene content, accompanied by the photochromic change were determined as 0.0009 and 0.0030 for poly(styrene- ran -VMBTF6) and poly(styrene- ran-VBMBTF6), respectively.

  9. Photoinduced electron transfer and persistent spectral hole-burning in natural emerald.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Hans

    2011-06-02

    Wavelength-selective excited-state lifetime measurements and absorption, luminescence, and hole-burning spectra of a natural African emerald crystal are reported. The (2)E excited-state lifetime displays an extreme wavelength dependence, varying from 190 to 37 μs within 1.8 nm of the R(1)-line. Overall, the excited state is strongly quenched, in comparison to laboratory-created emerald (τ=1.3 ms), with an average quenching rate of ∼6 × 10(3) s(-1) at 2.5 K. This quenching is attributed to photoinduced electron transfer caused by a relatively high concentration of Fe(2+) ions. The forward electron-transfer rate, k(f), from the nearest possible Fe(2+) sites at around 5 Å is estimated to be ∼20 × 10(3) s(-1) at 2.5 K. The photoreductive quenching of the excited Cr(3+) ions by Fe(2+) is followed by rapid electron back-transfer in the ground state upon deactivation. The exchange interaction based quenching can be modeled by assuming a random quencher distribution within the possible Fe(2+) sites with the forward electron-transfer rate, k(f), given as a function of acceptor-donor separation R by exp[(R(f)-R)/a(f)]; R(f) and a(f) values of 13.5 and 2.7 Å are obtained at 2.5 K. The electron transfer/back-transfer reorganizes the local crystal lattice, occasionally leading to a minor variation of the short-range structure around the Cr(3+) ions. This provides a mechanism for spectral hole-burning for which a moderately high quantum efficiency of about ∼0.005% is observed. Spectral holes are subject to spontaneous hole-filling and spectral diffusion, and both effects can be quantified within the standard two-level systems for non-photochemical hole-burning. Importantly, the absorbance increases on both sides of broad spectral holes, and isosbestic points are observed, in accord with the expected distribution of the "photoproduct" in a non-photochemical hole-burning process. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Dynamical properties of nucleus boundaries in photoinduced structural change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Kunio; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of the boundaries of photoinduced nuclei in electron-phonon systems is theoretically studied. By regarding the spatial distribution of the excited electronic state population as a geometric pattern, we applied the multifractal analysis to it and calculated the temporal behavior of the fractal dimension f(α) as a function of the Lipschitz-Hölder exponent α, which is an appropriate method for understanding the cooperative relaxation process of photoexcited states. We found that the incubation period observed in various types of photoinduced cooperative phenomena corresponds to the formation of embryonic nuclei which is driven by nonadiabatic/adiabatic transition between electronic states during the relaxation of the Franck-Condon state.

  11. The nature of photoinduced changes in the magnetostriction of yttrium-iron garnet single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V.

    2011-05-15

    A model of the occurrence of photoinduced changes in linear magnetostriction is proposed based on a complex experimental study of magnetostrictive strains in yttrium-iron garnets Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} with low contents of different impurities. Analytical expressions for calculating the magnetostriction in yttrium-iron garnet single crystals with different types of doping are presented. The correlation of the photoinduced change in the magnetostriction with the crystallographic features of the samples is demonstrated. The changes in the magnetostriction constants are analyzed quantitatively for samples prepared in different ways.

  12. Photo-induced structural changes in Ge-Sb-Se films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Wang, Guoxiang; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Nie, Qiuhua

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films have been prepared by the radio-frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering deposition technique, and their intrinsic photosensitivity and photo-induced structural changes have been investigated. The results show a crossover from photodarkening (PD) to photobleaching (PB) in the films when the film compositions change from Se-deficient to rich. Further Raman analysis on these as-prepared thin films irradiated with a laser of wavelength 655 nm in every five minutes provides direct evidence of photo-induced structure rearrangements.

  13. Photoinduced refractive index change and absorption bleaching in poly(methylphenylsilane) under varied atmospheres.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Barrett George, Jr.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly; Chandra, Haripin; Thomes, William Joseph, Jr.; Jamison, Gregory Marks

    2005-06-01

    Polysilane materials exhibit large photo-induced refractive index changes under low incident optical fluences, making them attractive candidates for applications in which rapid patterning of photonic device structures is desired immediately prior to their use. This agile fabrication strategy for integrated photonics inherently requires that optical exposure, and associated material response, occurs in nonlaboratory environments, motivating the study of environmental conditions on the photoinduced response of the material. The present work examines the impact of atmosphere on the photosensitive response of poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS) thin films in terms of both photoinduced absorption change and refractive index modification. Material was subjected to UV light exposure resonant with the lowest energy optical transition associated with the conjugated Si-Si backbone. Exposures were performed in both aerobic and anaerobic atmospheres (oxygen, air, nitrogen, and 5% H{sub 2}/95% N{sub 2}). The results clearly demonstrate that the photosensitive response of this model polysilane material was dramatically affected by local environment, exhibiting a photoinduced refractive index change, when exposed under an oxygen containing atmosphere, that was twice that observed under anaerobic conditions. This effect is discussed in terms of photo-oxidation processes within the polysilane structure and in the context of the need for predictable photosensitive refractive index change in varied photoimprinting environments.

  14. Photo-induced changes in a hybrid amorphous chalcogenide/silica photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Markos, Christos

    2014-01-06

    Photostructural changes in a hybrid photonic crystal fiber with chalcogenide nanofilms inside the inner surface of the cladding holes are experimentally demonstrated. The deposition of the amorphous chalcogenide glass films inside the silica capillaries of the fiber was made by infiltrating the nanocolloidal solution-based As{sub 25}S{sub 75}, while the photoinduced changes were performed by side illuminating the fiber near the bandgap edge of the formed glass nanofilms. The photoinduced effect of the chalcogenide glass directly red-shifts the transmission bandgap position of the fiber as high as ∼20.6 nm at around 1600 nm wavelength, while the maximum bandgap intensity change at ∼1270 nm was −3 dB.

  15. Photoinduced changes in refractive index of nanostructured shungite-containing polyimide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanina, N. V.; Serov, S. V.; Shurpo, N. A.; Rozhkova, N. N.

    2011-10-01

    Photoinduced changes in the refractive index of a conjugate polyimide (PI) matrix sensitized by shungite carbon nanoparticles have been studied for the first time. The results are compared to the data of previous investigations of the photorefractive properties of PI matrices doped with fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots. The nonlinear refractive index of the proposed material has been determined using the dynamic holography techniques. The position of conjugate polymer materials of this type among the other nonlinear optical systems is considered.

  16. Nonlinear optical phenomena: Spectral dependence of absorption photoinduced in a Bi12TiO20 crystal by 532-nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstik, A. L.; Matusevich, A. Yu; Kisteneva, M. G.; Shandarov, S. M.; Itkin, S. I.; Mandel', A. E.; Kargin, Yu F.; Kulchin, Yu N.; Romashko, R. V.

    2007-11-01

    The spectral dependences of absorption photoinduced in a pure bismuth titanium oxide crystal by 532-nm laser pulses are studied. It is shown that optical absorption in the crystal in the range from 492 to 840 nm increases with increasing exposure. The photoinduced absorption relaxes in the dark for more than 60 hours. A model of photoinduced absorption is proposed which assumes the population of two trap centres with the normal energy distribution law for the concentrations of electrons photoexcited from donors to the conduction band. This model well describes the spectral dependences of photoinduced absorption by using the average ionisation energies of the traps E1 = 1.60 eV and E2 = 2.57 eV. The model is used to estimate the increase in the photorefractive sensitivity of a bismuth titanium oxide crystal in the near IR region, which was earlier observed after exposing the crystal to visible radiation. It is predicted that the speed of response of dynamic holography devices based on BTO crystals exposed to green light can be increased.

  17. Perovskites for Photovoltaics in the Spotlight: Photoinduced Physical Changes and Their Implications.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Ronen; Zaban, Arie

    2016-02-16

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites are in consensus to revolutionize the field of photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices due to their superior optical and electronic properties which are unprecedented in comparison to those of other solution processed semiconductors. These hybrid materials are used as light absorbers and also as charge carriers which makes them very versatile to be implemented and studied in a multitude of fields. Traditionally, the working paradigm in solar cells and optoelectronic devices' characterization has been that the properties of photovoltaic materials remain stable following illumination of varying times and intensities. However, recently there has been a growing number of reports on prolonged illumination-dependent physical changes in perovskite films and perovskite based devices. The changes are reversible and range from structural transformations and differences in optical characteristics, to an increase in optoelectronic properties and physical parameters. In this Account, we review the physical changes in three reported model systems which display changes under prolonged illumination of light intensities of ∼0.01-1 sun. The three systems are (i) a free-standing perovskite film on a glass substrate, (ii) a symmetrical system with nonselective electrical contacts, and (iii) a working perovskite solar cell (either a planar or a porous structure). We examine each model system and discuss its photoinduced physical changes and conclude with the implications on future experimentation design, data analysis, and characterization that involve organic-inorganic halide perovskites illumination. Since hybrid perovskites are considered to be mixed ionic-electronic conductors in nature, ions that migrate in the perovskite under electrical fields can influence its properties. Therefore, an important distinction is made between photoinduced effects and photo and electric field induced effects. Thus, photoinduced effects are designated as

  18. Erasable photoinduced change of carrier density and coherence lengths in oxygen-deficient YBa 2Cu 3O x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göb, W.; Lang, W.; Markowitsch, W.; Schlosser, V.; Kula, W.; Soblewski, Roman

    1995-11-01

    We report on the persistent and erasable photoinduced change of normal-state transport and superconducting properties of oxygen-deficient YBa 2Cu 3O 6.6 thin films. After illumination with white light for several hours at 150K, a decrease of the electrical resistivity, an increase of the number of mobile holes, and a change of the magnetoresistance caused by superconducting order-parameter fluctuations, were observed. From the latter measurement, we find a photoinduced enhancement of the superconducting coherence lengths in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  19. Photoinduced superhydrophilicity: a kinetic study of time dependent photoinduced contact angle changes on TiO2 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Foran, Philip S; Boxall, Colin; Denison, Kieth R

    2012-12-21

    Transparent TiO(2) thin films were prepared on quartz substrates via a reverse micelle, sol-gel, spin-coating technique. The time dependence of the TiO(2) film photoinduced superhydrophilicity (PISH) was measured by goniometric observation of the contact angle, θ, of sessile water drops at the film surfaces. In these measurements, the TiO(2) substrate was illuminated by 315 nm light and drops were sequentially applied at a range of illumination times. Using a model for the wetting of heterogeneous surfaces derived by Israelachvili and Gee, these measurements were used to calculate the time dependence of f(2), the fractional surface coverage of the TiO(2) surface by adventitious contaminating organics (Israelachvili, J. N.; Gee, M. L. Contact angles on chemically heterogeneous surfaces. Langmuir 1989, 5, 288). Extending this model to include a Langmuir-Hinshelwood based kinetic analysis of f(2) as a function of time allowed for calculation of an expected value for θ immediately prior to illumination, that is, at illumination time t = 0. Such expected values of θ at t = 0 were calculated using two possible values of θ(1), the contact angle on a pristine unilluminated homogeneous TiO(2) surface: (i) θ(1) = 4° as suggested by, inter alia, Zubkov et al. (Zubkov, T.; Stahl, D.; Thompson, T. L.; Panayotov, D.; Diwald, O.; Yates, J. T. Ultraviolet Light-Induced Hydrophilicity Effect on TiO(2)(110)(1 × 1). Dominant Role of the Photooxidation of Adsorbed Hydrocarbons Causing Wetting by Water Droplets. J. Phys. Chem. B2005, 109, 15454); and (ii) where θ(1) = 25°, as suggested by Fujishima et al., representative of a more hydrophobic homogeneous TiO(2) surface that reconstructs upon exposure to ultraband gap illumination into a hydrophilic surface where θ(1) → 0° (Fujishima, A.; Zhang, X.; Tryk, D. A. TiO(2) photocatalysis and related surface phenomena Surf. Sci. Rep.2008, 63, 515). Analysis of data from our experiments and from selected literature sources

  20. On the mechanism of photoinduced refractive index changes in phosphosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, Yu V; Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G

    2010-05-26

    The photoinduced growth of the refractive index of phosphosilicate glass during Bragg grating inscription and the thermal decay of the grating have a number of unusual features. The observed index variations are interpreted in terms of a new model for photoinduced glass network rearrangement. The model assumes the formation of photoinduced voids (nanopores) in the glass network near point defects. The nanopores may migrate through the network via bond switching when the network is in a 'soft' state. The photoinduced variations in network density lead to index variations. (fibres)

  1. Plasmon Enhancement of Photoinduced Resistivity Changes in Bi1-xCaxMnO3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninova, Vera; Talanova, E.; Kolagani, Rajeswari; Yong, G.; Kennedy, R.; Steger, M.; Wall, K.

    2007-03-01

    Doped rare-earth manganese oxides (manganites) exhibit a wide variety of physical phenomena due to complex interplay of electronic, magnetic, orbital, and structural degrees of freedom and their sensitivity to external fields. A photoinduced insulator to conductor transition in charge-ordered manganites is especially interesting from the point of view of creating photonic devices. Thin films of Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 exhibit large photoinduced resistivity changes associated with melting of the charge ordering by visible light [1]. We have found a considerable increase of the photoinduced resistivity changes in the Bi0.4Ca0.6MnO3 thin film after depositing metal nanoparticles on the surface. This increase can be explained by enhancement of local electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticle due to the plasmon resonance. The changes in lifetime of the photoinduced state will be reported, and the possible origin of these effects will be discussed. [1] V. N. Smolyaninova at al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071922 (2005).

  2. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Michael B.; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E.; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix

    2015-09-01

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ~1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a `phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon-impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance.

  3. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael B; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Friend, Richard H; Deschler, Felix

    2015-09-25

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ∼ 1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a 'phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon-impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance.

  4. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Price, Michael B.; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E.; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ∼1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a ‘phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon–impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance. PMID:26404048

  5. Nitroxides as redox probes of melanins: dark-induced and photoinduced changes in redox equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Sarna, T.; Korytowski, W.; Sealy, R.C.

    1985-05-15

    The interaction of nitroxide free radicals and their reduced products (hydroxylamines) with synthetic and natural melanins has been studied. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to measure changes in radical concentration in the dark and during irradiation with visible or uv light. Some reduction of nitroxide occurs in the dark, and is reversible: the nitroxide can be completely regenerated by the one-electron oxidant ferricyanide. The kinetics of the process depend strongly on radical charge and pH. For positively charged nitroxides the rate is much faster than for either neutral or anionic radicals. At pH 10 the rate is about 20 times faster than at pH 5. Oxidation of hydroxylamine also can occur so that a redox equilibrium is established. The equilibrium constant has been estimated for the reaction between a nitroxide and melanin from autoxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Results are also dependent upon the type of melanin used and chemical modification (oxidation or reduction) of the melanin. Redox equilibria are altered during irradiation with either visible or uv light. Rapid oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitroxide is apparent, together with a slower reduction of nitroxide. Action spectra for these processes are related to those for melanin radical production and oxygen consumption in nitroxide-free melanin systems. Reduction of nitroxide is inhibited by oxygen, suggesting a competition between nitroxide and oxygen for photoinduced reducing equivalents.

  6. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  7. Band Structure Simulations of the Photoinduced Changes in the MgB2:Cr Films

    PubMed Central

    Kityk, Iwan V.; Fedorchuk, Anatolii O.; Ozga, Katarzyna; AlZayed, Nasser S.

    2015-01-01

    An approach for description of the photoinduced nonlinear optical effects in the superconducting MgB2:Cr2O3 nanocrystalline film is proposed. It includes the molecular dynamics step-by-step optimization of the two separate crystalline phases. The principal role for the photoinduced nonlinear optical properties plays nanointerface between the two phases. The first modified layers possess a form of slightly modified perfect crystalline structure. The next layer is added to the perfect crystalline structure and the iteration procedure is repeated for the next layer. The total energy here is considered as a varied parameter. To avoid potential jumps on the borders we have carried out additional derivative procedure.

  8. The impact of photo-induced molecular changes of dairy proteins on their ACE-inhibitory peptides and activity.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Shrestha, Kshitij; Van Camp, John; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Among all dietary proteins, dairy proteins are the most important source of bio-active peptides which can, however, be affected by modifications upon processing and storage. Since it is still unknown to which extent the biological activity of dairy proteins is altered by chemical reactions, this study focuses on the effect of photo-induced molecular changes on the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Milk proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer containing riboflavin and stored under light at 4 °C for one month during which the molecular changes and the ACE-inhibitory activity were analysed. An increase in the total protein carbonyls and the N-formylkynurenine content was observed, besides a decrease in the free thiol, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine content. These changes were more severe in caseins compared with whey proteins and resulted moreover in the aggregation of caseins. Due to these photo-induced molecular changes, a significant loss of the ACE-inhibitory activity was observed for casein peptides. A peptide analysis moreover illustrated that the decreased activity was not attributed to a reduced digestibility but to losses of specific ACE-inhibitory peptides. The observed molecular changes, more specifically the degradation of specific amino acids and the casein aggregation, could be assigned as the cause of the altered peptide pattern and as such of the loss in ACE-inhibitory activity.

  9. Solar Spectral Irradiance Changes During Cycle 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchenko, Sergey; Deland, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by approximately 0.6% +/- 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% +/- 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar "continuum." Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar "continuum," the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at lambda approximately or greater than 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  10. Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24

    SciTech Connect

    Marchenko, S. V.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-07-10

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by ∼0.6% ± 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% ± 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar 'continuum'. Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar 'continuum', the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at λ ≳ 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  11. Photo-induced transformations in 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene thin films on silver.

    PubMed

    Alaverdyan, Yury; Johansson, Patrik; Käll, Mikael

    2006-03-28

    We report on transient photo-induced structural changes of 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene (3T) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data show that the film thickness predetermines the eventual course of these changes. In particular, for high molecular concentrations (thick adsorbate layers), illumination leads to a photoinduced polymerization of the 3T film. For thin layers ( approximately monolayer coverage), the photoinduced spectral evolution is qualitatively different. We interpret the latter process as a cleavage of the terthiophene molecule, resulting in isolated thiophene units. Calculations of excitation energies for 3T + 3Ag+ and 1T + Ag+ revealed visible transitions, while calculated Raman frequencies indicated 1T as a possible photoproduct. As no photoinduced transformations are observed for 3T in the solid or solution phases, it is likely that the processes reported here originate in surface-enhanced charge-transfer between the Ag-surface and the organic adsorbate.

  12. Photo-induced and electrooptic properties of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Dimos, D.; Warren, W.L.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1993-07-01

    Photo-induced changes in the hysteresis behavior of sol-gel derived Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) and (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PLZT) films have been characterized. Film photosensitivity has been evaluated with respect to magnitude of effects, time response and spectral dependence. Photo-induced hysteresis changes exhibit a stretched-exponential time dependence, which implies a dispersive mechanism. The spectral dependence is strongly peaked at the band edge ({approximately} 3.4 eV), which indicates that generation of electron-hole pairs in the material is critical. The photo-induced hysteresis changes are reproducible and stable, which indicates that the controlling charge traps are stable. However, improvements in film photosensitivity will be required to develop these materials for optical memory applications.

  13. Testing theories of vowel inherent spectral change.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart; Nearey, Terrance M

    2007-07-01

    Three competing accounts of vowel inherent spectral change in English all agree on the importance of initial formant frequencies; however, they disagree about the nature of the perceptually relevant aspects of formant change. The onset+offset hypothesis claims that the final formant values themselves matter. The onset+slope hypothesis claims that only the rate of change counts. The onset+direction hypothesis claims that only the general direction of change in formant frequencies is important. A synthetic-vowel perception experiment was designed to differentiate among the three. Results provide support for the superiority of the onset+offset hypothesis.

  14. Polymers for refractive index change in intraocular lenses: a novel approach for photoinduced tuning of focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger, Jens; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert

    2006-02-01

    Before an intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted during cataract surgery, biometric data of the patient's eye have to be determined to calculate the thickness and shape of the IOL. In particular the postoperative anterior chamber depth is an important parameter to predict the correct shape of the IOL. This value, however, cannot be measured without significant uncertainities. We present a solution to this problem, describe novel polymers suitable for IOLs which refractive indices can be changed non-invasively in a photo-induced process. The focal length can be modified by about 2 D, which is sufficient to achive ideal acuteness of vision for almost all patients with implanted IOLs. The change in refractive index is accomplished by linking or cleaving bonds between a sufficiently large number of side groups of the polymer main chain in a photoinduced cyloaddition or cycloreversion, respectively. The photochemical reaction can also be triggered by a two-photon process (TPA) using a pulsed laser system, i.e. the energy required for bond breaking is provided by two photons in the visible range. Light in the UV as well as the visible range of the spectrum cannot induce undesired changes of the refractive index owing to the strong UV-absorption of the cornea and photon densities much too low for TPA, respectively. Due to the excellent spatial resolution that can be achieved with two-photon processes not only modification of the refractive index of the entire lens but also selectively in well defined areas is possible enabling the correction for aberrations such as astigmatism.

  15. Photoinduced changes of surface order in coumarin side-chain polymer films used for liquid crystal photoalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, G.; Jackson, P.O.; Hogg, J.H.C.; Stirner, T.; O'Neill, M.; Duffy, W.L.; Kelly, S.M.; Clark, G.F.

    2005-08-08

    Specular x-ray reflectivity probes morphological changes in a crosslinkable coumarin photoalignment polymer film resulting from ultraviolet irradiation. An ordered surface layer with density oscillations compatible with planar side-chain alignment is obtained before irradiation. The ordering is enhanced in the early stages of crosslinking. This is attributed to the photoinduced increase of mobility of the side-chains resulting from the creation of free volume by the crosslinking process. The expansion of the thin film confirms that free volume is created. The surface ordering decreases with prolonged ultraviolet irradiation because of increased material viscosity resulting from a high crosslinked density. The implications of surface ordering on liquid crystal photoalignment are discussed.

  16. Effect of Photoinduced Size Changes on Protein Refolding and Transport Abilities of Soft Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kameta, Naohiro; Akiyama, Haruhisa; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2016-05-17

    Self-assembly of azobenzene-modified amphiphiles (Glyn Azo, n=1-3) in water at room temperature in the presence of a protein produced nanotubes with the protein encapsulated in the channels. The Gly2 Azo nanotubes (7 nm internal diameter [i.d.]) promoted refolding of some encapsulated proteins, whereas the Gly3 Azo nanotubes (13 nm i.d.) promoted protein aggregation. Although the 20 nm i.d. channels of the Gly1 Azo nanotubes were too large to influence the encapsulated proteins, narrowing of the i.d. to 1 nm by trans-to-cis photoisomerization of the azobenzene units of the Gly1 Azo monomers packed in the solid bilayer membranes led to a squeezing out of the proteins into the bulk solution and simultaneously enhanced their refolding ratios. In contrast, photoinduced transformation of the Gly2 Azo nanotubes to short nanorings (<40 nm) with a large i.d. (28 nm) provided no further refolding assistance. We thus demonstrate that pertubation by the solid bilayer membrane wall of the nanotubes is important to accelerate refolding of the denatured proteins during their transport in the narrow nanotube channels. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of photoinduced change in refractive index of a polymer film doped with an azobenzene liquid crystal by means of a prism-coupling method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Hideo; Shishido, Atsushi; Ikeda, Tomiki

    2005-10-15

    The photoinduced change in refractive index of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with an azobenzene liquid crystal was measured by the prism-coupling method. Upon irradiation of the film with a high-pressure mercury lamp at 366 nm, the coupling angles shifted and then recovered to the initial position by turning off the light. The change in refractive index was found to be 2x10{sup -3}, which is attributed to the reversible photoisomerization of the azobenzene moieties.

  18. Spectral sensitivity of a colour changing spider.

    PubMed

    Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Warrant, Eric J; Casas, Jérôme

    2011-04-01

    Vision plays a paramount role in some spider families such as the Salticidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae, as it is involved in prey hunting, orientation or choice of substrate. In the thomisid Misumena vatia, for which the substrate colour affects the body colour, vision seems to mediate morphological colour changes. However, nothing is known about which component of visual signals from the substrate might be perceived, nor whether M. vatia possesses the physiological basis for colour vision. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the vision of this spider species by measuring the spectral sensitivities of the different pairs of eyes using electrophysiological methods. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings combined with selective adaptation revealed the presence of two classes of photoreceptor cells, one sensitive in the UV region of the spectrum (around 340 nm) and one sensitive in the green (around 520 nm) regions in the four pairs of eyes. We conclude that M. vatia possesses the physiological potential to perceive both chromatic and achromatic components of the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photo-induced refractive index change of amorphous tin-doped As{sub 2}S{sub 8} films and its application to strip waveguide fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, B.; Chen, B. X.; Sui, G. R.; Wang, G. D.; Zou, L. E.; Iso, M.; Hamanaka, H.

    2009-05-01

    The amorphous chalcogenide glass Sn{sub 1}As{sub 20}S{sub 79} is demonstrated to undergo permanent changes in refractive index on irradiation with ultraviolet light. The refractive properties of this material and the effect of annealing at temperatures below the glass transition temperature are investigated in detail. An Sn{sub 1}As{sub 20}S{sub 79} strip waveguide is fabricated using this photoinduced refractive index change, and the device is shown to function as expected with good propagation characteristics for the 632.8 nm guided mode.

  20. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials

    PubMed Central

    Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A. O.; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W.; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials. PMID:25740351

  1. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A. O.; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W.; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials.

  2. Persistent Photoconductivity and Photo-induced Morphology Changes of Porphyrin Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, B. E.; Muller, E. A.; Joines, V. H.; Smith, W. F.; Schwab, A. D.; de Paula, J. C.; Johnston, D. E.; Johnson, A. T.

    2007-03-01

    Tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphine self assembles into well-defined nanorods with intriguing photoelectronic properties.^1 Recently, we have found that, over long time scales, they undergo a transition from non-persistent photoconductivity (NPPC) to a new mode, in which part of the conductivity persists after the light is blocked, decaying over hundreds of seconds. NPPC initially dominates, but its growth asymptotes within 2-3 hours of illumination, while the persistent current continues to grow, even after 8 hours of light exposure. The decay of persistent current after the light is blocked can be roughly modeled by a single exponential; a double exponential fits much better. The morphology of some nanorods changes as a result of long-term illumination---they become shorter, thinner and less well-formed. Other rods, however, appear unchanged. This and other structural changes may be related to the slow growth of persistent current. ^1A.D. Schwab et al., Nano Letters 4, 1261 (2004).

  3. Photo-Induced Surface Potential Change of Bacteriorhodopsin Mutant D96N Measured by Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ida; Greenbaum, Elias; Budy, Stephen; Hillebrecht, Jason R; Birge, Robert R; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct measurement of photoinduced surface potential differences of wild-type (WT) and mutant D96N bacteriorhodopsin (BR) membranes at pH 7 and 10.5. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM) were used to measure the BR membrane with the extracellular side facing up. We present AFM and SSPM images of WT and mutant D96N in which the light-dark transition occurred in the mid-scan of a single BR membrane. Photosteady-state populations of the M state were generated to facilitate measurement in each sample. The photoinduced surface potential of D96N is 63 mV (peak to valley) at pH 10.5 and is 48 mV at pH 7. The photoinduced surface potential of WT is 37 mV at pH 10.5 and {approx}0 at pH 7. Signal magnitudes are proportional to the amount of M produced at each pH. The results indicated that the surface potentials were generated by photoformation of surface charges on the extracellular side of the membrane. Higher surface potential correlated with a longer lifetime of the charges. A mechanistic basis for these signals is proposed, and it is concluded that they represent a steady-state measurement of the B2 photovoltage.

  4. Multifractal analysis of photoinduced cooperative phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Kunio; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2008-01-01

    We study the multifractal properties of the geometrical patterns which appear in the initial processes of photoinduced structural change. Employing a model of localized electrons coupled with a single-phonon mode, we calculate the Lipschitz-Hölder exponent α and singularity spectrum f(α) on the distribution of excited electronic states and molecular distortion by using the box-counting method, and discuss the temporal behavior of photoinduced domains.

  5. ROLE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND SPECTRAL CONTENT IN CHANGE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1984-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Advancements in remote sensing technology have brought improvements and sophistication to modern remote sensor systems, especially those aboard earth resources satellites. These improvements have considerbly expanded the capabilities of the newer sensor systems, particularly the capability to achieve greatly increased spatial and spectral resolution levels. The debate still lingers, however, over whether future systems should maximize spatial resolution or spectral information, or both. As yet, the high costs and large volumes of data associated with even modest incremental improvements in spatial and spectral content have precluded the design of a single system that attempts to fully optimize both. Thus, the user is faced with having to choose between those systems providing high spatial resolutions but limited spectral information and those which offer a broad range of spectral data but hold spatial resolution to a less than optimum level. In this study, the contribution of both spatial resolution and spectral content to land cover change detection is examined. Ten-meter SPOT simulation imagery is compared with multispectral images acquired by the Thematic Mapper sensor system for use in the visual interpretation and mapping of changes. Several image processing and enhancement techniques are utilized to maximize the spatial and spectral data content offered by each system. Results indicate that when using visual image interpretation techniques to detect change, higher spatial resolutions are generally preferred over increased spectral content.

  6. SAR image change detection using watershed and spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ruican; Jiao, L. C.; Wang, Guiting; Feng, Jie

    2011-12-01

    A new method of change detection in SAR images based on spectral clustering is presented in this paper. Spectral clustering is employed to extract change information from a pair images acquired on the same geographical area at different time. Watershed transform is applied to initially segment the big image into non-overlapped local regions, leading to reduce the complexity. Experiments results and system analysis confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  8. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  9. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  10. Photoinduced spectra for magneto electric (1-x)BiFeO₃-xCuFe₂O₄ nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kityk, I V; Alzayed, N; Lakshminarayana, G; Wojciechowski, A; Plucinski, K J

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we demonstrate possibility to use spectra of the parametrically tuned laser beam for operation by magnetoelectric properties of the (1-x)BiFeO(3-)(x)CuFe(2)O(4) (BFCI). The role of the photoexcited wavelength is crucial due to photoexcited phonons. It may indicate on a spectral sensitivity of the studied nanocomposites. We have studied spectral dependences of magneto-electric constant versus the magnetic field frequency for different sizes of the nanoparticles with and without the nanosecond laser pulses illumination and we have shown an occurrence of principal spectral shifts in the corresponding magneto-electric maxima. Additionally we have explored relative changes of dielectric permittivity and coercivity versus different photoinducing wavelengths. The performed experiments unambiguously show that the external laser treatment will lead to substantial shift of corresponding dielectric and magnetic parameters in the studied nanocomposites. It is principally the finding of clear spectral dependences for the mentioned dielectric and magnetic parameters. One can see their sensitivity to the photoinduced wavelength which reflects the photoexcitations of different part of wavelengths. One can see the spectral shift up to 100 nm for the two principal spectral maxima with respect to the dielectric and magnetic changes which may indicate on the two principally different contributions to the effects observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of photo-induced structural changes in BiFeO3 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Marcus C.; Parsons, Aaron; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Multiferroic materials that exhibit coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic properties are of considerable utility for technological applications and are also interesting from a fundamental standpoint. When reduced to the nanoscale, multiferroic materials often display additional functionality that is dominated by interfacial and confinement effects. Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is one such material with room temperature anti-ferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering. Optical excitation of BiFeO3 crystals results in an elastic structural deformation of the lattice with a fast response on the pico-second time scale. Here we report on dynamic measurements to investigate the structural properties of BiFeO3 nanoscale crystals using laser excitation and three-dimensional Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. Tensile strain beyond 8 × {10}-2 was observed predominantly at the surface of the nanoscale crystal as evidenced in the reconstructed phase information and was correlated to photo-induced lattice deformation.

  12. Hyperspectral imagery for observing spectral signature change in Aspergillus flavus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCrispino, Kevin; Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Brabham, Kori; Lewis, David; Beach, Jim; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2005-11-01

    Aflatoxin contaminated corn is dangerous for domestic animals when used as feed and cause liver cancer when consumed by human beings. Therefore, the ability to detect A. flavus and its toxic metabolite, aflatoxin, is important. The objective of this study is to measure A. flavus growth using hyperspectral technology and develop spectral signatures for A. flavus. Based on the research group's previous experiments using hyperspectral imaging techniques, it has been confirmed that the spectral signature of A. flavus is unique and readily identifiable against any background or surrounding surface and among other fungal strains. This study focused on observing changes in the A. flavus spectral signature over an eight-day growth period. The study used a visible-near-infrared hyperspectral image system for data acquisition. This image system uses focal plane pushbroom scanning for high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging. Procedures previously developed by the research group were used for image calibration and image processing. The results showed that while A. flavus gradually progressed along the experiment timeline, the day-to-day surface reflectance of A. flavus displayed significant difference in discreet regions of the wavelength spectrum. External disturbance due to environmental changes also altered the growth and subsequently changed the reflectance patterns of A. flavus.

  13. Adaptive optimal spectral range for dynamically changing scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David

    2012-06-01

    A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.

  14. Spectral changes associated with rain on Titan: observations by VIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Dalba, P. A.; Barnes, J.; Baines, K. H.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sotin, C.

    2012-04-01

    Titan has an erosional cycle similar to that on the Earth, with solid, liquid, and gaseous methane taking the place of the Earth’s water. Lakes and ponds, drainage and fluvial features, and clouds all suggest that rain is falling on Titan. A darkening event near clouds covering the Huygens landing site, followed by a return to the previous state, strongly suggested rainfall followed by evaporation (Turtle et al., 2011). The Cassini Visual infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) obtains medium resolution spectra in the 0.35-5.1 μm spectral region, which includes several atmospheric “windows” that offer glimpses of Titan’s surface. The albedo of the surface can be measured in these windows, and some compositional information, including changes through time, can be derived. VIMS observed an area near 15º south latitude and 330º longitude at two separate times: in August 2009 during T61 and in May 2011 during T76. A spectral analysis of this region, including compensation for varying atmospheric path lengths, shows substantial spectral changes in the two and five micron atmospheric windows. A comparison of the changes with that expected from the deposition and later evaporation of liquid methane or another hydrocarbon shows them to be consistent with rain on Titan. Ackowledgements: This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2012 all rights reserved. References: Turtle, E. P. et al. (2011) Science 331, 1414.

  15. Photoinduced Multicomponent Reactions.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Silvia; Ravelli, Davide; Protti, Stefano; Basso, Andrea

    2016-12-12

    The combination of multicomponent approaches with light-driven processes opens up new scenarios in the area of synthetic organic chemistry, where the need for sustainable, atom- and energy-efficient reactions is increasingly urgent. Photoinduced multicomponent reactions are still in their infancy, but significant developments in this area are expected in the near future.

  16. Synthesis fidelity and time-varying spectral change in vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Peter F.; Katz, William F.

    2005-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that synthesized versions of American English vowels are less accurately identified when the natural time-varying spectral changes are eliminated by holding the formant frequencies constant over the duration of the vowel. A limitation of these experiments has been that vowels produced by formant synthesis are generally less accurately identified than the natural vowels after which they are modeled. To overcome this limitation, a high-quality speech analysis-synthesis system (STRAIGHT) was used to synthesize versions of 12 American English vowels spoken by adults and children. Vowels synthesized with STRAIGHT were identified as accurately as the natural versions, in contrast with previous results from our laboratory showing identification rates 9%-12% lower for the same vowels synthesized using the cascade formant model. Consistent with earlier studies, identification accuracy was not reduced when the fundamental frequency was held constant across the vowel. However, elimination of time-varying changes in the spectral envelope using STRAIGHT led to a greater reduction in accuracy (23%) than was previously found with cascade formant synthesis (11%). A statistical pattern recognition model, applied to acoustic measurements of the natural and synthesized vowels, predicted both the higher identification accuracy for vowels synthesized using STRAIGHT compared to formant synthesis, and the greater effects of holding the formant frequencies constant over time with STRAIGHT synthesis. Taken together, the experiment and modeling results suggest that formant estimation errors and incorrect rendering of spectral and temporal cues by cascade formant synthesis contribute to lower identification accuracy and underestimation of the role of time-varying spectral change in vowels. .

  17. Photoinduced electron-transfer reactions of 2(3H)-furanones and bis(benzofuranones). Spectral and kinetic behavior of radicals and radical cations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.F.; Lohray, B.B.; Gopidas, K.R.; Kumar, C.V.; Das, P.K.; George, M.V.

    1985-10-04

    The spectral and kinetic behaviors of radical cations produced under efficient electron-transfer quenching of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene or 9,10-dicyanoanthracene singlet by a number of 2(3H)-furanones and bis(benzo-furanones) have been examined by nanosecond laser flash photolysis (337.1 and 425 nm). The efficiencies of net electron transfer in the course of quenching processes are moderately high (0.2-0.6) in acetonitrile. The radical cations from bis(benzofuranones) several 2(3H)-furanones containing a benzyl group at the 3-position undergo fragmentation to benzofuranoxy and furanoxy radicals (+ benzyl or benzofuranoyl carbocations) with rate constants of 0.3 x 10W s . The long-lived furanoxy radicals, independently generated via hydrogen abstraction by tert-butoxy radicals from 2(5H)-furanones and 3-phenyl-2(3H)-benzofuranone, as well as via direct photolysis of 3-benzoyl-3,5-diphenyl-2(3H)-furanone, are characterized by sharply structured absorption spectra and relatively slow second-order decay kinetics (6-8 x 10Y M s in 1:2 benzene-di-tert butyl peroxide, v/v). 28 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Influence of π-conjugation structural changes on intramolecular charge transfer and photoinduced electron transfer in donor-π-acceptor dyads.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yoen; Cho, Yang-Jin; Lee, Ah-Rang; Son, Ho-Jin; Han, Won-Sik; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2016-12-21

    The influence of π-conjugation structural changes on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes in π-conjugated donor (D)-acceptor (A) dyads (D-π-A) was investigated. Three types of D-π-A dyads were prepared through the modification of the structure of their π-conjugated linker, including D-π-A (1) and D-πtw-A (2) having a twisted π-conjugation, and D-π-Si-π-A (3) with a π-conjugation severed by a Si-atom. In these dyads, carbazole (Cz) and oxadiazole (Oz) moieties act as an electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The emission maxima of dyads 1 and 3 red-shifted with the increase in polarity, which could be attributed to the ICT process. The fluorescence lifetimes of dyads 1 and 3 were 2.64 and 4.29 ns in CH2Cl2, respectively. In contrast, dyad 2 showed dual emission at 350 and 470 nm in CH2Cl2. The emission of dyad 2 at 380 nm corresponded to the monomer fluorescence in the locally excited state. Moreover, the emission at 470 nm increased simultaneously with the diminishing of the fluorescence at 380 nm. This emission band can be assigned as the intramolecular exciplex emission, and showed a strong solvatochromic shift. The low emission quantum yield (<3%) of dyad 2 is due to the PET process. In dyad 2, the cationic and anionic radical species generated by the PET process were confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation at 290 or 340 nm, the A or D moieties can be selectively excited. Upon excitation at 290 nm, the acceptor moiety can be excited to the (1)A* state, thus the photoinduced hole transfer (PHT) takes place from (1)A* to D through the HOMO levels within a few picoseconds. On the other hand, when the donor moiety is excited at 340 nm, the PET process occurs from (1)D* to A. Based on the fs-TA studies, it was found that the dynamics and mechanisms for the electron (or charge) transfer were strongly affected by the variation of the π-conjugation of the

  19. Spectral changes in spontaneous MEG activity across the lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Carlos; Pérez-Macías, Jose M.; Poza, Jesús; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to explore the spectral patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity across the lifespan. Approach. Relative power (RP) in six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma) was calculated in a sample of 220 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 7 to 84 years. Main results. A significant RP decrease in low-frequency bands (i.e. delta and theta) and a significant increase in high bands (mainly beta-1 and beta-2) were found from childhood to adolescence. This trend was observed until the sixth decade of life, though only slight changes were found. Additionally, healthy aging was characterized by a power increase in low-frequency bands. Our results show that spectral changes across the lifespan may follow a quadratic relationship in delta, theta, alpha, beta-2 and gamma bands with peak ages being reached around the fifth or sixth decade of life. Significance. Our findings provide original insights into the definition of the ‘normal’ behavior of age-related MEG spectral patterns. Furthermore, our study can be useful for the forthcoming MEG research focused on the description of the abnormalities of different brain diseases in comparison to cognitive decline in normal aging.

  20. Photo-induced changes of the optical constants of chalcodenide Ge19Sb1Te80 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamukchieva, Vesela; Szekeres, Anna M.; Todorova, Kalina

    2004-10-01

    In this work a preliminary study of the influence of light illumination on the optical constants of chalcogenide thin films with non-stoichiometric Ge19Sb1Te80 composition is presented. Films of Ge19Sb1Te80 with a thickness of ~1 μm were deposited onto glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation of parent glasses. The as-deposited films were exposed to light by using a 500 W HBO mercury lamp. The optical constants of the films, before and after their illumination, were evaluated from the ellipsometric measurements in the spectral range of 300 - 820 nm. It has been established that illumination of the films leads to a decrease of the refractive index in the studied spectral region, while a slight increase of the extinction coefficient in the 600 - 800 nm range is observed. For the given film composition the optical bandgap energy of 0.76 eV reduces to 0.62 eV. The film structure shows a very slow recovery expresed in the increase of bandgap energy towards its initial value. The observed decrease of the bandgap energy after illumination is indicative that the film structure undergoes rearrangements upon exposure to light leading to the effect of photodarkening.

  1. Studies of the spectral signatures of a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, J. E.; Brindley, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Observations of the outgoing longwave spectrum of the Earth have been made from a number of spacecraft, dating back to the IRIS experiment on Nimbus 4 in 1970. Using these observations, and following very careful calibration exercises, we have searched cloud-cleared (clear sky) spectra , and found changes in the spectral signatures of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, O3 and CFCl3. The OLR spectrum also contains information on feedback processes, such as those due to water vapour (and the water vapour continuum) and clouds. The paper reports on studies of these observations, and on simulations of the spectral signatures, using both model runs and re-analysis data from NCEP and ERA-40. A major problem is that of sampling of the fields, especially of clouds, and this will be discussed. It also transpires that the primary mechanism of water vapour feedback is through emission from the pure rotation band in the far IR. We find that inter-annual variability contributes to changes with time that can either increase or decrease the effectiveness of this feedback. This work contributes to the specification of the CLARREO project, in which the development of well-calibrated, Fourier transform spectrometers in orbit is proposed, for monitoring these changes in the Earth's OLR spectrum.

  2. Photoinduced diffusion molecular transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenbaum, Viktor M.; Dekhtyar, Marina L.; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Trakhtenberg, Leonid I.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a Brownian photomotor, namely, the directed motion of a nanoparticle in an asymmetric periodic potential under the action of periodic rectangular resonant laser pulses which cause charge redistribution in the particle. Based on the kinetics for the photoinduced electron redistribution between two or three energy levels of the particle, the time dependence of its potential energy is derived and the average directed velocity is calculated in the high-temperature approximation (when the spatial amplitude of potential energy fluctuations is small relative to the thermal energy). The thus developed theory of photoinduced molecular transport appears applicable not only to conventional dichotomous Brownian motors (with only two possible potential profiles) but also to a much wider variety of molecular nanomachines. The distinction between the realistic time dependence of the potential energy and that for a dichotomous process (a step function) is represented in terms of relaxation times (they can differ on the time intervals of the dichotomous process). As shown, a Brownian photomotor has the maximum average directed velocity at (i) large laser pulse intensities (resulting in short relaxation times on laser-on intervals) and (ii) excited state lifetimes long enough to permit efficient photoexcitation but still much shorter than laser-off intervals. A Brownian photomotor with optimized parameters is exemplified by a cylindrically shaped semiconductor nanocluster which moves directly along a polar substrate due to periodically photoinduced dipole moment (caused by the repetitive excited electron transitions to a non-resonant level of the nanocylinder surface impurity).

  3. Auditory Evoked Fields Elicited by Spectral, Temporal, and Spectral–Temporal Changes in Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Teismann, Henning; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral–temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral–temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30–50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously. PMID:22593751

  4. The vowel inherent spectral change of English vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined Vowel Inherent Spectral Change (VISC) of English vowels spoken by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers. Two metrics, spectral distance (amount of spectral shift) and spectral angle (direction of spectral shift) of formant movement from the onset to the offset, were measured for 12 English monophthongs produced in a /hvd/ context. While Chinese speakers showed significantly greater spectral distances of vowels than English and Korean speakers, there was no significant speakers' native language effect on spectral angles. Comparisons to their native vowels for Chinese and Korean speakers suggest that VISC might be affected by language-specific phonological structure.

  5. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Ido; Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha; Kityk, Iwan; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties.

  6. Temperature Dependence of the Photoinduced Dynamics on the Cleaved Surface of BaV10O15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Ayaka; Kanzaki, Tatsuya; Furuhashi, Asuka; Katsufuji, Takuro

    2013-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the photoinduced dynamics by the irradiation of a femtosecond laser pulse was studied for the cleaved surface of BaV10O15, which shows V trimerization with orbital ordering at Tc=123 K. For T>Tc, the photoinduced reflectivity change exhibits oscillation with time, indicating that a photoinduced state propagates with time in the crystal. For Tchange of the reflectivity is observed over several tens of picoseconds, indicating the appearance of a stable photoinduced phase. The different photoinduced dynamics above and below Tc can be attributed to the absence or existence of V trimerization with orbital ordering. We also found that the absolute values of the photoinduced reflectivity change are several times larger on the cleaved surface than those on the polished surface, indicating that remnant stress on the polished surface affects the photoinduced dynamics.

  7. Photoinduced mass transport in azo compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klismeta, K.; Teteris, J.; Aleksejeva, J.

    2013-12-01

    The photoinduced changes of optical properties in azobenzene containing compound thin films were studied under influence of polarized and non-polarized 532 nm laser light. Under influence of light azo compounds experience trans-cis isomerisation process, that can be observed in the absorbance spectrum of the sample. If the light is linearly polarized, molecules align perpendicularly to the electric field vector and as a result photoinduced dichroism and birefringence is obtained. If a known lateral polarization modulation of the light beam is present, mass transport of the azobenzene containing compound occurs. By measuring the surface relief with a profilometer the direction of mass transport can be determined. The studies of this work show that direct holographic recording of surface relief gratings can be used in optoelectronics, telecommunications and data storage.

  8. Quantum pattern formation dynamics of photoinduced nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Kunio; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2008-06-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum pattern formation processes in molecular crystals which is concomitant with photoinduced nucleation. Since the nucleation process in coherent regime is driven by the nonadiabatic transition in each molecule followed by the propagation of phonons, it is necessary to take into account the quantum nature of both electrons and phonons in order to pursue the dynamics of the system. Therefore, we employ a model of localized electrons coupled with a quantized phonon mode and solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically. We found that there is a minimal size of clusters of excited molecules which triggers the photoinduced nucleation process; i.e., nucleation does not take place unless sufficient photoexcitation energy is concentrated within a narrow area of the system. We show that this result means that the spatial distribution of photoexcited molecules plays an important role in the nonlinearity of the dynamics and also in the optical properties observed in experiments. We calculate the conversion ratio, the rate of cluster formation, and correlation functions to reveal the dynamical properties of the pattern formation process; the initial dynamics of the photoinduced structural change is discussed from the viewpoint of pattern formation.

  9. Effect of irradiance spectra on the photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.A.; Mount, D.R.; Burkhard, L.P.; Ankley, G.T.; Makynen, E.A.; Leonard, E.N.

    2000-05-01

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events underlying phototoxicity. This suggests that variation in light spectra present in natural waters, arising from variation in dissolved organic carbon composition, is an important determinant of phototoxicity risk in specific, PAH-contaminated waterbodies. To quantify the effect of environmentally realistic variation in light spectra on toxicity, brine shrimp (Artemia salina) assays were conducted under various light spectra and with three PAHs (pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) of known phototoxicity potential. In these spectral assays, the total ultraviolet light present was equivalent; only the spectral characteristics varied. Based on the absorbance spectra of these PAHs, it was predicted that toxicity, quantified using immobilization as the endpoint, would vary significantly among light spectra in pyrene assays, but not in anthracene assays, and that variation in toxicity in fluoranthene assays would be intermediate. The results supported these assumptions. In the pyrene exposures, the glass filter time to 50% population immobilization (IT50) (39.5 min) was 117% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (18.2 min). In the fluoranthene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (49.5 min) was 27% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (39.1 min). In the anthracene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (62.2 min) was not statistically different from the KCr filter IT50 (63.8 min). Comparison of these results with the results of assays conducted under neutral-density filters (that change intensity but not spectral distribution) demonstrate that multiplying spectral intensity by wavelength-specific absorbance accurately predicts relative photoinduced toxicity among the experimental treatments. These results indicate

  10. Spectral changes in the zenith skylight during total solar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Hall, W N

    1971-06-01

    The relative spectral intensity of the zenith sky was measured with an optical scanning spectrometer at Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, during the total solar eclipse of 7 March 1970. The spectral ratios I(5100 A)/I(4300 A) and I(5900 A)/I(5100 A) at Nantucket remained unchanged for 96% or less obscuration of the sun by the moon. The results are compared with other recent relative spectral intensity measurements made during total solar eclipses. Comparison with other eclipse measurements for solar elevation angle at totality less than 45 degrees shows a blue color shift consistent with rayleigh scattering. Eclipses with solar elevation angles at totality greater than 45 degrees do not show consistent color shifts. This inconsistency may be due to difficulty in establishing a suitable reference spectrum for comparison with the spectral distribution of the zenith sky at totality. Selection of a suitable reference spectrum is discussed.

  11. Change Detection Method with Spatial and Spectral Information from Deep Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Haobo; Lu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Change detection is a key application of remote sensing technology. For multi-spectral images, the available spatial information and useful spectral information is both helpful for data analysis, especially change detection tasks. However, it is difficult that how to learn the changed features from spatial and spectral information meantime in one model. In this paper, we proposed a new method which combines 2-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network and 1-dimensional Recurrent Neural Network for learn changed feature. Compared with only using spectral information, the spatial information will be helpful to overcome temporal spectral variance issues. Our method extracts the spatial difference and spectral difference meantime, and these change information will be balanced in final memory cell of our model, and the leaned change information will be exploited to character change features for change detection. Finally, experiments are performed on two multi-temporal datasets, and the results show superior performance on detecting changes with spatial information and spectral information. Index Terms— Change detection, multi-temporal images, recurrent neural network, convolutional neural network , deep learning, spatial information, spectral information

  12. Changes in spectral sensitivity of multiplier phototubes resulting from changes in temperature.

    PubMed

    Boileau, A R; Miller, F D

    1967-07-01

    The change in cathode spectral sensitivity of Westinghouse WX 4582 (S-11) and RCA 1P21(S-4) multiplier phototubes was measured across the visible spectrum, i.e., from 400 nm to 700 nm, for various temperature changes, both increases and decreases. Two methods were used for these measurements, viz., an adaptation of the Hardy spectrophotometer and the use of an environmental chamber. A decrease in temperature usually caused an increase in sensitivity in the short wavelength part of the spectrum and a decrease (as much as 90% at 700 nm) in the long wavelength part of the spectrum, with the crossover point (no appreciable change of sensitivity with change of temperature) at about 590 nm. An increase in temperature was accompanied by a reversal of spectral sensitivity changes, i.e., a decrease in the short wavelength part of spectrum and an increase in the long wavelength part of the spectrum. The change in cathode sensitivity varied with different types of phototubes and with phototubes of the same type.

  13. Detecting Changes of Thermal Environment over the Bohai Coastal Region by Spectral Change Vector Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

    2009-12-01

    Change vector analysis (CVA) is an effective approach for detecting and characterizing land-cover change by comparing pairs of multi-spectral and multi-temporal datasets over certain area derived from various satellite platforms. NDVI is considered as an effective detector for biophysical changes due to its sensitivity to red and near infrared signals, while land surface temperature (LST) is considered as a valuable indicator for changes of ground thermal conditions. Here we try to apply CVA over satellite derived LST datasets to detect changes of land surface thermal properties parallel to climate change and anthropogenic influence in a city cluster since 2001. In this study, monthly land surface temperature datasets from 2001-2008 derived from MODIS collection 5 were used to examine change pattern of thermal environment over the Bohai coastal region by using spectral change vector analysis. The results from principle component analysis (PCA) for LST show that the PC 1-3 contain over 80% information on monthly variations and these PCA components represent the main processes of land thermal environment change over the study area. Time series of CVA magnitude combined with land cover information show that greatest change occurred in urban and heavily populated area, featured with expansion of urban heat island, while moderate change appeared in grassland area in the north. However few changes were observed over large plain area and forest area. Strong signals also are related to economy level and especially the events of surface cover change, such as emergence of railway and port. Two main processes were also noticed about the changes of thermal environment. First, weak signal was detected in mostly natural area influenced by interannual climate change in temperate broadleaf forest area. Second, land surface temperature changes were controlled by human activities as 1) moderate change of LST happened in grassland influenced by grazing and 2) urban heat island was

  14. Photo-induced foveal injury after viewing a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Källmark, Fredrik P; Ygge, Jan

    2005-10-01

    To study the injury to and possible recovery of the visual function and foveal morphology in patients with photo-induced foveal injury due to watching the solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999 in Stockholm, Sweden. Fifteen patients, all of whom viewed the solar eclipse, were followed for 1 year, during which their visual symptoms were recorded and visual acuity (VA) was tested, and ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy were performed. Photo-induced foveal injury gave rise to subjective visual disturbances, reduced VA and morphological changes in the fovea. Central scotomas could still be seen in all patients 1 year after the foveal injury. Photo-induced foveal injury gave rise to subjective visual disturbances, reduced VA and morphological changes in the fovea. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers the possibility of detailed examination of small retinal lesions, which can sometimes be difficult to localize with ophthalmoscopy.

  15. Intra-QRS Spectral Changes Accompany ST Segment Changes During Episodes of Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gramatikov, Boris; Iyer, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia cause substantial morbidity and mortality. While ischemia is traditionally diagnosed on the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) by shifts in the ST segment, electrical changes are also produced within the QRS complex during depolarization of ischemic ventricular tissue, though these are often of small amplitude and can be missed in traditional ECG analysis. We explore the utility of an easily implemented spectral analysis method for detecting intra-QRS changes during episodes of myocardial ischemia, using Holter recordings from the European ST-T database. Methods Time-frequency distributions of QRS complexes from each recording were computed using the continuous wavelet transform. Indices corresponding to frequency content of four overlapping frequency bands were computed: F1 (24–35 Hz), F2 (30–45 Hz), F3 (40–60 Hz), and F4 (50–80 Hz). Values of these indices were compared during annotated episodes of ST change and during a baseline during the recording. Results Marked changes in intra-QRS frequency content were identified during ischemia, grouped by ECG lead analyzed. In lead III, a pronounced and statistically significant increase in the highest frequency sub-bands (F3 and F4) was consistently observed. Analysis of anterior precordial leads also showed significant increases in F4. Conclusions Intra-QRS time-frequency analysis using the continuous wavelet transform can identify a spectral signature corresponding to myocardial ischemia in the range 24–80 Hz. Intra-QRS spectral analysis has the potential for many clinical applications. PMID:25266140

  16. Face-selective spectral changes in the human fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Klopp, J; Halgren, E; Marinkovic, K; Nenov, V

    1999-04-01

    To characterize ventral occipitotemporal and prefrontal EEG during cognitive processing. Depth probes were implanted for seizure localization in 16 pharmaco-resistant epileptics. Probes penetrated from middle temporal through fusiform to lingual gyrus, and from inferior frontal to anterior cingulate gyrus. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related spectral power (ERSP) were calculated during delayed recognition for faces or words. Face stimuli evoked a broadband fusiform ERSP increase from 5 to 45 Hz at 150-210 ms after stimulus onset. This ERSP increase was immediately followed by an ERSP decrease in the same region from 300 to 1000 ms. Both the early increased ERSP and the late decreased ERSP, were greater for faces than words. Simultaneous with the late temporal ERSP decrease, the prefrontal depth EEG displayed a low frequency (5-12 Hz) ERSP increase to face and word stimuli. Early temporal ERSP increases occur at a time when the fusiform gyrus is thought to contribute to face processing. This increase is also reflected in spectral analysis of the ERP, but the late temporal ERSP decrease and frontal ERSP increase are not. Thus, intracranial recordings in humans demonstrate event-related fluctuations in EEG spectral power with clear anatomical, temporal and cognitive specificity.

  17. Fluoride anion sensing mechanism of 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone quadruple hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assembly: photoinduced electron transfer and partial configuration change.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Sheng; Zhou, Pan-Wang; Li, Guang-Yue; Chu, Tian-Shu; He, Guo-Zhong

    2013-05-02

    The fluoride anion sensing mechanism of 6-methyl-5-(9-methylene-anthracene)-(2-butylureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone) (AnUP) has been investigated using the DFT/TDDFT method. The theoretical results indicate that the proton of the N3-H3 group in pyrimidine moiety is captured by the added fluoride anion and then deprotonated. The calculated vertical excitation energies of AnUP-dimer and its deprotonated form agree well with the experimental results. The molecular orbital analysis demonstrates that the first excited state (S1) of AnUP-dimer is a local excited state with a π-π* transition, whereas for the deprotonated form, S1 is a completely charge-separation state and is responsible for the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. The PET process from anthracene to the pyrimidine moiety leads to the fluorescence quenching.

  18. TiO2 patterns with wide photo-induced wettability change by a combination of reactive sputtering process and surface modification in a microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Konishi, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports the formation of TiO2 patterns with a wide range of photo-induced wettability switching from high hydrophobic to superhydrophilic states for on-chip liquid manipulation. TiO2 thin films with rough surface morphology were formed by a combination of optimised reactive sputtering and CF4 plasma etching. Octadecylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer (ODP-SAM) surface modification was applied to the surface-roughened TiO2 thin films in order to obtain a highly hydrophobic surface initially. Photocatalytic decomposition of ODP-SAM on the surface-roughened TiO2 by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation caused a wetting transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state. Switching of the flow direction into branch channels was also demonstrated by utilising the photoresponsive wettability of the surface-modified TiO2 patterns on a fluidic chip.

  19. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Photoinduced Dynamics in POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE)-BLOCK-OLIGO(ANTHRACENE-9,10-DIYL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Jacob; Rathnayake, Hemali; Liu, Jinjun

    2017-06-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanostructures featuring bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture are promising light harvesters in photovoltaic (PV) devices because they allow control of individual domain sizes, internal structure and ordering, as well as well-defined contact between the electron donor and acceptor. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PV devices strongly depends on photoinduced dynamics. Understanding and optimizing photoinduced charge transfer processes in BHJ's hence help improve the performance of PV devices and increase their PCE in particular. We have investigated the photoinduced dynamics of a block polymer containing moieties of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and polyanthracene (PANT) in solution and in solid state with femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The dynamics of the polymer PANT alone are also studied as a control. The TA spectra of PANT includes a strong excited state absorption centered at 610 (nm) along with a stimulated emission signal stretching past the detection limit into the UV region which is absent in the monomer's spectra in the detection window. The block polymer's TA spectra strongly resembles that of P3HT but a noticeable positive pull on P3HT's stimulated emission signal residing at 575-620 (nm) is indicative of the excited state absorption of PANT in the adjacent spectral region. The doubling of the lifetime exciton delocalization on the block polymer versus P3HT alone have alluded that the lifetime of P3HT is extended by the covalent addition of PANT. The current spectroscopic investigation represents an interesting example of photoinduced processes in systems with complex energy level structure. Studies of dependence of change generation and separation on composition, dimension, and morphology of the heterojunctions are in process.

  20. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Ido; Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha; Kityk, Iwan; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica.

  1. Optimal spectral tracking--adapting to dynamic regime change.

    PubMed

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Halliday, David M

    2011-01-30

    Real world data do not always obey the statistical restraints imposed upon them by sophisticated analysis techniques. In spectral analysis for instance, an ergodic process--the interchangeability of temporal for spatial averaging--is assumed for a repeat-trial design. Many evolutionary scenarios, such as learning and motor consolidation, do not conform to such linear behaviour and should be approached from a more flexible perspective. To this end we previously introduced the method of optimal spectral tracking (OST) in the study of trial-varying parameters. In this extension to our work we modify the OST routines to provide an adaptive implementation capable of reacting to dynamic transitions in the underlying system state. In so doing, we generalise our approach to characterise both slow-varying and rapid fluctuations in time-series, simultaneously providing a metric of system stability. The approach is first applied to a surrogate dataset and compared to both our original non-adaptive solution and spectrogram approaches. The adaptive OST is seen to display fast convergence and desirable statistical properties. All three approaches are then applied to a neurophysiological recording obtained during a study on anaesthetic monitoring. Local field potentials acquired from the posterior hypothalamic region of a deep brain stimulation patient undergoing anaesthesia were analysed. The characterisation of features such as response delay, time-to-peak and modulation brevity are considered.

  2. Spectral mode changes in an alkali rf discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J. C.; Mackay, R.

    2007-03-01

    As a result of observations made by Shaw (M.S. thesis, Cornell University, 1964) in the mid-1960s, alkali rf discharges are known to operate in two spectral modes, the so-called ring mode and the red mode. Experience has shown that the ring mode is best for discharge lamps used in quantum-electronic devices such as atomic clocks and optically pumped magnetometers and that the performance of these devices seriously degrades when the lamp operates in the red mode. Understanding the origin of these modes therefore has application to understanding and improving various quantum-electronic devices. Here we show that Shaw's model for these modes is inconsistent with observation, and we propose an alternate model based on the role of radiation trapping in multistep ionization.

  3. Spectral and temporal resolutions of information-bearing acoustic changes for understanding vocoded sentencesa)

    PubMed Central

    Stilp, Christian E.; Goupell, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Short-time spectral changes in the speech signal are important for understanding noise-vocoded sentences. These information-bearing acoustic changes, measured using cochlea-scaled entropy in cochlear implant simulations [CSECI; Stilp et al. (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(2), EL136–EL141; Stilp (2014). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(3), 1518–1529], may offer better understanding of speech perception by cochlear implant (CI) users. However, perceptual importance of CSECI for normal-hearing listeners was tested at only one spectral resolution and one temporal resolution, limiting generalizability of results to CI users. Here, experiments investigated the importance of these informational changes for understanding noise-vocoded sentences at different spectral resolutions (4–24 spectral channels; Experiment 1), temporal resolutions (4–64 Hz cutoff for low-pass filters that extracted amplitude envelopes; Experiment 2), or when both parameters varied (6–12 channels, 8–32 Hz; Experiment 3). Sentence intelligibility was reduced more by replacing high-CSECI intervals with noise than replacing low-CSECI intervals, but only when sentences had sufficient spectral and/or temporal resolution. High-CSECI intervals were more important for speech understanding as spectral resolution worsened and temporal resolution improved. Trade-offs between CSECI and intermediate spectral and temporal resolutions were minimal. These results suggest that signal processing strategies that emphasize information-bearing acoustic changes in speech may improve speech perception for CI users. PMID:25698018

  4. [The changes of forest canopy spectral reflectance with seasons in Xiaoxing'anling].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Cai; Pang, Yong; Li, Zeng-Yuan; Zhao, Kai-Rui; Liu, Lu-Xia

    2013-12-01

    The ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer was adopted to collect canopy reflectance spectrum data of the 9 main tree species in study area by a long-term observation to get the data of the four seasons Then the smoothed reflectance curve and the first derivation curve from 350 to 1400 nm and several commonly used vegetation spectral characteristic parameters were generated to analyse seasonal change characteristics and variation of the 9 tree species in visible and near-infrared band and to explore the best band characteristics and period for species identification. The results showed that different trees had different and rather unique spectral features during the four seasons. The spectral characteristics of the deciduous trees have regular changes with the cycle of the seasons, whereas those of the evergreen tree species have no significant changes in one year. As well changes in the spectral characteristics could effectively reflect forest phenology changes, and it is proposed that the optimal strategy for tree species classification may be the integration and analysis of multi-seasonal spectral data. Evergreen trees and deciduous trees in the winter have obvious differences in the canopy spectral characteristics and the best single-season remote sensing data for tree species recognition is in summer.

  5. Spectral changes induced by a phase modulator acting as a time lens

    SciTech Connect

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-07-06

    We show both numerically and experimentally that a phase modulator, acting as a time lens in the Fourier-lens configuration, can induce spectral broadening, narrowing, or shifts, depending on the phase of the modulator cycle. These spectral effects depend on the maximum phase shift that can be imposed by the modulator. In our numerical simulations, pulse spectrum could be compressed by a factor of 8 for a 30 rad phase shift. Experimentally, spectral shifts over a 1.35 nm range and spectral narrowing and broadening by a factor of 2 were demonstrated using a lithium niobate phase modulator with a maximum phase shift of 16 rad at a 10 GHz modulation frequency. All spectral changes were accomplished without employing optical nonlinear effects such as self- or cross-phase modulation.

  6. Photoinduced surface reactions on TiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} films: Photocatalytic oxidation and photoinduced hydrophilicity

    SciTech Connect

    Miyauchi, Masahiro; Nakajima, Akira; Fujishima, Akira; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiya

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the authors have evaluated photocatalytic activities and photoinduced wettabilities for TiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} films. Although both types of films had almost the same photocatalytic oxidation activity, photoinduced wettabilities of these films showed different phenomena. The photoinduced hydrophilicity peculiar to TiO{sub 2} is not caused by the photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds adsorbed on the surface. The highly hydrophilic surface of TiO{sub 2} is ascribed to photogenerated Ti{sup 3+} defect sites that are favorable for dissociative water absorption. The yield of this photoinduced hydrophilic reaction is not clear at the present time. It is noted that this reaction involves a surface structural change, which should not require a high quantum efficiency as compared to conventional photocatalytic oxidation.

  7. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  8. Kinetics of photoinduced anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin film under two pumping beams.

    PubMed

    Han, Junhe; Yao, Baoli; Gao, Peng; Chen, Liju; Wang, Yingli; Lei, Ming

    2008-07-20

    Photoinduced anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin (BR) film arises from the selective bleaching of BR molecules to linearly polarized light. The kinetics of photoinduced anisotropy excited by single and two pumping beams are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Compared with a single pumping beam (650 nm), which produces comparatively small photoinduced anisotropy, dual-wavelength linearly polarized pumping beams (650 and 405 nm) can obviously change the photoinduced anisotropy. When the polarization orientation of the 405 nm pumping beam is perpendicular to that of the 650 nm pumping beam, the peak and steady values of the photoinduced anisotropy kinetic curves are remarkably enhanced. But when the two pumping beams have parallel polarization orientation, the peak and steady values are restrained. At a fixed intensity of the 650 nm pumping beam, there exists an optimal intensity for the 405 nm pumping beam to maximize the value of the photoinduced anisotropy. The photoinduced transmittance of the polarizer-BR-analyzer system is modulated by the polarization angle of the 405 nm pumping beam in an approximate-cosine form.

  9. Photoinduced and thermal stress in silicon microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panos G.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskou, Irene

    1998-10-01

    The photogeneration of free charge carriers in a semiconductor gives rise to mechanical strain. We measured the deflection of silicon microcantilevers resulting from photoinduced stress. The excess charge carriers responsible for the photoinduced stress, were produced via photon irradiation from a diode laser with wavelength λ=780 nm. For Si microcantilevers, the photoinduced stress is of opposite direction and about four times larger than the stress resulting from only thermal excitation. In this letter we report on our study of the photoinduced stress in silicon microcantilevers and discuss their temporal and photometric response.

  10. Temperature changes in spectral characteristics of electrons in metallic lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.A.

    1995-12-01

    Self-consistent calculations of the electron energy structure in metallic lithium are performed taking into account atomic vibrations in the crystal lattice. A satisfactory agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is achieved. The most significant changes in the electron spectrum of lithium revealed with rising temperature are as follows: (1) shift and broadening of core states of the 1s-asymmetry and (2) transition of outer electrons of the 2s-symmetry to the states of the 2p-symmetry leading to strengthening of the directional bonds. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Photoinduced Fusion of Lipid Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yui; Nagai, Ken H; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Hamada, Tsutomu

    2017-03-14

    We have developed a novel system for photocontrol of the fusion of lipid vesicles through the use of a photosensitive surfactant containing an azobenzene moiety (AzoTAB). Real-time microscopic observations clarified a change in both the surface area and internal volume of vesicles during fusion. We also determined the optimal cholesterol concentrations and temperature for inducing fusion. The mechanism of fusion can be attributed to a change in membrane tension, which is caused by the solubilization of lipids through the isomerization of AzoTAB. We used a micropipet technique to estimate membrane tension and discuss the mechanism of fusion in terms of membrane elastic energy. The obtained results regarding this novel photoinduced fusion could lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of membrane fusion in living cells and may also see wider applications, such as in drug delivery and biomimetic material design.

  12. Maturational changes in automated EEG spectral power analysis in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Jennekens, Ward; Pasman, Jaco W; Katgert, Titia; Van Pul, Carola; Gavilanes, Antonio W D; Kramer, Boris W; Zimmermann, Luc J; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Our study aimed at automated power spectral analysis of the EEG in preterm infants to identify changes of spectral measures with maturation. Weekly (10-20 montage) 4-h EEG recordings were performed in 18 preterm infants with GA <32 wk and normal neurological follow-up at 2 y, resulting in 79 recordings studied from 27(+4) to 36(+3) wk of postmenstrual age (PMA, GA + postnatal age). Automated spectral analysis was performed on 4-h EEG recordings. The frequency spectrum was divided in delta 1 (0.5-1 Hz), delta 2 (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) band. Absolute and relative power of each frequency band and spectral edge frequency were calculated. Maturational changes in spectral measures were observed most clearly in the centrotemporal channels. With advancing PMA, absolute powers of delta 1 to 2 and theta decreased. With advancing PMA, relative power of delta 1 decreased and relative powers of alpha and beta increased, respectively. In conclusion, with maturation, spectral analysis of the EEG showed a significant shift from the lower to the higher frequencies. Computer analysis of EEG will allow an objective and reproducible analysis for long-term prognosis and/or stratification of clinical treatment.

  13. The contribution of durational and spectral changes to the Lombard speech intelligibility benefit.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Martin; Mayo, Catherine; Villegas, Julián

    2014-02-01

    Speech produced in the presence of noise (Lombard speech) is typically more intelligible than speech produced in quiet (plain speech) when presented at the same signal-to-noise ratio, but the factors responsible for the Lombard intelligibility benefit remain poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated a clear effect of spectral differences between the two speech styles and a lack of effect of fundamental frequency differences. The current study investigates a possible role for durational differences alongside spectral changes. Listeners identified keywords in sentences manipulated to possess either durational or spectral characteristics of plain or Lombard speech. Durational modifications were produced using linear or nonlinear time warping, while spectral changes were applied at the global utterance level or to individual time frames. Modifications were made to both plain and Lombard speech. No beneficial effects of durational increases were observed in any condition. Lombard sentences spoken at a speech rate substantially slower than their plain counterparts also failed to reveal a durational benefit. Spectral changes to plain speech resulted in large intelligibility gains, although not to the level of Lombard speech. These outcomes suggest that the durational increases seen in Lombard speech have little or no role in the Lombard intelligibility benefit.

  14. Photo-induced Defects in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, David; Bube, Richard H.

    2006-03-01

    1. Introduction: metastable defects; 2. III-V compounds: DX2 and EL2 centers; 3. Other crystalline materials; 4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon: properties of defects; 5. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon: photo-induced defect kinetics and processes; 6. Other amorphous semiconductors; 7. Photo-induced defect effects in devices; References; Index.

  15. Using Spectral Methods to Quantify Changes in Temperature Variability across Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; McInerney, D.; Stein, M.; Leeds, W.; Poppick, A. N.; Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Moyer, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in future surface temperature variability are of great scientific and societal interest. Since the impact of variability on human society depends on not only the magnitude but also the frequency of variations, shifts in the marginal distribution of temperatures do not provide enough information for impacts assessment. Leeds et al (2014) proposed a method to quantify changes in variability of temperature at distinct temporal frequencies by estimating the ratio of the spectral densities of temperature between pre-industrial and equilibrated future climates. This spectral ratio functions well as a metric to quantify temperature variability shifts in climate model output. In this study, we apply the method of Leeds et al (2014) to explore the temperature variability changes under increased radiative forcing. We compare changes in variability in higher-CO2 climates across two different climate models (CCSM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and GISS-E2-R from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies), and changes driven by two different forcing agents (CO2 and solar radiation) within the same model (CCSM3). In all cases we use only the equilibrium stages of model runs extended several thousand years after an abrupt forcing change is imposed. We find a number of results. First, changes in temperature variability differ by frequency in most regions, confirming the need for spectral methods. Second, changes are similar regardless of forcing agents. In experiments with abruptly increased CO2 and solar forcing designed to produce the same change in global mean temperature, the distributions and magnitudes of spectral ratio changes are nearly identical. Finally, projections of variability changes differ across models. In CCSM3, temperature variability decreases in most regions and at most frequencies. Conversely, in GISS-E2-R, temperature variability tends to increase over land. The discrepancy between CCSM3 and the GISS-E-R highlights the need for

  16. Characterizing microstructural changes of skeletal muscle tissues using spectral transformed Mueller matrix polarization parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polarization imaging techniques are recognized as potentially powerful tools to detect the structural changes of biological tissues. Meanwhile, spectral features of the scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information, therefore can be applied in biomedical studies. In this paper, we adopt the polarization reflectance spectral imaging to analyze the microstructural changes of hydrolyzing skeletal muscle tissues. We measure the Mueller matrix, which is a comprehensive description of the polarization properties, of the bovine skeletal muscle samples in different periods of time, and analyze its behavior using the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) technique. The experimental results show that for bovine skeletal muscle tissues, the backscattered spectral MMT parameters have different values and variation features at different stages. We can also find the experimental results indicate that the stages of hydrolysis for bovine skeletal muscle samples can be judged by the spectral MMT parameters. The results presented in this work show that combining with the spectral technique, the MMT parameters have the potential to be used as tools for meat quality detection and monitoring.

  17. Tracking Voice Change after Thyroidectomy: Application of Spectral/Cepstral Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Helou, Leah B.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of perioperative spectral and cepstral acoustic analyses to monitor voice change after thyroidectomy. Perceptual and acoustic analyses were conducted on speech samples (sustained vowel /[alpha]/ and CAPE-V sentences) provided by 70 participants (36 women and 34 men) at four study time points: prior to thyroid…

  18. Tracking Voice Change after Thyroidectomy: Application of Spectral/Cepstral Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Helou, Leah B.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of perioperative spectral and cepstral acoustic analyses to monitor voice change after thyroidectomy. Perceptual and acoustic analyses were conducted on speech samples (sustained vowel /[alpha]/ and CAPE-V sentences) provided by 70 participants (36 women and 34 men) at four study time points: prior to thyroid…

  19. Photo-induced and electrooptic properties of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 films for optical memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimos, D.; Potter, B. G.; Sinclair, M. B.; Tuttle, B. A.; Warren, W. L.

    Photo-induced hysteresis changes and electro-optic effects in sol-gel Pb(Zr,Ti)03 (PZT) and PLZT films have been studied in an effort to evaluate these materials for optical memory applications. The films exhibit two types of photo-induced changes in their hysteresis behavior which are suitable for optical storage. Both types of photo-induced hysteresis changes are due to trapping of photo-generated charge carriers at sites which minimize internal depolarizing fields. The photo-induced changes are reproducible and stable, which indicates that the charge traps are stable. However, improvements in photosensitivity will be required to develop a competitive technology for optical memories. In addition, polarization-dependent changes in the refractive indices can be the basis of a nondestructive optical readout technique. The index changes of films have been determined using a waveguide refractometry technique, which allows the extraordinary and ordinary index changes to be obtained independently.

  20. Photo-induced and electrooptic properties of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti) O{sub 3} films for optical memories

    SciTech Connect

    Dimos, D.; Potter, B.G.; Sinclair, M.B.; Tuttle, B.A.; Warren, W.L.

    1993-09-01

    Photo-induced hysteresis changes and electrooptic effects in sol-gel Pb(Zr,Ti)0{sub 3} (PZT) and PLZT films have been studied in an effort to evaluate these materials for optical memory applications. The films exhibit two types of photo-induced changes in their hysteresis behavior which are suitable for optical storage. Both types of photo-induced hysteresis changes are due to trapping of photo-generated charge carriers at sites which minimize internal depolarizing fields. The photo-induced changes are reproducible and stable, which indicates that the charge traps are stable. However, improvements in photosensitivity will be required to develop a competitive technology for optical memories. In addition, polarization-dependent changes in the refractive indices can be the basis of a nondestructive optical readout technique. The index changes of films have been determined using a waveguide refractometry technique, which allows the extraordinary and ordinary index changes to be obtained independently.

  1. Modeling photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in semiconductor nanocrystal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenosono, Shinya

    2003-07-01

    Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE) in semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) arrays is modeled based on the rate equations for ground-state, excited-state and photoionized NCs in the array. The photoionization process is broken down into fast and slow ionization processes, which are expected to relate to blinking and darkening phenomena, respectively. Consequently, PFE behavior is found to change drastically, as it depends on both the intrinsic properties of NCs, and on external conditions, such as surface-capping molecules and atmosphere.

  2. Wave spectral response to sudden changes in wind direction in finite depth waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-14

    Virtual Special Issue Ocean Surface Waves Wave spectral response to sudden changes in wind direction in finite-depth waters Saima Aijaz a , ∗, W...Revised 22 October 2015 Accepted 2 November 2015 Available online 14 November 2015 Keywords: Wave modelling Wind shift Wave response...Whitecapping dissipation Swell dissipation Bottom friction a b s t r a c t The response of a wind -sea spectrum to sudden changes in wind directions of 180

  3. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. H.; Yang, R. S.; Nie, J. J.; Fan, J. H.

    2014-09-01

    Based on Fermi 1FGL and 2FGL data, a sample of 572 γ-ray loud blazars are selected, in which each sources has both γ-ray flux and spectral index in 1FGL and 2FGL, respectively. Theoretic relation of spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. The correlations between the ratio of γ-ray flux densities and the differences of the γ-ray spectral indices are discussed for the three subclasses of HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the differences for the three subclasses. It is consistent with the theoretical result and it indicates that the spectrum becomes flat as the source brightens in the γ-ray band.

  4. Power spectral changes of the superimposed M wave during isometric voluntary contractions of increasing strength.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    We examined the power spectral changes of the compound muscle action potential (M wave) evoked during isometric contractions of increasing strength. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the vastus lateralis and medialis was recorded from 20 volunteers who performed 4-s step-wise isometric contractions of different intensities. A maximal M wave was elicited by a single stimulus to the femoral nerve and superimposed on the voluntary contractions. The spectral characteristics (Fmean and Fmedian) of sEMG and M-wave signals were calculated. M-wave spectral indicators increased systematically with contraction intensity up to 60% MVC and then leveled off at higher forces. Over the 10-60% MVC range, the increase in spectral indicators was 3 times higher for M waves (36%) than for sEMG (12%). The consistent increase in M-wave spectral characteristics with force is due to the fact that the number of motor units recruited by the superimposed supramaximal stimulus is approximately stable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. RAPID SPECTRAL CHANGES OF CYGNUS X-1 IN THE LOW/HARD STATE WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Makishima, K.; Negoro, H.; Torii, S.; Noda, H.; Mineshige, S.

    2013-04-20

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a timescale down to {approx}0.1 s are studied by applying a ''shot analysis'' technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles, covering 10-200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness changes in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below {approx}60 keV, but also found that the spectral change is more prominent in energies above {approx}100 keV, implying the existence of some instant mechanism for direct entropy production. We discuss possible interpretations of the rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray band.

  6. Photoinduced translational molecular mobility in solid nanostructured azo dye films

    SciTech Connect

    Ezhov, A A; Kozenkov, V M; Magnitskii, Sergey A; Nagorskii, Nikolay M; Panov, Vladimir I

    2011-11-30

    A new mechanism controlling the molecular motion in thin azo-containing films during a photoinduced change in the surface nanorelief is found. It is shown experimentally that exposure of a solid AD-1 azo dye, deposited on a glass substrate, to incoherent linearly polarised light leads to formation of nanostructures with a characteristic size of 200 nm, which are similar to droplets of melt of this dye on the same substrate. It is shown that photoinduced mass transport in a solid AD-1 azo dye film can be explained by the mobility of molecules related to their trans-cis-photoisomerisation, which leads to film softening with subsequent formation of spherical protrusions under surface tension forces.

  7. Detecting changes in surface moisture and water table position with spectral changes in surface vegetation in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meingast, Karl M.

    Due to warmer and drier conditions, wildland fire has been increasing in extent into peatland ecosystems during recent decades. As such, there is an increasing need for broadly applicable tools to detect surface peat moisture, in order to ascertain the susceptibility of peat burning, and the vulnerability of deep peat consumption in the event of a wildfire. In this thesis, a field portable spectroradiometer was used to measure surface reflectance of two Sphagnum moss dominated peatlands. Relationships were developed correlating spectral indices to surface moisture as well as water table position. Spectral convolutions were also applied to the high resolution spectra to represent spectral sensitivity of earth observing sensors. Band ratios previously used to monitor surface moisture with these sensors were assessed. Strong relationships to surface moisture and water table position are evident for both the narrowband indices as well as broadened indices. This study also found a dependence of certain spectral relationships on changes in vegetation cover by leveraging an experimental vegetation manipulation. Results indicate broadened indices employing the 1450-1650 nm region may be less stable under changing vegetation cover than those located in the 1200 nm region.

  8. Preliminary evidence for a change in spectral sensitivity of the circadian system at night

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Bullough, John D; Parsons, Robert H; Rea, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    Background It is well established that the absolute sensitivity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to photic stimulation received through the retino-hypothalamic tract changes throughout the 24-hour day. It is also believed that a combination of classical photoreceptors (rods and cones) and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells participate in circadian phototransduction, with a spectral sensitivity peaking between 440 and 500 nm. It is still unknown, however, whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian system also changes throughout the solar day. Reported here is a new study that was designed to determine whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian retinal phototransduction mechanism, measured through melatonin suppression and iris constriction, varies at night. Methods Human adult males were exposed to a high-pressure mercury lamp [450 lux (170 μW/cm2) at the cornea] and an array of blue light emitting diodes [18 lux (29 μW/cm2) at the cornea] during two nighttime experimental sessions. Both melatonin suppression and iris constriction were measured during and after a one-hour light exposure just after midnight and just before dawn. Results An increase in the percentage of melatonin suppression and an increase in pupil constriction for the mercury source relative to the blue light source at night were found, suggesting a temporal change in the contribution of photoreceptor mechanisms leading to melatonin suppression and, possibly, iris constriction by light in humans. Conclusion The preliminary data presented here suggest a change in the spectral sensitivity of circadian phototransduction mechanisms at two different times of the night. These findings are hypothesized to be the result of a change in the sensitivity of the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells to light during the night. PMID:16336697

  9. Preliminary evidence for a change in spectral sensitivity of the circadian system at night.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Bullough, John D; Parsons, Robert H; Rea, Mark S

    2005-12-11

    It is well established that the absolute sensitivity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to photic stimulation received through the retino-hypothalamic tract changes throughout the 24-hour day. It is also believed that a combination of classical photoreceptors (rods and cones) and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells participate in circadian phototransduction, with a spectral sensitivity peaking between 440 and 500 nm. It is still unknown, however, whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian system also changes throughout the solar day. Reported here is a new study that was designed to determine whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian retinal phototransduction mechanism, measured through melatonin suppression and iris constriction, varies at night. Human adult males were exposed to a high-pressure mercury lamp [450 lux (170 microW/cm2) at the cornea] and an array of blue light emitting diodes [18 lux (29 microW/cm2) at the cornea] during two nighttime experimental sessions. Both melatonin suppression and iris constriction were measured during and after a one-hour light exposure just after midnight and just before dawn. An increase in the percentage of melatonin suppression and an increase in pupil constriction for the mercury source relative to the blue light source at night were found, suggesting a temporal change in the contribution of photoreceptor mechanisms leading to melatonin suppression and, possibly, iris constriction by light in humans. The preliminary data presented here suggest a change in the spectral sensitivity of circadian phototransduction mechanisms at two different times of the night. These findings are hypothesized to be the result of a change in the sensitivity of the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells to light during the night.

  10. Senegalese land surface change analysis and biophysical parameter estimation using NOAA AVHRR spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, Fred M.; Toll, David L.; Kennard, Ruth L.

    1989-01-01

    Surface biophysical estimates were derived from analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Spectral Resolution (AVHRR) spectral data of the Senegalese area of west Africa. The parameters derived were of solar albedo, spectral visible and near-infrared band reflectance, spectral vegetative index, and ground temperature. Wet and dry linked AVHRR scenes from 1981 through 1985 in Senegal were analyzed for a semi-wet southerly site near Tambacounda and a predominantly dry northerly site near Podor. Related problems were studied to convert satellite derived radiance to biophysical estimates of the land surface. Problems studied were associated with sensor miscalibration, atmospheric and aerosol spatial variability, surface anisotropy of reflected radiation, narrow satellite band reflectance to broad solar band conversion, and ground emissivity correction. The middle-infrared reflectance was approximated with a visible AVHRR reflectance for improving solar albedo estimates. In addition, the spectral composition of solar irradiance (direct and diffuse radiation) between major spectral regions (i.e., ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and middle-infrared) was found to be insensitive to changes in the clear sky atmospheric optical depth in the narrow band to solar band conversion procedure. Solar albedo derived estimates for both sites were not found to change markedly with significant antecedent precipitation events or correspondingly from increases in green leaf vegetation density. The bright soil/substrate contributed to a high albedo for the dry related scenes, whereas the high internal leaf reflectance in green vegetation canopies in the near-infrared contributed to high solar albedo for the wet related scenes. The relationship between solar albedo and ground temperature was poor, indicating the solar albedo has little control of the ground temperature. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the derived visible reflectance were more sensitive to antecedent

  11. Competing ultrafast photoinduced quenching reactions in cinnamic acid : peptide blends.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Theo; Tuszynski, Wilfried; Lienau, Christoph

    2010-10-28

    This report focuses on the ultrafast photoinduced excited state dynamics of cinnamic acid : peptide blends, prototypical MALDI samples. We prepared thin homogeneous layers of closely spaced microcrystals using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (α-CHC) and sinapinic acid (SA) as cinnamic acid (CA) derivatives and Angiotensin II (Ang II) as peptide. We applied spectrally and temporally resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and identified in these blends different ultrafast and strongly competing PL quenching mechanisms. [2+2] Photodimerization is a known ultrafast solid-state photoreaction in CA crystals. We show that-after sufficient illumination times-it also governs the PL dynamics of CA : peptide blends. In addition, the peptide admixture induces a new PL quenching pathway, which proceeds most probably via photoisomerization or via energy transfer to stereoisomers at the CA : peptide interface, i.e., at disorder sites inside the microcrystals or at their surface. For α-CHC : Ang II blends, we find a photodimerization rate of (20 ps)(-1) and a quenching rate coefficient of 2.67 × 10(15) s(-1) mol(-1) cm(3) when adding the Ang II peptide. For SA : Ang II blends, the corresponding rates are even faster but the more remarkable feature is that the PL of the photoproduced stereoisomers is in turn quenched with increasing illumination time by the growing number of photodimers. Both photodimerization and peptide-induced quenching are obviously fast enough to compete with singlet-singlet annihilations even at typical MALDI fluences. We suggest that photoinduced ultrafast changes of the crystalline or molecular structure play a substantial role for the release of large molecular ions from MALDI substrates and are a common feature for UV-MALDI.

  12. Changes in EEG mean frequency and spectral purity during spontaneous alpha blocking.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, I I; Barlow, J S

    1990-09-01

    Spontaneously occurring brief periods of lower voltage irregular activity occurring amid a background of alpha activity (i.e., alpha blocking) in eyes-closed resting occipital EEG recordings from 32 healthy human subjects have been investigated to determine the extent of changes of mean frequency and of spectral purity (degree of regularity/irregularity of the EEG activity) during such periods. New methods for determining mean frequency and spectral purity (the latter as a new measure, the Spectral Purity Index, which has a maximum value of 1.0 for a pure sine wave) permit their conjoint evaluation over a 0.5 sec window that is advanced along the EEG in 0.1 sec steps, thus permitting almost continuous feature extraction. The findings indicate that, although spectral purity invariably decreased during the periods of lower voltage irregular activity, the mean frequency remained relatively unaltered, i.e., it remained unchanged or it increased or decreased slightly but at most by 2.5 Hz. These results suggest that, at least for the periods of lower voltage irregular activity occurring spontaneously amid an alpha background during eyes-closed occipital EEG recordings, it may be inaccurate (as some authors have already suggested) to use the term 'low-voltage fast (or beta) activity.'

  13. Mineralogical, Spectral, and Compositional Changes During Heating of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamashita, S.; Sato, Y.; Mogi, K.; Enokido, Y.; Nakata, A.; Okumura, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrous carbonaceous chondrites experienced hydration and subsequent dehydration by heating, which resulted in a variety of mineralogical and spectral features [e. g., 1-6]. The degree of heating is classified according to heating stage (HS) II to IV based on mineralogy of phyllosilicates [2], because they change, with elevating temperature, to poorly crystal-line phases and subsequently to aggregates of small secondary anhydrous silicates of mainly olivine. Heating of hydrous carbonaceous chondrites also causes spectral changes and volatile loss [3-6]. Experimental heating of Murchison CM chondrite showed flattening of whole visible-near infrared spectra, especially weakening of the 3µm band strength [1, 4, 7]. In order to understand mineralogical, spectral, and compositional changes during heating of hydrous carbonaceous chondrites, we have carried out systematic investigation of mineralogy, reflectance spectra, and volatile composition of hydrated and dehydrated carbonaceous chondrites as well as experimentally-heated hydrous carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we investigated reflectance spectra of tochilinite that is a major phase of CM chondrites and has a low dehydration temperature (250degC).

  14. Dynamics of photo-induced changes in the elastic characteristics of lithium niobate crystals doped with Jahn-Teller Fe2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenishchev-Kutuzov, A. V.; Golenishchev-Kutuzov, V. A.; Kalimullin, R. I.; Semennikov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of admixture Jahn-Teller Fe2+ ions on the elastic characteristics of lithium niobate was studied. The appearance of photostrains and a change in elastic moduli under the influence of laser radiation was established, thus enabling the creation of device elements with optically controlled elastic characteristics.

  15. Conformational change and biocatalysis-triggered spectral shift of single Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; He, Ya-Kai; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Feng-Bin; Wang, Kang; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2014-05-28

    Spectral shift of localized plasmon resonance scattering of guanine-rich DNA modified single Au nanoparticles is observed under a dark field microscope equipped with a spectrometer. The spectra continuously red-shift with the conformational change of the guanine-rich DNA upon associating with K(+), hemin and the biocatalytic growth of the polymer. The scattering spectrum of single nanoparticles is proved to be sensitive both to a subtle conformational change and the biocatalysis process. 20 mM K(+) or 100 μM H2O2 can trigger a detectable peak shift. The present study paves a new and efficient way to extract chemical information from micro/nanospace.

  16. [Relationship between PMI and ATR-FTIR Spectral Changes in Swine Costal Cartilages and Ribs].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Qi; Jing, Xiao-li; Li, Bing; Zhang, Yin-ming; Wang, Zhi-jun; Li, Cheng-zhi; Lin, Han-cheng; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-yuan

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postmortem chemical changes in Landrace costal cartilages and ribs using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and to provide a novel technique for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The swines were sacrificed by hemorrhage and their costal cartilages and ribs were kept in 20 degrees C. The chemical analysis of the costal cartilages and ribs were performed using ATR-FTIR every 72 h. The correlation between the certain spectral parameters and PMI was also analyzed. The time-dependent changes of costal cartilages were more significant than ribs. There were no obvious changes for the main absorbance bands position, and some absorbance band ratios showed time-dependent changes and significant correlations with the PMI. ATR-FTIR has the ability to analyze postmortem chemical changes of the swine costal cartilages and ribs, and it can be a new method to estimate PMI based on spectroscopy.

  17. Improved moving window cross-spectral analysis for resolving large temporal seismic velocity changes in permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; Screaton, E. J.

    2017-05-01

    Cross correlations of seismic noise can potentially record large changes in subsurface velocity due to permafrost dynamics and be valuable for long-term Arctic monitoring. We applied seismic interferometry, using moving window cross-spectral analysis (MWCS), to 2 years of ambient noise data recorded in central Alaska to investigate whether seismic noise could be used to quantify relative velocity changes due to seasonal active-layer dynamics. The large velocity changes (>75%) between frozen and thawed soil caused prevalent cycle-skipping which made the method unusable in this setting. We developed an improved MWCS procedure which uses a moving reference to measure daily velocity variations that are then accumulated to recover the full seasonal change. This approach reduced cycle-skipping and recovered a seasonal trend that corresponded well with the timing of active-layer freeze and thaw. This improvement opens the possibility of measuring large velocity changes by using MWCS and permafrost monitoring by using ambient noise.

  18. Effect of enhancement of spectral changes on speech intelligibility and clarity preferences for the hearing impaired.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Baer, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2012-04-01

    Most information in speech is carried in spectral changes over time, rather than in static spectral shape per se. A form of signal processing aimed at enhancing spectral changes over time was developed and evaluated using hearing-impaired listeners. The signal processing was based on the overlap-add method, and the degree and type of enhancement could be manipulated via four parameters. Two experiments were conducted to assess speech intelligibility and clarity preferences. Three sets of parameter values (one corresponding to a control condition), two types of masker (steady speech-spectrum noise and two-talker speech) and two signal-to-masker ratios (SMRs) were used for each masker type. Generally, the effects of the processing were small, although intelligibility was improved by about 8 percentage points relative to the control condition for one set of parameter values using the steady noise masker at -6 dB SMR. The processed signals were not preferred over those for the control condition, except for the steady noise masker at -6 dB SMR. Further work is needed to determine whether tailoring the processing to the characteristics of the individual hearing-impaired listener is beneficial.

  19. Spectral Changes in Metal Halide and High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Equipped with Electronic Dimming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Sargis, Raman; Wilson, David

    1995-01-01

    Electronic dimming of high-intensity discharge lamps offers control of Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF) but is often characterized as causing significant spectral changes. Growth chambers with 400-W Metal Halide (MH) and High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps were equipped with a dimmer system using Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as high-speed switches. Phase control operation turned the line power off for some period of the alternating current cycle. At full power, the electrical input to HPS and MH lamps was 480 W (root mean squared) and could be decreased to 267 W and 428 W, respectively, before the arc was extinguished. Concomitant with this decrease in input power, PPF decreased by 60% in HPS and 50% in MH. The HPS lamp has characteristic spectral peaks at 589 and 595 nm. As power to the HPS lamps was decreased, the 589-nm peak remained constant while the 595-nm peak decreased, equaling the 589-nm peak at 345-W input, and 589-nm peak was almost absent at 270-W input. The MH lamp has a broader spectral output but also has a peak at 589 nm and another smaller peak at 545 nm. As input power approached 428 W, the 589-nm peak shifted to 570 nm. While the spectrum changed as input power was decreased in the MH and HPS lamps, the phytochrome equilibrium ratio (P(sub ft):P(sub tot)) remains unchanged for both lamp types.

  20. Average spectral power changes at the hippocampal electroencephalogram in schizophrenia model induced by ketamine.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Luis Rafael L; Borges, Lucas T N; Silva, Joyse M F; de Andrade, Francisca Roselin O; Barbosa, Talita M; Oliveira, Tatiana Q; Macedo, Danielle; Lima, Ricardo F; Dantas, Leonardo P; Patrocinio, Manoel Cláudio A; do Vale, Otoni C; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M

    2017-08-29

    The use of ketamine (Ket) as a pharmacological model of schizophrenia is an important tool for understanding the main mechanisms of glutamatergic regulated neural oscillations. Thus, the aim of the current study was to evaluate Ket-induced changes in the average spectral power using the hippocampal quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). To this end, male Wistar rats were submitted to a stereotactic surgery for the implantation of an electrode in the right hippocampus. After three days, the animals were divided into four groups that were treated for 10 consecutive days with Ket (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg). Brainwaves were captured on the 1st or 10th day, respectively, to acute or repeated treatments. The administration of Ket (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg), compared with controls, induced changes in the hippocampal average spectral power of delta, theta, alpha, gamma low or high waves, after acute or repeated treatments. Therefore, based on the alterations in the average spectral power of hippocampal waves induced by Ket, our findings might provide a basis for the use of hippocampal QEEG in animal models of schizophrenia. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Ingested oat herb extract (Avena sativa) changes EEG spectral frequencies in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, Wilfried; Storni, Charlotte; Verbruggen, Marian

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at using quantitative assessment of human electric brain activity during mental work for determining acute effects of ingested oat herb extract on cognitive performance. Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, two dosages of a special oat preparation of Avena sativa herba (1250 or 2500 mg of Neuravena®) were compared to placebo. An electroencephalogram was recorded while the patient had eyes open for 6 minutes, eyes closed for 4 minutes, performance of a concentration test (d2) for 5 minutes, and performance of mental arithmetic (KLT) for 5 minutes. Source density was calculated and spectral frequency changes were averaged to give one value for each frequency range. Using quantitative brain mapping technology (CATEEM®), main effects were observed in the left frontotemporal area, known to be involved in cognitive tasks. Statistically significant differences were observed during resting (lowering of spectral δ power) and during performance of the d2-concentration test (enhancement of spectral θ power) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Also, during performance of mental arithmetic, greater enhancement of θ power was observed but only at a lower error probability (p = 0.115). No effects could be seen using the P300 paradigm during presentation of a visual stimulus. These changes suggest that oat herb extract might be effective in healthy subjects, resulting in a positive impact on cognitive performance.

  2. Photoinduced formation of thiols in human hair.

    PubMed

    Fedorkova, M V; Brandt, N N; Chikishev, A Yu; Smolina, N V; Balabushevich, N G; Gusev, S A; Lipatova, V A; Botchey, V M; Dobretsov, G E; Mikhalchik, E V

    2016-11-01

    Raman, scanning electron, and optical microscopy of hair and spectrophotometry of soluble hair proteins are used to study the effect of UV-vis radiation on white hair. The samples of a healthy subject are irradiated using a mercury lamp and compared with non-irradiated (control) hair. The cuticle damage with partial exfoliation is revealed with the aid of SEM and optical microscopy of semifine sections. Gel filtration chromatography shows that the molecular weight of soluble proteins ranges from 5 to 7kDa. Absorption spectroscopy proves an increase in amount of thiols in a heavier fraction of the soluble proteins of irradiated samples under study. Raman data indicate a decrease in the amount of SS and CS bonds in cystines and an increase in the amount of SH bonds due to irradiation. Such changes are more pronounced in peripheral regions of hair. Conformational changes of hair keratins presumably related to the cleavage of disulfide bonds, follow from variations in amide I and low-frequency Raman bands. An increase in the content of thiols in proteins revealed by both photometric data on soluble proteins and Raman microspectroscopy of hair cuts can be used to develop a protocol of the analysis of photoinduced hair modification.

  3. Spectral and Textural Changes Observed in Sulfate Soil Deposits at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.; Wang, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has discovered deposits of bright yellowish and whitish soils that have been confirmed by Spirit’s Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), Mössbauer spectrometer, and Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) instruments to contain ferric sulfates and/or opaline silica. These deposits have important implications for the history of water at Gusev Crater, as they have been interpreted by Squyres et al. (2008, Science, 316, 738) to have formed in a hydrothermal environment. Repeated Pancam 11 color visible to short-wave near-IR observations have been made at the Tyrone, Kit Carson and Ulysess soil exposures, and changes in Vis-NIR spectra and/or soil texture and morphology have been observed at all three sites. We have identified at least three possible explanations for the observed changes: 1) dust deposition; 2) aeolian sorting; and/or 3) a mineralogic change after exposure to martian surface conditions. To better characterize how and why these soils are changing with time, we present a detailed multispectral analysis of the seven Pancam image sequences at Tyrone, the two at Kit Carson, and the nine at Ulysses that have been acquired as of sol 2000 (August 18, 2009). At the Tyrone “yellow” soil, the blue-to-red (432 to 753 nm) spectral slope decreased after roughly 175 sols of exposure to the martian surface, as described by Wang et al. (2008, JGR, 114, 461). This spectral change is contrary to the “reddening” that would be expected from dust deposition, but could be consistent with dehydration pathways of certain ferric sulfates, such as from copiapite to amorphous ferric sulfates or to rhomboclase (Wang et al., 2008, AGU). The Tyrone “yellow” soil also exhibits increased 535 nm and 803 nm band depths with time, which is further suggestive of a mineralogic change. Pancam spectra of Kit Carson appear to have changed similarly to those of Tyrone, with 535 nm and 864 nm absorptions developing after four

  4. Paleo-productivity changes revealed by spectral analysis performed on coccoliths assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Eliana; Ornella Amore, Filomena; Perugia, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Several climate changes occurred over geological time at different time-scales. Spectral analyses performed on paleo-climate data suggested that these cyclicities verify irregularly into time-space domain. Paleo-climate oscillations occur with high or low frequencies dues to the oscillation of the major orbital parameters (characterized by low frequencies and high period) and some minor high-frequencies events. During last years, analyses on frequencies domain have been performed also on coccoliths assemblages. Coccolithophores are a special phytoplankton group living today at all latitude regions within the photic zone (0-200 m of depth) (Winter & Siesser, 1994). They are sensitive indicators of environmental conditions because they directly depend on temperature, salinity and nutrients as well as the availability of sunlight (McIntyre and Bé, 1967; Giradeau et al., 1993; Winter & Siesser, 1994; Baumann & Freitag, 2004). Therefore coccolithophores quickly respond to fluctuations in climate as well as changes in surface-water conditions (Baumann & Freitag, 2004). Thus coccoliths can be clearly used as paleo-climate data because of their power of recordering and amplifying climatic change signals. In addition, primary productivity depends on the amount of insolation received by Earth surface. In this study Sun insolation has been calculated in terms of intensity and energy, in order to compare them with maximum productivity activity. Precession controls sun intensity insolation, while the energy is controlled by obliquity. Thus, the intensity depends on the duration of the insolation,while the energy is connected to the amount of insolation (Berger, 1978; Loutre et al., 2004; Huybers, 2006). In this study, spectral analyses have been performed on coccoliths data with the result of individuating high and low frequencies content in productivity signals. Auto-spectral and cross-spectral analyses have been performed through Matlab software using several available

  5. Monitoring small changes in blood hematocrit using phase sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manne, Venu G. R.; Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Sudheendran, Narendran; Larin, Kirill V.

    2010-02-01

    A new method for monitoring ultra-small changes in blood hematocrit (~0.2%) based on measurement of refractive index changes in vitro using Phase Sensitive Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography modality (PhS-SDOCT) is introduced. The developed system has an axial resolution of ~8 μm, phase sensitivity of +/-0.01 radians, imaging depth of 3.4 +/- 0.01 mm in air, and image acquisition speed of 29 kHz. The experimental accuracy for monitoring refractive index changes as a function of hematocrit level in blood is found to be +/-1.5x10-4 (+/-0.2%). Obtained results indicate that the PhS-SDOCT can be used to monitor ultra-small changes in the hematocrit and in vitro and, potentially, in tissue blood vessels in vivo.

  6. Changes in spectral reflexions from the iridophores of the neon tetra.

    PubMed

    Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

    1982-04-01

    1. The iridescent stripe of the freshwater teleost, the neon tetra, changes from green in the daytime to violet-blue at night. 2. Spectral reflectance measurements were used to follow these colour changes. 3. Light causes a shift in reflectance to longer wavelengths in living fish and in isolated tissue from the lateral stripe. The change is reversed in darkness. 4. The spectral reflectance shifts to longer wavelengths when the fish is disturbed in darkness. No such colour changes were seen in fishes kept alive in 10(-4) M-reserpine. 5. Hypotonic Ringer solution causes a reflectance shift to longer wavelengths and hypertonic solution causes a shift to shorter wavelengths. 6. The iridescent reflexions from the lateral stripe which is continued across the iris originate from iridophores in the dermis. These iridophores contain regular stacks of broad, double-sided hexagonal plates that are about 10 nm thick. Each plate is contained within a pouch in the cytoplasm and is separated from its neighbour by approximately one quarter the wavelength of light. 7. A distinction is drawn between the physiologically active iridophores in the lateral stripe and iris that have broad hexagonal crystal plates which are very thin and the physiologically inactive iridophores that are also found in the iris, but in addition are found on the flanks below the lateral stripe, and on the head. These iridophores contain hexagonal crystals that are usually narrower than the active type, but are about 60-100 nm thick.

  7. Photoinduced Electron Transfer Process Visualized on Single Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Yang, Tong; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Sun, Shan Shan; Gao, Ming Xuan; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2017-02-28

    Understanding the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism is vital to improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency for solar energy materials and photosensitization systems. Herein, we visually demonstrate the PET process by real-time monitoring the photoinduced chemical transformation of p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP), an important SERS signal molecule, to 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene on single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy coupled dark-field microscopy. The bidirectional LSPR scattering spectral shifts bathochromically at first and hypsochromically then, which are caused by the electron transfer delay of p-ATP, disclose the PET path from p-ATP to O2 through AgNPs during the reaction, and enable us to digitalize the corresponding electron loss and gain on the surface of AgNP at different time periods. This visualized PET process could provide a simple and efficient approach to explore the nature of PET and help to interpret the SERS mechanism in terms of p-ATP.

  8. Photoinduced conformational changes in DNA by poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety for protecting DNA against attack by nuclease.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Matsui, Takashi

    2015-11-14

    Light is a highly advantageous means of specific cell targeting. Though targeted gene delivery is an important characteristic of an ideal delivery vehicle, there has been little effort to develop a photoresponsive vector. Among nonviral vectors, cationic substances interact effectively with negatively charged DNA. With this property in mind, we designed copolymers of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG) with different molecular weights. Though PVAMG has no affinity for DNA in the absence of light, it undergoes photoionization in the presence of light to afford cationic DNA binding sites. The DNA-PVAMG complex was investigated with respect to DNA conformational changes and its protective nature, which are important properties for nonviral vectors. PVAMG irradiation promoted DNA conformational transitions from coils to partial globules to compacted globules. The complex had a protective effect against DNase I after PVAMG irradiation, while DNA was degraded under dark conditions. The effect on DNA transition and the protective nature were sensitive to the molecular weight of PVAMG. The data regarding binding constants and binding mode provided insight into the structure of the DNA-PVAMG complex. To withstand DNase I attacks, complexation results in the compaction of DNA, which is further covered with PVAMG.

  9. Photoinduced toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip Scott

    Engineered nanomaterials including metal, metal oxide and carbon based nanomaterials are extensively used in a wide variety of applications to the extent that their presence in the environment is expected to increase dramatically over the next century. These nanomaterials may be photodegraded by solar radiation and thereby release metal ions into the environment that can produce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Photoinduced toxicity experiments are performed exposing human lung epithelial carcinoma cells [H1650] to engineered semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdSe quantum dots and ZnO nanoparticles after exposure to 3, 6, and 9 hours of solar simulated radiation. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the metal ions are evaluated using ZnSO4 and CdCl2 solutions for the MTT assay and Comet assay respectively. The objective of the dissertation is to obtain quantitative information about the environmental transformation of engineered nanomaterials and their mechanism of toxicity. This information is critical for addressing the environmental health and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials to workers, consumers and the environment.

  10. Photoinduced magnetic force between nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Caner; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Wickramasinghe, Hemantha Kumar; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Photoinduced magnetic force between nanostructures, at optical frequencies, is investigated theoretically. Till now optical magnetic effects were not used in scanning probe microscopy because of the vanishing natural magnetism with increasing frequency. On the other hand, artificial magnetism in engineered nanostructures led to the development of measurable optical magnetism. Here two examples of nanoprobes that are able to generate strong magnetic dipolar fields at optical frequency are investigated: first, an ideal magnetically polarizable nanosphere and then a circular cluster of silver nanospheres that has a looplike collective plasmonic resonance equivalent to a magnetic dipole. Magnetic forces are evaluated based on nanostructure polarizabilities, i.e., induced magnetic dipoles, and magnetic-near field evaluations. As an initial assessment on the possibility of a magnetic nanoprobe to detect magnetic forces, we consider two identical magnetically polarizable nanoprobes and observe magnetic forces on the order of piconewtons, thereby bringing it within detection limits of conventional atomic force microscopes at ambient pressure and temperature. The detection of magnetic force is a promising method in studying optical magnetic transitions that can be the basis of innovative spectroscopy applications.

  11. Spectral Sensitivity Change May Precede Habitat Shift in the Developing Retina of the Atlantic Tarpon (Megalops atlanticus).

    PubMed

    Schweikert, Lorian E; Grace, Michael S

    Fish that undergo ontogenetic migrations between habitats often encounter new light environments that require changes in the spectral sensitivity of the retina. For many fish, sensitivity of the retina changes to match the environmental spectrum, but the timing of retinal change relative to habitat shift remains unknown. Does retinal change in fish precede habitat shift, or is it a response to encountered changes in environmental light? Spectral sensitivity changes were examined over the development of the Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) retina relative to ontogenetic shifts in habitat light. Opsin gene isoform expression and inferred chromophore use of visual pigments were examined over the course of M. atlanticus development. Spectral sensitivity of the retina was then determined by electroretinography and compared to the spectroradiometric measurements of habitat light encountered by M. atlanticus from juveniles to adults. These data, along with previously known microspectrophotometric measurements of sensitivity in M. atlanticus, indicate retinal spectral sensitivity that matches the dominant wavelengths of environmental light for juvenile and adult fish. For the intervening subadult stage, however, spectral sensitivity does not match the dominant wavelength of light it occupies but better matches the dominant wavelengths of light in the habitat of its forthcoming migration. These results first indicate that the relationship between environmental light spectrum and spectral sensitivity of the retina changes during M. atlanticus development and then suggest that such changes may be programmed to support visual anticipation of new photic environments.

  12. Novel mechanism of photoinduced reversible phase transitions in molecule-based magnets.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, T; Asai, Y; Abe, S

    2001-01-08

    A novel microscopic mechanism of bidirectional structural changes is proposed for the photoinduced magnetic phase transition in Co-Fe Prussian blue analogs on the basis of ab initio quantum chemical cluster calculations. It is shown that the local potential energies of various spin states of Co are sensitive to the number of nearest neighbor Fe vacancies. As a result, the forward and backward structural changes are most readily initiated by excitation of different local regions by different photons. This mechanism suggests an effective strategy to realize photoinduced reversible phase transitions in a general system consisting of two local components.

  13. Static and dynamic photoinduced magnetic effects in yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V. Khalilov, R. Z.

    2012-04-15

    In yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium, direct measurements of the photoinduced changes in magnetostrictive strains disagree with those in magnetostriction constants at 78-100 K. This is attributed to a considerable photoinduced modification of the initial state in this sample due to a redistribution of the charge (during illumination) between cations of the ferromagnetic octahedral sublattice. In the same sample, the temperature dependence of the photoinduced disaccomodation of magnetic permeability characterizing the initial demagnetized state is measured and calculated. A change in the electron mechanism of the phenomenon during the transition to room temperature is shown. The conclusion about the promising prospects for using such samples for remagnetization by light is advanced.

  14. Spectral indices for remote sensing of phytomass and deciduous shrub changes in Alaskan arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, K.; Hobara, S.; Tsuyuzaki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Harada, K.; Kim, Y.; Shaver, G. R.; Fukuda, M.

    2010-12-01

    The relationships between spectral indices, phytomass, and plant functional types were determined by using field observations of a moist acidic tundra (MAT) and a moist non-acidic tundra (MNT) in the Toolik Lake Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and a sedge-shrub tundra (SS) in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA. For the MAT and MNT observations, among aboveground phytomass, aboveground vascular phytomass, and vascular plant green phytomass, vascular plant green phytomass was the most sensitive to an exponential function of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.73. Vascular plant carbon and nitrogen were estimated with exponential functions of NDVI (R2 of 0.57 and 0.53, respectively). For the MAT, MNT, and SS observations, vascular plant green phytomass was more strongly correlated with an exponential function of NDVI (ENDVI, R2 of 0.62) than any other spectral indices. On the other hand, for deciduous shrub green phytomass, the strongest correlation was with a product of an exponential function of NDVI and a spectral index (MIR - RED)/(MIR + RED) (DSSI, R2 of 0.60). Here, MIR and RED denote the bands with wavelengths 2.09-2.35 and 0.63-0.69 µm, respectively. As a result of a regression analysis, 41% of the ENDVI variance and 60% of the DSSI variance were explained by deciduous shrub green phytomass. Up to 38% of the ENDVI variance and up to 10% of the DSSI variance were explained by green phytomass of evergreen shrubs and graminoids, and phytomass of mosses/lichens. These spectral indices were applicable to evaluating tundra plant community changes.

  15. Ultraviolet Spectral Changes in Amorphous Carbon Grains Induced by Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, V.; Baratta, G. A.; Colangeli, L.; Palumbo, P.; Rotundi, A.; Bussoletti, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    1997-05-01

    Small carbon grains, processed by UV radiation and cosmic rays, have been proposed as carriers of the 217.5 nm bump present in the interstellar extinction curves (Hecht 1986; Sorrell 1990). In this paper, we present the results of an experiment aimed at simulating, in a first approximation, the cosmic-ray irradiation active in space. We have studied the effects induced by 3 keV He+ ions on the UV spectrum of small cosmic analog carbon grains. Two different kinds of grains have been analyzed. They were produced by vapor condensation in hydrogen and argon quenching atmospheres. Spectrophotometric measurements have been carried out on grains as they were produced and after ion irradiation in the spectral range 0.19-2 μm. Relevant UV spectral changes are observed after ion irradiation: while the UV absorption band shifts from 203 to 215 nm in hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains, an opposite trend is observed for the samples produced in the argon atmosphere. In this case the UV band moves from 240 to 218 nm. These spectral changes are well correlated with the optical gap variations and are therefore interpreted in terms of grain microstructure changes induced by the interactions with ions. At the highest ion fluence considered, the two carbons tend to have a similar microstructure, as testified by the UV peak position and optical gap values because of a saturation effect of the two competitive processes, amorphization and graphitization, which occur in carbon samples during ion irradiation (Compagnini & Calcagno 1996). The results of the present experiment suggest that hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains cannot be transformed into graphite grains by cosmic-ray irradiation. Moreover, the efficiency of ion irradiation in destroying well-ordered aromatic structures poses the problem of the survival itself of polycrystalline or pure graphite particles in the interstellar medium.

  16. Heat-induced changes to lipid molecular structure in Vimy flaxseed: Spectral intensity and molecular clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav

    2011-06-01

    Autoclaving was used to manipulate nutrient utilization and availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize any changes of the functional groups mainly associated with lipid structure in flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum, cv. Vimy), that occurred on a molecular level during the treatment process using infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH 3 asymmetric (ca. 2959 cm -1), CH 2 asymmetric (ca. 2928 cm -1), CH 3 symmetric (ca. 2871 cm -1) and CH 2 symmetric (ca. 2954 cm -1) functional groups, lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group (ca. 1745 cm -1), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3010 cm -1) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Flaxseed samples were kept raw for the control or autoclaved in batches at 120 °C for 20, 40 or 60 min for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios showed a significant decrease ( P < 0.05) in the CH 2 asymmetric to CH 3 asymmetric stretching band peak intensity ratios for the flaxseed. There were linear and quadratic effects ( P < 0.05) of the treatment time from 0, 20, 40 and 60 min on the ratios of the CH 2 asymmetric to CH 3 asymmetric stretching vibration intensity. Autoclaving had no significant effect ( P > 0.05) on lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (with average spectral peak area intensities of 138.3 and 68.8 IR intensity units, respectively). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH 3 and CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2988-2790 cm -1). The results indicated that autoclaving had an impact to the mid-infrared molecular spectrum of flaxseed to identify heat-induced changes in lipid conformation. A future study

  17. Unsupervised change detection in a particular vegetation land cover type using spectral angle mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renza, Diego; Martinez, Estibaliz; Molina, Iñigo; Ballesteros L., Dora M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised change detection methodology for multispectral images applied to specific land covers. The proposed method involves comparing each image against a reference spectrum, where the reference spectrum is obtained from the spectral signature of the type of coverage you want to detect. In this case the method has been tested using multispectral images (SPOT5) of the community of Madrid (Spain), and multispectral images (Quickbird) of an area over Indonesia that was impacted by the December 26, 2004 tsunami; here, the tests have focused on the detection of changes in vegetation. The image comparison is obtained by applying Spectral Angle Mapper between the reference spectrum and each multitemporal image. Then, a threshold to produce a single image of change is applied, which corresponds to the vegetation zones. The results for each multitemporal image are combined through an exclusive or (XOR) operation that selects vegetation zones that have changed over time. Finally, the derived results were compared against a supervised method based on classification with the Support Vector Machine. Furthermore, the NDVI-differencing and the Spectral Angle Mapper techniques were selected as unsupervised methods for comparison purposes. The main novelty of the method consists in the detection of changes in a specific land cover type (vegetation), therefore, for comparison purposes, the best scenario is to compare it with methods that aim to detect changes in a specific land cover type (vegetation). This is the main reason to select NDVI-based method and the post-classification method (SVM implemented in a standard software tool). To evaluate the improvements using a reference spectrum vector, the results are compared with the basic-SAM method. In SPOT5 image, the overall accuracy was 99.36% and the κ index was 90.11%; in Quickbird image, the overall accuracy was 97.5% and the κ index was 82.16%. Finally, the precision results of the method are

  18. Spectral Changes in Metal Halide and High-pressure Sodium Lamps Equipped with Electronic Dimming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Sargis, Raman; Wilson, David

    1995-01-01

    Electronic dimming of high-intensity discharge lamps offers control of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) but is often characterized as causing significant spectral changes. Growth chambers with 400-W metal halide (MH) and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were equipped with a dimmer system using silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) as high-speed switches. Phase control operation turned the line power off for some period of the alternating current cycle. At full power, the electrical input to HPS and MH lamps was 480 W (root mean squared) and could be decreased to 267 W and 428 W, respectively, before the arc was extinguished. Concomitant with this decrease in input power, PPF decreased by 60% in HPS and 50% in MH. The HPS lamp has characteristic spectral peaks at 589 and 595 nm. As power to the HPS lamps was decreased, the 589-nm peak remained constant while the 595-nm peak decreased, equaling the 589-nm peak at 345-W input, and the 589-nm peak was almost absent at 270-W input. The MH lamp has a broader spectral output but also has a peak at 589 nm and another smaller peak at 545 nm. As input power to the MH lamps decreased, the peak at 589 diminished to equal the 545-nm peak. As input power approached 428 W, the 589-nm peak shifted to 570 nm. While the spectrum changed as input power was decreased in the MH and HPS lamps, the phytochrome equilibrium ratio (P(sub fr):P(sub tot)) remains unchanged for both lamp types.

  19. Quantifying spectral changes experienced by plasmonic nanoparticles in a cellular environment to inform biomedical nanoparticle design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) scatter and absorb light in precise, designable ways, making them agile candidates for a variety of biomedical applications. When NPs are introduced to a physiological environment and interact with cells, their physicochemical properties can change as proteins adsorb on their surface and they agglomerate within intracellular endosomal vesicles. Since the plasmonic properties of metal NPs are dependent on their geometry and local environment, these physicochemical changes may alter the NPs' plasmonic properties, on which applications such as plasmonic photothermal therapy and photonic gene circuits are based. Here we systematically study and quantify how metal NPs' optical spectra change upon introduction to a cellular environment in which NPs agglomerate within endosomal vesicles. Using darkfield hyperspectral imaging, we measure changes in the peak wavelength, broadening, and distribution of 100-nm spherical gold NPs' optical spectra following introduction to human breast adenocarcinoma Sk-Br-3 cells as a function of NP exposure dose and time. On a cellular level, spectra shift up to 78.6 ± 23.5 nm after 24 h of NP exposure. Importantly, spectra broaden with time, achieving a spectral width of 105.9 ± 11.7 nm at 95% of the spectrum's maximum intensity after 24 h. On an individual intracellular NP cluster (NPC) level, spectra also show significant shifting, broadening, and heterogeneity after 24 h. Cellular transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electromagnetic simulations of NPCs support the trends in spectral changes we measured. These quantitative data can help guide the design of metal NPs introduced to cellular environments in plasmonic NP-mediated biomedical technologies. PMID:25258596

  20. Photoinduced modulation and relaxation characteristics in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface

    PubMed Central

    Jin, K. X.; Lin, W.; Luo, B. C.; Wu, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report the modulation and relaxation characteristics in the two-dimensional electron gas system at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface induced by the ultraviolet light illumination (365 nm). The suppression of Kondo effect at the interface illuminated by the light originates from the light irradiation-induced decoherence effect of localized states. It is interesting to note that the persistent and transient photoinduced effects are simultaneously observed and the photoinduced maximum change values in resistance are 80.8% and 51.4% at T = 20 K, respectively. Moreover, the photoinduced relaxation processes after the irradiation are systematically analyzed using the double exponential model. These results provide the deeper understanding of the photoinduced effect and the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in oxides-based two-dimensional electron gas systems. PMID:25739889

  1. Photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer kinetics in small unilamellar vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Pal, Haridas

    2007-11-21

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to some coumarin derivatives has been studied in small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of the phospholipid, DL-{alpha}-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching, both below and above the phase transition temperature of the vesicles. The primary interest was to examine whether Marcus inversion [H. Sumi and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] could be observed for the present ET systems in these organized assemblies. The influence of the topology of SUVs on the photophysical properties of the reactants and consequently on their ET kinetics has also been investigated. Absorption and fluorescence spectral data of the coumarins in SUVs and the variation of their fluorescence decays with temperature indicate that the dyes are localized in the bilayer of the SUVs. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra analysis, however, reveals that the dyes are distributed in two different microenvironments in the SUVs, which we attribute to the two leaflets of the bilayer, one toward bulk water and the other toward the inner water pool. The microenvironments in the two leaflets are, however, not indicated to be that significantly different. Time-resolved anisotropy decays were biexponential for all the dyes in SUVs, and this has been interpreted in terms of the compound motion model according to which the dye molecules can experience a fast wobbling-in-cone type of motion as well as a slow overall rotating motion of the cone containing the molecule. The expected bimolecular diffusion-controlled rates in SUVs, as estimated by comparing the microviscosities in SUVs (determined from rotational correlation times) and that in acetonitrile solution, are much slower than the observed fluorescence quenching rates, suggesting that reactant diffusion (translational) does not play any role in the quenching kinetics in the present systems. Accordingly, clear inversions are

  2. Arsenic- and selenium-induced changes in spectral reflectance and morphology of soybean plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, N.M.; Ager, C.M.; Eiswerth, B.A.; Power, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) plants were grown in hydroponic solutions treated with high concentrations of either arsenic or selenium. Spectral reflectance changes in arsenic-dosed plants included a shift to shorter wavelengths in the long-wavelength edge of the chlorophyll absorption band centered at 680 nm (the red edge) and higher reflectance in the 550-650 nm region. These results are consistent with vegetation reflectance anomalies observed in previous greenhouse experiments and in airborne radiometer studies. The selenium-dosed plants contrast, exhibited a shift to longer wavelengths of the red edge and lower reflectance between 550 nm and 650 wh when compared with control plants. Morphological effects of arsenic uptake included lower overall biomass, stunted and discolored roots, and smaller leaves oriented more vertically than leaves of control plants. Selenium-dosed plants also displayed morphological changes, but root and leaf biomass were less affected than were those of arsenic-dosed plants when compared to control plants. ?? 1989.

  3. Changes in spectral reflexions from the iridophores of the neon tetra.

    PubMed Central

    Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

    1982-01-01

    1. The iridescent stripe of the freshwater teleost, the neon tetra, changes from green in the daytime to violet-blue at night. 2. Spectral reflectance measurements were used to follow these colour changes. 3. Light causes a shift in reflectance to longer wavelengths in living fish and in isolated tissue from the lateral stripe. The change is reversed in darkness. 4. The spectral reflectance shifts to longer wavelengths when the fish is disturbed in darkness. No such colour changes were seen in fishes kept alive in 10(-4) M-reserpine. 5. Hypotonic Ringer solution causes a reflectance shift to longer wavelengths and hypertonic solution causes a shift to shorter wavelengths. 6. The iridescent reflexions from the lateral stripe which is continued across the iris originate from iridophores in the dermis. These iridophores contain regular stacks of broad, double-sided hexagonal plates that are about 10 nm thick. Each plate is contained within a pouch in the cytoplasm and is separated from its neighbour by approximately one quarter the wavelength of light. 7. A distinction is drawn between the physiologically active iridophores in the lateral stripe and iris that have broad hexagonal crystal plates which are very thin and the physiologically inactive iridophores that are also found in the iris, but in addition are found on the flanks below the lateral stripe, and on the head. These iridophores contain hexagonal crystals that are usually narrower than the active type, but are about 60-100 nm thick. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 PMID:7108777

  4. Photoinduced phase transition in tetrathiafulvalene- p -chloranil observed in femtosecond reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, H.; Ishige, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Kishida, H.; Iwai, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2004-10-01

    Photoinduced transitions from ionic (I) to neutral (N) and neutral (N) to ionic (I) phases in an organic charge transfer (CT) complex, tetrathiafulvalene- p -chloranil (TTF-CA), were investigated by femtosecond pump-probe reflection spectroscopy. Transient reflectivity changes of the intramolecular transition band of TTF sensitive to the degree of CT between a donor molecule of TTF and an acceptor molecule of CA are measured as a function of excitation energy, excitation density, and temperature. By adopting the multilayer model for the analysis of the obtained transient reflectivity spectra, we have derived the time characteristics of amounts and spatial distributions of photoinduced N(I) states in the I(N) phase. The results reveal that the I to N(IN) transition induced by the resonant excitation of the CT band at 4K is composed of three processes; (1) formation of a confined one-dimensional (1D) N domain, that is, a sequence of D0A0 pairs, just after the photoexcitation, (2) multiplication of the 1D N domains to the semimacroscopic N states up to 20ps within the absorption depth of the excitation light, and (3) proceeding of the IN transition along the direction normal to the sample surface. At 77K near the NI transition temperature (Tc=81K) , the size of the 1D N domain initially produced is enlarged and its multiplication process is strongly enhanced. When the excitation energy is increased, the initial photoproduct is changed from the confined 1D N domain to the positively and negatively charged N states. The spatial size of the latter is considerably larger than that of the former, indicating that the introduction of charge carriers makes the neighboring I state strongly unstable. The dynamics of the photoinduced N to I(NI) transition has also been investigated. The 1D I domains are initially produced by lights, however, they decay within 20ps even if the density of the I domains is increased. The results demonstrate that there is a clear difference of the

  5. Improved moving window cross-spectral analysis for resolving large temporal seismic velocity changes in permafrost

    DOE PAGES

    James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; ...

    2017-04-13

    Cross correlations of seismic noise can potentially record large changes in subsurface velocity due to permafrost dynamics and be valuable for long-term Arctic monitoring. We applied seismic interferometry, using moving window cross-spectral analysis (MWCS), to 2 years of ambient noise data recorded in central Alaska to investigate whether seismic noise could be used to quantify relative velocity changes due to seasonal active-layer dynamics. The large velocity changes (>75%) between frozen and thawed soil caused prevalent cycle-skipping which made the method unusable in this setting. We developed an improved MWCS procedure which uses a moving reference to measure daily velocity variationsmore » that are then accumulated to recover the full seasonal change. This approach reduced cycle-skipping and recovered a seasonal trend that corresponded well with the timing of active-layer freeze and thaw. Lastly, this improvement opens the possibility of measuring large velocity changes by using MWCS and permafrost monitoring by using ambient noise.« less

  6. The impact of changing night vision goggle spectral response on night vision imaging system lighting compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, Harry L.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2004-09-01

    The defining document outlining night-vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting, MIL-L-85762A, was written in the mid 1980's, based on what was then the state of the art in night vision and image intensification. Since that time there have been changes in the photocathode sensitivity and the minus-blue coatings applied to the objective lenses. Specifically, many aviation night-vision goggles (NVGs) in the Air Force are equipped with so-called "leaky green" or Class C type objective lens coatings that provide a small amount of transmission around 545 nanometers so that the displays that use a P-43 phosphor can be seen through the NVGs. However, current NVIS compatibility requirements documents have not been updated to include these changes. Documents that followed and replaced MIL-L-85762A (ASC/ENFC-96-01 and MIL-STD-3009) addressed aspects of then current NVIS technology, but did little to change the actual content or NVIS radiance requirements set forth in the original MIL-L-85762A. This paper examines the impact of spectral response changes, introduced by changes in image tube parameters and objective lens minus-blue filters, on NVIS compatibility and NVIS radiance calculations. Possible impact on NVIS lighting requirements is also discussed. In addition, arguments are presented for revisiting NVIS radiometric unit conventions.

  7. Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions?

    PubMed

    Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.

  8. Observations of Solar Spectral Irradiance Change During Cycle 22 from NOAA-9 SBUV/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

    2003-01-01

    The NOM-9 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, model 2 (SBUV/2) instrument is one of a series of instruments providing daily solar spectral irradiance measurements in the middle and near ultraviolet since 1978. The SBUV/2 instruments are primarily designed to measure stratospheric profile and total column ozone, using the directional albedo as the input to the ozone processing algorithm. As a result, the SBUV/2 instrument does not have onboard monitoring of all time-dependent response changes. We have applied internal comparisons and vicarious (external) comparisons to determine the long-term instrument characterization for NOAA-9 SBUV/2 to derive accurate solar spectral irradiances from March 1985 to May 1997 spanning two solar cycle minima with a single instrument. The NOAA-9 data show an amplitude of 9.3(+/- 2.3)% (81-day averaged) at 200-205 nm for solar cycle 22. This is consistent with the result of (Delta)F(sub 200-205) = 8.3(+/- 2.6)% for cycle 21 from Nimbus-7 SBUV and (Delta)F(sub 200-205) = 10(+/- 2)% (daily values) for cycle 23 from UARS SUSIM. NOAA-9 data at 245-250 nm show a solar cycle amplitude of (Delta)F(sub 245-250) = 5.7(+/- 1.8)%. NOAA-9 SBUV/2 data can be combined with other instruments to create a 25-year record of solar UV irradiance.

  9. Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment. PMID:23505141

  10. Imaging of photoinduced tautomerism in single porphyrin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Regina; Chizhik, Anna M.; Chizhik, Alexey I.; Mack, Hans-Georg; Lyubimtsev, Alexey; Hanack, Michael; Meixner, Alfred J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we present our new experimental and theoretical results upon investigations of the photoinduced tautomerism processes of single metal-free porphyrin-type molecules. During tautomerization a molecule changes its structure, therefore the excitation transition dipole moment (TDM) of the molecule changes its orientation. Using confocal microscopy in combination with azimuthally and radially polarized laser beams we are able to determine the orientation of the TDM as well as the orientation of a single molecule itself. In the case of tautomerism we are able to visualize this process and even the involved isomers separately. The study first focuses on two symmetrical compounds: a phthalocyanine and a porphyrin. Additionally, differences of the single molecules embedded in a polymer matrix or just spin-coated on a glass cover slide and under nitrogen flow are investigated. In the latter case we observe a higher frequency of the change of the TDM orientation. The experimental studies are supplemented by quantum chemical calculations. Variations of the molecular substituents, the environment and excitation wavelength can give new insights into the excited-state tautomerism process of a single molecule. We also introduce some suggestions for future experiments to support the understanding of the photoinduced tautomerism.

  11. Dual absorption spectral changes by light-triggered shuttling in bistable [2]rotaxanes with non-destructive readout.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tian-Guang; Yun, Meng-Yan; Lin, Jia-Le; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhang, Kang-Da

    2016-12-01

    Light-triggered photoisomerization of the azobenzene (AB) unit in bistable [2]rotaxanes can cause the shuttling of the macrocycle on the dumbbell, resulting in distinctive dual spectral variation characteristics: (1) the spectral change of the photochromic unit and (2) the variation of the charge-transfer band. By employing the CT bond region as an output signal, non-destructive readout of optical information could be achieved.

  12. Age-Associated Changes in the Spectral and Statistical Parameters of Surface Electromyogram of Tibialis Anterior

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Age-related neuromuscular change of Tibialis Anterior (TA) is a leading cause of muscle strength decline among the elderly. This study has established the baseline for age-associated changes in sEMG of TA at different levels of voluntary contraction. We have investigated the use of Gaussianity and maximal power of the power spectral density (PSD) as suitable features to identify age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG). Eighteen younger (20–30 years) and 18 older (60–85 years) cohorts completed two trials of isometric dorsiflexion at four different force levels between 10% and 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Gaussianity and maximal power of the PSD of sEMG were determined. Results show a significant increase in sEMG's maximal power of the PSD and Gaussianity with increase in force for both cohorts. It was also observed that older cohorts had higher maximal power of the PSD and lower Gaussianity. These age-related differences observed in the PSD and Gaussianity could be due to motor unit remodelling. This can be useful for noninvasive tracking of age-associated neuromuscular changes. PMID:27610379

  13. Relation Between Changes in Pigments' Spectral Properties and Structural Distortions of Pigment Protein Complexes (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitchkova, Katerina; Andreeva, Atanaska; Busheva, Mira

    2009-04-01

    Scientists continue to investigate photosynthesis-nature's process to efficiently regulate and store energy. To explore the mechanisms of regulation we used fluorescence, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and biochemical preparative methods. For detailed analysis we applied decomposition of the low temperature steady-state fluorescence spectra. This allowed us to estimate the emission of distinct pigment protein complexes (PPC) and evaluate the fluorescence of various aggregation forms of the main light harvesting complex (LHCII), which plays a major role in the studied mechanisms. Resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed with precision the relation between changes in pigments' spectral properties and structural distortions of PPC. It was shown that aggregation of LHCII led to out-of-plane distortion, not only of neoxanthin, but also of lutein molecules. This was enhanced when the complex was embedded in thylakoid membranes (TM). It was suggested that lutein molecules are more closely related to the process of aggregation of LHCII in TM than neoxanthin.

  14. An investigation of spectral change as influenced by irrigation and evapotranspiration volume estimation in western Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seevers, P.M.; Sadowski, F.C.; Lauer, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    Retrospective satellite image data were evaluated for their ability to demonstrate the influence of center-pivot irrigation development in western Nebraska on spectral change and climate-related factors for the region. Periodic images of an albedo index and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were generated from calibrated Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data and used to monitor spectral changes associated with irrigation development from 1972 through 1986. The albedo index was not useful for monitoring irrigation development. For the NDVI, it was found that proportions of counties in irrigated agriculture, as discriminated by a threshold, were more highly correlated with reported ground estimates of irrigated agriculture than were county mean greenness values. A similar result was achieved when using coarse resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data for estimating irrigated agriculture. The NDVI images were used to evaluate a procedure for making areal estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) volumes. Estimates of ET volumes for test counties, using reported ground acreages and corresponding standard crop coefficients, were correlated with the estimates of ET volume using crop coefficients scaled to NDVI values and pixel counts of crop areas. These county estimates were made under the assumption that soil water availability was unlimited. For nonirrigated vegetation, this may result in over-estimation of ET volumes. Ground information regarding crop types and acreages are required to derive the NDVI scaling factor. Potential ET, estimated with the Jensen-Haise model, is common to both methods. These results, achieved with both MSS and AVHRR data, show promise for providing climatologically important land surface information for regional and global climate models. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. Changes in foliar spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence of four temperate species following branch cutting.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew D; Berlyn, Graeme P

    2002-05-01

    Spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence are rapid non-invasive methods that can be used to quantify plant stress. Because variation in ambient light (e.g., diurnal patterns of solar radiation) may have a confounding effect on these measurements, branches are often excised in the field and then measured under controlled conditions in the laboratory. We studied four temperate tree species (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. (balsam fir), Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern. (paper birch), Picea rubens Sarg. (red spruce) and Sorbus americana Marsh. (mountain-ash)) to determine how quickly reflectance and fluorescence change following branch cutting. We hypothesized that conifer species, which have tough xeromorphic foliage, would exhibit changes more slowly than broadleaf species. Furthermore, we hypothesized that keeping broadleaf samples cool and moist would delay the onset of reflectance and fluorescence changes. In one set of experiments, we did not use any treatments to maintain the freshness of cut branches. During the first 12 h following cutting, changes in reflectance and fluorescence were slight for all species. Two or 3 days after branch cutting, the two conifers still showed only small changes in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and most reflectance indices, whereas paper birch and mountain-ash showed larger and more rapid declines in Fv/Fm and most reflectance indices. We attribute these declines to loss of water. As a consequence of xeromorphic leaf structure, the conifers were better able to minimize water loss than the two broadleaf species. In another experiment, paper birch that had been kept cool and moist after cutting showed only slight changes in fluorescence and reflectance, even after 3 days, indicating that with careful handling the time interval between collection and measurement of reflectance and fluorescence of many broadleaf specimens can be extended to several days. We conclude that measurements of

  16. Spectral and temporal changes to speech produced in the presence of energetic and informational maskers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Martin; Lu, Youyi

    2010-10-01

    Talkers change the way they speak in noisy conditions. For energetic maskers, speech production changes are relatively well-understood, but less is known about how informational maskers such as competing speech affect speech production. The current study examines the effect of energetic and informational maskers on speech production by talkers speaking alone or in pairs. Talkers produced speech in quiet and in backgrounds of speech-shaped noise, speech-modulated noise, and competing speech. Relative to quiet, speech output level and fundamental frequency increased and spectral tilt flattened in proportion to the energetic masking capacity of the background. In response to modulated backgrounds, talkers were able to reduce substantially the degree of temporal overlap with the noise, with greater reduction for the competing speech background. Reduction in foreground-background overlap can be expected to lead to a release from both energetic and informational masking for listeners. Passive changes in speech rate, mean pause length or pause distribution cannot explain the overlap reduction, which appears instead to result from a purposeful process of listening while speaking. Talkers appear to monitor the background and exploit upcoming pauses, a strategy which is particularly effective for backgrounds containing intelligible speech.

  17. Broadband optical limiter based on nonlinear photoinduced anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin film

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yuhua; Siganakis, Georgios; Moharam, M.G.; Wu, S.-T.

    2004-11-29

    Nonlinear photoinduced anisotropy in a bacteriorhodopsin film was theoretically and experimentally investigated and a broadband active optical limiter was demonstrated in the visible spectral range. A diode-pumped second harmonic yttrium aluminum garnet laser was used as a pumping beam and three different wavelengths at {lambda}=442, 532, and 655 nm from different lasers were used as probing beams. The pump and probe beams overlap at the sample. When the pumping beam is absent, the probing beam cannot transmit the crossed polarizers. With the presence of the pumping beam, a portion of the probing light is detected owing to the photoinduced anisotropy. Due to the optical nonlinearity, the transmitted probing beam intensity is clamped at a certain value, which depends on the wavelength, when the pumping beam intensity exceeds 5 mW/mm{sup 2}. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  18. Biotinylated Platinum(II) Ferrocenylterpyridine Complexes for Targeted Photoinduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Shettar, Abhijith; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-06-06

    Biotinylated platinum(II) ferrocenylterpyridine (Fc-tpy) complexes [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (1) and [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (2), where HL(1) and HL(2) are biotin-containing ligands, were prepared, and their targeted photoinduced cytotoxic effect in cancer cells over normal cells was studied. A nonbiotinylated complex, [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (3), was prepared as a control to study the role of the biotin moiety in cellular uptake properties of the complexes. Three platinum(II) phenylterpyridine (Ph-tpy) complexes, viz., [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (4), [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (5), and [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (6), were synthesized and explored to understand the role of a metal-bound Fc-tpy ligand over Ph-tpy as a photoinitiator. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed an intense absorption band near 640 nm, which was absent in their Ph-tpy analogues. The Fc-tpy complexes (1 mM in 0.1 M TBAP) showed an irreversible cyclic voltammetric anodic response of the Fc/Fc(+) couple near 0.25 V. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed photodegradation in red light of 647 nm involving the formation of a ferrocenium ion (Fc(+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Photoinduced release of the biotinylated ligands was observed from spectral measurements, and this possibly led to the controlled generation of an active platinum(II) species, which binds to the calf-thymus DNA used for this study. The biotinylated photoactive Fc-tpy complexes showed significant photoinduced cytotoxicity, giving a IC50 value of ∼7 μM in visible light of 400-700 nm with selective uptake in BT474 cancer cells over HBL-100 normal cells. Furthermore, ferrocenyl complexes resulted in light-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis, as indicated by DCFDA, annexin V/FITC staining, and sub-G1 DNA content determined by fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis. The phenyl analogues 4 and 5 were photostable, served as DNA intercalators, and demonstrated selective cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, giving IC50 values of ∼4 μM.

  19. Luminosity-dependent changes of the cyclotron line energy and spectral hardness in Cepheus X-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vybornov, V.; Klochkov, D.; Gornostaev, M.; Postnov, K.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Staubert, R.; Pottschmidt, K.; Santangelo, A.

    2017-05-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of accreting pulsars are generally observed to vary with their X-ray luminosity. In particular, the hardness of the X-ray continuum is found to depend on luminosity. In a few sources, the correlation between the energy of the cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF) and the luminosity is clear. Different types (signs) of the correlation are believed to reflect different accretion modes. Aims: We analyse two NuSTAR observations of the transient accreting pulsar Cep X-4 during its 2014 outburst. Our analysis is focused on a detailed investigation of the dependence of the CRSF energy and of the spectral hardness on X-ray luminosity, especially on short timescales. Methods: To investigate the spectral changes as a function of luminosity within each of the two observations, we used the intrinsic variability of the source on the timescale of individual pulse cycles (tens of seconds), the so-called pulse-to-pulse variability. Results: We find that the NuSTAR spectrum of Cep X-4 contains two CRSFs: the fundamental line at 30 keV and its harmonic at 55 keV. We find for the first time that the energy of the fundamental CRSF increases and the continuum becomes harder with increasing X-ray luminosity not only between the two observations, that is, on the long timescale, but also within an individual observation, on the timescale of a few tens of seconds. We investigate these dependencies in detail including their non-linearity. We discuss a possible physical interpretation of the observed behaviour in the frame of a simple one-dimensional model of the polar emitting region with a collisionless shock formed in the infalling plasma near the neutron star surface. With this model, we are able to reproduce the observed variations of the continuum hardness ratio and of the CRSF energy with luminosity.

  20. Photoinduced Birefringence in Azo-Dye Doped Polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksejeva, J.; Gerbreders, A.; Reinfelde, M.; Teteris, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe a photoinduced birefringence in disperse red (DR1) azo-dye doped polyurethane films. DR1 dye molecules in these films are chemically bound with the polyurethane polymer's main chain. Under laser radiation the DR1 molecules experience the isomerization process; as a result, the dipole moment of such a molecule changes and they align in the presence of electric field. Photo-birefringence was induced by linearly polarized laser radiation (532 nm, 448 nm, 375 nm and 632.8 nm) in the films with various concentrations of DR1 dye. The photo-induced birefringence (PIBR) Δn was measured at 634 nm wavelength, and its dependences on the pumping beam wavelength and intensity were evaluated. The Δn relaxation was studied both in the dark and under light illumi-nation. In DR1-doped polyurethane films the holographic recording was performed using laser light radiation (532 nm). The profile of surface relief grating (SRG) was studied using AFM. The relationship between SRG formation and PIBR is discussed.

  1. Aging effects on detection of spectral changes induced by a break in sound correlation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tianshu; Cao, Shuyang; Chen, Xun; Huang, Ying; Li, Liang; Wu, Xihong; Schneider, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Experiment 1, both younger participants and older participants detected the BIC in the waveforms recorded by the right ear of KEMAR, but older participants had higher detection thresholds than younger participants when the ILI was 0, 2, or 4 msec without an effect of SPL shift between 59 and 71 dB. In Experiment 2, each of the eight younger participants was able to detect the occurrence of the BIC in either the monaurally cueing or binaural-cueing condition. In addition, the detection threshold under the monaurally cueing condition was substantially the same as that under the binaurally cueing condition at each of the four ILIs. Younger adults and older adults with clinically normal hearing are able to detect the monaural spectral changes arising from comb filtering when a sudden drop in intersound correlation is introduced. However, younger adults are more sensitive than older adults are, at detecting the BIC. The findings suggest that older adults are less able than younger adults to detect a periodic ripple in the sound spectrum. This age-related ability reduction may contribute to older adults' difficulties in hearing under noisy, reverberant conditions.

  2. Chemical Detection Based on Adsorption-Induced and Photo-Induced Stresses in MEMS Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.

    1999-04-05

    Recently there has been an increasing demand to perform real-time in-situ chemical detection of hazardous materials, contraband chemicals, and explosive chemicals. Currently, real-time chemical detection requires rather large analytical instrumentation that are expensive and complicated to use. The advent of inexpensive mass produced MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) devices opened-up new possibilities for chemical detection. For example, microcantilevers were found to respond to chemical stimuli by undergoing changes in their bending and resonance frequency even when a small number of molecules adsorb on their surface. In our present studies, we extended this concept by studying changes in both the adsorption-induced stress and photo-induced stress as target chemicals adsorb on the surface of microcantilevers. For example, microcantilevers that have adsorbed molecules will undergo photo-induced bending that depends on the number of absorbed molecules on the surface. However, microcantilevers that have undergone photo-induced bending will adsorb molecules on their surfaces in a distinctly different way. Depending on the photon wavelength and microcantilever material, the microcantilever can be made to bend by expanding or contracting the irradiated surface. This is important in cases where the photo-induced stresses can be used to counter any adsorption-induced stresses and increase the dynamic range. Coating the surface of the microstructure with a different material can provide chemical specificity for the target chemicals. However, by selecting appropriate photon wavelengths we can change the chemical selectivity due to the introduction of new surface states in the MEMS device. We will present and discuss our results on the use of adsorption-induced and photo-induced bending of microcantilevers for chemical detection.

  3. Photoinduced processes in hybrid structures on the basis of TiO2 nanoparticles and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesova, E. P.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Gun'ko, Yu. K.; Cleary, O.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of and photoinduced changes in the luminescent properties of hybrid structures on the basis of TiO2 nanoparticles and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are studied. It is established that the morphology of the structures depends on the method of their formation and the type of stabilizer of the CdSe/ZnS surface. It is shown that a photoinduced decrease in the efficiency of nonradiative relaxation of the excitation in the quantum dots leads to an increase in the quantum yield of their luminescence and an increase in the efficiency of photoinduced charge transfer in hybrid structures.

  4. Transient electronic structure of the photoinduced phase of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 probed with soft x-ray pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rini, M.; Zhu, Y.; Wall, S.; Tobey, R. I.; Ehrke, H.; Garl, T.; Freeland, J. W.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Cavalleri, A.; Schoenlein, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    We use time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to investigate the electronic dynamics associated with the photoinduced insulator-to-metal phase transition in the colossal magnetoresistive manganite Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. Absorption changes at the O K and Mn L edges directly monitor the evolution of the density of unoccupied states in the transient photoinduced phase. We show that the electronic structure of the photoinduced phase is remarkably similar to that of the ferromagnetic metallic phase reached in related manganites upon cooling below the Curie temperature.

  5. Direct observation of photoinduced charge redistribution of WO3-TiO2 double layer nanocomposite films by photoassisted Kelvin force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. J.; Cheng, G.; Jiang, X. H.; Li, Y. C.; Huang, Y. B.; Du, Z. L.

    2006-05-01

    The microscopic photoinduced charge redistribution between heterogeneous semiconductor nanofilms of WO3 and TiO2 double layers (written as WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite films) was directly observed using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM) coupled with an UV light source. Under illumination the surface potential morphologies of WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite films changed from 162to592mV, which was associated with the photoinduced charge transfer between WO3 and TiO2 nanoparticles due to the energy level alignment between them. This improved technique of photoassisted KFM was presented to visualize the photoinduced charge transfer between different semiconductor nanoparticles on microscopic scale.

  6. Surfactant-directed synthesis of silver nanorods and characteristic spectral changes occurred by their morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Guansong; Zhang, Wanzhong; Qiao, Xueliang; Wu, Kai; Chen, Qingyuan; Cai, Yuchun

    2014-11-01

    Silver nanorods with different polydispersity were synthesized in the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) rod-shaped micelles by inducing the orientation growth of silver seeds and adjusting the volumes of CTAB. The reaction for the formation of silver nanorods had basically finished in 10 min. A suitable volume of CTAB (i.e., 15.0 mL of 0.1 M CTAB) is beneficial to obtain high-quality silver nanorods in the given reaction system. That is, the volume of added CTAB is a key factor to determine the polydispersity of the formed nanorods. The aging time plays a critical role in the morphology evolution of silver nanorods due to the oxidation of silver nanorods with Br-, O2 and the Ostwald ripening of the nanoparticles. As a result, the characteristic spectral changes occurred due to the morphology evolution of silver nanorods. The ablation in the top ends of the longer nanorods is often accompanied by the growth of some shorter nanorods and nanospheres. The size distribution of silver nanorods might be more uniform in the early aging stage. All the nanorods in the colloidal solution should turn into the near-spherical nanoparticles with larger sizes and thus the characteristic absorption should change to single peak centered at about 400 nm. Based on the research results, mathematical models are proposed for explaining the formation and morphology changes of silver nanorods. The morphology evolution of silver nanorods may be important and can be used as a reference for preparing silver nanorods, nanowires and other anisotropic nanomaterials.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Acetaminophen-Induced Changes in Mitochondrial Protein Expression Using Spectral Counting

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, Brendan D.; Mohar, Isaac; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Nelson, Sidney D.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative proteomic analysis following treatment with acetaminophen (APAP) was performed on two different models of APAP-mediated hepatocellular injury in order to both identify common targets for adduct formation and track drug-induced changes in protein expression. Male C57BL/6 mice were used as a model for APAP-mediated liver injury in vivo and TAMH cells were used as a model for APAP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. SEQUEST was unable to identify the precise location of sites of adduction following treatment with APAP in either system. However, semiquantitative analysis of the proteomic datasets using spectral counting revealed a downregulation of P450 isoforms associated with APAP bioactivation, and an upregulation of proteins related to the electron transport chain by APAP compared to control. Both mechanisms are likely compensatory in nature as decreased P450 expression is likely to attenuate toxicity associated with N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine (NAPQI) formation, whereas APAP-induced electron transport chain component upregulation may be an attempt to promote cellular bioenergetics. PMID:21329376

  8. Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Dong, Tianming; Wu, Huiying

    2006-08-01

    Dimming is an important and necessary feature for light sources used in general lighting applications. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power colored and pc-white LEDs under continuous current reduction (CCR) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) dimming schemes. For InGaN-based blue, green, and pc-white LEDs, the peak wavelength shifts were in opposite directions for the two dimming schemes. The peak wavelength showed a blue shift with increased current, most likely due to band filling and QCSE dominated effects. InGaN LEDs exhibited red shifts with increased duty cycle, which is dominated by junction heat. AlInGaP red LEDs show mainly thermal-induced red shift with increased current or duty cycle. In addition, the luminous efficacy was always higher for the CCR dimming scheme at dimmed levels, irrespective of the LED type. Keywords: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), white LEDs, mixed-color white LEDs, pulse-width modulation (PWM), continuous current reduction (CCR), peak wavelength shift, luminous efficacy

  9. Seasonal changes in H/V spectral ratio at high-latitude seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. F.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Pancha, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present results demonstrating seasonal variations in the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) at high-latitude seismic stations. We analyze data from two sites at Poker Flat Research Range, near Fairbanks, Alaska. From the first site, we analyze 3 stations installed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in a valley with marshy summer conditions. We also analyze the PASSCAL Instrument Center station PIC2, which is installed on rock approximately 3.2 km from the SNL stations. These stations continuously record data at 125 (SNL) and 200 (PIC2) samples per second. Seasonal changes in HVSR at high frequencies (> 20 Hz) appear to be caused by impedance contrasts between frozen and thawed ground. Thawed active layers are known to have slower shear-wave velocities than frozen layers or bedrock. An estimate of active layer thickness at each station is obtained from the quarter-wavelength approximation. We verify the accuracy of this technique by obtaining ground-truth measurements at the sites for both thickness and shear-wave velocity. We use physical probing for the thickness measurements and active-source Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) surveys for the shear-wave velocities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  10. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  11. Long-Term and Progressive Changes in Rhesus Spectral Sensitivity after Low-Level Coherent Light (514 nm) Exposure).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    COVERED Long - term and Progressive changes in Rhesus Spectral Sensitivity after Low-level Coherent Ligh Technote 1978-1990 (514) Exposure 6. PERFORMING...recoverable with time or through alternative stimulation is also unknown. It seems plausible to us at the present time to entertain two hypotheses: first

  12. Wave spectral response to sudden changes in wind direction in finite-depth waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aijaz, Saima; Rogers, W. Erick; Babanin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The response of a wind-sea spectrum to sudden changes in wind directions of 180° and 90° is investigated. Numerical simulations using the third-generation wave spectral model SWAN have been undertaken at micro timescales of 30 s and fine spatial resolution of less than 10 m. The results have been validated against the wave data collected during the field campaign at Lake George, Australia. The newly implemented 'ST6' physics in the SWAN model has been evaluated using a selection of bottom-friction terms and the two available functions for the nonlinear energy transfer: (1) exact solution of the nonlinear term (XNL), and (2) discrete interactions approximation (DIA) that parameterizes the nonlinear term. Good agreement of the modelled data is demonstrated directly with the field data and through the known experimental growth curves obtained from the extensive Lake George data set. The modelling results show that of the various combinations of models tested, the ST6/XNL model provides the most reliable computations of integral and spectral wave parameters. When the winds and waves are opposing (180° wind turn), the XNL is nearly twice as fast in the aligning the young wind-sea with the new wind direction than the DIA. In this case, the young wind-sea gradually decouples from the old waves and forms a new secondary peak. Unlike the 180° wind turn, there is no decoupling in the 90° wind turn and the entire spectrum rotates smoothly in the new direction. In both cases, the young wind-sea starts developing in the new wind direction within 10 min of the wind turn for the ST6 while the directional response of the default physics lags behind with a response time that is nearly double of ST6. The modelling results highlight the differences in source term balance among the different models in SWAN. During high wind speeds, the default settings provide a larger contribution from the bottom-friction dissipation than the whitecapping. In contrast, the whitecapping

  13. Changes in the spectral pattern of selenium accumulation in Coleus blumei and the effects of chelation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miaohao H; Yuan, Juhong H

    2015-04-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoremediation has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass production plants. This study investigated changes in the spectral pattern of selenium (Se) accumulation in Coleus blumei Benth. (coleus) plants grown in hydroponics with 1.0 mg/l sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and the effects of (S,S)-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) thereon through X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. When EDDS concentrations were in the range of 0-1.0 mmol/l, Se content increased significantly; however, at EDDS concentrations above this range, the symptoms of Se toxicity were alleviated in coleus leaves. Application of EDDS over 1.0 mmol/l significantly decreased total Se uptake in the leaves and roots of the plants. The powder diffraction patterns of the roots and leaves displayed sharp crystalline peaks, which were characteristic of an organic molecule with crystallinity. Our results revealed the presence of high amounts of C, O, Mg, Al, Si, K and Ca in the roots and leaves under Se-induced stress with different concentrations of EDDS. There were no changes in the chemical compositions of the roots and leaves, but the contents were influenced by Se-induced stress and EDDS treatment. This study demonstrated the importance of applying XRD, EDXS and FTIR methods toward a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of EDDS-induced Se accumulation in plants.

  14. Spatial-temporal patterns of electrocorticographic spectral changes during midazolam sedation

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Masaaki; Zestos, Maria M.; Asano, Eishi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To better understand ‘when’ and ‘where’ wideband electrophysiological signals are altered by sedation. Methods We generated animation movies showing electrocorticography (ECoG) amplitudes at eight spectral frequency bands across 1.0 to 116 Hz, every 0.1 second, on three-dimensional surface images of 10 children who underwent epilepsy surgery. We measured the onset, intensity, and variance of each band amplitude change at given nonepileptic regions separately from those at affected regions. We also determined the presence of differential ECoG changes depending on the brain anatomy. Results Within 20 seconds following injection of midazolam, beta (16–31.5 Hz) and sigma (12–15.5 Hz) activities began to be multifocally augmented with increased variance in amplitude at each site. Beta-sigma augmentation was most prominent within the association neocortex. Augmentation of low-delta activity (1.0–1.5 Hz) was relatively modest and confined to the somatosensory-motor region. Conversely, injection of midazolam induced attenuation of theta (4.0–7.5 Hz) and high-gamma (64–116 Hz) activities. Conclusions Our observations support the notion that augmentation beta-sigma and delta activities reflects cortical deactivation or inactivation, whereas theta and high-gamma activities contribute to maintenance of consciousness. The effects of midazolam on the dynamics of cortical oscillations differed across regions. Significance Sedation, at least partially, reflects a multi-local phenomenon at the cortical level rather than global brain alteration homogeneously driven by the common central control structure. PMID:26613652

  15. Mapping and monitoring changes in vegetation communities of Jasper Ridge, CA, using spectral fractions derived from AVIRIS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, Donald E., Jr.; Roberts, Dar A.; Adams, John B.; Smith, Milton O.

    1993-01-01

    An important application of remote sensing is to map and monitor changes over large areas of the land surface. This is particularly significant with the current interest in monitoring vegetation communities. Most of traditional methods for mapping different types of plant communities are based upon statistical classification techniques (i.e., parallel piped, nearest-neighbor, etc.) applied to uncalibrated multispectral data. Classes from these techniques are typically difficult to interpret (particularly to a field ecologist/botanist). Also, classes derived for one image can be very different from those derived from another image of the same area, making interpretation of observed temporal changes nearly impossible. More recently, neural networks have been applied to classification. Neural network classification, based upon spectral matching, is weak in dealing with spectral mixtures (a condition prevalent in images of natural surfaces). Another approach to mapping vegetation communities is based on spectral mixture analysis, which can provide a consistent framework for image interpretation. Roberts et al. (1990) mapped vegetation using the band residuals from a simple mixing model (the same spectral endmembers applied to all image pixels). Sabol et al. (1992b) and Roberts et al. (1992) used different methods to apply the most appropriate spectral endmembers to each image pixel, thereby allowing mapping of vegetation based upon the the different endmember spectra. In this paper, we describe a new approach to classification of vegetation communities based upon the spectra fractions derived from spectral mixture analysis. This approach was applied to three 1992 AVIRIS images of Jasper Ridge, California to observe seasonal changes in surface composition.

  16. DNA and protein change in tissues probed by Kubelka-Munk spectral function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanlong; Celmer, Edward J.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2000-04-01

    Normal, fibroadenoma, malignant, and adipose breast tissues were investigated using Kubelka-Munk Spectral Function (KMSF). The spectral features in KMSF were identified and compared with absorption spectra determined by transmission measurements. A specified spectral feature measured in adipose tissue was assigned to (beta) -carotene, which can be used to separate fat form other molecular components in breast tissues. The peaks of (KMF) at 260nm and 280nm were attributed to DNA and proteins. The signal amplitude over 255nm to 265nm and 275nm to 285nm were found to be different for malignant fibroadenoma, and normal tissues.

  17. Asymptotic analysis of boundary value and spectral problems in thin perforated regions with rapidly changing thickness and different limiting dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, Taras A; Popov, A V

    2012-08-31

    Boundary value and spectral problems for an elliptic differential equation with rapidly oscillating coefficients in a thin perforated region with rapidly changing thickness are investigated. Descriptions of asymptotic algorithms for solutions of such problems in thin regions with different limiting dimensions are combined. For a mixed inhomogeneous boundary value problem a corrector is constructed and an asymptotic estimate in the corresponding Sobolev space is established. Asymptotic bounds for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Neumann spectral problems are also found. Full asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are constructed under certain symmetry assumptions about the structure of the thin perforated region and the coefficients of the equations. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  18. An unsupervised and spectral rule-based approach for change detection from multi-temporal remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Helingjie; Li, Zhu; Chen, Jianyu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we present an unsupervised change detection method using multi-spectral and multi-temporal remotely sensed imageries. This method is a pre-classification approach based on a spectral rule-based per-pixel classifier (SRC) developed by Baraldi et al. (2006). SRC is purely based on spectral-domain prior knowledge, such that no training or supervision process is needed. To explore its capability to detect change, we applied it in the Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang, China. First, images were classified by SRC, and change detection was performed by two separate methods. One was the comparison of the merged categories obtained by reclassifying the pre-classification types of SRC. The other was comparing bi-temporal pre-classification types directly. The classification accuracy of the merged categories based on SRC was compared to the Maximum Likelihood Classifier and Support Vector Machine. The accuracy of the change detection was assessed and compared to results processed by the common post-classification comparison and change vector analysis methods. Results show that the change detection by directly comparing pre-classification types of SRC had the highest accuracy (overall accuracy was 90%, kappa coefficient was 0.81) among these methods and that the method of comparing merged categories was the worst (overall accuracy was 73%, kappa coefficient was only 0.46).

  19. [Change of LAI and spectral response for rice under flood and waterlogging stress].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Gu, Xiao-He; Meng, Lu-Min; Qiu, He; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide the foundational theoretical support for flood loss estimation of rice with RS, the change of leaf area index (LAI) and canopy spectral response during four developmental stages and three waterlogging depths were studied, and the LAI estimation model was established with spectra characteristics parameter using regression analysis method. The results show that LAI value decreases as water depth increases in tillering, jointing and heading stages, and LAI value under complete submergence decreased by 36. 36% than CK in jointing stages. "Double-Peak" presented in the canopy first derivative spectra of 680-760 nm where the red edge parameters existed, and the main peak is located in the 724-737 nm with 701 and 718 nm exhibiting secondary peak. With water depth increasing, "Triple-Peak" emerges especially. The red edge position moves to long-wavelength direction in each developmental stage. Blue shift of red edge amplitude and red edge area was detected in tillering, jointing and filling stages, while red shift appeared in heading stage. The relationship between spectra characteristics parameters and LAI were investigated during 4 growth stages, results were not consistently significant at any wavelengths, and the leaf area indices were significantly correlative to the spectra parameters before heading stage, so the spectra parameters before heading stage can be used to estimate the leaf area indices, and a regression model based on parameter D(lambda737)/D(lambda718) was recommended. Therefore the variation range of LAI for rice could response to the stress intensity directly, and the regression model LAI= 3. 138(D(lambda737)/D(lambda718))-0. 806 can precisely estimate the leaf area index under flooding and waterlogging stress.

  20. Breathing sounds spectral and higher order statistics changes from wakefulness to sleep in apneic and non-apneic people.

    PubMed

    Soltanzadeh, R; Moussavi, Z

    2014-01-01

    Breathing sounds analysis conveys valuable information in relation to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during both sleep and wakefulness. In this study, we investigated whether the breathings sounds spectral and higher order statistics characteristics (HOS) change from wakefulness to sleep, and more importantly whether this change is associated with severity of OSA. Tracheal breathing sounds of 6 individuals with severe OSA and 6 non-OSA individuals during wakefulness and stage 2 of sleep, both in supine position, were used in this study. The sounds were recorded simultaneously with full overnight polysomnography (PSG) assessment. First, the sounds of 5 noise-free breathing cycles were extracted and sequestered into inspiratory and expiratory phase segments manually for each study subject. After normalizing each sound segment to its energy, spectral and HOS features were calculated. Several features including the median bispectral frequency (MBF), spectral bandwidth (BW) and bispectrum Harmonic Mean (HM) were found to change statistically significantly from wakefulness to sleep mostly in severe OSA group but not as much in non-OSA group. The most prominent and consistent change between the two groups of OSA and non-OSA was observed in MBF; it changed from wakefulness to sleep in the two groups in an opposite manner; this observation is congruent with the hypothesis that the upper airway in OSA population has an increased non-homogeneity.

  1. Photo-induced defects and photoconductivity in amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, H.; Kida, H.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1984-02-01

    An essential connection between photo-induced defects and photoconductivity in amorphous silicon is discussed within the framework of Street's defect creation model. The excitation intensity dependence and doping level dependence of the photo-induced defect density and photoconductivity are derived on the basis of simple rate equation analysis, and compared with experimental data.

  2. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  3. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  4. Photoinduced heterostructure in a vanadium dioxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    A photoinduced semiconductor-metal phase transition that occurs in a surface layer of vanadium dioxide film on an aluminum substrate within the time Δ t < 1 ps has been studied theoretically. A nonthermal mechanism of the development of instability has been considered. It has been shown that a heterophase structure containing metallic and semiconductor layers is formed in the VO2 film. The phase transition time τ has been calculated as a function of the distance z from the film surface. Comparison with the experiment has been carried out.

  5. Impact of blood volume changes within the human skin on the diffuse reflectance measurements in visible and NIR spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, Evgeny; Bykov, Alexander; Popov, Alexey; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We consider changes in the volume of blood and oxygen saturation caused by a pulse wave and their influence on the diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible/NIR spectral range. CUDA-based Monte-Carlo model was used for routine simulation of detector depth sensitivity (sampling volume) and skin spectra, and their variations associated with physiological changes in the human skin. The results presented in the form of animated graphs of sampling volume changes for scaling of the parameters of the main human skin layers related to the results of experimental measurements are of particular interest for pulse oximetry, photoplethysmography, Doppler flowmetry, reflectance spectroscopy.

  6. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  7. Effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on photo-induced proton transport through chloroplast membranes.

    PubMed

    Po, E S; Ho, J W

    1997-12-01

    pH changes produced by photo-induced proton transport through chloroplast membranes in spinach were measured by a glass microelectrode. Effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on proton translocation through chloroplast membranes has been studied. Kinetic analysis of proton translocation shows that the rate is reduced as the carbamate concentration increases. The rate of proton uptake follows first-order kinetics and diminishes with increasing carbamate concentrations. The outward leakage of accumulated protons through thylakoid membranes in the dark also decreases likewise. However, the leakage of protons takes a much longer time. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate is an effective inhibitor of proton transport through chloroplast membranes. The results suggest that the photo-induced proton translocation is regulated by conformation change in the membrane. Higher concentration of carbamate disrupts the tertiary conformation of the membrane. The inhibition of proton transport would affect ATPase function; thus, an excess use or accumulation of pyrrolidine thiocarbamate may compromise ATP production.

  8. Nature and mechanism of the photoinduced spin transition in [Fe(PM-BiA )2 (NCS )2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyanagi, K.; Hebert, J.; Toupet, L.; Cailleau, H.; Guionneau, P.; Létard, J.-F.; Collet, E.

    2006-02-01

    We report the investigation of a prototype cooperative photoinduced spin transition in [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2] by x-ray diffraction. The structural rearrangement accompanying the change of an electronic state between the low spin and the photoinduced out-of-equilibrium high spin phases is similar to the one occurring around the phase transition at thermal equilibrium. The cooperative behavior of the light-induced optical hysteresis and light-induced thermal hysteresis phenomena investigated here show a strong similarity with thermal hysteresis around first-order phase transitions, since they are driven by a domain nucleation process.

  9. Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

  10. The change of the spectral-luminescent properties of coumarin-7 and coumarin-30 upon protonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, M. V.; Puzyk, M. V.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of perchloric acid on the spectral-luminescent characteristics of coumarin-7 and coumarin-30 in acetonitrile and ethanol is studied. A probable mechanism and methods of controlling the protonation of nitrogen atoms of the phenylimidazole fragment are discussed.

  11. Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

  12. Spectral Tilt Change in Stop Consonant Perception by Listeners with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Joshua M.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how perceptual importance of spectral tilt is altered when formant information is degraded by sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Eighteen listeners with mild to moderate hearing impairment (HI listeners) and 20-23 listeners with normal hearing (NH listeners) identified synthesized stimuli that varied in second formant…

  13. Nanoscale chemical imaging by photoinduced force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Derek; Morrison, William; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar; Jahng, Junghoon; Potma, Eric; Wan, Lei; Ruiz, Ricardo; Albrecht, Thomas R.; Schmidt, Kristin; Frommer, Jane; Sanders, Daniel P.; Park, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Correlating spatial chemical information with the morphology of closely packed nanostructures remains a challenge for the scientific community. For example, supramolecular self-assembly, which provides a powerful and low-cost way to create nanoscale patterns and engineered nanostructures, is not easily interrogated in real space via existing nondestructive techniques based on optics or electrons. A novel scanning probe technique called infrared photoinduced force microscopy (IR PiFM) directly measures the photoinduced polarizability of the sample in the near field by detecting the time-integrated force between the tip and the sample. By imaging at multiple IR wavelengths corresponding to absorption peaks of different chemical species, PiFM has demonstrated the ability to spatially map nm-scale patterns of the individual chemical components of two different types of self-assembled block copolymer films. With chemical-specific nanometer-scale imaging, PiFM provides a powerful new analytical method for deepening our understanding of nanomaterials. PMID:27051870

  14. Photoinduced Force Mapping of Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tumkur, Thejaswi U; Yang, Xiao; Cerjan, Benjamin; Halas, Naomi J; Nordlander, Peter; Thomann, Isabell

    2016-12-14

    The ability to image the optical near-fields of nanoscale structures, map their morphology, and concurrently obtain spectroscopic information, all with high spatiotemporal resolution, is a highly sought-after technique in nanophotonics. As a step toward this goal, we demonstrate the mapping of electromagnetic forces between a nanoscale tip and an optically excited sample consisting of plasmonic nanostructures with an imaging platform based on atomic force microscopy. We present the first detailed joint experimental-theoretical study of this type of photoinduced force microscopy. We show that the enhancement of near-field optical forces in gold disk dimers and nanorods follows the expected plasmonic field enhancements with strong polarization sensitivity. We then introduce a new way to evaluate optically induced tip-sample forces by simulating realistic geometries of the tip and sample. We decompose the calculated forces into in-plane and out-of-plane components and compare the calculated and measured force enhancements in the fabricated plasmonic structures. Finally, we show the usefulness of photoinduced force mapping for characterizing the heterogeneity of near-field enhancements in precisely e-beam fabricated nominally alike nanostructures - a capability of widespread interest for precise nanomanufacturing, SERS, and photocatalysis applications.

  15. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer Processes in Molecular Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Endicott

    2009-10-20

    This project involved the experimental probing of the electronic excited states generated by photoinduced (center-to-center) electron and energy transfer processes in several classes of transition metal donor/acceptor (D/A) complexes. Some of the general properties inferred from these studies should be useful in the design of new systems for energy conversion applications. Pursuit of the project goals has involved the determination of electron transfer efficiencies and the detailed study of variations in the electronic spectra of D/A complexes. This has resulted in the study of some very fundamental issues of photoinduced charge transfer and the identification of some of the constraints on its efficiency. The experimental studies of the competition between the degradative non-radiative unimolecular relaxation of transition metal excited states and their transfer of charge from these excited states to external acceptors have involved a range of techniques such as transient decay kinetics, photoacoustic calorimetry and transient or stationary state spectroscopy. The substrates synthesized for these studies were selected to provide model systems, or series of model systems to probe the validity of models of electronic excited states and their reactivity. The work during the last few years has focused largely, but not exclusively, on the use of emission spectral band shapes to probe the properties of charge transfer (CT) excited states. Bandshape variations are one of the very few approaches for systematically probing electronic excited states and good band shape resolution is necessary in order to gain information about the structural variations that correlate with excited state reactivity. Differences in molecular structure correlate with differences in chemical reactivity, and the variations in emission bandshapes are well known to relate to variations in the molecular structural differences between the excited and ground electronic states. However, it is has been

  16. Change in Drusen Area Over Time Compared Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Color Fundus Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Giovanni; Yehoshua, Zohar; Garcia Filho, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Portella Nunes, Renata; Feuer, William J.; Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between drusen areas measured with color fundus images (CFIs) and those with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods. Forty-two eyes from thirty patients with drusen in the absence of geographic atrophy were recruited to a prospective study. Digital color fundus images and SDOCT images were obtained at baseline and at follow-up visits at 3 and 6 months. Registered, matched circles centered on the fovea with diameters of 3 mm and 5 mm were identified on both CFIs and SDOCT images. Spectral-domain OCT drusen measurements were obtained using a commercially available proprietary algorithm. Drusen boundaries on CFIs were traced manually at the Doheny Eye Institute Image Reading Center. Results. Mean square root drusen area (SQDA) measurements for the 3-mm circles on the SDOCT images were 1.451 mm at baseline and 1.464 mm at week 26, whereas the measurements on CFIs were 1.555 mm at baseline and 1.584 mm at week 26. Mean SQDA measurements from CFIs were larger than those from the SDOCT measurements at all time points (P = 0.004 at baseline, P = 0.003 at 26 weeks). Changes in SQDA over 26 weeks measured with SDOCT were not different from those measured with CFIs (mean difference = 0.014 mm, P = 0.5). Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT drusen area measurements were smaller than the measurements obtained from CFIs. However, there were no differences in the change in drusen area over time between the two imaging modalities. Spectral-domain OCT measurements were considerably more sensitive in assessing drusen area changes. PMID:25335982

  17. Changes in spectral measures and voice-onset time with age: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Decoster, W; Debruyne, F

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we searched for changes in spectral features (during the sustained vowels [a] and [i]) and the voice onset time (VOT, of [pa] and [ka]) of the ageing voice. A longitudinal study (on 20 participants) and a cross-sectional study (on 265 participants) were conducted. The spectral parameters under consideration were: the difference in amplitude between the first and the second harmonic, the energy difference between the frequency band below 1 kHz and 2-4 kHz, and the energy difference between < 1 kHz and 4-5 kHz. The VOT was also measured. Comparing five age bands of men and women, the cross-sectional study revealed a stronger H2 relative to H1 for women above 60 years pronouncing both vowels [a] and [i]. A relatively stronger spectral level was found between 4 and 5 kHz in elderly men and women (60+) for [i] compared to young men and women (20-29 years). Significant differences in the longitudinal study were not identical to those of the cross-sectional study. After a time interval of 30 years, 20 men produced a relatively weaker 2- to 4-kHz part of the spectrum and the VOT became much longer. It was impossible to attribute the changes purely to the process of ageing. Situations and emotions also play an important role and contribute to the different findings of the two groups of participants under consideration.

  18. Spectral changes of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) muscle during cold storage as affected by the oxidation state of heme.

    PubMed

    Sone, Izumi; Olsen, Ragnar L; Heia, Karsten

    2012-09-26

    The spectra of fresh salmon fillets change due to storage and packaging atmospheres. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of heme oxidation states on spectral development in salmon fillets and to investigate the origin of a shoulder peak representing important spectral variations during storage. Hyperspectral images of fresh salmon fillets and mince with various water contents were collected during storage under different atmospheres. In addition, the absorption spectra of extracted salmon hemoglobin and its derivatives (methemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin) were obtained. Air storage resulted in an increased similarity between spectra of methemoglobin and salmon fillets in principal component analysis. Results from the mince storage demonstrated that absorption features at the shoulder peak could be related to water content in the salmon muscle. This study established that the formation of oxidized heme is the primary source of spectral variations that occur during air storage of fresh salmon. Changes in the status of heme due to storage and packaging can influence the appearance of the underlying water absorption at the shoulder peak and create variations in the salmon spectra.

  19. On-Line Change Monitoring with Transformed Multi-Spectral Time Series, a Study Case in Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meng; Hamunyela, Eliakim

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the methods for detecting structural changes in time series have been adapted for forest disturbance monitoring using satellite data. The BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) Monitor framework, which detects forest cover disturbances from satellite image time series based on empirical fluctuation tests, is particularly used for near real-time deforestation monitoring, and it has been shown to be robust in detecting forest disturbances. Typically, a vegetation index that is transformed from spectral bands into feature space (e.g. normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI)) is used as input for BFAST Monitor. However, using a vegetation index for deforestation monitoring is a major limitation because it is difficult to separate deforestation from multiple seasonality effects, noise, and other forest disturbance. In this study, we address such limitation by exploiting the multi-spectral band of satellite data. To demonstrate our approach, we carried out a case study in a deciduous tropical forest in Bolivia, South America. We reduce the dimensionality from spectral bands, space and time with projective methods particularly the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), resulting in a new index that is more suitable for change monitoring. Our results show significantly improved temporal delay in deforestation detection. With our approach, we achieved a median temporal lag of 6 observations, which was significantly shorter than the temporal lags from conventional approaches (14 to 21 observations).

  20. DNA and protein changes caused by disease in human breast tissues probed by the Kubelka-Munk spectral functional.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanlong; Celmer, Edward J; Koutcher, Jason A; Alfano, R R

    2002-06-01

    Malignant, fibroadenoma, normal and adipose breast tissues were studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of the breast tissues were extracted from the diffuse reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function (K-M function). The spectral features of the K-M function were identified and compared with those of the absorption spectra. The spectral features of the K-M function were assigned to DNA, protein, beta-carotene and hemoglobin (oxygenated and deoxygenated) molecules in the breast tissue. The amplitudes of the K-M function averaged from 275 to 285 nm and from 255 to 265 nm and were found to be different for malignant, fibroadenoma and normal tissues. These differences were attributed to changes in proteins and DNA. A set of critical parameters was determined for separating malignant tissues from fibroadenoma and normal tissues. This approach should hold for other tissue types such as cervix, uterus and colon.

  1. Photoinduced current of CuO/ZnO thin-film heterojunction in humid atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushio, Yoshijiro; Miyayama, Masaru; Yanagida, Hiroaki

    1994-02-01

    The effects of the light illumination on the humidity sensing properties of a CuO/ZnO thin-film heterojunction where the interface is partly exposed to atmosphere were investigated. When ultraviolet light (approximately 400 nm) was applied to the heterojunction, a very large photoinduced current, about two orders of magnitude larger than that in dry air, was observed under humid conditions at the forward bias of the p-n junction above about 1 V. The increase of photoinduced current is assumed to be due to desorption of adsorbed oxygen species on ZnO promoted by the adsorption of water molecules and the application of the forward bias, which caused the changes of interface states.

  2. Photoinduced Current of a CuO/ZnO Thin-Film Heterojunction in Humid Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushio, Yoshijiro; Miyayama, Masaru; Yanagida, Hiroaki

    1994-02-01

    The effects of the light illumination on the humidity sensing properties of a CuO/ZnO thin-film heterojunction where the interface is partly exposed to atmosphere were investigated. When ultraviolet light ( ˜400 nm) was applied to the heterojunction, a very large photoinduced current, about two orders of magnitude larger than that in dry air, was observed under humid conditions at the forward bias of the p-n junction above about 1 V. The increase of photoinduced current is assumed to be due to desorption of adsorbed oxygen species on ZnO promoted by the adsorption of water molecules and the application of the forward bias, which caused the changes of interface states.

  3. In situ optical measurements of Chang'E-3 landing site in Mare Imbrium: 1. Mineral abundances inferred from spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weidong; Lucey, Paul G.; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Kaydash, Vadim G.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Di, Kaichang; Wan, Wenhui; Xu, Bin; Xiao, Long; Wang, Ziwei; Xue, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer on board the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission measured the lunar surface reflectance at a close distance (~1 m) and collected four spectra at four different sites. These in situ lunar spectra have revealed less mature features than that measured remotely by spaceborne sensors such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on board the Chandrayaan-1 mission and the Spectral Profiler on board the Kaguya over the same region. Mineral composition analysis using a spectral lookup table populated with a radiative transfer mixing model has shown that the regolith at the landing site contains high abundance of olivine. The mineral abundance results are consistent with that inferred from the compound measurement made by the on board alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer.

  4. The photoinduced dynamics of X[M(dmit)2]2 salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Hayes, Stuart A.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Hada, Masaki; Koshihara, Shinya

    2017-03-01

    We review our work on the photoinduced dynamics of X[M(dmit)2]2 salts in the charge-separated (CS) phase from the viewpoints of both electronic structural change and lattice or molecular structural change. The driving force for the CS phase formation is a strong correlation among the charge distribution, orbital energies, and the molecular structure; this is in contrast to frequently studied charge-ordered systems such as EDOTTF2PF6, whose formation is mainly driven by the intersite Coulomb repulsion. Despite the localized nature of the structural component, the cooperativity inherent to the crystal is likely to play an important role in photoinduced phenomena. In this review, we summarize the results obtained by a series of optical pump-probe experiments on this class of materials. We have also recently extended these studies using ultrafast electron diffraction to follow the nuclear motion in one of these systems. Such information is crucial for a full understanding of the photoinduced phenomena and it is anticipated that combining the results of the optical and diffraction studies will lead to more fruitful insight than either technique can offer in isolation.

  5. Simulating multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer (MISR) sampling and retrieval of soil surface roughness and composition changes using a bi-directional soil spectral reflectance model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil surface changes due to soil erosion can be detected by ground-based, hyper-spectral measurements of angular reflectance and a bi-directional soil spectral reflectance model. The next generation of wind and water erosion models should incorporate directional remote sensing data to improve large ...

  6. Origin of photo-induced transmitting oscillations in chalcogenide glasses.

    PubMed

    Tao, HaiZheng; Yang, ZhiYong; Lucas, Pierre

    2009-09-28

    Light-induced oscillatory behaviors of transmission in chalcogenide glasses are investigated using a continuous wave tunable Ti-sapphire laser. It is shown that phase change, thermal fluctuation, nonlinear index change and periodic self focusing are not at the origin of light-induced oscillatory transmittance in chalcogenide glasses. Instead, results indicate that the interference of transmitting and reflecting light is at the origin of the oscillatory behaviors of transmitted light. Just like the principle of Fabry-Pérot interferometer, these interferences result in a periodic change in transmission as the related interferential beams get in and out of phase. However, this transmitting oscillatory behavior can be registered by the detector only when the change of optical path length difference initiated by photo-induced effects is slower enough compared with the corresponding response time of the detector. Several photo-structural effects contribute to that phenomenon including photo-expansion, photo-darkening, and permanent self focusing. It appears that fluctuations of the light source intensity induce a wide distribution of the oscillatory periods.

  7. Aluminum-induced changes in properties and fouling propensity of DOM solutions revealed by UV-vis absorbance spectral parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghao; Meng, Fangang

    2016-04-15

    The integration of pre-coagulation with ultrafiltration (UF) is expected to not only reduce membrane fouling but also improve natural organic matter (NOM) removal. However, it is difficult to determine the proper coagulant dosage for different water qualities. The objective of this study was to probe the potential of UV-vis spectroscopic analysis to reveal the coagulant-induced changes in the fouling potentials of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and to determine the optimal coagulant dosage. The Zeta potentials (ZPs) and average particle size of the four DOM solutions (Aldrich humic acid (AHA), AHA-sodium alginate (SA), AHA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AHA-dextran (DEX)) coagulated with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) were measured. Results showed that increasing the aluminum coagulant dosage induced the aggregation of DOM. Meanwhile, the addition of aluminum coagulant resulted in an increase in DSlope(325-375) (the slope of the log-transformed absorbance spectra from 325 to 375 nm) and a decrease in S(275-295) (the slope of the log-transformed absorption coefficient from 275 to 295 nm) and SR (the ratio of Slope(275-295) and Slope(350-400)). The variations of these spectral parameters (i.e., DSlope(325-375), S(275-295) and SR) correlated well with the aluminum-caused changes in ZPs and average particle size. This implies that spectral parameters have the potential to indicate DOM aggregation. In addition, good correlations of spectral parameters and membrane fouling behaviors (i.e., unified membrane fouling index (UMFI)) suggest that the changes in DSlope(325-375), S(275-295) and SR were indicative of the aluminum-caused alterations of fouling potentials of all DOM solutions. Interestingly, the optimal dosage of aluminum (40 μM for AHA, AHA-BSA, and AHA-DEX) was obtained based on the relation between spectral parameters and fouling behaviors. Overall, the spectroscopic analysis, particularly for the utilization of spectral parameters, provided a convenient approach

  8. Measuring temporal, spectral and spatial changes in electrophysiological brain network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Matthew J; O'Neill, George C; Hall, Emma L; Woolrich, Mark W; Baker, Adam; Palazzo Corner, Sofia; Robson, Siân E; Morris, Peter G; Barnes, Gareth R

    2014-05-01

    The topic of functional connectivity in neuroimaging is expanding rapidly and many studies now focus on coupling between spatially separate brain regions. These studies show that a relatively small number of large scale networks exist within the brain, and that healthy function of these networks is disrupted in many clinical populations. To date, the vast majority of studies probing connectivity employ techniques that compute time averaged correlation over several minutes, and between specific pre-defined brain locations. However, increasing evidence suggests that functional connectivity is non-stationary in time. Further, electrophysiological measurements show that connectivity is dependent on the frequency band of neural oscillations. It is also conceivable that networks exhibit a degree of spatial inhomogeneity, i.e. the large scale networks that we observe may result from the time average of multiple transiently synchronised sub-networks, each with their own spatial signature. This means that the next generation of neuroimaging tools to compute functional connectivity must account for spatial inhomogeneity, spectral non-uniformity and temporal non-stationarity. Here, we present a means to achieve this via application of windowed canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to source space projected MEG data. We describe the generation of time-frequency connectivity plots, showing the temporal and spectral distribution of coupling between brain regions. Moreover, CCA over voxels provides a means to assess spatial non-uniformity within short time-frequency windows. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated in simulation and in a resting state MEG experiment where we elucidate multiple distinct spatio-temporal-spectral modes of covariation between the left and right sensorimotor areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of topographic correction on forest change detection using spectral trend analysis of Landsat pixel-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Curtis M.; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.

    2016-02-01

    Pixel-based image compositing enables production of large-area surface reflectance images that are largely devoid of clouds, cloud shadows, or haze. Change detection with spectral trend analysis uses a dense time series of images, such as pixel-based composites, to quantify the year, amount, and magnitude of landscape changes. Topographically-related shadows found in mountainous terrain may confound trend-based forest change detection approaches. In this study, we evaluate the impact of topographic correction on trend-based forest change detection outcomes by comparing the amount and location of changes identified on an image composite with and without a topographic correction. Moreover, we evaluated two different approaches to topographic correction that are relevant to pixel-based image composites: the first corrects each pixel according to the day of year (DOY) the pixel was acquired, whilst the second corrects all pixels to a single reference date (August 1st), which was also the target date for generating the pixel-based image composite. Our results indicate that a greater area of change is detected when no topographic correction is applied to the image composite, however, the difference in change area detected between no correction and either the DOY or the August 1st correction is minor and less than 1% (0.54-0.85%). The spatial correspondence of these different approaches is 96.2% for the DOY correction and 97.7% for the August 1st correction. The largest differences between the correction processes occur in valleys (0.71-1.14%), upper slopes (0.71-1.09%), and ridges (0.73-1.09%). While additional tests under different conditions and in other environments are encouraged, our results indicate that topographic correction may not be justified in change detection routines computing spectral trends from pixel-based composites.

  10. Photo-induced electron transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Calvin, Melvin

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is increased and the back transfer of electrons in such reactions is greatly reduced when a photo-sensitizer zinc porphyrin-surfactant and an electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant are admixed into phospho-lipid membranes. The phospholipids comprising said membranes are selected from phospholipids whose head portions are negatively charged. Said membranes are contacted with an aqueous medium in which an essentially neutral viologen electron acceptor is admixed. Catalysts capable of transfering electrons from reduced viologen electron acceptor to hydrogen to produce elemental hydrogen are also included in the aqueous medium. An oxidizable olefin is also admixed in the phospholipid for the purpose of combining with oxygen that coordinates with oxidized electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant.

  11. Photo-induced electron transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Wohlgemuth, R.; Calvin, M.

    1984-01-24

    The efficiency of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is increased and the back transfer of electrons in such reactions is greatly reduced when a photo-sensitizer zinc porphyrin-surfactant and an electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant are admixed into phospholipid membranes. The phospholipids comprising said membranes are selected from phospholipids whose head portions are negatively charged. Said membranes are contacted with an aqueous medium in which an essentially neutral viologen electron acceptor is admixed. Catalysts capable of transferring electrons from reduced viologen electron acceptor to hydrogen to produce elemental hydrogen are also included in the aqueous medium. An oxidizable olefin is also admixed in the phospholipid for the purpose of combining with oxygen that coordinates with oxidized electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant.

  12. Photoinduced decomposition of trichloroethylene in soil components

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, T.; Yang, J.J.; Maciel, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    The photoinduced decomposition of trichloroethylene adsorbed on Ca-montmorillonite by long-wavelength UV irradiation has been studied in a quartz tube open to air or through which air or oxygen is passed. Solid-sample and liquid-solution NMR techniques were used to identify apparent products or intermediates of the photodecomposition. Dichloroacetic acid was identified as a major organic product/intermediate; substantial amounts of pentachloroethane and trichloroacetic acid were also identified. The formation of CO{sub 2} was characterized quantitatively by wet chemical analysis. About 40% and 57%, respectively, of the total carbon of trichloroethylene was converted to carbon dioxide in air and O{sub 2} environments over a period of 16 days. Phosgene and HCl were also detected. The photodecomposition of trichloroethylene adsorbed on whole soil, on Zn{sup 2+}-exchanged and Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged montmorillonites, on kaolinite, and on silica gel was also examined in less detail; qualitatively, the conversion of trichloroethylene to dichloroacetic acid in a 48-h period occurred with the following order of decreasing efficiencies: Zn{sup 2+}-montmorillonite > silica gel > kaolinite > Ca{sup 2+}-montmorillonite > whole soil > Cu{sup 2+}-montmorillonite. These results show that the photoinduced decomposition of adsorbed trichloroethylene occurs on a variety of adsorbents, generating products and intermediates that are similar to what have been reported previously for TiO{sub 2}-based photodecomposition but with much longer time scales. These conversions can, therefore, be expected to occur in sunlight at the air-soil interface.

  13. Change Analysis of the Spectral Characteristics of Rubber Trees at Canopy and Leaf Scales during the Brazilian Autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, C. H.; Almeida, T. I. R.; Quitério, G. C. M.; Alves, M. N.; Souza Filho, C. R.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the hyperspectral remote sensing potential to detect spectral changes undergone by clones of two rubber trees within Brazilian Autumn, with decrease of rain, temperature and photoperiod between May and June. Indirectly, we also analyze the ability of the data to help discriminating the clones at two dates in autumn. The average canopy spectra of the stands were obtained with two overpasses of the ProSpecTIR-VS airborne hyperspectral sensor (357 bands between 400-2,500 nm; spatial resolution of 1m) by 14th May and 17th June, in 2010 year. Additionally measurements of leaf spectra were taken in the same dates, but in the 2011 year. Considering the analysis of the spectra measured from the three stands, this indicates that spectral differences in the VIS (400-700 nm) region are of genetic origin and occur regardless of environmental conditions and period of data collection. In the NIR (700-1,300 nm) range, the environmental factors predominate in the two periods of data collection. The SWIR (1,300-2,500 nm) displayed the largest differences between the months of data collection. In May, the relationship between stands indicated the prevalence of environmental aspects. However, in June, the stands and clones spectral behaviour indicates that as the temperature, the rainfall and the photoperiod are lower closer to winter, the SWIR can be effectively used to discriminate and map these clones separately.

  14. Absolute Power Spectral Density Changes in the Magnetoencephalographic Activity During the Transition from Childhood to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Fernández, Alberto; Maestú, Fernando; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in absolute power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of absolute PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the topography of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain. To attain these goals, spontaneous MEG activity was recorded from 148 sensors in a sample of 59 subjects divided into three age groups: children/adolescents (7-14 years), young adults (17-20 years) and adults (21-26 years). Statistical testing was carried out by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA), with "age group" as between-subject factor and "sensor group" as within-subject factor. Additionally, correlations of absolute PSD with age were computed to assess the influence of age on the spectral content of MEG signals. Results showed a broadband PSD decrease in frontal areas, which suggests the late maturation of this region, but also a mild increase in high frequency PSD with age in posterior areas. These findings suggest that the intensity of the neural sources during spontaneous brain activity decreases with age, which may be related to synaptic pruning.

  15. A novel planarization method based on photoinduced confined chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiuyan; Zhou, Jian-Zhang; Zhan, Dongping; Shi, Kang; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2013-07-21

    A photoinduced confined chemical etching system based on TiO2 nanotube arrays is developed for the planarization of the copper surface, which is proved to be a prospective stress-free chemical planarization method for metals and semiconductors.

  16. Review of the photo-induced toxicity of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aaron P; Alloy, Matthew M; Oris, James T

    2017-01-01

    Solar radiation is a vital component of ecosystem function. However, sunlight can also interact with certain xenobiotic compounds in a phenomenon known as photo-induced, photo-enhanced, photo-activated, or photo-toxicity. This phenomenon broadly refers to an interaction between a chemical and sunlight resulting in increased toxicity. Because most aquatic ecosystems receive some amount of sunlight, co-exposure to xenobiotic chemicals and solar radiation is likely to occur in the environment, and photo-induced toxicity may be an important factor impacting aquatic ecosystems. However, photo-induced toxicity is not likely to be relevant in all aquatic systems or exposure scenarios due to variation in important ecological factors as well as physiological adaptations of the species that reside there. Here, we provide an updated review of the state of the science of photo-induced toxicity in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Absorption spectral change of peripheral-light harvesting complexes 2 induced by magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Huiying; Zhao, Chungui; Li, Kai; Yang, Suping

    2015-02-01

    Several spectrally different types of peripheral light harvesting complexes (LH) have been reported in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in response to environmental changes. In this study, two spectral forms of LH2 (T-LH2 and U-LH2) were isolated from Rhodobacter azotoformans. The absorption of T-LH2 was extremely similar to the LH2 isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. U-LH2 showed an extra peak at ∼423 nm in the carotenoid region. To explore the spectral origin of this absorption peak, the difference in pigment compositions of two LH2 was analyzed. Spheroidene and bacteriochlorophyll aP were both contained in the two LH2. And magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) was only contained in U-LH2. It is known that spheroidene and bacteriochlorophyll aP do not produce ∼423 nm absorption peak either in vivo or in vitro. Whether MPE accumulation was mainly responsible for the formation of the ∼423 nm peak? The interactions between MPE and different proteins were further studied. The results showed that the maximum absorption of MPE was red-shifted from ∼415 nm to ∼423 nm when it was mixed with T-LH2 and its apoproteins, nevertheless, the Qy transitions of the bound bacteriochlorophylls in LH2 were almost unaffected, which indicated that the formation of the ∼423 nm peak was related to MPE-LH2 protein interaction. MPE did not bind to sites involved in the spectral tuning of BChls, but the conformation of integral LH2 was affected by MPE association, the alkaline stability of U-LH2 was lower than T-LH2, and the fluorescence intensity at 860 nm was decreased after MPE combination.

  18. Photoinduced nanocomposites—creation, modification, linear and nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bityurin, N.; Alexandrov, A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.; Soustov, L.; Salomatina, E.; Gorshkova, E.; Tsverova, N.; Smirnova, L.

    2013-07-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of noble metals followed by annealing results in creation of metal nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonics applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial nonirradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of two kinds of these materials: (a) Photoinduced Au nanocomposites based on PMMA matrices, including bulk materials prepared by means of the polymerization technique;

  19. The nature of photoinduced phase transition and metastable states in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhensheng; Zhou, Faran; Han, Tzong-Ru T.; Torres, David; Wang, Tongyu; Sepulveda, Nelson; Chang, Kiseok; Young, Margaret; Lunt, Richard R.; Ruan, Chong-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Photoinduced threshold switching processes that lead to bistability and the formation of metastable phases in photoinduced phase transition of VO2 are elucidated through ultrafast electron diffraction and diffusive scattering techniques with varying excitation wavelengths. We uncover two distinct regimes of the dynamical phase change: a nearly instantaneous crossover into an intermediate state and its decay led by lattice instabilities over 10 ps timescales. The structure of this intermediate state is identified to be monoclinic, but more akin to M2 rather than M1 based on structure refinements. The extinction of all major monoclinic features within just a few picoseconds at the above-threshold-level (~20%) photoexcitations and the distinct dynamics in diffusive scattering that represents medium-range atomic fluctuations at two photon wavelengths strongly suggest a density-driven and nonthermal pathway for the initial process of the photoinduced phase transition. These results highlight the critical roles of electron correlations and lattice instabilities in driving and controlling phase transformations far from equilibrium.

  20. The nature of photoinduced phase transition and metastable states in vanadium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhensheng; Zhou, Faran; Han, Tzong-Ru T.; Torres, David; Wang, Tongyu; Sepulveda, Nelson; Chang, Kiseok; Young, Margaret; Lunt, Richard R.; Ruan, Chong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Photoinduced threshold switching processes that lead to bistability and the formation of metastable phases in photoinduced phase transition of VO2 are elucidated through ultrafast electron diffraction and diffusive scattering techniques with varying excitation wavelengths. We uncover two distinct regimes of the dynamical phase change: a nearly instantaneous crossover into an intermediate state and its decay led by lattice instabilities over 10 ps timescales. The structure of this intermediate state is identified to be monoclinic, but more akin to M2 rather than M1 based on structure refinements. The extinction of all major monoclinic features within just a few picoseconds at the above-threshold-level (~20%) photoexcitations and the distinct dynamics in diffusive scattering that represents medium-range atomic fluctuations at two photon wavelengths strongly suggest a density-driven and nonthermal pathway for the initial process of the photoinduced phase transition. These results highlight the critical roles of electron correlations and lattice instabilities in driving and controlling phase transformations far from equilibrium. PMID:27982066

  1. Capturing ultrafast photoinduced local structural distortions of BiFeO3

    DOE PAGES

    Wen, Haidan; Sassi, Michel JPC; Luo, Zhenlin; ...

    2015-10-14

    The interaction of light with materials is an intensively studied research forefront, in which the coupling of radiation energy to selective degrees of freedom offers contact-free tuning of functionalities on ultrafast time scales. Capturing the fundamental processes and understanding the mechanism of photoinduced structural rearrangement are essential to applications such as photo-active actuators and efficient photovoltaic devices. Using ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy aided by density functional theory calculations, we reveal the local structural arrangement around the transition metal atom in a unit cell of the photoferroelectric archetype BiFeO3 film. The out-of-plane elongation of the unit cell is accompanied by themore » in-plane shrinkage with minimal change of interaxial lattice angles upon photoexcitation. This uniaxial elastic deformation of the unit cell is driven by localized electric field as a result of photoinduced charge separation, in contrast to a global lattice constant increase and lattice angle variations as a result of heating. The finding of a photoinduced elastic unit cell deformation elucidates a microscopic picture of photocarrier-mediated nonequilibrium processes in polar materials.« less

  2. Capturing ultrafast photoinduced local structural distortions of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haidan; Sassi, Michel; Luo, Zhenlin; Adamo, Carolina; Schlom, Darrell G.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of light with materials is an intensively studied research forefront, in which the coupling of radiation energy to selective degrees of freedom offers contact-free tuning of functionalities on ultrafast time scales. Capturing the fundamental processes and understanding the mechanism of photoinduced structural rearrangement are essential to applications such as photo-active actuators and efficient photovoltaic devices. Using ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy aided by density functional theory calculations, we reveal the local structural arrangement around the transition metal atom in a unit cell of the photoferroelectric archetype BiFeO3 film. The out-of-plane elongation of the unit cell is accompanied by the in-plane shrinkage with minimal change of interaxial lattice angles upon photoexcitation. This anisotropic elastic deformation of the unit cell is driven by localized electric field as a result of photoinduced charge separation, in contrast to a global lattice constant increase and lattice angle variations as a result of heating. The finding of a photoinduced elastic unit cell deformation elucidates a microscopic picture of photocarrier-mediated non-equilibrium processes in polar materials.

  3. Capturing ultrafast photoinduced local structural distortion of BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Haidan; Sassi, Michel; Luo, Zhenlin; Adamo, Carolina; Schlom, Darrell G.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2015-10-14

    The interaction of light with materials is an intensively studied research forefront, in which the coupling of radiation energy to selective degrees of freedom offers contact-free tuning of functionalities on ultrafast time scales. Capturing the fundamental processes and understanding the mechanism of photoinduced structural rearrangement are essential to applications such as photo-active actuators and efficient photovoltaic devices. Using ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy aided by density functional theory calculations, we reveal the local structural arrangement around the transition metal atom in a unit cell of the photoferroelectric archetype BiFeO3 film. The out-of-plane elongation of the unit cell is accompanied by the in-plane shrinkage with minimal change of interaxial lattice angles upon photoexcitation. This anisotropic elastic deformation of the unit cell is driven by localized electric field as a result of photoinduced charge separation, in contrast to a global lattice constant increase and lattice angle variations as a result of heating. The finding of a photoinduced elastic unit cell deformation elucidates a microscopic picture of photocarrier-mediated non-equilibrium processes in polar materials.

  4. Capturing ultrafast photoinduced local structural distortions of BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Haidan; Sassi, Michel JPC; Luo, Zhenlin; Adamo, Carolina; Schlom, Darrell; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2015-10-14

    The interaction of light with materials is an intensively studied research forefront, in which the coupling of radiation energy to selective degrees of freedom offers contact-free tuning of functionalities on ultrafast time scales. Capturing the fundamental processes and understanding the mechanism of photoinduced structural rearrangement are essential to applications such as photo-active actuators and efficient photovoltaic devices. Using ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy aided by density functional theory calculations, we reveal the local structural arrangement around the transition metal atom in a unit cell of the photoferroelectric archetype BiFeO3 film. The out-of-plane elongation of the unit cell is accompanied by the in-plane shrinkage with minimal change of interaxial lattice angles upon photoexcitation. This uniaxial elastic deformation of the unit cell is driven by localized electric field as a result of photoinduced charge separation, in contrast to a global lattice constant increase and lattice angle variations as a result of heating. The finding of a photoinduced elastic unit cell deformation elucidates a microscopic picture of photocarrier-mediated nonequilibrium processes in polar materials.

  5. The nature of photoinduced phase transition and metastable states in vanadium dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Tao, Zhensheng; Zhou, Faran; Han, Tzong-Ru T.; ...

    2016-12-16

    Photoinduced threshold switching processes that lead to bistability and the formation of metastable phases in photoinduced phase transition of VO2 are elucidated through ultrafast electron diffraction and diffusive scattering techniques with varying excitation wavelengths. We uncover two distinct regimes of the dynamical phase change: a nearly instantaneous crossover into an intermediate state and its decay led by lattice instabilities over 10 ps timescales. The structure of this intermediate state is identified to be monoclinic, but more akin to M2 rather than M1 based on structure refinements. The extinction of all major monoclinic features within just a few picoseconds at themore » above-threshold-level (~20%) photoexcitations and the distinct dynamics in diffusive scattering that represents medium-range atomic fluctuations at two photon wavelengths strongly suggest a density-driven and nonthermal pathway for the initial process of the photoinduced phase transition. These results highlight the critical roles of electron correlations and lattice instabilities in driving and controlling phase transformations far from equilibrium.« less

  6. The nature of photoinduced phase transition and metastable states in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Zhensheng; Zhou, Faran; Han, Tzong-Ru T.; Torres, David; Wang, Tongyu; Sepulveda, Nelson; Chang, Kiseok; Young, Margaret; Lunt, Richard R.; Ruan, Chong-Yu

    2016-12-16

    Photoinduced threshold switching processes that lead to bistability and the formation of metastable phases in photoinduced phase transition of VO2 are elucidated through ultrafast electron diffraction and diffusive scattering techniques with varying excitation wavelengths. We uncover two distinct regimes of the dynamical phase change: a nearly instantaneous crossover into an intermediate state and its decay led by lattice instabilities over 10 ps timescales. The structure of this intermediate state is identified to be monoclinic, but more akin to M2 rather than M1 based on structure refinements. The extinction of all major monoclinic features within just a few picoseconds at the above-threshold-level (~20%) photoexcitations and the distinct dynamics in diffusive scattering that represents medium-range atomic fluctuations at two photon wavelengths strongly suggest a density-driven and nonthermal pathway for the initial process of the photoinduced phase transition. These results highlight the critical roles of electron correlations and lattice instabilities in driving and controlling phase transformations far from equilibrium.

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer reaction in polymer-surfactant aggregates: Photoinduced electron transfer between N,N-dimethylaniline and 7-amino coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2008-05-28

    Photoinduced electron transfer between coumarin dyes and N,N-dimethylaniline has been investigated by using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micelles and PVP-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (SDS) polymer-surfactant aggregates. A slower rate of electron transfer is observed in PVP-SDS aggregates than in polymer-free SDS micelles. A Marcus type inversion is observed in the correlation of free energy change in comparison with the electron transfer rate. The careful investigation reveals that C-151 deviates from the normal Marcus inverted region compared to its analogs C-152 and C-481 due to slower rotational relaxation and smaller translational diffusion coefficient.

  8. Spectral analysis of skeletal muscle changes resulting from 59 days of weightlessness in Skylab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Hursta, W.; Baker, J.

    1975-01-01

    During stressful exercise of the m. gastrocnemius, preflight and postflight surface electromyograms (EMG) were taken from each of the Skylab II astronauts. Measurements on the muscle were made once 5 days before launch, and four times postflight on recovery day, 4 days after recovery, 16 days after recovery and 29 days after recovery. It was hypothesized that the disused gastrocnemius would exhibit dysfunction characteristics similar to those found in laboratory studies on disuse and of pathologically astrophied muscle, and that physical stress would be associated with heightened fatigability in the muscle. Both hypotheses were sustained. The results showed significant shifts of the predominant frequency of the gastrocnemius into higher than normal bands which suggests a relationship between muscle disuse characteristics and pathologic dysfunction characteristics. It was concluded that the spectrally analyzed EMG is a sensitive measure of muscle dsyfunction that is associated with disuse. Antigravity muscles exhibit heightened susceptibility to fatigue when subjected to lengthy weightlessness.

  9. Spectral changes with the direction of asteroid impact at Lonar crater, India: Findings from Mid-IR DRIFT analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaiah, Nathani; Shriram Chavan, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Meteoritic Impact Cratering is an important geologic process which is affecting all planetary bodies throughout the solar system including Earth and Mars. There are abundance of impact craters on the Earth and Mars. Identifying spectral signatures have important implications for understanding mineralogy and also geology of these craters. Fortuitously, Lonar Impact Crater in India is the only well-preserved terrestrial crater excavated completely on Deccan basalts and serves as an "excellent analogue" to craters on Mars and Moon [1]. Reported here are results of Mid-Infrared (1400-400 cm-1) spectroscopic studies on fine-grained (<45 μm) basaltic rock powers from this crater using Diffuse (Biconical) Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) technique. Spectral data of the shock metamorphism of basaltic rock powders are examined. Infrared spectra of rock powders of relatively unshocked and shocked basalts are obtained to document the mineralogical and hence spectral variations with the direction of impact and thereby distribution of primary Tectosilicate, Inosilicate(e.g. Plagioclase Feldspar, Pyroxene etc) and secondary Phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. Illite, Smectite, Saponite, Serpentine etc). The results show relative loss of spectral features in western sector compared to eastern sector as a result of increased shock wave distribution and subsequent disordering of primary mineralogy. From east (direction of impact) to western sector, spectral features of all samples change systematically. The major changes are (i) line shifts, which are more pronounced in western sector than in eastern sector and (ii) all spectra show a systematic weakening in intensity and strength, and thus resulting in only few absorption bands in western sector. Also, all the samples display drastic decrease in strength and intensity of 590 cm-1 absorption band which has been considered very sensitive to the structural changes induced by shock pressure in feldspars dominant rocks[2]and

  10. Convergent synthesis and photoinduced processes in multi-chromophoric rotaxanes.

    PubMed

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Li, Ke; Schuster, David I; Palkar, Amit; Herranz, M Ángeles; Echegoyen, Luis; Abwandner, Silke; de Miguel, Gustavo; Guldi, Dirk M

    2010-11-18

    A series of [2]rotaxane materials, in which [60]fullerene is linked to a macrocycle and ferrocene (Fc) moieties are placed at the termini of a thread, both of which possess a central Cu(I)-1,10-phenanthroline [Cu(phen)(2)](+) complex, were synthesized by self-assembly using Sauvage metal template methodology. Two types of threads were constructed, one with terminal ester linkages, and a second with terminal 1,2,3-triazole linkages derived from Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" 1,3-cycloaddition reactions. Model compounds lacking the fullerene moiety were prepared in an analogous manner. The ability of the interlocked Fc-[Cu(phen)(2)](+)-C(60) hybrids to undergo electron transfer upon photoexcitation in benzonitrile, dichloromethane, and ortho-dichlorobenzene was investigated by means of time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy, using excitation wavelengths directed at the fullerene and [Cu(phen)(2)](+) subunits. The energies of the electronic excited states and charge separated (CS) states that might be formed upon photoexcitation were determined from spectroscopic and electrochemical data. These studies showed that MLCT excited states of the copper complex in the fullerenerotaxanes were quenched by electron transfer to the fullerene in benzonitrile, resulting in charge separated states with oxidized copper and reduced fullerene moieties, (Fc)(2)-[Cu(phen)(2)](2+)-C(60)(•-). Even though electron transfer from Fc to the oxidized copper complex is predicted to be exergonic by 0.16 to 0.20 eV, no unequivocal evidence in support of such a process was obtained. The conclusion that Fc plays no role in the photoinduced processes in our systems rests on the lack of enhancement of the lifetime of the charge separated state, as measured by decay of C(60)(•-) at ∼1000 nm, since one-electron oxidized Fc is very difficult to detect spectroscopically in the 500-800 nm spectral region.

  11. Trigonometric Regressive Spectral Analysis Reliably Maps Dynamic Changes in Baroreflex Sensitivity and Autonomic Tone: The Effect of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Manja; Friedrich, Constanze; Gasch, Julia; Reichmann, Heinz; Rüdiger, Heinz; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2010-01-01

    Background The assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has emerged as prognostic tool in cardiology. Although available computer-assisted methods, measuring spontaneous fluctuations of heart rate and blood pressure in the time and frequency domain are easily applicable, they do not allow for quantification of BRS during cardiovascular adaption processes. This, however, seems an essential criterion for clinical application. We evaluated a novel algorithm based on trigonometric regression regarding its ability to map dynamic changes in BRS and autonomic tone during cardiovascular provocation in relation to gender and age. Methodology/Principal Findings We continuously recorded systemic arterial pressure, electrocardiogram and respiration in 23 young subjects (25±2 years) and 22 middle-aged subjects (56±4 years) during cardiovascular autonomic testing (metronomic breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt). Baroreflex- and spectral analysis was performed using the algorithm of trigonometric regressive spectral analysis. There was an age-related decline in spontaneous BRS and high frequency oscillations of RR intervals. Changes in autonomic tone evoked by cardiovascular provocation were observed as shifts in the ratio of low to high frequency oscillations of RR intervals and blood pressure. Respiration at 0.1 Hz elicited an increase in BRS while head-up tilt and Valsalva manoeuvre resulted in a downregulation of BRS. The extent of autonomic adaption was in general more pronounced in young individuals and declined stronger with age in women than in men. Conclusions/Significance The trigonometric regressive spectral analysis reliably maps age- and gender-related differences in baroreflex- and autonomic function and is able to describe adaption processes of baroreceptor circuit during cardiovascular stimulation. Hence, this novel algorithm may be a useful screening tool to detect abnormalities in cardiovascular adaption processes even when resting values appear to

  12. Spectral Changes of Cucumber Leaf During Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus to Led Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viazau, Y. V.; Kozel, N. V.; Domanski, V. P.; Shalygo, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    A direct correlation between the change of fluorescence at 77 K in leaves of cucumber plants growing under LED lighting and the change of the quantitative composition of structural proteins of PS1 and PS2 was established. It was shown that light absorption and the utilization of its energy during the long-term action of narrow-band light on cucumber plants could affect considerably spectra of the leaves because of changes in the synthesis of photosystem structural proteins.

  13. Using Wide Spectral Range Infrared Spectroscopy to Obtain both Surface Species and Changes of Catalyst Itself Under the Reaction Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Xuefei; Ding, Ding; Li, Huan; Zheng, Yanping; Chen, Mingshu

    2017-06-01

    Fundamental understanding of catalysts under the reaction conditions is key for designing new catalysts, and improving catalysts and catalytic conversion processes. Such understanding can be achieved only by characterization of catalysts under the reaction conditions because catalyst structures and the mechanisms of catalytic reactions depend on the reaction environment. Raman spectroscopy is one of the few instrumental methods that in a single measurement can provide information about both solid catalysts and the molecules reacting on them. However, its sensitivities for the surface species and the surface changes under catalytic reaction are limited. Infrared spectroscopy is also a wide spectral range (6000-50 cm-1) technique that enables examination of the nature of molecular species, identification of solid phases. Unfortunately, most of the heterogeneous catalysts consist of oxides as the active components or as the supports, which strong IR adsorption (below 1200 cm-1) limits the in situ IR to measure only the surface species (4000 900 cm-1). In this presentation, we will present our new developments of in-situ infrared spectroscopies with a spectral range of 4000 400 cm-1, for both the reflection adsorption infrared spectroscopy (IRAS) and transparent infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, unpublished data), that are capable of measuring both the surface species and changes specific to the surface.

  14. Comparison of the power spectral changes of the voluntary surface electromyogram and M wave during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Izquierdo, Mikel; González-Izal, Miriam; Place, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    To compare the power spectral changes of the voluntary surface electromyogram (sEMG) and of the compound action potential (M wave) in the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles during fatiguing contractions. Interference sEMG and force were recorded during 48 intermittent 3-s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) from 13 young, healthy subjects. M waves and twitches were evoked using supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation between the successive MVCs. Mean frequency (F mean), and median frequency were calculated from the sEMG and M waves. Muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) was computed by cross-correlation. The power spectral shift to lower frequencies was significantly greater for the voluntary sEMG than for the M waves (P < 0.05). Over the fatiguing protocol, the overall average decrease in MFCV (~25%) was comparable to that of sEMG F mean (~22%), but significantly greater than that of M-wave F mean (~9%) (P < 0.001). The mean decline in MFCV was highly correlated with the mean decreases in both sEMG and M-wave F mean. The present findings indicated that, as fatigue progressed, central mechanisms could enhance the relative weight of the low-frequency components of the voluntary sEMG power spectrum, and/or the end-of-fiber (non-propagating) components could reduce the sensitivity of the M-wave spectrum to changes in conduction velocity.

  15. [The Change Detection of High Spatial Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery Based on OB-HMAD Algorithm and Spectral Features].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yun-hao; Jiang, Wei-guo

    2015-06-01

    The high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery has abundant detailed information of earth surface, and the multi-temporal change detection for the high resolution remotely sensed imagery can realize the variations of geographical unit. In terms of the high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, the traditional remote sensing change detection algorithms have obvious defects. In this paper, learning from the object-based image analysis idea, we proposed a semi-automatic threshold selection algorithm named OB-HMAD (object-based-hybrid-MAD), on the basis of object-based image analysis and multivariate alternative detection algorithm (MAD), which used the spectral features of remotely sensed imagery into the field of object-based change detection. Additionally, OB-HMAD algorithm has been compared with other the threshold segmentation algorithms by the change detection experiment. Firstly, we obtained the image object by the multi-solution segmentation algorithm. Secondly, we got the object-based difference image object using MAD and minimum noise fraction rotation (MNF) for improving the SNR of the image object. Then, the change objects or area are classified using histogram curvature analysis (HCA) method for the semi-automatic threshold selection, which determined the threshold by calculated the maximum value of curvature of the histogram, so the HCA algorithm has better automation than other threshold segmentation algorithms. Finally, the change detection results are validated using confusion matrix with the field sample data. Worldview-2 imagery of 2012 and 2013 in case study of Beijing were used to validate the proposed OB-HMAD algorithm. The experiment results indicated that OB-HMAD algorithm which integrated the multi-channel spectral information could be effectively used in multi-temporal high resolution remotely sensed imagery change detection, and it has basically solved the "salt and pepper" problem which always exists in the pixel-based change

  16. Changes in spectral reflectance of wheat leaves in response to specific macronutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Beyl, Caula A.

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants, deficiency of an essential element may drastically affect growth, appearance, and most importantly yield. Wheat, the focus of this study, is one of the crops studied in the CELSS program. Information about nutrient deficiencies in crops grown in controlled environment is essential to optimize food productivity. The main objective of this study was to determine whether deficiency of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (M) alters spectral reflectance properties of wheat leaves. Plants were grown in the greenhouse and growth chamber, in a modified Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Spectral reflectance of fully expanded wheat leaves from 280 to 1100 nm, nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, and Ca) and chlorophyll (Chl) were determined when deficiency symptoms were first evident (≈6 7 weeks). Chlorophyll content and fresh and dry weight, were used to assess the severity of the nutrient stress. All nutrient deficiencies affected chlorophyll content and generally increased reflectance in the visible (VIS) 400 700 nm and infrared (IR) 700 1100 nm ranges. Magnesium and nitrogen deficiencies had the most pronounced effect on chlorophyll concentration height, and reflectance. All macronutrient deficiencies tested reduced chlorophyll concentration, increase reflectance in the visible range and caused a shift in the position of the red edge (the point of maximum slope on the reflectance spectrum of vegetation between red and near-infrared wavelengths) toward shorter or longer wavelengths; depending upon the element. In the greenhouse, N and Mg induced the greatest increase in reflectance of 33% and 25% in the VI range and 86% and 53% in the IR range, respectively. However, in the growth chamber, an increase of 97% and 25% occurred in the VI range, and 20% and 33% in the IR range, respectively. In the IR range in the growth chamber, P, K, and Ca deficiency caused a reduction in reflectance (412 770 nm

  17. [Relationship between PMI and fourier transform infrared spectral changes in muscle of rats after death caused by mechanical asphyxial].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Liu, Ning-guo; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-06-01

    To observe the postmortem degradation process in rat myocardium and skeletal muscle using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and to provide a new method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI). Left ventricle and skeletal muscles of rats dying of mechanical asphyxiated were sampled at different PMIs. The changes of different chemical functional group in the myocardium and skeletal muscle samples were measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish six mathematical models. FTIR spectral absorption peak of rat myocardium and skeletal muscle showed three changes: increase, decrease and stable. The cubic model function showed the strongest correlation coefficient. The A1080/A1396 ratio of skeletal muscle showed the strongest correlation coefficient (r = 0.832) with more accurate determination of PMI. FYIR spectroscopy can be potentially used as an effective method for estimating PMI in forensic practice using myocardium and skeletal muscle.

  18. Physicochemical, morphological, thermal and IR spectral changes in the properties of waxy rice starch modified with vinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Dipankar; Kaushik, Neelima; Mahanta, Charu L

    2014-10-01

    Waxy rice starch was modified with vinyl acetate at levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 % with degree of substitution of 0.021, 0.023, 0.032 and 0.056. The modified starches were studied for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and infra red spectral properties. Waxy starch acetates had high water holding capacity and did not sediment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface damage of the granules and their fusion. X ray diffractography showed that crystalline peak intensity had increased on acetylation. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed changes in thermal properties. While gelatinization temperatures of modified starches were higher than the native starch, their transition enthalpies were lower than the native starch. IR spectra of the starch acetates did not show the peak typical for acetyl group. Thus, modification of waxy rice starch with vinyl acetate caused changes in the starch properties. The high water holding capacity of starch acetates can be exploited for specific applications.

  19. Two-dimensional correlation analysis and waterfall plots for detecting positional fluctuations of spectral changes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Ryeon; Noda, Isao; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Phil Ho; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of using various waterfall plots, such as conventional waterfall plots, two-dimensional (2D) gradient maps, moving window two-dimensional analysis (MW2D), perturbation-correlation moving window two-dimensional analysis (PCMW2D), and moving window principal component analysis two-dimensional correlation analysis (MWPCA2D), in the detection of the existence of band position shifts. Waterfall plots of the simulated spectral datasets are compared with conventional 2D correlation spectra. Different waterfall plots give different features in differentiating the behaviors of frequency shift versus two overlapped bands. Two-dimensional correlation spectra clearly show the very characteristic cluster pattern for both band position shifts and two overlapped bands. The vivid pattern differences are readily detectable in various waterfalls plots. Various types of waterfall plots of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra of ethylene glycol, which does not have the actual band shift but only two overlapped bands, and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 2 wt% acetone in a mixed solvent of CHCl(3)/CCl(4) demonstrate that waterfall plots are not able to unambiguously detect the difference between real band shift and two overlapped bands. Thus, the presence or lack of the asynchronous 2D butterfly pattern seems like the most effective diagnostic tool for band shift detection. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  20. Photoinduced adsorption of hydrogen and methane on gamma-alumina. the photoinduced chesorluminescence (PhICL) effect.

    PubMed

    Andreev, N S; Emeline, A V; Polikhova, S V; Ryabchuk, V K; Serpone, N

    2004-01-06

    Adsorption of hydrogen and methane on a preirradiated surface of gamma-Al2O3 produces an afterglow, which has been described as a photoinduced chesorluminescence (PhICL), whose spectral features identify with the intrinsic photoluminescence of alumina. The emission spectrum consists of at least four overlapping single emission bands. For methane adsorption, the PhICL phenomenon is seen only if the solid is preirradiated in the presence of oxygen. Emission decay kinetics of the PhICL effect for gamma-Al2O3 reveal two wavelength regimes: a short wavelength regime at lambda = 300-370 nm (decay time tau = 1.1 +/- 0.2 s; signal width = 2.8 s), and a longer wavelength regime at lambda = 380-700 nm (decay time tau = 2.1 +/- 0.1 s; signal width = 4.3 s). A model is proposed in which there exist two different emission centers and, thus, two different pathways for emission decay. In the first, emission originates with electron trapping by such deep energy traps as anion vacancies {e- + Va --> F+ + hv1} to yield electron F-type color centers, whereas in the second, emission originates from electron/trapped hole recombination {e- + Os*- --> Os2- + hv2}. The first common step of the pathways is homolytic dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen and methane upon interaction with surface-active hole centers Os*-, produced upon preirradiation of alumina, to give atomic hydrogen H* and methyl radicals CH3*. Thermoprogrammed desorption spectra of photoadsorbed or postsorbed oxygen show that adsorbed oxygen interacts with atomic hydrogen and methyl radicals. The products of thermodesorption were H2O for hydrogen and H2O, CO2, and CH3CH3 for methane. The Solonitsyn memory effect coefficient was also evaluated for oxygen photoadsorption.

  1. Photo-induced reactions in the ion-molecule complex Mg+-OCNC2H5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ju-Long; Liu, Haichuan; Han, Ke-Li; Yang, Shihe

    2003-06-01

    Ion-molecule complexes of magnesium cation with ethyl isocyanate were produced in a laser-ablation supersonic expansion nozzle source. Photo-induced reactions in the 1:1 complexes have been studied in the spectral range of 230-410 nm. Photodissociation mass spectrometry revealed the persistent product Mg+ from nonreactive quenching throughout the entire wavelength range. As for the reactive channels, the photoproducts, Mg+OCN and C2H5+, were produced only in the blue absorption band of the complex with low yields. The action spectrum of Mg+(OCNC2H5) consists of two pronounced peaks on the red and blue sides of the Mg+ 32P←32S atomic transition. The ground state geometry of Mg+-OCNC2H5 was fully optimized at B3LYP/6-31+G** level by using GAUSSIAN 98 package. The calculated absorption spectrum of the complex using the optimized structure of its ground state agrees well with the observed action spectrum. Photofragment branching fractions of the products are almost independent of the photolysis photon energy for the 3Px,y,z excitations. The very low branching ratio of reactive products to nonreactive fragment suggests that evaporation is the main relaxation pathway in the photo-induced reactions of Mg+(OCNC2H5).

  2. Simultaneous Photoinduced ATRP and CuAAC Reactions for the Synthesis of Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Murtezi, Eljesa; Yagci, Yusuf

    2014-09-08

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions, both utilizing copper(I) (Cu(I)) complexes, make a tremendous progress in synthetic polymer chemistry. Independently or in combination with other polymerization processes, they give access to the synthesis of polymers with well-defined structures, desired molecular architectures, and a wide variety of functionalities. Here, a novel in situ photoinduced formation of block copolymers is described by simultaneous ATRP and CuAAC processes. This approach relies on the direct reduction of initially charged copper(II) complexes to Cu(I) complexes to trigger both ATRP and CuAAC reactions coinciding under UV light at ambient temperature in one pot. Its synthetic utility is demonstrated on a model block copolymerization process by photoinduced ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using an initiator possessing acetylene functionality and concomitant click reaction between thus formed α-acetylene-poly(methyl methacrylate) (Ac-PMMA) and independently prepared azide functional polystyrene (PS-N3 ). Successful formation of PS-b-PMMA block copolymer is confirmed by FT-IR and (1) H NMR spectral analysis and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Macular changes of neuromyelitis optica through spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lu; Wang, Jing; He, Xu; Xu, Xun; Ling, Zhen-Fen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the thickness of the retinal layers in the macula using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS Spectralis SD-OCT, utilizing automated macular layer segmentation, was performed in 26 NMO patients and 26 healthy controls. Visual function including visual field tests and pattern visual evoked potential were recorded in study subjects. RESULTS Forty-one eyes from 26 NMO patients and 52 eyes from 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Besides total macular volume, peri-paipillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, the thickness of macular RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) were also significantly reduced in NMO patients compared to those inhealthy controls (P<0.000). No differences were found in the thickness of macular inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL) between the two groups. Reversely, the outer retinal layer (ORL) was shown to be thicker in NMO than controls (P<0.05). Compared with the peri-papillary RNFL thickness, the GCL thickness was demonstrated to correlate with visual function better. CONCLUSION The study provides in vivo evidence of retinal neural loss in NMO patients and demonstrates a better structure-function correlation between retinal ganglion cell and visual function than peri-papillary RNFL does. In addition, no evidence of primary neural damage is found. Besides, the photoreceptor cells and retinal pigments epithelial (RPE) cells presumably proliferated in compensation in NMO after retinal neural loss. PMID:27990369

  4. Retinal ganglion cell complex changes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in diabetic patients without retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Ahmed I.; Zedan, Rasha H.; Macky, Tamer A.; Esmat, Soheir M.

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in diabetic eyes without retinopathy. METHODS Two groups included 45 diabetic eyes without retinopathy and 21 non diabetic eyes. All subjects underwent full medical and ophthalmological history, full ophthalmological examination, measuring GCC thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT) using the RTVue® spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and HbA1C level. RESULTS GCC focal loss volume (FLV%) was significantly more in diabetic eyes (22.2% below normal) than normal eyes (P=0.024). No statistically significant difference was found between the diabetic group and the control group regarding GCC global loss volume (GLV%) (P=0.160). CFT was positively correlated to the average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively) and negatively correlated to GLV% and FLV% (P=0.002 and 0.031 respectively) in diabetic eyes. C/D ratio in diabetic eyes was negatively correlated to average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.015, 0.007 and 0.017 respectively). The FLV% was negatively correlated to the refraction and level of HbA1c (P=0.019 and 0.013 respectively) and positively correlated to the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logMAR in diabetic group (P=0.004). CONCLUSION Significant GCC thinning in diabetes predates retinal vasculopathy, which is mainly focal rather than diffuse. It has no preference to either the superior or inferior halves of the macula. Increase of myopic error is significantly accompanied with increased focal GCC loss. GCC loss is accompanied with increased C/D ratio in diabetic eyes. PMID:28393035

  5. Gravity-induced absorption changes in Phycomyces blakesleeanus during parabolic flights: first spectral approach in the visible.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Werner

    2006-12-01

    Gravity-induced absorption changes as experienced during a series of parabolas on the Airbus 300 Zero-G have been measured previously pointwise on the basis of dual-wavelength spectroscopy. Only the two wavelengths of 460 and 665 nm as generated by light-emitting diodes have been utilised during our first two parabolic-flight campaigns. In order to gain complete spectral information throughout the wavelength range from 400 to 900 nm, a miniaturized rapid scan spectrophotometer was designed. The difference of spectra taken at 0 g and 1.8 g presents the first gravity-induced absorption change spectrum measured on wild-type Phycomyces blakesleeanus sporangiophores, exhibiting a broad positive hump in the visible range and negative values in the near infrared with an isosbestic point near 735 nm. The control experiment performed with the stiff mutant A909 of Phycomyces blakesleeanus does not show this structure. These results are in agreement with those obtained with an array spectrophotometer. In analogy to the more thoroughly understood so-called light-induced absorption changes, we assume that gravity-induced absorption changes reflect redox changes of electron transport components such as flavins and cytochromes localised within the plasma membrane.

  6. Native vs photoinduced chemiluminescence in dimethoate determination.

    PubMed

    Catalá-Icardo, M; López-Paz, J L; Choves-Barón, C; Peña-Bádena, A

    2012-01-13

    The determination of dimethoate using either its native chemiluminescent (CL) properties or its photoinduced chemiluminescence obtained by irradiation with a 15 W low-pressure mercury lamp was studied. Thereby, two flow injection systems (FIA) with and without irradiation were exhaustively optimized and their analytical characteristics studied. Better sensitivity and selectivity was found in absence of irradiation, due to the enhancing effect of hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC), which acted as a sensitizer. In the developed FIA-CL system, the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethoate with NaOH was performed on-line in presence of HPC. The oxidation of the product of hydrolysis with Ce(IV) in hydrochloric medium induced chemiluminescence. The method provided a limit of detection of only 0.05 ng mL(-1) without any pre-treatment. However, the combination with solid phase extraction allowed the removal of some potential interferents as well as the preconcentration of the pesticide. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to natural waters with recoveries between 95 and 108%.

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer in ordered polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II.

    1991-12-01

    Long range photoinduced electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor groups is of considerable current interest in terms of strategies for artificial photosynthesis and studies regarding the redox properties of proteins. As part of an extensive study of long range electron transfer involving biopolymers, we have carried out this year investigations of the assembly of electron transfer agents in a system of model short peptides. Also studied is a polyelectrolyte that can adopt a helical conformation when electrostatically complexed with organic dye counter-ions. The principal interest in these systems has to do with the well ordered secondary structures adopted by peptide polymers, and the capabilities for synthetic modification of peptide side chains and end groups with chromophores or electroactive substituents. The present report gives a brief account of the following elements of work related to photochemical electron transfer themes: (1) the synthesis and photochemical characterization of chromophore-bound peptides and amino acid model compounds based on the amino acids, tryptophan and the spacer residue, alanine (Ala); (2) the study of binding of the cationic organic dye to a peptide electrolyte, for which cooperative dye loading and helix formation is important; and (3) completion of the synthesis of a new series of acridinium chromophores that have rod-like'' arrangements of inked aryl rings for assembly of electron donor-acceptor systems that will exhibit especially long lived charge separation.

  8. Photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Catalá-Icardo, M; Meseguer-Lloret, S; Torres-Cartas, S

    2016-05-11

    A liquid chromatography method with post-column photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL) detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight carbamate pesticides, namely aldicarb, butocarboxim, ethiofencarb, methomyl, methiocarb, thiodicarb, thiofanox and thiophanate-methyl. After chromatographic separation, quinine (sensitizer) was incorporated and the flow passed through an UV lamp (67 s of irradiation time) to obtain the photoproducts, which reacted with acidic Ce(iv) and provided a CL emission. The PICL method showed great selectivity for carbamate pesticides containing sulphur in their chemical structure. A solid-phase extraction process increased sensitivity (LODs ranging from 0.06 to 0.27 ng mL(-1)) and allowed the carbamate pesticides in surface and ground water samples to be determined, with recoveries in the range 87-110% (except for thiophanate-methyl, whose recoveries were between 60 and 75%). The intra- and inter-day precision was evaluated, with RSD ranging from 1.1 to 7.5% and from 2.6 to 12.3%, respectively. A discussion about the PICL mechanism is also included.

  9. Inactivation of tyrosinase photoinduced by pterin

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Dantola, M.; Gojanovich, Aldana D.; Thomas, Andres H.

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under UV-A radiation, tirosinase is photoinactivated by pterin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involves an electron transfer-initiated process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photochemical process affects both activities of tyrosinase. -- Abstract: Tyrosinase catalyzes in mammals the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the melanin, the main pigment of the skin. Pterins, heterocyclic compounds able to photoinduce oxidation of DNA and its components, accumulate in the skin of patients suffering from vitiligo, a chronic depigmentation disorder in which the protection against UV radiation fails due to the lack of melanin. Aqueous solutions of tyrosinase were exposed to UV-A irradiation (350 nm) in the presence of pterin, the parent compound of oxidized pterins, under different experimental conditions. The enzyme activity in the irradiated solutions was determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC. In this work, we present data that demonstrate unequivocally that the enzyme is photoinactivated by pterin. The mechanism of the photosensitized process involves an electron transfer from tyrosinase to the triplet excited state of pterin, formed after UV-A excitation of pterin. The biological implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Temperature-induced changes in soft tissues analyzed by spectral methods and transient elastography: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortela, G. A.; Benech, N.; Pereira, W. C. A.; Negreira, C.

    2012-05-01

    Some biological tissues, such as skeletal muscle, have regular or quasi-periodic structures. Periodicity of these structures can be investigated by spectral methods based on ultrasonic backscattered signals. These methods estimate the Mean Scatterer Spacing (MSS). In this work we analyzed the MSS dependence with temperature in bovine skeletal muscle tissue samples. Through spectral analysis we found that the relative variation of the MSS, in the temperature range 20 - 48°C was of ~ 2% /°C. For the same sample and under the same experimental conditions, we analyzed the propagation velocity of shear waves by transient elastography. It was determined that the relative variation of shear elastic modulus was ~ 3% /°C in the same temperature range. The repeatability of the results was tested in three tissue samples, with a set of 6 measurements on each. The relative variation is therefore similar for both parameters. Thus, this study shows that both techniques can be used as a method of noninvasive thermometry for small temperature range. In addition we emphasize the conceptual differences between both methods. As temperature changes, MSS estimation varies due to two physical phenomena. An apparent variation in mean spacing is produced because the sound speed is temperature-dependent, while tissue expansion produces a real change. In practice it is difficult to discriminate the weight of each component in the MSS variation. On the other side, transient elastography is less sensitive to thermal expansion. Thus it measures the actual shear wave speed change with temperature. This differentiation between both methods could be used to construct useful thermoelastic models for soft tissues in the future.

  11. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study on dynamic changes of human tears after instillation of artificial tears.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Coronella, Franco; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    To analyze in vivo the dynamic changes induced by different artificial tears (ATs) in the precorneal tear film (PCTF) and lower tear meniscus (LTM) by using spectral-domain (SD) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). We prospectively examined 42 normal human eyes by using SD-OCT imaging. On the day before OCT imaging, all enrolled subjects were evaluated for abnormalities of ocular surface. All tear film images were obtained before and after instillation of three different types of ATs (mucomimetic, lipid-based, and saline) in five serial scans: immediately (within 30 seconds), at the first, fifth, 10th, and 20th minute. Subjects received a drop of 35 μL in one randomly selected eye. All examinations were conducted in the same conditions of temperature, brightness, humidity, and time of day. Changes in the morphological pattern of both LTM and PCTF were associated with the type of artificial tear instilled on the ocular surface. Similarly, the radius of curvature (rc), the height (h), and the depth (d) showed dynamic variations depending on treatment. Although by the 20th minute, both h and d returned to baseline values in all groups, a significant difference in rc (compared with baseline) was detected for mucomimetic ATs (P = 0.04) and lipid ATs (P = 0.02). Spectral-domain OCT imaging has preliminarily proved to be a noninvasive tool to evaluate, in real time, the different changes induced by ATs instillation. An important stride in understanding the clinical response to various tear substitutes can be achieved by this objective and quantitative approach. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Photoinduced isomerization of lycopene and application to tomato cultivation.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Thomas; Raeke, Julia; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-11-20

    The present study aimed to investigate if growth conditions have an impact on the isomeric composition of lycopene in tomatoes. First a model system for photoinduced isomerization was established. Tomato extracts were irradiated with a halogen lamp, whose wavelength spectrum is close to the spectrum of daylight and thus mimics field-grown cultivation. Different optical filters were interposed between lamp and samples to simulate greenhouse conditions. 5-cis-Lycopene was formed preferentially while the concentration of 7-cis-lycopene decreased in field-grown model systems. The change of isomerization in greenhouse model systems led to a significantly different ratio. Consequently 5-cis- and 7-cis-lycopene were identified as potent markers for the differentiation of various lighting conditions during cultivation. This result was verified in biological samples. Authentic field-grown tomatoes (var. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. commune L. H. Bailey "Harzfeuer") showed a significantly higher content of 5-cis-lycopene 5.90 ± 0.45% compared to tomatoes of the same variety grown under electric lighting 4.11 ± 0.10%. Additionally, the ratio of 7-cis-lycopene was significantly lower under field-grown conditions.

  13. Photoinduced Giant Dielectric Constant in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Sanchez, Rafael S; Badia, Laura; Garcia-Belmonte, Germá; Kang, Yong Soo; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bisquert, Juan

    2014-07-03

    Organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites have emerged as an outstanding photovoltaic material that demonstrated a high 17.9% conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity in a short time. We have found a giant dielectric constant (GDC) phenomenon in these materials consisting on a low frequency dielectric constant in the dark of the order of ε0 = 1000. We also found an unprecedented behavior in which ε0 further increases under illumination or by charge injection at applied bias. We observe that ε0 increases nearly linearly with the illumination intensity up to an additional factor 1000 under 1 sun. Measurement of a variety of samples of different morphologies, compositions, and different types of contacts shows that the GDC is an intrinsic property of MAPbX3 (MA = CH3NH3(+)). We hypothesize that the large dielectric response is induced by structural fluctuations. Photoinduced carriers modify the local unit cell equilibrium and change the polarizability, assisted by the freedom of rotation of MA. The study opens a way for the understanding of a key aspect of the photovoltaic operation of high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

  14. Theoretical approach to photoinduced inhomogeneous anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin films.

    PubMed

    Acebal, P; Carretero, L; Blaya, S; Murciano, A; Fimia, A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a complete study of the dynamic and steady-state photoinduced processes of thick bacteriorhodopsin (bR) films, taking into account all the physical parameters and the coupling of rate equations with the energy transfer equation. The theoretical approach was compared with experimental data, and good concordance was found between both sets of data. The theoretical approach shows that the values of the rate constants for solid bR films are about two or three orders of magnitude lower than those observed in solution. It can also be noted that the temperature change during the experiment had a great influence on the final values of transmittance and, consequently, on the inhomogeneous distribution along the coordinate of light propagation. The study shows that, depending on the intensity and wavelength of the pump beam, we can obtain a very inhomogeneous profile of the population densities, which implies an inhomogeneous profile of the birefringence and dichroism. Therefore, this must be taken into account in the applications described for this system.

  15. Ultrafast investigation of photoinduced charge transfer in aminoanthraquinone pharmaceutical product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Sun, Simei; Zhou, Miaomiao; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer and the following radiationless dynamics of the excited states of 1-aminoanthraquinone using steady state and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation with 460 nm, conformational relaxation via twisting of the amino group, charge transfer and the intersystem crossing (ISC) processes have been established to be the major relaxation pathways responsible for the ultrafast nonradiative of the excited S1 state. Intramolecular proton transfer, which could be induced by intramolecular hydrogen bonding is inspected and excluded. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations reveal the change of the dipole moments of the S0 and S1 states along the twisted coordinate of the amino group, indicating the mechanism of twisted intra-molecular charge transfer (TICT). The timescale of TICT is measured to be 5 ps due to the conformational relaxation and a barrier on the S1 potential surface. The ISC from the S1 state to the triplet manifold is a main deactivation pathway with the decay time of 28 ps. Our results observed here have yield a physically intuitive and complete picture of the photoinduced charge transfer and radiationless dynamics in anthraquinone pharmaceutial products.

  16. Photoinduced Magnetism in Nanoparticles of Prussian Blue Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Park, J.-H.; Meisel, M. W.; Frye, F.; Talham, D. R.

    2006-03-01

    Nanoparticles of the Prussian blue family are of great interest due to the possibility for applications in magnetic memory, biosensing, and magnetic filtering. Nanoparticles also serve to better investigate fascinating phenomena, such as the anisotropic photomagnetic properties seen in thin films of Prussian blue derivatives. Here, we present results on RbjCok[Fe(CN)6]l.nH2O Prussian blue analog nanoparticles, which exhibit photoinduced magnetism. The nanoparticles are synthesized in a controlled manner, which allows for particle growth in the range of 5-50 nm. Early experiments show that upon irradiation with light at 5 K for a period of 2 hours, the final magnetization increases on the order of 10-100% compared to the initial dark state value. This increase is comparable in magnitude with the results reported for bulk materials. The change in magnetization is also accompanied by an increase in Tc. Furthermore, the effect of the dispersing agent on the photomagnetism, the size effect on characteristic magnetic properties, and ac susceptibility data will be presented. J.-H. Park, E. Cizm'ar, M. W. Meisel, Y. D. Huh, F. Frye, S. Lane, and D. R. Talham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3797 (2004).

  17. Diel variations in photoinduced oxidation of Hg0 in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Edenise; Poulain, Alexandre J; Amyot, Marc; Ariya, Parisa A

    2005-05-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine diel variations in photoinduced Hg0 oxidation in lake water under natural Hg0(aq) concentrations. Pseudo-first-order rates of photooxidation (k') were calculated for water freshly collected in a Canadian Shield lake, Lake Croche (45 degrees 56' N, 74 degrees 00' W), at different periods of the day and subsequently incubated in the dark. Hg0 oxidation rates ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 h(-1), increasing from sunrise to noon and then decreasing throughout the remainder of the day. These changes paralleled those in sunlight intensity integrated over 1 h preceding water collection, and suggested that the water freshly collected in daylight was rich in photochemically produced Hg0 oxidants. It was also estimated that under intense solar radiation, even if oxidation rates reached a peak, reduction of Hg(II) was the prevalent redox process. Inversely, Hg0 oxidation overcame DGM production during the night or at periods of weaker light intensity. Overall, these findings explain the decreases in the DGM pool generally observed overnight. They also support previous reports that, during summer days, volatilization of Hg0 from water represent an important step in the Hg cycle in freshwater systems.

  18. Ultrafast investigation of photoinduced charge transfer in aminoanthraquinone pharmaceutical product

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Sun, Simei; Zhou, Miaomiao; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer and the following radiationless dynamics of the excited states of 1-aminoanthraquinone using steady state and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation with 460 nm, conformational relaxation via twisting of the amino group, charge transfer and the intersystem crossing (ISC) processes have been established to be the major relaxation pathways responsible for the ultrafast nonradiative of the excited S1 state. Intramolecular proton transfer, which could be induced by intramolecular hydrogen bonding is inspected and excluded. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations reveal the change of the dipole moments of the S0 and S1 states along the twisted coordinate of the amino group, indicating the mechanism of twisted intra-molecular charge transfer (TICT). The timescale of TICT is measured to be 5 ps due to the conformational relaxation and a barrier on the S1 potential surface. The ISC from the S1 state to the triplet manifold is a main deactivation pathway with the decay time of 28 ps. Our results observed here have yield a physically intuitive and complete picture of the photoinduced charge transfer and radiationless dynamics in anthraquinone pharmaceutial products. PMID:28233835

  19. Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Meng; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2015-03-15

    Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol has been studied. UV B, liquid state and sufficient exposure time are essential conditions to the photochemical change of trans-resveratrol. Three principal compounds, cis-resveratrol, 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione, were successively generated in the reaction solution of trans-resveratrol (0.25 mM, 100% ethanol) under 100 μW cm(-2) UV B radiation for 4h. cis-Resveratrol, originated from isomerization of trans-resveratrol, resulted in 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol through photocyclisation reaction meanwhile loss of 2 H. 2,4,6-Phenanthrenetriol played a role of photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen in the reaction pathway. The singlet oxygen triggered [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of trans-resveratrol, and then resulted in the generation of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione through photorearrangement and oxidation reaction. The singlet oxygen reaction was closely related to the substrate concentration of trans-resveratrol in solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CO2 induced climatic change and spectral variations in the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    The published temperature changes produced in general circulation model simulations of CO2 induced climate modification are used to compute the top of the atmosphere, clear sky outgoing infrared radiance changes expected for doubled CO2. A significant wavenumber shift is produced, with less radiance emerging in the 500-800 per cm (20.0-12.5 micron) CO2 band and with more emerging in the 800-1200 per cm (12.5-8.3 micron) window. The effect varies greatly with latitude. The radiance shift in the 2300 per cm (4.3 micron) region is of the order of 10-30 percent for doubled CO2. It is suggested that the 2300 per cm region be carefully monitored as an aid in detecting the climatic effects of increasing CO2. The change in the wavenumber-integrated radiant exitance is at most a few percent.

  1. CO2 induced climatic change and spectral variations in the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    The published temperature changes produced in general circulation model simulations of CO2 induced climate modification are used to compute the top of the atmosphere, clear sky outgoing infrared radiance changes expected for doubled CO2. A significant wavenumber shift is produced, with less radiance emerging in the 500-800 per cm (20.0-12.5 micron) CO2 band and with more emerging in the 800-1200 per cm (12.5-8.3 micron) window. The effect varies greatly with latitude. The radiance shift in the 2300 per cm (4.3 micron) region is of the order of 10-30 percent for doubled CO2. It is suggested that the 2300 per cm region be carefully monitored as an aid in detecting the climatic effects of increasing CO2. The change in the wavenumber-integrated radiant exitance is at most a few percent.

  2. Assessing the potential of spectral induced polarization to detect in situ changes in iron reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, C. L.; Price, A.; Sharma, S.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The near surface geophysical technique Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP), provides promise as an effective method measuring in situ biofilm formation/development. Yet, potential mechanisms responsible for observed shifts in SIP response due to biofilm are not clearly understood. In order to address possible mechanisms we assessed the influence of Shewanella oneidensis (MR1) cell density (colony forming units; CFU), biofilm production (Bradford assay) and iron reduction metabolism (colorimetric assay) on SIP response. Laboratory measurements were collected over three months on columns packed with either iron-coated or iron-free sands and amended with artificial ground water and acetate in order to stimulate biofilm production and microbial iron reduction. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the presence of S. oneidensis cells and biofilm. Our results suggest that during early/initial stage (<30 days) of the iron-coated column incubations, both phase and imaginary conductivity response increased 4-fold as concentrations of reduced iron increased from 0-50 mM. In the later stages (>75 days) of column incubation, SIP measurements revealed that phase and imaginary conductivity responses decreased as the concentration of reduced iron decreased below 2.0 mM. In contrast, we observed only a moderate increase in phase and imaginary conductivity ( 30%) within iron-free columns as a result of increases in S. oneidensis cells (CFU 1.5 x 1011) and biofilm production (7.0 mg ml-1). SEM analysis confirmed the presence of biofilm and cells within both iron-coated and iron-free columns. We hypothesize that the production of microbial metabolic byproducts is a potential mechanism explaining large phase shits observed in previous studies ( 50 mrads) rather than the conductivity of cells or biofilm. Our findings provide support for the following: i) ratio of cells to biofilm production only moderately influences both phase and imaginary conductivity

  3. Detection of retinal changes in Parkinson’s disease with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aaker, Grant D; Myung, Jane S; Ehrlich, Joshua R; Mohammed, Mujtaba; Henchcliffe, Claire; Kiss, Szilárd

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study investigated whether high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) could detect differences in inner retinal layer (IRL), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and macular thickness between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and controls. Methods Both eyes of patients with PD and age-matched controls were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis® HRA + OCT. RNFL, IRL, and macular thickness were measured for each eye using Heidelberg software. These measurements were compared with validated, published normal values for macular and RNFL thickness, and compared with matched controls for IRL thickness. Results Eighteen eyes from nine subjects with PD and 19 eyes of 16 control subjects were evaluated using SD-OCT. The average age of PD patients was 64 years with a range of 52–75 years. The average age of controls was 67 years with a range of 50–81 years. No significant reduction in IRL thickness was detected between PD patients and age-matched controls at 13 points along a 6 mm horizontal section through the fovea. No significant difference in RNFL thickness was detected between PD patients and published normal values. Overall average RNFL thickness was 97 μm for PD patients, which exactly matched the normative database value. However, significant differences in macular thickness were detected in three of nine subfields between PD subjects and published normal values. In PD subjects, the outer superior subfield was 2.8% thinner (P = 0.026), while the outer nasal and inner inferior subfields were 2.8% (P = 0.016) and 2.7% (P = 0.001) thicker compared to published normal values. Conclusion In this pilot study, significant differences in macular thickness were detected in three of nine subfields by SD-OCT. However, SD-OCT did not detect significant reductions in peripapillary RNFL and IRL thickness between PD patients and controls. This suggests that macular thickness measurements by SD-OCT may potentially

  4. Photoinduced electron transfer in layer-by-layer thin solid films containing cobalt oxide nanosheets, porphyrin, and methyl viologen.

    PubMed

    Sasai, R; Kato, Y; Soontornchaiyakul, W; Usami, H; Masumori, A; Norimatsu, W; Fujimura, T; Takagi, S

    2017-02-15

    The well-known layer-by-layer (LbL) method can be used to prepare solid thin films with a controlled electron transfer direction by appropriately stacking metal oxide nanosheets and functional organic ions. In this study, we prepared thin solid films consisting of cobalt oxide nanosheets (CoNSs) as the electron transfer medium, α,β,γ,δ-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) as the electron donor, and 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium or methyl viologen (MV) as the electron acceptor. We investigated the photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon in these films by irradiating them with 450 nm light. Irradiating the LbL thin solid films prepared with the CoNS/TMPyP/CoNS/MV/CoNS sequence under reduced pressure led to the production of a one-electron reduction compound of MV. Hence, photoinduced electron transfer from TMPyP to MV bound to CoNSs occurred in these LbL thin solid films. However, the conduction band of CoNSs, as determined by the photoabsorption spectral and photoelectrochemical measurements, was much higher than the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of TMPyP. Our findings indicate that the observed equipotential photoinduced electron transfer was caused by the metallic electron conductivity of CoNSs, which show a unique charge arrangement of Co(3+) and Co(4+). Moreover, it was also found that the observed photoinduced charge separation state has a longer life-time (>5 h) under the reduced conditions.

  5. Impact of contact pressure-induced spectral changes on soft-tissue classification in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cugmas, Blaž; Bregar, Maksimilijan; Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-03-01

    Review of the existing studies on the contact pressure-induced changes in the optical properties of biological tissues showed that the reported changes in transmittance, reflectance, absorption, and scattering coefficient are vastly inconsistent. In order to gain more insight into the contact pressure-induced changes observed in biomedical applications involving common probe-spectrometer diffuse reflectance measurement setups and provide a set of practical guidelines minimizing the influence of the changes on the analysis of acquired spectra, we conducted a series of in vivo measurements, where the contact pressure was precisely controlled, and the spectral and contact pressure information were acquired simultaneously. Classification of three measurement sites on a human hand, representing the natural variability in the perfusion and structure of the underlying tissue, was assessed by training and evaluating classifiers at different contact pressure levels and for different probe operators. Based on the results, three practical guidelines have been proposed to avoid classification performance degradation. First, the most suitable pressure level should be identified. Second, the pressure level should be kept in a narrow range during the acquisition of spectra. Third, applications utilizing probes equipped with a calibrated spring can use several classifiers trained at different contact pressure levels to improve classification performance.

  6. Age-Related Differences in Longitudinal Structural Change by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; He, Lin; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Reynaud, Juan; Williams, Galen; Hardin, Christy; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Downs, J. Crawford; Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize age-related differences in the magnitude of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) structural change in early experimental glaucoma (EG). Methods. Both eyes from four young (1.4–2.6 years) and four old (18.6–21.9 years) rhesus monkeys were imaged at least three times at baseline, and then every 2 weeks after laser-induced, chronic, unilateral IOP elevation until the onset of EG (confocal scanning laser tomographic surface change confirmed twice). Two to 20 weeks after EG onset, animals were euthanized and optic nerve axon counts for all eyes were performed. Masked operators delineated retinal and ONH landmarks in 40 radial B-scans from each eye and imaging session to quantify change from baseline in five SD-OCT neural and connective tissue parameters. The effects of EG, age, and EG × age interactions on the magnitude, rate (magnitude per postlaser time), and IOP responsiveness (magnitude per cumulative IOP insult) of postlaser parameter change were individually assessed using general estimating equation models. Results. Presac SD-OCT RNFLT and minimum rim width change and postmortem axon loss was not significantly different in old compared with young EG eyes. The rate of change and IOP responsiveness of the parameters anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and BMO depth relative to peripheral Bruch's membrane were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the old compared with the young EG eyes. Conclusions. At similar postlaser times, levels of cumulative IOP insult and axonal damage, SD-OCT–detected ONH connective tissue structural change is greater in young compared with old monkey EG eyes. PMID:25190652

  7. Power spectral density changes and language lateralization during covert object naming tasks measured with high-density EEG recordings.

    PubMed

    Ramon, C; Holmes, M; Freeman, Walter J; Gratkowski, Maciej; Eriksen, K J; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study changes in EEG time-domain power spectral density (PSDt) and localization of language areas during covert object naming tasks in human subjects with epilepsy. EEG data for subjects with epilepsy were acquired during the covert object naming tasks using a net of 256 electrodes. The trials required each subject to provide the names of common objects presented every 4 seconds on slides. Each trial comprised the 1.0 second before and 3.0 seconds after initial object presentation. PSDt values at baseline and during tasks were calculated in the theta, alpha, beta, low gamma, and high gamma bands. The spatial contour plots reveal that PSDt values during object naming were 10-20% higher than the baseline values for different bands. Language was lateralized to left frontal or temporal areas. In all cases, the Wada test disclosed language lateralization to the left hemisphere as well.

  8. Task-related electromyographic spectral changes in the human masseter and temporalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Farella, Mauro; Van Eijden, Theo; Baccini, Michela; Michelotti, Ambra

    2002-02-01

    The masticatory muscles differ in their fiber type composition. It can therefore be expected that their electromyographic (EMG) power spectra will differ during the performance of different bite force tasks. In the present study, surface EMG activity was picked up from the masseter and from the anterior and posterior temporalis muscles of nine adult subjects. At a bite force level as low as 25 N, the mean power frequency (MPF) values of the posterior temporalis were significantly lower than those of the masseter and anterior temporalis. The MPF values of the masseter muscles decreased with an increase of bite force magnitude, whereas the MPF values of the anterior and posterior temporalis did not change significantly. The MPF values were significantly influenced by the direction of bite force. The observed changes of MPF are possibly related to the recruitment of different fiber types, and support the concept that the masticatory muscles behave heterogeneously.

  9. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  10. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  11. Photo-induced valence change of the sulfur atom in an L-cysteine thin film grown on a silver metal substrate in a saliva-emulated aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujibayashi, Toru; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2015-04-01

    A thin film of L-cysteine (HSCH2CH(NH2)COOH) is grown on a silver substrate in saliva-emulated aqueous solution. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements have revealed that the sulfur atom shows valence change under IR laser irradiation at 825 nm. The valence change maintains for about a minute at room temperature and more than an hour between 110 and 250 K after stopping the laser irradiation. It is not observed at all at temperatures lower than 110 K. This temperature-dependent behavior indicates that the photo-excited electronic change should be accompanied by a conformational change in the L-cysteine molecule. It is strongly suggested that the reversible valence change of the sulfur atom is applicable to a memory used around room temperature.

  12. Photo-induced valence change of the sulfur atom in an L-cysteine thin film grown on a silver metal substrate in a saliva-emulated aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujibayashi, Toru; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2015-04-27

    A thin film of L-cysteine (HSCH{sub 2}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH) is grown on a silver substrate in saliva-emulated aqueous solution. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements have revealed that the sulfur atom shows valence change under IR laser irradiation at 825 nm. The valence change maintains for about a minute at room temperature and more than an hour between 110 and 250 K after stopping the laser irradiation. It is not observed at all at temperatures lower than 110 K. This temperature-dependent behavior indicates that the photo-excited electronic change should be accompanied by a conformational change in the L-cysteine molecule. It is strongly suggested that the reversible valence change of the sulfur atom is applicable to a memory used around room temperature.

  13. Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegkamp, Daniel; Stähler, Julia

    2015-12-01

    The phase transition of VO2 from a monoclinic insulator to a rutile metal, which occurs thermally at TC = 340 K, can also be driven by strong photoexcitation. The ultrafast dynamics during this photoinduced phase transition (PIPT) have attracted great scientific attention for decades, as this approach promises to answer the question of whether the insulator-to-metal (IMT) transition is caused by electronic or crystallographic processes through disentanglement of the different contributions in the time domain. We review our recent results achieved by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron, optical, and coherent phonon spectroscopy and discuss them within the framework of a selection of latest, complementary studies of the ultrafast PIPT in VO2. We show that the population change of electrons and holes caused by photoexcitation launches a highly non-equilibrium plasma phase characterized by enhanced screening due to quasi-free carriers and followed by two branches of non-equilibrium dynamics: (i) an instantaneous (within the time resolution) collapse of the insulating gap that precedes charge carrier relaxation and significant ionic motion and (ii) an instantaneous lattice potential symmetry change that represents the onset of the crystallographic phase transition through ionic motion on longer timescales. We discuss the interconnection between these two non-thermal pathways with particular focus on the meaning of the critical fluence of the PIPT in different types of experiments. Based on this, we conclude that the PIPT threshold identified in optical experiments is most probably determined by the excitation density required to drive the lattice potential change rather than the IMT. These considerations suggest that the IMT can be driven by weaker excitation, predicting a transiently metallic, monoclinic state of VO2 that is not stabilized by the non-thermal structural transition and, thus, decays on ultrafast timescales.

  14. Enhancing Photoinduced Electron Transfer Efficiency of Fluorescent pH-Probes with Halogenated Phenols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which causes pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent dyes, is more effectively introduced by phenolic groups than by amino groups which have been much more commonly used so far. That is demonstrated by fluorescence measurements involving several classes of fluorophores. Electrochemical measurements show that PET in several amino-modified dyes is thermodynamically favorable, even though it was not experimentally found, underlining the importance of kinetic aspects to the process. Consequently, the attachment of phenolic groups allows for fast and simple preparation of a wide selection of fluorescent pH-probes with tailor-made spectral properties, sensitive ranges, and individual advantages, so that a large number of applications can be realized. Fluorophores carrying phenolic groups may also be used for sensing analytes other than pH or molecular switching and signaling. PMID:25126834

  15. Assessing cortical and subcortical changes in a western diet mouse model using spectral/Fourier domain OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernucci, Marcel T.; Norman, Jennifer E.; Merkle, Conrad W.; Aung, Hnin H.; Rutkowsky, Jennifer; Rutledge, John C.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2017-02-01

    The Western diet, causative in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, has recently been associated with the development of diffuse white matter disease (WMD) and other subcortical changes. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms by which a high-fat diet can cause WMD. Mechanistic studies of deep brain regions in mice have been challenging due to a lack of non-invasive, high-resolution, and deep imaging technologies. Here we used Optical Coherence Tomography to study mouse cortical/subcortical structures noninvasively and in vivo. To better understand the role of Western Diet in the development of WMD, intensity and Doppler flow OCT images, obtained using a 1300 nm spectral / Fourier domain OCT system, were used to observe the structural and functional alterations in the cortex and corpus callosum of Western Diet and control diet mouse models. Specifically, we applied segmentation to the OCT images to identify the boundaries of the cortex/corpus callosum, and further quantify the layer thicknesses across animals between the two diet groups. Furthermore, microvasculature alterations such as changes in spatiotemporal flow profiles within diving arterioles, arteriole diameter, and collateral tortuosity were analyzed. In the current study, while the arteriole vessel diameters between the two diet groups was comparable, we show that collateral tortuosity was significantly higher in the Western diet group, compared to control diet group, possibly indicating remodeling of brain vasculature due to dietary changes. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the corpus callosum is thinner in Western diet mice, indicative of tissue atrophy.

  16. Quantifying Vegetation Change in Semiarid Environments: Precision and Accuracy of Spectral Mixture Analysis and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Andrew J.; Mustard, John F.; Manning, Sara J.; Elome, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Because in situ techniques for determining vegetation abundance in semiarid regions are labor intensive, they usually are not feasible for regional analyses. Remotely sensed data provide the large spatial scale necessary, but their precision and accuracy in determining vegetation abundance and its change through time have not been quantitatively determined. In this paper, the precision and accuracy of two techniques, Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) applied to Landsat TM data, are assessed quantitatively using high-precision in situ data. In Owens Valley, California we have 6 years of continuous field data (1991-1996) for 33 sites acquired concurrently with six cloudless Landsat TM images. The multitemporal remotely sensed data were coregistered to within 1 pixel, radiometrically intercalibrated using temporally invariante surface features and geolocated to within 30 m. These procedures facilitated the accurate location of field-monitoring sites within the remotely sensed data. Formal uncertainties in the registration, radiometric alignment, and modeling were determined. Results show that SMA absolute percent live cover (%LC) estimates are accurate to within ?4.0%LC and estimates of change in live cover have a precision of +/-3.8%LC. Furthermore, even when applied to areas of low vegetation cover, the SMA approach correctly determined the sense of clump, (i.e., positive or negative) in 87% of the samples. SMA results are superior to NDVI, which, although correlated with live cover, is not a quantitative measure and showed the correct sense of change in only 67%, of the samples.

  17. Morphological changes of InGaN epilayers during annealing assessed by spectral analysis of atomic force microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Rachel A.; Sumner, Joy; Kappers, Menno J.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    2009-09-01

    During annealing, the morphologies of thin InGaN epilayers have been observed to change from a terraced structure to a network of interlinking InGaN strips separated by troughs. This change in morphology may contribute to high efficiencies in some GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) if the InGaN is exposed to elevated temperatures without a protective GaN capping layer. Here, we investigate the changes in morphology which occur when InGaN epilayers are annealed at their growth temperature under NH3, N2, and a small H2 flux. We observe that while the layers initially roughen, more extended anneals lead to the surface becoming smooth and terraced once again. Power spectral density analysis of atomic force microscopy data is used to show that the dominant mechanism for roughening is loss of material from pre-existing pits, while the dominant smoothening mechanism is surface diffusion. This mechanistic analysis may be relevant to the growth of InGaN quantum wells in LED structures.

  18. Temperature and pressure effects on GFP mutants: explaining spectral changes by molecular dynamics simulations and TD-DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Jacchetti, Emanuela; Gabellieri, Edi; Cioni, Patrizia; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Nifosì, Riccardo

    2016-05-14

    By combining spectroscopic measurements under high pressure with molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations we investigate how sub-angstrom structural perturbations are able to tune protein function. We monitored the variations in fluorescence output of two green fluorescent protein mutants (termed Mut2 and Mut2Y, the latter containing the key T203Y mutation) subjected to pressures up to 600 MPa, at various temperatures in the 280-320 K range. By performing 150 ns molecular dynamics simulations of the protein structures at various pressures, we evidenced subtle changes in conformation and dynamics around the light-absorbing chromophore. Such changes explain the measured spectral tuning in the case of the sizable 120 cm(-1) red-shift observed for pressurized Mut2Y, but absent in Mut2. Previous work [Barstow et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2008, 105, 13362] on pressure effects on GFP also involved a T203Y mutant. On the basis of cryocooling X-ray crystallography, the pressure-induced fluorescence blue shift at low temperature (77 K) was attributed to key changes in relative conformation of the chromophore and Tyr203 phenol ring. At room temperature, however, a red shift was observed at high pressure, analogous to the one we observe in Mut2Y. Our investigation of structural variations in compressed Mut2Y also explains their result, bridging the gap between low-temperature and room-temperature high-pressure effects.

  19. Spectral characteristics and linear-nonlinear synchronization changes of different EEG frequency bands during the CNV.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Márk; Csuhaj, Roland; Gaál, Zsófia Anna; Czigler, Balázs; Ulbert, István; Boha, Roland; Kondákor, István

    2008-05-01

    During the CNV recorded in a simple auditory working memory task, task-specific decrease of the relative delta band and a transient increase of the absolute theta band were seen, accompanied by an increase of the absolute alpha1 and alpha2 bands in the posterior region. The decreased delta power probably corresponds to increased task-evoked arousal, whereas the transient theta power increase corresponds to working memory demand and possibly to the orienting response. The increased alpha1 and alpha2 power may be a manifestation of a top-down mechanism revealing control over the execution of a response. The area-specific, task-related, and frequency-dependent changes of EEG complexity measures indicate frontally increasing complexity during the early part of the CNV in the beta frequency bands, which underscores the importance of this region in the mechanisms of anticipatory behavior.

  20. Coastline change mapping using a spectral band method and Sobel edge operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mansoori, Saeed; Al-Marzouqi, Fatima

    2016-10-01

    Coastline extraction has become an essential activity in wake of the natural disasters taking place in some regions such as tsunami, flooding etc. Salient feature of such catastrophes is lack of reaction time available for combating emergency, thus it is the endeavor of any country to develop constant monitoring mechanism of shorelines. This is a challenging task because of the magnitude of changes taking place to the coastline regularly. Previous research findings highlight a need of formulating automation driven methodology for timely and accurate detection of alterations in the coastline impacting sustainability of mankind operating in the coastal zone. In this study, we propose a new approach for automatic extraction of the coastline using remote sensing data. This approach is composed of three main stages. Firstly, classifying pixels of the image into two categories i.e. land and water body by applying two normalized difference indices i.e. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). Then, the process of binary conversion of classified image takes place using a local threshold method. Finally, the coastline is extracted by applying Sobel edge operator with a pair of (3×3) kernels. The approach is tested using 2.5m DubaiSat-1 (DS1) and DubaiSat-2 (DS2) images captured to detect and monitor the changes occurring along Dubai coastal zone within a period of six years from 2009 till 2015. Experimental results prove that the approach is capable of extracting the coastlines from DS1 and DS2 images with moderate human interaction. The results of the study show an increase of 6% in Dubai shoreline resulting on account of numerous man-made infrastructure development projects in tourism and allied sectors.

  1. Photoinduced charge separation by polymer-bound chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1991-09-01

    This project has examined the photodynamic behavior of water-soluble polymers that have covalently linked hydrophobic chromophores spaced along the chains. These polymeric systems have been examined for photoinduced charge separation with electron-accepting ions having different total charge. Focus has been on the excited singlet (S{sub 1}) state formed by laser flash absorption. The effects of pH and ionic strength -- factors that govern the conformational nature of the polymer in solution -- have been studied. A second major effort has been to study photoinduced redox processes involving excited states of water-soluble variants of anthracene and acridine. 27 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Quantitative analysis of sideband coupling in photoinduced force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahng, Junghoon; Kim, Bongsu; Lee, Eun Seong; Potma, Eric Olaf

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the cantilever motions detected in photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM) using the sideband coupling detection scheme. In sideband coupling, the cantilever dynamics are probed at a combination frequency of a fundamental mechanical eigenmode and the modulation frequency of the laser beam. Using this detection mode, we develop a method for reconstructing the modulated photoinduced force gradient from experimental parameters in a quantitative manner. We show evidence, both theoretically and experimentally, that the sideband coupling detection mode provides PiFM images with superior contrast compared to images obtained when detecting the cantilever motions directly at the laser modulation frequency.

  3. Photo-induced chaos in the Briggs-Rauscher reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Noriaki; Hanazaki, Ichiro

    1998-07-01

    Discovery of the photo-induced chaos in the Briggs-Rauscher system is reported. The chaotic oscillations were observed between the large- and the small-amplitude simple oscillatory states existent in low and high light intensity regions, respectively. Period-doubling sequence from the large-amplitude oscillations to the chaos was observed. Deterministic nature of the chaos was confirmed by the next-amplitude return map. The stretching and folding mechanism of the trajectories was revealed through the three-dimensional attractor reconstructed via the singular value decomposition method. The chemical origin of the photoinduced chaos is discussed based on the photoautocatalysis of HIO2.

  4. The acidic pH-induced structural changes in Pin1 as revealed by spectral methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Xi, Lei; Zhu, Guo-Fei; Han, Yong-Guang; Luo, Yue; Wang, Mei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2012-12-01

    Pin1 is closely associated with the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we have shown the characteristics of the thermal denaturation of Pin1. Herein, the acid-induced denaturation of Pin1 was determined by means of fluorescence emission, synchronous fluorescence, far-UV CD, ANS fluorescence and RLS spectroscopies. The fluorescence emission spectra and the synchronous fluorescence spectra suggested the partially reversible unfolding (approximately from pH 7.0 to 4.0) and refolding (approximately from pH 4.0 to 1.0) of the structures around the chromophores in Pin1, apparently with an intermediate state at about pH 4.0-4.5. The far-UV CD spectra indicated that acidic pH (below pH 4.0) induced the structural transition from α-helix and random coils to β-sheet in Pin1. The ANS fluorescence and the RLS spectra further suggested the exposure of the hydrophobic side-chains of Pin1 and the aggregation of it especially below pH 2.3, and the aggregation possibly resulted in the formation of extra intermolecular β-sheet. The present work primarily shows that acidic pH can induce kinds of irreversible structural changes in Pin1, such as the exposure of the hydrophobic side-chains, the transition from α-helix to β-sheet and the aggregation of Pin1, and also explains why Pin1 loses most of its activity below pH 5.0. The results emphasize the important role of decreased pH in the pathogenesis of some Pin1-related diseases, and support the therapeutic approach for them by targeting acidosis and modifying the intracellular pH gradients.

  5. Crystallization and birefringence studies on fast structural changes followed by non-contact spectral birefringence and Raman spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serhatkulu, Toprak Fakr

    2000-11-01

    The structural characteristics of the manufactured polymers such as crystallinity and orientation are controlled by the thermal-deformation history imposed by the processing machinery. Therefore it is essential to monitor these structural characteristics and use the information advantageously to optimize the properties of interest by controlling the process conditions. The focus of this study is to develop robust automated techniques to monitor birefringence and crystallization in real-time. In many of the polymer processing operations involving film stretching where the polymer undergoes a series of thermal deformation treatments, the quantitative changes that take place during the course of these processing operations is poorly understood partly as a result of very rapid structural changes that occur when the polymer's initial condition is not isotropic melt of isotropic solid. There is a great need to quantify the kinetics of the structural changes from preoriented/partially-crystallized states. As part of this dissertation, the birefringence development of preoriented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films is monitored on-line by the developed spectral birefringence technique with the intent of simulating the heat-setting stage of a tenter film stretching process. Theoretical improvements, software development and optimization, and the equipment design and construction are some of the major tasks accomplished in this dissertation. The automated spectral birefringence technique not only allows the measurement of retardations to very high values, but also enables one to detect the changes in the trend in birefringence (such as a decrease as a result of relaxation, or an increase as a result of crystallization) and to investigate changes that occur very rapidly in the order of a few hundred milliseconds. The effects of stretching conditions on the kinetics of the structural changes in PET films were also investigated using characterization techniques such as

  6. Detecting deforestation with a spectral change detection approach using multitemporal Landsat data: a case study of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Phua, Mui-How; Tsuyuki, Satoshi; Furuya, Naoyuki; Lee, Jung Soo

    2008-09-01

    Tropical deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate, threatening the ecological integrity of protected areas. This makes it vital to regularly assess protected areas to confirm the efficacy of measures that protect that area from clearing. Satellite remote sensing offers a systematic and objective means for detecting and monitoring deforestation. This paper examines a spectral change approach to detect deforestation using pattern decomposition (PD) coefficients from multitemporal Landsat data. Our results show that the PD coefficients for soil and vegetation can be used to detect deforestation using change vector analysis (CVA). CVA analysis demonstrates that deforestation in the Kinabalu area, Sabah, Malaysia has significantly slowed from 1.2% in period 1 (1973 and 1991) to 0.1% in period 2 (1991 and 1996). A comparison of deforestation both inside and outside Kinabalu Park has highlighted the effectiveness of the park in protecting the tropical forest against clearing. However, the park is still facing pressure from the area immediately surrounding the park (the 1 km buffer zone) where the deforestation rate has remained unchanged.

  7. A femtosecond study of photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylaniline to coumarin dyes in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelle

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Sahu, Kalyanasis; Mondal, Sudip Kumar; Sen, Pratik; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2006-08-07

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to coumarin dyes in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle is studied using femtosecond upconversion spectroscopy. The rate of PET in a CTAB micelle is found to be highly nonexponential with components much faster ({approx}10 ps) than the slow components of solvation dynamics. The ultrafast components of electron transfer exhibits a bell-shaped dependence on the free energy change which is similar to the Marcus inversion.

  8. Elucidating the Ultrafast Dynamics of Photoinduced Charge Separation in Metalloporphyrin-Fullerene Dyads across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Papai, M.; Hirsch, A.; Jennings, G.; Kurtz, C. A.; Moller, K. B.; Lomoth, R.; Gosztola, D.; Zhang, X.; Canton, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Metalloporphyrins are prominent building blocks in the synthetic toolbox of advanced photodriven molecular devices. When the central ion is paramagnetic, the relaxation pathways within the manifold of excited states are highly intricate so that unravelling the intramolecular energy and electron transfer processes is usually a very complex task. This fact is critically hampering the development of applications based on the enhanced coupling offered by the electronic exchange interaction. In this work, the dynamics of charge separation in a copper porphyrin-fullerene are studied with several complementary spectroscopic tools across the electromagnetic spectrum (from near infra-red to X-ray wavelengths), each of them providing specific diagnostics. Correlating the various rates clearly demonstrates that the lifetime of the photoinduced charge-separated state exceeds by about 10 fold that of the isolated photoexcited CuII porphyrin. As revealed by the spectral modifications in the XANES region, this stabilization is accompanied by a transient change in covalency around the CuII center, which is induced by an enhanced interaction with the C60 moiety. This experimental finding is further confirmed by state-of-the art calculations using DFT and TD-DFT including dispersion effects that explain the electrostatic and structural origins of this interaction, as the CuIIP cation becomes ruffled and approaches closer to the fullerene in the charge-separated state. From a methodological point of view, these results exemplify the potential of multielectron excitation features in transient X-ray spectra as future diagnostics of sub-femtosecond electronic dynamics. From a practical point of view, this work is paving the way for elucidating out-of-equilibrium electron transfer events coupled to magnetic interaction processes on their intrinsic time-scales.

  9. Laser-induced refractive index changes in nanocrystalline diamond membranes.

    PubMed

    Preclíková, Jana; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Malý, Petr

    2010-02-15

    We have observed what we believe to be a new phenomenon in nanocrystalline diamond membranes. The optical thickness of the membrane is changed under laser irradiation, which leads to a spectral shift of interference fringes in the transmission and photoluminescence spectra of high-quality thin self-supporting nanocrystalline membranes. The direction of the spectral shift (red/blue) can be tuned by the ambient air pressure. The effect is reversible and is accompanied by changes in photoluminescence intensity. We interpret the results in terms of the changes in the index of refraction caused by the photoinduced adsorption/desorption of air molecules that subsequently affect the properties of subgap energy states related to the surface and the grain boundaries of the nanocrystals.

  10. Specific change in spectral power of fetal heart rate variability related to fetal acidemia during labor: comparison between preterm and term fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul; Song, Juhee; Tafreshi, Reza; Lim, Jongil

    2012-04-01

    Spectral analysis of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability is a useful method to assess fetal condition. There have been several studies involving the change in spectral power related to fetal acidemia, but the results have been inconsistent. To determine the change in spectral power related to fetal umbilical arterial pH at birth, dividing cases into preterm (31-36 weeks) and term (≥37 weeks) gestations. Case-control study. The 514 cases of deliveries were divided into a low-pH group (an umbilical arterial pH <7.2) and a control group (pH≥7.2). FHR recorded on cardiotocography during the last 2h of labor. The spectral powers in various bands of FHR variability. In preterm fetuses, the total, low (LF), and movement (MF) frequency spectral powers and LF/HF ratio were significantly lower in the low-pH group than the control group (all P<0.05). In contrast, in term fetuses, the total frequency, LF, and MF powers were significantly higher in the low-pH group than the control group (all P<0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic of LF power to detect a low pH at birth was 0.794 in preterm fetuses and 0.595 in term fetuses. The specificity was 86.8% and 93.3% in preterm and term fetuses, respectively. The changes in spectral power responding to a low pH are different between term and preterm fetuses. Spectral analysis of FHR variability may be useful fetal monitoring for early detection of fetal acidemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectral analysis of Delayed Luminescence from human skin as a possible non-invasive diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Lanzanò, Luca; Scordino, Agata; Privitera, Simona; Tudisco, Salvatore; Musumeci, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    In vivo measurements of Delayed Luminescence (DL), the low-level photo-induced emission which lasts for a longer time after switching off the excitation light, have been performed on human skin, with the aim to develop a technique for optical biopsy. Preliminary tests have been performed on healthy volunteers, measuring the time decays of the spectral components (lambda(emiss) = 400-800 nm) starting 10 mus after switching off the excitation (lambda(exc) = 337 nm). Significant differences in the decay trends of DL from different subjects were revealed and quite a good reproducibility for the same subject was observed. The modeling of experimental data has been examined in detail in order to get parameters, characterizing the theoretical fit, whose changes may be correlated with age differences and seasonal variations.

  12. Linewidths of photoinduced L x rays of uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Rhême, Ch.

    1994-07-01

    High-resolution measurements of the photoinduced L x-ray spectrum of metallic uranium were performed with a transmission-type bent-crystal spectrometer. Linewidths of 32 L x-ray emission lines were extracted. Nonlifetime broadening effects, such as multiple-vacancy configuration states and multiplet splitting, that influence the line profiles are discussed.

  13. Linewidths of photoinduced [ital L] x rays of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.; Rheme, C. )

    1994-07-01

    High-resolution measurements of the photoinduced [ital L] x-ray spectrum of metallic uranium were performed with a transmission-type bent-crystal spectrometer. Linewidths of 32 [ital L] x-ray emission lines were extracted. Nonlifetime broadening effects, such as multiple-vacancy configuration states and multiplet splitting, that influence the line profiles are discussed.

  14. Ultrafast photo-induced nuclear relaxation of a conformationally disordered conjugated polymer probed with transient absorption and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenjian; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul J; Zhou, Jiawang; Bragg, Arthur E

    2014-07-28

    A combination of transient absorption (TAS) and femtosecond stimulated Raman (FSRS) spectroscopies were used to interrogate the photo-induced nuclear relaxation dynamics of poly(3-cyclohexyl,4-methylthiophene) (PCMT). The large difference in inter-ring dihedral angles of ground and excited-state PCMT make it an ideal candidate for studying large-amplitude vibrational relaxation associated with exciton trapping. Spectral shifting in the S1 TA spectra on sub-ps timescales (110 ± 20 and 800 ± 100 fs) is similar to spectroscopic signatures of excited-state relaxation observed with related photoexcited conjugated polymers and which have been attributed to exciton localization and a combination of resonant energy transfer and torsional relaxation, respectively. Measurements made with both techniques reveal fast PCMT S1 decay and triplet formation (τS1 = 25-32 ps), which is similar to the excited-state dynamics of short oligothiophenes and highly twisted polyconjugated molecules. On ultrafast timescales FSRS of S1 PCMT offers a new perspective on the nuclear dynamics that underlie localization of excitons in photoexcited conjugated polymers: Spectral dynamics in the C=C stretching region (1400-1600 cm(-1)) include a red-shift of the in-phase C=C stretching frequency, as well as a change in the relative intensity of in-phase and out-of-phase stretch intensities on a timescale of ∼100 fs. Both changes indicate an ultrafast vibrational distortion that increases the conjugation length in the region of the localized excitation and are consistent with exciton self-localization or trapping. Wavelength-dependent excited-state FSRS measurements further demonstrate that the C=C stretching frequency provides a useful spectroscopic handle for interrogating the degree of delocalization in excited conjugated polymers given the selectivity achieved via resonance enhancement.

  15. Ultrafast photo-induced nuclear relaxation of a conformationally disordered conjugated polymer probed with transient absorption and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenjian; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul J.; Zhou, Jiawang; Bragg, Arthur E.

    2014-07-28

    A combination of transient absorption (TAS) and femtosecond stimulated Raman (FSRS) spectroscopies were used to interrogate the photo-induced nuclear relaxation dynamics of poly(3-cyclohexyl,4-methylthiophene) (PCMT). The large difference in inter-ring dihedral angles of ground and excited-state PCMT make it an ideal candidate for studying large-amplitude vibrational relaxation associated with exciton trapping. Spectral shifting in the S{sub 1} TA spectra on sub-ps timescales (110 ± 20 and 800 ± 100 fs) is similar to spectroscopic signatures of excited-state relaxation observed with related photoexcited conjugated polymers and which have been attributed to exciton localization and a combination of resonant energy transfer and torsional relaxation, respectively. Measurements made with both techniques reveal fast PCMT S{sub 1} decay and triplet formation (τ{sub S1} = 25–32 ps), which is similar to the excited-state dynamics of short oligothiophenes and highly twisted polyconjugated molecules. On ultrafast timescales FSRS of S{sub 1} PCMT offers a new perspective on the nuclear dynamics that underlie localization of excitons in photoexcited conjugated polymers: Spectral dynamics in the C=C stretching region (1400–1600 cm{sup −1}) include a red-shift of the in-phase C=C stretching frequency, as well as a change in the relative intensity of in-phase and out-of-phase stretch intensities on a timescale of ∼100 fs. Both changes indicate an ultrafast vibrational distortion that increases the conjugation length in the region of the localized excitation and are consistent with exciton self-localization or trapping. Wavelength-dependent excited-state FSRS measurements further demonstrate that the C=C stretching frequency provides a useful spectroscopic handle for interrogating the degree of delocalization in excited conjugated polymers given the selectivity achieved via resonance enhancement.

  16. Microfluidic photoinduced chemical oxidation for Ru(bpy)33 + chemiluminescence - A comprehensive experimental comparison with on-chip direct chemical oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadavilpparampu, Afsal Mohammed; Al Lawati, Haider A. J.; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O.

    2017-08-01

    For the first time, the analytical figures of merit in detection capabilities of the very less explored photoinduced chemical oxidation method for Ru(bpy)32 + CL has been investigated in detail using 32 structurally different analytes. It was carried out on-chip using peroxydisulphate and visible light and compared with well-known direct chemical oxidation approaches using Ce(IV). The analytes belong to various chemical classes such as tertiary amine, secondary amine, sulphonamide, betalactam, thiol and benzothiadiazine. Influence of detection environment on CL emission with respect to method of oxidation was evaluated by changing the buffers and pH. The photoinduced chemical oxidation exhibited more universal nature for Ru(bpy)32 + CL in detection towards selected analytes. No additional enhancers, reagents, or modification in instrumental configuration were required. Wide detectability and enhanced emission has been observed for analytes from all the chemical classes when photoinduced chemical oxidation was employed. Some of these analytes are reported for the first time under photoinduced chemical oxidation like compounds from sulphonamide, betalactam, thiol and benzothiadiazine class. On the other hand, many of the selected analytes including tertiary and secondary amines such as cetirizine, azithromycin fexofenadine and proline did not produced any analytically useful CL signal (S/N = 3 or above for 1 μgmL- 1 analyte) under chemical oxidation. The most fascinating observations was in the detection limits; for example ofloxacin was 15 times more intense with a detection limit of 5.81 × 10- 10 M compared to most lowest ever reported 6 × 10- 9 M. Earlier, penicillamine was detected at 0.1 μg mL- 1 after derivatization using photoinduced chemical oxidation, but in this study, we improved it to 5.82 ng mL- 1 without any prior derivatization. The detection limits of many other analytes were also found to be improved by several orders of magnitude under

  17. Specific features of photoconductivity and photoinduced piezoelectricity in AgGaGe3Se8 doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kityk, I. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Rakus, P.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Fedorchuk, A. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, complex photoconductivity and photo-induced piezoelectricity studies were performed for the AgGaGe3Se8 single crystals doped by In, Sn and Cu with content 5% in weighting units. The principal role of the intrinsic cationic and anionic defects is demonstrated. The photoconductivity and optical absorption spectra show substantial changes of effective energy gap and steepness of absorption edge. The role of optical transitions between the localized states in the presence of Sn, Cu, In impurities is explored. Piezoelectric studies under external laser illumination have shown significant role of dopants on the piezoelectric constants values and their anisotropy. Clear photo-induced jumps were discovered. The discussion is performed within the framework of crystallochemistry analysis and quantum chemical evaluations. Possibility of production of optically operated piezoelectric triggers is proposed.

  18. Possible Patient Early Diagnosis by Ultrasonic Noninvasive Estimation of Thermal Gradients into Tissues Based on Spectral Changes Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, I.; Ramos, A.; Calas, H.; Ramirez, A.; Pintle, R.; Gomez, T. E.; Negreira, C.; Gallegos, F. J.; Rosales, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a precise noninvasive temperature estimation, inside patient tissues, would open promising research fields, because its clinic results would provide early-diagnosis tools. In fact, detecting changes of thermal origin in ultrasonic echo spectra could be useful as an early complementary indicator of infections, inflammations, or cancer. But the effective clinic applications to diagnosis of thermometry ultrasonic techniques, proposed previously, require additional research. Before their implementations with ultrasonic probes and real-time electronic and processing systems, rigorous analyses must be still made over transient echotraces acquired from well-controlled biological and computational phantoms, to improve resolutions and evaluate clinic limitations. It must be based on computing improved signal-processing algorithms emulating tissues responses. Some related parameters in echo-traces reflected by semiregular scattering tissues must be carefully quantified to get a precise processing protocols definition. In this paper, approaches for non-invasive spectral ultrasonic detection are analyzed. Extensions of author's innovations for ultrasonic thermometry are shown and applied to computationally modeled echotraces from scattered biological phantoms, attaining high resolution (better than 0.1°C). Computer methods are provided for viability evaluation of thermal estimation from echoes with distinct noise levels, difficult to be interpreted, and its effectiveness is evaluated as possible diagnosis tool in scattered tissues like liver. PMID:22654958

  19. Spectral Changes in the Hyperluminous Pulsar in NGC 5907 as a Function of Super-orbital Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, F.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Rana, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present broadband, multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy of the pulsating ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) in NGC 5907. Simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR data from 2014 are best described by a multicolor blackbody model with a temperature gradient as a function of accretion disk radius significantly flatter than expected for a standard thin accretion disk (T(r)\\propto {r}-p, with p={0.608}-0.012+0.014). Additionally, we detect a hard power-law tail at energies above 10 keV, which we interpret as being due to Comptonization. We compare this observation to archival XMM-Newton, Chandra, and NuSTAR data from 2003, 2012, and 2013, and investigate possible spectral changes as a function of phase over the 78-day super-orbital period of this source. We find that observations taken around phases 0.3–0.4 show very similar temperature profiles, even though the observed flux varies significantly, while one observation taken around phase 0 has a significantly steeper profile. We discuss these findings in light of the recent discovery that the compact object is a neutron star and show that precession of the accretion disk or the neutron star can self-consistently explain most observed phenomena.

  20. Quantification of photoinduced order increase in liquid crystals with naphthopyran guests.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Mariacristina; Cazzell, Seth A; Kosa, Tamas; Sukhomlinova, Ludmila; Taheri, Bahman; White, Timothy J; Bunning, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Photoinduced order-increasing phase transitions can occur in dye-liquid crystal mixtures when the photoproduct of the excitation of the dye molecules is more compatible with the liquid crystalline medium than the initial dye species. A detailed investigation of the photoinduced changes of the phase behavior and optical properties of mixtures of liquid crystals with naphthopyran guests upon exposure to light at 365 nm is presented here. In these guest-host systems, the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature is increased upon irradiation. We show that the nematic range can be extended up to 2.9 °C by illumination in 5CB (4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl) liquid crystal mixtures. The order parameter is significantly increased by illumination at all temperatures within the nematic range and the changes are larger at higher concentrations of the guests. In particular, the illuminated guest-host mixtures exhibit order parameters close to those of the neat liquid crystal host at the same temperature relative to the clearing point. An improved understanding of the photophysical processes taking place at the molecular level in these material systems can inform the design of photoresponsive materials and enhance their potential utility in optical or photonic devices.

  1. Quantification of photoinduced order increase in liquid crystals with naphthopyran guests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumi, Mariacristina; Cazzell, Seth A.; Kosa, Tamas; Sukhomlinova, Ludmila; Taheri, Bahman; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    Photoinduced order-increasing phase transitions can occur in dye-liquid crystal mixtures when the photoproduct of the excitation of the dye molecules is more compatible with the liquid crystalline medium than the initial dye species. A detailed investigation of the photoinduced changes of the phase behavior and optical properties of mixtures of liquid crystals with naphthopyran guests upon exposure to light at 365 nm is presented here. In these guest-host systems, the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature is increased upon irradiation. We show that the nematic range can be extended up to 2.9 °C by illumination in 5CB (4 -n -pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl) liquid crystal mixtures. The order parameter is significantly increased by illumination at all temperatures within the nematic range and the changes are larger at higher concentrations of the guests. In particular, the illuminated guest-host mixtures exhibit order parameters close to those of the neat liquid crystal host at the same temperature relative to the clearing point. An improved understanding of the photophysical processes taking place at the molecular level in these material systems can inform the design of photoresponsive materials and enhance their potential utility in optical or photonic devices.

  2. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, Part 2: early spectral changes during apoptosis are linked to apoptotic volume decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Zhang, Kexiong; Bobby Liu, Wei-Han; Waxman, David J.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-11-01

    Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS), in the form of wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements, can be used to monitor apoptosis in cell cultures. Early changes in backscattering upon apoptosis induction are characterized by an overall decrease in spectral slope and begin as early as 10 to 15 min post-treatment, progressing over the next 6 to 8 h. The timescale of early scattering changes is consistent with reports of the onset of apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Modeling cellular scattering with a fixed distribution of sizes and a decreasing index ratio, as well as an increased contribution of the whole cell to cellular scattering, resulting from increased cytoplasmic density, is also consistent with observed spectral changes. Changes in ESS signal from cells undergoing osmotically-induced volume decrease in the absence of apoptosis were similar, but smaller in magnitude, to those of apoptotic cells. Further, blockage of Cl- channels, which blocks AVD and delays apoptosis, blocked the early scattering changes, indicating that the early scattering changes during apoptosis result, at least partially, from AVD. Work continues to identify the additional sources of early spectral scattering changes that result from apoptosis induction.

  3. [Spectral analysis of the variability of heart rhythm in the analysis of changes in the autonomic regulation during treatment of hypertension with sodium chloride baths].

    PubMed

    Gribanov, A N; Dvornikov, V E

    2001-01-01

    Changes in spectral parameters of heart rate variability were assessed in patients with mild and moderate hypertension (n = 48) and healthy subjects (n = 34) taking sodium chloride bath and in active orthostatic test before and after balneotherapy. Significant changes were not registered. The course of balneotherapy stimulated sympathetic or parasympathetic activity (relative enhancement occurred in 67, absolute in 15% versus 8 and 10% patients, respectively).

  4. Physical model for the photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, B.M.; Krylov, S.N.; Huang, H.D.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    A model for photo-induced toxicity of PAHs to duckweed was developed. Growth inhibition was described by photochemical reactions between PAHs and a hypothetical group of biomolecules (given the notation G) which are required for growth of the plants. Light activation of PAHs was considered in a two compartment system (water and leaves). The reaction scheme includes: photooxidation of PAHs, partitioning of PAHs into leaves, triplet formation of intact PAHs, photosensitization reactions that consume G, and reaction between photooxidized PAHs and G. The assumptions used in the model are: the rate of PAH photooxidation is slower than the rate of assimilation, PAH content in solution is approximately constant over the length of the toxicity test, the fluence rate of actinic radiation is lower in the leaves than in solution, the toxicity of intact PAHs with G in the absence of light is negligible, and the reaction of photooxidized PAHs with G does not require light. The authors then analyzed a series of differential equations that described toxicity. The result was an expression for growth inhibition as a function of the initial concentration of the PAH, the spectral distribution of the light source, the absorption spectrum of the PAH, the quantum yield for formation of triplet state PAH, and the rate of photo-oxidation of the PAH. The expression also includes two complex constants that can be solved by a least squares analysis of the empirical data for growth inhibition. Thus, the model allows a prediction of PAH photo-induced toxicity using only physical parameters of PAHs.

  5. Quantification of Ellipsoid Zone Changes in Retinitis Pigmentosa Using en Face Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Amir H; Zhang, Hong Yang; Ho, Alexander; Francis, Peter; Weleber, Richard G; Birch, David G; Ferris, Frederick L; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2016-06-01

    New methods are needed to quantify the change in the outer retinal structures in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To implement an alternate method for tracking ellipsoid zone (EZ) changes in RP by quantifying the EZ area on en face spectral domain-optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) images. Data for this observational case study were collected at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, from May 1 to July 30, 2015, and included SD-OCT images of a subset of patients from the Trial of Oral Valproic Acid for Retinitis Pigmentosa. To be eligible for the en face OCT subanalysis, the preserved EZ area was required to be limited to the SD-OCT scanning field. Cases in which the EZ band extended to the margins of any B-scan or the most superior or inferior B-scan were excluded. The SD-OCT images of all included cases were imported into the manufacturer's software to generate en face images at the level of the EZ. Two certified SD-OCT graders independently delineated the boundaries of the preserved EZ on the en face images. Comparison of the 2 masked gradings of the generated en face images of patients with RP for agreement between the graders and the validity of the method. Of the 43 available patients with volume SD-OCT data, 45 eyes of 24 patients met the eligibility criteria and were included in this subanalysis. Every patient had 2 visits that were 1 year apart, which included a total of 90 en face OCT images that were graded. The mean (SD) absolute difference and percentage difference between the 2 independent graders for each visit were 0.08 (0.10) mm2 and 4.5% (5.9%), respectively. The EZ area determined by the 2 graders showed excellent agreement with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.996 (95% CI, 0.995-0.997; P < .001). Quantification of the preserved EZ area on en face SD-OCT images of patients with RP is a valid and reproducible method. En face SD-OCT quantification may be a useful tool for monitoring the EZ changes of

  6. Photoinduced "stick-slip" on superhydrophilic semiconductor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Denison, Kieth R; Boxall, Colin

    2007-04-10

    Transparent mesoporous TiO2 (M-TiO2) thin films were prepared on quartz via a reverse micelle, sol-gel, spin-coating technique. Films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies and were found to be mostly anatase with low surface roughness (Rt approximately 5 nm). The time dependence of film photoinduced superhydrophilicity (PISH) was measured by observation of the spreading of a sessile water drop using a new, continuous measurement technique wherein the drop was first applied to the semiconductor surface and then was filmed while it and the underlying substrate were illuminated by 315 nm ultraband gap light. Results obtained at 100% relative humidity (RH) at 293 K showed that drops on M-TiO2 surfaces exhibited a photoinduced "stick-slip" behavior, the first time such an effect has been observed. The thermodynamic driving force for this photoinduced stick-slip was the departure of the system from capillary equilibrium as, with increasing illumination time, the concentration of surface Ti-OH groups increased and the equilibrium contact angle of the drop, theta0, decreased. A simple theoretical description of photoinduced stick-slip is derived and is used to calculate a value of the potential energy barrier associated with surface inhomogeneities that oppose onset of movement of the triple line, U = 6.63 x 10(-6) J m(-1). This is the first time that U has been quantified for a surface with photoinduced superhydrophilicity. Triple line retreat measurements on an evaporating drop on M-TiO2 in the dark, RH = 60%, T = 293 K, gave a value of U = 9.4 x 10(-6) J m(-1), indicating that U decreases upon UV illumination and that U in the light is primarily associated with inhomogeneities that are unaffected by an increase in the surface Ti-OH population, such as the physical roughness of the surface. In the dark evaporation experiment, the drop was found to retreat with an areal velocity of 1.48 x 10(-8) m2 s(-1). However, under UV

  7. The 2005 Accretion Outburst in V1118 Ori: Evidence for A Spectral Change in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Walter, F. M.; Stringfellow, G.; Hamilton, R. T.; Guinan, E. F.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our X-ray monitoring campaign of the 2005 accretion outburst in the young low-mass star V1118 Ori. Optical and near-infrared photometry are presented as well. The X-ray data from early 2005 indicate that the X-ray flux and luminosity varied within a factor of two only, and were similar to the pre-outburst values measured in a serendipitous observation in 2002. Similarly, the hydrogen column density showed no evidence for significant excursions from the pre-outburst value of a few times 1021 cm-2. However, we observed a spectral change from a dominant hot plasma ( ˜ 25 MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ( ˜ 8 MK) in February and March 2005. We argue that the closing in of the accretion disk during the outburst disrupted the hot magnetic loops high in the corona, whereas the lower cooler loops were less affected and became the dominant coronal component. We acknowledge support by NASA through Chandra award DD5-6029X and through XMM-Newton award NNG05GI96G to Columbia University. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The PSI group acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 20-58827.99 and 20-66875.01). Stony Brook's participation in SMARTS is made possible by support from the offices of the Provost and the Vice President for Research. We thank J. Allyn Smith, P. McGehee, J. Espinoza, and D. Gonzalez for doing the observations with the SMARTS telescopes. We also thank H. Tannanbaum, N. Schartel, and the VLA TOO panel for granting time to observe V1118 Ori.

  8. Photo-induced bending in a light-activated polymer laminated composite.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoming; Sowan, Nancy; Tumbic, Julia A; Bowman, Christopher N; Mather, Patrick T; Qi, H Jerry

    2015-04-07

    Light activated polymers (LAPs) have attracted increasing attention since these materials change their shape and/or behavior in response to light exposure, which serves as an instant, remote and precisely controllable stimulus that enables non-contact control of the material shape and behavior through simple variation in light intensity, wavelength and spatially controlled exposure. These features distinguish LAPs from other active polymers triggered by other stimuli such as heat, electrical field or humidity. Previous examples have resulted in demonstrations in applications such as surface patterning, photo-induced shape memory behavior, and photo-origami. However, in many of these applications, an undesirable limitation has been the requirement to apply and maintain an external load during light irradiation. In this paper, a laminated structure is introduced to provide a pre-programmed stress field, which is then used for photo-induced deformation. This laminated structure is fabricated by bonding a stretched elastomer (NOA65) sheet between two LAP layers. Releasing the elastomer causes contraction and introduces a compressive stress in the LAPs, which are relaxed optically to trigger the desired deformation. A theoretical model is developed to quantitatively examine the laminated composite system, allowing exploration of the design space and optimum design of the laminate.

  9. Crystallinity effects on scaling properties of photoinduced modes in silver nanoprisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Ming-Yaw; Ho, I-Lin; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-02-21

    The crystallinity effects on scaling properties of photoinduced modes in crystalline silver nanoprisms with C{sub 3v} symmetry are studied using a realistic atomistic model and group theory. Among all vibrational modes, photoinduced modes can be identified as those vibrational modes which possess larger in-phase radial atomic displacement and can be projected out by the projected density of states method. We found that the properties of vibrations in silver nanoprisms strongly depend on the particle’s aspect ratio (bisector length over thickness). By considering crystallinity of silver nanoprisms, the dominant modes with the in-plane oscillation become several closely spaced modes, and become obvious for nanoprisms with a smaller aspect ratio. The oscillation spectra show that the dominant planar modes are insensitive to thickness change. On the contrary, the atomic displacements show significantly different patterns for nanoprisms of different thicknesses. We also found that, for nanoprisms with same aspect ratio that is larger than 4, the vibrational properties of dominant modes exhibit scaling similarity. By using a simple linear transformation, the vibration frequencies for large-sized nanoprisms of aspect ratio 6 can be obtained by a corresponding scaling factor. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Stefania; McCaughan, Bridgeen; Callan, John F; Raymo, Françisco M

    2012-02-01

    In search of strategies to photoactivate the luminescence of semiconductor quantum dots, we devised a synthetic approach to attach photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl groups to CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots coated with hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The emission intensity of the resulting nanostructured constructs increases by more than 60% with the photolysis of the 2-nitrobenzyl appendages. Indeed, the photoinduced separation of the organic chromophores from the inorganic nanoparticles suppresses an electron-transfer pathway from the latter to the former and is mostly responsible for the luminescence enhancement. However, the thiol groups anchoring the polymeric envelope to the ZnS shell also contribute to the photoinduced emission increase. Presumably, their photooxidation eliminates defects on the nanoparticle surface and promotes the radiative deactivation of the excited quantum dots. This effect is fully reversible but its magnitude is only a fraction of the change caused by the photocleavage of the 2-nitrobenzyl groups. In addition, these particular quantum dots can cross the membrane of model cells and their luminescence increases by ~80% after the intracellular photocleavage of the 2-nitrobenzyl quenchers. Thus, photoswitchable luminescent constructs with biocompatible character can be assembled combining the established photochemistry of the 2-nitrobenzyl photocage with the outstanding photophysical properties of semiconductor quantum dots and the hydrophilic character of appropriate polymeric ligands. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Corneal Cross-Linking: An Example of Photoinduced Polymerization as a Treatment Modality in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Kubrak-Kisza, Magdalena; Kisza, Krystian Jerzy; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is one of the principal refractive elements in the human eye and plays a crucial role in the process of vision. Keratoconus is the most common corneal dystrophy, found mostly among young adults. It is characterized by a reduced number of collagen cross-links in the corneal stroma, resulting in reduced biomechanical stability and an abnormal shape of the cornea. These changes lead to progressive myopia, corneal thinning, central scarring and irregular astigmatism, causing severely impaired vision. Hard contact lenses, photorefractive keratectomy or intracorneal rings are the most common treatment options for refractive error caused by keratoconus. However, these techniques do not treat the underlying cause of the corneal ectasia and therefore are not able to stop the progression of the disease. Riboflavin photoinduced polymerization of corneal collagen, also known as corneal cross-linking (CXL), has been introduced as the first therapy which, by stabilizing the structure of the cornea, prevents the progression of keratoconus. It stiffens the cornea using the photo-sensitizer riboflavin in combination with ultraviolet irradiation. This is a current review of the CXL procedure as a therapy for keratoconus, which relies on photoinduced polymerization of human tissue. We have focused on its biomechanical and physiological influences on the human cornea and have reviewed the previous and current biochemical theories behind cross-linking reactions in the cornea.

  12. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic–inorganic perovskite films

    DOE PAGES

    deQuilettes, Dane W.; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M.; ...

    2016-05-24

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced 'brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging themore » same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. In conclusion, our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.« less

  13. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic–inorganic perovskite films

    SciTech Connect

    deQuilettes, Dane W.; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M.; Graham, Daniel J.; Leijtens, Tomas; Osherov, Anna; Bulovic, Vladimir; Snaith, Henry J.; Ginger, David S.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2016-05-24

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced 'brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. In conclusion, our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.

  14. Direct experimental evidence for photoinduced strong-coupling polarons in organolead halide perovskite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Kaibo; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Qiushi; Kong, Qingyu; Jennings, Guy; Kurtz, Charles A.; Messing, Maria E.; Niu, Yuran; Gosztola, David J.; Al-Marri, Mohammed J.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Pullerits, Tonu; Canton, Sophie E.

    2016-10-28

    Echoing the roaring success of their bulk coun-terparts, nano-objects built from organolead halide perov-skites (OLHP) present bright prospects for surpassing the performances of their conventional organic and inorganic analogues in photodriven technologies. Unraveling the pho-toinduced charge dynamics is essential for optimizing OLHP optoelectronic functionalities. However, mapping the carri-er-lattice interactions remains challenging, owing to their manifestations on multiple length scales and time scales. By correlating ultrafast time-resolved optical and X-ray absorp-tion measurements, this work reveals the photoinduced formation of strong-coupling polarons in CH3NH3PbBr3 nanoparticles. Such polarons originate from the self-trapping of electrons in the net Coulombic field caused by the dis-placed inorganic nuclei and the oriented organic cations. The transient structural change detected at the Pb L3 X-ray ab-sorption edge is well captured by a distortion with average bond elongation in the [PbBr6]2- motif. As a result, general implications for designing novel OLHP nanomaterials targeting the active utilization of these quasi-particles are outlined.

  15. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic–inorganic perovskite films

    PubMed Central

    deQuilettes, Dane W.; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M.; Graham, Daniel J.; Leijtens, Tomas; Osherov, Anna; Bulović, Vladimir; Snaith, Henry J.; Ginger, David S.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic–inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced ‘brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. Our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance. PMID:27216703

  16. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic-inorganic perovskite films.

    PubMed

    deQuilettes, Dane W; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M; Graham, Daniel J; Leijtens, Tomas; Osherov, Anna; Bulović, Vladimir; Snaith, Henry J; Ginger, David S; Stranks, Samuel D

    2016-05-24

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced 'brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. Our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.

  17. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic-inorganic perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequilettes, Dane W.; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M.; Graham, Daniel J.; Leijtens, Tomas; Osherov, Anna; Bulović, Vladimir; Snaith, Henry J.; Ginger, David S.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced `brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. Our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.

  18. Direct experimental evidence for photoinduced strong-coupling polarons in organolead halide perovskite nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Kaibo; Qatar Univ., Doha; Abdellah, Mohamed; ...

    2016-10-28

    Echoing the roaring success of their bulk coun-terparts, nano-objects built from organolead halide perov-skites (OLHP) present bright prospects for surpassing the performances of their conventional organic and inorganic analogues in photodriven technologies. Unraveling the pho-toinduced charge dynamics is essential for optimizing OLHP optoelectronic functionalities. However, mapping the carri-er-lattice interactions remains challenging, owing to their manifestations on multiple length scales and time scales. By correlating ultrafast time-resolved optical and X-ray absorp-tion measurements, this work reveals the photoinduced formation of strong-coupling polarons in CH3NH3PbBr3 nanoparticles. Such polarons originate from the self-trapping of electrons in the net Coulombic field caused by the dis-placedmore » inorganic nuclei and the oriented organic cations. The transient structural change detected at the Pb L3 X-ray ab-sorption edge is well captured by a distortion with average bond elongation in the [PbBr6]2- motif. As a result, general implications for designing novel OLHP nanomaterials targeting the active utilization of these quasi-particles are outlined.« less

  19. Classical molecular dynamics simulation of the photoinduced electron transfer dynamics of plastocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, L W; Scherer, N F; Voth, G A

    1997-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the nuclear motions associated with photoinduced electron transfer in plastocyanin. The blue copper protein is modeled using a molecular mechanics potential; potential parameters for the copper-protein interactions are determined using an x-ray crystallographic structure and absorption and resonance Raman spectra. Molecular dynamics simulations yield a variety of information about the ground (oxidized) and optically excited (charge-transfer) states: 1) The probability distribution of the potential difference between the states, which is used to determine the coordinate and energy displacements, places the states well within the Marcus inverted region. 2) The two-time autocorrelation function of the difference potential in the ground state and the average of the difference potential after instantaneous excitation to the excited state are very similar (confirming linear response in this system); their decay indicates that vibrational relaxation occurs in about 1 ps in both states. 3) The spectral densities of various internal coordinates begin to identify the vibrations that affect the optical transition; the spectral density of the difference potential correlation function should also prove useful in quantum simulations of the back electron transfer. 4) Correlation functions of the protein atomic motions with the difference potential show that the nuclear motions are correlated over a distance of more than 20 A, especially along proposed electron transport paths. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 PMID:8994588

  20. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  1. The time of a photoinduced spin-Peierls phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, A. L.

    2015-02-15

    The time τ of the spin-Peierls phase transition is analyzed theoretically as a function of the duration τ{sub p} of the exciting light pulse and the average number x{sub 0} of absorbed photons per magnetic ion after the transmission of the pulse. It is shown that the phase transition occurs at x{sub 0} > x{sub c}. The critical value x{sub c} is determined as a function of the duration τ{sub p} of the light pulse. A photoinduced variation in the optical reflection coefficient R is calculated as a function of time t. The results of calculation are compared with experimental data on ultrafast photoinduced melting of the low-temperature spin-Peierls phase into potassium tetracyanoquinodimethan (K-TCNQ)

  2. [Photo-induced processes and reaction dynamics in bacteriorhodopsin].

    PubMed

    Terpugov, E L; Degtyareva, O V

    2015-01-01

    In this review we have focused on the advances madein observing the photo-induced response in bacteriorhodopsin and understanding the mechanisms of retinal-protein interactions which are still obscure. We discuss our recent data obtained on the wild type of bacteriorhodopsin and model compounds. This paper presents our new spectroscopic data on amino acids obtained using FT-IR emission spectroscopy. Based on the characteristics of the structure and optical properties of glycine and L-lysine that simulate a photo-induced behaviour of an opsin under natural conditions we tried to find an answer to one of the most important questions concerning the role of protein in the primary processes in bacteriorhodopsin.

  3. Photo-induced electron-transfer reactions in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. M.

    1981-11-01

    The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy was pursued by two approaches. One is the photo-induced electron transfer reactions in heterogeneous media, and the other is the photo-decomposition of water with liquid-junction solar cells. Photo-induced electron-transfer reactions in heterogeneous media with colloidal silica or poly-acrylate were studied by flash photolysis. In an effort to illustrate that small band-gap semiconductors can be protected from photo-corrosion through surface modification, the surface of polycrystalline ZnO was chemically coated with zinc phthalocyanine and the electron-transfer process across the coated ZnO-electrolyte interface was studied by photo-electrochemical techniques.

  4. Heterodyne technique in photoinduced force microscopy with photothermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanishi, J.; Naitoh, Y.; Li, Y. J.; Sugawara, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The heterodyne technique is used to detect short-range forces. Using the heterodyne technique, we demonstrate photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM) imaging and z-spectroscopy without the artifact of photothermal vibration. The rejection ratio was at least 99.975% under a high-scattering condition. In addition, the heterodyne technique employs the optimal amplitude at the first resonance frequency of the cantilever to detect the photoinduced force sensitively. According to our calculation, the optimal ratio of the amplitude to the distance between the dipole of the tip and that of the sample is 0.4448. The heterodyne technique can be employed to perform PiFM without the artifact by using the optimal amplitude.

  5. Vicinal Difluoroalkylation and Aminosulfonylation of Alkynes under Photoinduced Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuanchao; Li, Yuewen; Kuang, Yunyan; Wu, Jie

    2017-01-23

    A photoinduced vicinal difluoroalkylation and aminosulfonylation of alkynes under photocatalysis was realized. The combination of ethyl 2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetate, alkynes, and DABCO⋅(SO2 )2 with hydrazines, catalyzed by 9-mes-10-methyl acridinium perchlorate in the presence of visible light, afforded (E)-ethyl 2,2-difluoro-4-aryl-4-sulfamoylbut-3-enoates in good yields with high stereoselectivity. This four-component reaction proceeds through radical addition with the insertion of sulfur dioxide.

  6. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.

    2016-03-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  7. Spectral reflectance change and luminescence of selected salts during 2-10 KeV proton bombardment - Implications for Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Nash, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation damage and luminescence caused by magnetospheric charged particles have been suggested by several investigators as mechanisms that are capable of explaining some of the peculiar spectral/albedo features of Io. In the present paper, this possibility is pursued by measuring the UV-visual spectral reflectance and luminescent efficiency of several proposed Io surface constituents during 2 to 10 keV proton irradiation at room and low temperatures. The luminescence efficiencies of pure samples, studied in the laboratory, suggest that charged-particle induced luminescence from Io's surface might be observable by spacecraft such as Voyager when viewing Io's dark side.

  8. Kinetics of unusual photoinduced currents in the solid state of some ferrocene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Aloke Kumar; Mallik, Biswanath

    2009-03-01

    Kinetics of change in photoinduced currents (during illumination and after switching off light source) in the solid state of some ferrocene derivatives, namely, ferrocenecarboxylic acid, acetylferrocene, ferrocenecarbaldehyde, hydroxymethyl ferrocene have been studied in dry nitrogen gas atmosphere. Unusual/anomalous photocurrent versus time profiles were observed in some ferrocene derivatives at certain cell temperatures. The kinetics of current changes under photoexcitation and after switching off the light source have been observed to be complicated in nature. Temperature-dependent behavior of the studied kinetics indicates that charge carrier trapping/detrapping and recombination processes are significantly temperature dependent. These processes have an important role in causing the temperature dependent unusual/anomalous photocurrent versus time profiles in the ferrocene derivatives studied.

  9. Spectral Change in 3d-4f Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Ce Intermetallics Across the Transition between Kondo Singlet and Localized-Spin State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasabe, Norimasa; Tonai, Hironori; Uozumi, Takayuki

    2017-09-01

    The spectral change in the 3d resonant X-ray inelastic scattering (RIXS) induced by the spin-state transition between Kondo singlet (KS) and localized spin (LS) state is theoretically investigated for γ-like Ce intermetallics by means of a single impurity Anderson model. The basis configurations with an electron-hole pair are included in the calculation within the configuration interaction scheme, in addition to the intra-atomic full multiplet coupling of the Ce impurity. A distinct spectral change is found across the KS-LS transition in the RIXS excited at the charge-transfer satellite of the 3d X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) under a polarized geometry. In contrast, the 3d XAS and RIXS spectra under a depolarized geometry are rather insensitive to the spin-state transition.

  10. A model to predict spatial, spectral and vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light fields: Implications for remote sensing of shelf-sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2016-03-01

    An optical model is developed using experimental data of Inherent Optical Properties (IOP) from oceanic, coastal and productive lagoon waters in order to calculate vertical and spectral profiles of the average cosine in a wide variety of waters within coastal and shelf-sea environments. The results are compared with those generated using a radiative transfer numerical model based on the invariant imbedding technique (HydroLight) with realistic depth-dependent IOPs and appropriate surface and bottom boundary conditions and the results from three existing models (Haltrin, 1998; Timofeyeva, 1971; Talaulikar et al., 2014). The average cosine predicted by the new model shows good agreement with the values obtained directly from radiative transfer calculations for a broad range of the IOPs and solar zenith conditions. Good correlations with excellent linearity with significantly low errors demonstrate a good deal of confidence of the model for accomplishing further applications. Since knowledge of spatial and temporal structures of the average cosine is of great importance to our understanding of the particle dynamics of pelagic ecosystems and coastal processes, efforts were made to apply the present model to both multispectral MODIS-Aqua imagery and hyperspectral (HICO) images acquired over the Arabian Sea and coastal lagoons of the Bay of Bengal dominated by river plumes and phytoplankton blooms. Maps of the average cosine derived from these data demonstrated significant changes in the magnitude and spectral behavior of the average cosine (from nearly featureless to strong spectral features and inflections) from different water types. Substantial changes in its spatial and spectral structures associated with highly productive waters, phytoplankton blooms and sediment plumes, as compared with open ocean areas, are well supported by the theoretical and experimental studies. The advantages of the new model in comparison with existing models are its capability to predict

  11. L1-Spanish Speakers' Acquisition of the English /i/-/I/ Contrast II: Perception of Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-01-01

    L1-Spanish learners of English have been reported to distinguish English /i/ and /I/ on the basis of duration cues, whereas L1-English listeners primarily use spectral cues. Morrison (2008a) hypothesized that duration-based perception is a secondary developmental stage that emerges from an initial stage of multidimensional-category-goodness…

  12. Spectral and Spread Spectral Teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state is teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of a teleported waveform can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread spectral variant of teleportation. We present analytical fidelities for spectral and spread spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are prepared using a proposed experimental approach, and we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.

  13. Photoreceptor Processing Speed and Input Resistance Changes during Light Adaptation Correlate with Spectral Class in the Bumblebee, Bombus impatiens

    PubMed Central

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Colour vision depends on comparison of signals from photoreceptors with different spectral sensitivities. However, response properties of photoreceptor cells may differ in ways other than spectral tuning. In insects, for example, broadband photoreceptors, with a major sensitivity peak in the green region of the spectrum (>500 nm), drive fast visual processes, which are largely blind to chromatic signals from more narrowly-tuned photoreceptors with peak sensitivities in the blue and UV regions of the spectrum. In addition, electrophysiological properties of the photoreceptor membrane may result in differences in response dynamics of photoreceptors of similar spectral class between species, and different spectral classes within a species. We used intracellular electrophysiological techniques to investigate response dynamics of the three spectral classes of photoreceptor underlying trichromatic colour vision in the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, and we compare these with previously published data from a related species, Bombus terrestris. In both species, we found significantly faster responses in green, compared with blue- or UV-sensitive photoreceptors, although all 3 photoreceptor types are slower in B. impatiens than in B. terrestris. Integration times for light-adapted B. impatiens photoreceptors (estimated from impulse response half-width) were 11.3±1.6 ms for green photoreceptors compared with 18.6±4.4 ms and 15.6±4.4 for blue and UV, respectively. We also measured photoreceptor input resistance in dark- and light-adapted conditions. All photoreceptors showed a decrease in input resistance during light adaptation, but this decrease was considerably larger (declining to about 22% of the dark value) in green photoreceptors, compared to blue and UV (41% and 49%, respectively). Our results suggest that the conductances associated with light adaptation are largest in green photoreceptors, contributing to their greater temporal processing speed. We suggest that the

  14. Photoinduced 2-way electron transfer in composites of metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Navendu; Paul, Sneha; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation between the QDs and NCs in a giant BSA-capped system, a higher electron transfer rate in this composite suggests that unlike other smaller capping agents, which act more like insulators, BSA allows much better electron conduction, as indicated previously.In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation

  15. Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulakis, Ilias; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Meleti, Charickleia; Tourpali, Kleareti; Zempila, Melina Maria

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we discuss the short- and the long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, using a long, quality-controlled data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers. Long-term changes in spectral UV irradiance at 307.5, 324 and 350 nm for the period 1994-2014 are presented for different solar zenith angles and discussed in association with changes in total ozone column (TOC), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloudiness observed in the same period. Positive changes in annual mean anomalies of UV irradiance, ranging from 2 to 6 % per decade, have been detected both for clear- and all-sky conditions. The changes are generally greater for larger solar zenith angles and for shorter wavelengths. For clear-skies, these changes are, in most cases, statistically significant at the 95 % confidence limit. Decreases in the aerosol load and weakening of the attenuation by clouds lead to increases in UV irradiance in the summer, of 7-9 % per decade for 64° solar zenith angle. The increasing TOC in winter counteracts the effect of decreasing AOD for this particular season, leading to small, statistically insignificant, negative long-term changes in irradiance at 307.5 nm. Annual mean UV irradiance levels are increasing from 1994 to 2006 and remain relatively stable thereafter, possibly due to the combined changes in the amount and optical properties of aerosols. However, no statistically significant corresponding turning point has been detected in the long-term changes of AOD. The absence of signatures of changes in AOD in the short-term variability of irradiance in the UV-A may have been caused by changes in the single scattering albedo of aerosols, which may counteract the effects of changes in AOD on irradiance. The anti-correlation between the year-to-year variability of the irradiance at 307.5 nm and TOC is clear and becomes clearer as the AOD decreases.

  16. VIIRS S-NPP Nighttime DNB Spectral Response Function (SRF): The At-launch Characteristics and How the SRF Changes with Time Due to Tungsten Oxides Chromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, B.; Lei, N.; Moeller, C.

    2015-12-01

    The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is designed with 3 gain stages: Low (LGS), Mid (MGS) and High (HGS) to span bright daytime to moonlit night earth scene signal levels. The published at-launch DNB relative spectral response (RSR) is based upon the LGS spectral measurements, since it was well measured in the pre-launch test program and the LGS can be calibrated by the on-board solar diffuser (MGS and HGS saturate on the SD). The LGS RSR however does not fully represent the spectral characteristics of nighttime DNB data from the MGS and HGS. Nighttime data users who apply the detailed DNB spectral characteristics in their analyses should use modulated RSR appropriate to the MGS and HGS observations. The RSR modulation is due to spectral darkening of the 4 mirrors of the S-NPP VIIRS telescope, which were contaminated with tungsten oxides in fabrication. These tungsten oxides are 'in family' with transition lenses on eyeglasses that darken when exposed to sunlight but do not recover when VIIRS goes into darkness because VIIRS in space is in a vacuum (transition lenses require atmospheric oxygen to recover). The on-going mirror darkening has caused a time-dependent shift in DNB RSR towards blue wavelengths. This presentation will provide access to the correct RSR to use for S-NPP DNB nighttime data over the mission time on-orbit. The changes in characteristics will be described in engineering terms to facilitate clear user understanding of how to handle RSR for nighttime observations over the mission lifetime.

  17. Cystic macular oedema on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in choroideremia patients without cystic changes on fundus examination

    PubMed Central

    Genead, M A; Fishman, G A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of cystic macular oedema (CME) in patients with choroideremia (CHM) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods A total 16 patients affected with CHM were enroled in the study. All patients underwent a complete eye examination. SD-OCT was performed using an OPKO spectral-domain OCT/SLO instrument. Results The average age of the study patients was 44.0±16.0 years (range, 13–63 years). Out of the 16 patients with CHM, 10 patients (62.5%) showed a degree of CME on SD-OCT testing in at least one eye, and 8 patients (50%) showed CME in both eyes. Conclusions Because of its notable prevalence, it would seem prudent to screen CHM patients by SD-OCT for the possible presence of CME and to identify those amenable to future treatment strategies for their macular oedema. PMID:20966974

  18. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  19. Dependence of photoinduced bending behavior of diarylethene crystals on irradiation wavelength of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daichi; Tanaka, Rika; Kobatake, Seiya

    2015-11-07

    The dependence of the photoinduced bending behavior of diarylethene crystals on the ultraviolet light irradiation wavelength was investigated. When irradiated with 365 nm light, a crystal of 1,2-bis(5-methyl-2-phenyl-4-thiazolyl)perfluorocyclopentene (1a) bends toward the incident light. On the other hand, when irradiated with 380 nm light, the crystal of 1a first bends away from the light source and then bends toward the incident light. To explain this bending behavior, we propose a comprehensive mechanism based on the depth of the photochromic reaction from the crystal surface. This mechanism is successfully supported by the change of cell parameters associated with the photochromic reaction upon irradiation with 380 nm light, which was determined by in situ X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  20. Direct and real time probe of photoinduced structure transition in colossal magnetoresistive material

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junjie; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Haidong; Zhou, Jun; Cao, Jianming; Cheng, J. G.

    2016-07-25

    We report a direct and real time measurement of photoinduced structure phase transition in single crystal La{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}MnO{sub 3} using femtosecond electron diffraction. The melting of orthorhombic lattice ordering under femtosecond optical excitation is found involving two distinct processes with different time scales, an initial fast melting of orthorhombic phase in about 4 ps and a subsequent slower transformation in 90 ps and longer timescales. The fast process is designated as the initial melting of orthorhombic phase induced by the Mn-O bond change that is most likely driven by the quenching of the dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion following the photo-excitation. The slow process is attributed to the growing of newly formed structure domain from the photo-excited sites to the neighboring non-excited orthorhombic sites.

  1. An Explanation of the Photoinduced Giant Dielectric Constant of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Almond, Darryl P; Bowen, Chris R

    2015-05-07

    A photoinduced giant dielectric constant of ~10(6) has been found in impedance spectroscopy measurements of lead halide perovskite solar cells. We report similar effects in measurements of a porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sample saturated with water. The principal effect of the illumination of the solar cell and of the introduction of water into the pore volume of the PZT sample is a significant increase in conductivity and dielectric loss. This is shown to exhibit low frequency power law dispersion. Application of the Kramers-Kronig relationships show the large measured values of permittivity to be related to the power law changes in conductivity and dielectric loss. The power law dispersions in the electrical responses are consistent with an electrical network model of microstructure. It is concluded that the high apparent values of permittivity are features of the microstructural networks and not fundamental effects in the two perovskite materials.

  2. Direct and real time probe of photoinduced structure transition in colossal magnetoresistive material

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Junjie; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Haidong; ...

    2016-07-29

    Here, we report a direct and real time measurement of photoinduced structure phase transition in single crystal La0.84Sr0.16MnO3 using femtosecond electron diffraction. The melting of orthorhombic lattice ordering under femtosecond optical excitation is found involving two distinct processes with different time scales, an initial fast melting of orthorhombic phase in about 4 ps and a subsequent slower transformation in 90 ps and longer timescales. Furthermore, the fast process is designated as the initial melting of orthorhombic phase induced by the Mn-O bond change that is most likely driven by the quenching of the dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion following the photo-excitation. Wemore » attribute the slow process to the growing of newly formed structure domain from the photo-excited sites to the neighboring non-excited orthorhombic sites.« less

  3. Control of photoinduced fluorescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots using metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Wing, Waylin J.; Patty, Kira; Campbell, Quinn

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that irradiation of colloidal quantum dots can dramatically enhance their emission efficiencies, leading to so-called photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE). This process is the result of the photochemical and photophysical properties of quantum dots and the way they interact with the environment in the presence of light. It has been shown that such properties can be changed significantly using metal oxides. Using spectroscopic techniques, in this paper we investigate emission of different types of quantum dots (with and without shell) in the presence of metal oxides with opposing effects. We observed significant increase of PFE when quantum dots are deposited on about one nanometer of aluminum oxide, suggesting such oxide can profoundly increase quantum yield of such quantum dots. On the other hand, copper oxide can lead to significant suppression of emission of quantum dots, making them nearly completely dark instantly.

  4. Dynamics of photoinduced processes in liquid-crystal polymer films containing azo compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, A N; Larichev, A V

    1999-07-31

    The photoinduced processes in azo-compound-containing side-chain polymer films with liquid-crystal properties are examined theoretically. A model is proposed whereby it is possible to consider the dynamics of the optical response of a medium taking into account the anisotropic saturation in the angular distribution of the azo-dye isomers as well as the intermolecular interaction. The influence of the liquid-crystal ordering in the polymer is taken into account by introducing a phenomenological mean-field factor. Analytical solutions describing changes in the optical properties of a polymer film during the initial illumination stages are in good agreement with experimental data. (this issue is dedicated to the memory of s a akhmanov)

  5. Photo-induced persistent inversion of germanium in a 200-nm-deep surface region

    PubMed Central

    Prokscha, T.; Chow, K. H.; Stilp, E.; Suter, A.; Luetkens, H.; Morenzoni, E.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.; Salman, Z.; Scheuermann, R.

    2013-01-01

    The controlled manipulation of the charge carrier concentration in nanometer thin layers is the basis of current semiconductor technology and of fundamental importance for device applications. Here we show that it is possible to induce a persistent inversion from n- to p-type in a 200-nm-thick surface layer of a germanium wafer by illumination with white and blue light. We induce the inversion with a half-life of ~12 hours at a temperature of 220 K which disappears above 280 K. The photo-induced inversion is absent for a sample with a 20-nm-thick gold capping layer providing a Schottky barrier at the interface. This indicates that charge accumulation at the surface is essential to explain the observed inversion. The contactless change of carrier concentration is potentially interesting for device applications in opto-electronics where the gate electrode and gate oxide could be replaced by the semiconductor surface. PMID:23995307

  6. Photo-induced persistent inversion of germanium in a 200-nm-deep surface region.

    PubMed

    Prokscha, T; Chow, K H; Stilp, E; Suter, A; Luetkens, H; Morenzoni, E; Nieuwenhuys, G J; Salman, Z; Scheuermann, R

    2013-01-01

    The controlled manipulation of the charge carrier concentration in nanometer thin layers is the basis of current semiconductor technology and of fundamental importance for device applications. Here we show that it is possible to induce a persistent inversion from n- to p-type in a 200-nm-thick surface layer of a germanium wafer by illumination with white and blue light. We induce the inversion with a half-life of ~12 hours at a temperature of 220 K which disappears above 280 K. The photo-induced inversion is absent for a sample with a 20-nm-thick gold capping layer providing a Schottky barrier at the interface. This indicates that charge accumulation at the surface is essential to explain the observed inversion. The contactless change of carrier concentration is potentially interesting for device applications in opto-electronics where the gate electrode and gate oxide could be replaced by the semiconductor surface.

  7. Direct and real time probe of photoinduced structure transition in colossal magnetoresistive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junjie; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Haidong; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, J. G.; Cao, Jianming

    2016-07-01

    We report a direct and real time measurement of photoinduced structure phase transition in single crystal La0.84Sr0.16MnO3 using femtosecond electron diffraction. The melting of orthorhombic lattice ordering under femtosecond optical excitation is found involving two distinct processes with different time scales, an initial fast melting of orthorhombic phase in about 4 ps and a subsequent slower transformation in 90 ps and longer timescales. The fast process is designated as the initial melting of orthorhombic phase induced by the Mn-O bond change that is most likely driven by the quenching of the dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion following the photo-excitation. The slow process is attributed to the growing of newly formed structure domain from the photo-excited sites to the neighboring non-excited orthorhombic sites.

  8. Surface modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers via the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinwei; Mai, Yongyi; Zhang, Yumei

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a sequential photoinduced graft polymerization process was proposed to improve the poor interfacial bonding property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. The polymerization was initiated by dormant semipinacol (SP) groups and carried out in a thin liquid layer. Methacrylic acid (MAA) and acryl amide (AM) were grafted stepwise onto the surface of UHMWPE fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the grafting. The analysis result of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) indicated the structure of grafted chains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the apparent morphology changing, and the grafted layers were observed. Interfacial shear stress (IFSS) test of the modified fibers showed an extensively improved interfacial bonding property. The active groups grafted onto the fibers would supply enough anchor points for the chemical bonding with various resins or further reactions.

  9. Direct and real time probe of photoinduced structure transition in colossal magnetoresistive material

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junjie; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Haidong; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, J. G.; Cao, Jianming

    2016-07-29

    Here, we report a direct and real time measurement of photoinduced structure phase transition in single crystal La0.84Sr0.16MnO3 using femtosecond electron diffraction. The melting of orthorhombic lattice ordering under femtosecond optical excitation is found involving two distinct processes with different time scales, an initial fast melting of orthorhombic phase in about 4 ps and a subsequent slower transformation in 90 ps and longer timescales. Furthermore, the fast process is designated as the initial melting of orthorhombic phase induced by the Mn-O bond change that is most likely driven by the quenching of the dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion following the photo-excitation. We attribute the slow process to the growing of newly formed structure domain from the photo-excited sites to the neighboring non-excited orthorhombic sites.

  10. Direct and real time probe of photoinduced structure transition in colossal magnetoresistive material

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junjie; Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Haidong; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, J. G.; Cao, Jianming

    2016-07-29

    Here, we report a direct and real time measurement of photoinduced structure phase transition in single crystal La0.84Sr0.16MnO3 using femtosecond electron diffraction. The melting of orthorhombic lattice ordering under femtosecond optical excitation is found involving two distinct processes with different time scales, an initial fast melting of orthorhombic phase in about 4 ps and a subsequent slower transformation in 90 ps and longer timescales. Furthermore, the fast process is designated as the initial melting of orthorhombic phase induced by the Mn-O bond change that is most likely driven by the quenching of the dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion following the photo-excitation. We attribute the slow process to the growing of newly formed structure domain from the photo-excited sites to the neighboring non-excited orthorhombic sites.

  11. Looking at Photoinduced Charge Transfer Processes in the IR: Answers to Several Long-Standing Questions.

    PubMed

    Dereka, Bogdan; Koch, Marius; Vauthey, Eric

    2017-02-21

    Because of its crucial role in many areas of science and technology, photoinduced electron transfer is the most investigated photochemical reaction. Despite this, several important questions remain open. We present recent efforts to answer some of them, which concern both inter- and intramolecular processes. The decisive factor that allowed these issues to be successfully addressed was the use of time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. Many different transient species, such as tight and loose ion pairs (TIPs and LIPs) and exciplexes, have been invoked to explain the dynamics of intermolecular photoinduced charge separation reactions (i.e., electron transfer between two neutral species) and the production of free ions. However, their structures are essentially unknown, and their exact roles in the reaction mechanism are unclear. Indeed, the commonly used transient electronic absorption spectroscopy does not give much structural insight and cannot clearly distinguish ion pairs from free ions, at least in the visible region. Unambiguous spectral signatures of TIPs, LIPs, and exciplexes could be observed in the IR using electron donor/acceptor (D/A) pairs with adequate vibrational marker modes. The ability to spectrally distinguish these intermediates allowed their dynamics to be disentangled and their roles to be determined. Structural information could be obtained using polarization-resolved TRIR spectroscopy. Our investigations reveal that moderately to highly exergonic reactions result in the formation of both TIPs and LIPs. TIPs are not only generated upon direct charge-transfer excitation of DA complexes, as usually assumed, but are also formed upon static quenching with reactant pairs at distances and orientations enabling charge separation without diffusion. On the other hand, dynamic quenching produces primarily LIPs. In the case of highly exergonic reactions, strong indirect evidence for the generation of ion pairs in an electronic excited state was found

  12. Photoinduced electron transfer across molecular bridges: electron- and hole-transfer superexchange pathways.

    PubMed

    Natali, Mirco; Campagna, Sebastiano; Scandola, Franco

    2014-06-21

    Photoinduced electron transfer plays key roles in many areas of chemistry. Superexchange is an effective model to rationalize photoinduced electron transfer, particularly when molecular bridges between donor and acceptor subunits are present. In this tutorial review we discuss, within a superexchange framework, the complex role played by the bridge, with an emphasis on differences between thermal and photoinduced electron transfer, oxidative and reductive photoinduced processes, charge separation and charge recombination. Modular bridges are also considered, with specific attention to the distance dependence of donor-acceptor electronic coupling and electron transfer rate constants. The possibility of transition, depending on the bridge energetics, from coherent donor-acceptor electron transfer to incoherent charge injection and hopping through the bridge is also discussed. Finally, conceptual analogies between bridge effects in photoinduced electron transfer and optical intervalence transfer are outlined. Selected experimental examples, instrumental to illustration of the principles, are discussed.

  13. Photo-Induced Assembly of a Luminescent Tetraruthenium Square.

    PubMed

    Laramée-Milette, Baptiste; Nastasi, Francesco; Puntoriero, Fausto; Campagna, Sebastiano; Hanan, Garry S

    2017-09-18

    Self-assembly is a powerful synthetic tool that has led to the development of one-, two- and three-dimensional architectures. From MOFs to molecular flasks, self-assembled materials have proven to be of great interest to the scientific community. Here we describe a strategy for the construction and de-construction of a supramolecular structure through unprecedented photo-induced assembly and dis-assembly. The combination of two approaches, a [n×1]-directional bonding strategy and a ligand photo-dissociation strategy, allows the photo-induced assembly of a polypyridyl Ru(II) precursor into a discrete molecular square. Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of a higher volume species, while the identity of the species was established by high-resolution mass spectrometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The self-assembled square is not obtained by classical thermal techniques in similar conditions, but is obtained only by light-irradiation. The tetraruthenium square has an excited-state lifetime (135 ns), 40 times that of its mononuclear precursor and its luminescence quantum yield (1.0 %) is three orders of magnitude higher. These remarkable luminescence properties are closely related to the relatively rigid square structure of the tetraruthenium assembly, as suggested by slow radiationless decay and transient absorption spectroscopy. The results described herein are a rare example of photo-induced assembly and dis-assembly processes, and can open the way to a new avenue in supramolecular chemistry, leading to the preparation of structurally organized supermolecules by photochemical techniques. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photoinduced ordering and anchoring properties of azo-dye films.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Huang, Dan Ding

    2005-12-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the anchoring properties of photoaligning azo-dye films in contact with a nematic liquid crystal depending on the photoinduced ordering of azo-dye molecules. In the mean field approximation, we found that the bare surface anchoring energy depends linearly on the azo-dye order parameter and the azimuthal anchoring strength decays to zero in the limit of vanishing photoinduced ordering. From the absorption dichroism spectra measured in azo-dye films that are prepared from an azo-dye derivative with polymerizable terminal groups we obtain the dependence of the dichroic ratio on the irradiation dose. We also measure the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells aligned by the azo-dye films and derive the anchoring strengths as functions of the dichroic ratio, which is proportional to the photoinduced order parameter. Although linear fitting of the experimental data for both anchoring strengths gives reasonable results, it, predicts vanishing of the azimuthal anchoring strength at some nonzero value of the azo-dye order parameter, in contradiction with theory. By using a simple phenomenological model we show that this discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the surface and bulk order parameters in the films. The measured polar anchoring energy is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the azimuthal strength. Our theory suggests that the quadrupole term of the spherical harmonics expansion for the azo-dye-NLC intermolecular potential might be of importance for the understanding of this difference.

  15. Optical control of plasmonic grating transmission by photoinduced anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palto, Sergey P.; Draginda, Yulia A.; Artemov, Vladimir V.; Gorkunov, Maxim V.

    2017-07-01

    Light transmission through subwavelength silver slit gratings coated with Langmuir-Blodgett films of an azo-dye compound was studied. While the coating was found to dramatically enhance the TM-polarized grating transmittance, it also enabled its low-intensity optical control: the photoinduced alignment of the azo-dye molecules yielded a significant (˜ 40 nm) shift of the extraordinary transmission peaks to shorter or longer wavelengths depending on the orientation of the induced optical axis with respect to the gratings.

  16. Distance dependence in photo-induced intramolecular electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Sven; Volosov, Andrey

    1986-09-01

    The distance dependence of the rate of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is studied. A quantum mechanical method CNDO/S is applied to a series of molecules recently investigated by Hush et al. experimentally. The calculations show a large interaction through the saturated bridge which connects the two chromophores. The electronic matrix element HAB decreases a factor 10 in about 4 Å. There is also a decrease of the rate due to less exothermicity for the longer molecule. The results are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Photo-induced transmittance in copper selenide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statkutė, G.; Mikulskas, I.; Jagminas, A.; Tomašiūnas, R.

    2008-01-01

    Photo-induced transmission was investigated in Cu 1.7Se nanowires electrochemically deposited in alumina matrix pores with a central channel of the diameters of 12, 15 and 60 nm by means of the degenerate picosecond pump-probe technique at 1.064 μm wavelength. Resonant excitation intensity dependencies were interpreted. Absorption saturation was ascertained as a result of the drain of acceptor shallow centers. The estimated absorption cross-section was 10 -12 cm 2, saturation intensity - was 1-10 mJ cm -2.

  18. Photoinduced electron transfer based ion sensing within an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Englich, Florian V; Foo, Tze Cheung; Richardson, Andrew C; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Sumby, Christopher J; Monro, Tanya M

    2011-01-01

    We combine suspended-core microstructured optical fibers with the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect to demonstrate a new type of fluorescent optical fiber-dip sensing platform for small volume ion detection. A sensor design based on a simple model PET-fluoroionophore system and small core microstructured optical fiber capable of detecting sodium ions is demonstrated. The performance of the dip sensor operating in a high sodium concentration regime (925 ppm Na(+)) and for lower sodium concentration environments (18.4 ppm Na(+)) is explored and future approaches to improving the sensor's signal stability, sensitivity and selectivity are discussed.

  19. Photoinduced absolute negative current in a symmetric molecular electronic bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Prociuk, Alexander; Dunietz, Barry D

    2010-09-28

    The study of current induced by photoradiating a molecular-based device under bias is of fundamental importance to the improvement of photoconductors and photovoltaics. In this technology, electron pumps generate an uphill current that opposes a potential drop and thereby recharges a fuel cell. While the modeled molecular electron pump is completely symmetric, the sign of the photocurrent is solely determined by the existing bias and the nature of photoinduced electronic excitations. The photoradiation induces nonequilibrium population of the electrode-coupled system. The dependence of the photocurrent on electrode coupling, photoradiation field strength, and applied bias are studied at a basic model level.

  20. Photoinduced underwater superoleophobicity of TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Yusuke; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Eiji; Miyake, Michihiro

    2013-06-11

    The photoinduced wettabilities of water, n-hexadecane, dodecane, and n-heptane on a flat TiO2 surface prepared by a sol-gel method-based coating were investigated. An amphiphilic surface produced by UV irradiation exhibited underwater superoleophobicity with an extremely high static oil contact angle (CA) of over 160°. The TiO2 surface almost completely repelled the oil droplet in water. A robust TiO2 surface with no fragile nanomicrostructure was fabricated on a Ti mesh with a pore size of approximately 150 μm. The fabricated mesh was found to be applicable as an oil/water separation filter.

  1. Photo-induced nonlinear absorption in carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatrudina, Rimma Sh.; Gribkov, Vladislav Yu.

    2017-05-01

    Photoinduced nonlinear absorption of new carbon nanoparticles - astralenes and two types of carbon nanoclusters was investigated. The nonlinear absorption of aqueous suspensions of astralenes and solutions of carbon nanoclusters was studied by the method of z-scanning with Nd3+ -glass laser (wavelength λ = 1064 nm) in Q-switching regimes. A numerical model of the propagation of the laser pulse in a medium with reverse saturable absorption was created. Relaxation time of the first exited state and the ratio of absorption cross-sections of the first exited and ground states for the researched types of carbon nanoparticles were determined by the numerical simulation.

  2. An integrated spectral-textural approach for environmental change monitoring and assessment: analyzing the dynamics of green covers in a highly developing region.

    PubMed

    Sakieh, Yousef; Gholipour, Mostafa; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-04-01

    The present study compares the effectiveness of two common preclassification change detection (CD) methods that use two-dimensional data space of spectral-textural (S-T) change information. The methods are principal component analysis (PCA) and change vector analysis (CVA) in the Gorgan Township area, Golestn Province, Iran. A series of texture-based information was calculated mainly to separate those land use/land cover (LULC) conversions that are spectrally indistinguishable and also to provide a basis for automatic classification of S-T data space. Both methods were evaluated in terms of accuracy and the required time and expertise. Having the two-dimensional S-T data space generated, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was implemented to automatically extract changed pixels and the receiving operator characteristic (ROC) was employed to assess the accuracy of the output. According to the results, the study area has witnessed substantial mutual transformations between various LULCs among agricultural lands were the most dynamic category in the region. The PCA method applied to the S-T information achieved a ROC of 0.90-indicating an acceptable performance-while the S-T CVA method achieved a lower value of 0.75. The S-T PCA method was considerably less time-consuming and less expertise demanding as well as more accurate in our study area.

  3. Effect of viscosity on photoinduced electron transfer reaction: An observation of the Marcus inverted region in homogeneous solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajesh Kumar; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-09-01

    The viscosity effect of homogeneous solvents on the dynamics of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) reaction among the coumarins and N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) is investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. A bell shape Marcus inversion in the ET rates has been detected in the plot of ET rate constant (kq) with free energy change (ΔG0) in viscous solvents decanol and EG, but it is not observed in DMSO like low viscous solvent. We have also reported that there is no complex formation between the coumarin dye and DMA molecule by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

  4. Interaction of fluorescence dyes with 5-fluorouracil: A photoinduced electron transfer study in bulk and biologically relevant water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banik, Debasis; Kundu, Niloy; Roy, Arpita; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2014-10-01

    The interactions of widely used chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) with coumarin dyes have been investigated for the first time using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. The fluorescence quenching along with the decrease in lifetimes of excited state of coumarin derivatives with gradual addition of 5FU is explained by photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. Our studies were performed in bulk water and confined water of AOT (aerosol OT) reverse micelle to investigate the effect of confinement on PET dynamics. The feasibility of PET reaction for coumarin-5FU systems is investigated calculating the standard free energy changes using the Rehm-Weller equation.

  5. L1-Spanish speakers' acquisition of the English /i/-/I/ contrast II: perception of vowel inherent spectral change.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-01-01

    L1-Spanish learners of English have been reported to distinguish English /i/ and /I? on the basis of duration cues, whereas L1-English listeners primarily use spectral cues. Morrison (2008a) hypothesized that duration-based perception is a secondary developmental stage that emerges from an initial stage of multidimensional-category-goodness assimilation of tokens of English /i/ and /I/ to Spanish /i/, with English vowel tokens perceived to be good examples of Spanish /i/ labeled as English /I/ and poor examples labeled as English /i/.

  6. Electron spectrometer in adjustable triode configuration for photo-induced field emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Bornmann, B; Mingels, S; Dams, F; Prommesberger, C; Schreiner, R; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Müller, G

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a new ultrahigh vacuum apparatus with a triode configuration for the systematic investigation of photo-induced field emission (PFE) from metallic or semiconducting cathodes. These are exposed to electric fields up to 400 MV∕m and laser irradiation by means of hole or mesh gates. Cathodes and gates are in situ exchangeable and adjustable with high precision to ensure a homogeneous extraction of electrons which are partially transmitted to the fixed electron spectrometer. Its hemispherical sector analyzer provides an energy resolution limit of 8 meV. The commissioning of the measurement system has been performed with a tungsten needle. Its temperature showed up in the high-energy tail of the electron spectrum, while its work function was derived from the spectral low-energy part combined with the integral current-voltage curve. First PFE measurements on B-doped Si-tip arrays yielded a small field emission current increase under green laser illumination. A shift and splitting of the energy spectra was observed which revealed different emission regimes as well as the photosensitivity of the cathode due to carrier excitation into the conduction band. For the full exploitation of the PFE system, a tunable laser over a wide eV-range is required.

  7. Electron spectrometer in adjustable triode configuration for photo-induced field emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornmann, B.; Mingels, S.; Dams, F.; Prommesberger, C.; Schreiner, R.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, G.

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a new ultrahigh vacuum apparatus with a triode configuration for the systematic investigation of photo-induced field emission (PFE) from metallic or semiconducting cathodes. These are exposed to electric fields up to 400 MV/m and laser irradiation by means of hole or mesh gates. Cathodes and gates are in situ exchangeable and adjustable with high precision to ensure a homogeneous extraction of electrons which are partially transmitted to the fixed electron spectrometer. Its hemispherical sector analyzer provides an energy resolution limit of 8 meV. The commissioning of the measurement system has been performed with a tungsten needle. Its temperature showed up in the high-energy tail of the electron spectrum, while its work function was derived from the spectral low-energy part combined with the integral current-voltage curve. First PFE measurements on B-doped Si-tip arrays yielded a small field emission current increase under green laser illumination. A shift and splitting of the energy spectra was observed which revealed different emission regimes as well as the photosensitivity of the cathode due to carrier excitation into the conduction band. For the full exploitation of the PFE system, a tunable laser over a wide eV-range is required.

  8. Photoinduced charge separation at polymer-fullerene interfaces of BHJ solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluektov, Oleg G.; Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy

    2016-09-01

    While photovoltaic cells are highly promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization, a number of fundamental questions about how the organic bulk heterojunction cell enables efficient long-lived and long-range charge separation remain unanswered. These questions were address by employing an advanced suite of EPR spectroscopy in combination with DFT calculations to study mechanism of charge separation at the polymer-fullerene interfaces of photo-active BHJ. Observed charge delocalization in BHJ upon photoinduced ET is analogous to that in organic donor-acceptor material. This is an efficient mechanism of charge stabilization in photosynthetic assemblies. Time-resolved EPR spectra show a strong polarization pattern for all polymer-fullerene blends under study, which is caused by non-Boltzmann population of the electron spin energy levels in the radical pairs. The first observation of this phenomenon was reported in natural and artificial photosynthetic assemblies, and comparison with these systems allows us to better understand charge separation processes in OPVs. The spectral analysis presented here, in combination with DFT calculations, shows that CS processes in OPV materials are similar to that in organic photosynthetic systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357 at Argonne National Laboratory.

  9. Photoinduced electron transfer and geminate recombination in the group head region of micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Glusac, Ksenija; Goun, Alexei; Fayer, M. D.

    2006-08-07

    A pump-probe spectroscopic study of photoinduced forward electron transfer and geminate recombination between donors and acceptors located in the head group regions of micelles is presented. The hole donor is octadecyl-rhodamine B (ODRB) and the hole acceptor is N,N-dimethyl-aniline (DMA). The experiments are conducted as a function of the DMA concentration in the dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles. In spite of the fact that the absorptions of both the ODRB radical and ground state bleach spectrally overlap with the ODRB excited state absorption, a procedure that makes it possible to determine the geminate recombination dynamics is presented. These experiments are the first to measure the dynamics of geminate recombination in micelles, and the experiments have two orders of magnitude better time resolution than previous studies of forward transfer. The experimental data are compared to statistical mechanics theoretical calculations of both the forward transfer and the geminate recombination. The theory includes important aspects of the topology of the micelle and the diffusion of the donor-acceptors in the micelle head group region. A semiquantitative but nonquantitative agreement between theory and experiments is achieved.

  10. Electron spectrometer in adjustable triode configuration for photo-induced field emission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bornmann, B.; Mingels, S.; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Mueller, G.; Dams, F.; Prommesberger, C.; Schreiner, R.

    2012-01-15

    We have constructed a new ultrahigh vacuum apparatus with a triode configuration for the systematic investigation of photo-induced field emission (PFE) from metallic or semiconducting cathodes. These are exposed to electric fields up to 400 MV/m and laser irradiation by means of hole or mesh gates. Cathodes and gates are in situ exchangeable and adjustable with high precision to ensure a homogeneous extraction of electrons which are partially transmitted to the fixed electron spectrometer. Its hemispherical sector analyzer provides an energy resolution limit of 8 meV. The commissioning of the measurement system has been performed with a tungsten needle. Its temperature showed up in the high-energy tail of the electron spectrum, while its work function was derived from the spectral low-energy part combined with the integral current-voltage curve. First PFE measurements on B-doped Si-tip arrays yielded a small field emission current increase under green laser illumination. A shift and splitting of the energy spectra was observed which revealed different emission regimes as well as the photosensitivity of the cathode due to carrier excitation into the conduction band. For the full exploitation of the PFE system, a tunable laser over a wide eV-range is required.

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer and geminate recombination in the group head region of micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glusac, Ksenija; Goun, Alexei; Fayer, M. D.

    2006-08-01

    A pump-probe spectroscopic study of photoinduced forward electron transfer and geminate recombination between donors and acceptors located in the head group regions of micelles is presented. The hole donor is octadecyl-rhodamine B (ODRB) and the hole acceptor is N,N-dimethyl-aniline (DMA). The experiments are conducted as a function of the DMA concentration in the dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles. In spite of the fact that the absorptions of both the ODRB radical and ground state bleach spectrally overlap with the ODRB excited state absorption, a procedure that makes it possible to determine the geminate recombination dynamics is presented. These experiments are the first to measure the dynamics of geminate recombination in micelles, and the experiments have two orders of magnitude better time resolution than previous studies of forward transfer. The experimental data are compared to statistical mechanics theoretical calculations of both the forward transfer and the geminate recombination. The theory includes important aspects of the topology of the micelle and the diffusion of the donor-acceptors in the micelle head group region. A semiquantitative but nonquantitative agreement between theory and experiments is achieved.

  12. Photoinduced Reversible Structural Transformations in Free-Standing CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Ronen; Gouda, Laxman; Kalanoor, Basanth S; Haltzi, Eynav; Tirosh, Shay; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Tischler, Yaakov; Zaban, Arie; Quarti, Claudio; Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo

    2015-06-18

    In the pursuit to better understand the mechanisms of perovskite solar cells we performed Raman and photoluminescence measurements of free-standing CH3NH3PbI3 films, comparing dark with working conditions. The films, grown on a glass substrate and sealed by a thin glass coverslip, were measured subsequent to dark and white-light pretreatments. The extremely slow changes we observe in both the Raman and photoluminescence cannot be regarded as electronic processes, which are much faster. Thus, the most probable explanation is of slow photoinduced structural changes. The CH3NH3PbI3 transformation between the dark and the light structures is reversible, with faster rates for the changes under illumination. The results seem to clarify several common observations associated with solar cell mechanisms, like performance improvement under light soaking. More important is the call for solar-cell-related investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 to take the photoinduced structural changes into consideration when measuring and interpreting the results.

  13. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer from Peroxide Dianion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bryce L; Maher, Andrew G; Nava, Matthew; Lopez, Nazario; Cummins, Christopher C; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-06-18

    The encapsulation of peroxide dianion by hexacarboxamide cryptand provides a platform for the study of electron transfer of isolated peroxide anion. Photoinitiated electron transfer (ET) between freely diffusing Ru(bpy)3(2+) and the peroxide dianion occurs with a rate constant of 2.0 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). A competing electron transfer quenching pathway is observed within an ion pair. Picosecond transient spectroscopy furnishes a rate constant of 1.1 × 10(10) s(-1) for this first-order process. A driving force dependence for the ET rate within the ion pair using a series of Ru(bpy)3(2+) derivatives allows for the electronic coupling and reorganization energies to be assessed. The ET reaction is nonadiabatic and dominated by a large inner-sphere reorganization energy, in accordance with that expected for the change in bond distance accompanying the conversion of peroxide dianion to superoxide anion.

  14. Photo-Induced Effect on Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Batanouny, M. H.; Amin, Rehab M.; Naga, M. I.; Ibrahim, M. K.

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial resistance against antibiotics is an increasing problem in medicine. This stimulates study of other bactericidal regimens, one of which is photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the killing of bacterial species by low power laser light (LLL) in the presence of photosensitizing agent. It has already been shown that, various gram- negative and gram-positive bacteria can be killed by photodynamic therapy in vitro, using exogenous sensitizers. The mechanisms of laser action on bacteria are not adequately understood. Here, PDT on H. pylori, as an example of gram negative bacteria was studied. The ultra structure changes of the organism after PDT were examined under electron microscope. Neither Irradiation with laser without sensitizer nor sensitizing without laser has any lethal effect on bacterial cells. However, the successful lethal photosensitization was achieved by applying certain laser dose with the corresponding concentration of the photosensitizer. On the other hand, PDT has no significant effect on the genomic DNA of the cells.

  15. Climate Change to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Expanding the spectral (14)CO(2) database for non-AMS Field Measurement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, B. D. V.; Odonnell, R. G.; Tolliver, D. E.

    2014-06-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is well known and universally employed for radiocarbon analysis but is not adaptable to in-situ field measurements limiting applications. 14CO2 is a key tracer for fossil fuel CO2 as well as for release of enriched 14CO2 characteristic of the nuclear fuel cycle with ∆14CO2 values ranging from -1000 to ˜+500 per mil. However, to exploit the full value of in situ 14CO2 data in diverse climate change and nuclear fuel cycle applications, high data rate temporal and spatial field measurement sensors and systems are required. The development of non-AMS methods based on quantum cascade laser, cavity ring down and optogalvanic spectroscopy are emerging applications but not fully developed for field use or widely accepted. Spectral data for lasing transitions for 14CO2 are lacking in contrast to HITRAN data available for 12CO2 (626) and 13CO2 (636) (among other isotopologues 628, 638, etc.) in the spectral databases limiting development and innovation in non-AMS 14CO2 sensors and systems. We review the corpus of 14CO2 spectral data available in the literature and document grating tuned isotopic lasers (e.g., Freed 19901; Bradley et al., 19862), well suited for expanded spectral studies of 14CO2 and inclusion in the HITRAN database. Non-AMS 14CO2 approaches are reviewed with suggestions for future work to support field systems for 14CO2 measurements. Available isotopic lasers for 14CO2 collaborative studies are described.

  16. Structure of poly(ethylene glycol)-modified horseradish peroxidase in organic solvents: infrared amide I spectral changes upon protein dehydration are largely caused by protein structural changes and not by water removal per se.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzam, Wasfi; Pastrana, Emil A; Ferrer, Yancy; Huang, Qing; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Griebenow, Kai

    2002-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to guide the development of stable lyophilized protein formulations by providing information on the structure of proteins in amorphous solids. The underlying assumption is that IR spectral changes in the amide I and III region upon protein dehydration are caused by protein structural changes. However, it has been claimed that amide I IR spectral changes could be the result of water removal per se. Here, we investigated whether such claims hold true. The structure of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and poly(ethylene glycol)-modified HRP (HRP-PEG) has been investigated under various conditions (in aqueous solution, the amorphous dehydrated state, and dissolved/suspended in toluene and benzene) by UV-visible (UV-Vis), FTIR, and resonance Raman spectroscopy. The resonance Raman and UV-Vis spectra of dehydrated HRP-PEG dissolved in neat toluene or benzene were very similar to that of HRP in aqueous buffer, and thus the heme environment (heme iron spin, coordination, and redox state) was essentially the same under both conditions. Therefore, the three-dimensional structure of HRP-PEG dissolved in benzene and toluene was similar to that in aqueous solution. The amide I IR spectra of HRP-PEG in aqueous buffer and of dehydrated HRP-PEG dissolved in neat benzene and toluene were also very similar, and the secondary structure compositions (percentages of alpha-helices and beta-sheets) were within the standard error the same. These results are irreconcilable with recent claims that water removal per se could cause substantial amide I IR spectral changes (M. van de Weert, P.I. Haris, W.E. Hennink, and D.J. Crommelin. 2001. Anal. Biochem. 297:160-169). On the contrary, amide I IR spectral changes upon protein dehydration are caused by perturbations in the secondary structure. PMID:12496131

  17. Photoinduced aging and viscosity evolution in Se-rich Ge-Se glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gueguen, Yann; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Rouxel, Tanguy; King, Ellyn A.; Lucas, Pierre; Keryvin, Vincent; Bureau, Bruno

    2013-08-21

    We propose here to investigate the non-equilibrium viscosity of Ge-Se glasses under and after light irradiation. Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90} and Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80} fibers have been aged in the dark and under ambient light, over months. During aging, both the relaxation of enthalpy and the viscosity have been investigated. The viscosity was measured by shear relaxation-recovery tests allowing the measurement of non-equilibrium viscosity. When Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90} glass fibers are aged under irradiation, a relatively fast fictive temperature decrease is observed. Concomitantly, during aging under irradiation, the non-equilibrium viscosity increases and reaches an equilibrium after two months of aging. This viscosity increase is also observed in Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80} fibers. Nevertheless, this equilibrium viscosity is far below the viscosity expected at the configurational equilibrium. As soon as the irradiation ceases, the viscosity increases almost instantaneously by about one order of magnitude. Then, if the fibers are kept in the dark, their viscosity slowly increases over months. The analysis of the shear relaxation functions shows that the aging is thermorheologically simple. On the other side, there is no simple relaxation between the shear relaxation functions measured under irradiation and those measured in the dark. These results clearly suggest that a very specific photoinduced aging process occurs under irradiation. This aging is due to photorelaxation. Nevertheless, the viscosity changes are not solely correlated to photoaging and photorelaxation. A scenario is proposed to explain all the observed viscosity evolutions under and after irradiation, on the basis of photoinduced transient defects.

  18. Dynamics of photoinduced reactions at oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shamery, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes our work on UV-laser induced desorption of small molecules and atoms from transition metal oxides. The systems presented serve as examples for a simple photochemical reaction, the fission of the molecule surface bond. State resolved detection methods were used to record the final state distributions of the desorbing neutral molecules. Detailed results on the systems NO/NiO(1 1 1) and CO/Cr2O3(0 0 0 1) are presented. The experiments include investigations on stereodynamic aspects like the angular distributions of the desorbing molecules and, in the case of CO desorption, the rotational alignment with respect to the surface normal. Large desorption cross sections of (6±1) ṡ 10-17 cm2 for NO and (3.5±1) ṡ 10-17 cm2 for CO have been found for the desorption at 6.4 eV. The wavelength dependence indicates that the primary excitation step is substrate induced. The final state distributions show a high degree of translational, rotational and vibrational excitation and are clearly nonthermal of origin. The results are consistent with the formation of a negative ion intermediate state of the adsorbate. This observation is supported from a comparison to former results on NO/NiO(1 0 0) for which extensive ab initio calculations including electronically excited states exist. A spin state dependence of the vibrational excitation of NO could only be observed for NO/NiO(1 1 1) and is absent for NO/NiO(1 0 0). We attribute this observation to a spin state dependent coupling of the desorbing molecule to the surface in case the spin lattice orientation of the surface shows a preferential orientation. In the (1 1 1) plane the spin orientation is parallel within neighbour nickel ions while it is alternating in the (1 0 0) plane. For both systems studied the velocity component parallel to the surface is constant leading to a strong peaking along the surface normal for the fast molecules. The change from a preferred helicopter rotation (angular momentum

  19. Monitoring of drug and stimulation induced cerebral blood flow velocity changes in rat sensory cortex using spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Yang, Yong; Ding, Zhihua; Meng, Jie; Wang, Kai; Yang, Wenwei; Xu, Ying

    2011-04-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) provides a novel method to measure blood flow velocity in vessels with diameter at micrometer scale. In this study, a developed spectral domain DOCT system is applied to monitor cerebral blood flow velocity changes in a rat. An animal model with a cranial window is used, and by application of a drug, light, and electric stimulations, changes in blood flow velocity of the pial artery in sensory cortex are measured in real time. The results show significant differences in blood flow velocity before and after drug administration or light and electric stimulations, demonstrating the feasibility of DOCT in cerebral microcirculation study. Given its noninvasive nature, high spatial resolution, high velocity sensitivity, and high imaging speed, DOCT shows great promise in brain research by imaging blood flow changes at micrometer scale vessels, which helps to understand the pathogenesis of cerebral diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Photo-induced oxidation of Sb(III) on goethite.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Ting-Ting; Cui, Xiao-Dan; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Goethite widely exists in soils and sediments, and plays a very important role in the environmental fate of toxic metal(loid)s. In the present study, photo-induced oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] on goethite was investigated with kinetic measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Effects of environmental factors including solution pH, the content of goethite as well as humic acid on the photo-induced oxidation of antimonite were tested. The results indicated that no oxidation of antimonite occurred in goethite suspension in the dark, but significant amounts of antimonite were transformed to antimonate when the suspension was exposed to light. Ferrous ions were found in the solution during the antimonite oxidation process, and its concentration decreased with increasing solution pH, which strongly affected the oxidation rate of antimonite. The initial solution pH has great impact on Sb oxidation. After 2h illumination, the highest oxidation rate was found at pH 3, while the initial oxidation rate was even higher at pH 9. In conclusion, the antimonite can be adsorbed and oxidized on goethite irradiated with light, which will greatly reduce its environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoinduced Kondo effect in CeZn3P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, J.; Kitajima, D.; Shimokawa, K.; Takaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Kondo effect, which originates from the screening of a localized magnetic moment by a spin-spin interaction, is widely observed in nonartificial magnetic materials, artificial quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes. In devices based on quantum dots or carbon nanotubes that target quantum information applications, the Kondo effect can be tuned by a gate voltage, a magnetic field, or light. However, the manipulation of the Kondo effect in nonartificial materials has not been thoroughly studied; in particular, the artificial creation of the Kondo effect remains unexplored. Per this subject study, however, a route for the optical creation of the Kondo effect in the nonartificial material p -type semiconductor CeZn3P3 is presented. The Kondo effect emerges under visible-light illumination of the material by a continuous-wave laser diode and is ultimately revealed by photoinduced electrical resistivity, which clearly exhibits a logarithmic temperature dependency. By contrast, a La-based compound (LaZn3P3 ) displays only normal metallic behavior under similar illumination. The photoinduced Kondo effect, which occurs at higher temperatures when compared with the Kondo effect in artificial systems, provides a potential range of operation for not only quantum information/computation devices but also for operation of magneto-optic devices, thereby expanding the range of device applications based on the Kondo effect.

  2. Overview of photo-induced therapy for ATP production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Nagy, A.; Ye, W. N.; Mussivand, T.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of the effects of low-power photo-induced therapy using lasers of different device parameters such as intensity, wavelength, lasing mechanism (i.e., pulsed or continuous) on the production of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mammalian cells. This is a very important research topic as it is suggested in literature that there might be a relationship between the ATP levels and specific diseases. It has been shown that the ATP production was enhanced at wavelengths ranging between 600 nm and 1000 nm (also known as the optical window), in particular at 600nm, 632.8nm, 635nm, 650nm, and 904nm. However, certain experiments showed that the effectiveness of the photo-induced therapy was also dependent on the dosage and the duration of the supplied light. We present the research conclusions drawn from the experiments reported within the last decade, and provide a list of potential medical treatment(s) for patients using visible and near infrared (NIR) light.

  3. Photoinduced development of antibacterial materials derived from isosorbide moiety.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Cedric; Haider, Adnan; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Sangermano, Marco; Abbad-Andalloussi, Samir; Mazeran, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lalevée, Jacques; Renard, Estelle; Langlois, Valérie; Versace, Davy-Louis

    2015-03-09

    A straightforward method for immobilizing in situ generated silver nanoparticles on the surface of a photoactivable isosorbide-derived monomer is developed with the objective to design a functional material having antibacterial properties. The photoinduced thiol-ene mechanism involved in these syntheses is described by the electron spin resonance/spin trapping technique. The resulting materials with or without silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were used as films or as coatings on glass substrate. The surface of the synthesized materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and their thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated by dynamic-mechanical thermal tests, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analyses, along with pencil hardness, nanoindentation, and scratch resistance tests. The photoinduced formation of Ag NPs is also confirmed by UV spectrophotometry. Finally, a primary investigation demonstrates the antibacterial properties of the isosorbide-derived material against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as well as its cytocompatibility toward NIH 3T3 fibroblastic cells.

  4. Photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.; Penzkofer, A.

    2007-01-01

    The photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous solutions is studied by absorption spectra measurement under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Samples without exogenous reducing agent and with the exogenous reducing agents ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) are investigated. Under anaerobic conditions the photo-induced reduction with and without reducing agents is irreversible. Under aerobic conditions the photo-reduction without added reducing agent is small compared to the photo-degradation, and the photo-reduction of FMN by the reducing agents is reversible (re-oxidation in the dark). During photo-excitation of FMN the dissolved oxygen is consumed by singlet oxygen formation and subsequent chemical reaction. After light switch-off slow re-oxidation (slow absorption recovery) occurs due to air in-diffusion from surface. EDTA degradation by FMN excitation leads to oxygen scavenging. The quantum efficiencies of photo-reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are determined. The re-oxidation of reduced FMN under aerobic conditions and due to air injection is investigated.

  5. Model for photoinduced bending of slender molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Nath, Naba K; Pejov, Ljupčo; Nichols, Shane M; Hu, Chunhua; Saleh, Na'il; Kahr, Bart; Naumov, Panče

    2014-02-19

    The growing realization that photoinduced bending of slender photoreactive single crystals is surprisingly common has inspired researchers to control crystal motility for actuation. However, new mechanically responsive crystals are reported at a greater rate than their quantitative photophysical characterization; a quantitative identification of measurable parameters and molecular-scale factors that determine the mechanical response has yet to be established. Herein, a simple mathematical description of the quasi-static and time-dependent photoinduced bending of macroscopic single crystals is provided. This kinetic model goes beyond the approximate treatment of a bending crystal as a simple composite bilayer. It includes alternative pathways for excited-state decay and provides a more accurate description of the bending by accounting for the spatial gradient in the product/reactant ratio. A new crystal form (space group P21/n) of the photoresponsive azo-dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) is analyzed within the constraints of the aforementioned model. The crystal bending kinetics depends on intrinsic factors (crystal size) and external factors (excitation time, direction, and intensity).

  6. Photoinduced giant magnetic polarons in EuTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, A. B.; Naupa, A. R.; Usachev, P. A.; Pavlov, V. V.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.

    2017-01-01

    Photoinduced magnetic polarons in EuTe, with a magnetic moment of several hundred Bohr magnetons, were investigated as a function of pump intensity and temperature by pump-probe Faraday rotation. The quantum efficiency for optical generation of magnetic polarons is found to be 0.09. The pump-intensity dependence of the photoinduced Faraday rotation shows a sublinear increase, from which we deduce that the population of photoexcited polarons is limited by a maximum value of 4.5 ×1015cm-3 . This is four orders of magnitude less than the concentration of polarons that would completely fill the crystal, which suggests that the photoexcited polarons are anchored by defects. In addition to the generation of polarons, at high pump densities the modulated pump light also causes a small alternating heating of the illuminated region. The temperature dependence of the polaron magnetic moment is well described by the Curie-Weiss law. Above 100 K, polarons are thermally quenched with an activation energy of 11 meV.

  7. Millisecond Photoinduced Absorption Studies of Pyridine-Based Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplin, K. A.; Clark, D. T.; Jessen, S. W.; Epstein, A. J.; Fu, D.-K.; Swager, T. M.

    1997-03-01

    We present a study of the photoexcited states in copolymers of poly(p-pyridyl vinylene) and poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPyVPR_iV) with sidegroups R_1=C_12H_25 or R_2=COOC_12H_25 attached at the 2 and 5 positions of the phenyl ring. Previous studies discussed the millisecond photoinduced absorption (ms PA) characteristics of PPyVPR_iV powders(S.W. Jessen et al.), Synth. Met., in press.. In particular, triplet-triplet (T-T) transitions were observed at 1.6 eV for both materials. Additional polaron signatures were also observed in both the electronic ( ~ 0.85 eV) and infrared (1100 - 1600 cm-1) regions of the photoinduced spectrum. We compare these powder results with ms PA features for film morphologies of both the copolymers. We observe a weaker ( ~ 10X) T-T^* transition for copolymer films cast from xylene solution indicating a reduction in triplet exciton production as compared to powder samples. These results are contrasted with the behavior we reported(S.W. Jessen et al.), to be published. earlier for film and powder samples of the parent polymer poly(p-pyridyl vinylene).

  8. Spectral stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  9. Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulakis, I.; Bais, A. F.; Fragkos, K.; Meleti, C.; Tourpali, K.; Zempila, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the short- and the long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece using a long, quality-controlled data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers. Long-term changes in spectral UV irradiance at 307.5, 324 and 350 nm for the period 1994-2014 are presented for different solar zenith angles and discussed in association to changes in total ozone column (TOC), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloudiness observed in the same period. Positive changes in annual mean anomalies of UV irradiance, ranging from 2 to 6 % per decade, have been detected both for clear- and all-sky conditions. The changes are generally greater for larger solar zenith angles and for shorter wavelengths. For clear skies, these changes are, in most cases, statistically significant at the 95 % confidence limit. Decreases in the aerosol load and weakening of the attenuation by clouds lead to increases in UV irradiance in the summer, of 7-9 % per decade for 64° solar zenith angle. The increasing TOC in winter counteracts the effect of decreasing AOD for this particular season, leading to small, statistically insignificant, negative long-term changes in irradiance at 307.5 nm. Annual mean UV irradiance levels are increasing from 1994 to 2006 and remain relatively stable thereafter, possibly due to the combined changes in the amount and optical properties of aerosols. However, no statistically significant corresponding turning point has been detected in the long-term changes of AOD. Trends in irradiance during the two sub-periods are not discussed, because the length of the two datasets is too short for deriving statistically significant estimates. The absence of signatures of changes in AOD in the short-term variability of irradiance in the UV-A may have been caused by changes in the single scattering albedo of aerosols, which may counteract the effects of changes in AOD on irradiance. The anti-correlation between the year-to-year variability of the

  10. Origin of the photoinduced current of strongly correlated YMnO3 ferroelectric epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kohei; Zhang, Lejun; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ashida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the photoinduced carrier generation and the carrier emission resulting in a photoinduced current using strongly correlated YMnO3 ferroelectric thin films. The unipolar material YMnO3 is suitable for studying the effect of the ferroelectric polarization on the photoinduced current. A clear relationship between the direction of the polarization and the photoinduced current was recognized using (0001)YMnO3 epitaxial films. The current switching corresponding to the polarization switching is also observed under white light illumination. To study the origin of the photoinduced current that originated from the photoinduced carrier generation, the light energy dependence of the photoinduced current was investigated. A small peak at 1.75 eV and a broad peak at around 2.5 eV are observed at room temperature. The peak at 1.75 eV corresponds to the optical absorption at 1.7 eV generated by the electron transition between the Mn 3d (xy,x2 - y2) (e2g state)/O 2p hybridized band and upper Mn 3d (3z 2 ‑ r 2) (a1g state) orbital. The broad peak of the photoinduced current corresponds to the broad photoluminescence excitation spectrum at around 2.5 eV, which is never observed in absorption measurement but reported as the hidden optical channel. The origin of the photoinduced current of YMnO3 is discussed in relation to the carrier generation and the emission processes.

  11. Microfluidic photoinduced chemical oxidation for Ru(bpy)3(3+) chemiluminescence - A comprehensive experimental comparison with on-chip direct chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kadavilpparampu, Afsal Mohammed; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O

    2017-08-05

    For the first time, the analytical figures of merit in detection capabilities of the very less explored photoinduced chemical oxidation method for Ru(bpy)3(2+) CL has been investigated in detail using 32 structurally different analytes. It was carried out on-chip using peroxydisulphate and visible light and compared with well-known direct chemical oxidation approaches using Ce(IV). The analytes belong to various chemical classes such as tertiary amine, secondary amine, sulphonamide, betalactam, thiol and benzothiadiazine. Influence of detection environment on CL emission with respect to method of oxidation was evaluated by changing the buffers and pH. The photoinduced chemical oxidation exhibited more universal nature for Ru(bpy)3(2+) CL in detection towards selected analytes. No additional enhancers, reagents, or modification in instrumental configuration were required. Wide detectability and enhanced emission has been observed for analytes from all the chemical classes when photoinduced chemical oxidation was employed. Some of these analytes are reported for the first time under photoinduced chemical oxidation like compounds from sulphonamide, betalactam, thiol and benzothiadiazine class. On the other hand, many of the selected analytes including tertiary and secondary amines such as cetirizine, azithromycin fexofenadine and proline did not produced any analytically useful CL signal (S/N=3 or above for 1μgmL(-1) analyte) under chemical oxidation. The most fascinating observations was in the detection limits; for example ofloxacin was 15 times more intense with a detection limit of 5.81×10(-10)M compared to most lowest ever reported 6×10(-9)M. Earlier, penicillamine was detected at 0.1μgmL(-1) after derivatization using photoinduced chemical oxidation, but in this study, we improved it to 5.82ngmL(-1) without any prior derivatization. The detection limits of many other analytes were also found to be improved by several orders of magnitude under photoinduced

  12. Persistent photoinduced modifications in the phase-separated states of L a2 -2 xS r1 +2 xM n2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Zhongwen; Zhang, Ruixin; Wei, Linlin; Guo, Cong; Zheng, Dingguo; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi

    2016-11-01

    Reentrant charge-ordering transition (RCOT) in the bilayered perovskite manganite L a2 -2 xS r1 +2 xM n2O7 can yield observable changes in both the structural and physical properties associated with phase separation. Our recent measurements show that laser illumination can result in persistent modifications of both the resistance and microstructure in the phase-separated (PS) states. Measurements of photoinduced effects on an x =0.6 sample reveal a persistent increase of the resistance by as much as 40%. Low-temperature laser in situ transmission electron microscope observations clearly show that in situ laser irradiation can modify the PS nature and strengthen the charge-ordered state. We attribute these photoinduced phenomena to the optical modulation of the hole concentration in the Mn O2 layers and the alteration of the local Mn orbital configurations in the PS states.

  13. Anisotropic photo-induced magnetism of a Rb_jCo_k[Fe(CN)_6]_l\\cdotnH_2O thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.-H.; Čižmár, E.; Meisel, M. W.; Frye, F.; Lane, S.; Huh, Y. D.; Talham, D. R.

    2004-11-01

    A magneto-optically active thin film of Rb_jCo_k[Fe(CN)_6]_l\\cdotnH_2O has been prepared using a sequential assembly method^a. Upon irradiation with light and at 5 K, the net magnetization of the film increased when the surface of the film was oriented parallel to the external magnetic field of 0.1 T. However, when the surface of the film was perpendicular to the field, the net magnetization phdecreased upon irradiation. The presence of dipolar fields and the low-dimensional nature of the system are used to describe the orientation dependence of the photo-induced magnetization. The ability to increase or decrease the photo-induced magnetization by changing the orientation of the system with respect to the field is a new phenomenon that may be useful in future device applications. ^aJ.-H. Park phet al., preprint, arXiv:cond-mat/0406173.

  14. Photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Anu Sridharbabu, Y. Quamara, J. K.

    2014-10-15

    The photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide have been investigated for different applied electric fields at 200°C. Particularly the effect of illumination intensity on the maximum current obtained as a result of photoinduced polarization has been studied. Samples were irradiated by using PELLETRON facility, IUAC, New Delhi. The photo-carrier charge generation depends directly on intensity of illumination. The samples irradiated at higher fluence show a decrease in the peak current with intensity of illumination. The secondary radiation induced crystallinity (SRIC) is responsible for the increase in maximum photoinduced currents generated with intensity of illumination.

  15. Spatial, spectral and temporal patterns of tropical forest cover change as observed with multiple scales of optical satellite data.

    Treesearch

    D.J. Hayes; W.B. Cohen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a methodology for scaling observations of changes in tropical forest cover to large areas at high temporal frequency from coarse-resolution satellite imagery. The approach for estimating proportional forest cover change as a continuous variable is based on a regression model that relates multispectral, multitemporal Moderate...

  16. Change in the activity character of the coronae of low-mass stars of various spectral types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamov, B. A.; Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    We study the dependence of the coronal activity index on the stellar rotation velocity. This question has been considered previously for 824 late-type stars on the basis of a consolidated catalogue of soft X-ray fluxes. We carry out a more refined analysis separately for G, K, and M dwarfs. Two modes of activity are clearly identified in them. The first is the saturation mode, is characteristic of young stars, and is virtually independent of their rotation. The second refers to the solar-type activity whose level strongly depends on the rotation period. We show that the transition from one mode to the other occurs at rotation periods of 1.1, 3.3, and 7.2 days for stars of spectral types G2, K4, and M3, respectively. In light of the discovery of superflares on G and K stars from the Kepler spacecraft, the question arises as to what distinguishes these objects from the remaining active late-type stars. We analyze the positions of superflare stars relative to the remaining stars observed by Kepler on the "amplitude of rotational brightness modulation (ARM)—rotation period" diagram. The ARM reflects the relative spots area on a star and characterizes the activity level in the entire atmosphere. G and K superflare stars are shown to be basically rapidly rotating young objects, but some of them belong to the stars with the solar type of activity.

  17. Light-Induced Spectral Absorbance Changes in Relation to Photosynthesis and the Epoxidation State of Xanthophyll Cycle Components in Cotton Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Bilger, Wolfgang; Björkman, Olle; Thayer, Susan S.

    1989-01-01

    When cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv Acaia SJC-1) leaves kept in weak light were suddenly exposed to strong red actinic light a spectral absorbance change took place having the following prominent characteristics. (a) It was irreversible within the first four minute period after darkening. (b) The difference in leaf absorbance between illuminated and predarkened leaves had a major peak at 505 nanometers, a minor peak at 465 nanometers, a shoulder around 515 nanometers, and minor troughs at 455 and 480 nanometers. (c) On the basis of its spectral and kinetic characteristics this absorbance change can be readily distinguished from the much faster electrochromic shift which has a peak at 515 nanometers, from the slow, so-called light-scattering change which has a broad peak centered around 535 nanometers and is reversed upon darkening, and from absorbance changes associated with light-induced chloroplast rearrangements. (d) The extent and time course of this absorbance change closely matched that of the deepoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin in the same leaves. (e) Both the absorbance change and the ability to form zeaxanthin were completely blocked in leaves to which dithiothreitol (DTT) had been provided through the cut petlole. DTT treatment also caused strong inhibition of that component of the 535-nanometer absorbance change which is reversed in less than 4 minutes upon darkening and considered to be caused by increased light scattering. Moreover, DTT inhibited a large part of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in the presence of excessive light. However, DTT had no detectable effect on the photon yield of photosynthesis measured under strictly rate-limiting photon flux densities or on the light-saturated photosynthetic capacity, at least in the short term. We conclude that it is possible to monitor light-induced violaxanthin de-epoxidation in green intact leaves by measurement of the absorbance change at 505 nanometers. Determination

  18. Collision Induced Velocity Changes from Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Application to the Spectral Shape of the Q(1) Raman Lines of H{_2}/H{_2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H.; Hartmann, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    Collision induced velocity changes for pure H{_2} have been computed from classical dynamic simulations. The results have been compared with the Keilson-Storer model from four different points of view. The first involves various autocorrelation functions associated with the velocity. The second and third give more detailed information, and are time evolutions of some conditional probabilities for changes of the velocity modulus and orientation and the collision kernels themselves. The fourth considers the evolutions, with density, of the half widths of the Q(1) lines of the isotropic Raman (1-0) fundamental band and of the (2-0) overtone quadrupole band. These spectroscopic data enable an indirect test of the models since velocity changes translate into line-shape modifications through the speed dependence of collisional parameters and the Dicke narrowing of the Doppler contribution to the profile. The results indicate that, while the KS approach gives a poor description of detailed velocity-to-velocty changes, it leads to accurate results for the correlation functions and spectral shapes, quantities related to large averages over the velocity. It is also shown that the use of collision kernels directly derived from MDS lead to an almost perfect prediction of all considered quantities (correlation functions, conditional probabilities, and spectral shapes). Finally, the results stress the need for very accurate calculations of line-broadening and -shifting coefficients from the intermolecular potential to obviate the need for experimental data and permit fully meaningful tests of the models. H. Tran, J.M. Hartmann J. Chem. Phys. 130, 094301, 2009.

  19. Enhancement of Photoinduced Charge-Order Melting via Anisotropy Control by Double-Pulse Excitation in Perovskite Manganites: Pr_{0.6}Ca_{0.4}MnO_{3}.

    PubMed

    Yada, H; Ijiri, Y; Uemura, H; Tomioka, Y; Okamoto, H

    2016-02-19

    To control the efficiency of photoinduced charge-order melting in perovskite manganites, we performed femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy using double-pulse excitation on Pr_{0.6}Ca_{0.4}MnO_{3}. The results revealed that the transfer of the spectral weight from the near-infrared to infrared region by the second pump pulse is considerably enhanced by the first pump pulse and that the suppression of crystal anisotropy, that is, the decrease of long-range lattice deformations due to the charge order by the first pump pulse is a key factor to enhance the charge-order melting. This double-pulse excitation method can be applied to various photoinduced transitions in complex materials with electronic and structural instabilities.

  20. Photo-kinetics of photoinduced transformation reaction of methylene green with titanium trichloride in different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Syed Muhammad Saqib; Saeed, Rehana

    2017-08-01

    The photo-kinetics of photoinduced transformation reaction of methylene green and titanium trichloride was investigated in water and different aqueous-alcoholic solvents. The reaction is pseudo-first order, dependent only on the concentration of titanium trichloride at fixed concentration of methylene green. The effect of water and aqueous-alcoholic solvents was studied in the acidic range from 4 to 7. It was observed that the quantum yield (φ) of reaction increased with increase in polarity of the solvent. The quantum yield (φ) was high in acidic condition and decreased with further increase in acidity. The quantum yield (φ) increased sharply with increase in concentration of titanium trichloride while it almost remained unaffected by change in concentration of methylene green. The addition of ions increased the quantum yield (φ) of reaction. The increase in temperature decreased the rate and quantum yield (φ) of reaction. An electron transfer mechanism for the reaction has been proposed in accordance with the kinetics of reaction. The absence of any reaction intermediate was confirmed by spectroscopic investigations. Activation energy ( E a) was calculated by Arrhenius relation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H), free energy change (Δ G) and entropy change (Δ S) were also evaluated.

  1. Dual-Energy CT-Based Differentiation of Benign Posttreatment Changes From Primary or Recurrent Malignancy of the Head and Neck: Comparison of Spectral Hounsfield Units at 40 and 70 keV and Iodine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hideomi; Buehler, Mark; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Keshavarzi, Nahid; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2016-03-01

    The goals of our study were to evaluate dual-energy CT (DECT) differences between benign posttreatment changes and primary or recurrent head and neck malignancies in terms of spectral Hounsfield units for virtual monochromatic series at 40 keV and iodine concentration and compare their utility with that of spectral Hounsfield units at 70 keV. A retrospective review of patients with a history of head and neck malignancy evaluated with DECT of the neck from November 2012 through December 2014 revealed 16 patients with benign posttreatment changes and 24 with malignancies (17 primary tumors and seven recurrent tumors). One reader placed ROIs within benign posttreatment changes or malignant tumors in each patient to generate spectral Hounsfield units at 40 keV, iodine concentration, and spectral Hounsfield units at 70 keV, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to evaluate the differences between the two cohorts. ROC curves were also generated, and AUC and partial AUC were calculated at the three following specificities: 75%, 80%, and 90%. Malignant tissues were significantly different from benign posttreatment changes in spectral Hounsfield units at 40 keV (p < 0.0001), iodine concentration (p < 0.0001), and spectral Hounsfield units at 70 keV (p = 0.0001). The AUCs were 0.949, 0.943, and 0.858 for spectral Hounsfield units at 40 keV, iodine concentration, and spectral Hounsfield units at 70 keV, respectively. Both spectral Hounsfield units at 40 keV and iodine concentration had statistically higher partial AUCs than spectral Hounsfield units at 70 keV at 90% specificity (p = 0.0133 and 0.0063, respectively) but were not significantly different from each other. DECT-derived spectral Hounsfield units at 40 keV and iodine concentration may be superior to spectral Hounsfield units at 70 keV, which is similar to MDCT, in differentiating benign posttreatment changes from primary or recurrent head and neck malignancies.

  2. Scanning laser polarimetry and spectral domain optical coherence tomography for the detection of retinal changes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Stemplewitz, Birthe; Keserü, Matthias; Bittersohl, Diana; Buhmann, Carsten; Skevas, Christos; Richard, Gisbert; Hassenstein, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Whether retinal degeneration is part of the degenerative processes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the retinal morphology of patients with PD and healthy controls using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). Both eyes of patients with PD (n = 108) and healthy controls (n = 165) were examined using SD-OCT and SLP on the same day. Data on the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) of all quadrants and the macular area were acquired by OCT (Cirrus, Zeiss). The SLP device (Glaucoma diagnostics (GDx), Zeiss) measured the RNFL and calculated the nerve fibre index (NFI). All patients and probands were checked for concomitant ocular disorders by an ophthalmologist. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), objective refraction and the anterior and posterior segment were assessed. Patients with PD showed a reduced macular volume and a reduced central subfield thickness in OCT examinations. The RNFL in the different quadrants did not differ significantly from that of controls. SLP data showed a reduced average RNFL thickness, a decreased thickness of the inferior quadrant and an increase of the NFI in patients with PD. PD may be associated with reduced thickness and volume of the macula and a reduced thickness of the RNFL in the inferior quadrant of the retina. Investigations using SD-OCT and SLP revealed distinct but significant differences between patients with PD and healthy controls. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pressure-induced spectral changes for the special-pair radical cation of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

    PubMed

    Leiger, Kristjan; Freiberg, Arvi; Dahlbom, Mats G; Hush, Noel S; Reimers, Jeffrey R

    2007-06-07

    The effect of pressure up to 6 kbars on the near to mid infrared absorption spectrum (7500-14,300 cm(-1) or 1333-700 nm) of the oxidized reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is measured and interpreted using density-functional B3LYP, INDO, and PM5 calculations. Two weak electronic transition origins at approximately 8010 and approximately 10,210 cm(-1) are unambiguously identified. The first transition is assigned to a Qy tripdoublet band that involves, in the localized description of the excitation, a triplet absorption on one of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules (PM) in the reaction center's special pair intensified by the presence of a radical cation on the other (PL). While most chlorophyll transition energies decrease significantly with increasing pressure, the tripdoublet band is found to be almost pressure insensitive. This difference is attributed to the additional increase in the tripdoublet-band energy accompanying compression of the pi-stacked special pair. The second band could either be the anticipated second Qy tripdoublet state, a Qx tripdoublet state, or a state involving excitation from a low-lying doubly occupied orbital to the half-occupied cationic orbital. A variety of absorption bands that are also resolved in the 8300-9600 cm(-1) region are assigned as vibrational structure associated with the first tripdoublet absorption. These sidebands are composites that are shown by the calculations to comprise many unresolved individual modes; while the calculated pressure sensitivity of each individual mode is small, the calculated pressure dependence of the combined sideband structure is qualitatively similar to the observed pressure dependence, preventing the positive identification of possible additional electronic transitions in this spectral region.

  4. Pressure-induced spectral changes for the special-pair radical cation of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiger, Kristjan; Freiberg, Arvi; Dahlbom, Mats G.; Hush, Noel S.; Reimers, Jeffrey R.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of pressure up to 6kbars on the near to mid infrared absorption spectrum (7500-14300cm-1 or 1333-700nm) of the oxidized reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is measured and interpreted using density-functional B3LYP, INDO, and PM5 calculations. Two weak electronic transition origins at ˜8010 and ˜10210cm-1 are unambiguously identified. The first transition is assigned to a Qy tripdoublet band that involves, in the localized description of the excitation, a triplet absorption on one of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules (PM) in the reaction center's special pair intensified by the presence of a radical cation on the other (PL). While most chlorophyll transition energies decrease significantly with increasing pressure, the tripdoublet band is found to be almost pressure insensitive. This difference is attributed to the additional increase in the tripdoublet-band energy accompanying compression of the π-stacked special pair. The second band could either be the anticipated second Qy tripdoublet state, a Qx tripdoublet state, or a state involving excitation from a low-lying doubly occupied orbital to the half-occupied cationic orbital. A variety of absorption bands that are also resolved in the 8300-9600cm-1 region are assigned as vibrational structure associated with the first tripdoublet absorption. These sidebands are composites that are shown by the calculations to comprise many unresolved individual modes; while the calculated pressure sensitivity of each individual mode is small, the calculated pressure dependence of the combined sideband structure is qualitatively similar to the observed pressure dependence, preventing the positive identification of possible additional electronic transitions in this spectral region.

  5. Photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, P.; Harrington, K.J.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in switching FEL beams has motivated studies of photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared. We are particularly interested in Ge{sup 4}, GaAs, and Si{sup 5}, materials that can be pumped with a visible or near-IR conventional laser and which together cover the wavelengths from 3-100{mu}m. We have made quantitative measurements to determine the induced reflectivity, carrier lifetime, and transient absorption of these materials at several wavelengths across this range using a variety of pump laser wavelengths and pulse lengths. These measurements allow us to determine the feasibility of single pulse selection and cavity dumping with our FELs at high repetition rates.

  6. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-05-01

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  7. DNA Intercalated Psoralen Undergoes Efficient Photoinduced Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Fröbel, Sascha; Reiffers, Anna; Torres Ziegenbein, Christian; Gilch, Peter

    2015-04-02

    The interaction of psoralens with DNA has been used for therapeutic and research purposes for decades. Still the photoinduced behavior of psoralens in DNA has never been observed directly. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is used here to gain direct insight into the photophysics of a DNA-intercalated psoralen (4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethyl-psoralen (AMT)). Intercalation reduces the excited singlet lifetime of AMT to 4 ps compared with 1400 ps for AMT in water. This singlet quenching prohibits the population of the triplet state that is accessed in free AMT. Instead, a DNA to AMT electron transfer takes place. The resulting radical pair decays primarily via charge recombination with a time constant of 30 ps. The efficient electron transfer observed here reveals a completely new aspect of the psoralen-DNA interaction.

  8. Photoinduced Acrylate Polymerization: Unexpected Reduction in Chain Branching.

    PubMed

    Wenn, Benjamin; Reekmans, Gunter; Adriaensens, Peter; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The branching stemming from midchain radical formation in n-butyl acrylate polymerization is investigated via melt-state (13) C NMR measurements. The dependence of the degree of branching (DB) on the monomer conversion of the system is examined for photoinduced polymerizations, revealing a steady increase in branching with conversion. For polymerization at moderate light intensities, an increase in branching from 0.03% to 0.37% is observed for polymerizations at 60 °C, which is fivefold below the level of branching observed in thermally initiated polymerizations under otherwise identical reaction conditions. The reason for this overall reduction in branching remains momentarily unclear; yet, a strong dependence of branching on light intensity is observed. While polymerization under a 1 W LED lamp results at almost full monomer conversion in branching degrees of 0.22%, polymerization under a 400 W lamp yields 1.81% of chain branches.

  9. Photoinduced Magnetization in a Thin Fe-CN-Co Film.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Y. D.; Talham, D. R.; Park, J.-H.; Meisel, M. W.

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the photoinduced magnetization of a new low dimensional system, a thin film of a Prussian blue derivative, Rb_jCo_k[Fe(CN)_6]_l. This film was synthesized by the sequential depositions of Rb^+/Co^2+ and [Fe(CN)_6]^3- ions on the surface of a templated Fe-CN-Co monolayer. In this novel 2D system, high spin states of the Fe and Co spins interact antiferromagnetically and experience long range ordering below 20 K. The spins form domains that exhibit behavior consistent with a cluster spin-glass description. Upon illumination with light, the population of the high spin states increases, resulting in a rapid increase of the magnetization of the film and a modification of the cluster spin-glass properties.

  10. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou; Liu, Shengzhong

    2016-05-02

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  11. Method for characterizing bulk recombination using photoinduced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nora M.; Sandén, Simon; Sandberg, Oskar J.; Österbacka, Ronald

    2017-03-01

    The influence of reaction order and trap-assisted recombination on continuous-wave photoinduced absorption measurements is clarified through analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The results reveal the characteristic influence of different trap distributions and enable distinguishing between shallow exponential and Gaussian distributions and systems dominated by direct recombination by analyzing the temperature dependence of the in-phase and quadrature signals. The identifying features are the intensity dependence of the in-phase at high intensity, P A I ∝ I γ HI , and the frequency dependence of the quadrature at low frequency, P A Q ∝ ω γ LF . For direct recombination, γHI and γLF are temperature independent, and for an exponential distribution, they depend on the characteristic energy Ech as γ HI = 1 / ( 1 + E ch / k T ) and γ LF = k T / E ch , while a Gaussian distribution shows γHI and γLF as functions of I and ω, respectively.

  12. Photoinduced electron transfer between benzyloxy dendrimer phthalocyanine and benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Ma, Dongdong; Pan, Sujuan; Wu, Shijun; Jiang, Yufeng; Zeng, Di; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is an important and fundamental process in natural photosynthesis. To mimic such interesting PET process, a suitable donor and acceptor couple were properly chosen. Dendrimer phthalocyanines and their derivatives have emerged as promising materials for artificial photosynthesis systems. In this paper, the electron transfer between the light harvest dendrimer phthalocyanine (donor) and the 1,4-benzoquinone (acceptor) was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. It was found that fluorescence of phthalocyanine was quenched by benzoquinone (BQ) via excited state electron transfer, from the phthalocyanine to the BQ upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer was calculated. Our study suggests that this dendritic phthalocyanine is an effective new electron donor and transmission complex and could be used as a potential artificial photosynthesis system.

  13. Photoinduced blinking in a solid-state quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhane, Amanuel M.; Bradac, Carlo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Solid-state single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the prime components of many quantum nanophotonics devices. In this work, we report on an unusual, photoinduced blinking phenomenon of SPEs in gallium nitride. This is shown to be due to the modification in the transition kinetics of the emitter, via the introduction of additional laser-activated states. We investigate and characterize the blinking effect on the brightness of the source and the statistics of the emitted photons. Combining second-order correlation and fluorescence trajectory measurements, we determine the photodynamics of the trap states and characterize power-dependent decay rates and characteristic "off"-time blinking. Our work sheds light into understanding solid-state quantum system dynamics and, specifically, power-induced blinking phenomena in SPEs.

  14. Ruthenium(II) complexes of saccharin with dipyridoquinoxaline and dipyridophenazine: Structures, biological interactions and photoinduced DNA damage activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priyaranjan; Dasari, Srikanth; Patra, Ashis K

    2017-08-18

    Ruthenium complexes trans-[Ru(sac)2(dpq)2] (1) and trans-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (2) where sac is artificial sweetener saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide; 1,2-benzothiazole-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (Hsac)), dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized using various analytical and spectral techniques. Saccharin known to act as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitor which is a biomarker for highly aggressive and proliferative tumor in hypoxic stress, so inhibition of CA IX is a potential strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. The solid state structures, photophysical properties, photostability, DNA and protein binding affinity, and DNA photocleavage activity were explored. The structural analysis revealed Ru(II) centre is in discrete mononuclear, distorted octahedral {RuN6} coordination geometry with two monoanionic nitrogen donor saccharinate ligands and two neutral bidentate nitrogen donors ligands dpq and dppz. cis-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (cis-2) geometrical isomer was also isolated and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The photo-induced dissociation of monodentate saccharin ligand is observed when irradiated at UV-A light of 365 nm. The complexes show significant binding affinity to the calf thymus DNA (Kb ∼ 10(5) M(-1)) through significant intercalation through planar dpq and dppz ligands. Interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed remarkable tryptophan emission quenching (KBSA ∼10(5) M(-1)). The complexes showed appreciable photoinduced DNA cleavage activity upon irradiation of low power UV-A light of 365 nm from supercoiled (SC) to its nicked circular (NC) form at micromolar complex concentrations. Photocleavage mechanistic studies in presence of O2 reveals involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated through ligand-centered (3)ππ* and/or (3)MLCT excited states generated upon photoactivation leads to nicking of

  15. Luminescence and photoinduced absorption in ytterbium-doped optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Rybaltovsky, A A; Aleshkina, S S; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Umnikov, A A; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-12-31

    Photochemical reactions induced in the glass network of an ytterbium-doped fibre core by IR laser pumping and UV irradiation have been investigated by analysing absorption and luminescence spectra. We have performed comparative studies of the photoinduced absorption and luminescence spectra of fibre preforms differing in core glass composition: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} : SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} : Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} : SiO{sub 2}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} : Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} : SiO{sub 2}. The UV absorption spectra of unirradiated preform core samples show strong bands peaking at 5.1 and 6.5 eV, whose excitation plays a key role in photoinduced colour centre generation in the glass network. 'Direct' UV excitation of the 5.1- and 6.5-eV absorption bands at 244 and 193 nm leads to the reduction of some of the Yb{sup 3+} ions to Yb{sup 2+}. The photodarkening of ytterbium-doped fibres by IR pumping is shown to result from oxygen hole centre generation. A phenomenological model is proposed for the IR-pumping-induced photodarkening of ytterbium-doped fibres. The model predicts that colour centre generation in the core glass network and the associated absorption in the visible range result from a cooperative effect involving simultaneous excitation of a cluster composed of several closely spaced Yb{sup 3+} ions.

  16. EXERCISE-INDUCED ACUTE CHANGES IN SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE DO NOT ALTER CHOROIDAL THICKNESS AS MEASURED BY A PORTABLE SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY DEVICE

    PubMed Central

    ALWASSIA, AHMAD A.; ADHI, MEHREEN; ZHANG, JASON Y.; REGATIERI, CAIO V.; AL-QUTHAMI, ADEEB; SALEM, DEEB; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.; DUKER, JAY S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To measure choroidal thickness in patients manifesting an acute change in systemic arterial blood pressure using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device (iVue). Methods Fifteen patients (15 eyes) undergoing cardiac exercise stress testing were scanned using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system (iVue). Two scan protocols were used: cross line scan for measuring choroidal thickness and the retina map scan to measure retinal thickness. Each patient was scanned before and within 3 minutes after the stress test. Blood pressure was measured at the same time as the acquisition of the scans. Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid–sclera junction at 500-μm intervals up to 1,000 μm temporal and nasal to the fovea. Retinal thickness was measured by an automated software. All choroidal thickness measurements were performed by two independent observers. Results Fifteen patients (15 eyes) with a mean age of 60.6 (±10.4 years) were scanned. There was a significant increase in systolic but not diastolic pressure after stress testing (P < 0.05). The mean choroidal thickness measurements showed no significant difference before and after exercise stress testing (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in retinal thickness before and after stress testing measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusion There was no change in choroidal thickness or retinal thickness, despite an acute change in the systemic systolic blood pressure induced by exercise. PMID:22869027

  17. SNO spectral counting (SNOSC), a label-free proteomic method for quantification of changes in levels of protein S-nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Huang, Bo; Chen, Chang

    2012-08-01

    S-Nitrosation plays an important role in regulation of protein function and signal transduction. Discovering S-nitrosated targets is a prerequisite for further functional study. However, current proteomic methods used to quantify S-nitrosation are limited in their applicability to certain types of samples, or by the need for special reagents and complex procedures to obtain the results. Here we devised a label-free proteomic method for quantification of changes in the level of protein S-nitrosation on the basis of a spectral counting strategy, called S-nitrosothiol (SNO) spectral counting (SNOSC). With this method, samples can be from any source (cells, tissues); there is no need for labelling reagents or procedures, and the results yield quantitative information. Moreover, as it is based on the irreversible biotinylation procedure (IBP) for S-nitrosation protein enrichment, false positive targets caused by the interference of intermolecular disulphide bonds are ruled out. Using SNOSC we studied S-nitrosation in the cell line RAW264.7 induced exogenously with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), or induced endogenously by lipopolysaccharides/interferon-gamma (LPS/IFN-γ). We detected a significant increase in S-nitrosation of 50 proteins after exogenous induction and 17 proteins after endogenous induction. We thus demonstrate that SNOSC is a widely applicable proteomic method for fast screening of SNO proteins.

  18. Photoinduced properties of nanocrystalline TiO2-anatase coating on Ti-based bone implants.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Martina; Biglino, Daniele; Novak, Saša; Kobe, Spomenka

    2014-04-01

    The paper reports on the photoinduced properties of hydrothermally treated (HT) titanium used for bone implants. The anatase coatings composed of 30-100nm anatase crystals exhibited high photocatalytic activity and good photo-induced wettability, reaching a superhydrophilic state, despite the larger crystal dimensions than the previously reported optimal ones. These properties are due to a suitable combination of surface texture, roughness, thickness, crystal morphology and particle size, which allowed the two independent photo-induced phenomena to occur simultaneously. The results on caffeine degradation by photocatalysis and the prolonged effect (up to two weeks) of photo-induced wettability in dark suggested a possible applicability of the HT anatase coatings as bacteria-repelling surfaces for body implants, in favor of a better osseointegration in vivo.

  19. Real Time Quantification of Ultrafast Photoinduced Bimolecular Electron Transfer Rate: Direct Probing of the Transient Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Puspal; Biswas, Somnath; Sen, Pratik

    2015-08-27

    Fluorescence quenching studies through steady-state and time-resolved measurements are inadequate to quantify the bimolecular electron transfer rate in bulk homogeneous solution due to constraints from diffusion. To nullify the effect of diffusion, direct evaluation of the rate of formation of a transient intermediate produced upon the electron transfer is essential. Methyl viologen, a well-known electron acceptor, produces a radical cation after accepting an electron, which has a characteristic strong and broad absorption band centered at 600 nm. Hence it is a good choice to evaluate the rate of photoinduced electron transfer reaction employing femtosecond broadband transient absorption spectroscopy. The time constant of the aforementioned process between pyrene and methyl viologen in methanol has been estimated to be 2.5 ± 0.4 ps using the same technique. The time constant for the backward reaction was found to be 14 ± 1 ps. These values did not change with variation of concentration of quencher, i.e., methyl viologen. Hence, we can infer that diffusion has no contribution in the estimation of rate constants. However, on changing the solvent from methanol to ethanol, the time constant of the electron transfer reaction has been found to increase and has accounted for the change in solvent reorganization energy.

  20. Alternating photoinduced mass transport triggered by light polarization in azobenzene containing sol-gel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, F.; Lassailly, Y.; Lahlil, K.; Boilot, J. P.; Peretti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Combined shear-force and near-field optical microscopies are used for real-time monitoring of the formation of photoinduced surface relief gratings in photochromic thin films containing azobenzene derivatives. The correlated optical and topographical images provide evidence that the direction of the photoinduced matter migration is defined by the light polarization pattern and that, for a given light intensity pattern, modulating the polarization between two orthogonal states gives rise to alternating mass transport.

  1. Irradiance and Temperature Dependence of Photo-Induced Orientation in Two Azobenzene-Based Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-23

    and Almeria Natansohn* Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 Paul Rochon Department of Physics, Royal Military...1. IRRADIANCE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF PHOTO-INDUCED ORIENTATION IN TWO AZOBENZENE-BASED POLYMERS Dennis Hore and Almeria Natansohn...IRRADIANCE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF PHOTO-INDUCED ORIENTATION IN TWO AZOBENZENE-BASED POLYMERS Dennis Hore and Almeria Natansohn Department of

  2. Redox Modulation of Flavin and Tyrosine Determines Photoinduced Proton-coupled Electron Transfer and Photoactivation of BLUF Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Tilo; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Stierl, Manuela; Kennis, John T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer in biological systems, especially in proteins, is a highly intriguing matter. Its mechanistic details cannot be addressed by structural data obtained by crystallography alone because this provides only static information on a given redox system. In combination with transient spectroscopy and site-directed manipulation of the protein, however, a dynamic molecular picture of the ET process may be obtained. In BLUF (blue light sensors using FAD) photoreceptors, proton-coupled electron transfer between a tyrosine and the flavin cofactor is the key reaction to switch from a dark-adapted to a light-adapted state, which corresponds to the biological signaling state. Particularly puzzling is the fact that, although the various naturally occurring BLUF domains show little difference in the amino acid composition of the flavin binding pocket, the reaction rates of the forward reaction differ quite largely from a few ps up to several hundred ps. In this study, we modified the redox potential of the flavin/tyrosine redox pair by site-directed mutagenesis close to the flavin C2 carbonyl and fluorination of the tyrosine, respectively. We provide information on how changes in the redox potential of either reaction partner significantly influence photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. The altered redox potentials allowed us furthermore to experimentally describe an excited state charge transfer intermediately prior to electron transfer in the BLUF photocycle. Additionally, we show that the electron transfer rate directly correlates with the quantum yield of signaling state formation. PMID:22833672

  3. Synthesis, photochemistry, and photophysics of butadiene derivatives: influence of the methyl group on the molecular structure and photoinduced behavior.

    PubMed

    Škorić, Irena; Kikaš, Ilijana; Kovács, Margit; Fodor, Lajos; Marinić, Željko; Molčanov, Krešimir; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Horváth, Ottó

    2011-11-04

    Novel butadiene derivatives display diverse photochemistry and photophysics. Excitation of 2-methyl-1-(o-vinylphenyl)-4-phenylbutadiene leads to the dihydronaphthalene derivative, whereas photolysis of the corresponding model o-methyl analogue results in the formation of the naphthalene-like derivative, deviating from the nonmethylated analogue of the prior starting compound and producing benzobi- and -tricyclic compounds. The effect of the methyl substituents is even more dramatic in the case of the dibutadienes. The parent unsubstituted compound undergoes photoinduced intramolecular cycloaddition giving benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octadiene, whereas the photochemical reaction of the corresponding dimethylated derivative shows only geometrical isomerization due to the steric effect of the substituents. Methyl groups on the butadiene backbones reduce the extent of conjugation, causing a blue-shift of the characteristic absorption band. The fluorescence efficiency is dramatically decreased, as a consequence of nonplanarity and reduced rigidity of the molecules due to the crowding by the methyl and phenyl groups together. Four molecules of very similar structures show dramatically different photoinduced behavior, revealing how changes of the nature and position of the substituents are valuable in understanding the photophysics and photochemistry of these types of compounds.

  4. Photoswitchable stable charge-distributed states in a new cobalt complex exhibiting photo-induced valence tautomerism.

    PubMed

    Slota, Michael; Blankenhorn, Marian; Heintze, Eric; Vu, Minh; Hübner, Ralph; Bogani, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and magnetic and photomagnetic behaviour of a novel valence tautomeric cobalt complex, [Co(3,5-dbbq)2(μ-bpym)] (1) (3,5-dbbq = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone and μ-bpym = 2,2'-bipyrimidine). The synthesis is performed by reacting Co2(CO)8 and μ-bpym in the presence of the ligand 3,5-dbbq in a mixed solvent under inert atmosphere. The magnetic behavior clearly shows the presence of electron transfer from the catecholate ligand to the cobalt center, producing valence tautomers of [Co(II)(SQ)2] with a transition temperature (T1/2) of 215 K. Photomagnetic studies, performed via both SQUID magnetometry and X-band electron paramagnetic resonance, show the clear presence of photoinduced valence tautomerism, at temperatures considerably higher than previous systems. A metastable charge distribution is observed, strengthening previous investigations on the character of mixed valence ligands. Entropy-driven valence tautomeric interconversion is observed, and drives the transition to the most stable charge distribution. The complex has the ability to coordinate and can be used as a photoswitchable building block, with the photomagnetic characterisation evidencing a metastable state lifetime of the photo-induced valence tautomeric process of ca. 2.9 × 10(4) s below 20 K. The observed yields are higher than ones in similar systems, showing that tiny changes in the molecular structures may have a huge impact.

  5. Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds ( Oryza sativa L.) studied by spectral and chromatographic analysis coupled with chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zhe; Si, Xiao-xi; Li, Gong-ke; Zhang, Zhuo-min; Xu, Xin-ping

    2010-02-10

    Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds were studied by near-infrared reflectance, GC-MS, HPLC, and ICP-AES coupled with chemometrics strategies. Three kinds of transgenic rice with resistance to fungal diseases or insect pests were comparatively studied with the nontransgenic counterparts in terms of key nutrients such as protein, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, elements, and antinutrient phytic acid recommended by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The compositional profiles were discriminated by chemometrics methods, and the discriminatory compounds were protein, three amino acids, two fatty acids, two vitamins, and several elements. Significance of differences for these compounds was proved by analysis of variance, and the variation extent ranged from 20 to 74% for amino acids, from 19 to 38% for fatty acids, from 25 to 57% for vitamins, from 20 to 50% for elements, and 25% for protein, whereas phytic acid content did not change significantly. The unintended compositional alterations as well as unintended change of physical characteristic in transgenic rice compared with nontransgenic rice might be related to the genetic transformation, the effect of which needs to be elucidated by additional studies.

  6. Ornaments in radiation treatment of cultural heritage: Color and UV-vis spectral changes in irradiated nacres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marušić, Katarina; Pucić, Irina; Desnica, Vladan

    2016-07-01

    Cultural heritage objects that are radiation treated in order to stop their biodegradation often contain ornamenting materials that cannot be removed. Radiation may produce unwanted changes to such materials. Nacre is a common ornamenting material so this is an attempt to assess the impact of gamma-radiation on its optical properties. Two types of nacre (yellow and white) were obtained from a museum and subjected to different absorbed doses of Co-60 gamma irradiation under the same conditions. The radiation induced changes of nacres color were investigated with fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). Colorimetry in CIE Lab space revealed that in both nacres the lightness shifted to darker grey hues at high doses while the color component's (red, green, yellow and blue) behavior depended on the nacre type. Observable changes occurred at doses much above the dose range needed for radiation treatment of cultural heritage objects that are often ornamented with nacre. In UV-vis reflectance spectra of samples irradiated to high doses carbonate radical anion absorption appeared.

  7. Correlation between the spectral features and electric field changes of multiple return strokes in negative cloud-to-ground lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Yuan, Ping; Cen, Jianyong; Liu, Guorong

    2017-05-01

    Using high time-resolved spectra and simultaneous records of the electric field change of three negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes with multiple return strokes, the correlations between the total intensity of ionic lines in the spectra and the corresponding amplitude of the initial electric field change, as well as between the total intensity of the spectra and the channel apparent diameter, have been analyzed. The analysis shows the following: (1) The amplitude of the initial electric field change is roughly proportional to the total intensity of ionic lines. (2) The total intensity of the spectra shows a significant linear correlation with the apparent diameter of the channel. (3) The total intensity of ionic lines for 17 analyzed return strokes decreases with increasing height along the channel, which is consistent with the current variation along the channel in the modified transmission line model; the Master, Uman, Lin, and Standler model; and the Diendorfer-Uman model. Meanwhile, the total intensity of ionic lines for other two analyzed return strokes along the channel without attenuation, this is consistent with the current variation along the channel in the Bruce-Golde model, the transmission line model, and the Traveling Current Source model.

  8. Spectral Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  9. Spectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Taxonomic classification of astronomically observed stellar objects is described in terms of spectral properties. Stars receive a classification containing a letter, number, and a Roman numeral, which relates the star to other stars of higher or lower Roman numerals. The citation indicates the stellar chromatic emission in relation to the wavelengths of other stars. Standards are chosen from the available objects detected. Various classification schemes such as the MK, HD, and the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan systems are defined, including examples of indexing differences. Details delineating the separations between classifications are discussed with reference to the information content in spectral and in photometric classification schemes. The parameters usually used for classification include the temperature, luminosity, reddening, binarity, rotation, magnetic field, and elemental abundance or composition. The inclusion of recently discovered extended wavelength characteristics in nominal classifications is outlined, together with techniques involved in automated classification.

  10. Selective changes in locomotor activity in mice due to low-intensity microwaves amplitude modulated in the EEG spectral domain.

    PubMed

    Van Eeghem, Vincent; El Arfani, Anissa; Anthoula, Arta; Walrave, Laura; Pourkazemi, Ali; Bentea, Eduard; Demuyser, Thomas; Smolders, Ilse; Stiens, Johan

    2017-09-17

    Despite the numerous benefits of microwave applications in our daily life, microwaves were associated with diverse neurological complaints such as headaches and impaired sleep patterns, and changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG). To which extent microwaves influence the brain function remains unclear. This exploratory study assessed the behavior and neurochemistry in mice immediately or 4weeks after a 6-day exposure to low-intensity 10-GHz microwaves with an amplitude modulation (AM) of 2 or 8Hz. These modulation frequencies of 2 and 8Hz are situated within the delta and theta-alpha frequency bands in the EEG spectrum and are associated with sleep and active behavior, respectively. During these experiments, the specific absorbance rate was 0.3W/kg increasing the brain temperature with 0.23°C. For the first time, exposing mice to 8-Hz AM significantly reduced locomotor activity in an open field immediately after exposure which normalized after 4weeks. This in contrast to 2-Hz AM which didn't induce significant changes in locomotor activity immediately and 4weeks after exposure. Despite this difference in motor behavior, no significant changes in striatal dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and DOPAC/DA turnover nor in cortical glutamate (GLU) concentrations were detected. In all cases, no effects on motor coordination on a rotarod, spatial working memory, anxiety nor depressive-like behavior were observed. The outcome of this study indicates that exposing mice to low-intensity 8-Hz AM microwaves can alter the locomotor activity in contrast to 2-Hz AM which did not affect the tested behaviors. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystallographic and online spectral evidence for role of conformational change and conserved water in cytochrome oxidase proton pump.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Qin, Ling; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2011-01-25

    Crystal structures in both oxidized and reduced forms are reported for two bacterial cytochrome c oxidase mutants that define the D and K proton paths, showing conformational change in response to reduction and the loss of strategic waters that can account for inhibition of proton transfer. In the oxidized state both mutants of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides enzyme, D132A and K362M, show overall structures similar to wild type, indicating no long-range effects of mutation. In the reduced state, the mutants show an altered conformation similar to that seen in reduced wild type, confirming this reproducible, reversible response to reduction. In the strongly inhibited D132A mutant, positions of residues and waters in the D pathway are unaffected except in the entry region close to the mutation, where a chloride ion replaces the missing carboxyl and a 2-Å shift in N207 results in loss of its associated water. In K362M, the methionine occupies the same position as the original lysine, but K362- and T359-associated waters in the wild-type structure are missing, likely accounting for the severe inhibition. Spectra of oxidized frozen crystals taken during X-ray radiation show metal center reduction, but indicate development of a strained configuration that only relaxes to a native form upon annealing. Resistance of the frozen crystal to structural change clarifies why the oxidized conformation is observable and supports the conclusion that the reduced conformation has functional significance. A mechanism is described that explains the conformational change and the incomplete response of the D-path mutant.

  12. Self-assembly of semiconductor organogelator nanowires for photoinduced charge separation.

    PubMed

    Wicklein, André; Ghosh, Suhrit; Sommer, Michael; Würthner, Frank; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2009-05-26

    We investigated an innovative concept of general validity based on an organogel/polymer system to generate donor-acceptor nanostructures suitable for charge generation and charge transport. An electron conducting (acceptor) perylene bisimide organogelator forms nanowires in suitable solvents during gelation process. This phenomenon was utilized for its self-assembly in an amorphous hole conducting (donor) polymer matrix to realize an interpenetrating donor-acceptor interface with inherent morphological stability. The self-assembly and interface generation were carried out either stepwise or in a single-step. Morphology of the donor-acceptor network in thin films obtained via both routes were studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Additionally, photoinduced charge separation and charge transport in these systems were tested in organic solar cells. Fabrication steps of multilayer organogel/polymer photovoltaic devices were optimized with respect to morphology and surface roughness by introducing additional smoothening layers and charge injection/blocking layers. An inverted cell geometry was used here in which electrons are collected at the bottom electrode and holes at the top electrode. The simultaneous preparation of the interface exhibits almost 3-fold improvement in device characteristics compared to the successive method. The device characteristics under AM1.5 spectral conditions and 100 mW/cm(2) for the simultaneous preparation route are short circuit current J(sc) = 0.28 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage V(OC) = 390 mV, fill factor FF = 38%, and a power conversion efficiency eta = 0.041%.

  13. Fullerene-Assisted Photoinduced Charge Transfer of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through a Flavin Helix.

    PubMed

    Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Karunaratne, Erandika; Gibson, George N; Gascón, Jose A; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2016-05-11

    One of the greatest challenges with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) photovoltaics and nanostructured devices is maintaining the nanotubes in their pristine state (i.e., devoid of aggregation and inhomogeneous doping) so that their unique spectroscopic and transport characteristics are preserved. To this effect, we report on the synthesis and self-assembly of a C60-functionalized flavin (FC60), composed of PCBM and isoalloxazine moieties attached on either ends of a linear, C-12 aliphatic spacer. Small amounts of FC60 (up to 3 molar %) were shown to coassembly with an organic soluble derivative of flavin (FC12) around SWNTs and impart effective dispersion and individualization. A key annealing step was necessary to perfect the isoalloxazine helix and expel the C60 moiety away from the nanotubes. Steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopy illustrate that 1% or higher incorporation of FC60 allows for an effective photoinduced charge transfer quenching of the encased SWNTs through the seamless helical encase. This is enabled via the direct π-π overlap between the graphene sidewalls, isoalloxazine helix, and the C60 cage that facilitates SWNT exciton dissociation and electron transfer to the PCBM moiety. Atomistic molecular simulations indicate that the stability of the complex originates from enhanced van der Waals interactions of the flexible spacer wrapped around the fullerene that brings the C60 in π-π overlap with the isoalloxazine helix. The remarkable spectral purity (in terms of narrow E(S)ii line widths) for the resulting ground-state complex signals a new class of highly organized supramolecular nanotube architecture with profound importance for advanced nanostructured devices.

  14. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  15. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-07

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  16. Comparison of the duration and power spectral changes of monopolar and bipolar M waves caused by alterations in muscle fibre conduction velocity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Navallas, Javier; Malanda, Armando; Rodriguez-Martin, Olivia

    2014-08-01

    The muscle compound action potential (M wave) recorded under monopolar configuration reflects both the propagation of the action potentials along the muscle fibres and their extinction at the tendon. M waves recorded under a bipolar configuration contain less cross talk and noise than monopolar M waves, but they do not contain the entire informative content of the propagating potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of changes in muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) on monopolar and bipolar M waves and how this effect depends on the distance between the recording electrodes and tendon. The study was based on a simulation approach and on an experimental investigation of the characteristics of surface M waves evoked in the vastus lateralis during 4-s step-wise isometric contractions in knee extension at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% MVC. The peak-to-peak duration (Durpp) and median frequency (Fmedian) of the M waves were calculated. For monopolar M waves, changes in Durpp and Fmedian produced by MFCV depended on the distance from the electrode to the tendon, whereas, for bipolar M waves, changes in Durpp and Fmedian were largely independent of the electrode-to-tendon distance. When the distance between the detection point and tendon lay between approximately 15 and 40mm, changes in Durpp of bipolar M waves were more pronounced than those of distal monopolar M waves but less marked than those of proximal monopolar M waves, and the opposite occurred for Fmedian. Since, for bipolar M waves, changes in duration and power spectral features produced by alterations in MFCV are not influenced by the electrode-to-tendon distance, the bipolar electrode configuration is a preferable choice over monopolar arrangements to estimate changes in conduction velocity.

  17. Spectral Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprouse, James F.

    1985-12-01

    Infrared Spectral Searching has progressed rapidly over the past two years since the last FT-IR Conference in Durham, England. In addition, if we compare the searching capabilities available to the Infrared Spectroscopist today with those that were available a short four years ago at the last North American Conference held in Columbia, South Carolina, then the advancements are even more impressive. In retrospect, I would describe the state-of-the-art in Spectral Searching at the 1981 FT-IR Conference as "Level 1 Searching", where the spectroscopist was limited to measuring a spectrum for his unknown material, and automatically searching it against very limited libraries at that time to obtain a search report. The report generally provided an ordered ranking of the best matches, chemical name, and a spectrum number so the reference spectrum could be located and reviewed in books. In 1981, there existed a total of three commercially available infrared search packages at the instrument level. Two of the packages were available for FT-IR instruments and the third was available on a dispersive instrument. Only the FT-IR packages allowed viewing the reference spectra on the CRT along with the unknown spectrum by automated spectral retrieval from the reference libraries stored on disk. However, the primary source of reference spectra was still predominantly hard copy.

  18. Changes in photochemically significant solar UV spectral irradiance as estimated by the composite Mg II index and scale factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deland, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the impact of solar ultraviolet irradiance variations on stratospheric ozone abundances currently requires the use of proxy indicators. The Mg II core-to-wing index has been developed as an indicator of solar UV activity between 175-400 nm that is independent of most instrument artifacts, and measures solar variability on both rotational and solar cycle time scales. Linear regression fits have been used to merge the individual Mg II index data sets from the Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and NOAA-11 instruments onto a single reference scale. The change in 27-dayrunning average of the composite Mg II index from solar maximum to solar minimum is approximately 8 percent for solar cycle 21, and approximately 9 percent for solar cycle 22 through January 1992. Scaling factors based on the short-term variations in the Mg II index and solar irradiance data sets have been developed to estimate solar variability at mid-UV and near-UV wavelengths. Near 205 nm, where solar irradiance variations are important for stratospheric photo-chemistry and dynamics, the estimated change in irradiance during solar cycle 22 is approximately 10 percent using the composite Mg II index and scale factors.

  19. Spectral characterization of the binding and conformational changes of serum albumins upon interaction with an anticancer drug, anastrozole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punith, Reeta; Seetharamappa, J.

    2012-06-01

    The present study employed different optical spectroscopic techniques viz., fluorescence, FTIR, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of interaction of an anticancer drug, anastrozole (AZ) with transport proteins viz., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The drug, AZ quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of protein and the analysis of results revealed the presence of dynamic quenching mechanism. The binding characteristics of drug-protein were computed. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were calculated to be +92.99 kJ/mol and +159.18 J/mol/K for AZ-BSA and, +99.43 kJ/mol and +159.19 J/mol/K for AZ-HSA, respectively. These results indicated that the hydrophobic forces stabilized the interaction between the drug and protein. CD, FTIR, absorption, synchronous and 3D fluorescence results indicated that the binding of AZ to protein induced structural perturbation in both serum albumins. The distance, r between the drug and protein was calculated based on the theory of Förster's resonance energy transfer and found to be 5.9 and 6.24 nm, respectively for AZ-BSA and AZ-HSA.

  20. In vivo spectral and fluorescence imaging microscopy of tumor microvessel blood supply and oxygenation changes following vascular targeting agent treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jennifer; Kozikowski, Raymond; Molnar, Nikolett; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Sorg, Brian S.

    2012-03-01

    The formation of new microvasculature is essential for a tumor mass to grow. Vascular targeting agents (VTAs), including anti-angiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents, aim to either inhibit new vasculature growth or destroy existing vasculature, respectively. Because the mechanisms for anti-angiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents are complementary, analysis of these drugs used together is under investigation for the enhanced treatment of tumors in comparison to each treatment alone. The preclinical evaluation of the effects of VTAs on tumor growth in small animal models is vital for the development of effective drugs for clinical use. In vivo hyperspectral imaging microscopy of hemoglobin saturation has been used previously to investigate the efficacy of VTAs through analysis of tumor microvessel oxygenation after drug administration. Combining this imaging modality with first-pass fluorescence angiographic imaging can give additional important information about the vessel morphology and blood flow changes that occur after VTA treatment, thus elucidating the relationship between microvessel structure changes and oxygenation. In this study, we report the combined use of hyperspectral and first pass fluorescence angiographic imaging to examine the relationship between vessel morphology and oxygenation of human prostate cancer tumors in mice following treatment with vascular disrupting agents, OXi4503, and anti-VEGF angiogenesis inhibitor, cediranib. Imaging of the tumors is completed before treatment as well as in the days following treatment.

  1. [Urban vegetation coverage change inside the Third-Ring Road of Shenyang City, China: a study with linear spectral unmixing technique].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-Yu; He, Xing-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Based on the Landsat TM images of 2001 and 2006, and by using linear spectral unmixing (LSU) technique, the information of urban vegetation coverage inside the Third-Ring Road of Shenyang City was extracted, and the dynamic change of the vegetation coverage in 2001-2006 was analyzed, in combining with a land use map derived from the visual interpretation of a QuickBird image of 2006. The results showed that in 2001-2006, the urban vegetation coverage in study area changed drastically. Urban greening and the cropland encroachment caused by urban sprawl coexisted, and the vegetation gain from urban greening was larger than the vegetation loss from cropland encroachment. The vegetation coverage of road, residence, public facilities, and park and square increased with varying degrees (5%-9%), while industrial land changed little. The spatial distribution of urban greening was relatively reasonable. Though the polarization of vegetation coverage between central city and suburban still existed, this polarization had been mitigated to some extent. With the increase of the distance from city center, the vegetation coverage increased in sequence of park and square (0.8% x km(-1)) < residence (1.5% x km(-1)) < industrial land (1.7% x km(-1)) < public facilities (2.4% x km(-1)) < road (2.9% x km(-1)). The polarization of vegetation coverage in public facilities and road were still serious, suggesting that more greening programs and strict conservation efforts were needed.

  2. An investigation of the implications of lunar illumination spectral changes for Day/Night Band-based cloud property retrieval due to lunar phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Min; Deng, Jianbo; Liu, Chao; Guo, Jianping; Lu, Naimeng; Hu, Xiuqing; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Qifeng; Wang, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The Moon reflects sunlight like a huge mirror hanging in the sky at night, which presents the obviously periodical changes in its luminance or irradiance due to Sun-Earth-Moon geometry variation. The potential effect of the periodical changes in lunar phase angle on nighttime Day/Night Band (DNB) radiative transfer simulation in the presence of cloud has seldom been reported thus far. In this study, a radiative transfer model is developed by coupling the lunar light source with various Sun-Earth-Moon geometries. To elucidate the stability of DNB-averaged cloud bulk scattering properties, we simulate nighttime reflectance and radiances under four typical lunar phase angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°) from 7 April 2016 to 8 May 2016 (e.g., two lunar cycles). Explicit simulation analyses indicated that DNB-averaged cloud bulk scattering properties exhibit weak sensitivity to lunar phase angles. The maximum DNB reflectance differences between any and 90° lunar phase angles are less than 0.05% (0.01%) in the presence of water (ice) clouds, indicating a negligible effect of periodically changes on lunar spectral irradiances. Our findings suggest that the differences of reflectance at lunar phase angle = 90° are less than approximately 0.05% (water cloud)/0.01% (ice cloud), much smaller than 11% radiometric calibration uncertainties of DNB. This means that these differences could be ignored in both nighttime cloud property retrieval and DNB radiative transfer modeling.

  3. Direct characterization of photoinduced lattice dynamics in BaFe2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Gerber, S.; Kim, K. W.; Zhang, Y.; ...

    2015-06-08

    Ultrafast light pulses can modify electronic properties of quantum materials by perturbing the underlying, intertwined degrees of freedom. In particular, iron-based superconductors exhibit a strong coupling among electronic nematic fluctuations, spins and the lattice, serving as a playground for ultrafast manipulation. Here we use time-resolved X-ray scattering to measure the lattice dynamics of photoexcited BaFe2As2. On optical excitation, no signature of an ultrafast change of the crystal symmetry is observed, but the lattice oscillates rapidly in time due to the coherent excitation of an A1g mode that modulates the Fe–As–Fe bond angle. We directly quantify the coherent lattice dynamics andmore » show that even a small photoinduced lattice distortion can induce notable changes in the electronic and magnetic properties. Our analysis implies that transient structural modification can be an effective tool for manipulating the electronic properties of multi-orbital systems, where electronic instabilities are sensitive to the orbital character of bands.« less

  4. Direct characterization of photoinduced lattice dynamics in BaFe2As2

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, S.; Kim, K. W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, D.; Plonka, N.; Yi, M.; Dakovski, G. L.; Leuenberger, D.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Moore, R. G.; Chollet, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Feng, Y.; Lee, J.-S.; Mehta, A.; Kemper, A. F.; Wolf, T.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Moritz, B.; Shen, Z.-X.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, W.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast light pulses can modify electronic properties of quantum materials by perturbing the underlying, intertwined degrees of freedom. In particular, iron-based superconductors exhibit a strong coupling among electronic nematic fluctuations, spins and the lattice, serving as a playground for ultrafast manipulation. Here we use time-resolved X-ray scattering to measure the lattice dynamics of photoexcited BaFe2As2. On optical excitation, no signature of an ultrafast change of the crystal symmetry is observed, but the lattice oscillates rapidly in time due to the coherent excitation of an A1g mode that modulates the Fe–As–Fe bond angle. We directly quantify the coherent lattice dynamics and show that even a small photoinduced lattice distortion can induce notable changes in the electronic and magnetic properties. Our analysis implies that transient structural modification can be an effective tool for manipulating the electronic properties of multi-orbital systems, where electronic instabilities are sensitive to the orbital character of bands. PMID:26051704

  5. Spectral changes in bovine factor X associated with activation by the venom coagulant protein of Vipera russelli.

    PubMed

    Furie, B; Furie, B C

    1976-11-10

    changes in the secondary structur. These results suggest that conversion of Factor X to activated Factor X involves functionally important, but structurally subtle, changes in the three-dimentional structure.

  6. Fractal analysis of the Rayleigh Photoinduced Light Scattering Pattern from LiNbO3:Zn Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Manukovskaya, D. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.

    2017-03-01

    Fractal analysis was used to study Rayleigh photoinduced light scattering (PILS) patterns in a series of LiNbO3:Zn single crystals (0.018-0.88 mass%) that were grown from the congruent melt and were promising as nonlinear optical materials with low photorefraction and coercive-field values. Results from fractal analysis and Raman light-scattering spectroscopy were compared. Extremes found on the time dependence of the fractal dimension of various layers of the PILS pattern speckle structure indicated that the concentration of laser-induced defects in the photorefractive crystal changed. The rate of change of the concentration of laser-induced defects depended non-linearly on the crystal Zn concentration. The form of congruent Zn-doped LiNbO3 crystals with the most ordered structure was identified.

  7. Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) of Landsat Imagery for Land Cover Change Study of Highly Degraded Peatland in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, A. D.; Tsuyuki, S.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesian peatland, one of the world's largest tropical peatlands, is facing immense anthropogenic pressures such as illegal logging, degradation and also peat fires, especially in fertile peatlands. However, there still is a lack of appropriate tools to assess peatland land cover change. By taking Pelalawan district located in Sumatra Island, this study determines number of land cover endmembers that can be detected and mapped using new generation of Landsat 8 OLI in order to develop highquality burned peat fraction images. Two different image transformations, i.e. Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and two different scatterplot analyses, i.e. global and local, were tested and their accuracy results were compared. Analysis of image dimensionality was reduced by using PCA. Pixel Purity Index (PPI), formed by using MNF, was used to identify pure pixel. Four endmembers consisting of two types of soil (peat soil and dry soil) and two types of vegetation (peat vegetation and dry vegetation) were identified according to the scatterplot and their associated interpretations were obtained from the Pelalawan Fraction model. The results showed that local scatterplot analysis without PPI masking can detect high accuracy burned peat endmember and reduces RMSE value of fraction image to improve classification accuracy.

  8. Transient climate simulation from the Maunder Minimum to present day using prescribed changes in GHG, total/spectral solar irradiance and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangehl, Thomas; Cubasch, Ulrich; Schimanke, Semjon

    A fully coupled AO-GCM including representation of the middle atmosphere is used for tran-sient simulation of climate from 1630 to 2000 AD. For better representation of changes in the UV/visible part of the solar spectrum an improved short-wave radiation scheme is implemented. The model is driven by changes in GHG concentrations, solar activity and volcanic eruptions. Solar variability is introduced via changes in total/spectral solar irradiance (TSI/SSI) and pre-scribed changes in stratospheric ozone. The secular trend in TSI is in the range of 0.1 percent increase from Maunder Minimum to present-day. Volcanic eruptions are represented via abrupt reduction in TSI. With the applied forcings the model does not simulate a clear reduction of the annual Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean near surface temperature during Maunder Minimum. By contrast the Dalton Minimum is characterized by distinct cooling and there is a significant raise of NH mean near surface temperature until the end of the 20th century. Focusing on the North Atlantic/European region the winter mean near surface temperature change pat-tern from Late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) to present-day (1960-1990) reveals maximum warming over north-eastern Europe and cooling over the western North Atlantic with maxi-mum cooling west of Greenland. These changes can partly be explained by a shift of the NAO towards a more positive phase. The simulated changes in tropospheric circulation are discussed with special emphasize on the role of the solar forcing. Besides the stratospheric solar forcing which may affect NAO variability via downward propagation of the solar signal from the strato-sphere to the troposphere the magnitude of the secular trend in TSI might play a role. For the period from Maunder Minimum to present-day the simulation shows less near surface temper-ature increase especially over arctic regions when compared to simulations performed with the same model including the standard radiation scheme but

  9. Spectral power and functional connectivity changes during mindfulness meditation with eyes open: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in long-term meditators.

    PubMed

    Wong, W P; Camfield, D A; Woods, W; Sarris, J; Pipingas, A

    2015-10-01

    Whilst a number of previous studies have been conducted in order to investigate functional brain changes associated with eyes-closed meditation techniques, there is a relative scarcity in the literature with regards to changes occurring during eyes-open meditation. The current project used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate differences in spectral power and functional connectivity between 11 long-term mindfulness meditators (LTMMs) with >5 years of experience and 12 meditation-naïve control participants both during baseline eyes-open rest and eyes-open open-monitoring (OM) mindfulness meditation. During resting with eyes-open, prior to meditating, greater mean alpha power was observed for LTMMs in comparison to controls. However, during the course of OM meditation, a significantly greater increase in theta power was observed over a broad fronto-centro-parietal region for control participants in comparison to LTMMs. In contrast, whole-head mean connectivity was found to be significantly greater for long-term meditators in comparison to controls in the theta band both during rest as well as during meditation. Additionally, mean connectivity was significantly lower for long-term meditators in the low gamma band during rest and significantly lower in both low and high gamma bands during meditation; and the variance of low-gamma connectivity scores for long-term meditators was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The current study provides important new information as to the trait functional changes in brain activity associated with long-term mindfulness meditation, as well as the state changes specifically associated with eyes-open open monitoring meditation techniques.

  10. Fourth-order perturbative model for photoinduced internal conversion processes.

    PubMed

    Molesky, Brian P; Moran, Andrew M

    2013-12-27

    Essential to the functionality of numerous biological and synthetic molecular systems is the ability to rapidly convert electronic excitation energy into heat. Such internal conversion (IC) transitions often cannot be described by traditional second-order kinetic theories because of time-coincident electronic and nuclear relaxation processes. Here, we present a perturbative fourth-order phenomenological model for photoinduced IC that incorporates effects associated with finite laser bandwidths and nonequilibrium nuclear motions. Specialized knowledge of first-principles computational methods is not required, and many parameters can be obtained with standard spectroscopic measurements. The model is applied to the IC processes that precede electrocyclic ring-opening in α-terpinene. It is shown that the primary factor governing the shape of the population decay profile (Gaussian versus exponential) is the rate at which the wavepacket approaches the geometry corresponding to degeneracy between the excited states. Other parameters such as the displacement in the promoting mode and the thermal fluctuation amplitudes affect the sensitivity of the IC dynamics to motion of the wavepacket but do not alter the basic physical picture. Finally, we suggest a wavepacket representation of the IC process to visualize correlations between population-transfer dynamics and the amount of energy transferred from the system to the bath.

  11. Electric Field Dependence of Photo-Induced Field Emission Current.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egert, Charles Michael

    We have measured the photo-induced field emission current from a tungsten field emitter as a function of electric field. These experiments were performed with a retardation energy analyzer to measure total current and a 127(DEGREES) cylindrical differential energy analyzer to measure the energy resolved PFE current. The results of these experiments are compared with a simple theory of PFE, developed by Schwartz and Schaich, which is an extension of field emission theory including the surface photoeffect, but assuming constant photoexcitation matrix elements. Our experimental results disagree with this theory in two ways: First, for high fields and photon energy (electrons emitted above the field emission barrier maximum) theory predicts a larger increase in PFE current than is observed experimentally. Second, we have also confirmed the existence of a field dependent oscillatory component of the PFE current emitted from the W(110) surface with photon energies of 2.7 eV and 3.5 eV. The simple theory described here, as well as more sophisticated calculations, have been unable to explain this oscillatory feature. We have also reported, for the first time, the field dependence of the energy resolved PFE current measured with a 127(DEGREES) cylindrical energy analyzer. These preliminary results show evidence of the oscillatory component previously only observed in the total PFE current.

  12. Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in viologen-linked BODIPY dyes.

    PubMed

    Frath, Denis; Yarnell, James E; Ulrich, Gilles; Castellano, Felix N; Ziessel, Raymond

    2013-10-07

    New boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes linked to viologen are prepared and their photophysical and electrochemical properties are investigated. Both synthesized molecules have similar electronic absorption spectra with the absorption maximum localized at 517 and 501 nm for dye 1 and dye 2, respectively. They exhibit well-defined redox behavior, highlighting the presence of BODIPY and viologen subunits, with little perturbation of the redox potential of both subunits with respect to the parent compounds. Both dyes are heavily quenched by photoinduced electron transfer from the BODIPY to the viologen subunit. The transient absorption technique demonstrates that dye 2 forms the viologen radical within a timeframe of 7.1 ps, and that the charge-separated species has a lifetime of 59 ps. Sustained irradiation of dye 2 in the presence of a tertiary amine allows for the accumulation of BODIPY-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BODIPY-MV(+)), as observed by its characteristic absorption at 396 and 603 nm. However, dye 2 does not generate catalytic amounts of hydrogen under standard conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Photoinduced force microscopy: A technique for hyperspectral nanochemical mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdick, Ryan A.; Morrison, William; Nowak, Derek; Albrecht, Thomas R.; Jahng, Junghoon; Park, Sung

    2017-08-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have intensified the need for tools that can characterize newly synthesized nanomaterials. A variety of techniques has recently been shown which combines atomic force microscopy (AFM) with optical illumination including tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM), and photothermal induced resonance microscopy (PTIR). To varying degrees, these existing techniques enable optical spectroscopy with the nanoscale spatial resolution inherent to AFM, thereby providing nanochemical interrogation of a specimen. Here we discuss photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM), a recently developed technique for nanoscale optical spectroscopy that exploits image forces acting between an AFM tip and sample to detect wavelength-dependent polarization within the sample to generate absorption spectra. This approach enables ∼10 nm spatial resolution with spectra that show correlation with macroscopic optical absorption spectra. Unlike other techniques, PiFM achieves this high resolution with virtually no constraints on sample or substrate properties. The applicability of PiFM to a variety of archetypal systems is reported here, highlighting the potential of PiFM as a useful tool for a wide variety of industrial and academic investigations, including semiconducting nanoparticles, nanocellulose, block copolymers, and low dimensional systems, as well as chemical and morphological mixing at interfaces.

  14. Photoinduced absorption in disubstituted polyacetylenes: Comparison of theory with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sony, Priya; Shukla, Alok

    2005-04-01

    In a recently performed experiment, [Korovyanko Phys. Rev. B 67, 035114 (2003)] have measured the photoinduced absorption (PA) spectrum of phenyl-disubstituted polyacetylenes (PDPA’s) from the 1Bu and 2Ag excited states. In the 1Bu PA spectrum they identified two main features, namely, PA1 and PA2, while in the 2Ag spectrum they identified only one feature called PAg . In this paper we present a theoretical study of the 1Bu and 2Ag PA spectra of oligo-PDPA’s using the correlated-electron Pariser-Parr-Pople model and various configuration interaction methodologies. We compare the calculated spectra with the experiments, as well as with the calculated spectra of polyenes of the same conjugation lengths. The calculated spectra are in good agreement with the experiments. Based upon our calculations, we identify PA1 as the mAg state and PAg as the nBu state of the polymer. Regarding the PA2 feature, we present our speculations. Additionally, it is argued that the nature of the excited states contributing to the 2Ag -PA spectra of oligo-PDPA’s is qualitatively different from those contributing to the spectra of polyenes.

  15. Photoinduced Bimolecular Electron Transfer from Cyano Anions in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Boning; Liang, Min; Maroncelli, Mark; Castner, Edward W

    2015-11-19

    Ionic liquids with electron-donating anions are used to investigate rates and mechanisms of photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer to the photoexcited acceptor 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (9,10-DCNA). The set of five cyano anion ILs studied comprises the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation paired with each of these five anions: selenocyanate, thiocyanate, dicyanamide, tricyanomethanide, and tetracyanoborate. Measurements with these anions dilute in acetonitrile and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide show that the selenocyanate and tricyanomethanide anions are strong quenchers of the 9,10-DCNA fluorescence, thiocyanate is a moderately strong quencher, dicyanamide is a weak quencher, and no quenching is observed for tetracyanoborate. Quenching rates are obtained from both time-resolved fluorescence transients and time-integrated spectra. Application of a Smoluchowski diffusion-and-reaction model showed that the complex kinetics observed can be fit using only two adjustable parameters, D and V0, where D is the relative diffusion coefficient between donor and acceptor and V0 is the value of the electronic coupling at donor-acceptor contact.

  16. Highly Twisted Triarylamines for Photoinduced Intramoleculer ChargeTransfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chudomel, J. M.; Yang, B. Q.; Barnes, M. D.; Achermann, M.; Mague, J. T.; Lahti, P. M.

    2011-08-04

    9-(N,N-Dianisylamino)anthracene (9DAAA), 9-(N,N-dianisylamino)dinaphth([1,2-a:2'-1'-j]-anthracene (9DAAH), and 9,10-bis(N,N-dianisylamino)anthracene (910BAA) were synthesized as highly twisted triarylamines with potential for photoexcited internal charge transfer. Crystallography of 9DAAA shows its dianisylamino group to be twisted nearly perpendicular to its anthracene unit, similar to a report for 910BAA. The solution fluorescence spectra show strong bathochromic shifts for each of the three molecular systems with strongly decreased quantum efficiency in higher polarity solvents. Solution-phase (ensemble) time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show up to 4-fold decreases in fluorescence lifetime in acetonitrile compared to hexane. The combined results are consistent with photoinduced, transient intramolecular charge-transfer from the bis-anisylamine unit to the polycyclic aromatic unit. Computational modeling is in accord with intramolecular transfer of electron density from the bis-anisylamino unit to the anthracene, based on in comparisons of HOMO and LUMO.

  17. pH Dependent Photoinduced Effects of Protoporphyrin IX to Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah; Palos-Chavez, Jorge; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2011-03-01

    Irradiation of the non-covalent complex between protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and β -lactoglobulin (Blg), causes a modest unfolding of the protein localized to Trp19. That binding site is affected by pH of the solution. At physiological pH, PPIX is known to bind HSA in hydrophobic binding sites. However, no evidence is presented for the binding behavior of PPIX to HSA in non-physological pH confirmations, nor on the effects of irradiation on the bound system at any pH. The combination of spectroscopic data and molecular simulations suggests that distinct PPIX-compatible binding sites become available at each confirmation of HSA at pH 7.4, and 9 while the pH 3 conformation is unfavorable for binding. Photoinduced mechanisms produce changes in the ligand as well as the protein but they do not appear to be dependent on the presence of O2 in solution. Therefore, the mechanism is not mediated by the formation of singlet oxygen and is likely the result of electron transfer between the porphyrin and amino acid residues.

  18. Mode of photo-induced toxic action of PAH in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.E.; Oris, J.T.; Taylor, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 0, 6, and 12 {micro}g/L fluoranthene in the presence of ultraviolet (US) light for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. Ultrastructural pathology of the secondary gill lamellae was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Following 12 hours of exposure to 12 {micro}g/L fluoranthene and UV light, epithelial cells appeared highly vacuolated and swollen. Following 48 hours, additional morphological alterations in epithelial cells included multivesiculated blebbing of the plasma membrane into intercellular gaps, numerous cytolysosomes, myelinoid bodies, and enlarged lysosomes with lipid-like contents. The staining characteristics of these cytoplasmic inclusions were consistent with that of phospholipid autodigestion. In addition, an inflammatory-type reaction occurred in the secondary lamellae following 24 hours of exposure. This reaction was characterized by large areas of intercellular edema, which produced a lifting of the epithelium, and the occasional presence of macrophages and granulocytes within the edematous areas and the lamellar blood sinuses. No morphological changes were observed in chloride cells, mucous cells, or pillar cells. In those fish exposed to 6 {micro}g/L fluoranthene and UV light, a similar progression compared to 12 {micro}g/L exposure of epithelial cell damage and inflammatory-type reaction was evident beginning at 24 hours of exposure. The results of this study suggest that the mode of action of photo-induced fluoranthene toxicity in fish is respiratory stress.

  19. Steady-state and femtosecond photoinduced processes of blepharismins bound to alpha-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Youssef, T; Brazard, J; Ley, C; Lacombat, F; Plaza, P; Martin, M M; Sgarbossa, A; Checcucci, G; Lenci, F

    2008-07-01

    The interaction of blepharismin (BP) and oxyblepharismin (OxyBP) with bovine alpha-crystallin (BAC) has been studied both by steady-state and femtosecond spectroscopy, with the aim of assessing the possible phototoxicity of these compounds toward the eye tissues. We showed that these pigments form with BAC potentially harmful ground-state complexes, the dissociation constants of which have been estimated to be 6 +/- 2 micromol L(-1) for OxyBP and 9 +/- 4 micromol L(-1) for BP. Irradiation with steady-state visible light of solutions of blepharismins in the presence of BAC proved to induce a quenching of both the pigment and the intrinsic protein fluorescences. These effects were tentatively rationalized in terms of structural changes of alpha-crystallin. On the other hand, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was used to check the occurrence of any type I photoactivity of oxyblepharismin bound to alpha-crystallin. The existence of a particular type of fast photoinduced reaction, not observed in former studies with human serum albumin but present in the natural oxyblepharismin-binding protein, could here be evidenced but no specific reaction was observed during the first few nanoseconds after excitation. Partial denaturation of alpha-crystallin was however found to alter the excited-state behaviour of its complex with oxyblepharismin, making it partly resemble that of free oxyblepharismin in solution.

  20. Photoinduced electrokinetic redistribution of nano/microparticles during holographic grating recording in the ferroelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhtarev, N.; Kukhtareva, T.; Wang, J.

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated photoinduced redistribution of metal nanoparticles, placed on the surface of the ferroelectric photorefractive crystal during recording of dynamic holograms. Motivations for this study were improvement of sensitivity for recording of dynamic holographic gratings, for application in nondestructive testing of materials. The home- made biosynthesized gold and silver colloidal solutions were spread as a thin layer on the ferroelectric photorefractive crystal surface. Holographic gratings were recorded in photorefractive crystal of Fe:LiNbO3(Fe:LN) by the HeNe laser (λ=633nm) to avoid direct influence of laser light on nanoparticles. Photorefractive holographic grating initially recorded in the crystal volume produce spatially modulated electric field on the crystal surface. This field led to electrophoretic redistribution of the nanoparicles on the crystal surface that result also in additional contribution to the electric field pattern and also change diffraction efficiency of hologram. In addition, we have recorded holographic grating in Fe:LN placed in 5mm cuvette with silver nanoparticles nanofluid and observed nanoparticles distribution along grating line. We have calculated electrophoretic (EP) and dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces on the crystal surface with holographic photorefractive grating, recorded in the crystal. It is shown that longitudinal (along the crystal surface) components of the DEP-force can be described only with high-contrast approach.

  1. Photoinduced electron transfer in a protein-surfactant complex: probing the interaction of SDS with BSA.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2006-08-24

    Photoinduced fluorescence quenching electron transfer from N,N-dimethyl aniline to different 7-amino coumarin dyes has been investigated in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-SDS protein-surfactant complexes using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The electron transfer rate has been found to be slower in BSA-SDS protein-surfactant complexes compared to that in SDS micelles. This observation has been explained with the help of the "necklace-and-bead" structure formed by the protein-surfactant complex due to coiling of protein molecules around the micelles. In the correlation of free energy change to the fluorescence quenching electron transfer rate, we have observed that coumarin 151 deviates from the normal Marcus region, showing retardation in the electron transfer rate at higher negative free energy region. We endeavored to establish that the retardation in the fluorescence quenching electron transfer rate for coumarin 151 at higher free energy region is a result of slower rotational relaxation and slower translational diffusion of coumarin 151 (C-151) compared to its analogues coumarin 152 and coumarin 481 in micelles and in protein-surfactant complexes. The slower rotational relaxation and translational diffusion of C-151 are supposed to be arising from the different location of coumarin 151 compared to coumarin 152 and coumarin 481.

  2. Side chain variations on a series of dicyanovinyl-terthiophenes: a photoinduced absorption study.

    PubMed

    Ziehlke, Hannah; Fitzner, Roland; Koerner, Christian; Gresser, Roland; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter; Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz K

    2011-08-04

    We characterize a series of dicyanovinyl-terthiophenes with different alkyl side chains. Variations of side chain substitution patterns and length mainly affect the morphology of the evaporated thin films, which in turn sensitively influences properties like absorption, energy levels, and thin film roughness. To investigate changes in transfer processes between electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) molecules due to side chain variations, we use photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA). PIA probes the long-living photoexcited species at the D-A interface: triplet excitons, cations, and anions. For a blend layer of dicyanovinyl-terthiophene and the electron acceptor fullerene C(60), an energy transfer via the singlet and triplet manifold of C(60) occurs. The recombination dynamics of the triplet excitons reveal two components that differ in their lifetime and generation rate by 1 order of magnitude. By comparing the dynamics of triplet excitons in neat and blend layers, we estimate the energy transfer efficiency in dependence of the type of side chain. The compound with methyl side chains shows remarkable properties regarding thin film absorption, surface roughness, and energy transfer efficiency, which we attribute to the specific nanomorphology of the thin film.

  3. Reversible photo-induced trap formation in mixed-halide hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Eric T; Slotcavage, Daniel J; Dohner, Emma R; Bowring, Andrea R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I; McGehee, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We report on reversible, light-induced transformations in (CH3NH3)Pb(Br x I1-x )3. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these perovskites develop a new, red-shifted peak at 1.68 eV that grows in intensity under constant, 1-sun illumination in less than a minute. This is accompanied by an increase in sub-bandgap absorption at ∼1.7 eV, indicating the formation of luminescent trap states. Light soaking causes a splitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks, suggesting segregation into two crystalline phases. Surprisingly, these photo-induced changes are fully reversible; the XRD patterns and the PL and absorption spectra revert to their initial states after the materials are left for a few minutes in the dark. We speculate that photoexcitation may cause halide segregation into iodide-rich minority and bromide-enriched majority domains, the former acting as a recombination center trap. This instability may limit achievable voltages from some mixed-halide perovskite solar cells and could have implications for the photostability of halide perovskites used in optoelectronics.

  4. [Reseach on THz Time Domain Spectrum of Photo-Induced Insulator-Metal Phase Transition of VO₂ Films].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-lei; Wu, Shuai; Li, Yan-feng; Liu, Bo-wen; Hu, Ming-lie; Chai, Lu; Xing, Qi-rong; Wang, Qing-yue

    2015-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO₂) film will be phase-transitioned from insulator into metal, accompanied with dramatic change on conductivity, which is named as photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition. Such phase transition of VO₂ film has important application potentials in modulators or other functional devices for terahertz waves. In this paper, the transmission spectrum variations before and after the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide film are investigated, and the phase transition properties in terahertz(THz) region are analyzed. In the experiment, the phase transition of the VO₂ film was induced by a continuous wave (CW) laser source and a femtosecond (fs) laser source, respectively. Obvious changes on the THz waveforms were observed for the both mentioned means of excitation, and the amplitude attenuation, as well as the signal distortion, was intensified with the increase of the impinging optical power. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra of the transmitted THz time-domain signals were analyzed and it was found that the amplitude of the transmitted spectrum decreased synchronously with the increase of the optical power, accompanied with deformation of the spectrum line shape at the same time. The reason was that the macroscopic dielectric properties of the VO₂ film approached gradually to that of a metal as laser power was increased. A parameter, transmission modulation function, was defined in the paper as the amplitude difference between the transmission spectra of the VO₂ film before and after the laser excitation, to describe the dispersivity of the photo-induced phase transition more clearly. From the curve of the transmission modulation function, strong frequency-dependent properties at THz frequencies were found to vary regularly with the incident light power. After furthermore comparison, it was found that, though the insulator-metal phase transition could be trigged by both CW laser source and fs laser

  5. Retardation of the orientation relaxation of azo-dye doped amorphous polymers upon photoinduced isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. W.; Quatela, A.; Casalboni, M.; Nunzi, J.-M.

    2006-08-01

    The orientation relaxation upon photo-induced isomerization of azo-dyes was studied. All-optical poling (AOP) and photo-induced birefringence, which are based on the mechanism of angular selective photo-isomerization, were employed to manipulate the angular distribution of azo-dyes (Disperse-red 1) doped in three different amorphous polymers: (poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA, poly(carbonate) PC and poly(sulfone) PSU), with different glass transition temperature (T g). In the case of AOP, quasi-permanent macroscopic second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (2) was inscribed in the dye-doped centro-symmetric polymer systems, while in the case of photo-induced birefringence, quasi-permanent birefringence Δn was inscribed in the dye-doped isotropic polymer systems. Relaxation of χ (2) and Δn were monitored upon different duration of AOP and photo-induced birefringence preparation. Experimental results show that azo-dye orientation relaxation follows the duration of the photo-nduced isomerization process: the longer the photo-induced isomerization process, the slower the relaxation of the inscribed χ (2) and Δn. In addition, retardation of the orientation relaxation does not follow a simple relation with hardness (T g) of the polymer host. Causes of the orientation relaxation retardation are discussed.

  6. QSARs for photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.; Call, D.; Ankley, G.; Veith, G.

    1994-12-31

    Photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was found to be a result of competing internal and external factors which interact to produce a complex, multilinear relationship between toxicity and chemical structure. The relationship between molecular electronic structure and photo-dynamic effects was studied in both ground and excited states. A measure of the energy required for an electron to be elevated from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), or HOMO-LUMO gap, provided a useful ground state index to explain the persistence, light absorption, and eventual photo-induced toxicity of PAHs to Daphnia magna. The derived QSARs clearly distinguished photo-induced toxicity differences between pairs of structurally similar PAHs, such as phenanthrene and anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene and tetracene, etc. Those PAHs exhibiting photo-induced toxicity were consistently within a specific HOMO-LUMO gap range. The relationship between the excited state electronic parameters and toxicity was also studied. Significant correlations were found with the measured energies of singlet and triplet states from spectroscopic data. An investigation of the effect of substituent additions on photo-induced acute toxicity of parent PAHs revealed that alkyl and hydroxy moieties did not significantly reduce the HOMO-LUMO gap of the parent PAHs. Nitro, alkene and chloro substituents cause gap reductions, whereby certain derivatives of parent chemicals that were close to the ``toxic region`` of the electronic gap could become phototoxic with such additions.

  7. Light-activated protein inhibition through photoinduced electron transfer of a ruthenium(II)–cobalt(III) bimetallic complex

    DOE PAGES

    Holbrook, Robert J.; Weinberg, David J.; Peterson, Mark D.; ...

    2015-02-11

    In this paper, we describe a mechanism of light activation that initiates protein inhibitory action of a biologically inert Co(III) Schiff base (Co(III)-sb) complex. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) occurs from a Ru(II) bipyridal complex to a covalently attached Co(III) complex and is gated by conformational changes that occur in tens of nanoseconds. Reduction of the Co(III)-sb by PET initiates displacement of the inert axial imidazole ligands, promoting coordination to active site histidines of α-thrombin. Upon exposure to 455 nm light, the rate of ligand exchange with 4-methylimidazole, a histidine mimic, increases by approximately 5-fold, as observed by NMR spectroscopy. Similarly,more » the rate of α-thrombin inhibition increases over 5-fold upon irradiation. Finally, these results convey a strategy for light activation of inorganic therapeutic agents through PET utilizing redox-active metal centers.« less

  8. Light-Activated Protein Inhibition through Photoinduced Electron Transfer of a Ruthenium(II)–Cobalt(III) Bimetallic Complex

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Robert J.; Weinberg, David J.; Peterson, Mark D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a mechanism of light activation that initiates protein inhibitory action of a biologically inert Co(III) Schiff base (Co(III)-sb) complex. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) occurs from a Ru(II) bipyridal complex to a covalently attached Co(III) complex and is gated by conformational changes that occur in tens of nanoseconds. Reduction of the Co(III)-sb by PET initiates displacement of the inert axial imidazole ligands, promoting coordination to active site histidines of α-thrombin. Upon exposure to 455 nm light, the rate of ligand exchange with 4-methylimidazole, a histidine mimic, increases by approximately 5-fold, as observed by NMR spectroscopy. Similarly, the rate of α-thrombin inhibition increases over 5-fold upon irradiation. These results convey a strategy for light activation of inorganic therapeutic agents through PET utilizing redox-active metal centers. PMID:25671465

  9. Light-activated protein inhibition through photoinduced electron transfer of a ruthenium(II)–cobalt(III) bimetallic complex

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, Robert J.; Weinberg, David J.; Peterson, Mark D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-02-11

    In this paper, we describe a mechanism of light activation that initiates protein inhibitory action of a biologically inert Co(III) Schiff base (Co(III)-sb) complex. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) occurs from a Ru(II) bipyridal complex to a covalently attached Co(III) complex and is gated by conformational changes that occur in tens of nanoseconds. Reduction of the Co(III)-sb by PET initiates displacement of the inert axial imidazole ligands, promoting coordination to active site histidines of α-thrombin. Upon exposure to 455 nm light, the rate of ligand exchange with 4-methylimidazole, a histidine mimic, increases by approximately 5-fold, as observed by NMR spectroscopy. Similarly, the rate of α-thrombin inhibition increases over 5-fold upon irradiation. Finally, these results convey a strategy for light activation of inorganic therapeutic agents through PET utilizing redox-active metal centers.

  10. Self-organization and photo-induced formation of cyanine dye aggregates on the plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Nabiullina, Rezida D.; Toropov, Nikita A.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of hybrid film based on plasmon Ag nanoparticles of different size and cyanine dyes with different length of conjugation chain depending on the relative position of the plasmon resonance and the absorption of organic molecules were studied. The absorption spectra of the films revealed several molecular forms, such as all-trans- and cisisomers, dimers and J-aggregate, which also exist in pure organic films without Ag nanoparticles. It's shown that the absorption of aggregate bands increased after exposure by nanosecond laser on the hybrid films due to photo-induced additional self-organization of aggregates. In the presence of Ag nanoparticles, laser radiation leads to the change of molecular forms at a comparatively low threshold.

  11. Photorefractive effect and photoinduced quadratic nonlinear susceptibility in germanosilicate fibres fabricated in nitrogen and helium atmospheres by the MCVD technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Sergei A; Vechkanov, N N; Dianov, Evgenii M; Mashinsky, V M; Medvedkov, O I; Sazhin, O D; Gur'yanov, A N; Khopin, V F; Yatsenko, Yu P

    2000-09-30

    Single-mode optical fibres were fabricated from a germanosilicate glass by the method of modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD), which used sintering of a porous glass in a reducing (helium or nitrogen-containing) atmosphere. The optical fibres exhibit a high photoinduced change in the refractive index and a high efficiency of recording quadratic nonlinear susceptibility compared to a standard germanosilicate fibre. Sintering, both in nitrogen and in helium atmospheres, was shown to increase the concentration of germanium oxygen-deficient centres in glass. It is likely that nitrogen enters into a germanosilicate glass in the concentration that is sufficient to modify the glass structure and to additionally increase its photosensitivity. The replacement of oxygen or silicon in the close vicinity of an oxygen vacancy by nitrogen may play a key role in the photosensitivity enhancement owing to the formation of additional valence bonds and blocking of recombination processes. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Infrared imaging as a cancer diagnostic tool: introducing a new concept of spectral barcodes for identifying molecular changes in colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Piot, Olivier; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Gobinet, Cyril; Bouché, Olivier; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2013-03-01

    Complementary diagnostic methods to conventional histopathology are under scrutiny for various types of cancers for rapid and molecular level diagnostics. In this perspective, a biophotonic approach based on infrared spectral micro-imaging combined with multivariate statistical analysis has been implemented on colon tissues. The ability of infrared imaging to investigate the intrinsic biochemical features of cells and tissues has been exploited to develop a new concept of spectral bar coding. To implement this concept, 10 frozen colon tissue samples (five nontumoral and tumoral pairs from five patients) were imaged using infrared spectral micro-imaging in a nondestructive manner. The spectral images were processed by a multivariate clustering method to identify the histological organization in a label-free manner. Spectral information from the epithelial components was then automatically recovered on the basis of their intrinsic biochemical composition, and compared using a statistical method (Mann-Whitney U-test) to construct spectral barcodes specific to each patient. The spectral barcodes representing the discriminant infrared spectral wavenumbers (900-1,800 cm(-1) ) enabled characterization of some of the malignancy-associated biochemical alterations associated with mucin, nucleotides, carbohydrates, and protein regions. This approach not only allowed the identification of common biochemical alterations among all the colon cancer patients, but also revealed a difference of gradient within individual patients. This new concept of spectral bar coding gives insight into the potential of infrared spectral micro-imaging as a complementary diagnostic tool to conventional histopathology, for biochemical level understanding of malignancy in colon cancers in an objective and label-free manner.

  13. Determination of the spectral dependence of reduced scattering and quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging for detection of fibrillary changes in ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa B.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2015-03-01

    Here, we examine ovarian cancer extracellular matrix (ECM) modification by measuring the wavelength dependence of optical scattering measurements and quantitative second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging metrics in the range of 800-1100 nm in order to determine fibrillary changes in ex vivo normal ovary, type I, and type II ovarian cancer. Mass fractals of the collagen fiber structure is analyzed based on a power law correlation function using spectral dependence measurements of the reduced scattering coefficient μs' where the mass fractal dimension is related to the power. Values of μs' are measured using independent methods of determining the values of μs and g by on-axis attenuation measurements using the Beer-Lambert Law and by fitting the angular distribution of scattering to the Henyey-Greenstein phase function, respectively. Quantitativespectral SHG imaging on the same tissues determines FSHG/BSHG creation ratios related to size and harmonophore distributions. Both techniques probe fibril packing order, but the optical scattering probes structures of sizes from about 50-2000 nm where SHG imaging - although only able to resolve individual fibers - builds contrast from the assembly of fibrils. Our findings suggest that type I ovarian tumor structure has the most ordered collagen fibers followed by normal ovary then type II tumors showing the least order.

  14. Early morphological changes and functional abnormalities in group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry.

    PubMed

    Maruko, I; Iida, T; Sekiryu, T; Fujiwara, T

    2008-11-01

    To report early morphological changes and functional abnormalities in group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJRT) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and microperimetry. Six eyes (three patients; average age, 64 years) with group 2A IJRT were examined using SD-OCT and microperimetry. On SD-OCT, breaks in the highly reflective line, considered the boundary between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments, at the temporal to the fovea and corresponding to the telangiectasis lesions were observed in all eyes. Highly reflective tissue was observed in the outer retinal layer in five eyes. In three eyes with a right-angle venule, the outer retinal layer was replaced by the highly reflective tissue and was contiguous to the inner retinal layer. Microperimetry showed the reduction in the retinal sensitivity thresholds at the temporal to the fovea in five eyes. Early morphological alterations in group 2A IJRT in SD-OCT were observed. These finding might be visualisation of Müller cell abnormality on SD-OCT. At the same time, the disorder of photoreceptors occurs at the telangiectasis lesions from MP-1. Detailed observation of these abnormalities provides an understanding of the morphological and functional features of group 2A IJRT.

  15. Improving Approaches for Determining Ice Volume Change on the Greenland Ice Sheet Margin using ASTER and SPOT Digital Elevation Models and Spectral Masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Rhodes, T.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Finfrock, A.; Lajoie, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is the largest ice sheet in the Northern Hemisphere and understanding trends in its mass balance has important implications for predicting global sea level rise. High relief topography along the margin of the GIS makes it difficult to use low-resolution remote sensing to resolve ice elevations. These marginal regions however, tend to be more dynamic than the interior of the ice sheet and may show signs of ice volume loss earlier than the interior. In this study we difference georeferenced ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) from 2000-01 (30 meter resolution) with SPOT DEMs from 2008-09 (40 meter resolution) made available through the SPIRIT IPY program. ASTER DEMs from 2006-07 are used where SPOT data is not available. The change in these DEMs is divided by the time elapsed between scenes giving change in km3 per year. The method used for DEM production is not accurate over low contrast surfaces such as water, and snow. High relief bedrock can also have more error than areas of glacial ice due to slope. Masking snow, water, and rock from scenes minimizes total error. Most methods of spectral masking available in the literature rely on establishing thresholds for a scene which separate snow from ice from water. In order to apply these methods to multiple scenes taken at different latitudes, seasons, and sun altitudes, a new set of thresholds need to be developed for each scene which proves to be a very time intensive process. When covering large areas with a mosaic of scenes, these methods have not proven applicable. We have developed a method of nesting masks which allows for faster and less subjective trial-and-error threshold setting. This method can be applied to a range of scenes with little to no individual manipulation giving a repeatable result. The first mask eliminates most bedrock with a negative NDSI and fjord water and sea ice with an elevation of about 0. A principal components analysis (PCA) is done under this mask for

  16. Existence of a photoinducible phase for ovarian development and photoperiod-related alteration of clock gene expression in a damselfish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Hada, Noriko; Imamura, Satoshi; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Bouchekioua, Selma; Takemura, Akihiro

    2015-10-01

    The sapphire devil, Chrysiptera cyanea, is a reef-associated damselfish and their ovarian development can be induced by a long photoperiod. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of a photoinducible phase for the photoperiodic ovarian development in the sapphire devil. Induction of ovarian development under night-interruption light schedules and Nanda-Hamner cycles revealed that the photoinducible phase appeared in a circadian manner between ZT12 and ZT13. To characterize the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression in the brain of this species, we determined the expression levels of the sdPer1, sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 clock genes under constant light and dark conditions (LL and DD) and photoperiodic (short and long photoperiods). The expression of sdPer1 exhibited clear circadian oscillation under both LL and DD conditions, while sdPer2 and sdCry1 expression levels were lower under DD than under LL conditions and sdCry2 expression was lower under LL than under DD conditions. These results suggest a key role for sdPer1 in circadian clock cycling and that sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 are light-responsive clock genes in the sapphire devil. After 1 week under a long photoperiod, we observed photoperiod-related changes in sdPer1, sdPer2, and sdCry2 expression, but not in sdCry1 expression. These results suggest that the expression patterns of some clock genes exhibit seasonal variation according to seasonal changes in day length and that such seasonal alteration of clock gene expression may contribute to seasonal recognition by the sapphire devil.

  17. Influence of salinity on the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to an estuarine shrimp and oligochaete.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E

    2003-12-01

    The effect of salinity on the photoinduced toxicity of waterborne fluoranthene to larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and tubificid oligochaete worms (Monopylephorus rubroniveus) was studied in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight. In the grass shrimp toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 3.6, 7.3, 13.8, and 29.0 microg/L) and four salinities (6.9, 14.5, 21.2, and 28.6 per thousand) were achieved. In the oligochaete toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 0.8, 1.4, 3.3, and 7.7 microg/L) and four salinities (7.1, 13.3, 20.5, and 27.6 per thousand) were achieved. Salinity had no effect on either the photoinduced toxicity or the bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in the grass shrimp. However, the highest level of salinity decreased the median lethal time for the oligochaete. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene was inversely related to salinity for the oligochaete. Additional experiments demonstrated an inverse relationship between salinity and short-term osmotic weight change in the oligochaete. Weight of the grass shrimp larvae was not affected by salinity. These findings show that salinity can influence the toxicity and bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in some estuarine organisms. The influence of salinity on these populations may be related to physiological responses associated with internal osmotic volume changes. Thus, salinity needs to be taken into account when assessing the risk of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to at least some estuarine species.

  18. Spectral relationship of light-induced refractive index and absorption changes in bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype BR{sub WT} and the variant BR{sub D96N}

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisel, D.; Hampp, N.

    1992-09-17

    In this paper the simultaneous michelson interferometer measurement of the spectral dependence of the light-induced absorption and refractive index changes at high substrate conversion rates is described for bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype bacteriorhodopsin and variant bacteriorhodopsin-D96N.

  19. Photoinduced Charge Transport in a BHJ Solar Cell Controlled by an External Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqing; Feng, Yanting; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated theoretical photoinduced charge transport in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell controlled by an external electric field. Our method for visualizing charge difference density identified the excited state properties of photoinduced charge transfer, and the charge transfer excited states were distinguished from local excited states during electronic transitions. Furthermore, the calculated rates for the charge transfer revealed that the charge transfer was strongly influenced by the external electric field. The external electric field accelerated the rate of charge transfer by up to one order when charge recombination was significantly restrained. Our research demonstrated that photoinduced charge transport controlled by an external electric field in a BHJ solar cell is efficient, and the exciton dissociation is not the limiting factor in organic solar cells.Our research should aid in the rational design of a novel conjugated system of organic solar cells. PMID:26353997

  20. Photo-induced Doping in GaN Epilayers with Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R. M. S.; Yeh, T. W.; Yang, W. Y.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Kuo, H. C.; Chiu, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new doping scheme where photo-induced carriers from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can be injected into GaN and greatly enhance photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epilayers. An 8.3-fold enhancement of PL in GaN is observed after the doping. On the basis of time-resolved PL studies, the PL enhancement is attributed to the carrier transfer from GQDs to GaN. Such a carrier transfer process is caused by the work function difference between GQDs and GaN, which is verified by Kelvin probe measurements. We have also observed that photocurrent in GaN can be enhanced by 23-fold due to photo-induced doping with GQDs. The improved optical and transport properties from photo-induced doping are promising for applications in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26987403

  1. Improved Photo-Induced Stability in Amorphous Metal-Oxide Based TFTs for Transparent Displays.

    PubMed

    Koo, Sang-Mo; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the origin of photo-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) by exploring threshold voltage (Vth) shift in transfer characteristics. The combination of photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress enhanced the shift in Vth in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs. Such results stem from the extended trapped charges at the localized defect states related to oxygen vacancy which play a role in a screening effect on the electric field induced by gate voltage. We also demonstrate the chemically clean interface in oxide-TFTs by employing oxygen annealing which reduces the density of trap states, thereby resulting in improved photo-induced stability. We believe that this work stimulates the research society of transparent electronics by providing a promising approach to suppress photo-induced instability in metal-oxide TFTs.

  2. Spectral-finite element approach to post-seismic relaxation in a spherical compressible Earth: application to gravity changes due to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Klemann, V.; Martinec, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) have revealed that a mega-thrust earthquake that occurs in an island-arc trench system causes post-seismic crustal deformation. Such crustal deformation data have been interpreted by combining three mechanisms: afterslip, poroelastic rebound and viscoelastic relaxation. It is seismologically important to determine the contribution of each mechanism because it provides frictional properties between the plate boundaries and viscosity estimates in the asthenosphere which are necessary to evaluate the stress behaviour during earthquake cycles. However, the observation sites of GNSS are mostly deployed over land and can detect only a small part of the large-scale deformation, which precludes a clear separation of the mechanisms. To extend the spatial coverage of the deformation area, recent studies started to use satellite gravity data that can detect long-wavelength deformations over the ocean. To date, compared with theoretical models for calculating the post-seismic crustal deformation, a few models have been proposed to interpret the corresponding gravity variations. Previous approaches have adopted approximations for the effects of compressibility, sphericity and self-gravitation when computing gravity changes. In this study, a new spectral-finite element approach is presented to consider the effects of material compressibility for Burgers viscoelastic earth model with a laterally heterogeneous viscosity distribution. After the basic principles are explained, it is applied to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. For this event, post-seismic deformation mechanisms are still a controversial topic. Using the developed approach, it is shown that the spatial patterns of gravity change generated by the above three mechanisms clearly differ from one another. A comparison of the theoretical simulation results with the satellite gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment reveals that both afterslip and

  3. Synthetic control over photoinduced electron transfer in phosphorescence zinc sensors.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hana; Cho, Somin; Han, Yejee; Chae, Weon-Sik; Ahn, Dae-Ro; You, Youngmin; Nam, Wonwoo

    2013-03-27

    Despite the promising photofunctionalities, phosphorescent probes have been examined only to a limited extent, and the molecular features that provide convenient handles for controlling the phosphorescence response have yet to be identified. We synthesized a series of phosphorescence zinc sensors based on a cyclometalated heteroleptic Ir(III) complex. The sensor construct includes two anionic cyclometalating ligands and a neutral diimine ligand that tethers a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) zinc receptor. A series of cyclometalating ligands with a range of electron densities and band gap energies were used to create phosphorescence sensors. The sensor series was characterized by variable-temperature steady-state and transient photoluminescence spectroscopy studies, electrochemical measurements, and quantum chemical calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory. The studies demonstrated that the suppression of nonradiative photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from DPA to the photoexcited Ir(IV) species provided the underlying mechanism that governed the phosphorescent response to zinc ions. Importantly, the Coulombic barrier, which was located on either the cyclometalating ligand or the diimine ligand, negligibly influenced the PeT process. Phosphorescence modulation by PeT strictly obeyed the Rehm-Weller principle, and the process occurred in the Marcus-normal region. These findings provide important guidelines for improving sensing performance; an efficient phosphorescence sensor should include a cyclometalating ligand with a wide band gap energy and a deep oxidation potential. Finally, the actions of the sensor were demonstrated by visualizing the intracellular zinc ion distribution in HeLa cells using a confocal laser scanning microscope and a photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscope.

  4. Recent advances in photoinduced donor/acceptor copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, S.; Viswanathan, K.; Hoyle, C. E.; Clark, S. C.; Miller, C.; Morel, F.; Decker, C.

    1999-05-01

    Photoinitiated free radical polymerization of donor (D)/acceptor (A) type monomers has gained considerable interest due to the possibility to efficiently photopolymerize non-acrylate based systems. Furthermore, this photoinduced alternating copolymerization can be accomplished without the presence of a conventional free radical generating photoinitiator. In the past, we have shown that the structural influences in the direct photolysis of N-Alkyl and N-Arylmaleimides as well as their corresponding ground state charge transfer complexes (CTC) with suitable donors have carefully been investigated. For certain combinations of A and D type monomers, a direct photolysis of the ground state complex or the excitation of the acceptor, followed by the formation of an exciplex, has been shown to initiate the copolymerization. Herein, we show that the main route of initiation is based on inter or intra molecular H-abstraction from an excited state maleimide, whereby no exciplex formation takes place. H-abstraction will predominantly take place in systems where easily abstractable hydrogens are present. Our laser flash photolysis investigation, ESR [1] (A. Hiroshi, I. Takasi, T. Nosi, Macromol. Chem. 190 (1989) 2821) and phosphorescence emissions [2,3] (K.S. Chen, T. Foster, J.K.S. Wan, J. Phys. Chem. 84 (1980) 2473; C.J. Seliskar, S.P. McGlynn, J. Chem. Phys. 55 (1971) 4337) studies show that triplet excited states of N-alkyl substituted maleimides (RMI), which are well known strong precursors for direct H-abstractions from aliphatic ethers and secondary alcohols, are formed upon excitation. Rates of copolymerization and degrees of conversion for copolymerization of maleimide/vinyl ether pairs in air and nitrogen have been measured as a function of hydrogen abstractability of the excited triplet state MI as well as the influence of concentration and hydrogen donating effect of the hydrogen donor.

  5. Oxygen radicals photo-induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate complex.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Akai, Kaori; Tokumura, Akira; Abe, Shinji; Tamaki, Toshiaki; Takiguchi, Yoshiharu; Fukuzawa, Kenji

    2005-08-30

    This study examined the photo-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the carcinogenic iron(III)-NTA complex. Iron(III)-NTA complex (1:1) has three conformations (type (a) in acidic conditions of pH 1-6, type (n) in neutral conditions of pH 3-9, and type (b) in basic conditions of pH 7-10) with two pK(a) values (pK(a1) approximately 4, pK(a2) approximately 8). The iron(III)-NTA complex was reduced to iron(II) under cool-white fluorescent light without the presence of any reducing agent, and the reduction rates of the three conformations of iron(III)-NTA were in the order type (a)>type (n)>type (b) as reported previously (Akai K. et al., Free Radic. Res. 38, 951-962, 2004). ROS generation was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with a spin-trapping technique. Apparent EPR signals attributed to PBN/*(13)CH(3) and PBN/*OCH(3) spin adducts were observed after incubation of the iron(III)-NTA complex was mixed with alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and (13)C-DMSO in an aerobic condition. The addition of catalase effectively attenuated the PBN adducts, but superoxide dismutase enhanced them. Taken together, these results indicate that the iron(III)-NTA complex is spontaneously reduced to the iron(II)-NTA complex by light under acidic to neutral pH, and in turn transfers an electron to molecular oxygen to form ROS.

  6. Determination of photoinduced and intrinsic birefringences in PMMA/DR13 guest-host film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Agnol, Fernando Fuzinatto; Shimizu, Flávio Makoto; Giacometti, José A.

    2014-07-01

    We report measurements and analysis of photoinduced birefringence (PIB) in polymeric stretched films, hence, with an intrinsic birefringence (IB) associated to the polymeric chain orientation. It was found that transmittance signal is dependent on the angle between the film stretching direction and the probe light polarization, increasing or decreasing relatively to IB signal. Theoretical analysis considered that light propagates through the film having a photoinduced and intrinsic birefringences with independent optical axes. The transmittance signal dependence on the film angle is correctly accounted and our approach could give a phenomenological elucidation to the effect known as the inverse relaxation effect.

  7. Stretched exponential kinetics for photoinduced birefringence in azo dye doped PVA films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hye Ri; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Sang Jo; Kim, Gun Yeup; Kwak, Chong Hoon

    2009-05-01

    We fabricated azo dye (methylorange) doped poly vinyl alcohol (MO/PVA) thin films and measured the photoinduced birefringence (PIB) kinetics for several pump beam intensities and for various MO concentrations by using the pump-probe technique. A novel approach to explain the transient behaviors of the photoinduced anisotropy is presented by employing an empirical stretched exponential time response in the course of the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization of azo molecules and is compared with the experimental data, showing excellent agreement. The stretched exponent is estimated to be β = 0.34 ± 0.04, revealing amorphous nature of the MO/PVA system.

  8. Photoinduced dimerization of macrocyclic complexes mediated by a metal-assisted oxidation of the macrocycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraudi, G.; Muralidharan, S.

    1981-12-01

    The triplet state of benzophenone oxidizes Ni((14)aneN/sub 4//sup 2 +/ to a Ni(III) intermediate which subsequently produces the dimer of the complex as a product. The nature of the product was confirmed by structural studies. (Ni(13-At))/sup +/ reacts with the triplet of fluorenone and /sup 2/Estate of Cr(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ forming also a dimer in a reaction that involves different intermediates. Intermediates in the photoinduced oxidations of the macrocycles have been investigated by flash photolysis. The mechanism of the photoinduced oxidation is discussed in terms of the reported properties of the macrocycles.

  9. Photoinduced color centers creation in superionic crystals RbAg 4 I 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N.; Boris, A.; Bredikhin, S.; Awano, T.

    1995-12-01

    A new phenomenon of a reversible photoinduced coloration caused by light irradiation is discovered and investigated in superionic RbAg 4 I 5 crystals. The reversible photoinduced absorption is found to be a result of irradiation by light with wavelengths in the region from 420 nm to 450 nm. The proposed mechanism of the discovered effect is associated with ambipolar diffusion of screened by mobile ions optically excited electronic carriers. The processes of color centers creation in superionic crystals RbAg 4 I 5 due to additive coloring in iodine vapours, ionic implantation and ?-ray irradiation are considered.

  10. Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Veith, G.D.; Call, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and the energy of the triplet state of a variety of PAHs. The authors have reexamined these data and propose a more mechanistic explanation for the prediction of photo-induced PAH toxicity. They sought a molecular descriptor which could be computed from structure rather than measured empirically.

  11. Interactions of amiodarone with model membranes and amiodarone-photoinduced peroxidation of lipids.

    PubMed

    Sautereau, A M; Tournaire, C; Suares, M; Tocanne, J F; Paillous, N

    1992-06-23

    The potent antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone (AMIO) exhibits phototoxicity, which is thought to be related to its interaction with biological membranes. We report here a spectroscopic study of the interactions of this drug with phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes used as membrane model systems. A linear increase in absorbance at 300 nm was observed with increasing addition of AMIO to dimyristoyl-DL-PC (DMPC) liposomes over all the drugs-lipid molar ratio (Ri)s tested. In contrast, in the dimyristoyl-DL-PG (DMPG) liposomes, there was a dramatic increase in absorbance at values of Ri above unity. Light scattering by DMPG liposomes at 350 nm increased with increasing AMIO concentration up to a Ri = 1, and then decreased with increasing drug concentration. Such changes were not observed with the DMPC liposomes. Moreover, addition of AMIO changed the fluorescence polarization rate of 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene embedded in these liposomes. It reduced the rate below the phase transition temperature (Tt) of the lipid, but increased it above this temperature. These effects on the lipidic phases observed at low Ri were more pronounced on the DMPG than on the DMPC liposomes. The strong interactions of AMIO with phospholipids, especially the acidic ones, were confirmed by liposome size determinations. All these data strongly suggest that the drug was incorporated in the core of the lipid bilayers. Such a penetration would favor a drug-photoinduced peroxidation of lipids. Indeed, UV irradiation of AMIO-DOPG mixtures led to the disappearance of the unsaturated fatty acids of phospholipids, checked by gas chromatography measurements, which was correlated with the amount of oxygen consumed. This showed that AMIO did photosensitize phospholipid peroxidation.

  12. Photoinduced charge recombination in dipolar D-A-A photonic liquid crystal polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Mercedes M A; Yamazaki, Shiori; Mai, Dieu X; Padgaonkar, Suyog; Peurifoy, Samuel; Goncalves, Ariane; Wu, Yi-Lin; Hu, Qiaoyu; Scott, Amy M

    2017-02-08

    A hexylalkoxy dipolar D-A-A molecule [7-(4-N,N-(bis(4-hexyloxyphenyl)amino)phenyl)-2,1,3-(benzothia-diazol-4-yl)methylene]propane-dinitrile, (C6-TPA-BT-CN) has been synthesized and the photophysics studied via femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (FsTA) in toluene and in amorphous and liquid crystalline spherulite thin films. Two spherulite macromolecular crystalline phases (banded, and non-banded) were observed through concentration dependent, solution processing techniques and are birefringent with a negative sign of elongation. A dramatic change in the electronic absorption from blue in amorphous films to green in spherulites was observed, and the molecular orientation was determined through the combined analysis of polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. FsTA was performed on amorphous films and show complex charge recombination dynamics, and a Stark effect, characterized from the combined TPA+˙ and [BT-CN]-˙ spectroscopic signatures at 450 nm and 510 nm and identified through spectroelectrochemistry. Radical cation dynamics of TPA+˙ was observed selectively at 750 nm with >503.3 ps (18%) recombination kinetics resulting in a rather significant yield of free charge carriers in amorphous films and consistent with previous reports on energetically disordered blend films. However, photoexcitation on large, non-banded spherulites areas (>250 μm) reveal average monoexponential charge recombination lifetimes of 169.2 ps from delocalized states similar to those observed in amorphous films and are 5× longer-lived than previous reports [Chang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 8790] of a related methyl-DPAT-BT-CN whose amorphous thin films were prepared through vapor deposition. Thus, the correlation between the microstructure of the blend film and the photoinduced radical pair dynamics described here is critical for developing a fundamental understanding of how dipolar states contribute to the charge carrier

  13. Photo-induced conformational flexibility in single solution-phase peridinin-chlorophyll-proteins.

    PubMed

    Bockenhauer, Samuel D; Moerner, W E

    2013-09-05

    The peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) is an accessory light-harvesting complex found in red-tide dinoflagellates. PCP absorbs photons primarily in the blue-green spectral region via peridinin (Per) carotenoid pigments which then transfer excitations to chlorophyll (Chl) and ultimately downstream to photosystem II (PSII). Whereas the ultrafast dynamics of PCP are well-studied, much less is known about slower protein dynamics on time scales of milliseconds and seconds. Previous single-molecule studies of spectral emission and intensity have attached PCP to surfaces, but the native environment of PCP is in the lumen, meaning that a surface-attached environment could perturb its native conformations. To address this concern, we use the anti-Brownian electrokinetic (ABEL) trap to study single PCP monomers in solution for several seconds each. We measure, for the first time, simultaneous single-molecule intensity, lifetime, and spectral emission shifts for each trapped PCP monomer. The rate of reversible spectral redshifts depends linearly on irradiance over a factor of 30, indicating a light-induced mechanism which we attribute to a protein conformational change. Independent of these spectral shifts, our measurements of intensity and lifetime show reversible Chl quenching. In contrast to previous work, we show that this quenching cannot result from isolated photobleaching of Chl. These independent mechanisms arise from distinct conformational changes which maintain relatively stable fluorescence emission.

  14. Irving Langmuir Prize Talk: Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging: Nanoscale Emitters with Photoinduced Switching Enable Superresolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerner, W. E.

    2009-03-01

    In the two decades since the first optical detection and spectroscopy of a single molecule in a solid (Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989)), much has been learned about the ability of single molecules to probe local nanoenvironments and individual behavior in biological and nonbiological materials in the absence of ensemble averaging that can obscure heterogeneity. The early years concentrated on high-resolution spectroscopy in solids, which provided observations of lifetime-limited spectra, optical saturation, spectral diffusion, optical switching, vibrational spectra, and magnetic resonance of a single molecular spin. In the mid-1990's, much of the field moved to room temperature, where a wide variety of biophysical effects were subsequently explored, but it is worth noting that several features from the low-temperature studies have analogs at high temperature. For example, in our first studies of yellow-emitting variants of green fluorescent protein (EYFP) in the water-filled pores of a gel (Nature 388, 355 (1997)), optically induced switching of the emission was observed, a room-temperature analog of the earlier low-temperature behavior. Because each single fluorophore acts a light source roughly 1 nm in size, microscopic imaging of individual fluorophores leads naturally to superlocalization, or determination of the position of the molecule with precision beyond the optical diffraction limit, simply by digitization of the point-spread function from the single emitter. Recent work has allowed measurement of the shape of single filaments in a living cell simply by allowing a single molecule to move through the filament (PNAS 103, 10929 (2006)). The additional use of photoinduced control of single-molecule emission allows imaging beyond the diffraction limit (superresolution) by several novel approaches proposed by different researchers. For example, using photoswitchable EYFP, a novel protein superstructure can now be directly imaged in a living bacterial cell at

  15. Application of Comparative Genomic Hybridization, Spectral Karyotyping, and Microarray Analysis in the Identification of Subtype-Specific Patterns of Genomic Changes in Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Ajay; Zielenska, Maria; Thorner, Paul; Bayani, Jane; Godbout, Roseline; Greenberg, Mark; Squire, Jeremy A

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in children occurs predominantly as two major histologically defined subtypes called embryonal RMS (RMS-E) and the prognostically less favorable alveolar RMS (RMS-A). Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed on 21 RMS and identified consistent gains affecting chromosomes 2 (8/10), 5 (5/10), 6 (3/10), 7 (7/10), 8 (9/10), 11 (6/10), and 12 (5/10) in RMS-E. Losses/deletions involved chromosomes 19 (2/10) and chromosomes 4, 9, 10, 17, 21 (1/10 each). High copy number amplification, involving the 2p24 region (5/11) and less frequently, the 12q13-21 (2/11), 9p22 (1/11), and 17q22-25 (1/11) regions, was detected in RMS-A. Gene amplification at band 2p24 was present in 6/12 alveolar tumors, and in each case, MYCN was amplified, together with the distally placed DDX1 gene. For these patients there was a shorter disease free interval and a higher mortality than patients with tumors without amplification. Detailed spectral karyotype analysis (SKY) was performed on two RMS cell lines (one of each subtype) and identified a surprisingly high level of structural change. Gene expression studies with the Atlas Human Cancer Array (588 genes) showed that 153 genes generated a signal of similar intensity in both cell lines, an