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Sample records for photomask japan bacus

  1. eBeam community speaks out on future directions for photomask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Aki; Willis, Jan

    2016-05-01

    As has been the case for many years and for the near future down to the 7-nm logic node, electron-beam (eBeam) mask writing is pushing the limits of acceptable write times and quality. The eBeam community has responded to these challenges through innovation, engineering and collaboration. In 2009, the eBeam Initiative was launched to provide a stronger voice and educational platform for eBeam technology within the photomask and semiconductor design and manufacturing ecosystem. For the fourth consecutive year, as the photomask community heads to the annual SPIE/BACUS Photomask Symposium in Monterey, the eBeam Initiative has conducted a survey on photomask-related trends and perceptions. This annual perceptions survey has been instrumental in confirming key areas to align the Initiative's efforts on to guide the industry ecosystem forward in supporting the introduction of new eBeam technologies. At the request of the community, an additional mask survey was conducted this year by the eBeam Initiative to include trends on key mask metrics that help serve as a barometer for mask makers. The complete results of both surveys are available for download at www.ebeam.org. Below is a summary and analysis of the key findings.

  2. Photomask and pattern programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    A user's manual for a set of computer programs written in FORTRAN for the layout and generation of photomasks is presented. A limited amount of related information on photomasks, their design, and use is included. Input to the programs includes data describing the photomask design. Possible outputs include plots of the layout and a magnetic tape for controlling generation of the photomask by a pattern generator.

  3. Quality assurance and yield improvement in photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Takashi

    2000-07-01

    Photomask used in aspect of semiconductor is called on 'No.0 process in wafer' or 'Key-parts', so that we are required to make it with Hi-reliability and Hi-quality level. On the other hand, its problem that cost of Photomask Fabrication jumps because machine price, inspection tool, and inspection steps in leading-edge are increasing. For decreasing what we call 'cost of quality assurance', its policy is significant that quality management in photomask production line is equal quality assurance in photomask, in addition improvement process capability. This report clears the requirement of customer, specification, and the problem, introduces quality assurance and yield improvement in photomask fabrication.

  4. Defect mitigation considerations for EUV photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Capelli, Renzo; Blumrich, Frederik; Magnusson, Krister; Waiblinger, Markus; Scheruebl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Goldstein, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into manufacturing requires changes in all aspects of the infrastructure, including the photomask. EUV reflective masks consist of a sophisticated multilayer (ML) mirror, capping layer, absorber layer, and anti-reflective coating thereby dramatically increasing the complexity of the photomask. In addition to absorber type defects similar to those the industry was forced to contend with for deep ultraviolet lithography, the complexity of the mask leads to new classes of ML defects. Furthermore, these approaches are complicated not only by the mask itself but also by unique aspects associated with the exposure of the photomask by the EUV scanner. This paper focuses on the challenges for handling defects associated with inspection, review, and repair for EUV photomasks. Blank inspection and pattern shifting, two completely new steps within the mask manufacturing process that arise from these considerations, and their relationship to mask review and repair are discussed. The impact of shadowing effects on absorber defect repair height is taken into account. The effect of mask biasing and the chief ray angle rotation due to the scanner slit arc shape will be discussed along with the implications of obtaining die-to-die references for inspection and repair. The success criteria for compensational repair of ML defects will be reviewed.

  5. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  6. Calibration of single particle sizing velocimeters using photomask reticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirleman, E. D.; Holve, D. J.; Hovenac, E. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of photomask reticle calibration standards for single particle instruments is discussed. The calibration method studied involves the use of photomask reticles where the particle artifacts are actually disks of chrome thin film in the clear field reticles produced by photolithography and etching processes. Consideration is given to various aspects of theory, design, and performance.

  7. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  8. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  9. Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaye, Félix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; García-Berríos, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300

  10. Over-generation-10 size FPD photomasks for virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiojiri, Kazuya

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of the large-sized and high-precision flat panel display, enjoying Virtual reality is getting more familiar. SK-Electronics CO., LTD. is only the mask maker that can produce the Over-Generation 10- sized LCD photomasks in the world. We, SK-Electronics CO., LTD. believe that we can provide the pleasure of virtual reality with higher realistic sensation through the super large-sized and high-precision photomasks .

  11. Multilayer Microfluidic Devices Created From A Single Photomask

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Sheen, Allison M.; Jambovane, Sachin R.

    2013-08-28

    The time and expense associated with high quality photomask production can discourage the creation of multilayer microfluidic devices, as each layer currently requires a separate photomask. Here we describe an approach in which multilayer microfabricated devices can be created from a single photomask. The separate layers and their corresponding alignment marks are arranged in separate halves of the mask for two layer devices or quadrants for four layer devices. Selective exposure of the photomask features and rotation of the device substrate between exposures result in multiple copies of the devices on each wafer. Subsequent layers are aligned to patterned features on the substrate with the same alignment accuracy as when multiple photomasks are used. We demonstrate this approach for fabricating devices employing multilayer soft lithography (MSL) for pneumatic valving. MSL devices containing as many as 5 layers (4 aligned fluidic layers plus a manually aligned control layer) were successfully created using this approach. Device design is also modularized, enabling the presence or absence of features as well as channel heights to be selected independently from one another. The use of a single photomask to create multilayer devices results in a dramatic savings of time and/or money required to advance from device design to completed prototype.

  12. Photomask repair using low-energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Spies, P.; Luchs, T.; Schneider, H.; Auth, N.; Hermanns, Ch. F.; Waiblinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. We will demonstrate in this paper that low energetic electron-beam (e-beam)-based mask repair is a commercially viable solution. Therefore we developed a new repair platform called MeRiT® neXT to address the technical challenges of this new technology. We will analyze the limits of the existing as well as lower energetic electron induced repair technologies theoretically and experimentally and show performance data on photomask reticles. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair technology.

  13. Photomask lifetime issues in ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Florence; Coon, Peter; Greenebaum, Barbara; Mittal, Anurag; Sanchez, Peter; Tanzil, Daniel; Ng, Grace; Yun, Henry; Sengupta, Archita

    2005-06-01

    Photomask lifetime has become a challenge since the introduction of high volume manufacturing 193nm photolithograph. Photomask lifetime is being impacted by a broad range of environmental and process factors resulting in inorganics crystals and organic contaminants formation as well as pellicle lifetime issues. Extensive work has been published on strategies for reduction of inorganic crystals photoinduced defects formation mainly focusing on photomask clean process improvements. This paper will focus on identifying root causes for photoinduced contaminants forming within the pellicle space area as well as identify environmental factors which have the potential of impacting pellicle membrane longevity. Outgasing experiments coupled with 193nm laser exposure tests were conducted to decouple and rank reticle/pellicle storage materials as well as pellicle outgasing contributors to photoinduced defects and identify factors impacting pellicle membrance longevity. Analytical test were conducted to compare the relative levels of reticle storage materials and pellicle outgasing contaminants. Experiments aimed at quantifying the fab environment contribution to photoinduced defects formation and impact on pellicle membrane lifetime will be discussed. Environmental conditions minimizing external contributing factors impacting photomask front side photoinduced defects formation and pellicle membrance longevity will be suggested.

  14. Application of atomic force microscope to 65-nm node photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Itou, Yasutoshi; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Matsuyama, Katsuhiro; Dawson, Dean J.

    2004-08-01

    The technology node of semiconductor device production is progressing to 65nm generation. For the 65nm photomasks, the target specifications of defect size and repair accuracy are 52nm and 7nm, respectively. Especially, real defects on photomasks are not only simple two-dimensional patterns but also three-dimensional shapes such as phase shift defects and contamination, thus we need to recognize defect shapes accurately. Additionally, AAPSM's Cr patterns overhang, and we have to measure defects on three-dimensional shapes. To evaluate them, we use an AFM metrology system, Dimension X3D (Veeco), having both precise CD measurement repeatability (2nm) and high resolution for defects. In this report, we show the performance of the AFM metrology system. First, we evaluated CD metrology performance, CD repeatbility about four type photomasks: NEGA-BIM, POSI-BIM, KrF-HT and ArF-HT, and all masks met specifications. Next, we evaluated defect pattern shapes and AAPSM and CPL mask patterns. Consequently, we have confirmed that the AFM metrology system has high performance for 65nm photomasks.

  15. Photomask Dimensional Metrology in the SEM: Has Anything Really Changed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postek, Michael T., Jr.; Vladar, Andras E.; Bennett, Marylyn H.

    2002-12-01

    Photomask dimensional metrology in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has not evolved as rapidly as the metrology of resists and integrated circuit features on wafers. This has been due partly to the 4x (or 5x) reduction in the optical steppers and scanners used in the lithography process, and partly for the lesser need to account for the real three-dimensionality of the mask structures. So, where photomasks are concerned, many of the issues challenging wafer dimensional metrology at 1x are reduced by a factor of 4 or 5 and thus could be temporarily swept aside. This is rapidly changing with the introduction of advanced masks with optical proximity correction and phase shifting features used in 100 nm and smaller circuit generations. Fortunately, photomask metrology generally benefits from the advances made for wafer metrology, but there are still unique issues to be solved in this form of dimensional metrology. It is likely that no single metrology method or tool will ever provide all necessary answers. As with other types of metrology, resolution, sensitivity and linearity in the three-dimensional measurements of the shape of the lines and phase shifting features in general (width, height and wall angles) and the departures from the desired shape (surface and edge roughness, etc.) are the key parameters. Different methods and tools differ in their ability to collect averaged and localized signals with an acceptable speed, but in any case, application of this thorough knowledge of the physics of the given metrology is essential to extract the needed information. This paper will discuss the topics of precision, accuracy and traceability in the SEM metrology of photomasks. Current and possible new techniques utilized in the measurements of photomasks including charge suppression and highly accurate modeling for electron beam metrology will also be explored to answer the question "Has anything really changed?"

  16. Surface energy control techniques for photomask fabrication and their characterizations with scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Masaaki; Hatakeyama, Sho; Yoshida, Kouji; Abe, Makoto; Totsukawa, Daisuke; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2008-05-01

    Most of photomask issues such as pattern collapse, HAZE, and cleaning damage relate to behavior of mask surfaces. Therefore it is coming to be important to control surface energy in photomask processes. Especially adhesion analysis in micro region is strongly desired to optimize material and process designs in photomask fabrication. Quantitative measurements of adhesive forces of resists on photomask blanks were realized with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Then surface energy on photomask blanks was able to be controlled by modification with some silanization reagents. In addition, adhesive forces of resists on surfaces modified with some silanes were able to be also controlled. The SPM method is proved to be effective for measuring adhesive energy of micro patterns on photomask blanks.

  17. Two-fluid cleaning technology for advanced photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Harumichi; Nonaka, Mikio

    2009-04-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of electronic devices, two-fluid cleaning technology is garnering the spotlight as a solution for the manufacturing process of Photomask. This is because it is now known that implementing energy control of the particles that are sprayed on the substrate allows cleaning of miniature patterns. However, it is not yet clear just how miniature of a pattern is cleanable with two-fluid cleaning technology. This study discusses mechanisms to miniaturize the droplets created by a two-fluid nozzle. In addition, this study also considers the impact of droplet size on pattern damage to the Photomask and speaks on the potential for applying two-fluid cleaning technology in the future.

  18. Selective removal of persistent particles with no photomask damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; Bozak, Ron; White, Roy; Archuletta, Mike; Lee, David

    2009-04-01

    Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Methods for generating targeted edge test particles along with considerations for removal of particles in various pattern geometries and materials are also discussed.

  19. Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

  20. Qualification of BitClean technology in photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike; Brinkley, David; Yi, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using the MerlinTM platform, a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Results will also be reviewed that were generated in the qualification and acceptance of this new technology in a photomask production environment. These results will be discussed in their relation to the minimum particle size allowed on a given design, particle removal efficiency per pass of the NanoBitTM (PREPP), and the resultant average removal throughput of particles unaffected by any other available mask clean process.

  1. Total-internal-reflection-based photomask for large-area photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Shao-Kang; Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chou, Chen-Hsun; Lin, You-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Photolithography has been widely implemented with a photomask in contact or in close proximity to the photoresist layer. The flatness of the substrates is a crucial factor to guarantee the quality of the entire patterned photoresist (PR) layer especially for large-area photolithography. However, some substrates, such as sapphire wafers, do not possess highly uniform thickness as silicon wafer does. In this work, we demonstrate that a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) photomask with optical total-internal-reflection structure can effectively circumvent this problem for mass production. Different from conventional photomask that the light is blocked by the patterned reflective/absorbing materials, the distributions of light intensity on the PR is engineered by the geometric structure of the transparent PDMS photomask. We demonstrate that 4 in. patterned sapphire wafers can be successfully fabricated by using this PDMS photomask, which can be easily integrated into the present techniques in industry for mass production of substrates for GaN-based optoelectronic devices.

  2. Investigation of hyper-NA scanner emulation for photomask CDU performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poortinga, Eric; Scheruebl, Thomas; Conley, Will; Sundermann, Frank

    2007-02-01

    As the semiconductor industry moves toward immersion lithography using numerical apertures above 1.0 the quality of the photomask becomes even more crucial. Photomask specifications are driven by the critical dimension (CD) metrology within the wafer fab. Knowledge of the CD values at resist level provides a reliable mechanism for the prediction of device performance. Ultimately, tolerances of device electrical properties drive the wafer linewidth specifications of the lithography group. Staying within this budget is influenced mainly by the scanner settings, resist process, and photomask quality. Tightening of photomask specifications is one mechanism for meeting the wafer CD targets. The challenge lies in determining how photomask level metrology results influence wafer level imaging performance. Can it be inferred that photomask level CD performance is the direct contributor to wafer level CD performance? With respect to phase shift masks, criteria such as phase and transmission control are generally tightened with each technology node. Are there other photomask relevant influences that effect wafer CD performance? A comprehensive study is presented supporting the use of scanner emulation based photomask CD metrology to predict wafer level within chip CD uniformity (CDU). Using scanner emulation with the photomask can provide more accurate wafer level prediction because it inherently includes all contributors to image formation related to the 3D topography such as the physical CD, phase, transmission, sidewall angle, surface roughness, and other material properties. Emulated images from different photomask types were captured to provide CD values across chip. Emulated scanner image measurements were completed using an AIMS TM45-193i with its hyper-NA, through-pellicle data acquisition capability including the Global CDU Map TM software option for AIMS TM tools. The through-pellicle data acquisition capability is an essential prerequisite for capturing final CDU

  3. Photopatterned Polydiacetylene Images Using a DNA Bio-Photomask.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Jung, Cheulhee; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-06-22

    We describe a novel strategy to fabricate a well-defined polydiacetylene (PDA) supramolecular pattern on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane utilizing a DNA bio-photomask. By focusing on that, the absorption spectrum of DNA molecules having a λmax at 260 nm overlaps with the wavelength at which the photopolymerization of the diacetylene monomer occurs, DNA molecules are used to define specific patterns on PVDF membranes coated with diacetylene lipids by shielding the applied 254 nm UV light and consequently preventing the photopolymerization of the lipids. As a result, the DNA-covered regions retain the original white color on the membrane while the regions uncovered by DNA molecules undergo the color change to blue through the photopolymerization by 254 nm UV irradiation. On the basis of the selective illumination through a DNA photomask, we precisely manufacture specific patterns using a microarray spotting method and also demonstrate the capability of this strategy to achieve a novel colorimetric DNA sensor without any complicated process.

  4. Photopatterned Polydiacetylene Images Using a DNA Bio-Photomask.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Jung, Cheulhee; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-06-22

    We describe a novel strategy to fabricate a well-defined polydiacetylene (PDA) supramolecular pattern on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane utilizing a DNA bio-photomask. By focusing on that, the absorption spectrum of DNA molecules having a λmax at 260 nm overlaps with the wavelength at which the photopolymerization of the diacetylene monomer occurs, DNA molecules are used to define specific patterns on PVDF membranes coated with diacetylene lipids by shielding the applied 254 nm UV light and consequently preventing the photopolymerization of the lipids. As a result, the DNA-covered regions retain the original white color on the membrane while the regions uncovered by DNA molecules undergo the color change to blue through the photopolymerization by 254 nm UV irradiation. On the basis of the selective illumination through a DNA photomask, we precisely manufacture specific patterns using a microarray spotting method and also demonstrate the capability of this strategy to achieve a novel colorimetric DNA sensor without any complicated process. PMID:27225667

  5. Mask rule check for inspection of leading-edge photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Wakahiko; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi; Narukawa, Shogo; Hayashi, Naoya

    2005-11-01

    Leading-edge photomask, to which optical proximity correction (OPC) and dummy pattern are applied, almost always has complex patterns. Complex patterns such as "Narrow Space", "Thin Pattern", "Dummy Pattern", "Closely Face-to-Face Heads" of Posi Serifs, "Narrow Waisted Pattern" formed by a Nega Serif, "Jogs", etc. are a factor to complicate photomask manufacturing. Some the problems caused by complex patterns are increase in EB writing time, and decrease in performance of etching and cleaning process caused by Cr peeling and, above all, increase in the inspection time. Patterns whose complexity is beyond the resolution limit of inspection tool are detected as false defects. Therefore, it will greatly take time for the data investigation and re-inspection, etc. for assurance, and this causes congestion of half-finished products. To improve the process efficiency, it is necessary to locate false defects, so that the Do-Not-Inspection-Area(DNIR) or replaced with simpler patterns. In order to locate false defects, it is proposed to apply Mask Rule Check (MRC) to mask data for EB-writing.

  6. Fabrication of photomasks consisting microlenses for the production of polymeric microneedle array.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Himanshu; Fong, Michelle H M; Kang, Lifeng

    2015-08-01

    A photomask consisting plano-convex microlenses for the production of polymeric microneedles was fabricated from a microinjection array. The microinjection array was first fabricated using photolithographical approach and subsequently assembled onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. Poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) solution was loaded into the microinjection stamp. The microinjection stamp was then applied onto a coverslip to dispense the polymer solution, producing liquid microdroplets. They were then irradiated to form plano-convex microlenses. These microlenses were evaluated for their geometric properties and were fabricated into photomasks. The photomask consisting microlenses was used to fabricate polymeric microneedles that were evaluated and tested for skin penetration efficiency. PMID:26208649

  7. Simultaneous AFM nano-patterning and imaging for photomask repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvani, Aliasghar; Tamer, Mehmet S.; van Es, Maarten H.; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a new AFM based nano-patterning technique that can be used for fast defect repairing of high resolution photomasks and possibly other high-speed nano-patterning applications. The proposed method works based on hammering the sample with tapping mode AFM followed by wet cleaning of the residuals. On the area where a specific pattern should be written, the tip-sample interaction force is tuned in a controlled manner by changing the excitation frequency of the cantilever without interrupting the imaging process. Using this method several patterns where transferred to different samples with imaging speed. While the pattern was transferred to the sample in each tracing scan line, the patterned sample was imaged in retracing scan line, thus the outcome was immediately visible during the experiment.

  8. Non-chemical cleaning technology for sub-90nm design node photomask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyeh, Star; Chen, Richard; Kozuma, Makoto; Kuo, Joann; Huang, Torey; Chen, Frank F.

    2006-10-01

    Cleaning chemistry residue in photomask manufacturing is one of root causes to generate HAZE over surface of photomask for 193nm and shorter wavelength exposure tools. In order to reduce the residue, chemical free process is one of targets in photomask industry. In this paper novel clean technology without sulfuric acid and ammonia chemical are shown to manufacture sub-90nm node photomask. Photo and E-beam resist were removed by plasma and ozone water clean instead of sulfuric acid. SPM and APM in final clean sequence before defect inspection were substituted with ozone water and hydrogen water respectively. The clean performance was demonstrated in real production of 193nm phase shift mask. Sulfate and Ammonia residue after final clean were controlled same as blank material level without any clean process.

  9. Influence of different developer nozzle types on the photomask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmädicke, Cindy; Feicke, Axel; Herrmann, Mark; Bürgel, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The long-term development of electronics obliges increasingly tighter specifications for photomasks to meet the requirements of continuing miniaturization. We report on the influence of two different linear drive nozzle types A and B used for conducting the develop process on important mask properties, which comprise CD uniformity (CDU), loading behaviour, mean to target (MTT), iso-dense bias, line width roughness (LWR), linearity, resolution and defectivity. The results are presented for different resists, resist thicknesses and blank materials. First, the most important recipe parameters to ensure the best develop performance are defined and experimentally determined. Those critical factors are the nozzle scan speed over the mask, the develop time, the distance between nozzle and mask surface and the flow rate of the medium. It is demonstrated how these parameters can significantly affect the develop process performance. Dark loss experiments reveal that a more uniform resist removal takes place with the B kind of nozzle compared to that achieved with nozzle A. Based on the mask properties, the performances of two different nozzle types are compared. It is found that improvements with the B like nozzle can be achieved for CDU and loading. The presented nozzle type shows a promising approach to meet the requirements of future electronics.

  10. The method of quartz damage recovery in the photomask repair process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Hoon; Kim, MunSik; Park, EuiSang; Jung, HoYong; Kim, SangPyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2015-07-01

    As the pattern size became gradually smaller, the defect detectability of the photomask inspection tool was more improved. For these reasons, we have to repair various defects more precisely. By improving the mask yield through the repair process, we can reduce the cost of mask fabrication. In this study, we studied the defect called quartz damage which distorts the AIMSTM (Arial Image Measurement System) intensity of the repaired pattern and causes the scrap of the photomask. The quartz damage is generally observed when the abnormal defects like particles were repaired in the poor repairing condition. The quartz damage occasionally results in repair errors and affects the AIMS intensity. Currently there is no clear solution for recovering the quartz damage. As a result, it is very difficult to get the high quality photomask if the quartz damage is generated on the photomask. Therefore, it is important to find a method of recovering the quartz damage for producing the high quality photomask. In this paper, we demonstrated that the quartz damage can be recovered through the TEOS (Tetraethoxysilane) gas deposition. Also we investigated the effect on the recovery of the quartz damage of various parameters such as the type and the depth of the quartz damage as well as the repair conditions of the TEOS gas deposition.

  11. Best-practice evaluation-methods for wafer-fab photomask-requalification inspection tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chan Seob; Mungmode, Ashish; Taylor, Ron; Cho, David; Koh, Hui Peng

    2014-10-01

    Requalifying semiconductor photomasks remains critically important and is increasingly challenging for 20nm and 14nm node logic reticles. Patterns are becoming more complex on the photomask, and defect sensitivity requirements are more stringent than ever before. Reticle inspection tools are equally important for effective process development and the successful ramp and sustained yield for high volume manufacturing. The inspection stages considered were: incoming inspection to match with Mask Shop Outgoing result and to detect defects generated during transport; requalification by routine cycle inspection to detect Haze and any other defects; and inspection by in-house or Mask shop at the post cleaning. There are many critical capability and capacity factors for the decision for best inspection tool and strategy for high volume manufacturing, especially objective Lens NA, wavelength, power, pixel size, throughput, full-automation inspection linked with Overhead Transport, algorithm application, engineering application function, and inspection of PSM and OMOG . These tools are expensive but deliver differentiated value in terms of performance and throughput as well as extendibility. Performing a thorough evaluation and making a technically sound choice which explores these many factors is critical for success of a fab. This paper examines the methodology for evaluating two different photomask inspection tools. The focus is on ensuring production worthiness on real and advanced product photomasks requiring accurate evaluation of sensitivity, throughput, data analysis function and engineering work function on those product photomasks. Photomasks used for data collection are production reticles, PDM(Program defect Mask), SiN spray defect Reticle which is described that evaluates how the tools would perform on a contaminated plate.

  12. Corrective finishing of extreme ultraviolet photomask blanks by precessed bonnet polisher.

    PubMed

    Beaucamp, Anthony; Namba, Yoshiharu; Charlton, Phillip

    2014-05-10

    The progressive transition from Excimer to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is driving a need for flatter and smoother photomask blanks. It is, however, proving difficult to meet the next-generation specification with the conventional chemical mechanical polishing technology commonly used for finishing photomask blanks. This paper reports on the application of subaperture computer numerical control precessed bonnet polishing technology to the corrective finishing of photomask substrates for EUV lithography. Full-factorial analysis was used to identify process parameters capable of delivering microroughness below 0.5 nm rms while retaining relatively high removal rates. Experimental results show that masks prepolished to 300-600 nm peak-to-valley (P-V) flatness by chemical/mechanical polishing can then be improved down to 50-100 nm P-V flatness using the automated technology described in this paper. A series of edge polishing experiments also hints at the possibility of increasing the quality area beyond the 142 mm square defined in the official EUV photomask specification. PMID:24922029

  13. Aerial imaging technology for photomask qualification: from a microscope to a metrology tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Scherübl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik

    2012-09-01

    Photomasks carry the structured information of the chip designs printed with lithography scanners onto wafers. These structures, for the most modern technologies, are enlarged by a factor of 4 with respect to the final circuit design, and 20-60 of these photomasks are needed for the production of a single completed chip used, for example, in computers or cell phones. Lately, designs have been reported to be on the drawing board with close to 100 of these layers. Each of these photomasks will be reproduced onto the wafer several hundred times and typically 5000-50 000 wafers will be produced with each of them. Hence, the photomasks need to be absolutely defect-free to avoid any fatal electrical shortcut in the design or drastic performance degradation. One well-known method in the semiconductor industry is to analyze the aerial image of the photomask in a dedicated tool referred to as Aerial Imaging Measurement System, which emulates the behavior of the respective lithography scanner used for the imaging of the mask. High-end lithography scanners use light with a wavelength of 193 nm and high numerical apertures (NAs) of 1.35 utilizing a water film between the last lens and the resist to be illuminated (immersion scanners). Complex illumination shapes enable the imaging of structures well below the wavelength used. Future lithography scanners will work at a wavelength of 13.5 nm [extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] and require the optical system to work with mirrors in vacuum instead of the classical lenses used in current systems. The exact behavior of these systems is emulated by the Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS™; a Trademark of Carl Zeiss). With these systems, any position of the photomask can be imaged under the same illumination condition used by the scanners, and hence, a prediction of the printing behavior of any structure can be derived. This system is used by mask manufacturers in their process flow to review critical defects or verify defect repair

  14. Polymer-confined colloidal monolayer: a reusable soft photomask for rapid wafer-scale nanopatterning.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Lin, Hao; Cheung, Ho-Yuen; Xiu, Fei; Shen, Lifan; Yip, SenPo; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Ho, Johnny C

    2014-12-10

    We demonstrate the repeated utilization of self-assembled colloidal spheres for rapid nanopattern generations. Highly ordered micro-/nanosphere arrays were interlinked and confined by a soft transparent polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), which can be used as light-focusing elements/photomasks for area-selective exposures of photoresist in contact. Because of the stiffness of the colloidal spheres, the photomasks do not encounter feature-deformation problems, enabling reliable production of highly uniform patterns over large areas. The geometrical feature of the patterns, including the size, pitch, and even the shape, can be finely tuned by adjusting the mask design and exposure time. The obtained patterns could be used as deposition or etching mask, allowing easy pattern transfer for various applications. PMID:25375239

  15. Interplay of three-dimensional profile change and CD variation in 193-nm advanced binary photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yun-Yue; Su, Sean; Hsush, Wen-Chang; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chen, Jia-Jen; Lee, Shin-Chang; Yen, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between the depth profile of features and critical dimension (CD) deviation on MoSi binary photomasks is comprehensively investigated using 3D atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) and aerial image metrology system (AIMS). Detailed profile description based on various surface analysis techniques, was performed to reconstruct the profile at various stages of the mask fabrication process. It is found that profile change and sidewall byproduct formation are strongly correlated with the etching environment, wet cleaning, and post-treatment. These process-induced profile changes subsequently lead to wafer CD change which can be verified by deviation in AIMS and CDSEM measurements. Visualization of these 3D profile and morphology change clearly reveals that etching gas control forms an outer layer, to enhance etch selectivity, film strength, and immunity to the mask cleaning process. Our finding provides a direction for optimizing advanced photomask materials and processing.

  16. Sensitivity analysis for OMOG and EUV photomasks characterized by UV-NIR spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Meiner, K.; Richter, U.; Mikolajick, T.

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the potentials, applicability and advantages of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) for the characterization of high-end photomasks. The SE measurements were done in the ultraviolet-near infrared (UVNIR) wavelength range from 300 nm to 980 nm, at angle of incidences (AOI) between 10 and 70° and with a microspot size of 45 x 10 μm2 (AOI=70°). The measured Ψ and 𝛥 spectra were modeled using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to determine the structural parameters of a periodic array, i.e. the pitch and critical dimension (CD). Two different types of industrial photomasks consisting of line/space structures were evaluated, the reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the transmitting opaque MoSi on glass (OMOG) mask. The Ψ and 𝛥 spectra of both masks show characteristic differences, which were related to the Rayleigh singularities and the missing transmission diffraction in the EUV mask. In the second part of the paper, a simulation based sensitivity analysis of the Fourier coefficients α and β is presented, which is used to define the required measurement precision to detect a CD deviation of 1%. This study was done for both mask types to investigate the influence of the stack transmission. It was found that sensitivities to CD variations are comparable for OMOG and EUV masks. For both masks, the highest sensitivities appear close to the Rayleigh singularities and significantly increase at very low AOI. To detect a 1% CD deviation for pitches below 150 nm a measurement precision in the order of 0.01 is required. This measurement precision can be realized with advanced optical hardware. It is concluded that UV-NIR ellipsometry is qualified to characterize photomasks down to the 13 nm technology node in 2020.

  17. The study of develop optimization to control various resist defect in Photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, JongHoon; Kim, ByungJu; Son, JaeSik; Park, EuiSang; Kim, SangPyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2015-07-01

    To reduce the pattern size in photomask is an inevitable trend because of the minimization of chip size. So it makes a big challenge to control defects in photomask industry. Defects below a certain size that had not been any problem in previous technology node are becoming an issue as the patterns are smaller. Therefore, the acceptable tolerance levels for current defect size and quantity are dramatically reduced. Because these defects on photomask can be the sources of the repeating defects on wafer, small size defects smaller than 200nm should not be ignored any more. Generally, almost defects are generated during develop process and etch process. Especially it is difficult to find the root cause of defects formed during the develop process because of their various types and very small size. In this paper, we studied how these small defects can be eliminated by analyzing the defects and tuning the develop process. There are 3 types of resist defects which are named as follows. The first type is `Popcorn' defect which is mainly occurred in negative resist and exists on the dark features. The second type is `Frog eggs' defect which is occurred in 2nd process of HTPSM and exists on the wide space area. The last type is `Spot' defect which also exists on the wide space area. These defects are generally appeared on the entire area of a plate and the number of these defects is about several hundred. It is thought that the original source is the surface's hydrophilic state before develop process or the incongruity between resist and developer. This study shows that the optimizing the develop process can be a good solution for some resist defects.

  18. Qualification of local advanced cryogenic cleaning technology for 14nm photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taumer, Ralf; Krome, Thorsten; Bowers, Chuck; Varghese, Ivin; Hopkins, Tyler; White, Roy; Brunner, Martin; Yi, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The march toward tighter design rules, and thus smaller defects, implies stronger surface adhesion between defects and the photomask surface compared to past generations, thereby resulting in increased difficulty in photomask cleaning. Current state-of-the-art wet clean technologies utilize functional water and various energies in an attempt to produce similar yield to the acid cleans of previous generations, but without some of the negative side effects. Still, wet cleans have continued to be plagued with issues such as persistent particles and contaminations, SRAF and feature damages, leaving contaminants behind that accelerate photo-induced defect growth, and others. This paper details work done through a design of experiments (DOE) utilized to qualify an improved cryogenic cleaning technology for production in the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) advanced production lines for 20 and 14 nm processing. All work was conducted at the AMTC facility in Dresden, Germany utilizing technology developed by Eco-Snow Systems and RAVE LLC for their cryogenic local cleaning VC1200F platform. This system uses a newly designed nozzle, improved gaseous CO2 delivery, extensive filtration to remove hydrocarbons and minimize particle adders, and other process improvements to overcome the limitations of the previous generation local cleaning tool. AMTC has successfully qualified this cryogenic cleaning technology and is currently using it regularly to enhance production yields even at the most challenging technology nodes.

  19. Comparison of CD measurements of an EUV photomask by EUV scatterometry and CD-AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, Frank; Soltwisch, Victor; Dai, Gaoliang; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Gross, Hermann

    2013-09-01

    EUV scatterometry is a potential high-throughput measurement method for the characterization of EUV photomask structures. We present a comparison of angle resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometry and critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) as a reference metrology for measurements of geometrical parameters like line width (CD), height and sidewall angle of EUV photomask structures. The structures investigated are dense and semidense bright and dark lines with different nominal CDs between 140 nm and 540 nm. The results show excellent linearity of the critical dimension measured with both methods within a range of only 1.8 nm and an offset of the absolute values below 3 nm. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is used to reconstruct the shape parameters and to estimate their uncertainties from the measured scattering efficiencies. The newly developed CD-AFM at PTB allows versatile measurements of parameters such as height, CD, sidewall angle, line edge/width roughness, corner rounding, and pitch. It applies flared tips to probe steep and even undercut sidewalls and employs a new vector approaching probing (VAP) strategy which enables very low tip wear and high measurement flexibility. Its traceability is ensured by a set of calibrated step-height and reference CD standards.

  20. Defect avoidance for EUV photomask readiness at the 7 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Rankin, Jed; Narita, Eisuke; Kagawa, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    Several challenges hinder extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) photomask fabrication and its readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM). The lack in availability of pristine defect-free blanks as well as the absence of a robust mask repair technique mandates defect mitigation through pattern shift for the production of defect-free photomasks. The work presented here provides a comprehensive look at pattern shift implementation to intersect EUV HVM for the 7 nm technology node. An empirical error budget to compensate for measurement variability and errors, based on the latest HVM inspection and write tool capabilities, is first established and then experimentally verified. The validated error budget is applied to 20 representative EUV blanks and pattern shift is performed on fully functional 7 nm node chip designs. The probability of defect-free masks is explored for various layers, including metal, contact, and gate cut layers. From these results, an assessment is made on the current viability of defect-free EUV masks and what is required to construct a complete defect-free EUV mask set.

  1. Z-correction, a method for achieving ultraprecise self-calibration on large area coordinate measurement machines for photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, Peter; Stiblert, Lars; Mattsson, Lars

    2014-05-01

    High-quality photomasks are a prerequisite for the production of flat panel TVs, tablets and other kinds of high-resolution displays. During the past years, the resolution demand has become more and more accelerated, and today, the high-definition standard HD, 1920 × 1080 pixels2, is well established, and already the next-generation so-called ultra-high-definition UHD or 4K display is entering the market. Highly advanced mask writers are used to produce the photomasks needed for the production of such displays. The dimensional tolerance in X and Y on absolute pattern placement on these photomasks, with sizes of square meters, has been in the range of 200-300 nm (3σ), but is now on the way to be <150 nm (3σ). To verify these photomasks, 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines are used with even tighter tolerance requirements. The metrology tool MMS15000 is today the world standard tool used for the verification of large area photomasks. This paper will present a method called Z-correction that has been developed for the purpose of improving the absolute X, Y placement accuracy of features on the photomask in the writing process. However, Z-correction is also a prerequisite for achieving X and Y uncertainty levels <90 nm (3σ) in the self-calibration process of the MMS15000 stage area of 1.4 × 1.5 m2. When talking of uncertainty specifications below 200 nm (3σ) of such a large area, the calibration object used, here an 8-16 mm thick quartz plate of size approximately a square meter, cannot be treated as a rigid body. The reason for this is that the absolute shape of the plate will be affected by gravity and will therefore not be the same at different places on the measurement machine stage when it is used in the self-calibration process. This mechanical deformation will stretch or compress the top surface (i.e. the image side) of the plate where the pattern resides, and therefore spatially deform the mask pattern in the X- and Y-directions. Errors due

  2. Laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for high-volume non-critical 193-nm photolithographic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Rémi; Gopalakrishnan, Selvi; Mazur, Martin; Öner, Nevzat; Mühle, Sven; Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Photomasks are key elements of photolithographic processes, implying that their degradation must be reliably monitored and strongly mitigated. Indeed, the photo-induced oxidation of Cr in Cr On Glass (COG) photomasks and the concomitant electrostatic-field migration present in high-volume production using 193-nm photolithographic scanners severely deteriorate the pattern transfer quality, therefore limiting the lifetime of these reticles. To moderate this effect, Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) photomasks, significantly less prone to such degradation, are currently being massively used in leading-edge microfabrication flows. The type of mask fabrication process normally used involving ebeam writing is however not adapted for non-critical photolithographic layers that do not yet benefit from its inherent performances but still suffer from its high cost and its long processing time. It is therefore proposed in this work to combine the simplicity of laser writing and the resistance of MoSi to degradation by using laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for the non-critical layers (e.g. ion-implantation) of a 28-nm production flow. To evaluate one of this new reticle, its pattern transfer fidelity is compared to the one of a laser-written binary COG mask already qualified for production from a photolithographic quality perspective, both masks being treated using the same optical proximity correction (OPC) model. Dispersive and dissipative properties, critical dimension uniformity, pattern linearity and pattern proximity are directly measured on wafer level, subsequently revealing that both photomasks match in terms of OPC parameters. The utilized OPC model is moreover proven robust against the use of both types of masks, consequently making the conversion from COG to OMOG particularly simple. These experimental results therefore qualify the new mask fabrication type and pave the way for a major utilization in high-volume production.

  3. Photomask applications of traceable atomic force microscope dimensional metrology at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Potzick, James; Fu, Joseph; Allen, Richard A.; Cresswell, Michael; Smith, Stewart; Walton, Anthony J.; Tsiamis, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. Three major instruments are being used for traceable measurements. The first is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM), the second is the first generation of commercially available critical dimension AFM (CD-AFM), and the third is a current generation CD-AFM at SEMATECH - for which NIST has established the calibration and uncertainties. All of these instruments have useful applications in photomask metrology. Linewidth reference metrology is an important application of CD-AFM. We have performed a preliminary comparison of linewidths measured by CD-AFM and by electrical resistance metrology on a binary mask. For the ten selected test structures with on-mask linewidths between 350 nm and 600 nm, most of the observed differences were less than 5 nm, and all of them were less than 10 nm. The offsets were often within the estimated uncertainties of the AFM measurements, without accounting for the effect of linewidth roughness or the uncertainties of electrical measurements. The most recent release of the NIST photomask standard - which is Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2059 - was also supported by CD-AFM reference measurements. We review the recent advances in AFM linewidth metrology that will reduce the uncertainty of AFM measurements on this and future generations of the NIST photomask standard. The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser. One of the important applications of the C-AFM is step height metrology, which has some relevance to phase shift calibration. In the current generation of the system, the approximate level of relative standard uncertainty for step height measurements at the 100 nm scale is 0.1 %. We discuss the monitor history of a 290 nm step height, originally measured on the C-AFM with a 1

  4. Numerical analysis of the sub-wavelength fabrication of MTMO grayscale photomasks by direct laser writing.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Yi, Sanming; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-07-14

    Metal-transparent-metallic-oxide (MTMO) grayscale photomasks fabricated by direct laser writing have been proposed in recent years. The fabrication mechanism is attributed to light-induced melt-oxidization. The temporal-spatial distribution of temperature fields of indium film-glass samples under a laser pulse have been calculated by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The laser action area of the indium film is studied based on the oxidation theories and the absorbed laser power density distribution in molten indium films. The calculated average sub-wavelength fabrication diameter of 302 nm is consistent with the experimental fabrication size under a laser power of 6.0 - 8.0 mW. PMID:25090505

  5. Thin absorber extreme ultraviolet photomask based on Ni-TaN nanocomposite material.

    PubMed

    Hay, Darrick; Bagge, Patrick; Khaw, Ian; Sun, Lei; Wood, Obert; Chen, Yulu; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Qi, Zhengqing John; Shi, Zhimin

    2016-08-15

    We study the use of random nanocomposite material as a photomask absorber layer for the next generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. By introducing nickel nanoparticles (NPs) randomly into a TaN host, the nanocomposite absorber layer can greatly reduce the reflectivity as compared with the standard TaN layer of the same thickness. Finite integral simulations show that the reduction in the reflectivity is mainly due to the enhanced absorption by the Ni NPs. The fluctuation in reflectivity induced by scattering and random position of the NPs is found to be on the order of 0.1%. Based on these observations, we build an effective medium model for the nanocomposite absorber layer and use the transfer matrix method to identify optimal absorber designs that utilize cavity effects to reduce the required volume fraction of Ni NPs. We further perform a process simulation and show that our approach can greatly reduce the HV bias in the lithography process. PMID:27519090

  6. Dual Wavelength Laser Writing and Measurement Methodology for High Resolution Bimetallic Grayscale Photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qarehbaghi, Reza

    Grayscale bimetallic photomasks consist of bi-layer thermal resists (Bismuth-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium) which become controllably transparent when exposed to a focused laser beam as a function of the absorbed power changing from ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). To achieve high accuracy grayscale pattern, the OD must be measured and controlled while writing. This thesis investigates using two wavelength beams for mask writing (514.5nm) and OD measurement (457.9nm) separated from a multi-line Argon ion laser source: a Dual Wavelength Writing and Measurement System. The writing laser profile was modified to a top-hat using a beam shaper. Several mask patterns tested the creation of high resolution grayscale masks. Finally, for creation of 3D structures in photoresist, the mask transparency to resist thickness requirements was formulated and linear slope patterns were successfully created.

  7. Studying the effects of modified surface chemistry on chrome migration in binary photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossow, Christopher; Kirlin, Peter; Green, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Migration of the Cr/CrxOy film in binary photomasks during use in 193nm photolithography has been observed for some time in the semiconductor industry. This phenomenon leads to a shift in the reticle critical dimensions (CDs) that worsen with increased exposure eventually resulting in wafer yield loss. This paper studies the impact of varying annealing conditions on the CrxOy species on the surface of the mask. Further, we examined the effect of a surface condition with maximized Cr2O3 content on the 193nm-induced chrome migration phenomenon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the composition of the Cr/CrxOy film. A 193nm accelerated exposure test bench was used to induce film migration in samples of varying surface chemistry.

  8. Algorithmic implementations of domain decomposition methods for the diffraction simulation of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Konstantinos; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    The domain decomposition method developed in [1] is examined in more detail. This method enables rapid computer simulation of advanced photomask (alt. PSM, masks with OPC) scattering and transmission properties. Compared to 3D computer simulation, speed-up factors of approximately 400, and up to approximately 200,000 when using the look-up table approach, are possible. Combined with the spatial frequency properties of projection printing systems, it facilitates accurate computer simulation of the projected image (normalized mean square error of a typical image is only a fraction of 1%). Some esoteric accuracy issues of the method are addressed and the way to handle arbitrary, Manhattan-type mask layouts is presented. The method is shown to be valid for off-axis incidence. The cross-talk model developed in [1] is used in 3D mask simulations (2D layouts).

  9. Mask aligner lithography for TSV-structures using a double-sided (structured) photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichelt, T.; Stuerzebecher, L.; Zeitner, U. D.

    2015-03-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSV) are important for wafer level packaging (WLP) as they provide patterning holes through thick silicon dies to integrate and interconnect devices which are stacked in z-direction. For economic processing TSV fabrication primarily needs to be cost-effective including especially a high throughput. Furthermore, a lithography process for TSV has to be stable enough to allow patterning on pre-structured substrates with inhomogeneous topography. This can be addressed by an exposure process which offers a large depth of focus. We have developed a mask-aligner lithography process based on the use of a double-sided photomask to realize aerial images which meet these constraints.

  10. Acoustic streaming effects in megasonic cleaning of EUV photomasks: a continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, Vivek; Deymier, Pierre A.; Shende, Hrishikesh; Pandit, Viraj; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence O.

    2005-11-01

    Removal of nano-scale contaminant particles from the photomasks is of critical importance to the implementation of EUV lithography for 32nm node. Megasonic cleaning has traditionally been used for photomask cleaning and extensions to sub 50nm particulates removal is being considered as a pattern damage free cleaning approach. Several mechanisms for removal are believed to be active in megasonic cleaning systems, e.g., cavitation, and acoustic streaming (Eckart, Schlichting, and microstreaming). It is often difficult to separate the effects of these individual mechanisms on contamination removal in a conventional experimental setup. Therefore, a theoretical approach is undertaken in this work with a focus on determining the contribution of acoustic streaming in cleaning process. A continuum model is used to describe the interaction between megasonic waves and a substrate (fused silica) immersed in a fluid (water). The model accounts for the viscous nature of the fluid. We calculate the acoustic vibrational modes of the system. These in turn are used to determine the acoustic streaming forces that lead to Schlichting streaming in a narrow acoustic boundary layer at the substrate/fluid interface. These forces are subsequently used to estimate the streaming velocities that may in turn apply a pressure and drag force on the contaminant particles adhering to the substrate. These effects are calculated as a function of angle of incidence, frequency and intensity of the megasonic wave. The relevance of this study is then discussed in the context of the cleaning efficiency and pattern damage in competing megasonic cleaning technologies, such as immersion, and nozzle-based systems.

  11. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial ...

  12. Sub-10 nm feature chromium photomasks for contact lithography patterning of square metal ring arrays

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woongkyu; Rhie, Jiyeah; Kim, Na Yeon; Hong, Seunghun; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Advances in photolithographic processes have allowed semiconductor industries to manufacture smaller and denser chips. As the feature size of integrated circuits becomes smaller, there has been a growing need for a photomask embedded with ever narrower patterns. However, it is challenging for electron beam lithography to obtain <10 nm linewidths with wafer scale uniformity and a necessary speed. Here, we introduce a photolithography-based, cost-effective mask fabrication method based on atomic layer deposition and overhang structures for sacrificial layers. Using this method, we obtained sub-10 nm square ring arrays of side length 50 μm, and periodicity 100 μm on chromium film, on 1 cm by 1 cm quartz substrate. These patterns were then used as a contact-lithography photomask using 365 nm I-line, to generate metal ring arrays on silicon substrate. PMID:27025277

  13. Analysis of the laser oxidation kinetics process of In-In(2)O(3) MTMO photomasks by laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-11-01

    One kind of novel grayscale photomask based on Metal-transparent-metallic-oxides (MTMOs) system fabricated by laser direct writing was demonstrated recently. Here, a multilayer oxidation model of In-In(2)O(3) film with a glass substrate was proposed to study the pulsed laser-induced oxidation mechanism. The distribution of the electromagnetic field in the film is calculated by the transfer matrix method. Temperature fields of the model are simulated based on the heat transfer equations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The oxidation kinetics process is studied based on the laser-induced Cabrera-Mott theory. The simulated oxidation processes are consistent with the experimental results, which mean that our laser-induced oxidation model can successfully interpret the fabrication mechanism of MTMO grayscale photomasks.

  14. Sub-10 nm feature chromium photomasks for contact lithography patterning of square metal ring arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woongkyu; Rhie, Jiyeah; Kim, Na Yeon; Hong, Seunghun; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Advances in photolithographic processes have allowed semiconductor industries to manufacture smaller and denser chips. As the feature size of integrated circuits becomes smaller, there has been a growing need for a photomask embedded with ever narrower patterns. However, it is challenging for electron beam lithography to obtain <10 nm linewidths with wafer scale uniformity and a necessary speed. Here, we introduce a photolithography-based, cost-effective mask fabrication method based on atomic layer deposition and overhang structures for sacrificial layers. Using this method, we obtained sub-10 nm square ring arrays of side length 50 μm, and periodicity 100 μm on chromium film, on 1 cm by 1 cm quartz substrate. These patterns were then used as a contact-lithography photomask using 365 nm I-line, to generate metal ring arrays on silicon substrate.

  15. Optimization and scale-down of wafer-based resist strip and rinse processes for photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggus, Brant L.; Weaver, Gene

    2002-03-01

    Retrofitting of wafer processing equipment is a common scenario in the photomask industry, as most available tools are built to accommodate the high throughput and substrate size of wafers. The acid process tanks in use at most mask shops are built to suit a single rack of 25 8 inch wafers, each coated with roughly two microns of photoresist. Conversely, a typical photomask shop sends one to two masks at a time through the resist strip line, each coated with 4500 angstroms of resist. The amount of unused volume of active chemical within an 8 inch X 8.5 inch X 10 inch acid tank when it is dumped is enough to warrant a hardware change. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to decrease Piranha usage by 43 percent by optimizing tank size for photomasks. The same logic applies to quick dump rinsers (QDRs). Additionally, water is wasted with 'spray down' processes, whereby masks are sprayed via perforated bars or nozzles. Because a < 0.5 μm viscous sublayer can not be practically achieved through spraying the mask, better cleaning performance is obtained with a bottom-filled weiring process. This is demonstrated through experimental results and theoretical mass transfer models.

  16. Extending analog design scaling to sub-wavelength lithography: co-optimization of RET and photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Ashesh; Dorris, Siew; Smelko, Tom; Walbrick, Walter; Mahalingam, Pushpa; Arch, John; Green, Kent; Garg, Vishal; Buck, Peter; West, Craig

    2011-04-01

    The mask requirements for 110nm half-node BiCMOS process were analyzed with the goal to meet customer needs at lower cost and shorter cycle times. The key differentiating features for this technology were high density CMOS libraries along with high-power Bipolar, LDMOS and DECMOS components. The high voltage components were characterized by transistors that formed cylindrical junctions. The presence of curved features in the data is particularly detrimental to the write time on a 50KeV vector mask writer. The mask write times have a direct impact on both mask cost and cycle time. Design rules also permit rectangular or stretched contacts to allow conductance of high currents. To meet customer needs but still manage the computational lithography overhead as well as the patterning process performance, this process was evaluated in terms of computational lithography and photomask co-optimization for the base-line 50KeV vector and laser mask-writers. Due to the differences in imaging and processing of the different mask writing systems, comparative analysis of critical dimension (CD) performance both in terms of linearity and pitch was done. Differences in imaging on silicon due to mask fidelity were also expected and characterized. The required changes in OPC necessary to switch to the new mask process were analyzed.

  17. Error analysis of overlay compensation methodologies and proposed functional tolerances for EUV photomask flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballman, Katherine; Lee, Christopher; Dunn, Thomas; Bean, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Due to the impact on image placement and overlay errors inherent in all reflective lithography systems, EUV reticles will need to adhere to flatness specifications below 10nm for 2018 production. These single value metrics are near impossible to meet using current tooling infrastructure (current state of the art reticles report P-V flatness ~60nm). In order to focus innovation on areas which lack capability for flatness compensation or correction, this paper redefines flatness metrics as being "correctable" vs. "non-correctable" based on the surface topography's contributions to the final IP budget at wafer, as well as whether data driven corrections (write compensation or at scanner) are available for the reticle's specific shape. To better understand and define the limitations of write compensation and scanner corrections, an error budget for processes contributing to these two methods is presented. Photomask flatness measurement tools are now targeting 6σ reproducibility <1nm (previous 3σ reproducibility ~3nm) in order to drive down error contributions and provide more accurate data for correction techniques. Taking advantage of the high order measurement capabilities of improved metrology tooling, as well as computational capabilities which enable fast measurements and analysis of sophisticated shapes, we propose a methodology for the industry to create functional tolerances focused on the flatness errors that are not correctable with compensation.

  18. Photomask-based integration process of low-defect suspended carbon nanotubes into SOI MEMS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Wei; Muoth, Matthias; Hierold, Christofer

    2014-05-30

    A fully-developed photomask-based integration process is reported. The process can integrate suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into micro-structures on silicon-on-insulator chips. The process features batch-compatible fabrication and post-growth metallization of suspended CNTs, which has never been demonstrated by any other processes. The post-growth metallization avoids deterioration of the metals at the elevated CNT growth temperature and enables mechanically robust double-clamped configuration. Two key steps ensure a significant reduction of the risk for damage or contamination of the CNTs during post-growth processing. SiO2 bridges were fabricated to physically support CNTs during the wet processing, and a protective Al2O3 layer (∼40 nm) was deposited to prevent resist contamination during lithography. The combination of these two steps enables the removal of the unprotected suspended segments of unwanted CNTs by oxygen plasma ashing, improving device yield by a factor of six. The electrically interfaced suspended CNT device possessed high CNT quality (D/G(+) intensity ratio of 1/224 in Raman spectroscopy) and good electrical properties, such as low device resistances as low as 105 kΩ and reduced gate hysteresis as low as 65 mV in ambient air. Measurements of eights devices indicate that the release step did not have a systematic influence on the device resistances. PMID:24787500

  19. Improved estimates of the range of errors on photomasks using measured values of skewness and kurtosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, Henry Chris

    1995-12-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) techniques often use six times the standard deviation sigma to estimate the range of errors within a process. Two assumptions are inherent in this choice of metric for the range: (1) the normal distribution adequately describes the errors, and (2) the fraction of errors falling within plus or minus 3 sigma, about 99.73%, is sufficiently large that we may consider the fraction occurring outside this range to be negligible. In state-of-the-art photomasks, however, the assumption of normality frequently breaks down, and consequently plus or minus 3 sigma is not a good estimate of the range of errors. In this study, we show that improved estimates for the effective maximum error Em, which is defined as the value for which 99.73% of all errors fall within plus or minus Em of the mean mu, may be obtained by quantifying the deviation from normality of the error distributions using the skewness and kurtosis of the error sampling. Data are presented indicating that in laser reticle- writing tools, Em less than or equal to 3 sigma. We also extend this technique for estimating the range of errors to specifications that are usually described by mu plus 3 sigma. The implications for SPC are examined.

  20. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  1. Advances in post AFM repair cleaning of photomask with CO2 cryogenic aerosol technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Charles; Varghese, Ivin; Balooch, Mehdi; Brandt, Werner

    2009-04-01

    As the mask technology matures, critical printing features and sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) shrink below 100 nm, forcing critical cleaning processes to face significant challenges. These challenges include use of new materials, oxidation, chemical contamination sensitivity, proportionally decreasing printable defect size, and a requirement for a damage-free clean. CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning has the potential to offer a wide process window for meeting these new challenges, if residue adder issues and damage can be eliminated. Some key differentiations of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning are the non-oxidizing and non-etching properties compared to conventional chemical wet clean processes with or without megasonics. In prior work, the feasibility of CO2 cryogenic aerosol in post AFM repair photomask cleaning was demonstrated. In this paper, recent advancements of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning technology are presented, focusing on the traditional problem areas of particle adders, electrostatic discharge (ESD), and mask damage mitigation. Key aspects of successful CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning include the spray nozzle design, CO2 liquid purity, and system design. The design of the nozzle directly controls the size, density, and velocity of the CO2 snow particles. Methodology and measurements of the solid CO2 particle size and velocity distributions will be presented, and their responses to various control parameters will be discussed. Adder control can be achieved only through use of highly purified CO2 and careful materials selection. Recent advances in CO2 purity will be discussed and data shown. The mask cleaning efficiency by CO2 cryogenic aerosol and damage control is essentially an optimization of the momentum of the solid CO2 particles and elimination of adders. The previous damage threshold of 150 nm SRAF structures has been reduced to 70nm and data will be shown indicating 60 nm is possible in the near future. Data on CO2 tribocharge mitigation

  2. Laser-induced oxidation of Zn and Zn alloy films for direct-write grayscale photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Marian; Tu, Yuqiang; Poon, David K.; Chapman, Glenn H.; Choo, Chinheng; Peng, Jun

    2006-02-01

    Previous research showed that bimetallic Bi/In and Sn/In films exhibit good grayscale levels after laser exposure due to controlled film oxidation. While giving a large alteration in optical density (OD) from 3.0OD to 0.22OD at 365 nm, Bi/In and Sn/In films show a very nonlinear OD change with laser power, making fine control of grayscale writing difficult at some gray levels. This paper studies Zn and Zn alloy films as possible candidates for improved direct-write grayscale photomask applications. Zn and Zn alloys laser oxidation have been reported previously, but without grayscale optical measurements and applications. In this paper Zn films (50 nm ~ 240 nm), Sn/Zn (100 nm), Al/Zn (100 nm), Bi/Zn (100 nm) and In/Zn (100 nm) were DC- and RF-sputtered onto glass slides and then were scanned by argon ion CW laser (488 nm). Among these films, the highest OD change, 3OD (from 3.2OD before exposure to 0.2OD after laser exposure) at 365 nm, was found in the In/Zn (25/75 nm or 84at% Zn) film. The characterization of grayscale level to laser power modulation in Zn and Zn alloy films with various thickness or composition ratios were investigated. The Zn OD change versus laser power curve is more linear than those of Sn/In and Bi/In films. In/Zn films have better characterization of grayscale level versus laser writing power than pure Zn film. Among these four Zn alloy films, Zn/Al shows most linear relation of OD at 365 nm to laser power modulation.

  3. Large-scale analytical Fourier transform of photomask layouts using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Julia A.

    2015-10-01

    Compensation of lens-heating effects during the exposure scan in an optical lithographic system requires knowledge of the heating profile in the pupil of the projection lens. A necessary component in the accurate estimation of this profile is the total integrated distribution of light, relying on the squared modulus of the Fourier transform (FT) of the photomask layout for individual process layers. Requiring a layout representation in pixelated image format, the most common approach is to compute the FT numerically via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the file size for a standard 26- mm×33-mm mask with 5-nm pixels is an overwhelming 137 TB in single precision; the data importing process alone, prior to FFT computation, can render this method highly impractical. A more feasible solution is to handle layout data in a highly compact format with vertex locations of mask features (polygons), which correspond to elements in an integrated circuit, as well as pattern symmetries and repetitions (e.g., GDSII format). Provided the polygons can decompose into shapes for which analytical FT expressions are possible, the analytical approach dramatically reduces computation time and alleviates the burden of importing extensive mask data. Algorithms have been developed for importing and interpreting hierarchical layout data and computing the analytical FT on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for rapid parallel processing, not assuming incoherent imaging. Testing was performed on the active layer of a 392- μm×297-μm virtual chip test structure with 43 substructures distributed over six hierarchical levels. The factor of improvement in the analytical versus numerical approach for importing layout data, performing CPU-GPU memory transfers, and executing the FT on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPU was 1.6×104, 4.9×103, and 3.8×103, respectively. Various ideas for algorithm enhancements will be discussed.

  4. Thin absorber EUV photomask based on mixed Ni and TaN material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Derrick; Bagge, Patrick; Khaw, Ian; Sun, Lei; Wood, Obert; Chen, Yulu; Kim, Ryoung-han; Qi, Zhengqing John; Shi, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Lithographic patterning at the 7 and 5 nm nodes will likely require EUV (λ=13.5 nm) lithography for many of the critical levels. All optical elements in an EUV scanner are reflective which requires the EUV photomask to be illuminated at an angle to its normal. Current scanners have an incidence of 6 degree, but future designs will be <6 degrees for high-NA systems. Non-telecentricity has been shown to cause H-V bias due to shadowing, pattern shift through focus, and image contrast lost due to apodization by the reflective mask coating. A thinner EUV absorber can dramatically reduce these issues. Ni offers better EUV absorption than Ta-based materials, which hold promise as a thinner absorber candidate. Unfortunately, the challenge of etching Ni has prevented its adoption into manufacturing. We propose a new absorber material that infuses Ni nanoparticles into the TaN host medium, allowing for the use of established Ta etching chemistry. A thinner is absorber is created due to the enhanced absorption properties of the Ni-Ta nano-composite material. Finite integral method and effective medium theory-based transfer matrix method have been independently developed to analyze the performance of the nano-composite absorption layer. We show that inserting 15% volume fraction Ni nanoparticles into 40-nm of TaN absorber material can reduce the reflection below 2% over the EUV range. Numerical simulations confirm that the reduced reflectivity is due to the increased absorption of Ni, while scattering only contributes to approximately 0.2% of the reduction in reflectivity.

  5. Determination of line profiles on photomasks using DUV, EUV, and x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, F.; Bodermann, B.; Burger, S.; Endres, J.; Haase, A.; Krumrey, M.; Laubis, C.; Soltwisch, V.; Ullrich, A.; Wernecke, J.

    2014-10-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. GISAXS provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range which allow for much steeper angles of incidence but preserve the large range of momentum transfer that can be observed. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. For EUV photomasks, the actinic wavelength EUV scatterometry yields particular advantages. A significant polarization dependence of the diffraction intensities for 0th and +1st orders in the geometry with the grating lines perpendicular to the plane of reflection is observed and the 0th order intensity shows sufficient sensitivity to the line width such that a CD-resolution below 0.1 nm is within reach. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings using GISAXS, and EUV and DUV scatterometry and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV and DUV scatterometry.

  6. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  7. Analysis technique for quantifying the effectiveness of optical-proximity-corrected photomasks and its application to defect printability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Graham G.; Martin, Brian

    1999-04-01

    An analysis technique for quantifying the effectiveness of optical proximity corrected (OPC) photomasks is described. The methodology is able to account for reticle manufacturing tolerances and has a number of applications including the optimization of OPC features and, in the examples described, the analysis of defect printability. The results presented here are generated using aerial image measurements from PROLITH/2, but the technique can be directly transferred to resist image measurements using 3D simulation tools such as PROLITH/3D where other factors such as swing curve effects caused by wafer topography could also be analyzed. With inspection tools such as scanning electron or atomic force microscopes and appropriate image processing and analysis software it should also be possible to apply this methodology to practical results.

  8. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  9. Centimeter-scale subwavelength photolithography using metal-coated elastomeric photomasks with modulated light intensity at the oblique sidewalls.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Liu, Yayuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuanglong; Zou, Binghua; Mao, Hui; Yu, Cheng-han; Tian, Danbi; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-05-01

    By coating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) relief structures with a layer of opaque metal such as gold, the incident light is strictly allowed to pass through the nanoscopic apertures at the sidewalls of PDMS reliefs to expose underlying photoresist at nanoscale regions, thus producing subwavelength nanopatterns covering centimeter-scale areas. It was found that the sidewalls were a little oblique, which was the key to form the nanoscale apertures. Two-sided and one-sided subwavelength apertures can be constructed by employing vertical and oblique metal evaporation directions, respectively. Consequently, two-line and one-line subwavelength nanopatterns with programmable feature shapes, sizes, and periodicities could be produced using the obtained photomasks. The smallest aperture size and line width of 80 nm were achieved. In contrast to the generation of raised positive photoresist nanopatterns in phase shifting photolithography, the recessed positive photoresist nanopatterns produced in this study provide a convenient route to transfer the resist nanopatterns to metal nanopatterns. This nanolithography methodology possesses the distinctive advantages of simplicity, low cost, high throughput, and nanoscale feature size and shape controllability, making it a potent nanofabrication technique to enable functional nanostructures for various potential applications.

  10. Integration and optimization of the DUV ALTA pattern generation system using a CAR process with the Tetra photomask etch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, Alex H.; Fuller, Scott E.; Montgomery, Warren; Ungureit, Michael E.

    2003-12-01

    Etec Systems, the Mask Business Group of Applied Materials, is in a unique position within the mask making industry - Etec has the opportunity to integrate individual parts of the overall mask manufacturing process to provide a more complete solution. Here we present the integration of the DUV ALTA laser pattern generator and the TetraTM photomask etch system with advanced CAR resist processes. Dry etch process effects of flow, overetch, and oxygen content (in a Cl2/O2/He plasma) are discussed for the baseline POR resist in terms of etch rate, selectivity, etch bias, CD uniformity and micro-loading; the optimized etch process space was then implemented for advanced CAR resists. Iso-dense bias, football pattern loading and other pattern transfer results influencing mask manufactureability are also presented. Within the synthesis and optimization of the pattern generation system, process, and dry etch sub 13 nm range process uniformity has been achieved. The integrated ALTA / Tetra / Advanced-CAR solution set is characterized on both Etec test patterns and customer demonstrations.

  11. Exposure characterizations of polymer type electron beam resists with various molecular weights for next-generation photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Asada, Hironori; Kishimura, Yukiko; Hoshino, Ryoichi; Kawata, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Higher resolution is eagerly requested to the electron beam resist for the next generation photomask production as well as higher sensitivity. The performance of a polymer resist is mainly characterized by its chemical structure and molecular weight. Positive tone polymer resists with various molecular weights ranging from 60 k to 500 k are synthesized and the molecular weight dependence on exposure characteristics is examined by fabricating line-and-space patterns. The molecular weight dependence of sensitivity for amyl acetate developer is small in the molecular weight range in this study. In a low molecular weight resist, the cross-section profile of the resist pattern becomes rounder and then the disconnections are observed in the 20-nm line-and-space pattern. Although the pattern width change by changing the exposure dose for each resist is quite similar, the exposure dose margin of pattern formation becomes wider with the higher molecular weight. The line width roughness is smaller in a high molecular weight resist than in a low molecular weight resist. The shift amount of the pattern width from the design value for various line-and-space patterns and the dry etching resistance to CF4 plasma are also presented.

  12. Real-time feedback system for controlling the optical density of bimetallic thin-film grayscale photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykes, James Methven

    Bimetallic grayscale photomasks consist of a bi-layer thin-film that is converted into a transparent oxide upon laser exposure. The film's transparency is a function of the laser power allowing grayscale masks to be produced by controlling the laser's intensity during the mask-writing process. The mask's accuracy is determined by the control over the laser power. Using a direct-write raster-scanning system, a feedback-controlled design is created through the addition of photodiode sensors and an FPGA-based microprocessor subsystem allowing measurements of the mask's transparency to control the laser's power. When patterning mask lines ranging from 1.7 to 0.5 OD on a 100 nm Bi/In film using an 8-bit grayscale without OD feedback, the lines produced are accurate to 0.02 OD for exposures <50 mW. Using OD feedback, the accuracy improves to 0.002 OD on the same range. A model for predicting the OD profile of bimetallic grayscale mask lines is also presented.

  13. The effects of simultaneous electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particulate contamination of an inverted EUVL photomask surface in parallel airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Handol; Yook, Se-Jin; Young Han, Seog

    2012-10-01

    The combined influences of electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particle deposition on the inverted critical surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow were investigated by employing the statistical Lagrangian particle tracking approach in an effort to assess the degree of particulate contamination of EUVL photomasks during horizontal transport in cleanroom environments. The numerical method was validated through the comparison with the experimental data, found in the literature, about particle deposition velocity onto a wafer in vertical airflow with and without electrophoresis or thermophoresis. In addition, the validation of the present model was performed via the comparison with the theoretical prediction of particle deposition velocity onto a flat plate under no phoretic forces in parallel airflow. Then, the particle deposition velocity onto the face-down surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow was obtained by varying the temperature of the inverted critical surface in different strengths of uniform electric fields. Injected particles were assumed to be charged with -1 , 0, or +1 elementary unit of charge, in order to consider attractive or repulsive electric force. The degree of particulate contamination of the inverted critical surface was found to be significantly influenced by the combination of electrophoretic and thermophoretic effects.

  14. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  15. Development of paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using photomask printed with 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on paper by photolithography.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Yukihide

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using a photomask printed with a 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on the paper by photolithography. Several designed photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic analytical devices can be printed with a 3D printer easily, rapidly and inexpensively. A chromatography paper was impregnated with the octadecyltrichlorosilane n-hexane solution and hydrophobized. After the hydrophobic zone of the paper was exposed to the UV light through the photomask, the hydrophilic zone was generated. The smallest functional hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier were ca. 500 μm and ca. 100 μm in width, respectively. The fabrication method has high stability, resolution and precision for hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier. This test paper was applied to the analysis of iron in water samples using a colorimetry with phenanthroline.

  16. A novel mask proximity correction software combining accuracy and reduced writing time for the manufacturing of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Patrick; Martin, Luc; Browning, Clyde; Farys, Vincent; Sundermann, Frank; Narukawa, Shogo; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya

    2012-06-01

    The new generations of photomasks are seen to bring more and more challenges to the mask manufacturer. Maskshops face two conflicting requirements, namely improving pattern fidelity and reducing or at least maintaining acceptable writing time. These requirements are getting more and more challenging since pattern size continuously shrinks and data volumes continuously grows. Although the classical dose modulation Proximity Effect Correction is able to provide sufficient process control to the mainstream products, an increased number of published and wafer data show that the mask process is becoming a nonnegligible contributor to the 28nm technology yield. We will show in this paper that a novel approach of mask proximity effect correction is able to meet the dual challenge of the new generation of masks. Unlike the classical approach, the technique presented in this paper is based on a concurrent optimization of the dose and geometry of the fractured shots. Adding one more parameter allows providing the best possible compromise between accuracy and writing time since energy latitude can be taken into account as well. This solution is implemented in the Inscale software package from Aselta Nanographics. We have assessed the capability of this technology on several levels of a 28nm technology. On this set, the writing time has been reduced up to 25% without sacrificing the accuracy which at the same time has been improved significantly compared to the existing process. The experiments presented in the paper confirm that a versatile proximity effect correction strategy, combining dose and geometry modulation helps the users to tradeoff between resolution/accuracy and e-beam write time.

  17. Optimized lithography process for through-silicon vias-fabrication using a double-sided (structured) photomask for mask aligner lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichelt, Tina; Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Zeitner, Uwe D.

    2015-07-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSV) are very important for wafer-level packaging as they provide patterning holes through thick silicon dies to integrate and interconnect devices which are stacked in the z-direction. For economic processing, TSV fabrication primarily needs to be cost effective, especially for a high throughput. Furthermore, a lithography process for TSV has to be stable enough to allow patterning on prestructured substrates with inhomogeneous topography. This can be addressed by an exposure process which offers a large depth of focus. We have developed a mask-aligner lithography process based on the use of a double-sided photomask to realize aerial images that meet these constraints.

  18. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  19. Characterization of a non-chemically amplified resist for photomask fabrication using a 257-nm optical pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Benjamen M.; Tabery, Cyrus E.; Stachowiak, Timothy B.; Dallas, Tim E.; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Pochkowski, Mike; Willson, C. Grant

    1999-12-01

    I-line optical pattern generators using non-chemically amplified resists have become the workhorses for high throughput mask fabrication. The demand for smaller and more uniform features on photomasks has driven the development of a 257 nm optical pattern generator. A non-chemically amplified resist is being developed to maximize the performance of this new 257 nm mask tool. Resist characterization and lithography simulation are being used to formulate a non-chemically amplified resist for 257 nm optical pattern generators. Non- chemically amplified resists are advantageous for us in mask fabrication due to their storage and post-exposure stability. Chemically amplified resists may provide higher performance but they also require environmental mini-environments and a post-exposure bake equipment not commonly present in mask houses. Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)/novolak resists have not been used for DUV Integrated Circuit (IC) applications mainly due to the low sensitivity and the strong absorbance of the DNQ photoactive compound (PAC) at 248 nm. However, a 2,1,4 DNQ based resist has been characterized that bleaches at 257 nm and inhibits novolak. The photoproduct of the 2,1,4 DNQ PAC is much more transparent at 257 nm than 248 nm. Novolak resin is too strongly absorbing for use in formulating efficient 248 nm resists, but novolak has an absorbance minimum at 257 nm that provides transparency similar to poly (hydroxystyrene). Lithography simulation is being used to develop a non- chemically amplified resist to minimize the expensive iteration of manufacturing trials. An exposure system using a 257 nm frequency double Ar laser system has been constructed to study the resist photokinetics. Dill exposure parameters (A, B and C) have been extracted for a 2,1,4 DNQ/novolak based resist. Dissolution rate measurements have been made with a DRM developed at the University of Texas at Austin. Simulation is used to determine the optimal resist absorption, bleaching, dose and

  20. Fast simulation methods for non-planar phase and multilayer defects in DUV and EUV photomasks for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Michael Christopher

    This dissertation develops rapid modeling methodologies for the printability and inspectability of various types of defects on photomasks in DUV and EUV lithography. Several fast and approximate methods for defect simulation are introduced and validated by comparing their results with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) calculations of scattering from the same geometry. The common strategy is to decompose the electromagnetic (EM) scattering into individual signal contributions by analyzing rigorous simulations, and then to develop efficient alternative models for each contribution. Two methods are introduced to calculate the observed scattering from DUV phase defects. First, the through focus behavior of an isolated defect can be used to extract two defect parameters, size and phase, which fully characterize the defect by means of an EM equivalent thin mask model. Post and void defects can also be differentiated based on the side of defocus that their peak signal occurs. Second, a defect projector methodology is introduced that allows results for an isolated defect and a defect-free pattern to be combined to predict their interaction for any defect location. The defect projector is four orders of magnitude faster than 3D FDTD simulation, and can correctly predict the defect induced dimension change to within 30% for worst case. The main emphasis of this dissertation is on scattering from non-planar multilayer structures to understand the printability of buried defects inside of EUV mask blanks. A new method based on ray tracing is developed by exploiting the small non-specular forward angular scattering of individual bilayers, which is 10X smaller than the back scatter, and its approximation as zero allows a new and tractable mathematical factoring. The method is tested for various deposition strategies, defect sizes, defect shapes, as well as various illumination angles of incidence and polarization. Smoothing of the defect shape during deposition is confirmed to

  1. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  2. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  3. Photomasks for FPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Yasuhiro; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tomooka, Takatoshi

    2015-07-01

    Continuous innovation of mobile devices such as smart phones provides new and better experiences for users. Such innovations demand for FPD (Flat Panel Display) to have higher resolution, a smarter design, a lighter weight, lower energy consumption, and many other improvements. Among those requirements, higher resolution is the most critical feature to achieve realistic images on the screen and to provide different user experiences. However, higher resolution LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panels cannot be easily achieved simply by scaling and shrinking the process rule as has been historically done in the semiconductor industry. This is because an LCD panel is an optical device as well as being an electrically controlled integrated circuit. The important factors in fabricating an LCD panel as an optical device are discussed here in conjunction with the photo mask requirements.

  4. Electrical Characteristics of Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistors with Six-Step Photomask Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Kum-Mi; Lee, Seok-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Eon; Shin, Woo-Sup; Jun, Myung-chul; Yang, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Yong-Kee

    2011-06-01

    We propose two types of six-step photomask, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), thin-film transistor (TFT) PCT device structures in order to simplify their fabrication process compared with that of conventional, low-temperature, polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) CMOS TFT devices. The initial charge transfer characteristics of both types of six-step PCT are equivalent to those of the conventional nine-step PCT. Both types of six-step PCT are comparable to the conventional nine-step mask lightly doped drain (LDD) device in terms of the dc device lifetime of over 10 years at Vds=5 V for line inversion driving, which is the normally recognized duration time for semiconducting devices.

  5. Contact photolithography using a carbon-black embedded soft photomask and ultraviolet light emitting diodes with application on patterned sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Heng; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2016-04-18

    This paper presents a contact photolithography method for large-area ultraviolet (UV) patterning using a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) photomask and a planar light source consisting of arrayed light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With simple design and construction, the UV light source can achieve uniformly distributed UV light intensity over an area of 4" in diameter but its divergent angle is 15°. To overcome this large divergent angle, a PDMS soft mold embedded with carbon-black inserts as the UV light blocking materials is applied. It is demonstrated that, when increasing the aspect ratio of the carbon-black inserts, one can achieve excellent UV patterning results. Both experimental data and simulation results are presented. This contact photolithography system has been successfully used for manufacturing patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) in LED industry. The advantages and potential applications of the proposed method will be addresses.

  6. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  7. Journey to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

  8. Teaching English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    English language instruction, which is considered very important in Japan, is offered in 90 percent of all secondary schools and is studied by almost all students, even though it is an elective subject. English is considered a cultural and commercial link with the western world and has been taught in Japan since the mid-nineteenth century. Most…

  9. A Cultural Experience: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

  10. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  11. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  12. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  13. GPM Arrives in Japan

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  14. Prison psychiatry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, T

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses and provides statistics, on a comparative basis, of crime trends in Japan with special reference to mentally disordered offenders. It also highlights some of the problems experienced by prison psychiatrists.

  15. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  16. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  17. The internationalization of Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity.

  18. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  2. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  3. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  4. Film Resources on Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Audio-Visual Education Center.

    Sixteen millimeter motion pictures dealing with Japan are listed alphabetically by title and annotated. Length of film, whether color or black and white, and name of producer or distributor is given for each, and a subject index is provided. Films produced before 1960, "sponsored" films, and 35 mm filmstrips are listed without annotations. A list…

  5. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  6. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  7. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  8. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  9. The Graying of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

  10. Japan's Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Bethany

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary approach combining geography and children's literature to teach about Japanese culture. Describes classroom activities that link the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography to literature and art. Includes 11 figures, 9 summaries of children's books about Japan, and a 15-item annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  11. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  12. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  13. Language Testing in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

  14. "Hands on" Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Richard

    Cultural learning kits designed by Evansville, Indiana teachers, supervisors, and community advisory groups were compiled to provide information about Japan to community organizations and students. This document provides a key to the contents of the kits. The kits contain teaching materials and information about food, school materials, language…

  15. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

  16. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  17. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  18. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  19. Terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

    2003-01-01

    Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

  20. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  1. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  2. Recent topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Y

    1996-08-01

    In Japan, the concern about ethical issues in preventive medicine, especially in epidemiological investigation, has been gradually increasing in recent years. In this paper I introduce the following four topics: 1. privacy protection and the computer, 2. informed consent and publication, 3. the attitudes toward ethics among epidemiologists, 4. the attitudes toward epidemiological investigation among examinees. In my opinion, Japanese epidemiologists should give more attention to general ethical principles (Respect for persons, Beneficence) and to the practical methods to apply them in their research works.

  3. Ijime in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

  4. Strong Quake Strikes Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

  5. Space plane program in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maita, Masataka

    The present paper will discuss perspectives on Japan's spaceplane research and development program. The topics will cover the current activities of Japan's spaceplane concept studies and related technology research program, which were primarily initiated by the National Aerospace Laboratory of the Science and Technology Agency, with an emphasis on the vehicle concept powered by a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system.

  6. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  7. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  8. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  9. China and Japan (Theme Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history of United States'…

  10. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which

  11. Teaching about Japan in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on ideas for teaching about Japan which elementary school classroom teachers can use to supplement a textbook unit on Japan. Suggestions are intended to allow for reflection by students on their own culture, as well as the culture of Japan. Topics are children's perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, developing a geographical perspective,…

  12. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  13. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  14. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  15. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  16. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

  18. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-28

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: AIST`s Frontier Carbon Technology Research Project Under Way; Japan: Sumitomo Electric Develops Aluminum Nitride Substrate; Japan: NASDA To Develop Small, High Performance, Low Cost Satellite; Japan to Haive Rocket Launch Cost; Japan: Combined-Cycle Technology for Higher Thermal Efficiency Using Various Fuels; Japan: S&T Corporation Develops Carbon Thin Film Solar Cell; Japan: Atomic Energy Commission of Japan Suports Using ITER for Japan`s Experimental Reactor; Japan: NO New Nuclear Power Plant Construction in Sight; and Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Executive on Guided Missile Development.

  19. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  20. Japan's national waste recovery plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baller, J.

    1982-08-01

    The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

  1. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established.

  2. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  3. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. PMID:27638028

  4. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  5. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning…

  6. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  7. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    PubMed

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  8. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  9. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  10. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  11. Resources for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

  12. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  13. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  14. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  15. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-05-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ..mu.. meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

  16. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

  17. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  18. Recent meteor observing activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2005-02-01

    The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

  19. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies,…

  20. History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

  1. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  2. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  3. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following five-year reviews by the Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') and... imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (64 FR 47765, September 1, 1999). Following second five-year... antidumping duty finding on imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (70 FR 44893). The Commission is...

  4. Education and Youth Employment in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hidetoshi

    The education/employment situation of young people in Japan is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary societies. Youth problems in Japan stem from the incredibly rapid industrialization and social change that have taken place in Japan since World War II. In spite of this…

  5. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  6. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  7. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  8. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-03

    Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

  9. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  10. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  11. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

  12. Frontiers of neutron scattering in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuji

    1986-03-01

    Current neutron works representing frontiers of neutron scattering in Japan are surveyed. Only those works which either become possible with or have contributed significantly to new techniques and new instrumentations originated in Japan are selected because of the limited space and by the author's choice. Those works performed in the reactor centers (JAERI and KUR) in Japan, as well as in the two high flux reactor centers in the U.S. (BNL and ORNL), which are two coordinating institutions under the U.S.-Japan cooperative neutron scattering research program, and in Japan's spallation pulsed neutron facilities (KENS) are equally stressed for their contributions. Brief accounts of the new projects to renovate neutron sources and neutron facilities in Japan are also included.

  13. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Menlove, Howard O; Hori, Masato; Kawakubo, Yoko; Mcclelland - Kerr, J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  14. Fitness and health promotion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I

    1990-01-01

    Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts.

  15. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  16. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  17. Solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.

    1995-09-01

    On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

  18. On earthquake prediction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  19. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  20. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  1. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  2. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  3. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

  4. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

  5. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  6. Teaching about Japan in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Helen W.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that a good starting point for social studies curriculum units on Japan at the secondary school level is an analysis of the interrelationships between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on population figures, industrialization, standard of living indicators, consumer price indexes, and crude birth and death rates for…

  7. Political Literacy in Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Mizuyama, Mitsuharu; Ikeno, Norio; Parmenter, Lynne; Mori, Chiho

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss findings from the project "Political Literacy in Japan and England". They do so to follow up on work published in this journal in 2011. The now completed project involved two schools in England and three schools in Japan, and had the aim of exploring what teachers would do in each country when asked to use the same…

  8. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

  9. Autochthonous dengue fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-03-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August-September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan.

  10. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... interested parties did not participate in this sunset review * * *.'' (75 FR 51981). Accordingly, pursuant to... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely...

  11. Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this--with the instrumental exception of English--has been reflected in its language…

  12. Linguistic Minorities and Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, John

    1997-01-01

    The ideology of a monolingual and monoracial Japan is being challenged by increasing language diversity in communities where Ainu, Ryukyuan, Chinese, English, Japanese Sign Language, Korean, and other languages are spoken. Government policies and school textbooks still resist the notion of a multilingual Japan. (SK)

  13. Penicillin and the reconstruction of Japan.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores postwar American strategies regarding penicillin in Japan. Perceived as both an American gift and a symbol of reconstruction, penicillin played a singular role in Washington's postwar policies towards Europe and Japan. Washington encouraged US pharmaceutical companies to penetrate Europe but sought to protect intra-European trade. In Japan, however, importing penicillin from the US or establishing private American factories was forbidden. Jackson W. Foster implemented a smaller-scale, military-directed version of the US's wartime penicillin project. In this paper, it is argued that the MacArthur administration aimed to boost Japanese penicillin production and transfer American industrial culture to Japan. This was initially a major success. However, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry failed to break down barriers to market entry established by first movers and, consequently, was uncompetitive throughout the twentieth century. This paper regards the American penicillin project in Japan as a factor in the weakness of the postwar Japanese pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26054211

  14. Type 1 diabetes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, E; Matsuura, N; Eguchi, K

    2006-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, and recognises at least three subtypes of the condition: acute-onset ('classical'), slow-onset, and fulminant type 1 diabetes. The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years in Japan increased over the period from 1973-1992, but remained constant over the last decade, averaging 2.37 cases per 100,000 persons per year; the incidence does not appear to have increased in older age groups. Although there are few reports regarding the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adult-onset patients, it appears that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adults is more than twice that in childhood-onset patients and that two-thirds of them have a slow-onset form of type 1 diabetes. Differences and similarities in the association of MHC and non-MHC genes with type 1 diabetes are observed in Japan and in countries with Caucasoid populations. Highly susceptible class II HLA haplotypes identified in patients of Caucasoid origin are rarely seen in Japanese patients, whereas protective haplotypes are universal. Non-MHC genes associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in both Japanese and Caucasoid patients include polymorphisms in the insulin gene, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, the interleukin-18 (IL18) gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) gene. Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a unique subtype of type 1 diabetes that accounts for about 20% of acute-onset type 1 diabetes, and is seen mainly in adults. The challenge for the future is to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of beta cell destruction, including the genetic or

  15. History of neurophysiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y

    1991-01-01

    The progress of the neurophysiological research in Japan during the past 45 years is related. Modern Japanese neurophysiology started immediately after the end of World War 2. The introduction of microelectrode techniques contributed greatly to most fields of Japanese neurophysiology. These techniques were used to study most neurophysiological phenomena: sensory physiology including vision, audition, chemical sensitivity, and other modalities; learning and memory. These techniques plus lesions, transplants, and behavioral physiology were used to study circadian rhythm, posture and motor control, and sex. These and other techniques were used to study neural plasticity, immunity, membrane excitability, pain and other psychophysiological functions. The disciplines advanced quickly into multidiscipline approaches into not only electrophysiological, but biophysical, biochemical and immunological research fields. From the past research results our neurophysiologists can be expected to advance rapidly toward further development in the future of Japanese neurophysiology.

  16. [Pediatric neurotransmitter disease in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Haruo

    2012-09-01

    Pediatric neurotransmitter disease (PND) encompasses a range of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of neurotransmitters in children. While these neurological disorders are often studied independently of each other, they all manifest central nervous system symptoms and require proper diagnosis and intervention at early stages. Since clinical symptoms of PND can be nonspecific, the conditions are often under-diagnosed, leaving patients without a chance to receive effective treatment. Envisioning PND as a whole, a comprehensive research effort is underway for a better understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology in Japan, and toward the establishment of diagnostic criteria. The early diagnosis and development of new effective therapies are of urgent importance for these rare disorders that are not covered by newborn mass screening. For rarer forms of PND, at the same time, it is important to encourage recognition and understanding of the disease concept among healthcare professionals.

  17. The Beveridge Report and Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoneyuki

    2014-01-01

    After World War II, Japanese health insurance systems rejected the idea of a flat-rate premium contribution, a central concept in the Beveridge Report. Allegedly, outside of Great Britain, no other country was more influenced by this Report than Japan. However, the postwar Japanese health insurance systems adopted flat-rate benefits and earnings-related contributions, a clear rejection of the flat-rate premium contributions for flat-rate benefits advocated in the Report. This is not just a simple difference from the premium contributions method, it throws up fundamental questions concerning the essence of social insurance, and ultimately, the power of the State and the relationship between the State and the individual. This article aims to analyze the reasons for this rejection. PMID:24405200

  18. SURVIVAL OF CENTENARIANS IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Murotani, Kenta; Zhou, Bin; Kaneda, Hideaki; Nakatani, Eiji; Kojima, Shinsuke; Nagai, Yoji; Fukushima, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the survival trends of centenarians in Japan. A cohort of centenarians born between 1881 and 1900 was analysed based on national census data, and the average life expectancy at 100 years of age, risk of death and maximum age were estimated. An analysis of covariance and a Cox regression analysis were performed to explore the factors associated with life expectancy and risk of death. The death rates in centenarians tended to decrease with birth year, and the average life expectancy from the age of 100 slightly increased at a rate of 0.013 years (95% CI: 0.007-0.019) by birth year in men and 0.026 in women. Women had a longer life expectancy than men, with a difference of 0.174 years (95% CI: 0.071-0.277) at birth year 1881 and increasing by 0.013 years per year thereafter. The risk of death in both sexes decreased significantly by birth year over the course of the period analysed, and the risk of death in men was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.14-1.19) times that of women. In women, death rates at every age significantly decreased with birth year over the course of the period analysed until age 104. However, this trend did not hold true for ages 105 and older. The average life expectancy of centenarians at the age of 100 in Japan increased by birth year in the 1881-1900 birth cohort. In addition, Japanese centenarians had the lowest death rates among several countries.

  19. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

  20. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  1. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  2. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  3. Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

    2011-11-01

    Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

  4. Teaching Primary School Children about Japan through Art. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia Berg

    There are a variety reasons for teaching about Japan. Many students in the United States are of Japanese heritage; Japan is the second largest trading partner of the United States; and some healing still needs to occur between the United States and Japan because of the damage and pain of World War II. Further, the Unites States and Japan share the…

  5. Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

  6. The terrestrial bioluminescent animals of Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Branham, Marc A; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-11-01

    Light production by organisms, or bioluminescence, has fascinated not only scientists but also ordinary people all over the world, and it has been especially so in Japan. Here we review the biological information available to date for all luminous terrestrial animals known from Japan, particularly focusing on their diversity and systematics, their biology and ecology in Japan, and putative function and biochemistry of their luminescence. In total 58 luminous terrestrial animals have been described from Japan, which consist of 50 fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), one glowworm beetle (Coleoptera: Phengodidae), two fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae), one springtail (Collembola), one millipede (Diplopoda), one centipede (Chilopoda) and two earthworms (Oligochaeta). For all except some firefly species, the DNA "barcode" sequences of a cytochrome oxidase subunit I region are provided. We also introduce how intricately the seasonal appearance and glimmering of luminous insects, in particular those of fireflies, have been interwoven into the culture, art, literature and mentality of Japanese people. PMID:22035300

  7. Suicide among foreign residents of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C

    2011-02-01

    The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination.

  8. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  9. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  10. Transfer of environmentally sound technologies from Japan to China

    SciTech Connect

    Asuka-Zhang, S.

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the transfer of environmentally sound technology from Japan to developing countries, particularly China. The focus is on the main Japanese organizations involved in environmentally sound technology transfer, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and Japanese industry. The article also describes the main activities involved in Japan`s technology transfer efforts, such as grants, loan, information exchange, and demonstration projects, with specific examples of Japan`s technology transfer work in China. Finally, the paper analyzes the successes and challenges of various technology transfer mechanism and provides insight on the direction of Japan`s future environmentally sound technology transfer projects and programs in developing countries.

  11. [Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) managed by Japan Trauma Care and Research (JTCR)].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    Japan Trauma Care and Research (JTCR) was founded for operating the trauma care education and research in 2005. Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) is an educational program of trauma care established by The Japanese Association for The Surgery of Trauma (JAST) and the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM), managed by JTCR. The Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) is the only database organization of Japan trauma registry that was also established by JAST and JAAM, and managed by JTCR. Registry data that is collected from the JTDB is compiled annually and disseminated in the forms of hospital benchmark reports, data quality reports, and research data sets.

  12. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  13. Using Parse's humanbecoming theory in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Junko; Katsuno, Towako; Takahashi, Teruko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the use of Parse's humanbecoming theory in Japan. Elements of the theory are used in the nursing approach to an 88 year-old Japanese man who had complications following surgery. Process recordings of the dialogues between the patient, the patient's wife, and the nurse were made and considered in light of the three methodologies of Parse's theory; illuminating meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and mobilizing transcendence. The theory is seen as useful in Japan. PMID:22228531

  14. Cord blood transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) has increasingly been used in Japan and the annual number of CBT now exceeds 1,200. The cumulative number of CBT reached 12,853 in 2015, accounting for almost 1/3 of total CBT performed worldwide. It is true that smaller body size and lower costs, as compared to western countries, have been advantages for Japanese people in using CB as graft alternative. In addition, several novel findings regarding serious issues following CBT have been obtained, which further enhanced the use of CB. First, several mechanisms of engraftment failure following CBT other than cell dose have been reported, such as the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies or the development of hemophagocytic syndrome. Second, unique profiles of infectious complications following CBT have been reported, such as higher incidences of early bacterial infections and HHV-6 encephalitis, as compared to those following bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) transplants. Third, the incidence of disease relapse was comparable to those following BM/PB transplants. Novel pre-transplant conditioning regimens using intravenous busulfan have been investigated with promising results being obtained to date. A recent analysis of Japanese transplant registry data revealed similar survival following CBT to HLA-matched unrelated BM/PB transplants. PMID:27263776

  15. On Earthquake Prediction in Japan

    PubMed Central

    UYEDA, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  16. Public pension reform in Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, L

    2000-01-01

    The March 2000 pension reform in Japan focused on the long-term financial sustainability of the country's two-tiered public pension system. The government opted for incremental changes in order to maintain pension solvency through 2060. Those changes could reduce future pension funding liability by an estimated one-third. Further, the decision to avoid structural reforms of its pension programs was based on fiscal considerations. Expanding general revenue funding for the first tier from the current share of one-third to cover the entire cost would require increases in the consumption tax that proved to be politically unacceptable. Fully privatizing the second, earnings-related tier would entail transition costs too great to bear at a time of rising budget deficits. In addition, the Japanese public generally supported the sharing of financial burden for public pension programs through a combination of benefit cuts, a raise in the pensionable age, and contribution rate increases. If current cost projections prove to be inaccurate, future pension reviews (scheduled every 5 years) will give the government further opportunity to fine-tune program changes.

  17. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  18. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Historical changes in diabetes therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K; Akanuma, Y

    1994-10-01

    The origins of many aspects of ancient Japanese culture lie in knowledge brought from China, and medicine was no exception. Subsequently, however, in the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced Western medicine to Japan along with Christianity. They were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century, who introduced Western culture while carrying on commerce at their Dejima outpost in Nagasaki. This was called the Dutch school in Japan, and although there was thus contact with Western culture and the Japanese eagerly studied Western medicine, it was not until after the establishment of the Meiji Reform government in the middle of the 19th century that there was aggressive incorporation and acceptance of modern Western medicine in Japan. The University of Tokyo was the first university in Japan. Preserved in the library of the Third Department of Internal Medicine are old records of hospitalized cases in Japan, and those documents form the basis of this review of the history of the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Japan.

  20. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  1. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  2. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  3. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  4. Challenges and solutions ensuring EUVL photomask integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brux, O.; Dreß, P.; Schmalfuß, H.; Jonckheere, R.; Koolen-Hermkens, W.

    2012-06-01

    Industry roadmaps indicate that the introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is on track for high volume manufacturing. Although, there has been significant progress in each of the individual subsets of the EUVL infrastructure, the absolute management of the process outside of the scanner and up to the point-of-exposure has been highlighted as critical requirement for the adoption of EUVL. Significant changes in the EUV system environment and mask architecture are driving a zero process tolerance level. Any unforeseen contamination introduced to the scanner environment from the EUV mask could cause considerable downtime and yield loss. Absolute mask integrity at the point-of-exposure must be guaranteed. EUV mask cleaning processes-of-record have been developed and introduced to the industry [1]. The issue is not longer "how to clean the mask" but, "how to keep it clean". With the introduction of EUVL, mask cleanliness extends out beyond the traditional mask cleaning tool. Complete control of contamination and/or particles during transportation, handling and storage will require a holistic approach to mask management. A new environment specifically for EUV mask integrity must be developed and fully tested for the sub 16nm half-pitch node introduction. The SUSS MaskTrack Pro (MTP) InSync was introduced as the solution for EUV mask integrity. SUSS demonstrated the fully automated handling of EUV masks into and out of a Dual Pod System [2]. Intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner pod (EIP) and EUV mask inside the MTP InSync Tool was investigated and reported. A target specification of a PRP <= 0.08 as criterion for the cross contamination between EIP and the EUV reticle during handling within MTP InSync has been achieved and therefore proofing the applicability for the Dual Pod automation. Moreover an appropriate automated handling, other aspects like backside particle contamination and EIP cleanliness plays a significant role to ensure EUV mask integrity. With this concept in mind a system for particle detection has been integrated into MTP InSync. This allows verifying the POR performance for backside cleaning by measuring particles down to 150nm size. A dynamic capture rate of larger 97% at 200nm particle size based on PSLs was achieved; for EIP cleaning, a dry-cleaning technology is under investigation. During feasibility studies high particle removal efficiency (PRE) results larger 99% has been achieved for particles down to 100nm. In this paper, the full scope and roadmap of the MTP InSync will be discussed. Preliminary results of backside particle detection and challenges on EUV Inner Pod (EIP) cleaning will be presented.

  5. History Teaching--Japan and the Russian Federation (Tokyo, Japan, October 25-27, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The Tokyo (Japan) October 2000 meeting of experts on History Teaching in Japan and the Russian Federation was organized by the International Society for Educational Information (ISEI) and the Council of Europe. This was the second meeting, following the initial 1999 St. Petersburg (Russia) meeting conducted to increase mutual understanding in the…

  6. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  7. Origins of molecular biology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, M

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the origins of molecular biology in Japan. Japanese molecular biology does not have a long history since it started only after World War II. Especially, molecular genetics which uses "bacteriophage" had hardly been studied before the war and only a few scientists were interested in it immediately after the war. This is one of the origins of molecular biology in Japan. But there are other origins, one of which is the group formed by biologists, biochemists and physicists interested in nucleic acids. This group also started just after the war. Still another origin is the group of enzymologists. Enzymology was one of the main subjects of biochemistry from before the war. In Japan, biochemistry developed in conjunction with the medical and agricultural sciences from the pre-war era. These played an important role in introducing molecular biology from Europe and the United States after the war. A historical study of the development of molecular biology in Japan, comparing it with the history of molecular biology in Europe and the United States, should contribute to the elucidation of the features of the history of molecular biology in Japan.

  8. Current trends in rehabilitation engineering in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohnabe, Hisaichi

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the elderly generation comprised 20% of the Japanese population. This percentage will grow to approximately 30% in 2030, meaning that nearly one in three people in Japan will be 65 years of age or older. Japan is the first nation in the world to face this situation. This article uses the context of Japanese society to give an overview of the elderly and people with disabilities; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model; rehabilitation engineering-related policy; and education. In addition, we examine how governmental programs and Japanese law regarding technical aids may evolve by 2030. Partner robots, intelligent powered wheelchairs, nursing robots, and other technologies are introduced as examples of rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology. We also discuss the volunteer activities of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of Japan (RESJA) in response to the Asian tsunami disaster and the achievements of a group of students from a Japanese senior high school of industry.

  9. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Takateru

    2002-03-01

    In Japan, the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has only recently come to be used as it is in Western countries, especially with respect to its classification as a tobacco-related disease. The disease, COPD, did not appear in Japanese government statistics until 1995. The main reason for the nearly 20-year lag behind the West in recognizing this disease was the small number of COPD cases caused by smoking. Cigarette consumption in Japan increased with the increase in personal income that accompanied rapid ecomomic growth from 1955 to 1974. Since approximately 1980, the number of deaths caused by COPD (emphysema) started increasing. Although cigarette consumption stopped increasing after 1995, COPD (emphysema) mortality is still increasing as a repercussion of the earlier increases of cigarette consumption. However, the number of COPD patients and the scale of medical expenditure for COPD in Japan is somewhat smaller than in Western countries.

  11. Patients' rights in Japan: progress and resistance.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, I

    1994-12-01

    The discussion of patients' rights in Japan began in 1968 when a surgeon was accused of violating a potential organ donor's right to life by arbitrarily employing brain-based criteria in the determination of his death. A proliferation of documents that articulate and endorse patients' rights occurred in the 1980s and early 1990s. The doctrine of informed consent, which has been a central aspect of the movement toward patients' rights, is increasingly recognized in Japan, although importance rarely has been attached to the element of the patient's "appreciation" of the information disclosed by the physician, much less to the "voluntariness" of the patient's decision. Nevertheless, recent court decisions indicate progress both in the acceptance and the understanding of the doctrine in Japan. PMID:10138752

  12. Patients' rights in Japan: progress and resistance.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, I

    1994-12-01

    The discussion of patients' rights in Japan began in 1968 when a surgeon was accused of violating a potential organ donor's right to life by arbitrarily employing brain-based criteria in the determination of his death. A proliferation of documents that articulate and endorse patients' rights occurred in the 1980s and early 1990s. The doctrine of informed consent, which has been a central aspect of the movement toward patients' rights, is increasingly recognized in Japan, although importance rarely has been attached to the element of the patient's "appreciation" of the information disclosed by the physician, much less to the "voluntariness" of the patient's decision. Nevertheless, recent court decisions indicate progress both in the acceptance and the understanding of the doctrine in Japan.

  13. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao; Nakajima, Akira; Taya, Sadao

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  14. Tobacco control: recent movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asukai, Yumiko; Torii, Yoichi; Chikamoto, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco control in Japan has not kept pace with the rest of the global community in the past several decades. Although recent movements in Japan suggest that some changes will occur, most of the initiatives are still circumspect at best. The motivations driving most of these changes come from concern for morals about obeying the law and propriety of consideration for nonsmokers in public places, rather than for health. Moreover, the complicated relationship between the government and the tobacco industry, as well as between the two ministries that oversee the industry, may act as obstacles to any real comprehensive tobacco control. PMID:15675541

  15. Tobacco control: recent movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asukai, Yumiko; Torii, Yoichi; Chikamoto, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco control in Japan has not kept pace with the rest of the global community in the past several decades. Although recent movements in Japan suggest that some changes will occur, most of the initiatives are still circumspect at best. The motivations driving most of these changes come from concern for morals about obeying the law and propriety of consideration for nonsmokers in public places, rather than for health. Moreover, the complicated relationship between the government and the tobacco industry, as well as between the two ministries that oversee the industry, may act as obstacles to any real comprehensive tobacco control.

  16. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  17. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  18. Stepping into Elementary Schools in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the 1997 Keizai Koho Center Fellowship study tour of Japan in which a group of American, Australian, Canadian, and English educators visited two Japanese elementary schools. Compares the structure, classroom activities, and curriculum of each elementary school in detail and reflects upon the future trends in Japanese education. (CMK)

  19. Ideas for Teaching about Japan in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokon, Elizabeth

    This curriculum unit consists of a series of lesson plans focused on Japan for preschool students ages 3 to 5 years. The unit has five themes: (1) geography; (2) language; (3) people and clothing; (4) customs; and (5) food. Each theme has from four to eight activity lessons which address different developmental domains, including language, social…

  20. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

  1. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  2. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about Japan at the secondary level. The activities are self-contained and each consists of a short description, followed by a five-item true or false test and five open-ended questions for student practice. The learning activities are followed by a…

  3. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

  4. Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    RAYMO, JAMES M.; IWASAWA, MIHO; BUMPASS, LARRY

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  5. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  6. [Historical research on cinchona cultivation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Cinchona is one of the most important medicinal plants as it contains quinine, a potent medicine for malaria. In this review, I reveal the history of cinchona introduction and cultivation in Japan. Cinchona was first introduced to Japan in 1876 from Java based on the proposal submitted by Takeaki Enomoto to the Meiji government. However, the cultivation attempt ended in failure. Later in 1922, Hoshi Pharmaceutical Co. succeeded for the first time in cultivating cinchona in Taiwan, which was then under Japanese colonial rule, and in manufacturing quinine from the cinchona tree in 1934. This was a historic feat in Japan, completing an entire process from cinchona cultivation to quinine manufacture all within the confines of the country. To commemorate this undertaking, the company dedicated a cinchona log harvested for the first time to the Imperial court. It was revealed that a log of unknown origin, which had been left untouched for years at Hoshi University, was the cinchona log from the time of commemoration. Yasusada Tashiro (1856-1928), who has made a great contribution to cinchona cultivation in Japan for over 50 years, led Hoshi Pharmaceutical Co. to success in cultivation.

  7. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  8. Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

  9. Teaching about Japan. ERIC Digest No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This is an age of ascendency of the Pacific Rim area, especially the Asian sector. Recent decades have seen unprecedented economic growth throughout this area. By examining Japan, the region's pre-eminent nation and harbinger of future developments, the larger topic of the Pacific Rim can be explored. It is particularly important to teach about…

  10. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  11. Recent Developments in Japan's Lifelong Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makino, Atsushi

    In the wake of economic and social change in Japan, several lifelong learning initiatives have been implemented. Structural changes such as internationalization, the coming of the information age, and the maturation of Japanese society caused the formerly homogeneous society to become more flexible, paving the way for lifelong learning. Additional…

  12. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    JAPAN HAD AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF 97,000,000 IN 1964. BECAUSE LESS THAN 40 PERCENT OF THE LAND IS ARABLE AND MINERAL WEALTH IS SMALL, IMPORTING FOODSTUFFS AND RAW MATERIALS IS NECESSARY. LARGE-SCALE CAPITALIZED FIRMS AND SMALL HANDICRAFT WORKSHOPS PRODUCE CONSUMER GOODS. THE NATION'S ECONOMY IS BASED UPON FOREIGN TRADE. THE FIRST 9 YEARS OF…

  13. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  14. Teaching English in Japan: A Professional Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Dale

    This collection of columns on teaching English as a Second Language in Japan appeared on the English education page of a Japanese English-language newspaper over a period of almost 4 years. Article topics include these: principles of second language learning; differences between language skills; standards of usage; avoiding stereotypes; school…

  15. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  16. Teacher Cognition in Corrective Feedback in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative data, the current study explored how the knowledge and beliefs of two EFL professionals shaped their corrective feedback practices. The two teachers teaching in Japan had in common two main agendas that they kept in mind as they provided or opted not to provide corrective feedback. They aimed to teach the language and to…

  17. Japan Sets the Pace in Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    1983-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) public television network are responsible for the instructional broadcasting that has penetrated Japan's classrooms at all levels. Implications for American television include stronger federal support for public television and the possible development of a national…

  18. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  19. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  20. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  1. Child Welfare Services in Japan: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, Cecelia

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of the child (and family) welfare services in Japan which include health and fitness facilities, a children's allowance program, maternal and child health services, day care, facilities and services for children with special needs, and single parent family allowances. (BB)

  2. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  3. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  4. Transition from School to Work in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genda, Yuji; Kurosawa, Masako

    Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, a study found that initial labor market conditions (i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school) have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at…

  5. Career Counseling in Japan: Today and in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuno, Ryoji

    2002-01-01

    The number of young people who postpone their career decision is increasing in Japan, as is the high unemployment rate. This article examines some problems in Japan's career counseling, compared with career counseling in the U.S., and discusses which course Japan's career counseling should take to cope with dramatic social changes. (GCP)

  6. What American Students Want to Know about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Betty; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents and discusses five sample topics out of 25 covered in the booklet entitled "What I Want to Know about Japan." The booklet was published by the Japan Information Center in New York in response to a survey of Japan-related knowledge of seventh grade students throughout the United States. Questions focus on houses, teenagers, marriage,…

  7. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  8. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  9. Differences between Japan and the United States in dosages of drugs recently approved in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kae; Narukawa, Mamoru; Kanazu, Yoshiko; Takeuchi, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The internationalization of clinical and regulatory guidelines and disease treatment and the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry have led drug development strategies in Japan to shift from bridging studies to multinational trials. However, the current standard for adequate dose-finding processes may sometimes complicate the timely participation of Japan in these multinational trials. The objective of this study is to investigate different factors that might influence dosage selection in Japan. Approved drug dosages in Japan and the United States during the period 2003-2008 were compared and assessed across different therapeutic areas and approval timings. Factors such as company type and daily dosage indication were demonstrated to have a statistically significant relationship with different dosages in Japan and the United States. Anticancer, antiviral, and enzyme drugs showed similar dosages in the 2 regions, whereas neurological drugs were observed to undergo more careful dosage-finding processes, resulting in the approval of generally lower doses in Japan. A broader analysis is needed for detailed assessment. The findings in this study serve as an initial review to identify important factors that should be considered before planning global drug development.

  10. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... future work. Event Scenario On March 11, 2011, an earthquake and tsunami hit Japan and led to a series of... International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

  11. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, Tatsuo

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  12. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  13. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  14. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture.

  15. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture. PMID:27480012

  16. History of public health crises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomoaki; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    In Japan, a number of serious public health crises involving environmental pollution, food-borne diseases, and health hazards due to pharmaceuticals (i.e., "Yakugai") have occurred in the past 50 years. Based on the literature, we summarize the initial investigations and the subsequent measures. Some common points emerge: (1) prolonged cause identification, (2) lack of countermeasures after the cause was identified, and (3) discrimination against victims and they contributed to spreading the damage. We identify lack of corporate ethics and ill-timed disclosure of information as the principal problems in Japan's crisis-management systems. Defects in information gathering were common to all of the cases, thus we suggest necessary corrective measures, such as the establishment of a new reporting system for health hazard-related information.

  17. Viewpoint of Science Council of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Syunsuke

    The Science Council of Japan (SCJ) is an academic body that represents Japanese 700,000 scientists. The activity of SCJ is changing rapidly, in which the science associated with society is increasingly important. In this context, the engineering education for ethics is treated at SCJ. The importance of engineering ethics was first recognized at the 5th division of 17th term (1999-2001) of SCJ, in which education for engineering ethics based on the analysis of ethical problems occurred in Japan is recommended and it asked the engineering societies to establish the code of ethics. Following this proposal, SCJ founded a committee to treat the problem at 18th and 19th terms. The committee proposed a procedure to prevent misconduct associated with scientific activities and the importance of education of science and engineering ethics especially for young students at tertiary education.

  18. Aspects of river ice hydrology in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Makoto; Shen, Hung Tao

    2002-03-01

    Rivers in northern Japan are subjected to ice formation each winter. They are typically very steep with rapid changes in channel slope. As a result, ice covers are usually discontinuous with open water sections. Winter discharges in Japanese rivers are usually very small. Water temperature and ice production in these streams are very sensitive to the change in air temperature. The open water sections enable the formation of frazil and anchor ice during the winter. Owing to the relatively stable winter weather and heavy snow cover, premature break-up and ice jams rarely occur, even though the channel geometry of these rivers is favourable for their occurrence. In this paper, hydrometeorological factors related to ice-cover formation, frazil and anchor-ice development, and ice-jam formation, as well as measurements of the undercover discharge in rivers in northern Japan are discussed.

  19. History of public health crises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomoaki; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    In Japan, a number of serious public health crises involving environmental pollution, food-borne diseases, and health hazards due to pharmaceuticals (i.e., "Yakugai") have occurred in the past 50 years. Based on the literature, we summarize the initial investigations and the subsequent measures. Some common points emerge: (1) prolonged cause identification, (2) lack of countermeasures after the cause was identified, and (3) discrimination against victims and they contributed to spreading the damage. We identify lack of corporate ethics and ill-timed disclosure of information as the principal problems in Japan's crisis-management systems. Defects in information gathering were common to all of the cases, thus we suggest necessary corrective measures, such as the establishment of a new reporting system for health hazard-related information. PMID:17585323

  20. Fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Saito, Kyoji; Kadomura, Hiroshi; Grossman, Michael

    2001-07-01

    An introduction to fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan is provided for researchers who are unfamiliar with these topics. Studies by Japanese geomorphologists are reviewed including those published only in Japanese-language journals. Emphasis is placed upon the following aspects: (1) abundant sediment yields from steep watersheds subjected to frequent heavy rains despite heavily vegetated conditions, (2) extensive sedimentation in mountain piedmonts and coastal fluvial plains especially during the Holocene, (3) catastrophic hydro-geomorphological events associated with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and (4) the impacts of the increased heavy rainfall during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition on the post glacial development of hillslopes and alluvial fans. These geomorphological characteristics differ from those in continental regions, such as Europe and North America, indicating that research on Japanese fluvial systems can contribute a great deal to the understanding of the global variety of fluvial geomorphology. Recent work on paleohydrological reconstruction in Japan is also reviewed.

  1. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan.

  2. Culture and the environment in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murota, Yasuhiro

    1985-03-01

    This article discusses the environmental problems of Japan from a cultural point of view. The traditional Japanese view of nature differs from that of Western culture. During the 19th century, Japan introduced Western technology to modernize its industries as quickly as possible. Its transition into the modern industrial world was successful but resulted in serious problems. One of these was the rapid destruction of the natural environment; another, the feeling of homelessness that the Japanese people experienced in their newly Westernized surroundings. The Japanese people have now reached the point where they must reevaluate their traditional ideas about nature and their responses to technology. Their solutions to some of the problems that result from industrialization may be useful to Western countries as well.

  3. Current topics in clinical FES in Japan.

    PubMed

    Handa, Y

    1997-12-01

    This paper reviews recent topics of clinical application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the paralyzed extremities in Japan. Transcutaneous and percutaneous FES systems have been clinically used in Japan. Candidates of extremity FES arer mostly stroke and spinal cord injury patients. By using percutaneous FES system, all of the joints of the upper extremity including the shoulder have been controlled for activities of daily living in the hemiplegic patient. Simultaneous FES control of the hand and wrist and the bilateral hands have also been achieved in C5 and C6 quadriplegics, respectively. Hybrid FES systems using percutaneous and surface electrodes, where FES is used in combination with orthoses, have been applied to the paraplegics because they are highly practical for assisting their locomotive activities. Percutaneous FES have been also provided the amyotropic lateral sclerosis patients with standing up motion. A total implant FES system with 16 output channels is currently developing as a next generation FES system.

  4. The state of telepathology in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

  5. The state of telepathology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

    2010-08-10

    Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation.

  6. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  7. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  8. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-06-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  9. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  10. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014.

    PubMed

    Quam, Mikkel B; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-02-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come.

  11. Recent trends in bagassosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, A; Aoyama, K; Ueda, T; Obama, K; Ueno, T; Hokama, S; Nomura, S

    1992-07-01

    The only workers presently exposed to bagasse dust in Japan are the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories. A follow up study of six former cases of bagassosis from among the retired employees of a paper board factory, closed since 1973, showed that none of the subjects still had bagassosis. Examinations of 70 employees of a sugar refinery for allergic reactions also showed no case of bagassosis. Seven cases with suspicious shadows of bagassosis on chest radiographs and four cases with positive serum precipitin to stored bagasse were, however, found among those 70 subjects. The results show the disappearance of a past episode of bagassosis and the possibility of a new occurrence of bagassosis among the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories in the near future in Japan.

  12. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  13. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  14. Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Norio

    2011-10-01

    Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive, they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness (<0.001%, 198/20.7 million) in the H1N1/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A study of 1,000 children hospitalized because of a H1N1/09 infection revealed that NAIs, primarily oseltamivir, had been used to treat 984 (98.4%) of the 1,000 patients. In 88.9% of the patients, treatment with NAIs was initiated within 48 h after the onset of illness. In addition to oseltamivir and zanamivir, the newly approved inhalant drug, laninamivir, and the newly approved intravenous drug, peramivir, were used in Japan during the 2010-2011 season. Neuropsychiatric disorders that were suspected of being adverse reactions to oseltamivir became a cause of concern in 2007. The Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry issued an emergency instruction to suspend the use of oseltamivir to treat patients between the ages of 10 and 19 years. However, according to the Vital Statistics data, the widespread use of oseltamivir has not caused an increase in deaths as a result of accidental falls or intentional jumps from buildings. Although oseltamivir is widely used in Japan, no outbreaks have been caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses, and no serious illness caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses has ever been reported.

  15. Energy R and D in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-08-09

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  16. [The surgical subspecialty board in Japan].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Akira

    2003-11-01

    This article deals with a 7-year endeavor to reform the board certification system of surgical specialty and subspecialty, outlining of 29 meetings of the surgical subspecialty board in Japan. The surgical societies are responsible to constantly improve the quality of the surgical training programs and qualification systems so that the board certified surgeons are accepted and treated as true surgical specialists in this country.

  17. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1995].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K

    1997-01-01

    Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1995 are analyzed using official data. Data are included on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965-1995; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1995; marriages and marriage rates by age; first marriages and remarriages; total, first, and remarriage rates, 1980-1995; divorces by nationality of husband and wife, 1965-1995; and divorces and divorce rates by age.

  18. Foreign workers recruiting policies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1996-01-01

    "This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration."

  19. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  20. Expectations high in Japan for ICPD.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    The Japan Population Conference symposium to mark World Population Day was held in Tokyo on July 14, 1994, before the UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. The majority of the over 300 members of the audience were women. The event concluded with a set of recommendations for the ICPD entitled the Tokyo Appeal. The symposium was organized by the Council on Population Education and JOICFP. Takeo Fukuda, former prime minister of Japan and president of JOICFP, delivered the opening address. He noted the significance of population, environment, and development, and commented that the ICPD will determine the plan of action for the next 20 years. A leadership role for Japan in efforts to solve population issues was strongly urged by Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director, UNFPA. Japan can not only provide financial support, but can share its experiences in population and family planning (FP). Norio Hattori, of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, outlined the Global Issues Initiative (GII), explaining that the Japanese government has committed a total of US $3 billion over the next 7 years for population and AIDS. The health of women and children, primary health care, education programs for the illiterate, and the empowerment of women will benefit under the GII. The importance of an approach that balances the micro and macro views of population issues was stressed by Yoichi Okazaki, professor, Nihon University. Akiko Domoto, member of Parliament, hoped that the ICPD would focus on giving women more decision-making power. She hoped the concepts of reproductive rights and health would be broadened after the ICPD. Yoriko Meguro, professor, Sophia University, reminded the audience that the 4th World Conference on Women will be held in Beijing in 1995. The effectiveness of NGOs in population activities was emphasized by Akihiko Yoshida, professor, Sanno Junior College.

  1. [Labor analgesia in the US and Japan].

    PubMed

    Morishima, Hisayo O

    2007-09-01

    Obstetric anesthesia has made significant progress over the last 50 years. It is one of the major subspecialties in anesthesia in US. Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) was founded in 1968. According to its SCORE project on the practice of obstetric anesthesia, 82.4% of all parturients received some form of anesthesia for cesarean section or labor analgesia. Epidural analgesia was the most common form of labor analgesia (65%), followed by CSEA. This high percentage of anesthesia care for parturients mandates the presence of obstetric anesthesiologists at labor and delivery suites in major hospitals in US. The Japanese Society of Obstetrics and Anesthesia, formerly "Mutsu-bunben Kenkyukai", now called "Bunben to Masui Kenkyukai", was founded in Japan at about the same time as SOAP. Despite its long history, obstetric anesthesia is yet to be a major subspecialty in Japan. It is encouraging, however, that the number of attendants in obstetric anesthesia sessions in JSA seems increasing. SOAP has played an important role in the education and progress of obstetric anesthesia in US. I hope that the joint symposium of SOAP, Bunben to Masui Kenkyukai, and JSA at 39th SOAP annual meeting will facilitate the progress of obstetric anesthesia in Japan.

  2. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  3. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  4. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  5. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  6. [The institutionalization of bacteriology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoko, Yokota

    2009-01-01

    Within the history of public health in Japan, Shibasaburo Kitasato is widely known for introducing bacteriology to Japan in the Meiji. This paper looks into the factors behind the success of the Institute of Infectious Diseases(IID), which Kitasato headed, focusing specifically on Kitasato's strategy, institutional rivalries in the medical world and early development in the field of bacteriology. Kitasato used IID to spread bacteriology through a bacteriology training course and the publication of a professional journal, both modeled on the German system, which Kitasato absorbed during his previous studies in Germany under Robert Koch, who was one of the founders of bacteriological science. At the time, doctors related to the university system and those related to sanitary administration competed for leadership in the medical world in Japan. The latter had pushed for IID to be established, and the outbreak of plague in 1899 gave them the opportunity to successfully lobby the Diet into passing legislation that enlarged enrollment in the bacteriology course and earmarked money specifically to IID. In the late 19th century, the application of knowledge from the nascent field of bacteriology led to major advances in the fight against infectious diseases, which led to rapid accumulation of knowledge about bacteria, in turn. Thus, Kitasato emphasized that bacteriology should be mission-oriented and based in sanitary administrations. Indeed, as sanitary administrations were on the frontline of the battle against infectious diseases and as IID laboratories were connected to the sanitary administrations, IID succeeded in dominating the field of bacteriology.

  7. The present status of hyperthermia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, T

    1996-05-01

    The research on hyperthermia in Japan was started by the Hyperthermia Study Group in 1978. Six years later, in 1984, the Japanese Society of Hyperthermic Oncology (JSHO) was established. More and more research has been conducted since then. At present, 215 units of heating equipment are installed for use. Among these, 24% are microwave heating equipment, and 66% are radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating equipment. A nation-wide survey has revealed that about 60% of hyperthermia therapy involves the treatment of deep-seated tumours by RF capacitive heating and RF intracavitary heating. The treatment of superficial tumours by microwave heating represents another 12.5%. Most of the clinical application in the United States and in Europe is microwave heating of superficial tumours. The different modalities of treatment were thermoradiotherapy in 57.5%, thermochemotherapy in 22.6% and thermochemoradiotherapy in 14.5% of the cases surveyed. Compared to other countries, Japan has the highest number of hyperthermia equipment installed, and the most doctors involved in hyperthermia therapy. The main reasons for the advanced state of hyperthermia research in Japan include the development of excellent heating equipment, high membership in JSHO, grant-in-aid by the Japanese government, and coverage by insurance for this form of therapy. Based on 33 papers selected from two books which the author had edited, the optimal protocol, effectiveness and indication for the use of hyperthermia has been established.

  8. Current affairs in earthquake prediction in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2015-12-01

    As of mid-2014, the main organizations of the earthquake (EQ hereafter) prediction program, including the Seismological Society of Japan (SSJ), the MEXT Headquarters for EQ Research Promotion, hold the official position that they neither can nor want to make any short-term prediction. It is an extraordinary stance of responsible authorities when the nation, after the devastating 2011 M9 Tohoku EQ, most urgently needs whatever information that may exist on forthcoming EQs. Japan's national project for EQ prediction started in 1965, but it has made no success. The main reason for no success is the failure to capture precursors. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this stance has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. This paper tries to explain how this situation came about and suggest that it may in fact be a legitimate one which should have come a long time ago. Actually, substantial positive changes are taking place now. Some promising signs are arising even from cooperation of researchers with private sectors and there is a move to establish an "EQ Prediction Society of Japan". From now on, maintaining the high scientific standards in EQ prediction will be of crucial importance.

  9. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  10. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  11. Japan sets up program for biological research

    SciTech Connect

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-05-16

    Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

  12. Japan shows how to save the children.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, E

    1987-11-01

    In 1950, Japan's infant mortality rate was 60.1/1000 live births, its perinatal mortality rate was 46.6/1000 live births, and its maternal mortality rate 176.1/100,000 live births. In 1986, the infant mortality rate was 5.2, the perinatal mortality rate was 7.3/100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 11.7/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate can be lowered further by reducing the incidence of hypoxia, asphyxia, and respiratory disorders through imoproved perinatal monitoring and a health care system. Factors which contribute to Japan's low infant mortality include 1) early prenatal care, 2) few unmarried mothers (In 1982, they were .9% of the total number of mothers.), 3) favorable age of mothers (Most are between ages 20 and 34.), 4) few adolescent mothers (In 1985, they constituted 1.3% of all mothers.), 5) competent medical attention (In 1985, 99.8% of all deliveries were in hospitals or private clinics.), 6) a week's stay in the hospital for the mother and child, and 7) use of the Maternal and Child Health handbook. The handbook is a detailed medical record of every child born in Japan, from the time it is conceived until it becomes 6 years old. 1st issued in 1942, the handbook has created a foundation for maternal and child health, stimulating and increasing pregnant women's awareness of the value of the health check-up.

  13. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  14. Survey of ceramic machining in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.; Blau, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

  15. The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, K.

    1995-12-31

    Theodore Panayotou found an interesting relationship between {open_quotes}the economic development and environmental (degradation): environmental degradation rises at first and then falls in the course of economic development.{close_quotes}. This relationship resembles the Simon Kuznets hypothesis that {open_quotes}in a course of economic development income disparities rise at first and then begin to fall. This inverted U-shape relationship between income in- equality and income per capita, . . . , came to be known as the Kuznets curve.{close_quotes} Panayotou therefore named his finding above as the Environmental Kuznets Curve ({open_quotes}EKC{close_quotes}). In fact, Panayotou and others tested the EKC against various developing and developed countries and confirmed such an inverse relationship between income growth and environmental degradation existed. Also Panayotou suggested that the critical level of income per capita at which the environmental degradation started to slow down was US$800- 5,500. In this short paper, without using sophisticated statistical techniques, I am going to test the EKC hypothesis against Japan and see if the EKC hypothesis applies to Japan and also if the US$ 800-5,500 per capita figure holds true with Japan.

  16. Towards the Realization of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiromichi; Komaki, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The recent change of the geodetic reference system of Japan from the Tokyo Datum to the Japanese geodetic Datum 2000 (JGD2000) is an ongoing process to keep the system precise and up-to-date for the various demands of modern society. In the rapidly changing archipelago over tectonic plate converging zones and with the advent of an information society, future directions of the national geodetic reference system require special thought. A combination of GPS and information technology is now leading to the emergence of a Location Base Service (LBS) where positional information plays a key role to relate real space to cyberspace, opening up a geo-information society. Although the basic role of the geodetic reference system to control precise coodinates for surveying never change, a new role to support precise, real-time positioning should be developed. In addition, incessant crustal deformation in Japan should be properly handled by a semi-dynamic correction system for precise surveys with GPS. This paper presents a future design of the national geodetic reference system, introducing the concept of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan). Through the partnership of local governments and the private sector, GSI will start the process of realizing the concept of GRID-Japan in the next ten years.

  17. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges.

  18. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  19. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  20. Diversity of clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Haghighi, Ali

    2006-02-01

    In Japan, amebiasis is domestically transmitted by two major populations: male homosexuals and mentally handicapped persons, which is remarkably different from most other developed countries where Entamoeba dispar infection is predominantly observed. Here we briefly summarize epidemiology of amebiasis in Japan. We also review our current understanding of the diversity of Entamoeba histolytica clinical isolates in Japan, based on polymorphic genetic markers, clinical representations, and in vivo virulence, using an animal model.

  1. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan.

  2. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  3. Robotics Technology In Japan And Its Impact On Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1984-08-01

    Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.

  4. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  5. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.

  6. Knowledge-based systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

  7. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  8. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises.

  9. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people.

  10. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  11. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

  12. Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kawasumi, Hirosi

    1950-01-01

    In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

  13. Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

  14. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population.

  15. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  16. Lesson Plans for a Secondary Level Unit on Japan To Accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Elizabeth P.; And Others

    These 30 lesson plans were designed to accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook", a collection of class activities, primary source selections, student readings, and role-play exercises. The lesson plans are based primarily on materials in the workbook, although materials from other sources also are recommended. Some of the lesson titles…

  17. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship.

  18. Picturing Life in Japan. For Students in Grades Three through Five. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    This manual provides accurate, up-to-date information about contemporary life in Japan and provides opportunities for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The content of the lessons includes concepts traditionally taught in elementary school social studies programs. Lessons provide multiple opportunities for students to develop a variety…

  19. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  20. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-02-27

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R&D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''.

  1. Smoking rates among schizophrenia patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yasuko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Yano, Eiji

    2011-04-30

    According to the meta-analysis performed by de Leon and Diaz, the smoking rate was higher among schizophrenia patients than in the general population with the exception of the populations of Japan and Colombia. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the association between schizophrenia and smoking among Japanese schizophrenia patients using objective measures. The sample comprised 172 schizophrenia inpatients (mean age: 54years; 55% male). Participants were asked by a psychiatrist whether they currently smoked, and their answers were confirmed by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and a measurement of the carbon monoxide level in expired air. Data on 7496 Japanese people obtained from the national survey of health were used as the control group. Seventy schizophrenia patients (40.7%) were identified as smokers; the smoking rate was higher among men in their 50s (66.7%) and among women in their 40s (54.6%). The smoking rate was 24.2% in the control group, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this percentage was significantly higher in the schizophrenia than in the control group (odds ratio: 2.17), adjusting for sex and age. The association between smoking rate and schizophrenia is consistent across countries, including Japan.

  2. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  3. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  4. Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2010-07-01

    Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

  5. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  6. Historical review of BCG vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Saburo; Yamamoto, Toshiko

    2007-11-01

    Bacillus Calmette and Guérin (BCG) was introduced to Japan in 1924 by Kiyoshi Shiga and has been propagated for research purposes ever since propagation is accomplished using a glycerin-bile-potato mixture in the same manner used by Calmette and Guérin. To prepare a stable and safe freeze-dried BCG vaccine, several joint research projects were organized in 1949. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (formerly the National Institute of Health), the 172nd passage of BCG from the first culture was freeze-dried in 1961 and was used as the origin of the Japanese BCG strain, Tokyo-172. The Tokyo-172 was registered as an International Reference Strain in 1965 by the World Health Organization. In 1967, a multiple puncture method for BCG vaccination using a plastic cylinder implanted with nine fine needles at one end was introduced to Japan; thereafter, percutaneous administration replaced intradermal injection. The efficacy and adverse reactions of BCG vaccines as well as recent knowledge on the genetic characterization of BCG is also discussed.

  7. Trend of motorcycle engine valves in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kiriyama, M.; Sasakura, T.

    1997-12-31

    Production of motorcycles in Japan has greatly decreased after peaking in 1981. However, as a result of an increase in local production, mainly in Asian nations, the production of sets, often called Knock Down (KD) sets, has been increasing. These sets are a shipment of parts that are ready for assembly in the importing country. In this area, motorcycle manufacturers are trying to improve performance and decrease noise and pollution. This report will outline the trends in motorcycle engine valves and the changes that have occurred with respect to valve materials, valve design specifications, and valve manufacturing processes, as experienced by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. over the past 15 years. Motorcycles are used in various ways. They are used for transportation, sport, leisure, and hobby. Therefore, the forms and specifications of their bodies and engines are quite varied. The production of motorcycles in Japan has sharply decreased from an era of peak production in 1981 and in recent years, has remained low at around 3 million motorcycles per year. As a result, each motorcycle manufacturer has been promoting the local production in each country, and the production of KD sets is rapidly increasing today. The motorcycle and parts manufacturers are working on employing new technologies for anti-pollution measures, improving performance, decreasing noise, and better safety measures. With this in mind, the technological trends of Japanese engine valves being manufactured by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. will be reported.

  8. [Descriptive epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Yamaura, Y

    1992-02-01

    The Incidence of mushroom poisoning was surveyed statistically from 1959 to 1988 in Japan. The results are summarized as follows: 1. During the past three decades, the total number of incidents of mushroom poisoning was 2,096, which involved 10,924 patients and 72 deaths. The average number of incidents was 70 cases per year, involving 364 patients and 2.4 deaths, and the number of incidents decreased gradually every year. Mushroom poisoning usually happened most frequently in September and October. 2. Considering regional differences, the incidence of mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan than in the southwestern part. The incidences of mushroom poisoning in the prefectures of Nagano, Hokkaido, Niigata, Iwate and Fukushima were relatively high. 3. Three species of mushrooms, L. japonicus, R. rhodopolius (R. sinuatus) and T. ustale caused the majority of all poisonings. 4. The rates of total patients and fatalities for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to the symptoms caused, were 90.3% and 10.7% in the type with cholera-like symptoms, 90.2% and 0.2% in that with gastro-intestinal irritation, and 74.1% and 0% in that with neurological symptoms, respectively. PMID:1556831

  9. Management of HBV infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masahito; Okanoue, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is usually transmitted from mother to infant, and genotype C is prevalent in Japan. Because of these features, guidelines for HBV treatment from other countries are not directly adaptable to Japanese patients. Age is an important factor in deciding the treatment strategy, because many vertically transmitted HBV carriers naturally show spontaneous remission by the age of 25-30 years. In addition, genotype C is considered more refractory to antiviral therapies than genotypes A and B. Considering these differences, we propose a treatment for HBV in Japanese patients. Although the guidelines indicate who to treat and when therapy should be started, it is unclear for how long patientsshould be treated. This situation arises because current lamivudine and interferon monotherapies are not potent at curing HBV infection. To develop a more efficient treatment, we performed a pilot study of lamivudine/interferon sequential therapy in Japan. The biochemical and virological responses were comparable or superior to lamivudine or interferon monotherapies, and this protocol can be a potent alternative because we can take advantage of both the mild side-effects of lamivudine and finite duration of interferon.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  11. U.S., Japan Approach New Era in Science and Technology Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the status of U.S.-Japan relations regarding science and technology. Describes Japan's science and technology structure. Outlines trends in cooperation and competition for the technology market between the U.S. and Japan. (CW)

  12. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  13. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  14. The Trouble with Foreign Teachers of English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching of English in Japan and problems that can result when U.S. teachers go to Japan to teach English, including negative attitudes of teachers, teachers' inability to adjust to new culture, teachers' lack of commitment to their profession, and insistence of some teachers to do everything their way in classroom. Considers issues of…

  15. Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitsu, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

  16. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  17. In Search of Mutual Understanding: A Classroom Approach to Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Social Studies Development Center.

    An activity book is designed to address problems and oversights in classroom coverage of Japan discovered by the Japan/United States Textbook Study Project. Activities which focus on Japanese religion, language, and geography address two important questions: what immediate application does the textbook study have for classroom teachers and how can…

  18. Japan in the Provincial Educational Curricula of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    This paper presents findings of a study conducted to identify where and how Japan is taught in the Canadian social studies curriculum. Social studies guidelines were obtained from the various provincial ministries of education in Canada and carefully scrutinized for treatment of Japan in the social studies. Findings are presented through a series…

  19. A Historical Review of English in Japan (1600-1880).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the early history of the English language in Japan, from its introduction in the early 17th century through the 20th century, focusing on the role of English in regard to education, nationalism, and modernization. Also discussed is the current status of English instruction in Japan. (16 references) (MDM)

  20. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  1. Overview of Pre-College Science Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oki, Michinori

    The status of pre-college science education in Japan is reviewed and analyzed in this paper from four different perspectives having to do with the impact of the national syllabus and with social problems, teacher problems, and the changes occurring with students. Japan's national syllabus is explained and elements related to its implementation,…

  2. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  3. Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In…

  4. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  5. 63 FR 30254 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-06-03

    .../89 54 FR 16010 A-484-801 04/17/89 54 FR 15243 Japan 731-TA-408 4/10/89 54 FR 16010 A-588-806 04/17/89 54 FR 15244 SUMMARY: The Commission invites comments from the public on whether changed circumstances... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  6. 64 FR 23675 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-03

    ... orders on imports of electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece and Japan (54 FR 15243). The Commission..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  7. Japan and America: A Tale of Two Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Discusses contact between the United States and Japan. Comments that the history of the relationship is a long one that becomes increasingly interdependent. Describes the relationship as characterized by a disparity of power and interest now shifting toward Japan. Emphasizes that changes in the relationship have always depended on the world…

  8. Intercultural Communication: Between Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    This collection of papers on the intercultural communication between the United States and Japan is divided into three sections. The first section, "Introduction to Intercultural Communication," describes the background of the relationship between Japan and the United States, the history of the study of intercultural communication, and some of the…

  9. The Rabbit in the Moon: Folktales from China and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This teaching unit consists of eight folktales from China and Japan, skill-development exercises, and follow-up activities. It is designed for the upper elementary grades (3-6), and is easily adaptable to a broad range of age levels and abilities. It can be used in several curriculum areas, including: (1) social studies on China, Japan or Asia;…

  10. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  11. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  12. Over-Education and Its Opportunity Cost in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucel, Aleksander; Molina, Ivette Fuentes; Raya, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the determinants of over-education in Japan and evaluate its opportunity costs for university graduates. To this end, we use the REFLEX data. Results reveal that over-education level in Japan is high and it brings an important wage penalty for Japanese workers. Large firm and high occupations point toward a…

  13. Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

  14. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," "understanding of other…

  15. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55293). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for...

  16. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  17. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  18. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  19. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  20. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On... December 22, 2010, because ``the domestic parties did not participate in this review.'' (76 FR...

  1. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR 33163... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  2. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer in Japan and China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987-2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

  3. Perceptions of Aging and Disability among College Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nicholas J.; Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Stephens, Emily; Omi, Keita; Kanaoka, Ana; Ishikawa, Ai; Yamanaka, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan launched the Long-term Care Insurance program in 2000, and ratified the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2014. Japan has been taking significant steps to support their elderly population and individuals with disabilities. However, information is lacking on the understanding and opinions of either of…

  4. Japan: The Dilemmas of Success. Headline Series No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pempel, T. J.

    This booklet examines Japan's unparalleled economic achievements and its growing political prominence. Reflecting upon Japan's economic, political, and societal dynamism, the document offers helpful insights into how this nation, nearly devoid of natural resources but blessed with a self-sacrificing, highly skilled, and dedicated work force, has…

  5. Attitudes toward the Homeless: A U.S.-Japan Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzewicz, Tony D.; Takooshian, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Compares attitudes toward the homeless in Japan and the United States through a survey of 268 Japanese and 254 U.S. adults and adolescents interviewed in public places. In Japan, homelessness is seldom discussed, and poverty, which may be as widespread as in the United States, is often not recognized. (SLD)

  6. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  7. A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

  8. The Problem of Japan: Qualitative Studies and International Educational Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews qualitative (historical and ethnographic) studies of education in Japan that advance a general understanding of educational theory and practice. Japan, which is neither an educational paradise nor an examination hell, is the source of much data of value to educational research in the United States. (SLD)

  9. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  10. Atomic and molecular databases in Japan and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako

    2000-11-01

    Atomic and molecular data activities and databases in Japan and Asia are introduced. In China IAPCM has a database on windows95/NT. In Korea KAERI has A+M databases with original engines. In Japan JAERI shows evaluated data as graphs on WWW and NIFS offers numerical A+M databases on WWW. .

  11. Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, M.; Inoue, K.; Kajii, E.

    2001-01-01

    The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture. Key Words: Tohkaku Wada • ethics • philosophy • Buddhism • Zen • Japan PMID:11233381

  12. Introduction of new database reflected tritone algorithm for application in mask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulmeyer, Thomas; Schmalfuss, Heiko; Heumann, Jan; Lang, Michael

    2008-04-01

    At Photomask Japan 2007 the new algorithm of Fast Integrated die-to-die T+R (DDTR) for the views of P90 and P72 for the KLA Tencor TeraScanHR mask inspection system was presented. At the same time a new algorithm for P72 in database tritone mode for reflected light (DBRt) was introduced. Both modes can be used together as one combined inspection to detect pattern and contamination defects on production masks. It was shown that these new algorithms allow for creation of a new inspection strategy with improved throughput and a reduced amount of inspections. Currently an inspection strategy has to cover at first a pattern inspection (normally a combination of die-to-die and additional database inspections) for finding hard defects on a mask and then as second step a contamination inspection (STARlight2 TM). The hard defects have to be repaired and the contaminations can be cleaned. The new inspection strategy allows for detection of all critical hard and contamination defects on a mask with one single combined inspection, enhancing productivity. At BACUS 2007 the first evaluation of this new kind of inspection strategy for manufacturing of masks was described for two production plates of different design. At that time only the database reflected tritone algorithm for the view of P72 was available. The changes in inspection strategy could only go together with a change of view from P90 to P72. With view P72 higher overall sensitivity could be reached and smaller secondary features could be inspected. However, these improvements may not be necessary for all plates and may need more time than a comparable P90 inspection. Today the standard contamination inspection for critical masks is the P90 STARlight2 TM (SL2). To do a time effective parallel combo inspection with DDTR and DBRt the same view has to be used. An extension of the database reflected tritone algorithm to the P90 view is now available. This gives the mask manufacturer the flexibility to change the

  13. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  14. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  16. Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ≥9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

  17. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem.

  18. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

  19. [About mental health outreach services in Japan].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shunichi; Fujieda, Yumiko; Shimizu, Kimiko; Ishibashi, Aya; Eguchi, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Outreach services are very important in community mental health care. There are two types for outreach services. One is mental health activities, such as early intervention and consultation, and the other is intended to prevent recurrence and readmission by supporting the daily living activities of a patient in a community. We have 2.73 psychiatric care beds in hospitals per 1,000 population. So, it is just the beginning in changing from hospital centered psychiatry to community mental health care. Outreach services are being tried in several places in our country. In this essay, we describe mental health outreach services in Japan and we have illustrated vocational rehabilitation and outreach job support in our day treatment program.

  20. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  1. Obscenity and homosexual depiction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Helms, U

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as an historical introduction to the problem of film censorship in Japan, a country which, despite an often liberal sexual history, continues to impose baffling and even irrational censorship standards on both its domestic and imported cinema. However, whereas sexual censorship in the West is often the result of religious dogmatism, Japanese film censorship may in fact revolve around political struggles whose import is not the censoring of offensiveness per se, but is rather authoritarianism's basic yet desperate desire to assert itself in an increasingly liberal political climate. Furthermore, Japanese censorship has had the unique side effect of creating safe spaces of sexual fantasy (for children, for example) that most countries, in what is in fact a greater form of censorship, refuse to create at all.

  2. Online database of archaeomagnetism in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, T.

    2013-12-01

    We are now reconstructing the archaeomagnetic database and the geomagnetic secular variation model for the past 2000 years in Japan. Here we introduce a new online database of archaeomagnetism. There are several thousands of archaeomagnetic data mainly obtained from buried kilns and baked earths. Our goal is collecting and compiling these data and publishing to the geoscientists, the archaeologist, the people involved in education, students and citizens interested in geomagnetism and archaeology. Now we support a search engine of the archaeomagnetic data of direction and intensity, links to the references and sites outside, the site locations on a map and the educational documents (only in Japanese). We have a future plan to provide database improved and secular variation model reduced to given location in the Far East region.

  3. Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide over Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Nakazawa, T.; Aoki, S.

    1983-02-20

    Aircraft measurements of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration over Japan have been initiated in January 1979 at the Upper Atmosphere Research Laboratory of the Tohoku University. An average annual increase of CO/sub 2/ concentration during a period from the beginning to April 1981 is estimated to be 1.5 ppmv/year. Yearly average values for the concentration decrease with increasing height above ground, rapidly in the lowest layer of the tropopsphere, and rather slightly in the layer above it, showing that the ground acts as a CO/sub 2/ source. The amplitude of the seasonal variation decreases markedly with elevation. The maximum occurs early in May and the minimum early in August at low levels. The phase shift of the seasonal variation between the lowestmost and uppermost parts of the troposphere is about 1 month. Relations between irregular variations in CO/sub 2/ concentration and characteristic features of weather systems are discussed.

  4. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamitani, Kanshi; Inomata, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism may cause irreversible intellectual disability or failure to thrive if left untreated. Because this disorder can be prevented by early identification and early treatment, newborn mass screening started in 1979 in Japan. A guideline for mass screening for this disease was prepared in 1998. Currently, approximately 100% of newborns undergo this mass screening. The screening results show significant improvement of the intellectual outcome of patients with this disease, with almost no patients having irreversible intellectual disturbance or failure to thrive. However, there are issues of a delayed increase in thyroid stimulating hormone, management of latent hypothyroidism, and detection of central hypothyroidism. In recent years, as studies on this disease have advanced at the molecular level, many causative genes have been reported, clarification of the etiology, pathology, and clinical features has progressed, and new findings have been obtained. PMID:23330249

  5. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

  6. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  7. A perspective on space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  8. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  9. Native fruit tree genetic resources in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of climate, from subarctic to subtropical, and the complex geological history of Japan have produced a rich biodiversity. The flora includes several hundred species of native woody plants with edible fleshy fruits or nuts. People have eaten them from prehistoric times until about a half century ago. In Hokkaidō and the Ryūkyū Islands nut species had an important role in the diet, but fleshy fruits were also eaten until recently. Only Castanea crenata and a few minor species became domesticated as edible fruit trees in pre-modern times. Recently, Vitis coignetiae, Lonicera caerulea, Akebia quinata, Akebia trifoliata, Stauntonia hexaphylla, and Actinidia arguta have entered small-scale cultivation. The conservation of the germplasm of many of these native species, both in situ and ex situ, is precarious. PMID:27069393

  10. Reproductive technology: in Japan, consensus has limits.

    PubMed

    Bai, Koichi; Shirai, Yasuko; Ishii, Michiko

    1987-06-01

    As part of a Hastings Center Report series of six articles on reproductive technologies around the world, three Japanese scholars report on the situation in their country. At present, artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization are offered to infertile married couples, and research is performed on early embryos up to 14 days after fertilization. Neither surrogate mothers nor donated gametes are used in Japan. Bai, Shirai, and Ishii identify several issues that they believe merit further public debate, among them the legal status of AID children, the experimental nature of in vitro fertilization, genetic manipulation of embryos, and gender selection. They summarize the findings of four opinion surveys that show a lack of consensus among the Japanese on the acceptability of reproductive technologies, which in the words of the authors "create a tension and a link between traditional belief and contemporary practice."

  11. Paleoseismology off northern Japan: Sediments in the Japan Trench record earthquake activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, H. G.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Nagahashi, Y.; Koelling, M.; Strasser, M.; Wefer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Japan Trench subduction zone has repeatedly been affected by large earthquakes as most recently in 2011 by the giant magnitude 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Several studies indicate that the 2011 earthquake has induced large seafloor displacements and triggered submarine landslides and gravity flows. The depression of the Japan Trench floor acts as sediment trap, where earthquake triggered mass flows originating from the landward slope are deposited. Thus, the deep Trench floor (>7500 m water depth) is a suitable area to trace the paleoseismicity in the region. During the R/V SONNE cruise (SO219A) in 2012, sediment cores have been collected east of the 2011 earthquake epicenter in a 60 km north-south transect along the Japan Trench floor axis, as well as from a small basin on the upper mid slope. The sediment cores contain several turbidite sequences (few cm to m thick), mainly revealing a coarse sand layer on an erosive base and a gradually fining upward to hemipelagic diatomaceous mud. Tephrochronological analyses on intercalated ash layers within the records provide an age control and show that the cores cover the past ~15 ka. Detailed analyses of these records, by using their sedimentological and lithological characteristics, their physical properties (Multi Sensor Core Logging, MSCL) as well as their elemental composition (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) allow to characterize and to identify specific turbidite units. We observe particular turbidite units with the same characteristics in different cores along the trench axis and on the mid slope. Besides the top-unit turbidite, being related to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we detect a widespread unique calcareous nanno fossil bearing turbidite mud as well as some sand turbidite units of similar elemental composition within the records. Their large spatial extent suggests earthquake related trigger mechanisms. Thus, these event deposits sampled from the deep Japan Trench provide important information on the paleoseismic

  12. Steam generator tube inspection in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Shigetaka

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator tube inspection was first carried out in 1971 at Mihama Unit-1 that is first PWR plant in Japan, when the plant was brought into the first annual inspection. At that time, inspection was made on sampling basis, and only bobbin coil probe was used. After experiencing various kinds of tube degradations, inspection method was changed from sampling to all number of tubes, and various kinds of probes were used to get higher detectability of flaw. At present, it is required that all the tubes shall be inspected in their full length at each annual inspection using standard bobbin coil probe, and some special probes for certain plants that have susceptibility of occurrence of flaw. Sleeve repaired portion is included in this inspection. As a result of analyses of eddy current testing data, all indications that have been evaluated to be 20% wall thickness or deeper shall be repaired by either plugging or sleeving, where flaw morphology is to be a wastage or wear. Other types of flaw such as IGA/SCC are not allowed to be left inservice when those indications are detected. These inspections are performed according to inspection procedures that are approved by regulatory authority. Actual inspections are witnessed by the Japan Power engineering and inspection corporation (JAPEIC)`s inspectors during data acquisition and analysis, and they issue inspection report to authority for review and approval. It is achieved high safety performance of steam generator through this method of inspections, however. some tube leakage problems were experienced in the past. To prevent recurrence of such events, government is conducting development and verification test program for new eddy current testing technology.

  13. Resources assessment of methane hydrates offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.

    2015-12-01

    JOGMEC, as a member of research group for resources assessment of Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), is conducting resources assessment of methane hydrates (MHs) offshore surrounding Japan. The interpretation of 3-D seismic data acquired by geophysical vessel 'Shigen', which is owned by Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, are carried out. And MH concentrated zones are being extracted. This study is an introduction for the case example of interpretation of 3-D seismic data in the area which have not been drilled. The characteristic of 3-D seismic data in this study area shows fold structure, which undulates severalfold. In addition, some faults are interpreted, which does not show the large displacement, are seen. Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) is very visible continuously. Clear velocity contrast in the boundary between above and below of BSR and the high velocity anomaly above BSR are confirmed in the high density velocity analysis profile. MHs are assumed to exist in sand heterogeneously because the velocity distribution in the extracted zones is inhomogeneous. In the results of geomorphological analysis, channel deposits and mid submarine fan deposits, which are located above BSR, are presumed the sediments which bear sand. Thus the extracted zones are estimated MH concentrated zones. As above, even the area has not been drilled, the extraction of MH concentrated zones can be estimated by the interpretation of the seismic data, the result of the high density velocity analysis, and the distribution of sand by geomorphological analysis. These results will be useful for the plan of the future drilling programme. This introduction is the example of 3-D seismic survey area. It will become a useful information for 3-D seismic survey plan by performing similar interpretation in 2-D seismic survey lines.

  14. Results obtained with the CHARPAN Engineering Tool and prospects of the ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Loeschner, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Projection Mask-Less Patterning (PMLP) is based on many hundred thousands of ion beams working in parallel. A PMLP proof-of-concept tool has been realized as part of the European project CHARPAN (Charged Particle Nanotech) and has been presented at SPIE Photomask BACUS 2007. Using 10 keV protons, 16nm hp resolution has been demonstrated in non- CAR materials (HSQ) with 25μC/cm2 exposure dose. The system is upgraded to a CHARPAN Engineering Tool (CHET) with a laser-interferometer controlled vacuum stage and a CMOS based programmable Aperture Plate System (APS) providing ca. 40,000 beams with < 20nm spot size. The engineering of an ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET) for the 22nm hp mask node has been started; main iMET features are discussed.

  15. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  16. Toward a more effective Japan policy. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The United States and Japan have shared a close relationship since the end of World War 2. What began as a victor- and-vanquished relationship was transformed into one of the Cold War`s pillars of Containment. Now the Cold War is over yet the United States remains responsible for the external defense of the state that possesses the world`s second most powerful economy. Simultaneously, Japan is attempting to end its tradition of political isolationism. As Japan exercises ever increasing autonomy and less deference to U.S. policy and desires, the administration, congress, and American public are searching for the elusive peace dividend. Should Japan continue to progress toward the ultimate goal of normal nation status, those animosities now present primarily in the trade realm may spill-over into the political and security arenas. Additionally, the 1 August 1994 edition of the Mainichi Shimbun reported that the Japanese Foreign Ministry secretly decided, in 1969, to develop the potential to make nuclear weapons without actually producing them. The same report indicated that the potential had been met. Now another complication to the relationship has emerged. While it is understandable for Japan to desire an indigenous nuclear deterrent capability, Japan`s status as a virtual proliferator runs contrary to U.S. nonproliferation policy. This thesis explores the future of the United States-Japan relationship considering the current international environment -- a seemingly absent raison d`ene. Recommendations for a revised Japan policy including an innovative approach to allied nuclear proliferation are presented.

  17. Toward better management of nuclear materials in Japan and Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    1996-11-01

    The Asian region is drawing a great deal of attention from all over the world regarding its possible future role as the core of worldwide peaceful nuclear energy development. Northeast Asia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan already have a significant amount of nuclear power generation. Furthermore, these countries together with China have expansion plans. Southeast Asia is just beginning to plan and construct civilian nuclear power stations. Among these Asian countries, Japan can be regarded as one of the most developed nations as far as peaceful nuclear energy is concerned. Within Japan several nuclear fuel cycle facilities, including reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities, are in operation. Research and developmental activities on fast breeder reactors are continuing. On this occasion the author explains three topics in general. The first is the history and the present situation of Japanese nuclear energy development and nuclear materials management. The second topic is Japan`s efforts to strengthen international nonproliferation efforts, which include: various assistances in the dismantling of the former Soviet Union`s nuclear forces; Japan`s participation in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), which is responsible for the supply of two light water reactors to the Democratic people`s Republic of Korea (DPRK); Japan`s initiative and contributions to the establishment of guidelines for use and storage of separated plutonium; technical and financial support to the IAEA safeguards implementation; and the strengthening of the Japanese system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials (SSAC) in connection with the Agency`s activity, Program 93+2. The last topic addresses is concerned with nuclear energy in the Asian region. The concept of ASIATOM, or PACIFIC ATOM is now being widely discussed in several countries in Asia. The author discusses this idea, especially regarding the objectives, possible contents and the structures.

  18. Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: the experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Margie C; Freed, Gary L; Katz, Samuel L

    2004-09-28

    This study explored the safety concerns associated with combination vaccines in Japan. The impact of Japan's decision in 1975 to withdraw the combined diptheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) vaccine, and then in 1993, the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and provide only the single antigen vaccines was analyzed. Interviews with both governmental and non-governmental agency officials in Japan demonstrated that withdrawal of the DTP and MMR vaccines had significant impact on the rates of immunization and disease despite the availability of monovalent vaccines.

  19. Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed. PMID:23467264

  20. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  2. Is Histoplasma capsulatum a native inhabitant of Japan?

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ken; Sugita, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Sasaki, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2008-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by inhaling spores of the fungal pathogen H. capsulatum and in Japan is considered an imported mycosis. However, some patients in Japan with histoplasmosis have no history of traveling overseas nor of risk of occupational exposure to Histoplasma. To investigate the possibility of native distribution of Histoplasma in Japan, 187 bat guano samples from 67 bat-inhabited caves in 17 prefectures were collected. These were examined for H. capsulatum by culture and Histoplasma-specific PCR in three independent laboratories. No H. capsulatum was detected by either method, therefore H. capsulatum is unlikely to be present in bat guano in Japanese caves. PMID:19039954

  3. JTEC panel report on advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. J.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Hillig, W. B.; Perepezko, J. H.; Pipes, R. B.; Sheehan, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites visited Japan and surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic and carbon matrices. The panel's interests included not only what composite systems were chosen, but also how these systems were developed. A strong carbon and fiber industry makes Japan the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation resistant carbon/carbon composite program. The goals for this program are ambitious, and it is just starting, but its progress should be closely monitored in the United States.

  4. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  5. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  6. Japan's declining fertility: "1.53 shock".

    PubMed

    Yanagishita, M

    1992-04-01

    In 1990, the Japanese were upset over the low 1989 total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.57 and continued to be so when they learned that the 1990 rate was even lower (1.53). This meant an annual population growth rate of only 0.33% with population decline beginning after 2010. In the early 1990s, Japan began to feel the demographic effects of such low fertility: a shortage of young workers and rising costs of health care for the elderly. Further, this shortage resulted in increasing business closings between 1988-1990 (1-6%). In 1990, the government began a survey to monitor the beliefs of the population on demographic concerns. The survey revealed that people wanted 2.2 children. Ideal family size was 2.6 which remained the same since 1977. Almost 40% found the falling TFR to be undesirable, especially because the population was aging. Moreover 65% of them though the government should undertake efforts to increase births. The major suggestions included reducing economic costs of raising a child (53%), a more favorable environment to have children such as affordable housing (29%), and developing child care facilities and child care leave (13%). 38% of 25-29 year old women were still unmarried, yet only 2% intended to never marry. Women in their late 20s and early 30s were critical of the 3 generation household with women doing all the housework. Women were more likely to be against premarital and extramarital sex than men. 25-33%, especially women 45 years old, felt the abortion law should be restricted. The 1990 abortion rate was 37.4/100 births. 7% relied on sterilization, yet 25-30% felt it to be an acceptable means of contraception. 75% of those that used a contraceptive used the condom. The government continued to ban oral contraceptives (OCs) claiming they would spread AIDS. Men were more in favor of OCs than women. 48% of those who found the falling population undesirable favored a pronatalist policy over importing foreign laborers. 41% wanted Japan to still help

  7. Interdecadal variation of TC frequency in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed the climate regime shift using statistical change-point analysis on the time-series tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affected Japan in July to September. The result showed that there was a significant change in 1995, and since then, it showed a trend of rapidly decreasing frequency. To determine the reason for this, differences between 1995 to 2012 (9512) period and 1978 to 1994 (7894) period were analyzed. First, regarding TC genesis, TCs during the 9512 period showed a characteristic of genesis from the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and TCs during the 7894 period showed their genesis from the northwest quadrant. Regarding a TC track, TCs in the 7894 period had a strong trend of moving from the far east sea of the Philippines via the East China Sea to the mid-latitude region in East Asia while TCs in the 9512 period showed a trend of moving from the Philippines toward the southern part of China westward. Thus, TC intensity in the 7894 period, which can absorb sufficient energy from the sea as they moved a long distance over the sea, was stronger than that of 9512. Large-scale environments were analyzed to determine the cause of such difference in TC activity occurred between two periods. During the 9512 period, anomalous cold and dry anticyclones were developed strongly in the East Asia continent. As a result, Korea and Japan were affected by the anomalous northerlies thereby preventing TCs in this period from moving toward the mid-latitude region in East Asia. Instead, anomalous easterlies (anomalous trade wind) were developed in the tropical western Pacific so that a high passage frequency from the Philippines to the south China region along the anomalous steering flows was revealed. The characteristics of the anomalous cold and dry anticyclone developed in the East Asia continent were also confirmed by the analysis of air temperature, relative humidity, and sensible heat net flux showing that

  8. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of

  9. Guidelines for obstetrical practice in Japan: Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) and Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG) 2011 edition.

    PubMed

    Minakami, Hisanori; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Koresawa, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Hiromi; Iitsuka, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ishimoto, Hitoshi; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masakiyo; Konishi, Ikuo; Matsubara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Hideo; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Okai, Takashi; Saito, Shigeru; Sakai, Masato; Satoh, Shoji; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Suzuki, Masaaki; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Tokunaga, Akiteru; Tsukahara, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Clinical guidelines for obstetrical practice were first published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) and the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG) in 2008, and a revised version was published in 2011. The aims of this publication include the determination of current standard care practices for pregnant women in Japan, the widespread use of standard care practices, the enhancement of safety in obstetrical practice, the reduction in burdens associated with medico-legal and medico-economical problems, and a better understanding between pregnant women and maternity-service providers. These guidelines include a total of 87 Clinical Questions followed by several Answers (CQ&A), a Discussion, a List of References, and some Tables and Figures covering common problems and questions encountered in obstetrical practice. Each answer with a recommendation level of A, B or C has been prepared based principally on 'evidence' or a consensus among Japanese obstetricians in situations where 'evidence' is weak or lacking. Answers with a recommendation level of A or B represent current standard care practices in Japan. All 87 CQ&A are presented herein to promote a better understanding of the current standard care practices for pregnant women in Japan.

  10. Guidelines for obstetrical practice in Japan: Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) and Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG) 2014 edition.

    PubMed

    Minakami, Hisanori; Maeda, Tsugio; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Hiromi; Iitsuka, Yoshinori; Itakura, Atsuo; Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kanai, Makoto; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masakiyo; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Kotani, Tomomi; Kudo, Yoshiki; Makino, Yasuo; Matsubara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Hideo; Miura, Kiyonori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Murotsuki, Jun; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Ohno, Yasumasa; Ohshiba, Yoko; Satoh, Shoji; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Sugiura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Shunji; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Tsukahara, Yuki; Unno, Nobuya; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    The 'Clinical Guidelines for Obstetrical Practice, 2011 edition' were revised and published as a 2014 edition (in Japanese) in April 2014 by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The aims of this publication include the determination of current standard care practices for pregnant women in Japan, the widespread use of standard care practices, the enhancement of safety in obstetrical practice, the reduction of burdens associated with medico-legal and medico-economical problems, and a better understanding between pregnant women and maternity-service providers. The number of Clinical Questions and Answers items increased from 87 in the 2011 edition to 104 in the 2014 edition. The Japanese 2014 version included a Discussion, a List of References, and some Tables and Figures following the Answers to the 104 Clinical Questions; these additional sections covered common problems and questions encountered in obstetrical practice, helping Japanese readers to achieve a comprehensive understanding. Each answer with a recommendation level of A, B or C was prepared based principally on 'evidence' or a consensus among Japanese obstetricians in situations where 'evidence' was weak or lacking. Answers with a recommendation level of A or B represent current standard care practices in Japan. All 104 Clinical Questions and Answers items, with the omission of the Discussion, List of References, and Tables and Figures, are presented herein to promote a better understanding among English readers of the current standard care practices for pregnant women in Japan.

  11. Current issues on ageing in Japan: a comparison with Australia.

    PubMed

    Someya, Yoshiko; Wells, Yvonne

    2008-03-01

    Japan's demography has changed dramatically, and with it, Japanese society and the circumstances of older people. These changes include shifts in family roles and functions, employment and social relations. Traditionally, families provided financial, physical and psychological support to their parents in the same household. While the proportion of older Japanese who live with adult children is still high in comparison to the rate in Western developed countries, patterns of care in Japan are gradually shifting towards the Western model. Public pensions supply financial support and the Long-Term Care Insurance System (LCIS) provides substantial physical care for frail older people. This paper focuses on current issues for older people in Japan, and provides a brief comparison with the situation in Australia. Japan's LCIS provides a simpler and more consistent basis for funding long-term care than Australia's system. On the other hand, Australia's pension system is comparatively robust. PMID:18713209

  12. HIV/AIDS and professional freedom of expression in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Masami

    2002-07-01

    A senior physician with a government role in Japan made a widely reported and misleading statement about Thailand's policy on HIV/AIDS patients. He claimed that in Thailand the policy is to spend public money on the prevention of HIV infection while allowing AIDS patients to die untreated. The author, a community nursing specialist in Japan with first-hand knowledge of HIV/AIDS policy in Thailand, thought that this statement would influence attitudes negatively in Japan. However, speaking out about this misrepresentation of the facts carried certain risks. Although freedom of expression is valued in Japan, in practice it is not easy to contradict senior medical professionals. The author uses his experience of this difficult professional situation to teach nurses how to approach speaking out in the public interest.

  13. Constraints on interseismic deformation at Japan trench from VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Space geodetic data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) was used to estimate velocity relative to the plate interiors of two sites on the deforming leading edge at the Japan trench. Elastic models of interseismic deformation and results obtained were used to put constraints on the slip rate along the main thrust of the Japan subduction zone. Observed velocities reflect the sum of permanent west-northwest shortening in Honshu, elastic deformation due to locking of the main thrust fault at the Japan trench, and deformation associated with the subducting Phillipine plate. These velocities limit the locked segment of the main thrust at the Japan trench to 27 km vertically and 100 km along the dip. This indicates that the main Pacific plate thrust fault is not strongly coupled and probably does not generate strong earthquakes.

  14. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  15. A Review of Higher Education Reform in Modern Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyon, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Looks at the present higher education reform movement in Japan and its history extending back approximately 30 years. Offers some suggestions as to what more can be done to alleviate many problems still inherent in the system. (EV)

  16. "Lifetime Earnings" in Japan for the Class of 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's employment model has been that of "lifetime employment," especially for male college-educated workers. Under such a system, an individual becomes employed by a firm upon graduation and remains in its employ until retirement. (Author/SSH)

  17. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  18. [Epidemiological studies on lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morita, C

    1997-04-01

    Human case of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was not confirmed virologically or serologically in Japan. Existence of the virus in experimental animals was reported in Japan shortly after first isolation of LCMV in U.S.A. In Japan, antibodies against LCMV and the virus were revealed in international sea ports. Using gene analysis, we found LCMV bearing mice would invade into Japan from South Asian countries where Mus musclus castaneus habitats. The antibodies against LCMV were distributed in the territories of M.m. castaneus and M. m. gasuensis in China. This result suggested that gene analysis will be useful tool for tracing the spread of LCMV into certain areas because of polymorphism of the wild hose mouse genes.

  19. Family nursing practice and education: what is happening in Japan?

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Michiko

    2008-11-01

    Significant developments in family nursing in Japan are described and analyzed beginning with the political and health care legislation in the country that stimulated a need for family nursing and the early adoption of family nursing theories and models by visionary leaders in nursing education. In 1994, Japan was the first country in the world to establish a national family nursing association, the Japanese Association for Research in Family Nursing, that provided the necessary infrastructure and leadership for family nursing in Japan to flourish. The strengths and challenges of family nursing in Japan are identified and a call is made for innovations in nursing curricula as well as global networking of family nurses around the world.

  20. Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes and possible route of entry into Japan.

    PubMed

    Goka, Koichi; Yokoyama, Jun; Une, Yumi; Kuroki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Nakahara, Miri; Kobayashi, Arei; Inaba, Shigeki; Mizutani, Tomoo; Hyatt, Alex D

    2009-12-01

    A serious disease of amphibians caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was first found in Japan in December 2006 in imported pet frogs. This was the first report of chytridiomycosis in Asia. To assess the risk of pandemic chytridiomycosis to Japanese frogs, we surveyed the distribution of the fungus among captive and wild frog populations. We established a nested PCR assay that uses two pairs of PCR primers to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a ribosomal RNA cassette to detect mild fungal infections from as little as 0.001 pg (1 fg) of B. dendrobatidis DNA. We collected swab samples from 265 amphibians sold at pet shops, 294 bred at institutes and 2103 collected at field sites from northern to southwestern Japan. We detected infections in native and exotic species, both in captivity and in the field. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 26 haplotypes of the B. dendrobatidis ITS region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three of these haplotypes were specific to the Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) and appeared to have established a commensal relationship with this native amphibian. Many other haplotypes were carried by alien amphibians. The highest genetic diversity of B. dendrobatidis was found in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Some strains of B. dendrobatidis appeared to be endemic to Japanese native amphibians, but many alien strains are being introduced into Japan via imported amphibians. To improve chytridiomycosis risk management, we must consider the risk of B. dendrobatidis changing hosts as a result of anthropogenic disturbance of the host-specific distribution of the fungus. PMID:19840263

  1. Research and development on ocean thermal energy conversion in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, H.

    1982-08-01

    The study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in Japan has been conducted under the leadership of a team of the ''Sunshine Project'', a national new energy development project promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) since 1974. At present, two experimental OTEC power plants -Nauru's OTEC plant and Imari's OTEC plant are operating. In this paper, the review of research and development activity of these two OTEC plants in Japan is made.

  2. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-02

    ;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.

  3. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  4. Foodborne illness outbreaks in Korea and Japan studied retrospectively.

    PubMed

    Lee, W C; Lee, M J; Kim, J S; Park, S Y

    2001-06-01

    The average prevalence of reported foodborne illness from 1981 to 1995 was 2.44 per 100,000 population in Korea, and 28.01 in Japan. The mean case fatality rate in Korea was 0.74% and in Japan, 0.03%. When both prevalence and case fatality rates in Korea and Japan were compared during the same period, the prevalence in Japan was much higher than that in Korea. However, the case fatality rate of patients in Korea was much higher than that in Japan. The distribution of monthly and seasonal patterns of foodborne illness outbreaks strongly indicate the outbreaks may be associated with climatic conditions, frequencies of national holidays, and vacation seasons. Comparison study indicates that the foodborne illness outbreaks in Korea most frequently involved homemade foods (47% of the total cases); in Japan, restaurants accounted for 31.3%. Foodborne illness cases of bacterial origin in Korea were 59.3% of the total and included Salmonella spp. (20.7%). Vibrio (17.4%), Staphylococcus (9.7%), pathogenic Escherichia coli (2.4%), and other species (9.1%); in Japan, 72.8% of the total cases and the majority of the bacterial foodborne illness was caused by Vibrio (32.3%), Staphylococcus (15.9%), Salmonella (14.2%), pathogenic E. coli (3.0%), and other species (7.2%). In conclusion, the outbreaks of foodborne illness in Korea and Japan may be mainly caused by improper food handling, and their occurrences may be differentiated according to food sources. PMID:11403148

  5. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  6. Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

  7. Diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a particular type of pancreatitis of presumed autoimmune etiology. Currently, AIP should be diagnosed based on combination of clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features. When diagnosing AIP, it is most important to differentiate it from pancreatic cancer. Diagnostic criteria for AIP, proposed by the Japan Pancreas Society in 2002 first in the world, were revised in 2006. The criteria are based on the minimum consensus of AIP and aim to avoid misdiagnosing pancreatic cancer as far as possible, but not for screening AIP. The criteria consist of the following radiological, serological, and histopathological items: (1) radiological imaging showing narrowing of the main pancreatic duct and enlargement of the pancreas, which are characteristic of the disease; (2) laboratory data showing abnormally elevated levels of serum γ-globulin, IgG or IgG4, or the presence of autoantibodies; (3) histopathological examination of the pancreas demonstrating marked fibrosis and prominent infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which is called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP). For a diagnosis of AIP, criterion 1 must be present, together with criterion 2 and/or criterion 3. However, it is necessary to exclude malignant diseases such as pancreatic or biliary cancer. PMID:18763279

  8. Bushido and medical professionalism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido.Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido's continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics.The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido's virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today's health care practice.

  9. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  10. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  11. Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2000-06-01

    In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

  12. Shotgun weddings (dekichatta kekkon) in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2015-01-01

    The accelerated greying of its population along with birth rates plummeting below replacement levels synergise into one of the most acute social issues in contemporary Japan. Although singleness, childlessness, delayed marriage and late-in-life-childbirth have become endemic, official records nevertheless reveal an increase in childbirth among women aged 15-19 in 2013. Furthermore, official statistics for 2010 show that 50% of Japanese women aged 25 or younger who married were expecting a baby. This paper focuses on 17 Japanese mothers who had a 'shotgun wedding' (dekichatta kekkon)--a ceremony organised due to an unplanned pregnancy. Aged between 29 and 35 years, the mothers came from Tokyo and Kanagawa and were interviewed for the purposes of exploring their experiences with and viewpoints on unplanned childbirth, contraception and marriage. Grounded in a symbolic interactionist perspective, the analysis of interviews suggested that shotgun weddings largely stem from contraception issues, the will to get pregnant in order to keep a partner and homosocial pressure to prevent the termination of the unexpected pregnancy.

  13. Recent results for concentrator photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2016-04-01

    We summarize the Europe-Japan Collaborative Research Project on Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV); NGCPV Project (a New Generation of Concentrator PhotoVoltaic cells, modules and systems). The aim of this project was to accelerate the move to very high efficiency and lower cost CPV technologies and to enhance the widespread deployment of CPV systems. Seven European partners and nine Japanese partners have contributed to this international collaboration. The following objectives have been reached: 1) a CPV cell with InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs three-junction world-record efficiency of 44.4% has been developed by Sharp, 2) 50 kW and 15 kW CPV plant operations with an average DC efficiency of 27.8% have been demonstrated in Spain (since mid-2012), 3) a new “Intrepid” CPV module with 31.3% efficiency has been developed by Daido Steel, 4) standard measurement of CPV cells has been established by FhG-ISE and AIST, and 46.0% efficiency has been confirmed for the direct-bonded GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs four-junction solar cell under this project, 5) the fundamental research on novel materials and structures for CPV has also been conducted.

  14. Current viewpoints on DSM-5 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Toshihide; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kamio, Yoko; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Motomura, Keisuke; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kiriike, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Toshio; Kubo, Chiharu; Matsunaga, Chiaki; Miyata, Hisatsugu; Asada, Takashi; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, and its official Japanese version was published in 2014. The Japanese Government uses classifications from the 10th revision of the I nternational C lassification of D iseases (ICD-10) to categorize disorders and determine treatment fees. However, since the publication of the DSM-III, the use of the DSM system has become prevalent in research and educational settings in Japan. In addition to traditional psychiatry, both the ICD and the DSM are taught by many Japanese medical schools, and virtually all clinical research and trials refer to the DSM to define targeted disorders. Amid the current backdrop in which the reputation of the DSM-5 is being established, the editorial board of P sychiatry and C linical N eurosciences has asked Japanese experts across 12 specialties to examine the structure of the DSM-5, including the following categories: Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Major Depression, Bipolar Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Somatic Symptom Disorder, Eating Disorders, Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, Gender Dysphoria, and Neurocognitive Disorders. Although opinions were only obtained from these selected experts, we believe that we have succeeded, to a certain extent, in presenting views that are representative of each specialty. PMID:27414748

  15. Fuzzy control of bioprocess in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Kobayashi, T

    2000-01-01

    Process control of bioprocess has been carried out by the judgment of the experts, who are the skilled operators and have lots of experiences for the control of the process. In almost all cases, those experiences are described linguistic IF-THEN rules. Fussy inference is one of the powerful tools to incorporate the linguistic rules to the computer for process control. Fuzzy control are divided into two types; one is the direct fuzzy control of process variables such as sugar feed rate in fed-batch culture and fermentation temperature in batch operation. The other is the indirect control of bioprocess, in which at first the phase recognition is carried out by fuzzy inference and the control strategies constructed in each phase are used for the control of process variables. In Japan, the fuzzy control has already been applied to practical industrial productions, such as pravastatin precursor, vitamin B2, and Japanese sake mashing process. In this review, these industrial approaches of fuzzy control are introduced.

  16. Veterinary use of new quinolones in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S

    1995-01-01

    Five new quinolones are used as veterinary medicines in Japan. Benofloxacin and ofloxacin are orally given in feed or in drinking water for respiratory diseases due to Mycoplasma spp. and Escherichia coli in poultry. Enrofloxacin is subcutaneously, intramuscularly or orally administered to cattle and swine for pneumonia due to Pasteurella spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and diarrhoea due to E. coli, and is used orally for respiratory diseases in poultry. Danofloxacin is similar to enrofloxacin except that the former is not approved for diarrhoea in cattle and swine. Orbifloxacin is given intramuscularly for pneumonia and diarrhoea in cattle and swine but not for poultry diseases. They are effective and safe in animals, and disappear from edible tissues after appropriate drug withdrawal times. The quinolones are indicated only when first-choice drugs are ineffective, only under the direction of veterinarians and only for periods of less than 5 days. Under these conditions, it appears unlikely that quinolone use in veterinary practice will be detrimental to human chemotherapy.

  17. The Regulation of Medical Malpractice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How Japanese legal and social institutions handle medical errors is little known outside Japan. For almost all of the 20th century, a paternalistic paradigm prevailed. Characteristics of the legal environment affecting Japanese medicine included few attorneys handling medical cases, low litigation rates, long delays, predictable damage awards, and low-cost malpractice insurance. However, transparency principles have gained traction and public concern over medical errors has intensified. Recent legal developments include courts’ adoption of a less deferential standard of informed consent; increases in the numbers of malpractice claims and of practicing attorneys; more efficient claims handling by specialist judges and speedier trials; and highly publicized criminal prosecutions of medical personnel. The health ministry is undertaking a noteworthy “model project” to enlist impartial specialists in investigation and analysis of possible iatrogenic hospital deaths to regain public trust in medicine’s capacity to assess its mistakes honestly and to improve patient safety and has proposed a nationwide peer review system based on the project’s methods. PMID:19002542

  18. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of canine histoplasmosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshiteru; Sano, Ayako; Ueda, Yachiyo; Inomata, Tomo; Takayama, Akiko; Poonwan, Nateewan; Nanthawan, Mekha; Mikami, Yuzuru; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    A recent case of canine histoplasmosis, the first confirmed case of disseminated infection accompanied by carcinoma in Japan, was diagnosed by clinical characteristics, histopathological examination, chest radiographs, ocular fundoscopy and molecular biological data. The clinical manifestations were not limited to cutaneous symptoms but were referable to disseminated infection, similar to human autochthonous cases. The partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1/2) regions of the ribosomal DNA genes of this and other Japanese canine histoplasmosis strains were 99-100% identical to the sequence AB211551 derived from a human isolate in Thailand, and showed a close relationship to the sequences derived from Japanese autochthonous systemic and cutaneous human cases. The phylogenetic analysis of 97 sequences of the ITS1/2 region disclosed six genotypes. The genotypes derived from Japanese autochthonous human and dog cases belonged to the cluster consisting of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum sequences, indicating that these varieties might cause not only cutaneous but also systemic histoplasmosis, regardless of their host species. The current status of the 3 varieties of Histoplasma capsulatum according to the host species remains a subject of further investigation. PMID:17464845

  20. Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

  1. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  2. Fuzzy control of bioprocess in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Kobayashi, T

    2000-01-01

    Process control of bioprocess has been carried out by the judgment of the experts, who are the skilled operators and have lots of experiences for the control of the process. In almost all cases, those experiences are described linguistic IF-THEN rules. Fussy inference is one of the powerful tools to incorporate the linguistic rules to the computer for process control. Fuzzy control are divided into two types; one is the direct fuzzy control of process variables such as sugar feed rate in fed-batch culture and fermentation temperature in batch operation. The other is the indirect control of bioprocess, in which at first the phase recognition is carried out by fuzzy inference and the control strategies constructed in each phase are used for the control of process variables. In Japan, the fuzzy control has already been applied to practical industrial productions, such as pravastatin precursor, vitamin B2, and Japanese sake mashing process. In this review, these industrial approaches of fuzzy control are introduced. PMID:10874995

  3. Factors affecting death at home in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sauvaget, C; Tsuji, I; Li, J H; Hosokawa, T; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S

    1996-10-01

    Despite the wish of the Japanese people to spend their final moments at home, the percentage of deaths at home among elderly is decreasing. Moreover, large variations in this rate were observed over the country. The present ecological study analyzed the relationship between the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over, and demographic, medical and socioeconomic characteristics. The data published in 1990 by the Japanese National Government were analyzed by correlation, principal-component, and multiple linear regression analyses. The results showed that the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over was positively associated with the number of persons per household, and the area of floor space per house. The divorce rate, the national tax per capita, and the mean length of hospitalization for stroke showed a negative association with the percentage of deaths at home. In the prefectures where the crude death rates of stroke and senility were high, elderly were more likely to die at home. These results suggested the importance of the number of family caregivers, and the housing conditions for terminal care at home. This research may lead to improve home medical assistance which is still underdeveloped in Japan.

  4. Guidelines for office gynecology in Japan: Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 2011 edition.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takashi; Wong, Tze Fang; Adachi, Tomoko; Ito, Kiyoshi; Uehara, Shigeki; Kanaoka, Yasushi; Kamada, Masaharu; Kitagawa, Hiroaki; Koseki, Satoshi; Gomibuchi, Hideto; Saito, Juichiro; Shirasu, Kazuhiro; Sueoka, Kou; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Satoru; Tasaka, Keiichi; Noguchi, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Shunsaku; Fujii, Tsuneo; Fujiwara, Michihisa; Maeda, Tsugio; Matsumoto, Koji; Momoeda, Mikio; Morita, Mineto; Yoshimura, Kazuaki; Hirai, Yasuo; Kubota, Toshiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Kawabata, Masakiyo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2012-04-01

    Gynecology in the office setting is developing worldwide. Clinical guidelines for office gynecology were first published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 2011. These guidelines include a total of 72 clinical questions covering four areas (Infectious disease, Malignancies and benign tumors, Endocrinology and infertility, and Healthcare for women). These clinical questions were followed by several answers, backgrounds, explanations and references covering common problems and questions encountered in office gynecology. Each answer with a recommendation level of A, B or C has been prepared based principally on evidence or consensus among Japanese gynecologists.These guidelines would promote a better understanding of the current standard care practices for gynecologic outpatients in Japan.

  5. HIV and the primary care physician in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, A

    1997-01-01

    Primary care physicians in Japan must provide comprehensive medical care and counseling for persons both infected with and at risk for HIV/AIDS. Despite existing activities and education programs, HIV case numbers continue to rise in Japan, and only a limited number of hospitals and physicians offer care to those with HIV/AIDS. Some doctors in Japan refuse to accept patients with HIV/AIDS because of the complex treatment often involved, prejudice regarding AIDS, and fear of transmission. Other impediments to effective treatment of HIV/AIDS in Japan include insufficient risk evaluation through outpatient services, lack of privacy, and restrictions and policies at medical facilities. If Japan's primary care physicians cannot participate in caring for those with HIV/AIDS, it will be impossible for every patient with HIV/AIDS to receive correct and adequate medical care. To enable primary care physicians to provide high-quality service and prevention counseling to those with HIV/AIDS, prejudice, fear, and logistic impediments must be eradicated. Comprehensive practice guidelines that protect patients' rights and privacy should be established immediately. The guidelines should direct primary care physicians toward a logical and proper approach to HIV/AIDS care by addressing fundamental treatment and effective prevention counseling as well as the social problems surrounding HIV/AIDS. In addition, research on the general knowledge level and prevalent attitudes among Japan's primary care physicians regarding HIV/AIDS would clarify which specific issues the guidelines should emphasize.

  6. [Nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masatoshi; Shimojima, Masahiro; Saika, Takeshi; Iyoda, Takako; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2011-07-01

    In a nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility survey of 494 Nesseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected from February 2008 to December 2009 in 3 regions of Japan, 112 (22.7%) were collected from western Japan (Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku, and Kyushu), 277 (56.1%) from mid-eastern Japan (Kanto), and 105 (21.1%) from eastern Japan (Tokai, Hokuriku, Koushinetsu, Tohoku, and Hokkaido). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (CPFX) was 72.8%, to penicillin G (PCG) 19.8%, and to tetracycline (TC) 18.2%. Intermediate resistance to CPFX was 1.8%, to PCG 73.7%, and to TC 43.7%. These results indicate that both types of resistance to the 3 agents were very high. Intermediate resistance to cefixime (CFIX) was 38.1% and to cefozidim (CDZM) 13.4%. Resistance to CFIX was only 0.4% and to CDZM 0%. Susceptibility to azithromycin was 96.6%, to ceftriaxone 99.8%, and to spectinomycin 100%. No significant difference in resistance was seen to different antimicrobial agent classes tested in the 3 regions, although intermediate resistance to CFIX in western Japan was significantly higher than in mid-eastern Japan.

  7. Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Ochiai, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

  8. Occurrence in Japan of Frankliniella hemerocallis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), with description of the larva and key to Frankliniella species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence in Japan of the daylily thrips, Frankliniella hemerocallis, is confirmed. This thrips probably originated in Asia or Eurasia, because it is highly specific to Hemerocallis [Liliaceae] which is native to these areas. This thrips feeds on leaf, stem and petals rather than pollen. The second instar larva is described, and a key provided to the adults of Frankliniella species recorded from Japan. PMID:26258207

  9. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  10. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  11. Airborne trace metals in snow on the Japan Sea side of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, Franz-Josef; Hirai, Eiji; Chohji, Tetsuji

    Prevailing seasonal weather patterns produce a homogeneous distribution of snow from the coast to the mountains in the Hokuriku region on the Japan Sea (west) side of Japan. Daily snowfall was collected on polyethylene foils at six sites along the coast, in city areas and in the inland mountains. The samples were analyzed for pH and the soluble and insoluble fractions of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Comparison of the data from the various sites allowed an estimate of the regional background concentration of the trace metals. The contribution of trace metals derived from sea spray and Kosa-loess particles was found to be of minor importance to the regional background. The pH values of melted snow averaged around 4.6 over a range of 3 pH units, with the greatest fluctuations at the seaside and mountain sites. In the cities, these pH fluctuations occurred within a narrower and generally lower pH spectrum.

  12. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric 210Pb and 7Be deposition: features of the Japan Sea side of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Monthly depositional fluxes of (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi, Japan which faces the Japan Sea were studied over a 12-year period from 1991 to 2002. The data were compared with the spatial variability of these fluxes at Taejon in Korea and at 11 other sites in Japan from Ishigaki of the southern islands of Okinawa to Wakkanai of the northern end of Hokkaido over a 2-year period from 2000 to 2001. The monthly depositions of both (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi revealed very similar seasonal variations with a single peak; both depositions were high in winter and low in summer. This phenomenon was found to be not transient but stationary. The deposition of these nuclides was much greater on the Japan Sea side of Japan than on the Pacific Ocean side. The cause for high deposition of (210)Pb and (7)Be in winter might be explained by a combination of a series of the following processes: blowing out of air masses with a high (210)Pb concentration near the surface layer over the continent by strong winter monsoons, additional flow of cold air masses with high (7)Be concentration at high latitude, well-mixing with generation of ascending current and convection clouds over the Japan Sea, and heavy snowfalls accompanying them.

  13. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591

  14. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

  15. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.

  16. History of network detection completeness in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorlemmer, Danijel; Hirata, Naoshi; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Beutin, Thomas; Euchner, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    An important characteristic of any seismic network is its detection completeness, which should be considered a function of space and time. Many researchers rely on robust estimates of detection completeness, especially when investigating statistical parameters of earthquake occurrence like earthquake rates. Contrary to traditional approaches, we do not estimate completeness using methods in which the completeness magnitude is defined as the deviation of the frequency-magnitude distribution from the linear Gutenberg-Richter relation. Here, we present a method based on empirical data only: phase data, station information, and the network-specific attenuation relation. For each station of the network we estimate a time-dependent distribution function describing the detection capability depending on magnitude and distance to the earthquake. For each point in time, maps of detection probabilities for certain magnitudes or overall completeness levels are compiled based on these distributions. Therefore, this method allows for inspection of station performances and their evolution as well as investigations on local detection probabilities even in regions without seismic activity. We present a full history (1923-2014) of network detection completeness for Japan and discuss details of this evolution, e.g. the effects of the Tohoku-oki earthquake sequence. These results are compared with estimated completeness levels of other methods. We present scenario computations showing the impact of different possible network failures. All presented results are published on the CompletenessWeb (www.completenessweb.org) from which the user can download completeness data from all investigated regions, software codes for reproducing the results, and publication-ready and customizable figures.

  17. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  18. Coevolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takeo; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Present-day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment coevolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma) in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density and slope-area relationship) as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow-duration curves) and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index). We found a significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The intra-annual flow variability was also significantly related to catchments age. Younger catchments tended to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibited more flashy runoff. The decrease in baseflow with catchment age is consistent with the existing hypothesis that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways change over time from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in a set of similar, but younger volcanic catchments in the Oregon Cascades, in which drainage density increased with age. In that case, older catchments were thought to show more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths. Our results suggests two competing hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in mature catchments. One is that as catchments continue to age, the hydrologically active channels retreat

  19. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  20. Bushido and Medical Professionalism in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido. Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido’s continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics. The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido’s virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today’s health care practice. PMID:24556758

  1. Japan's research on particle clouds and sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Jun'ichi

    1995-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of liquid and solid fuels. These fuels are burned in combustors mainly as liquid sprays and pulverized solids, respectively. A knowledge of the combustion processes in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding of liquid and solid particle cloud combustion is far from complete. If combustion experiments for these fuels are performed under a normal gravity field, some experimental difficulties are encountered. These difficulties encountered include, that since the particles fall by the force of gravity it is impossible to stop the particles in the air, the falling speeds of particles are different from each other, and are depend on the particle size, the flame is lifted up and deformed by the buoyancy force, and natural convection makes the flow field more complex. Since these experimental difficulties are attributable to the gravity force, a microgravity field can eliminate the above problems. This means that the flame propagation experiments in static homogeneous liquid and solid particle clouds can be carried out under a microgravity field. This will provide much information for the basic questions related to combustion processes of particle clouds and sprays. In Japan, flame propagation processes in the combustible liquid and solid particle clouds have been studied experimentally by using a microgravity field generated by a 4.5 s dropshaft, a 10 s dropshaft, and by parabolic flight. Described in this presentation are the recent results of flame propagations studies in a homogeneous liquid particle cloud, in a mixture of liquid particles/gas fuel/air, in a PMMA particle cloud, and in a pulverized coal particle cloud.

  2. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  3. Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

    1995-09-01

    Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples

  4. Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic…

  5. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. PMID:24118217

  6. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness.

  7. Clinical pharmacologists and drug regulation--future perspective in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, K

    1996-07-01

    1. The Japanese pharmaceutical administration system, and recommendations for the improvement of clinical trial methodology following the implementation of GCP guidelines in Japan are described with special reference to three recent developments in Japanese drug regulation. 2. The implementation of GCP guidelines has not been fully satisfactory and clinical trials in Japan still run into problems. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has recently established a Committee on Safety of Medicines after serious trouble with a new drug was experienced. The Committee released an interim report on the reform of clinical trials supervision and the system for examination of New Drug Applications. 3. ICH-GCP guidelines will be implemented in Japan in the next few years. The principal differences between Japanese GCP and ICH-GCP guidelines, and their effects on clinical trials in Japan with reference to the acceptability of ICH-GCP, are discussed. 4. The final proposals on the National Health Insurance drug pricing method and the appropriate use of drugs by the Central Social Insurance Medical Council are anticipated to have a significant impact on the drug market. The changes in pricing system, especially premiums for innovative drugs, and the implications for the drug market are considered. 5. In these changed circumstances, the importance of the role of clinical pharmacologists in the framework of the new drug regulations in Japan is reviewed.

  8. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  9. The Imminent Healthcare and Emergency Care Crisis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nishida, Masamichi; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system. Methods Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed. Results The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD). However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as “sacred” work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration. Conclusion The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system. PMID:19561714

  10. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  11. Protection against pertussis by acellular pertussis vaccines (Takeda, Japan): household contact studies in Kawasaki City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Goshima, T; Nakajima, N; Kaku, H; Arimoto, Y; Hayashi, F

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of an acellular pertussis vaccine which has been in clinical use in Japan since 1981, a retrospective study was performed by a questionnaire survey of secondary pertussis attacks through family contact in 146 children with pertussis diagnosed in the period from January 1981 through May 1988. In this study, acellular vaccine made by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, which contains a high level of FHA (filamentous hemagglutinin), a low level of PT (pertussis toxin) and a small amount of agglutinogen, was evaluated. Secondary pertussis attacks through family contact were found in 17 of 29 siblings (58.6%) not immunized with pertussis vaccine. On the other hand, 27 siblings immunized with Takeda's acellular vaccine were exposed to pertussis through family contact and a secondary attack was seen in only one of them (3.7%). The present study revealed an efficacy rate of 93.7% for Takeda's acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:2516396

  12. PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori; Sonnier, C.; Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W.

    1996-07-25

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

  13. [Pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yosuke; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    We reviewed the available pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan. For treatment of withdrawal delirium, therapists prefer to use antipsychotic drugs rather than benzodiazepines, which is different from other countries. Japan does not have any substantial treatment guidelines for withdrawal delirium. Therefore, so treatment strategies matching the environment of each facility need to be formulated. Moreover, current choices for prescribing anti-alcoholic drugs to cope with alcohol craving are limited to drugs such as cyanamide and disulfiram. However, the use of acamprosate has recently begun and a clinical trial for nalmefene is starting soon. We anticipate that these newer pharmacological therapies will contribute to better treatment of alcohol use disorder also in Japan.

  14. [Present and aspects for cadaver surgical training in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    In overseas countries the cadaver surgical training (CST) has been very common as evaluation systems for new operative method and medical devices. However, in Japan basic autopsy training is indispensable for nurturing doctors at schools of medicine, while the clinical doctors have been using cadavers for the progress and technique, or the like, of a surgery with the scope of clinical autopsy. In the consequence, in 2013 the guideline "Autopsy for clinical medicine training and research" was put in effect over a series of discussions for the purpose of society acknowledgement of CST. The subsidized project "Training for the development of practical technique of a surgery" by the Ministry of Health and Labor has been offered publicly for private organizations and expected a nationwide expansion. I review the current situation of CST in Japan and introduce CST at Ehime University School of Medicine. This editorial is based on the background of CST in Japan and referred to the outlook for the future.

  15. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  16. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  17. Characteristics of syncope in Japan and the Pacific rim.

    PubMed

    Abe, Haruhiko; Kohno, Ritsuko; Oginosawa, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    As is true in the Western world, syncope of cardiac and non-cardiac origin is one of the common clinical presentations in daily medical practice in Japan and Asia. However, the underlying disorders and social backgrounds associated with syncope may differ, from those encountered in Western countries, particularly in Japan. While non-cardiac causes, neurally-mediated reflex faints in particular, are highly prevalent, out-of-hospital deaths by drowning due to syncope occurring during bathing at home are not rare in Japan, particularly in the elderly. Other underlying cardiac or non-cardiac disorders are also noteworthy, particularly Brugada syndrome and coronary vasospasm, which may present as isolated syncope. In addition, the characteristic clinical presentation of micturition and defecation syncope is not uncommon. This review is focused on these specific underlying diseases in the light of the guidelines issued by the Japanese Circulation Society regarding the diagnosis and treatment of syncope.

  18. Development of an interprofessional competency framework in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Junji; Sakai, Ikuko; Otsuka, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Yoshida, Kazue; Goto, Michiko; Shimoi, Toshinori

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a project that aimed to identify a set of competencies (domains and statements) to prepare Japanese students and healthcare practitioners for collaborative practice. The Japan Association for Interprofessional Education (JAIPE) has started a government-funded project to formulate its interprofessional competency framework, in cooperation with professional organisations (e.g. Japan Society for Medical Education) in healthcare and social sciences. This three-year project is underway as part of the Initiative to Build up the Core Healthcare Personnel programme of Mie University. This project consists of five stages: literature review, data collection, prototype development, consensus formation, and finalisation. Our efforts will culminate in Japan's first interprofessional competency framework, with consensus from relevant academic societies and other stakeholders. We hope that the involvement of stakeholder participation will improve the usability of the final interprofessional competency framework. PMID:27351518

  19. [Epidemiology of stroke in Japan and comparison with the world].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Yoshihiko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Stroke was the leading cause of death in Japan until 1980s. The results from the Hisayama study, which is a population-based study in Japan, showed that incidence and mortality of stroke decreased with time owing to the improved management of hypertension. Although the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke decreased markedly, the proportion of hemorrhagic stroke among the incident cases of stroke in Japan is higher than in European countries. Among the incident cases of ischemic stroke, the proportion of lacunar infarction decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of atherothrombotic and cardioembolic stroke increased. These changes may be caused by elevating prevalence of metabolic disorders-namely, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Effective prevention and management of the metabolic disorder are necessary for further prevention of stroke.

  20. [Epidemiology of stroke in Japan and comparison with the world].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Yoshihiko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Stroke was the leading cause of death in Japan until 1980s. The results from the Hisayama study, which is a population-based study in Japan, showed that incidence and mortality of stroke decreased with time owing to the improved management of hypertension. Although the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke decreased markedly, the proportion of hemorrhagic stroke among the incident cases of stroke in Japan is higher than in European countries. Among the incident cases of ischemic stroke, the proportion of lacunar infarction decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of atherothrombotic and cardioembolic stroke increased. These changes may be caused by elevating prevalence of metabolic disorders-namely, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Effective prevention and management of the metabolic disorder are necessary for further prevention of stroke. PMID:27333738