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Sample records for photon flux conditions

  1. Transient response of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn FIR photoconductors under low background photon flux conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haegel, N. M.; Haller, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of the transient behavior of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn photoconductors to changes in photon flux rates has been performed under the low background flux conditions (10 to the 8th photon/s) typical of astronomy and astrophysics applications. A characteristic transient behavior with time constants ranging from 0.1 to greater than 5 s has been observed in both materials when the shallow levels are very closely compensated. The detector response consists of both a fast and a slow component. The amplitude of the slow component can be up to 10 times greater than the initial fast component. It has been established that this phenomenon cannot be explained by current models of carrier sweep-out or dielectric relaxation. The transient behavior has been characterized as a function of temperature, electric field, photoconductive gain and material parameters.

  2. Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2008-10-01

    Effect of different photosynthetic photon flux densities (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol m(-2)s(-1)), temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) and CO2 concentrations (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol(-1)) on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. were studied to determine the suitable and efficient environmental conditions for its indoor mass cultivation for pharmaceutical uses. The rate of photosynthesis (PN) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Cannabis sativa increased with photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) at the lower temperatures (20-25 °C). At 30 °C, PN and WUE increased only up to 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PPFD and decreased at higher light levels. The maximum rate of photosynthesis (PN max) was observed at 30 °C and under 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PPFD. The rate of transpiration (E) responded positively to increased PPFD and temperature up to the highest levels tested (2000 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and 40 °C). Similar to E, leaf stomatal conductance (gs) also increased with PPFD irrespective of temperature. However, gs increased with temperature up to 30 °C only. Temperature above 30 °C had an adverse effect on gs in this species. Overall, high temperature and high PPFD showed an adverse effect on PN and WUE. A continuous decrease in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and therefore, in the ratio of intercellular CO2 to ambient CO2 concentration (Ci/Ca) was observed with the increase in temperature and PPFD. However, the decrease was less pronounced at light intensities above 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1). In view of these results, temperature and light optima for photosynthesis was concluded to be at 25-30 °C and ∼1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) respectively. Furthermore, plants were also exposed to different concentrations of CO2 (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol(-1)) under optimum PPFD and temperature conditions to assess their photosynthetic response. Rate of photosynthesis, WUE and Ci decreased by 50 %, 53 % and 10

  3. Enhanced efficiencies in thin and semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells under low photon flux conditions using TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Keyu; Guo, Min; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Haitao

    2015-10-01

    The photovoltaic output of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are greatly dependent on the amount of absorbed photons, which is limited by the thickness of active layer of DSSCs and the illumination conditions. To improve the cell performance under low irradiance condition, a photoanode was designed by attaching a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NTPC) onto the thin TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) layer for applications in thin and semi-transparent DSSCs. It is found that the introduction of the TiO2 NTPC significantly increases the light harvesting and hence the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the respective DSSCs. The TiO2 NTPC provides multi-functionalities, such as Bragg reflection, light scatting and additional light harvesting from its nanotube structure, leading to more significant light harvesting enhancement in these thin and semi-transparent DSSCs. Compared with the single-layer TiO2 NP based reference DSSCs, the above-mentioned synergic effects in a cell incoporated with a ∼2.3-μm-thick TiO2 NTPC yield PCE enhancements up to 99.1% and 130%, under 1 and 0.5 Sun conditions, respectively. Meanwhile, an obvious compensation effect of TiO2 NTPC to reduce the output power drop of these cells under tilted incient light is also demonstrated. The work will boost the practical applications of PC in irradiance sensitive devices.

  4. High precision photon flux determination for photon tagging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Asratyan, A.; Baker, K.; Benton, L.; Burkert, V.; Clinton, E.; Cole, P.; Collins, P.; Dale, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, R.; Deur, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Ent, R.; Evdokimov, A.; Feng, J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Goryachev, V.; Hardy, K.; He, J.; Ito, M.; Jiang, L.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kolarkar, A.; Konchatnyi, M.; Korchin, A.; Korsch, W.; Kosinov, O.; Kowalski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Larin, I.; Lawrence, D.; Li, X.; Martel, P.; Matveev, V.; McNulty, D.; Mecking, B.; Milbrath, B.; Minehart, R.; Miskimen, R.; Mochalov, V.; Nakagawa, I.; Overby, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Payen, M.; Pedroni, R.; Prok, Y.; Ritchie, B.; Salgado, C.; Shahinyan, A.; Sitnikov, A.; Sober, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stevens, W.; Underwood, J.; Vasiliev, A.; Vishnyakov, V.; Wood, M.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory PrimEx Collaboration has developed and implemented a method to control the tagged photon flux in photoproduction experiments at the 1% level over the photon energy range from 4.9 to 5.5 GeV. This method has been successfully implemented in a high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Here, we outline the experimental equipment and the analysis techniques used to accomplish this. These include the use of a total absorption counter for absolute flux calibration, a pair spectrometer for online relative flux monitoring, and a new method for post-bremsstrahlung electron counting.

  5. High flux photon beam monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mortazavi, P.; Woodle, M.; Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Howells, M.

    1985-01-01

    We have designed two photon beam position monitors for use on our x-ray storage ring beam lines. In both designs, a pair of tungsten blades, separated by a pre-determined gap, intercepts a small fraction of the incoming beam. Due to photoemission, an electrical signal is generated which is proportional to the amount of beam intercepted. The thermal load deposited in the blade is transferred by a heat pipe to a heat exchanger outside the vacuum chamber. A prototype monitor with gap adjustment capability was fabricated and tested at a uv beam line. The results show that the generated electrical signal is a good measurement of the photon beam position. In the following sections, design features and test results are discussed.

  6. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-05-15

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  7. Photon Flux Amplification for Enhancing Photonic Laser Propulsive Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Perry A.; Carruth, M. Ralph, Jr.; Edwards, David L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An enhancement to the available force from a solar/laser sail is being investigated. This enhancement involves the use of a high power laser as the main source of propulsion or as a supplement to a solar sail. The enhancement utilizes a high power laser and multiple photon reflections to amplify the laser photon flux impinging on a sail. It is thus possible to amplify the force by as much as a factor of 50 or more. This paper explores the use of a stable optical cavity and will illustrate the optics involved in producing a stable cavity. A breadboard of the optical system was constructed and a stable cavity was demonstrated. Once the breadboard system was complete and a stable cavity achieved, the system was placed in vacuum and photon force amplification was measured using a vacuum compatible microbalance.

  8. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Tibbitts, T.; Sager, J.; Deitzer, G.; Bubenheim, D.; Koerner, G.; Bugbee, B.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

  9. High-flux solar photon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorents, Donald C.; Narang, Subhash; Huestis, David C.; Mooney, Jack L.; Mill, Theodore; Song, Her-King; Ventura, Susanna

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage.

  10. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lorents, D.C.; Narang, S.; Huestis, D.C.; Mooney, J.L.; Mill, T.; Song, H.K.; Ventura, S.

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  11. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  12. Controlling VUV photon fluxes in pulsed inductively coupled Ar/Cl2 plasmas and potential applications in plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Peng; Kushner, Mark J.

    2017-02-01

    UV/VUV photon fluxes in plasma materials processing have a variety of effects ranging from producing damage to stimulating synergistic reactions. Although in plasma etching processes, the rate and quality of the feature are typically controlled by the characteristics of the ion flux, to truly optimize these ion and photon driven processes, it is desirable to control the relative fluxes of ions and photons to the wafer. In prior works, it was determined that the ratio of VUV photon to ion fluxes to the substrate in low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) sustained in rare gases can be controlled by combinations of pressure and pulse power, while the spectrum of these VUV photons can be tuned by adding additional rare gases to the plasma. In this work, VUV photon and ion fluxes are computationally investigated for Ar/Cl2 ICPs as used in etching of silicon. We found that while the overall ratio of VUV photon flux to ion flux are controlled by pressure and pulse power, by varying the fraction of Cl2 in the mixture, both the ratio of VUV to ion fluxes and the spectrum of VUV photons can be tuned. It was also found that the intensity of VUV emission from Cl(3p 44s) can be independently tuned by controlling wall surface conditions. With this ability to control ratios of ion to photon fluxes, photon stimulated processes, as observed in halogen etching of Si, can be tuned to optimize the shape of the etched features.

  13. Experimental demonstration of a predictable single photon source with variable photon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaigu, Aigar; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Chu, Xiao-Liu; Lindner, Sarah; Smid, Marek; Manninen, Albert; Becher, Christoph; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Götzinger, Stephan; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-04-01

    We present a predictable single-photon source (SPS) based on a silicon vacancy centre in nanodiamond which is optically excited by a pulsed laser. At an excitation rate of 70~\\text{MHz} the source delivers a photon flux large enough to be measured by a low optical flux detector (LOFD). The directly measured photon flux constitutes an absolute reference. By changing the repetition rate of the pulsed laser, we are able to change the photon flux of our SPS in a controllable way which in turn can act as a reference. The advantage of our method is that it does not require precise knowledge of the source efficiency, but the source is calibrated by the LOFD and can be used for detector responsivity characterizations at the few-photon level.

  14. The effects of photon flux on energy spectra and imaging characteristics in a photon-counting x-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Cho, H-M; Kim, H-J; Choi, Y-N; Lee, S-W; Ryu, H-J; Lee, Y-J

    2013-07-21

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of photon flux on the recorded energy spectrum and images produced with a photon-counting detector. We used a photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) x-ray detector (model PID350, Oy Ajat, Finland). The CdTe array was composed of 16 384 pixels, each 0.35 × 0.35 × 0.75 mm(3) in dimension. The photon flux is controlled by an additional aluminum filter (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm). Images were acquired at three different tube voltages (50, 70 and 90 kVp) with various thicknesses of photon flux control (PFC) filters. The data acquisition time was changed to acquire an approximately equal number of counts within the selected energy window between different thicknesses of PFC filters at the same tube voltage. A phantom was manufactured to evaluate the photon flux effect on the image. The phantom was made from polymethyl methacrylate and four concentrations of iodine. The photon flux effect on the image was evaluated by the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) between iodine and the background material. The changes of photon flux affected the recorded energy spectra and image. The thickness of the PFC filter that showed the maximum SDNR differed according to the tube voltage. The 10 mm PFC filter showed the highest SDNR at 50 and 70 kVp, while the 30 mm PFC filter exhibited the highest SDNR at 90 kVp. The SDNR was improved up to, on average, 30-fold in optimal photon flux conditions which acquired a spectrum including the lowest electronic noise with no pulse pile-up effect. The results of this study showed that the photon flux affected not only the acquired energy spectrum but also the image. Based on these results, the spectral distortion correction should be considered in connection with the image that is the ultimate purpose of medical imaging.

  15. The effects of photon flux on energy spectra and imaging characteristics in a photon-counting x-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.-M.; Kim, H.-J.; Choi, Y.-N.; Lee, S.-W.; Ryu, H.-J.; Lee, Y.-J.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of photon flux on the recorded energy spectrum and images produced with a photon-counting detector. We used a photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) x-ray detector (model PID350, Oy Ajat, Finland). The CdTe array was composed of 16 384 pixels, each 0.35 × 0.35 × 0.75 mm3 in dimension. The photon flux is controlled by an additional aluminum filter (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm). Images were acquired at three different tube voltages (50, 70 and 90 kVp) with various thicknesses of photon flux control (PFC) filters. The data acquisition time was changed to acquire an approximately equal number of counts within the selected energy window between different thicknesses of PFC filters at the same tube voltage. A phantom was manufactured to evaluate the photon flux effect on the image. The phantom was made from polymethyl methacrylate and four concentrations of iodine. The photon flux effect on the image was evaluated by the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) between iodine and the background material. The changes of photon flux affected the recorded energy spectra and image. The thickness of the PFC filter that showed the maximum SDNR differed according to the tube voltage. The 10 mm PFC filter showed the highest SDNR at 50 and 70 kVp, while the 30 mm PFC filter exhibited the highest SDNR at 90 kVp. The SDNR was improved up to, on average, 30-fold in optimal photon flux conditions which acquired a spectrum including the lowest electronic noise with no pulse pile-up effect. The results of this study showed that the photon flux affected not only the acquired energy spectrum but also the image. Based on these results, the spectral distortion correction should be considered in connection with the image that is the ultimate purpose of medical imaging.

  16. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  17. Combined analysis of neutron and photon flux measurements for the Jules Horowitz reactor core mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J. P.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J. Y.; Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Merroun, O.; Brun, J.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.

    2011-07-01

    We study the combined analysis of nuclear measurements to improve the knowledge of the irradiation conditions in the experimental locations of the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The goal of the present work is to measure more accurately neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating in the reactor. In a Material Testing Reactor (MTR), nuclear heating is a crucial parameter to design the experimental devices to be irradiated in harsh nuclear conditions. This parameter drives the temperature of the devices and of the samples. The numerical codes can predict this parameter but in-situ measurements are necessary to reach the expected accuracy. For this reason, one objective of the IN-CORE program [1] is to study the combined measurements of neutron and photon flux and their cross advanced interpretation. It should be reminded that both neutron and photon sensors are not totally selective as their signals are due to neutron and photon interactions. We intend to measure the neutron flux by three different kinds of sensors (Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber and Self Powered Neutron Detector), the photon flux by two different sensors (Ionization chamber and Self Powered Gamma Detector) and the nuclear heating by two different ones (Differential calorimeter and Gamma Thermometer). For the same parameter, we expect that the use of different kinds of sensors will allow a better estimation of the aimed parameter by mixing different spectrum responses and different neutron and gamma contributions. An experimental test called CARMEN-1 is scheduled in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France) at the end of 2011, with the goal to map irradiation locations in the reactor reflector to get a first validation of the analysis model. This article focuses on the sensor selection for CARMEN-1 experiment and to the way to link neutron and photon flux measurements in view to reduce their uncertainties but also to better assess the neutron and photon contributions to nuclear

  18. High-flux solar photon processes: Opportunities for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, J.I.; Coy, S.L.; Herzog, H.; Shorter, J.A.; Schlamp, M.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of this study was to identify new high-flux solar photon (HFSP) processes that show promise of being feasible and in the national interest. Electric power generation and hazardous waste destruction were excluded from this study at sponsor request. Our overall conclusion is that there is promise for new applications of concentrated solar photons, especially in certain aspects of materials processing and premium materials synthesis. Evaluation of the full potential of these and other possible applications, including opportunities for commercialization, requires further research and testing. 100 refs.

  19. VUV Photon Fluxes from Microwave Excited Microplasmas at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Peng; Denning, Mark; Urdhal, Randall; Kushner, Mark J.

    2013-09-01

    Microplasmas in rare gases and rare gases mixtures can provide efficient and discretely tunable sources of VUV light. Microwave excited microplasma sources excited by a split-ring resonator antenna in rare gas mixtures operated in ceramic cavities with sub-mm dimensions have been developed as discretely tunable VUV sources for chemical analysis. Controlling wavelengths and the ratio of ion to VUV fluxes are important to achieving chemical selectivity. In this paper, we will discuss results from an investigation of scaling laws for the efficiency of VUV photon production in rare gas mixtures. The investigation was performed using a hydrodynamics model where the electron energy distribution and radiation transport are addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Plasma density, VUV photon production and fluxes from the cavities will be discussed for mixtures of Ar, He, Xe, Kr, and as a function of power format (pulsing, cw), pressure and cavity sizes.

  20. Spectral property of two-photon flux generated by four-photon scattering in photonic-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbo; Liu, Xueming; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohui

    2010-12-01

    Based on the scalar four-photon scattering process, the quantum state of a lightwave at the output of fiber is derived by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a perturbation theory. The joint spectral function of two photons is achieved from the derived quantum state. The dispersion operator involves the third-order dispersion term in the case that the pump wavelength is close to the zero dispersion wavelength. Simulation results show the first-order approximation of our joint spectral function is in excellent agreement with the complicated exact solution. By analyzing the spectral property of the two-photon flux generated by four-photon scattering in photonic-crystal fibers, it is found that the sign of dispersion has very little influence on the spectrum except the slight modulation instability in the anomalous dispersion domain.

  1. Conditionally prepared photon and quantum imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Aichele, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    We discuss a classical model allowing one to visualize and characterize the optical mode of the single photon generated by means of a conditional measurement on a biphoton produced in parametric down-conversion. The model is based on Klyshko's advanced wave interpretation, but extends beyond it, providing a precise mathematical description of the advanced wave. The optical mode of the conditional photon is shown to be identical to the mode of the classical difference-frequency field generated due to nonlinear interaction of the partially coherent advanced wave with the pump pulse. With this "nonlinear advanced wave model" most coherence properties of the conditional photon become manifest, which permits one to intuitively understand many recent results, in particular, in quantum imaging.

  2. Turbulent fluxes by "Conditional Eddy Sampling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebicke, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent flux measurements are key to understanding ecosystem scale energy and matter exchange, including atmospheric trace gases. While the eddy covariance approach has evolved as an invaluable tool to quantify fluxes of e.g. CO2 and H2O continuously, it is limited to very few atmospheric constituents for which sufficiently fast analyzers exist. High instrument cost, lack of field-readiness or high power consumption (e.g. many recent laser-based systems requiring strong vacuum) further impair application to other tracers. Alternative micrometeorological approaches such as conditional sampling might overcome major limitations. Although the idea of eddy accumulation has already been proposed by Desjardin in 1972 (Desjardin, 1977), at the time it could not be realized for trace gases. Major simplifications by Businger and Oncley (1990) lead to it's widespread application as 'Relaxed Eddy Accumulation' (REA). However, those simplifications (flux gradient similarity with constant flow rate sampling irrespective of vertical wind velocity and introduction of a deadband around zero vertical wind velocity) have degraded eddy accumulation to an indirect method, introducing issues of scalar similarity and often lack of suitable scalar flux proxies. Here we present a real implementation of a true eddy accumulation system according to the original concept. Key to our approach, which we call 'Conditional Eddy Sampling' (CES), is the mathematical formulation of conditional sampling in it's true form of a direct eddy flux measurement paired with a performant real implementation. Dedicated hardware controlled by near-real-time software allows full signal recovery at 10 or 20 Hz, very fast valve switching, instant vertical wind velocity proportional flow rate control, virtually no deadband and adaptive power management. Demonstrated system performance often exceeds requirements for flux measurements by orders of magnitude. The system's exceptionally low power consumption is ideal

  3. Subsurface Microbial Ecosystems: A Photon Flux and a Metabolic Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexander P.; Tejera, Frank; Libchaber, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Mud is a porous medium containing a high density of diverse microorganisms. It is out of equilibrium as the energy from a photon flux is dissipated by a cascade of biochemical reactions, mediated by the metabolisms of the constituent organisms. Despite its complexity, microbes in nature self-organize into simple reproducible patterns. We present two experiments in which the dynamics of natural mud coming to steady state are observed and modeled. In the first, the oxygen gradient produced by cyanobacteria in an imposed light gradient is measured. In the second, a thin front of oxygen-consuming microbes forms at the penetration depth of oxygen and moves with the changing oxygen gradient.

  4. Subsurface Microbial Ecosystems: A Photon Flux and a Metabolic Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexander P.; Tejera, Frank; Libchaber, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Mud is a porous medium containing a high density of diverse microorganisms. It is out of equilibrium as the energy from a photon flux is dissipated by a cascade of biochemical reactions, mediated by the metabolisms of the constituent organisms. Despite its complexity, microbes in nature self-organize into simple reproducible patterns. We present two experiments in which the dynamics of natural mud coming to steady state are observed and modeled. In the first, the oxygen gradient produced by cyanobacteria in an imposed light gradient is measured. In the second, a thin front of oxygen-consuming microbes forms at the penetration depth of oxygen and moves with the changing oxygen gradient.

  5. Noiseless Conditional Teleportation of a Single Photon.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Maria; Toba, Shunsuke; Takeda, Shuntaro; Marek, Petr; Mišta, Ladislav; Filip, Radim; van Loock, Peter; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Furusawa, Akira

    2014-11-28

    We experimentally demonstrate the noiseless teleportation of a single photon by conditioning on quadrature Bell measurement results near the origin in phase space and thereby circumventing the photon loss that otherwise occurs even in optimal gain-tuned continuous-variable quantum teleportation. In general, thanks to this loss suppression, the noiseless conditional teleportation can preserve the negativity of the Wigner function for an arbitrary pure input state and an arbitrary pure entangled resource state. In our experiment, the positive value of the Wigner function at the origin for the unconditional output state, W(0,0)=0.015±0.001, becomes clearly negative after conditioning, W(0,0)=-0.025±0.005, illustrating the advantage of noiseless conditional teleportation.

  6. The effect of the UV photon flux on the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of endocrine-disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Viegas, Cheila; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2016-10-01

    The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of 4-nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP4EO) using a low, moderate, or high UV photon flux in different treatment times was investigated. The byproducts were verified using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography with quadrupole mass analyzer (GC-qMS). The GC results showed that the use of a low (2.89 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) or a high (36.16 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) UV photon flux reaching the anode surface was associated to the production of alcohols and the toxic byproduct nonylphenol (NP), leading to the same degradation pathway. Meanwhile, the use of a moderate UV photon flux (14.19 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) reaching the anode surface did not produce alcohols or the NP toxic byproduct. This study demonstrates that different UV photon fluxes will have an influence in the degradation of NP4EO with or without generation of toxic byproducts. Furthermore, it is concluded that, after the determination of the UV photon flux able to degrade NP4EO without NP formation, the treatment time is essential in removal of NP4EO, since increasing the treatment time of 4 to 10 h, when using the PEC best conditions (moderate UV photon flux), implies in a higher treatment efficiency.

  7. Optical fluxes in coupled PT -symmetric photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Zhang, Lingxuan

    2017-08-01

    In this work we first examine transverse and longitudinal fluxes in a PT -symmetric photonic dimer using a coupled-mode theory. Several surprising understandings are obtained from this perspective: The longitudinal flux shows that the PT transition in a dimer can be regarded as a classical effect, despite its analogy to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics. The longitudinal flux also indicates that the so-called giant amplification in the PT -symmetric phase is a subexponential behavior and does not outperform a single gain waveguide. The transverse flux, on the other hand, reveals that the apparent power oscillations between the gain and loss waveguides in the PT -symmetric phase can be deceiving in certain cases, where the transverse power transfer is in fact unidirectional. We also show that this power transfer cannot be arbitrarily fast even when the exceptional point is approached. Finally, we go beyond the coupled-mode theory by using the paraxial wave equation and also extend our discussions to a PT diamond and a one-dimensional periodic lattice.

  8. Flux boundary conditions in particle simulations.

    PubMed

    Flekkøy, Eirik G; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Coveney, Peter V

    2005-08-01

    Flux boundary conditions are interesting in a number of contexts ranging from multiscale simulations to simulations of molecular hydrodynamics in nanoscale systems. Here we introduce, analyze, and test a general scheme to impose boundary conditions that simultaneously control the momentum and energy flux into open particle systems The scheme is shown to handle far from equilibrium simulations. It acquires its main characteristics from the requirement that it fulfills the second law of thermodynamics and thus minimizes the entropy production, when it is applied to reversible processes. It is shown both theoretically and through simulations that the scheme emulates the effect of an extended particle system as far as particle number fluctuations, temperature, and density profiles are concerned. The numerical scheme is further shown to be accurate and stable in both equilibrium and far from equilibrium contexts.

  9. Seismic stress responses of soybean to different photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Coe, L. L.; Montgomery, L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Physical agitation applied as periodic seismic stress (shaking) reduced stem elongation, leaf expansion, and biomass accumulation by vegetative soybeans. Level of photon flux (PPF) influenced the type and extent of plant response to mechanical stress. Plant parts responded differently as PPF varied between 135 and 592 micromoles m-2 s-1. Stem length was significantly reduced by seismic stress at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but this effect was insignificant at higher PPFs. Reduced stem length resulted from an inhibition of internode elongation. Stem diameter was unaffected by stress at the PPFs tested. In contrast to effects on stem elongation, leaf area was insensitive to stress treatments at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but was progressively inhibited by stress as PPF increased. Statistically significant reductions in shoot f. wt and d. wt by seismic stress occurred only at 295 micromoles m-2 s-1. Root biomass accumulation was not affected by seismic stress at any PPF used in this study.

  10. Seismic stress responses of soybean to different photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Coe, L. L.; Montgomery, L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Physical agitation applied as periodic seismic stress (shaking) reduced stem elongation, leaf expansion, and biomass accumulation by vegetative soybeans. Level of photon flux (PPF) influenced the type and extent of plant response to mechanical stress. Plant parts responded differently as PPF varied between 135 and 592 micromoles m-2 s-1. Stem length was significantly reduced by seismic stress at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but this effect was insignificant at higher PPFs. Reduced stem length resulted from an inhibition of internode elongation. Stem diameter was unaffected by stress at the PPFs tested. In contrast to effects on stem elongation, leaf area was insensitive to stress treatments at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but was progressively inhibited by stress as PPF increased. Statistically significant reductions in shoot f. wt and d. wt by seismic stress occurred only at 295 micromoles m-2 s-1. Root biomass accumulation was not affected by seismic stress at any PPF used in this study.

  11. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  12. Controlling Ion and UV/VUV Photon Fluxes in Pulsed Low Pressure Plasmas for Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Peng; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    UV/VUV photon fluxes in plasma materials processing have a variety of effects ranging from damaging to synergistic. To optimize these processes, it is desirable to have separate control over the fluxes of ions and photons, or at least be able to control their relative fluxes or overlap in time. Pulsed plasmas may provide such control as the rates at which ion and photon fluxes respond to the pulse power deposition are different. Results from a computational investigation of pulsed plasmas will be discussed to determine methods to control the ratio of ion to photon fluxes. Simulations were performed using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model which addresses radiation transport using a Monte Carlo Simulation. Radiation transport is frequency resolved using partial-frequency-redistribution algorithms. Results for low pressure (10s of mTorr) inductively and capacitively coupled plasmas in Ar/Cl2 mixtures will be discussed while varying duty cycle, reactor geometry, gas mixture and pressure. We found that the time averaged ratio of VUV photon-to-ion fluxes in ICPs can be controlled with duty cycle of the pulsed power. Even with radiation trapping, photon fluxes tend to follow the power pulse whereas due to their finite response times, fluxes of ions tend to average the power pulse. Due to the overshoot in electron temperature that occurs at the start of low-duty-cycle pulses, disproportionately large photon fluxes (compared to ion fluxes) can be generated.

  13. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  14. Effect of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density on Carboxylation Efficiency 1

    PubMed Central

    Weber, James A.; Tenhunen, John D.; Gates, David M.; Lange, Otto L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on photosynthetic response (A) to CO2 partial pressures between 35 pascals and CO2 compensation point (Γ) was investigated, especially below PPFD saturation. Spinacia oleracea cv `Atlanta,' Glycine max cv `Clark,' and Arbutus unedo were studied in detail. The initial slope of the photosynthetic response to CO2 (∂A/∂C[Γ]) was constant above a PPFD of about 500 to 600 micromoles per square meter per second for all three species; but declined rapidly with PPFD below this critical level. For Γ there was also a critical PPFD (approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second for S. oleracea and G. max; 100 for A. unedo) above which Γ was essentially constant, but below which Γ increased with decreasing PPFD. All three species showed a dependence of ∂A/∂C(Γ) on PPFD at low PPFD. Simulated photosynthetic responses obtained with a biochemically based model of whole-leaf photosynthesis were similar to measured responses. PMID:16665640

  15. Photon flux determination for a precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, Aram

    2008-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Hall B PrimEx Collaboration is using tagged photons to perform a 1.4% level measurement of the absolute cross section for the photo-production of neutral pions in the Coulomb field of a nucleus as a test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Such a high precision pushes the limits of the photon tagging technique in regards to the determination of the absolute photon flux. A multifaceted approach to this problem has included measuring the absolute tagging ratios with a Total Absorption Counter (TAC) as well as relative tagging ratios with a Pair Spectrometer (PS), and determining the rate of the tagging counters using multi-hit TDC's and a clock trigger. This enables the determination of the absolute tagged photon flux for the PrimEx experiment with uncertainty of ~ 1.0%, which is unprecedented. In view of the stringent constraints on the required precision of the photon flux for this experiment, periodicmeasurements of the pair production cross section were performed throughout the run. In these measurements, both the photon energy and flux were determined by the Jefferson Lab Hall B tagger, and the electron-positron pairs were swept by a magnetic field and detected in the new 1728 channel hybrid calorimeter (HyCal). The pair production crosssection was extracted with an uncertainty of ~ 2%, producing an agreement with theoretical calculations at the level of ~ 2%. This measurement provided a unique opportunity to verify the photon flux determination procedure for the PrimEx experiment.

  16. Calibration of a single-photon counting detectors without the need of input photon flux calibration (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Calibration of fiber-coupled single-photon detectors usually requires knowledge of the input photon flux inside the fiber and/or knowledge of the linearity of a reference power meter. Many approaches have been presented in the past to accurately measure the photon detection probability of a single photon detector [1-6]. Under certain assumptions, one can utilize waveguide-coupled single photon detectors and a series of photon-counting measurements and a single-photon source to calibrate the detection efficiency of a single photon detector without the need of a reference power meter and the knowledge of the incoming photon flux. Here, this method is presented. Furthermore, if a reference detector is used, the detection efficiency of all evanescently coupled waveguide detectors can be measured, and the measurement outcome does not depend on splicing or fiber connection losses within in the setup, i.e., the measurement is setup-independent. In addition, the method, when using a reference detector, can be utilized to measure and distinguish between the absorption of a waveguide-coupled single photon detector and its internal detection efficiency. [1] A. J. Miller et al, Opt. Express 19, 9102-9110 (2011) [2] I. Muller et al., Metrologia 51, S329 (2014). [3] A. L. Migdall, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 50, 478-481 (2001). [4] S. V. Polyakov, A. L. Migdall, Optics Express 15, 1390-1407 (2007). [5] A. Avella et al., Optics Express 19, 23249-23257 (2011). [6] T. Lunghi et al., Opt. Express 22, 18078-18092 (2014)

  17. Arrangement Analysis of Leaves Optimized on Photon Flux Density or Photosynthetic Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Tanno, Itaru

    By clarifying a plant evolutive process, useful information may be obtained on engineering. Consequently, an analysis algorithm that investigates the optimal arrangement of plant leaves was developed. In the developed algorithm, the Monte Carlo method is introduced and sunlight is simulated. Moreover, the arrangement optimization of leaves is analyzed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The number of light quanta (photon flux density) that reaches leaves, or the average photosynthetic rate of the same was set as the objective function, and leaf models of a dogwood and a ginkgo tree were analyzed. The number of leaf models was set between two to four, and the position of the leaf was expressed in terms of the angle of direction, elevation angle, rotation angle, and the representative length of the branch of a leaf. The chromosome model introduced into GA consists of information concerning the position of the leaf. Based on the analysis results, the characteristics of the leaf of an actual plant could be simulated by ensuring the algorithm had multiple constrained conditions. The optimal arrangement of leaves differs in maximization of the photon flux density, and that of the average value of a photosynthetic rate. Furthermore, the leaf form affecting the optimal arrangement of leave and also having a significant influence also on a photosynthetic rate was shown.

  18. Wavelength Sensitive Photonic Modules for Signal Conditioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-18

    LaboratoryN. A. Riza Variable Photonic Delay Line using Small Tilt Digital Micromirror Mirror Mirror 2-D Binary DMD 2-D Binary DMD Mirror MirrorMirror...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED Photonic Information Processing Systems LaboratoryN. A. Riza Large micromirror sizes Non-Robust...Approaches to make a Variable Fiber-Optic Attenuator Big Translational Mirror Slow Response Speed Solution for Faster Speed Use One Small Micromirror Problems

  19. Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of π/6 (and up to π/3 by postselection on photons that remain in the system longer than average) between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. By upgrading to a state-of-the-art cavity, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of π at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. PMID:27519798

  20. Power loss in electrical steel under elliptically rotating flux conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Salz, W.; Hempel, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    The power loss of electrical steel sheet given in the data sheets of the steel manufacturers is related to linearly alternating flux conditions, measured with an Epstein frame or a single sheet tester, respectively. In the application of the material in electrical machines, the authors find large areas with rotational flux conditions, i.e., in the T-joint region of three-phase power transformers or above the stator teeth of three-phase motors and generators. The most general description of the magnetization process in this case is an elliptically rotating flux. The paper outlines the magnetic behavior of steel sheet under these flux conditions, and finally defines a simple method to predict the total power loss under elliptically rotating flux from data measured under linearly alternating and circularly rotating flux conditions only.

  1. Leaf photosynthetic and solar-tracking responses of mallow, Malva parviflora, to photon flux density.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Thorpe, Michael R

    2009-10-01

    Malva parviflora L. (mallow) is a species that occupies high-light habitats as a weedy invader in orchards and vineyards. Species of the Malvaceae are known to solar track and anecdotal evidence suggests this species may also. How M. parviflora responds physiologically to light in comparison with other species within the Malvaceae remains unknown. Tracking and photosynthetic responses to photon flux density (PFD) were evaluated on plants grown in greenhouse conditions. Tracking ability was assessed in the growth conditions and by exposing leaves to specific light intensities and measuring changes in the angle of the leaf plane. Light responses were also determined by photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. Leaves followed a heliotropic response which was highly PFD-dependent, with tracking rates increasing in a curvilinear pattern. Maximum tracking rates were up to 20 degrees h(-1) and saturated for light above 1,300 micromol (photons) m(-2) s(-1). This high-light saturation, both for tracking (much higher than the other species), and for photosynthesis, confirmed mallow as a high-light demanding species. Further, because there was no photoinhibition, the leaves could capture the potential of an increased carbon gain in higher irradiance by resorting to solar tracking. Modelling suggested the tracking response could increase the annual carbon gain by as much as 25% compared with leaves that do not track the sun. The various leaf attributes associated with solar tracking, therefore, help to account for the success of this species as a weed in many locations worldwide.

  2. Effects of periodic fluctuations of photon flux density on anatomical and photosynthetic characteristics of soybean leaves.

    PubMed

    Gaudillere, J P; Drevon, J J; Bernoud, J P; Jardinet, F; Euvrard, M

    1987-01-01

    The development of soybean leaves grown at fluctuating photon flux density between 100 and 1500μM m(-2)s(-1) with a period of 160 sec were compared to leaves developed under continuous light with the same mean photon flux density. Number of epidermal cells and stomata, leaf area and specific leaf weight were not affected by the periodic fluctuation of photon flux density. Chloroplastic pigment concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence reveal some photoinhibitory effects of the high photon flux density phase. Stomatal and internal CO2 conductance and the quantum yield were not affected by the light regime. In contrast ribulose 1.5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity before in vitro activation by CO2 and Mg(++) was stimulated by the periodic illumination whereas the total amount of the enzyme and the internal leaf CO2 conductance remained steady. In conclusion, there was no major difference between leaves of plant grown either under a steady or under a periodic fluctuation of the photon flux density except some photoinhibitory symptoms under fluctuating illumination, and a higher in vivo level of activation of the Rubisco.

  3. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  4. Fluxes and spectra of quasimonochromatic annihilation photons for studying E1 giant resonances in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z.

    2014-12-15

    The fluxes and spectra of quasimonochromatic photons originating from the in-flight annihilation of positrons interacting with electrons of targets are analyzed in the energy region characteristic of the excitation of E1 giant resonances in nuclei. Targets of small thickness and low atomic number are used. The dependences of the spectra on the energy and angle (and their scatter) for positrons incident to the target, on the collimation angle for photons, and on the target thickness are studied.

  5. Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Boyd, Robert W.

    2008-02-01

    A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N -photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields.

  6. Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2008-02-15

    A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N-photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles et al. [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields.

  7. Photon flux and spectrum of γ-rays Compton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Ben Alì Zinati, R.; Chaikovska, I.; Curatolo, C.; Ferrario, M.; Maroli, C.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the characteristics of the γ radiation produced by Compton back-scattering of a high brightness electron beam produced by a photoinjector and accelerated in a linac up to energies of 360-720 MeV and a laser operated at about 500 nm, by comparing classical and quantum models and codes. The interaction produces γ rays in the range 4.9-18.8 MeV. In view of the application to nuclear resonance fluorescence a relative bandwidth of few 10-3 is needed. The bandwidth is reduced by taking advantage of the frequency-angular correlation typical of the phenomenon and selecting the radiation in an angle of tens of μrads. The foreseen spectral density is 20-6 photons per eV in a single shot, a number that can be increased by developing multi-bunch techniques and laser recirculation. In this way a final value of 104 photon per eV per second can be achieved.

  8. Characterization of ion fluxes and heat fluxes for PMI relevant conditions on Proto-MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Clyde; Shaw, Guinevere; Biewer, Theodore; Rapp, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    Plasma characterization, in particular, particle flux and electron and ion temperature distributions nearest to an exposed target, are critical to quantifying Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI). In the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), the ion fluxes and heat fluxes are derived from double Langmuir Probes (DLP) and Thomson Scattering in front of the target assuming Bohm conditions at the sheath entrance. Power fluxes derived from ne and Te measurements are compared to heat fluxes measured with IR thermography. The comparison will allow conclusions on the sheath heat transmission coefficient to be made experimentally. Different experimental conditions (low and high density plasmas (0.5 - 6 x 1019 m-3) with different magnetic configuration are compared. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  9. Signal photon flux generated by high-frequency relic gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Wen, Hao

    2016-08-01

    The power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations increases rapidly in the high frequency region if the spectral index n t > 0. It is shown that the amplitude of relic gravitational waves h t(5 × 109 Hz) varies from 10-36 to 10-25 while n t varies from -6.25 × 10-3 to 0.87. A high frequency gravitational wave detector proposed by F.-Y. Li detects gravitational waves through observing the perturbed photon flux that is generated by interaction between relic gravitational waves and electromagnetic field. It is shown that the perturbative photon flux (5 × 109 Hz) varies from 1.40 × 10-4 s-1 to 2.85 × 107 s-1 while n t varies from -6.25 × 10-3 to 0.87. Correspondingly, the ratio of the transverse perturbative photon flux to the background photon flux varies from 10-28 to 10-16. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305181,11322545,11335012) and Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF181CJ1)

  10. Optimal excitation conditions for indistinguishable photons from quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Tobias; Predojević, Ana; Föger, Daniel; Solomon, Glenn; Weihs, Gregor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed, all optical study of the influence of different excitation schemes on the indistinguishability of single photons from a single InAs quantum dot. For this study, we measure the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of consecutive photons from the spontaneous emission of an InAs quantum dot state under various excitation schemes and different excitation conditions and give a comparison.

  11. Plasma photonics in ICF & HED conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Pierre; Turnbull, David; Divol, Laurent; Pollock, Bradley; Chen, Cecilia Y.; Tubman, Eleanor; Goyon, Clement S.; Moody, John D.

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between multiple high-energy laser beams and plasma can be used to imprint refractive micro-structures in plasmas via the lasers' ponderomotive force. For example, Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility already rely on the use of plasma gratings to redirect laser light inside an ICF target and tune the symmetry of the imploded core. More recently, we proposed new concepts of plasma polarizer and waveplate, based on two-wave mixing schemes and laser-induced plasma birefringence. In this talk, we will present new experimental results showing the first demonstration of a fully tunable plasma waveplate, which achieved near-perfect circular laser polarization. We will discuss further prospects for novel ``plasma photonics'' concepts based on two- and four-wave mixing, such as optical switches, bandpass filters, anti-reflection blockers etc. These might find applications in ICF and HED experiments by allowing to manipulate the lasers directly in-situ (i.e. inside the targets), as well as for the design of high power laser systems. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Photon flux requirements for EUV reticle imaging microscopy in the 22 and 16 nm nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wintz, D.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Huh, S.

    2010-03-12

    EUV-wavelength actinic microscopy yields detailed information about EUV mask patterns, architectures, defects, and the performance of defect repair strategies, without the complications of photoresist imaging. The measured aerial image intensity profiles provide valuable feedback to improve mask and lithography system modeling methods. In order to understand the photon-flux-dependent pattern measurement limits of EUV mask-imaging microscopy, we have investigated the effects of shot noise on aerial image linewidth measurements for lines in the 22 and 16-nm generations. Using a simple model of image formation near the resolution limit, we probe the influence of photon shot noise on the measured, apparent line roughness. With this methodology, we arrive at general flux density requirements independent of the specific EUV microscope configurations. Analytical and statistical analysis of aerial image simulations in the 22 and 16-nm generations reveal the trade-offs between photon energy density (controllable with exposure time), effective pixel dimension on the CCO (controlled by the microscope's magnification ratio), and image log slope (ILS). We find that shot-noise-induced linewidth roughness (LWR) varies imersely with the square root of the photon energy density, and is proportional to the imaging magnification ratio. While high magnification is necessary for adequate spatial resolution, for a given flux density, higher magnification ratios have diminishing benefits. With practical imaging parameters, we find that in order to achieve an LWR (3{sigma}) value of 5% of linewidth for dense, 88-nm mask features with 80% aerial image contrast and 13.5-nm effective pixel width (1000x magnification ratio), a peak photon flux of approximately 1400 photons per pixel per exposure is required.

  13. Generation of high-photon flux-coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses.

    PubMed

    Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Hage, Arvid; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3·10(8) photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10(-9), which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed.

  14. Integral equations of the photon fluence rate and flux based on a generalized Delta-Eddington phase function.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wenxiang; Shen, Haiou; Cong, Alexander X; Wang, Ge

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized Delta-Eddington phase function to simplify the radiative transfer equation to integral equations with respect to both photon fluence rate and flux vector. The photon fluence rate and flux can be solved from the system of integral equations. By comparing to the Monte Carlo simulation results, the solutions of the system of integral equations accurately model the photon propagation in biological tissue over a wide range of optical parameters.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet photon fluxes in argon-containing inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanov, S. B.; Persing, H. M.; Wang, S.; Culver, C. L.; Boffard, J. B.; Lin, C. C.; Wendt, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. Damage of materials is induced by energy transfer from the VUV photons to the surface, causing disorder in the surface region, surface reactions, and affecting bonds in the material bulk. Monitoring of the surface flux of VUV photons from inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) and its dependence on discharge parameters is thus highly desirable. Results of non-invasive, direct windowless VUV detection using a photosensitive diode will be presented. Relative VUV fluxes were also obtained using a sodium salicylate coating on the inside of a vacuum window, converting VUV into visible light detected through the vacuum window. The coating is sensitive to wavelengths in the range 80-300 nm, while the photodiode is only sensitive to wavelengths below 120 nm. In argon the VUV emissions are primarily produced by spontaneous decay from 3p5 4 s resonance levels (1s2,1s4) and may be reabsorbed by ground state atoms. Real-time resonance level concentrations were measured and used to predict the VUV photon flux at the detector for a range of different ICP pressures, powers, and for various admixtures of Ar with N2, and H2. This work was supported in part by NSF grant PHY-1068670.

  16. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within

  17. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-09

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging.

  18. Conditions for duality between fluxes and concentrations in biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ronan M T; Vlassis, Nikos; Thiele, Ines; Saunders, Michael A

    2016-11-21

    Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical networks is often done in terms of either the concentrations of molecular species or the fluxes of biochemical reactions. When is mathematical modelling from either perspective equivalent to the other? Mathematical duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one manner. We present a novel stoichiometric condition that is necessary and sufficient for duality between unidirectional fluxes and concentrations. Our numerical experiments, with computational models derived from a range of genome-scale biochemical networks, suggest that this flux-concentration duality is a pervasive property of biochemical networks. We also provide a combinatorial characterisation that is sufficient to ensure flux-concentration duality.The condition prescribes that, for every two disjoint sets of molecular species, there is at least one reaction complex that involves species from only one of the two sets. When unidirectional fluxes and molecular species concentrations are dual vectors, this implies that the behaviour of the corresponding biochemical network can be described entirely in terms of either concentrations or unidirectional fluxes.

  19. Application of single flux quantum technology to a next-generation photonic packet switch core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorozu, S.; Harai, H.; Kameda, Y.; Terai, H.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2004-10-01

    Internet traffic is still growing rapidly. Link capacity is easily increased by bundling optical fibers, but the packet switching capacity at a node is limited by the performance of a semiconductor switch facing problems of packaging density, operation speed, and power consumption. Photonic technology is therefore emerging from the link technology into the packet switch technology. A photonic packet switch can analyze the packet label optically and control optical switches, but packet scheduling must be done in the non-optical domain because photonic technology lacks arithmetic characteristics. Increases in the line speed and the number of ports will make this scheduling a bottleneck. Because single flux quantum (SFQ) circuits can operate at several tens of gigahertz, a speed comparable to optical link speed, they will be able to eliminate this bottleneck. To improve the performance of the nodes in the photonic network, we propose an SFQ-circuit-controlled optical packet switch core. Here we describe and discuss two photonic packet switch architectures using SFQ-circuit-controlled photonic switches.

  20. Sediment DSi and DIP fluxes under simulated redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nteziryayo, Love-Raoul; Danielsson, Åsa

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophic water bodies in the world. This eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has resulted in the expansion of areas of hypoxic bottom waters. Hypoxia is known to cause the release of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) from sediment. It is largely assumed that dissolved silica (DSi) reacts in an analogous way in hypoxic conditions. From sediment incubation experiments, we found that P reacts faster to oxygen changes than Si. Here we show that DSi and DIP behave differently to changing oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters, and that the adsorption and de-sorption on Fe oxihydroxides may control the release of P more efficiently than of Si. The results showed that DSi fluxes were higher under oxic conditions (2.21±0.28 mmol Si m-2d-1) than under hypoxic conditions (1.36±0.29 mmol Si m-2d-1). The opposite was observed for P fluxes (0.06 ±0.01 and 0.10±0.09 mmol P m-2d-1) under oxic respective hypoxic conditions). Our results indicate that the increase of hypoxic conditions in coastal areas may directly cause the decrease of Si fluxes from sediment and thereby contribute to the diminishing Si concentrations observed in the Baltic Sea waters.

  1. River-aquifer exchange fluxes under monsoonal climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Svenja; Frei, Sven; Ruidisch, Marianne; Shope, Christopher L.; Peiffer, Stefan; Kim, Bomchul; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2014-02-01

    An important prerequisite to better understand the transport of nutrients and contaminants across the river-aquifer interface and possible implications for biogeochemical transformations is to accurately characterize and asses the exchange fluxes. In this study we investigate how monsoonal precipitation events and the resulting variability in river discharge affect the dynamics of river-aquifer exchange and the corresponding flux rates. We evaluate potential impacts of the investigated exchange fluxes on local water quality. Hydraulic gradients along a piezometer transect were monitored at a river reach in a small catchment in South Korea, where the hydrologic dynamics are driven by the East-Asian Monsoon. We used heat as a tracer to constrain river-aquifer exchange fluxes in a two-dimensional flow and heat transport model implemented in the numerical code HydroGeoSphere, which was calibrated to the measured temperature and total head data. To elucidate potential effects of river-aquifer exchange dynamics on biogeochemical transformations at the river-aquifer interface, river water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen saturation (DOsat). Our results illustrate highly variable hydrologic conditions during the monsoon season characterized by temporal and spatial variability in river-aquifer exchange fluxes with frequent flow reversals (changes between gaining and losing conditions). Intense monsoonal precipitation events and the associated rapid changes in river stage are the dominant driver for the observed riverbed flow reversals. The chemical data suggest that the flow reversals, when river water high in DOC is pushed into the nitrate-rich groundwater below the stream and subsequently returns to the stream may facilitate and enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate in the shallow groundwater.

  2. Polarization in CdTe radiation detectors at high X-ray photon fluxes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franc, Jan; Dědič, Václav; Pekárek, Jakub; Belas, Eduard; Touš, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution we show an improvement of a spectroscopic response of CZT X-ray detector operating at high fluxes of X-ray tube by simultaneous infrared light illumination with a wavelength of 1200 nm. CZT detectors usually suffer from a polarization effect while their internal electric field can be strongly deformed due to a trapping of photogenerated holes. We describe a mechanism of an optically induced depolarization peaking at photon energy of about 1 eV ( 1240 nm) due to an optical transition of electrons from the valence band to the deep level. The depolarization effect is accompanied by a decrease of the detector current which results in a lower noise entering the preamplifier of detector readout circuit. We have observed that it is possible to restore originally distorted X-ray spectra using additional 1200 nm LED illumination with a photon flux of 10^16 cm^-2s^-1 at approximately two times higher X-ray flux than without LED. The number of detected counts was in the range of 10^5-10^6mm^2s^-1. The restoration of the spectrum by continuous infrared light is accompanied by decrease of dark current. We explain this effect by light induced changes of profile of the electric filed that leads to decrease of the electron current injected from the cathode.

  3. Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shaokui; Smith, Richard G.; Jacovides, Constantinos P.; Kramer, Marc G.; Carruthers, Raymond I.

    2011-08-01

    Plants require solar radiation for photosynthesis and their growth is directly related to the amount received, assuming that other environmental parameters are not limiting. Therefore, precise estimation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is necessary to enhance overall accuracies of plant growth models. This study aimed to explore the PAR radiant flux in the San Francisco Bay Area of northern California. During the growing season (March through August) for 2 years 2007-2008, the on-site magnitudes of photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) were investigated and then processed at both the hourly and daily time scales. Combined with global solar radiation ( R S) and simulated extraterrestrial solar radiation, five PAR-related values were developed, i.e., flux density-based PAR (PPFD), energy-based PAR (PARE), from-flux-to-energy conversion efficiency (fFEC), and the fraction of PAR energy in the global solar radiation (fE), and a new developed indicator—lost PARE percentages (LPR)—when solar radiation penetrates from the extraterrestrial system to the ground. These PAR-related values indicated significant diurnal variation, high values occurring at midday, with the low values occurring in the morning and afternoon hours. During the entire experimental season, the overall mean hourly value of fFEC was found to be 2.17 μmol J-1, while the respective fE value was 0.49. The monthly averages of hourly fFEC and fE at the solar noon time ranged from 2.15 in March to 2.39 μmol J-1 in August and from 0.47 in March to 0.52 in July, respectively. However, the monthly average daily values were relatively constant, and they exhibited a weak seasonal variation, ranging from 2.02 mol MJ-1 and 0.45 (March) to 2.19 mol MJ-1 and 0.48 (June). The mean daily values of fFEC and fE at the solar noon were 2.16 mol MJ-1 and 0.47 across the entire growing season, respectively. Both PPFD and the ever first reported LPR showed strong diurnal patterns. However, they had

  4. On the entropy conditions for some flux limited diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselles, V.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we give a characterization of the notion of entropy solutions of some flux limited diffusion equations for which we can prove that the solution is a function of bounded variation in space and time. This includes the case of the so-called relativistic heat equation and some generalizations. For them we prove that the jump set consists of fronts that propagate at the speed given by Rankine-Hugoniot condition and we give on it a geometric characterization of the entropy conditions. Since entropy solutions are functions of bounded variation in space once the initial condition is, to complete the program we study the time regularity of solutions of the relativistic heat equation under some conditions on the initial datum. An analogous result holds for some other related equations without additional assumptions on the initial condition.

  5. Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Demmler, Stefan; Klenke, Arno; Tünnermann, Andreas; Limpert, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Sources of short wavelength radiation with femtosecond to attosecond pulse durations, such as synchrotrons or free electron lasers, have already made possible numerous, and will facilitate more, seminal studies aimed at understanding atomic and molecular processes on fundamental length and time scales. Table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet to soft x-ray radiation enabled by high harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulse lasers have also gained significant attention in the last few years due to their enormous potential for addressing a plethora of applications, therefore constituting a complementary source to large-scale facilities (synchrotrons and free electron lasers). Ti:sapphire based laser systems have been the workhorses for HHG for decades, but are limited in repetition rate and average power. On the other hand, it has been widely recognized that fostering applications in fields such as photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coincidence detection, coherent diffractive imaging and frequency metrology requires a high repetition rate and high photon flux HHG sources. In this article we will review recent developments in realizing the demanding requirement of producing a high photon flux and repetition rate at the same time. Particular emphasis will be put on suitable ultrashort pulse and high average power lasers, which directly drive harmonic generation without the need for external enhancement cavities. To this end we describe two complementary schemes that have been successfully employed for high power fiber lasers, i.e. optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers and nonlinear pulse compression. Moreover, the issue of phase-matching in tight focusing geometries will be discussed and connected to recent experiments. We will highlight the latest results in fiber laser driven high harmonic generation that currently produce the highest photon flux of all existing sources. In addition, we demonstrate the first promising applications and

  6. Dynamic control of photosynthetic photon flux for lettuce production in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, C.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    A new dynamic control of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was tested using lettuce canopies growing in the Minitron II plant-growth/canopy gas-exchange system. Canopy photosynthetic rates (Pn) were measured in real time and fedback for further environment control. Pn can be manipulated by changing PPF, which is a good environmental parameter for dynamic control of crop production in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems CELSS. Decision making that combines empirical mathematical models with rule sets developed from recent experimental data was tested. With comparable yield indices and potential for energy savings, dynamic control strategies will contribute greatly to the sustainability of space-deployed CELSS.

  7. Dynamic control of photosynthetic photon flux for lettuce production in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, C.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    A new dynamic control of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was tested using lettuce canopies growing in the Minitron II plant-growth/canopy gas-exchange system. Canopy photosynthetic rates (Pn) were measured in real time and fedback for further environment control. Pn can be manipulated by changing PPF, which is a good environmental parameter for dynamic control of crop production in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems CELSS. Decision making that combines empirical mathematical models with rule sets developed from recent experimental data was tested. With comparable yield indices and potential for energy savings, dynamic control strategies will contribute greatly to the sustainability of space-deployed CELSS.

  8. Efficient Reductive Decomposition of Perfluorooctanesulfonate in a High Photon Flux UV/Sulfite System.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yurong; Dong, Wenyi; Luo, Cheng; Liu, Tongzhou

    2016-10-04

    Hydrated electron (eaq(-)) induced reduction techniques are promising for decomposing recalcitrant organic pollutants. However, its vigorous reactivity with copresent scavenging species and the difficulty in minimizing the competitive reactions make the proportion of eaq(-) participating in pollutant decomposition low, reflecting by slow decomposition kinetics. In this study, a high photon flux UV/sulfite system was employed to promote eaq(-) production. Its feasibility in enhancing a notorious recalcitrant pollutant, PFOS, decomposition was investigated. The effective photon flux utilized for producing eaq(-) was 9.93 × 10(-8) einstein/cm(2)·s. At initial solution pH 9.2, with DO about 5 mg/L, and at around 25 °C, 98% PFOS was decomposed within 30 min from its initial concentration of 32 μM. The kobs of PFOS decomposition was 0.118 min(-1) (7.08 h(-1)), and about 8-400 folds faster than those obtained in other reductive approaches. In this system, PFOS decomposition showed can tolerate copresent 7 mg N/L of NO3(-). Suggested by molecular orbitals and thermodynamic analyses, the mechanisms responsible for PFOS decomposition involve defluorination, desulfonation, and centermost C-C bond scission. By demonstrating a more practical relevant treatment process, the outcomes of this study would be helpful for facilitating future applications of eaq(-) induced reduction techniques for efficient recalcitrant pollutants decomposition.

  9. Critical heat flux correlation through the alternating conditional expectation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Han Gon Kim; Lee, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Because most critical heat flux (CHF) correlations have specific ranges of application, lookup table techniques and artificial neural networks have been recently used to predict CHF for a broad range of variables. In this paper, the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is used to generate a new CHF correlation applicable to a wide range of forced convective boiling parameters. As a generalized regression tool, the ACE algorithm does not require an initial guess for the functional form, and it guarantees the convergence of the solution.

  10. A solid-state amorphous selenium avalanche technology for low photon flux imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Wronski, M. M.; Zhao, W.; Reznik, A.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of a practical solid-state technology for low photon flux imaging applications was investigated. The technology is based on an amorphous selenium photoreceptor with a voltage-controlled avalanche multiplication gain. If this photoreceptor can provide sufficient internal gain, it will be useful for an extensive range of diagnostic imaging systems. Methods: The avalanche photoreceptor under investigation is referred to as HARP-DRL. This is a novel concept in which a high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP) is integrated with a distributed resistance layer (DRL) and sandwiched between two electrodes. The avalanche gain and leakage current characteristics of this photoreceptor were measured. Results: HARP-DRL has been found to sustain very high electric field strengths without electrical breakdown. It has shown avalanche multiplication gains as high as 104 and a very low leakage current (≤20 pA∕mm2). Conclusions: This is the first experimental demonstration of a solid-state amorphous photoreceptor which provides sufficient internal avalanche gain for photon counting and photon starved imaging applications. PMID:20964217

  11. Improvement in the Accuracy of Flux Measurement of Radio Sources by Exploiting an Arithmetic Pattern in Photon Bunching Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, Richard

    2017-07-01

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level with the help of high-precision computers to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the signal-limited bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  12. Model for Calculating Photosynthetic Photon Flux Densities in Forest Openings on Slopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing M.; Black, T. Andrew; Price, David T.; Carter, Reid E.

    1993-10-01

    A model has been developed to calculate the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in elliptical forest openings of given slopes and orientations. The PPFD is separated into direct and diffuse components. The direct component is calculated according to the opening and radiation geometries, and pathlength of the solar beam through the forest canopy. The diffuse component is obtained from the sky, tree, and landscape view factors. In this model, the distribution of foliage area with height and the effect of foliage clumping on both direct and diffuse radiation transmission are considered.The model has been verified using measurements for six quantum sensors (LI-COR Inc.) located at different positions in a small clear-cut (0.37 ha) in a 90-year-old western hemlock-Douglas fir forest.

  13. Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Terai, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-08-27

    We developed a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout technology for superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) to achieve low-jitter signal readout. By optimizing circuit parameters of the SFQ readout circuit, the input current sensitivity was improved below 10 μA, which is smaller than a typical critical current of SSPD. The experiment using a pulse-pattern generator as an input pulse source revealed that the measured jitter of the SFQ readout circuit is well below the system jitter of our measurement setup for the input current level above 15 μA. The measured jitter of the SSPD connected to the SFQ readout circuit was 37 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) for an SSPD bias current of around 18 μA, which is a significant improvement on 67 ps FWHM jitter observed in conventional readout without an SFQ readout circuit.

  14. Partitioning incident radiation fluxes based on photon recollision probability in vegetation canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M~Ottus, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing of vegetation and modeling of canopy microclimate requires information on the fractions of incident radiation reflected, transmitted and absorbed by a plant canopy. The photon recollision probability p allows to calculate easily the amount of radiation absorbed by a vegetation canopy and to predict the spectral behavior of canopy scattering, i.e. the sum of canopy reflectance and transmittance. However, to divide the scattered radiation into reflected and transmitted fluxes, additional models are needed. To overcome this problem, we present a simple formula based on the photon recollision probability p to estimate the fraction of radiation scattered upwards by a canopy. The new semi-empirical method is tested with Monte Carlo simulations. A comparison with the analytical solution of the two-stream equation of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies is also provided. Our results indicate that the method is accurate for low to moderate leaf area index (LAI) values, and provides a reasonable approximation even at LAI=8. Finally, we present a new method to compute p using numerical radiative transfer models.

  15. Photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, and temperature effects on emissions of (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate from lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charron, C. S.; Cantliffe, D. J.; Wheeler, R. M.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of environment on plant volatile emissions, 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce was cultivated under different levels of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), photoperiod, and temperature. A modified growth chamber was used to sample plant volatile emissions nondestructively, over time, and under controlled conditions. Total volatile emission rates were significantly higher from lettuce cultivated under PPF of 360 or 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 compared to 105 micromoles m-2 s-1, and significantly higher under a 16-h photoperiod than an 8-h photoperiod. No differences were detected among emission rates from different temperature treatments. In controlled environments, emissions could be regulated by adjusting environmental conditions accordingly.

  16. Photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, and temperature effects on emissions of (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate from lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charron, C. S.; Cantliffe, D. J.; Wheeler, R. M.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of environment on plant volatile emissions, 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce was cultivated under different levels of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), photoperiod, and temperature. A modified growth chamber was used to sample plant volatile emissions nondestructively, over time, and under controlled conditions. Total volatile emission rates were significantly higher from lettuce cultivated under PPF of 360 or 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 compared to 105 micromoles m-2 s-1, and significantly higher under a 16-h photoperiod than an 8-h photoperiod. No differences were detected among emission rates from different temperature treatments. In controlled environments, emissions could be regulated by adjusting environmental conditions accordingly.

  17. Photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, and temperature effects on emissions of (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate from lettuce.

    PubMed

    Charron, C S; Cantliffe, D J; Wheeler, R M; Manukian, A; Heath, R R

    1996-05-01

    To investigate the effects of environment on plant volatile emissions, 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce was cultivated under different levels of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), photoperiod, and temperature. A modified growth chamber was used to sample plant volatile emissions nondestructively, over time, and under controlled conditions. Total volatile emission rates were significantly higher from lettuce cultivated under PPF of 360 or 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 compared to 105 micromoles m-2 s-1, and significantly higher under a 16-h photoperiod than an 8-h photoperiod. No differences were detected among emission rates from different temperature treatments. In controlled environments, emissions could be regulated by adjusting environmental conditions accordingly.

  18. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  19. Characterization of the nonclassical nature of conditionally prepared single photons

    SciTech Connect

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Silberhorn, Christine; Ball, Jonathan L.; Banaszek, Konrad; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2005-08-15

    A reliable single photon source is a prerequisite for linear optical quantum computation and for secure quantum key distribution. A criterion yielding a conclusive test of the single photon character of a given source, attainable with realistic detectors, is therefore highly desirable. In the context of heralded single photon sources, such a criterion should be sensitive to the effects of higher photon number contributions, and to vacuum introduced through optical losses, which tend to degrade source performance. In this Rapid Communication we present, theoretically and experimentally, a criterion meeting the above requirements.

  20. Improved biomass productivity in algal biofilms through synergistic interactions between photon flux density and carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, Peter J; Molenda, Olivia; Edwards, Elizabeth; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2016-11-01

    Algal biofilms were grown to investigate the interaction effects of bulk medium CO2 concentration and photon flux density (PFD) on biomass productivities. When increasing the CO2 concentration from 0.04% to 2%, while maintaining a PFD of 100μmol/m(2)/s, biomass productivities increased from ∼0.5 to 2.0g/m(2)/d; however, the productivities plateaued when CO2 concentrations were incrementally increased above 2-12%. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there is a significant interaction between PFD and CO2 concentrations on biomass productivities. By simultaneously increasing PFD and CO2 concentrations, biomass productivities were significantly increased to 4.0 and 4.1g/m(2)/d in the experimental and modeled data, respectively. The second order model predicted increases in biomass productivities as both PFD and CO2 simultaneously increased yielding an optimum at 440μmol/m(2)/s and 7.1%; however, when conditions were extended to the highest end of their respective ranges, the conditions were detrimental to growth and productivities decreased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interacting effects of photoperiod and photosynthetic photon flux on net carbon assimilation and starch accumulation in potato leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod (PP) on net carbon assimilation rate (Anet) and starch accumulation in newly mature canopy leaves of 'Norland' potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was determined under high (412 varies as mol m-2s-1) and low (263 varies as mol m-2s-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) conditions. The Anet decreased from 13.9 to 11.6 and 9.3 micromoles m-2s-1, and leaf starch increased from 70 to 129 and 118 mg g-1 drymass (DM) as photoperiod (PP) was increased from 12/12 to 18/6, and 24/0, respectively. Longer PP had a greater effect with high PPF conditions than with low PPF treatments, with high PPF showing greater decline in Anet. Photoperiod did not affect either the CO2 compensation point (50 micromoles mol-1) or CO2 saturation point (1100-1200 micromoles mol-1) for Anet. These results show an apparent limit to the amount of starch that can be stored (approximately 15% DM) in potato leaves. An apparent feedback mechanism exists for regulating Anet under high PPF, high CO2, and long PP, but there was no correlation between Anet and starch concentration in individual leaves. This suggests that maximum Anet cannot be sustained with elevated CO2 conditions under long PP (> or = 12 hours) and high PPF conditions. If a physiological limit exists for the fixation and transport of carbon,then increasing photoperiod and light intensity under high CO2 conditions is not the most appropriate means to maximize the yield of potatoes.

  2. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1995-01-01

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  3. Ten-year variability in fluxes, meteorology, and environmental conditions at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Bowling, D. R.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Changing meteorological and environmental conditions affect fluxes; model analysis has shown that environmental variability directly accounts for about half the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 whereas the other 50% is due to biotic responses to these changing variables (Richardson et al. 2007). In our study, ten years (1998-2008) of turbulent flux measurements of heat, water vapor, and CO2 at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site (Monson et al. 2002) are examined with respect to meteorological conditions (atmospheric temperature, stability, precipitation, and cloudiness) as well as changes in environmental conditions, such as snow depth and soil moisture. The typical yearly cycle and an estimate of the magnitude of year-to-year variability in the diurnal fluxes and other variables for a high-elevation subalpine forest ecosystem are presented. Wintertime ecosystem respiration has an average 30-min NEE of 0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between 0.5-1 μmol m-2 s-1. Uptake of CO2 in late summer has an average NEE of -0.71 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between -0.1 to -1.5 μmol m-2 s-1. Previous studies at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site have described the importance of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (Monson et al. 2002) and also growing season length (Hu et al. 2009) on NEE. Water isotope ratios analyzed by Hu et al. (2009) have shown that trees at the site primarily rely on water from snowmelt to sustain them throughout the summer; combining this result with the SIPNET model, Hu et al. conclude that there is a limited connection between summer precipitation and the cumulative annual gross primary production (GPP). We have tested this conclusion more explicitly by examining the response of NEE to specific precipitation events and the effect of extended dry periods on the diel cycle of the fluxes, CO2 mole fraction, sap flow, and other meteorological and soil variables. Additionally, we examine the connection

  4. Growth and yield characteristics of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under different photon fluxes from metal halide or incandescent + fluorescent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1988-01-01

    Growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under metal halide radiation was compared with that under In = Fl at the same photosynthetic photon flux (920 micromol/s/sq m) to evaluate the influence of lamp type on growth. No differences in leaf dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate or photosynthesis occurred after 8 days of exposure to these radiation treatments for 20 h/day.

  5. Growth and yield characteristics of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under different photon fluxes from metal halide or incandescent + fluorescent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1988-01-01

    Growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under metal halide radiation was compared with that under In = Fl at the same photosynthetic photon flux (920 micromol/s/sq m) to evaluate the influence of lamp type on growth. No differences in leaf dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate or photosynthesis occurred after 8 days of exposure to these radiation treatments for 20 h/day.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Meteorological Conditions on the Neutron Flux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-22

    a statistical model that predicts environmental neutron background as a function of five meteorological variables: inverse barometric pressure...hour, a 20% variation, over five months of data collection with large variation between days. Meteorological data were collected with two commercially...the effects of the meteorological variables on neutron flux while accounting for the correlation among errors at previous time intervals. The dominant

  7. Sensitivity of Seven Diverse Species to Blue and Green Light: Interactions with Photon Flux.

    PubMed

    Snowden, M Chase; Cope, Kevin R; Bugbee, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the effects of spectral quality on plant growth, and development are not well understood. Much of our current understanding comes from studies with daily integrated light levels that are less than 10% of summer sunlight thus making it difficult to characterize interactions between light quality and quantity. Several studies have reported that growth is increased under fluorescent lamps compared to mixtures of wavelengths from LEDs. Conclusions regarding the effect of green light fraction range from detrimental to beneficial. Here we report the effects of eight blue and green light fractions at two photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF; 200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1; with a daily light integral of 11.5 and 29 mol m-2 d-1) on growth (dry mass), leaf expansion, stem and petiole elongation, and whole-plant net assimilation of seven diverse plant species. The treatments included cool, neutral, and warm white LEDs, and combinations of blue, green and/or red LEDs. At the higher PPF (500), increasing blue light in increments from 11 to 28% reduced growth in tomato, cucumber, and pepper by 22, 26, and 14% respectively, but there was no statistically significant effect on radish, soybean, lettuce or wheat. At the lower PPF (200), increasing blue light reduced growth only in tomato (41%). The effects of blue light on growth were mediated by changes in leaf area and radiation capture, with minimal effects on whole-plant net-assimilation. In contrast to the significant effects of blue light, increasing green light in increments from 0 to 30% had a relatively small effect on growth, leaf area and net assimilation at either low or high PPF. Surprisingly, growth of three of the seven species was not reduced by a treatment with 93% green light compared to the broad spectrum treatments. Collectively, these results are consistent with a shade avoidance response associated with either low blue or high green light fractions.

  8. Sensitivity of Seven Diverse Species to Blue and Green Light: Interactions with Photon Flux

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, M. Chase; Cope, Kevin R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the effects of spectral quality on plant growth, and development are not well understood. Much of our current understanding comes from studies with daily integrated light levels that are less than 10% of summer sunlight thus making it difficult to characterize interactions between light quality and quantity. Several studies have reported that growth is increased under fluorescent lamps compared to mixtures of wavelengths from LEDs. Conclusions regarding the effect of green light fraction range from detrimental to beneficial. Here we report the effects of eight blue and green light fractions at two photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF; 200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1; with a daily light integral of 11.5 and 29 mol m-2 d-1) on growth (dry mass), leaf expansion, stem and petiole elongation, and whole-plant net assimilation of seven diverse plant species. The treatments included cool, neutral, and warm white LEDs, and combinations of blue, green and/or red LEDs. At the higher PPF (500), increasing blue light in increments from 11 to 28% reduced growth in tomato, cucumber, and pepper by 22, 26, and 14% respectively, but there was no statistically significant effect on radish, soybean, lettuce or wheat. At the lower PPF (200), increasing blue light reduced growth only in tomato (41%). The effects of blue light on growth were mediated by changes in leaf area and radiation capture, with minimal effects on whole-plant net-assimilation. In contrast to the significant effects of blue light, increasing green light in increments from 0 to 30% had a relatively small effect on growth, leaf area and net assimilation at either low or high PPF. Surprisingly, growth of three of the seven species was not reduced by a treatment with 93% green light compared to the broad spectrum treatments. Collectively, these results are consistent with a shade avoidance response associated with either low blue or high green light fractions. PMID:27706176

  9. Enigmatic photon absorption in plasmas near solar interior conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Carlos A.

    2015-06-01

    Large systematic discrepancies between theoretical and experimental photon absorption of Fe plasmas applicable to the solar interior were reported [Bailey et al., Nature 517, 56 (2015)]. The disagreement is examined in the context of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn f-sum rule. The analysis identifies several anomalies in the experimental results.

  10. Interaction between the spectral photon flux density distributions of light during growth and for measurements in net photosynthetic rates of cucumber leaves.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keach; Matsuda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    The net photosynthetic rate of a leaf becomes acclimated to the plant's environment during growth. These rates are often measured, evaluated and compared among leaves of plants grown under different light conditions. In this study, we compared net photosynthetic rates of cucumber leaves grown under white light-emitting diode (LED) light without and with supplemental far-red (FR) LED light (W- and WFR-leaves, respectively) under three different measuring light (ML) conditions: their respective growth light (GL), artificial sunlight (AS) and blue and red (BR) light. The difference in the measured photosynthetic rates between W- and WFR-leaves was greater under BR than under GL and AS. In other words, an interaction between supplemental FR light during growth and the spectral photon flux density distribution (SPD) of ML affected the measured net photosynthetic rates. We showed that the comparison and evaluation of leaf photosynthetic rates and characteristics can be biased depending on the SPD of ML, especially for plants grown under different photon flux densities in the FR waveband. We also investigated the mechanism of the interaction. We confirmed that the distribution of excitation energy between the two photosystems (PSs) changed in response to the SPD of GL, and that this change resulted in the interaction, as suggested in previous reports. However, changes in PS stoichiometry could not completely explain the adjustment in excitation energy distribution observed in this study, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in the interaction.

  11. Inverse relationship between photon flux densities and nanotesla magnetic fields over cell aggregates: Quantitative evidence for energetic conservation

    PubMed Central

    Persinger, Michael A.; Dotta, Blake T.; Karbowski, Lukasz M.; Murugan, Nirosha J.

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between local changes in magnetic fields and photon emissions within ∼2 mm of aggregates of 105–106 cells was explored experimentally. The vertical component of the earth’s magnetic field as measured by different magnetometers was ∼15 nT higher when plates of cells removed from incubation were measured compared to plates containing only medium. Additional experiments indicated an inverse relationship over the first ∼45 min between changes in photon counts (∼10−12 W·m−2) following removal from incubation and similar changes in magnetic field intensity. Calculations indicated that the energy within the aqueous volume containing the cells was equivalent for that associated with the flux densities of the magnetic fields and the photon emissions. For every approximately 1 nT increase in magnetic field intensity value there was a decrease of ∼2 photons (equivalent of 10−18 J). These results complement correlation studies and suggest there may be a conservation of energy between expression as magnetic fields that are subtracted or added to the adjacent geomagnetic field and reciprocal changes in photon emissions when aggregates of cells within a specific volume of medium (water) adapt to new environments. PMID:26005634

  12. Inverse relationship between photon flux densities and nanotesla magnetic fields over cell aggregates: Quantitative evidence for energetic conservation.

    PubMed

    Persinger, Michael A; Dotta, Blake T; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Murugan, Nirosha J

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between local changes in magnetic fields and photon emissions within ∼2 mm of aggregates of 10(5)-10(6) cells was explored experimentally. The vertical component of the earth's magnetic field as measured by different magnetometers was ∼15 nT higher when plates of cells removed from incubation were measured compared to plates containing only medium. Additional experiments indicated an inverse relationship over the first ∼45 min between changes in photon counts (∼10(-12) W·m(-2)) following removal from incubation and similar changes in magnetic field intensity. Calculations indicated that the energy within the aqueous volume containing the cells was equivalent for that associated with the flux densities of the magnetic fields and the photon emissions. For every approximately 1 nT increase in magnetic field intensity value there was a decrease of ∼2 photons (equivalent of 10(-18) J). These results complement correlation studies and suggest there may be a conservation of energy between expression as magnetic fields that are subtracted or added to the adjacent geomagnetic field and reciprocal changes in photon emissions when aggregates of cells within a specific volume of medium (water) adapt to new environments.

  13. Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

  14. Flux influence on membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor system under real conditions with urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poyatos, Jose M; Molina-Munoz, Marisa; Delgado, Fernando; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of flux on membrane fouling, the performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated under real conditions at different flux rates. The pilot plant was located at the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Spain). Influent used in the experiments came from the primary settling tank. Assays carried out under different operating conditions indicated that dTMP/dt increased in accordance with the increase in flux. The results showed a significant impact on the rate of transmembrane pressure, while the behavior of membrane fouling was logarithmic with respect to the flux. These findings could be of some importance for understanding the behavior of the membrane, since over 20.57 L m(-2) h(-1) the flux rate produced a significant increase in transmembrane pressure. The data therefore suggest that an increase in the net flux significantly affects membrane fouling.

  15. Surface Fluxes and Wind-Wave Interactions in Weak Wind Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Surface Fluxes and Wind-Wave Interactions in Weak Wind Conditions Jielun Sun Microscale and Mesoscale Meteorology National Center for...science/abl/cblast LONG-TERM GOALS We will investigate air-sea transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture under weak wind conditions . We will...sea interactions. Improved understanding of wave effects on marine atmospheric turbulent fluxes under weak wind conditions will be used to modify

  16. Local inhomogeneities in a Robertson-Walker background. II - Flux conditions at boundary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, K.

    1980-12-01

    Energy flux conditions imposed on spherical boundary surfaces are examined. The zero-flux restriction, which is the hallmark of the standard Swiss cheese type construction, is relaxed. A class of locally inhomogeneous exact solutions to the Einstein equations which admit an effectively Newtonian accretion model is discussed.

  17. An innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel for high flux X-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Lim, K.; Park, K.; Lee, C.; Alexander, S.; Cho, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an innovative fast X-ray photon-counting pixel for high X-ray flux applications is proposed. A computed tomography system typically uses X-ray fluxes up to 108 photons/mm2/sec at the detector and thus a fast read-out is required in order to process individual X-ray photons. Otherwise, pulse pile-up can occur at the output of the signal processing unit. These superimposed signals can distort the number of incident X-ray photons leading to count loss. To minimize such losses, a cross detection method was implemented in the photon-counting pixel. A maximum count rate under X-ray tube voltage of 90 kV was acquired which reflect electrical test results of the proposed photon counting pixel. A maximum count of 780 kcps was achieved with a conventional photon-counting pixel at the pulse processing time of 500 ns, which is the time for a pulse to return to the baseline from the initial rise. In contrast, the maximum count of about 8.1 Mcps was achieved with the proposed photon-counting pixel. From these results, it was clear that the maximum count rate was increased by approximately a factor 10 times by adopting the cross detection method. Therefore, it is an innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel while maintaining the pulse processing time.

  18. Integrated metabolic flux and omics analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under mixotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsubasa; Kajihata, Shuichi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Matsuda, Fumio; Furusawa, Chikara; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Cyanobacteria have flexible metabolic capability that enables them to adapt to various environments. To investigate their underlying metabolic regulation mechanisms, we performed an integrated analysis of metabolic flux using transcriptomic and metabolomic data of a cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, under mixotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions. The integrated analysis indicated drastic metabolic flux changes, with much smaller changes in gene expression levels and metabolite concentrations between the conditions, suggesting that the flux change was not caused mainly by the expression levels of the corresponding genes. Under photoheterotrophic conditions, created by the addition of the photosynthesis inhibitor atrazine in mixotrophic conditions, the result of metabolic flux analysis indicated the significant repression of carbon fixation and the activation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Moreover, we observed gluconeogenic activity of upstream of glycolysis, which enhanced the flux of the oxidative PPP to compensate for NADPH depletion due to the inhibition of the light reaction of photosynthesis. 'Omics' data suggested that these changes were probably caused by the repression of the gap1 gene, which functions as a control valve in the metabolic network. Since metabolic flux is the outcome of a complicated interplay of cellular components, integrating metabolic flux with other 'omics' layers can identify metabolic changes and narrow down these regulatory mechanisms more effectively. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Metabolic Network Fluxes in Heterotrophic Arabidopsis Cells: Stability of the Flux Distribution under Different Oxygenation Conditions1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Thomas C.R.; Miguet, Laurent; Masakapalli, Shyam K.; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Sweetlove, Lee J.; Ratcliffe, R. George

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state labeling experiments with [1-13C]Glc were used to measure multiple metabolic fluxes through the pathways of central metabolism in a heterotrophic cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The protocol was based on in silico modeling to establish the optimal labeled precursor, validation of the isotopic and metabolic steady state, extensive nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the redistribution of label into soluble metabolites, starch, and protein, and a comprehensive set of biomass measurements. Following a simple modification of the cell culture procedure, cells were grown at two oxygen concentrations, and flux maps of central metabolism were constructed on the basis of replicated experiments and rigorous statistical analysis. Increased growth rate at the higher O2 concentration was associated with an increase in fluxes throughout the network, and this was achieved without any significant change in relative fluxes despite differences in the metabolite profile of organic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. The balance between biosynthesis and respiration within the tricarboxylic acid cycle was unchanged, with 38% ± 5% of carbon entering used for biosynthesis under standard O2 conditions and 33% ± 2% under elevated O2. These results add to the emerging picture of the stability of the central metabolic network and its capacity to respond to physiological perturbations with the minimum of rearrangement. The lack of correlation between the change in metabolite profile, which implied significant disruption of the metabolic network following the alteration in the oxygen supply, and the unchanging flux distribution highlights a potential difficulty in the interpretation of metabolomic data. PMID:18667721

  20. Fluctuations in the electron system of a superconductor exposed to a photon flux

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, P. J.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Bueno, J.; Llombart, N.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, in which electrons are paired, the density of unpaired electrons should become zero when approaching zero temperature. Therefore, radiation detectors based on breaking of pairs promise supreme sensitivity, which we demonstrate using an aluminium superconducting microwave resonator. Here we show that the resonator also enables the study of the response of the electron system of the superconductor to pair-breaking photons, microwave photons and varying temperatures. A large range in radiation power (at 1.54 THz) can be chosen by carefully filtering the radiation from a blackbody source. We identify two regimes. At high radiation power, fluctuations in the electron system caused by the random arrival rate of the photons are resolved, giving a straightforward measure of the optical efficiency (48±8%) and showing an unprecedented detector sensitivity. At low radiation power, fluctuations are dominated by excess quasiparticles, the number of which is measured through their recombination lifetime. PMID:24496036

  1. Fluctuations in the electron system of a superconductor exposed to a photon flux.

    PubMed

    de Visser, P J; Baselmans, J J A; Bueno, J; Llombart, N; Klapwijk, T M

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, in which electrons are paired, the density of unpaired electrons should become zero when approaching zero temperature. Therefore, radiation detectors based on breaking of pairs promise supreme sensitivity, which we demonstrate using an aluminium superconducting microwave resonator. Here we show that the resonator also enables the study of the response of the electron system of the superconductor to pair-breaking photons, microwave photons and varying temperatures. A large range in radiation power (at 1.54 THz) can be chosen by carefully filtering the radiation from a blackbody source. We identify two regimes. At high radiation power, fluctuations in the electron system caused by the random arrival rate of the photons are resolved, giving a straightforward measure of the optical efficiency (48 ± 8%) and showing an unprecedented detector sensitivity. At low radiation power, fluctuations are dominated by excess quasiparticles, the number of which is measured through their recombination lifetime.

  2. Nanometer resolution imaging and tracking of fluorescent molecules with minimal photon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Balzarotti, Francisco; Eilers, Yvan; Gwosch, Klaus C; Gynnå, Arvid H; Westphal, Volker; Stefani, Fernando D; Elf, Johan; Hell, Stefan W

    2017-02-10

    We introduce MINFLUX, a concept for localizing photon emitters in space. By probing the emitter with a local intensity minimum of excitation light, MINFLUX minimizes the fluorescence photons needed for high localization precision. In our experiments, 22 times fewer fluorescence photons are required as compared to popular centroid localization. In superresolution microscopy, MINFLUX attained ~1-nm precision, resolving molecules only 6 nanometers apart. MINFLUX tracking of single fluorescent proteins increased the temporal resolution and the number of localizations per trace by a factor of 100, as demonstrated with diffusing 30S ribosomal subunits in living Escherichia coli As conceptual limits have not been reached, we expect this localization modality to break new ground for observing the dynamics, distribution, and structure of macromolecules in living cells and beyond. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  4. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Mark J.

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  5. [Effects of culture conditions on coenzyme Q10 production by Rhizobium radiobacter by metabolic flux analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zu-fang; Du, Guo-cheng; Chen, Jian

    2005-04-01

    Metabolic pathway network of CoQ10 synthesis by R. radiobacter WSH2601 were instructed. The metabolic flux and its changes were determined under the conditions of changing DO concentration and addition of 1% CSL in the medium. The results illustrated that the Ru5P flux (r7) increased by 26.6 when increasing the DO concentration, r7 increased by 17.2 when addition of 1% CSL. The ratio of EMP and HMP flux as well as TCA flux decreased at these two conditions. DPP flux had a little change at these two conditions. Therefore, the CoQ10 accumulation is greatly determined by two key enzymes activities of condensation reaction between p-hydroxybenzoate acid (PHB) and decaprenyl diphosphate (DPP). The nodes of G6P, pyruvate and PEP are principal nodes in primary metabolism of CoQ10 fermentation. The flexibility of principal nodes was evaluated that the G6P node is elastic, while pyruvate node is weakly flexibility, at the condition of changing culture conditions. The increase of DCW is associated with the improvement of HMP pathway flux.

  6. Evidence for long-term variability in the ultra high energy photon flux from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Rannot, R. C.; Rawat, H. S.; Razdan, H.; Sanecha, V. K.; Sapru, M.

    1985-01-01

    A time-correlation analysis of atmospheric Cerenkov pulses by a wide-angle photomultiplier system was previously shown to have present in it a nonrandom component which seemed associated with the Right Ascension (RA) range approx. 20+or-04h. A recent examination of multi-muon events recorded by a photon-decay detector shows a similar time-dependent effect, closely matching the previous results, supporting the suggestion that the effect is of cosmic origin. However, even though Cyg. X-3 lies well inside the region of peak intensity, it does not seem possible to ascribe to it the whole effect, for the implied photon flux appears too large to be reconciled to various gamma-ray measurements of Cyg. X-3. The original data were subjected to a phase-histogram analysis and it as found that only 2.5% of overall recorded data are compatible with a phase-dependent emission from Cyg. X-3. Assuming these events to be gamma rays yields a detected flux of (2.6 + or - 0.3) x 10 to the minus 12th power gamma cm -2s-1 above 5 x 10 to the 14th power eV. Comparing this value with more recent ultra high energy (UHE) photon data from the same source, it is suggested that the available data generally favor a long-term reduction in the Cyg. X-3 inferred luminosity ( 10 to the 13th power eV) by a factor of (1.8 + or - 0.3) per year.

  7. Conditions for Using Stimulated Photon Echo to Record and Reproduce Information in Three-Level Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefediev, L. A.; Nizamova, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions for observing photon echo signals in crystals with excitation and detection in different resonant transitions with a single common energy level are studied. Uncorrelated inhomogeneous broadening in different resonance transitions is shown to influence the formation of stimulated photon echo in three-level systems. Lowering the sample temperature makes it possible to increase the relaxation time, which is used in experiments for observing photon echo. Uncorrelated inhomogeneous broadening in different resonance transitions is temperature independent and affects the intensity of the response at low temperatures, as well. Observation of stimulated photon echo in solid three-level samples requires a correct choice of the time interval between the first and second exciting pulses, but is not related to the magnitude of the irreversible transverse relaxation of the system.

  8. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  9. LDPC Coding for QKD at Higher Photon Flux Levels Based on Spatial Entanglement of Twin beams in PDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina; Bari, Inam

    2014-04-01

    Twin beams generated by Parametric Down Conversion (PDC) exhibit quantum correlations that has been effectively used as a tool for many applications including calibration of single photon detectors. By now, detection of multi-mode spatial correlations is a mature field and in principle, only depends on the transmission and detection efficiency of the devices and the channel. In [2, 4, 5], the authors utilized their know-how on almost perfect selection of modes of pairwise correlated entangled beams and the optimization of the noise reduction to below the shot-noise level, for absolute calibration of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras. The same basic principle is currently being considered by the same authors for possible use in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) [3, 1]. The main advantage in such an approach would be the ability to work with much higher photon fluxes than that of a single photon regime that is theoretically required for discrete variable QKD applications (in practice, very weak laser pulses with mean photon count below one are used).The natural setup of quantization of CCD detection area and subsequent measurement of the correlation statistic needed to detect the presence of the eavesdropper Eve, leads to a QKD channel model that is a Discrete Memoryless Channel (DMC) with a number of inputs and outputs that can be more than two (i.e., the channel is a multi-level DMC). This paper investigates the use of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes for information reconciliation on the effective parallel channels associated with the multi-level DMC. The performance of such codes are shown to be close to the theoretical limits.

  10. Generalized phase matching condition for lossy periodic photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuhuai; Forrest, Stephen R

    2010-01-18

    The phase matching condition relating the real transverse wave vectors across a periodic boundary has been generalized to the case of complex transverse wave vectors. Based on this generalization, we describe diffraction of a complex Bloch wave propagating within a composite prism, and show that the resulting light in free space is an inhomogeneous plane wave in the presence of losses within the prism.

  11. Focusing, collimation and flux throughput at the IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, Irina; Huang, Rong; Graber, Timothy; Meron, Mati; Muir, J. Lewis; Lavender, William; Battaile, Kevin; Mulichak, Anne M.; Keefe, Lisa J.

    2009-09-02

    The IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline was upgraded with a collimating mirror in order to achieve the energy resolution required to conduct high-quality multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD/SAD) experiments without sacrificing beamline flux throughput. Following the upgrade, the bending-magnet beamline achieves a flux of 8 x 10{sup 11} photons s{sup -1} at 1 {angstrom} wavelength, at a beamline aperture of 1.5 mrad (horizontal) x 86 {mu}rad (vertical), with energy resolution (limited mostly by the intrinsic resolution of the monochromator optics) {delta}E/E = 1.5 x 10{sup -4} (at 10 kV). The beamline operates in a dynamic range of 7.5-17.5 keV and delivers to the sample focused beam of size (FWHM) 240 {micro}m (horizontally) x 160 {micro}m (vertically). The performance of the 17-BM beamline optics and its deviation from ideally shaped optics is evaluated in the context of the requirements imposed by the needs of protein crystallography experiments. An assessment of flux losses is given in relation to the (geometric) properties of major beamline components.

  12. A determination of the gamma-ray flux and photon spectral index distributions of blazars from the Fermi-LAT 3LAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present a determination of the distributions of gamma-ray photon flux - the so-called LogN-LogS relation - and photon spectral index for blazars, based on the third extragalactic source catalogue of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Large Area Telescope, and considering the photon energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV. The data set consists of the 774 blazars in the so-called Clean sample detected with a greater than approximately 7σ detection threshold and located above ±20° Galactic latitude. We use non-parametric methods verified in previous works to reconstruct the intrinsic distributions from the observed ones which account for the data truncations introduced by observational bias and includes the effects of the possible correlation between the flux and photon index. The intrinsic flux distribution can be represented by a broken power law with a high-flux power-law index of -2.43 ± 0.08 and a low-flux power-law index of -1.87 ± 0.10. The intrinsic photon index distribution can be represented by a Gaussian with mean of 2.62 ± 0.05 and width of 0.17 ± 0.02. We also report the intrinsic distributions for the subpopulations of BL Lac and FSRQ (Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar)-type blazars separately and these differ substantially. We then estimate the contribution of FSRQs and BL Lacs to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation. Under the simplistic assumption that the flux distributions probed in this analysis continue to arbitrary low flux, we calculate that the best-fitting contribution of FSRQs is 35 per cent and BL Lacs 17 per cent of the total gamma-ray output of the Universe in this energy range.

  13. Dynamics of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and estimates in coastal northern California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seasonal trends and diurnal patterns of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) were investigated in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California from March through August in 2007 and 2008. During these periods, the daily values of PAR flux density (PFD), energy loading with PAR (PARE), a...

  14. Influence of Photospheric Magnetic Conditions on the Catastrophic Behaviors of Flux Ropes in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jiajia

    2017-02-01

    Since only the magnetic conditions at the photosphere can be routinely observed in current observations, it is of great significance to determine the influences of photospheric magnetic conditions on solar eruptive activities. Previous studies about catastrophe indicated that the magnetic system consisting of a flux rope in a partially open bipolar field is subject to catastrophe, but not if the bipolar field is completely closed under the same specified photospheric conditions. In order to investigate the influence of the photospheric magnetic conditions on the catastrophic behavior of this system, we expand upon the 2.5-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model in Cartesian coordinates to simulate the evolution of the equilibrium states of the system under different photospheric flux distributions. Our simulation results reveal that a catastrophe occurs only when the photospheric flux is not concentrated too much toward the polarity inversion line and the source regions of the bipolar field are not too weak; otherwise no catastrophe occurs. As a result, under certain photospheric conditions, a catastrophe could take place in a completely closed configuration, whereas it ceases to exist in a partially open configuration. This indicates that whether the background field is completely closed or partially open is not the only necessary condition for the existence of catastrophe, and that the photospheric conditions also play a crucial role in the catastrophic behavior of the flux rope system.

  15. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon flux above 1019 eV using the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thao, N. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PȩKala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Diep, P. N.; Dong, P. N.; Nhung, P. T.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-05-01

    A method is developed to search for air showers initiated by photons using data recorded by the surface detector of the Auger Observatory. The approach is based on observables sensitive to the longitudinal shower development, the signal risetime and the curvature of the shower front. Applying this method to the data, upper limits on the flux of photons of 3.8×10, 2.5×10,and2.2×10kmsryr above 10eV, 2×10eV,and4×10eV are derived, with corresponding limits on the fraction of photons being 2.0%, 5.1%, and 31% (all limits at 95% c.l.). These photon limits disfavor certain exotic models of sources of cosmic rays. The results also show that the approach adopted by the Auger Observatory to calibrate the shower energy is not strongly biased by a contamination from photons.

  16. Temperature and CO2 dependency of the photosynthetic photon flux density responses of leaves of Vitis vinifera cvs. Chardonnay and Merlot grown in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons of the photosynthetic responses to light and temperature between related cultivars are important to understand how well matched they are to the climate where they are grown. Photosynthetic light responses at a range of leaf temperatures and two CO2 concentrations were measured on leaves of two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) Chardonnay and Merlot vines growing in field conditions. The objective was to assess the interaction between photon flux density (PFD), leaf temperature and CO2 on photosynthesis and to compare the two cultivars. Merlot leaves maintained higher light-saturated rates of photosynthesis at all leaf temperatures compared with the Chardonnay leaves. At low temperatures, a reduced photon yield offset with a high stomatal conductance accounted for the low rates of the Chardonnay leaves. At moderate to high temperatures, photon yields, PFDs at light saturation and stomatal conductances did not account for differences between Merlot and Chardonnay leaves. At elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol(-1)) concentrations, the differences in photosynthetic performance between the cultivars were enhanced, with 30% higher light saturated rates for Merlot compared with Chardonnay leaves. Merlot berries accumulated more sugar, consistent with published data. These results demonstrate Chardonnay, unlike Merlot, appeared to be poorly matched to the hot climate. However, considering the current market and political trends, low alcoholic wines (and, thus, low sugar grapes) should be preferred. Especially in hot climates, it is always hard to obtain such kind of wines and, thus, the most interesting agronomical challenge, especially for Chardonnay vines could be interpreted in an opposite way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous series of catchment-averaged sensible heat flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: efficient estimation of stability conditions and importance of fluxes under stable conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lathauwer, E.; Samain, B.; Defloor, W.; Pauwels, V. R.

    2011-12-01

    A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path averaged sensible heat flux, H. This sensible heat flux can then easily be inverted into evapotranspiration rates using the surface energy balance. In this prestentation, two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H from LAS-data are investigated and the importance of nighttime H -fluxes is assessed. Firstly, as a LAS is unable to determine the sign of H, the transition from unstable to stable conditions is evaluated in order to make continuous H-series. Therefore, different algorithms to judge the atmospheric stability for a LAS installed over a distance of 9.5km have been tested. The algorithm based on the diurnal cycle of the refractive index structure parameter, CN2, has been found to be very suitable and operationally the most appropriate. A second issue is the humidity correction for LAS-data, which is performed by using the Bowen ratio (β). As β is taken from ground-based measurements with data gaps, the number of resulting H -values is reduced. Not including this humidity correction results in a marginal error in H, but increases the completeness of the resulting H -series. Applying these conclusions to the two-year time series of the LAS, results in an almost continuous H -time series. As the majority of the time steps has been found to be under stable conditions, there is a clear impact of Hstable on H24h, the 24h average of H. For stable conditions, Hstable -values are mostly negative, and hence lower than the H = 0 assumption as is mostly adopted. For months where stable conditions prevail (Winter), H24h is overestimated using this assumption, and calculation of Hstable is recommended.

  18. Local energy flux estimates for unstable conditions using variance data in semiarid rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, William P.; Blanford, J.H.; Stannard, D.I.; Daughtry, C.S.T.; Nichols, W.D.; Weltz, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A network of meteorological stations was installed during the Monsoon '90 field campaign in the Walnut Gulch experimental watershed. The study area has a fairly complex surface. The vegetation cover is heterogeneous and sparse, and the terrain is mildly hilly, but dissected by ephemeral channels. Besides measurement of some of the standard weather data such as wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation, these sites also contained instruments for estimating the local surface energy balance. The approach utilized measurements of net radiation (Rn), soil heat flux (G) and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory applied to first- and second-order turbulent statistics of wind speed and temperature for determining the sensible heat flux (H). The latent heat flux (LE) was solved as a residual in the surface energy balance equation, namely, LE = −(Rn + G + H). This procedure (VAR-RESID) for estimating the energy fluxes satisfied monetary constraints and the requirement for low maintenance and continued operation through the harsh environmental conditions experienced in semiarid regions. Comparison of energy fluxes using this approach with more traditional eddy correlation techniques showed differences were within 20% under unstable conditions. Similar variability in flux estimates over the study area was present in the eddy correlation data. Hence, estimates of H and LE using the VAR-RESID approach under unstable conditions were considered satisfactory. Also, with second-order statistics of vertical velocity collected at several sites, the local momentum roughness length was estimated. This is an important parameter used in modeling the turbulent transfer of momentum and sensible heat fluxes across the surface-atmosphere interface.

  19. Metabolic flux analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alagesan, Swathi; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Sinha, Avinash; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes capable of utilizing solar energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide to biomass. Despite several "proof of principle" studies, low product yield is an impediment in commercialization of cyanobacteria-derived biofuels. Estimation of intracellular reaction rates by (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) would be a step toward enhancing biofuel yield via metabolic engineering. We report (13)C-MFA for Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, known for enhanced hydrogen yield under mixotrophic conditions. Rates of reactions in the central carbon metabolism under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions were estimated by monitoring the competitive incorporation of (12)C and (13)C from unlabeled CO2 and uniformly labeled glycerol, respectively, into terminal metabolites such as amino acids. The observed labeling patterns suggest mixotrophic growth under both the conditions, with a larger fraction of unlabeled carbon in nitrate-sufficient cultures asserting a greater contribution of carbon fixation by photosynthesis and an anaplerotic pathway. Indeed, flux analysis complements the higher growth observed under nitrate-sufficient conditions. On the other hand, the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle was greater in nitrate-deficient conditions, possibly to supply the precursors and reducing equivalents needed for nitrogen fixation. In addition, an enhanced flux through fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase possibly suggests the organism's preferred mode under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The (13)C-MFA results complement the reported predictions by flux balance analysis and provide quantitative insight into the organism's distinct metabolic features under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions.

  20. Minimal conditions for the existence of a Hawking-like flux

    SciTech Connect

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the minimal conditions that an asymptotically flat general relativistic spacetime must satisfy in order for a Hawking-like Planckian flux of particles to arrive at future null infinity. We demonstrate that there is no requirement that any sort of horizon form anywhere in the spacetime. We find that the irreducible core requirement is encoded in an approximately exponential 'peeling' relationship between affine coordinates on past and future null infinity. As long as a suitable adiabaticity condition holds, then a Planck-distributed Hawking-like flux will arrive at future null infinity with temperature determined by the e-folding properties of the outgoing null geodesics. The temperature of the Hawking-like flux can slowly evolve as a function of time. We also show that the notion of peeling of null geodesics is distinct from the usual notion of 'inaffinity' used in Hawking's definition of surface gravity.

  1. 3D Monte Carlo model with direct photon flux recording for optimal optogenetic light delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Younghoon; Kim, Dongmok; Lee, Jihoon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2017-02-01

    Configuring the light power emitted from the optical fiber is an essential first step in planning in-vivo optogenetic experiments. However, diffusion theory, which was adopted for optogenetic research, precluded accurate estimates of light intensity in the semi-diffusive region where the primary locus of the stimulation is located. We present a 3D Monte Carlo model that provides an accurate and direct solution for light distribution in this region. Our method directly records the photon trajectory in the separate volumetric grid planes for the near-source recording efficiency gain, and it incorporates a 3D brain mesh to support both homogeneous and heterogeneous brain tissue. We investigated the light emitted from optical fibers in brain tissue in 3D, and we applied the results to design optimal light delivery parameters for precise optogenetic manipulation by considering the fiber output power, wavelength, fiber-to-target distance, and the area of neural tissue activation.

  2. FEC coding for QKD at higher photon flux levels based on spatial entanglement of twin beams in PDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina; Bari, Inam

    2014-10-01

    A major problem with conventional QKD techniques is the raw key transmission rate which for acceptable level of security is generally low. One way to overcome this problem is to create either directly or indirectly a number of parallel QKD transmission channels thus achieving a rate multiplicity equal to the number of parallel channels. This paper explores how a number of parallel Discrete Memoryless Channels (DMCs) can be created from imaging twin beams from a Parametric Down Conversion (PDC) process and examines the performance of FEC coding for information reconciliation over the resulting parallel channels. Twin beams exhibit quantum correlations that has been effectively used as a tool for many applications including calibration of single photon detectors. By now, detection of multimode spatial correlations is a mature field and in principle, only depends on the transmission and detection efficiency of the devices and the channel. In,1-3 the authors utilized their know-how on almost perfect selection of modes of pairwise correlated entangled beams and the optimization of the noise reduction to below the shot-noise level, for absolute calibration of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras. The same basic principle is currently being considered by the same authors for possible use in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). The main advantage in such an approach would be the ability to work with much higher photon fluxes than that of a single photon regime that is theoretically required for discrete variable QKD applications (in practice, very weak laser pulses with mean photon count below one are used), and the fact that the QKD data rate is increased significantly since multiple equivalent parallel channels result from quantization of symmetric regions into super-pixels. The natural setup of quantization of CCD detection area and subsequent measurement of the correlation statistic needed to detect the presence of the eavesdropper Eve, leads to a number of parallel QKD

  3. Mapping surface fluxes and moisture conditions from field to global scales using ALEXI/DisALEXI

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land-surface temperature (LST) maps derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data convey valuable information for detecting moisture stress conditions and for constraining diagnostic surface flux estimates based on remote sensing. Soil surface and vegetation canopy temperatures rise as availab...

  4. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  5. Deciphering flux adjustments of engineered E. coli cells during fermentation with changing growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lian; Xiu, Yu; Jones, J. Andrew; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Keasling, Jay D.; Tang, Yinjie J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2016-12-23

    Microbial fermentation conditions are dynamic, due to transcriptional induction, nutrient consumption, or changes to incubation conditions. In this paper, 13C-metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize two violacein-producing E. coli strains with vastly different productivities, and to profile their metabolic adjustments resulting from external perturbations during fermentation. The two strains were first grown at 37 °C in stage 1, and then the temperature was transitioned to 20 °C in stage 2 for the optimal expression of the violacein synthesis pathway. After induction, violacein production was minimal in stage 3, but accelerated in stage 4 (early production phase) and 5 (late production phase) in the high producing strain, reaching a final concentration of 1.5 mmol/L. On the contrary, ~0.02 mmol/L of violacein was obtained from the low producing strain. To have a snapshot of the temporal metabolic changes in each stage, we performed 13C-MFA via isotopomer analysis of fast-turnover free metabolites. The results indicate strikingly stable flux ratios in the central metabolism throughout the early growth stages. In the late stages, however, the high producer rewired its flux distribution significantly, which featured an upregulated pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle, reflux from acetate utilization, negligible anabolic fluxes, and elevated maintenance loss, to compensate for nutrient depletion and drainage of some building blocks due to violacein overproduction. The low producer with stronger promoters shifted its relative fluxes in stage 5 by enhancing the flux through the TCA cycle and acetate overflow, while exhibiting a reduced biomass growth and a minimal flux towards violacein synthesis. Finally, interestingly, the addition of the violacein precursor (tryptophan) in the medium inhibited high producer but enhanced low producer's productivity, leading to hypotheses of unknown pathway regulations (such as metabolite channeling).

  6. CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Lopin, Igor; Nagorny, Ivan

    2013-09-10

    The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.

  7. Simulated water fluxes during the growing season in semiarid grassland ecosystems under severe drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Na; Liu, Chengyu

    2014-05-01

    To help improve understanding of how changes in climate and land cover affect water fluxes, water budgets, and the structure and function of regional grassland ecosystems, the Grassland Landscape Productivity Model (GLPM) was used to simulate spatiotemporal variation in primary water fluxes. The study area was a semiarid region in Inner Mongolia, China, in 2002, when severe drought was experienced. For Stipa grandis steppe, Leymus chinensis steppe, shrubland, and croplands, the modeled total, daily and monthly averaged, and maximum evapotranspiration during the growing season and the modeled water deficits were similar to those measured in Inner Mongolia under similar precipitation conditions. The modeled temporal variations in daily evaporation rate, transpiration rate, and evapotranspiration rate for the typical steppes also agreed reasonably well with measured trends. The results demonstrate that water fluxes varied in response to spatiotemporal variations in environmental factors and associated changes in the phenological and physiological characteristics of plants. It was also found that transpiration and evapotranspiration (rather than precipitation) were the primary factors controlling differences in water deficit among land cover types. The results also demonstrate that specific phenomena occur under severe drought conditions; these phenomena are considerably different to those occurring under normal or well-watered conditions. The findings of the present study will be useful for evaluating day-scale water fluxes and their relationships with climate change, hydrology, land cover, and vegetation dynamics.

  8. Continuous series of catchment-averaged sensible heat flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: efficient estimation of stability conditions and importance of fluxes under stable conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samain, B.; Defloor, W.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2012-04-01

    A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path averaged sensible heat flux, H. Two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H from LAS-data are investigated and the importance of nighttime H -fluxes is assessed. Firstly, as a LAS is unable to determine the sign of H, the transition from unstable to stable conditions is evaluated in order to make continuous H -series. Therefore, different algorithms to judge the atmospheric stability for a LAS installed over a distance of 9.5 km have been tested. The diurnal cycle of the refractive index structure parameter, CN2, results in the best suitable, operational algorithm. A second issue is the humidity correction for LAS-data, which is performed by using the Bowen ratio (β). As β is taken from ground-based measurements with data gaps, the number of resulting H -values is reduced. Not including this humidity correction results in a marginal error in H, but increases the completeness of the resulting H -series. Applying these conclusions to the two-year time series of the LAS, results in an almost continuous H -time series. As the majority of the time steps has been found to be under stable conditions, there is a clear impact of Hstable on H24h ,the 24h average of H. For stable conditions, Hstable -values are mostly negative, and hence lower than the H = 0 W/m2 assumption as is mostly adopted. For months where stable conditions prevail (Winter), H24h is overestimated using this assumption, and calculation of Hstable is recommended.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Equilateral Triangular Duct Under Constant Wall Heat Flux Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Kumar, Anoop; Goel, Varun

    2017-06-01

    The force convective heat transfer in an equilateral triangular duct of different wall heat flux configurations was analysed for the laminar hydro-dynamically developed and thermally developing flow by the use of finite volume method. Unstructured meshing was generated by multi-block technique and set of governing equations were discretized using second-order accurate up-wind scheme and numerically solved by SIMPLE Algorithm. For ensuring accuracy, grid independence study was also done. Numerical methodology was verified by comparing results with previous work and predicted results showed good agreement with them (within error of ±5 %). The different combinations of constant heat flux boundary condition were analysed and their effect on heat transfer and fluid flow for different Reynolds number was also studied. The results of different combinations were compared with the case of force convective heat transfer in the equilateral triangular duct with constant heat flux on all three walls.

  10. Formation of single layer graphene on nickel under far-from-equilibrium high flux conditions.

    PubMed

    Neyts, Erik C; van Duin, Adri C T; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2013-08-21

    We investigate the theoretical possibility of single layer graphene formation on a nickel surface at different substrate temperatures under far-from-equilibrium high precursor flux conditions, employing state-of-the-art hybrid reactive molecular dynamics/uniform acceptance force bias Monte Carlo simulations. It is predicted that under these conditions, the formation of a single layer graphene-like film may proceed through a combined deposition-segregation mechanism on a nickel substrate, rather than by pure surface segregation as is typically observed for metals with high carbon solubility. At 900 K and above, nearly continuous graphene layers are obtained. These simulations suggest that single layer graphene deposition is theoretically possible on Ni under high flux conditions.

  11. Direct ion flux measurements at high-pressure-depletion conditions for microcrystalline silicon deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Kang, X.; Palmans, J.; Janssen, P. H. J.; Lorne, T.; Creatore, M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2013-08-01

    The contribution of ions to the growth of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been investigated in the well-known high-pressure-depletion (HPD) regime by coupling thin-film analysis with plasma studies. The ion flux, measured by means of a capacitive probe, has been studied in two regimes, i.e., the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition regime and a low-to-high power regime; the latter regime had been investigated to evaluate the impact of the plasma power on the ion flux in collisional plasmas. The ion flux was found not to change considerably under the conditions where the deposited material undergoes a transition from the amorphous to the microcrystalline silicon phase; for solar-grade material, an ion-to-Si deposition flux of ˜0.30 has been determined. As an upper-estimation of the ion energy, a mean ion energy of ˜19 eV has been measured under low-pressure conditions (<1 mbar) by means of a retarding field energy analyzer. Combining this upper-estimate with an ion per deposited Si atom ratio of ˜0.30, it is concluded that less than 6 eV is available per deposited Si atom. The addition of a small amount of SiH4 to an H2 plasma resulted in an increase of the ion flux by about 30% for higher power values, whereas the electron density, deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, decreased. The electron temperature, also deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, reveals a slight decrease with power. Although the dominant ion in the HPD regime is SiH3+, i.e., a change from H3+ in pure hydrogen HPD conditions, the measured larger ion loss can be explained by assuming steeper electron density profiles. These results, therefore, confirm the results reported so far: the ion-to-Si deposition flux is relatively large but has neither influence on the microcrystalline silicon film properties nor on the phase transition. Possible explanations are the reported high atomic hydrogen to deposition flux ratio, mitigating the detrimental effects of an

  12. Direct ion flux measurements at high-pressure-depletion conditions for microcrystalline silicon deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Kang, X.; Palmans, J.; Janssen, P. H. J.; Lorne, T.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2013-08-14

    The contribution of ions to the growth of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been investigated in the well-known high-pressure-depletion (HPD) regime by coupling thin-film analysis with plasma studies. The ion flux, measured by means of a capacitive probe, has been studied in two regimes, i.e., the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition regime and a low-to-high power regime; the latter regime had been investigated to evaluate the impact of the plasma power on the ion flux in collisional plasmas. The ion flux was found not to change considerably under the conditions where the deposited material undergoes a transition from the amorphous to the microcrystalline silicon phase; for solar-grade material, an ion-to-Si deposition flux of ∼0.30 has been determined. As an upper-estimation of the ion energy, a mean ion energy of ∼19 eV has been measured under low-pressure conditions (<1 mbar) by means of a retarding field energy analyzer. Combining this upper-estimate with an ion per deposited Si atom ratio of ∼0.30, it is concluded that less than 6 eV is available per deposited Si atom. The addition of a small amount of SiH{sub 4} to an H{sub 2} plasma resulted in an increase of the ion flux by about 30% for higher power values, whereas the electron density, deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, decreased. The electron temperature, also deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, reveals a slight decrease with power. Although the dominant ion in the HPD regime is SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, i.e., a change from H{sub 3}{sup +} in pure hydrogen HPD conditions, the measured larger ion loss can be explained by assuming steeper electron density profiles. These results, therefore, confirm the results reported so far: the ion-to-Si deposition flux is relatively large but has neither influence on the microcrystalline silicon film properties nor on the phase transition. Possible explanations are the reported high atomic hydrogen to deposition flux ratio

  13. Application of two-photon flash photolysis to measure microscopic diffusion and calcium fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannell, Mark B.; Jacobs, Marc D.; Donaldson, Paul J.; Soeller, Christian

    2005-03-01

    Two-photon excitation (TPE) via a microscope objective lens produces a spatially confined excitation volume where UV-excited caged molecules may be broken (uncaged) to release active products. We describe an optical system that creates a stationary parfocal TPE uncaging spot on the stage of a conventional confocal microscope. With this system, we have examined the ability of two dyes to track microscopic calcium changes produced by TPE photolysis of DM-nitrophen. We find that, even when EGTA is used with a low affinity indicator, the dye signals are complicated by diffusion of both indicator-Ca complex and CaEGTA to produce a signal that does not simply report the spatial dimensions of the calcium release site. In addition, the time course of calcium release is poorly reported. This suggests that considerable caution must be applied to the interpretation of spatially resolved calcium signals inside cells. We have also used TPE of CMND-caged fluorescein to measure the rate of fluorescein production in test solution (2500 s-1) as well as the diffusion of fluorescein in drops of solution and within and between between eye lens fiber cells. While diffusion of uncaged fluorescein was about an order of magnitude slower inside fiber cells than in aequeous solution, slower diffusion between cells could also be detected and could be explained by the gap junctions joining the cells behaving as a barrier to diffusion. By using a computer model, parameter fits to experimental data gave estimates for both intracellular and intercellular diffusion coefficients. From this analysis, the gap junctions in eye lens fiber cells permit exchange of low molecular weight compounds between cells at about 0.4% of the rate of free diffusion.

  14. Propagation of an ultrashort light pulse under conditions of two-photon quasi-resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Maimistov, A.I.

    1995-03-01

    On the assumption that the Rabi frequency is small in comparison with the frequency detuning, equations are derived describing the variation of the envelope of an ultrashort pulse propagating under conditions of two-photon quasi-resonance. In a weakly dispersive medium containing such resonance atoms, the pulse broadening can be suppressed depending on the pulse energy. At higher energy, the regime of self-compression (collapse) of the optical pulse arises. 15 refs.

  15. Analytical analysis of the Pennes bioheat transfer equation with sinusoidal heat flux condition on skin surface.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Yuan, Ping; Lin, Win-Li; Kou, Hong-Sen

    2007-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the temperature response of a semi-infinite biological tissue due to a sinusoidal heat flux at the skin. The Pennes bioheat transfer equation such as rho(t)c(t)( partial differentialT/ partial differentialt)+W(b)c(b)(T-T(a))=k partial differential(2)T/ partial differentialx(2) with the oscillatory heat flux boundary condition such as q(0,t)=q(0)e(iomegat) was investigated. By using the Laplace transform, the analytical solution of the Pennes bioheat transfer equation with surface sinusoidal heating condition is found. This analytical expression is suitable for describing the transient temperature response of tissue for the whole time domain from the starting periodic oscillation to the final steady periodic oscillation. The results show that the temperature oscillation due to the sinusoidal heating on the skin surface is unstable in the initial period. Further, it is unavailable to predict the blood perfusion rate via the phase shifting between the surface heat flux and the surface temperature. Moreover, the lower frequency of sinusoidal heat flux on the skin surface induces a more sensitive phase shift response to the blood perfusion rate change, but extends the beginning time of sampling because of the avoidance of the unavailable first cyclic oscillation.

  16. Mesh-based Monte Carlo method for fibre-optic optogenetic neural stimulation with direct photon flux recording strategy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Younghoon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-03-21

    We propose a Monte Carlo (MC) method based on a direct photon flux recording strategy using inhomogeneous, meshed rodent brain atlas. This MC method was inspired by and dedicated to fibre-optics-based optogenetic neural stimulations, thus providing an accurate and direct solution for light intensity distributions in brain regions with different optical properties. Our model was used to estimate the 3D light intensity attenuation for close proximity between an implanted optical fibre source and neural target area for typical optogenetics applications. Interestingly, there are discrepancies with studies using a diffusion-based light intensity prediction model, perhaps due to use of improper light scattering models developed for far-field problems. Our solution was validated by comparison with the gold-standard MC model, and it enabled accurate calculations of internal intensity distributions in an inhomogeneous near light source domain. Thus our strategy can be applied to studying how illuminated light spreads through an inhomogeneous brain area, or for determining the amount of light required for optogenetic manipulation of a specific neural target area.

  17. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting phosphorus fluxes.

    PubMed

    Steenbergh, Anne K; Bodelier, Paul L E; Slomp, Caroline P; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus release from sediments can exacerbate the effect of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems. The flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the overlying water is highly dependent on the redox conditions at the sediment-water interface. Bacteria are key players in the biological processes that release or retain phosphorus in marine sediments. To gain more insight in the role of bacteria in phosphorus release from sediments, we assessed the effect of redox conditions on the structure of bacterial communities. To do so, we incubated surface sediments from four sampling sites in the Baltic Sea under oxic and anoxic conditions and analyzed the fingerprints of the bacterial community structures in these incubations and the original sediments. This paper describes the effects of redox conditions, sampling station, and sample type (DNA, RNA, or whole-cell sample) on bacterial community structure in sediments. Redox conditions explained only 5% of the variance in community structure, and bacterial communities from contrasting redox conditions showed considerable overlap. We conclude that benthic bacterial communities cannot be classified as being typical for oxic or anoxic conditions based on community structure fingerprints. Our results suggest that the overall structure of the benthic bacterial community has only a limited impact on benthic phosphate fluxes in the Baltic Sea.

  18. An outgoing energy flux boundary condition for finite difference ICRP antenna models

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    For antennas at the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) modeling in vacuum can now be carried out to a high level of detail such that shaping of the current straps, isolating septa, and discrete Faraday shield structures can be included. An efficient approach would be to solve for the fields in the vacuum region near the antenna in three dimensions by finite methods and to match this solution at the plasma-vacuum interface to a solution obtained in the plasma region in one dimension by Fourier methods. This approach has been difficult to carry out because boundary conditions must be imposed at the edge of the finite difference grid on a point-by-point basis, whereas the condition for outgoing energy flux into the plasma is known only in terms of the Fourier transform of the plasma fields. A technique is presented by which a boundary condition can be imposed on the computational grid of a three-dimensional finite difference, or finite element, code by constraining the discrete Fourier transform of the fields at the boundary points to satisfy an outgoing energy flux condition appropriate for the plasma. The boundary condition at a specific grid point appears as a coupling to other grid points on the boundary, with weighting determined by a kemel calctdated from the plasma surface impedance matrix for the various plasma Fourier modes. This boundary condition has been implemented in a finite difference solution of a simple problem in two dimensions, which can also be solved directly by Fourier transformation. Results are presented, and it is shown that the proposed boundary condition does enforce outgoing energy flux and yields the same solution as is obtained by Fourier methods.

  19. Comparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kehua; Zhan, Hongbin

    2013-02-01

    Diffusive flux is traditionally treated as the dominant mechanism of gas transport in unsaturated zones under natural conditions, and advective flux is usually neglected. However, some researchers have found that pressure-driven and density-driven advective flux may also be significant under certain conditions. This article compares the diffusive, pressure-driven and density-driven advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compound (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under various natural conditions. The presence of a less or more permeable layer at ground surface in a layered unsaturated zone is investigated for its impact on the net contribution of advective and diffusive fluxes. Results show although the transient advective flux can be greater than the diffusive flux, under most of the field conditions the net contribution of the advective flux is one to three orders of magnitude less than the diffusive flux, and the influence of the density-driven flux is undetectable. The advective flux contributes comparably with the diffusive flux only when the gas-filled porosity is less than 0.05. The presence of a less permeable layer at ground surface slightly increases the total flux in the underlying layer, while the presence of a more permeable layer at ground surface significantly increases the total flux in it. When the magnitude of water table fluctuation is less than 1 cm, and the period is greater than 0.5 day, the fluctuation of the water table can be simulated by fixing the water table position and setting a fluctuating moving velocity at the water table.

  20. Photobleaching in STED nanoscopy and its dependence on the photon flux applied for reversible silencing of the fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Joanna; Westphal, Volker; Radzewicz, Czesław; Sahl, Steffen J; Hell, Stefan W

    2017-09-12

    In STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy, the resolution and signal are limited by the fluorophore de-excitation efficiency and photobleaching. Here, we investigated their dependence on the pulse duration and power of the applied STED light for the popular 750 nm wavelength. In experiments with red- and orange-emitting dyes, the pulse duration was varied from the sub-picosecond range up to continuous-wave conditions, with average powers up to 200 mW at 80 MHz repetition rate, i.e. peak powers up to 1 kW and pulse energies up to 2.5 nJ. We demonstrate the dependence of bleaching on pulse duration, which dictates the optimal parameters of how to deliver the photons required for transient fluorophore silencing. Measurements with the dye ATTO647N reveal that the bleaching of excited molecules scales with peak power with a single effective order ~1.4. This motivates peak power reduction while maintaining the number of STED-light photons, in line with the superior resolution commonly achieved for nanosecond STED pulses. Other dyes (ATTO590, STAR580, STAR635P) exhibit two distinctive bleaching regimes for constant pulse energy, one with strong dependence on peak power, one nearly independent. We interpret the results within a photobleaching model that guides quantitative predictions of resolution and bleaching.

  1. Kinetics of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: the role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, all along the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at three sets of temperature, namely, 4 degrees C, 12 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively. It was demonstrated that the lower the champagne temperature, the lower CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute. Therefore, the lower the champagne temperature, the lower its progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time, which constitutes the first analytical proof that low champagne temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps retains its effervescence. A correlation was also proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute poured with champagne and its continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. Finally, the contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by the use of results developed over recent years. The temperature dependence of the champagne viscosity was found to play a major role in the kinetics of CO(2) outgassing from a flute. On the basis of this bubbling model, the theoretical influence of champagne temperature on CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute was discussed and found to be in quite good accordance with our experimental results.

  2. IS FLUX ROPE A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR THE PROGENITOR OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Y.; Yang, K.; Chen, P. F.

    2015-12-10

    A magnetic flux rope structure is believed to exist in most coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it has been long debated whether the flux rope exists before eruption or if it is formed during eruption via magnetic reconnection. The controversy has continued because of our lack of routine measurements of the magnetic field in the pre-eruption structure, such as solar filaments. However, recently an indirect method was proposed to infer the magnetic field configuration based on the sign of helicity and the bearing direction of the filament barbs. In this paper, we apply this method to two erupting filament events, one on 2014 September 2 and the other on 2011 March 7, and find that the first filament is supported by a magnetic flux rope and the second filament is supported by a sheared arcade, i.e., the first one is an inverse-polarity filament and the second one is a normal-polarity filament. With the identification of the magnetic configurations in these two filaments, we stress that a flux rope is not a necessary condition for the pre-CME structure.

  3. Methodological Development On Conditional Sampling Method: Application To Nox Fluxes Measured During The Escompte Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiadi, A.; F; Lohou; Serça, D.; Druilhet, A.; Laville, P.; Bouchou, P.; Lopez, A.

    Surface fluxes of reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO + NO2) are essential to quantify the net impact of nitrogen and ozone budget in the atmospheric boundary layer. To accurately establish their sources and sinks, specific methods of measurement have to be developed taking into account the sensors characteristics (e.g. time response). The most direct method to measure energy and gas fluxes is the Eddy Correlation (EC) method based on the covariance between the vertical wind velocity (w) fluctuations and the scalar (X) fluctuations. The EC method requires fast-response sensors that are not available for many trace gases (as NOx). The Relaxed Eddy Accumulation or conditional sampling technique was proposed as an alternative solution to overcome this problem. A system for conditional sampling at the field scale was developed and applied to determine NOx fluxes in different Mediterranean ecosystems in the frame- work of the ESCOMPTE experimental campaign (June-July 2001). In order to assure the accuracy in the fluxes calculation a methodological approach of data analysis has been developed. This approach is based on the statistical characteristics, internal struc- ture and spectral analysis of turbulent functions. It allows us to establish data selection criteria related to homogeneity, stationarity and turbulence characterisation. These cri- teria which concern statistical characteristics of w that is recorded in real time during the sampling period, have been related to existing stability conditions. Assuming sim- ilarity between the 'slow' scalar related to REA method and the 'fast' scalars related to EC (e.g. H2O, CO2, O3), other criteria based on the covariance convergence can, as well be established to improve the quality of the REA measurements. Indeed, data analysis shows that H2O, CO2, O3 functions are highly correlated (correlation coeffi- cient in the order of 0.9 - absolute value), which confirms the similarity assumption.

  4. Flux-step method for the assessment of operational conditions in a submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Ezio; Goffredo, Vito; Campanella, Mariachiara; Falk, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    A flux-step method was used for monitoring the pressure variation in a solids separation membrane at different operating conditions. A submerged membrane bioreactor pilot plant, used during the short-term tests, was used to purify actual restaurant wastewater. The influence of membrane backwash and relaxation on the variation of pressure variation was also evaluated. In order to reduce the deposition of irreversible fouling, the authors modified the literature-supported filtration to backwash cycling with filtration and relaxation cycling. The trials maintained a constant filtration to relaxation ratio that was in line with optimal filtration to backwashing ratios found in the literature. The relaxation cycling between two constant flux-steps effectively counteracted membrane fouling and the excessive decrease in average pressure, and it results in a lower waste of energy and water than a backwashing strategy.

  5. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED) technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD). The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD) in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%), which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD) of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm) grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength), the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg) and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1) was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a graphical user interface

  6. Advanced Models of LWR Pressure Vessel Embrittlement for Low Flux-HighFluence Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G. Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2013-06-17

    Neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is an unresolved issue for light water reactor life extension, especially since transition temperature shifts (TTS) must be predicted for high 80-year fluence levels up to approximately 1,020 n/cm{sup 2}, far beyond the current surveillance database. Unfortunately, TTS may accelerate at high fluence, and may be further amplified by the formation of late blooming phases that result in severe embrittlement even in low-copper (Cu) steels. Embrittlement by this mechanism is a potentially significant degradation phenomenon that is not predicted by current regulatory models. This project will focus on accurately predicting transition temperature shifts at high fluence using advanced physically based, empirically validated and calibrated models. A major challenge is to develop models that can adjust test reactor data to account for flux effects. Since transition temperature shifts depend on synergistic combinations of many variables, flux-effects cannot be treated in isolation. The best current models systematically and significantly under-predict transition temperature at high fluence, although predominantly for irradiations at much higher flux than actual RPV service. This project will integrate surveillance, test reactor and mechanism data with advanced models to address a number of outstanding RPV embrittlement issues. The effort will include developing new databases and preliminary models of flux effects for irradiation conditions ranging from very low (e.g., boiling water reactor) to high (e.g., accelerated test reactor). The team will also develop a database and physical models to help predict the conditions for the formation of Mn-Ni-Si late blooming phases and to guide future efforts to fully resolve this issue. Researchers will carry out other tasks on a best-effort basis, including prediction of transition temperature shift attenuation through the vessel wall, remediation of embrittlement by annealing

  7. Sufficient condition for the mode mismatch of single photons for scalability of the boson-sampling computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchesnovich, V. S.

    2014-02-01

    The boson sampler proposed by Aaronson and Arkhipov is a nonuniversal quantum computer, which can serve as evidence against the extended Church-Turing thesis. It samples the probability distribution at the output of a linear unitary optical network with indistinguishable single photons at the input. Four experimental groups have already tested their small-scale prototypes with up to four photons. A boson sampler with a few dozens of single photons is believed to be hard to simulate on a classical computer. For scalability of a realistic boson sampler with current technology it is necessary to know the effect of the photon mode mismatch on its operation. Here a nondeterministic model of the boson sampler is analyzed, which employs partially indistinguishable single photons emitted by identical sources. A sufficient condition on the average mutual fidelity of the single photons is found, which guarantees that the realistic boson sampler outperforms the classical computer. Moreover, the boson-sampler computer with partially indistinguishable single photons is scalable and has more power than classical computers when the single-photon mode mismatch 1- scales as O (N-3/2) with the total number of photons N.

  8. Reliable source of conditional states from single-mode pulsed thermal fields by multiple-photon subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Allevi, A.; Andreoni, A.; Bondani, M.; Genoni, M. G.; Olivares, S.

    2010-07-15

    We demonstrate the effect of multiple-photon subtraction on the generation of conditional states in the pulsed regime. Our experimental scheme relies on a beam splitter (BS) and a pair of linear photodetectors that are able to resolve up to tens of photons. We use a single-mode thermal field at the input port of the BS to test the reliability of our scheme, and we show good agreement with the theory by fully characterizing the conditional outgoing states in terms of photon-number statistics and non-Gaussianity.

  9. Developing an Approach to Model UV Fluxes in Smoke Laden Conditions over Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. H.; Sokolik, I. N.

    2016-12-01

    The UV characteristics of smoke aerosols are valuable inputs to the UV Index forecasts, air quality studies, and assessments of the impact of regional environmental changes. The wavelength dependence of light absorption by aerosol particles is pronounced throughout the UV spectral region. Also in assumption that smoke consists of BC, OC, and Sulfate, the mass fraction of smoke is different with fire types. The purpose of this study is to introduce an approach to calculate the UV fluxes in the aerosol laden conditions, and investigate the irradiance compared to measured irradiance in the UV spectrum. To compute the spectral optical properties (e.g., the effective single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and aerosol optical thickness) for the selected scenarios, the representative size distribution and the refractive index are selected and used in the Mie code. Smoke aerosol information (e.g. emission injection height, mass concentration of smoke components) from WRF Chem is applied to run tropospheric ultraviolet and visible (TUV) model. Using the TUV model, we make the comparisons between model and measured irradiance in UV spectrum in smoke aerosol conditions. An advantage of this approach and the uncertainty of the evaluation are discussed. Overall, the results of this investigation show that this approach is valuable to estimate UV fluxes in smoke laden conditions.

  10. Influence of heat and mass flux conditions in hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, F. M.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.; Obid, Mustafa A.

    2015-03-15

    This article explores the hydromagnetic steady flow of Jeffrey fluid in the presence of thermal radiation. The chosen nanofluid model takes into account the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Flow and heat transfer characteristics are determined by a stretching surface with flux conditions. The nonlinear boundary layer flow through partial differential systems is converted into the ordinary differential systems. The resulting reduced systems are computed for the convergent solutions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration. Graphs of dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles are presented for different values of emerging parameters. Skin-friction coefficient are computed and analyzed in both hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow situations.

  11. Three-dimensional flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid with heat and mass flux boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasawar, Hayat; Ikram, Ullah; Taseer, Muhammad; Ahmed, Alsaedi; Sabir, Ali Shehzad

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates the three-dimensional flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. The energy equation is considered in the presence of thermal radiation. The heat and mass flux conditions are taken into account. Mathematical formulation is carried out through the boundary layer approach. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations through suitable variables. The resulting nonlinear ordinary differential equations have been solved for the series solutions. Effects of emerging physical parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined.

  12. CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: flute versus coupe.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Polidori, Guillaume; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-06-10

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from glasses containing a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11.5 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, during the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at room temperature, with a flute and a coupe, respectively. The progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time was found to be significantly higher in the coupe than in the flute, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that the flute prolongs the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence in contrast with the coupe. Moreover, CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the coupe were found to be much higher in the coupe than in the flute in the early moments following pouring, whereas this tendency reverses from about 3 min after pouring. Correlations were proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute and the coupe and their continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. The contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by use of results developed over recent years. Due to a much shallower liquid level in the coupe, bubbles collapsing at the free surface of the coupe were found to be significantly smaller than those collapsing at the free surface of the flute, and CO(2) volume fluxes released by collapsing bubbles only were found to be approximately 60% smaller in the coupe than in the flute. Finally, the contributions of gas discharge by invisible diffusion through the free surface areas of the flute and coupe were also approached and compared for each type of drinking vessel.

  13. Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation. II. Effects of short-term exposures to different photon flux densities. [Zea mays; Phaseolus vulgaris; Eucalyptus pauciflora

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.C.; Cowan, I.R.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    When photon flux density incident on attached leaves of Zea mays L. was varied from the equivalent of 0.12 of full sunlight to full sunlight, leaf conductance to CO/sub 2/ transfer, g, changed in proportion to the change in rate of CO/sub 2/, assimilation, A, with the result that intercellular partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ remained almost constant. The proportionality was the same as the previously found in g and A measured at one photon flux density in plants of Zea mays L. grown at different levels of mineral nutrition, light intensities, and ambient partial pressures of CO/sub 2/. In shade-grown Phaseolus vulgaris L., plants, A as photon flux density was increased from about 0.12 up to about 0.5 full sunlight, the proportionality being almost the same in plants grown at low and at high light intensity. When photon flux density incident on the adaxial an abaxial surfaces of the isolateral leaves of Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng was varied, g and A also varied proportionally. The leaf conductance in a particular surface was affected by the photon flux density at the opposite surface to a greater extent than was expected on the basis of transmittance. The results indicated that stomata may, in some way, be sensitive to the photon flux absorbed within the leaf as a whole. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Comparison of Sensible Heat Flux from Eddy Covariance and Scintillometer over different land surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeweldi, D. A.; Gebremichael, M.; Summis, T.; Wang, J.; Miller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The large source of uncertainty in satellite-based evapotranspiration algorithm results from the estimation of sensible heat flux H. Traditionally eddy covariance sensors, and recently large-aperture scintillometers, have been used as ground truth to evaluate satellite-based H estimates. The two methods rely on different physical measurement principles, and represent different foot print sizes. In New Mexico, we conducted a field campaign during summer 2008 to compare H estimates obtained from the eddy covariance and scintillometer methods. During this field campaign, we installed sonic anemometers; one propeller eddy covariance (OPEC) equipped with net radiometer and soil heat flux sensors; large aperture scintillometer (LAS); and weather station consisting of wind speed, direction and radiation sensors over three different experimental areas consisting of different roughness conditions (desert, irrigated area and lake). Our results show the similarities and differences in H estimates obtained from these various methods over the different land surface conditions. Further, our results show that the H estimates obtained from the LAS agree with those obtained from the eddy covariance method when high frequency thermocouple temperature, instead of the typical weather station temperature measurements, is used in the LAS analysis.

  15. Numerical study of the effects of boundary conditions on the measurement and calibration of gardon type heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krane, M.; Dybbs, A.

    1987-01-01

    To monitor the high-intensity heat flux conditions that occur in the space shuttle main engine (SSME), it is necessary to use specifically designed heat flux sensors. These sensors, which are of the Gardon-type, are exposed on the measuring face to high-intensity radiative and convective heat fluxes and on the other face to convective cooling. To improve the calibration and measurement accuracy of these gauges, researchers are studing the effect that the thermal boundary conditions have on gauge performance. In particular, they are studying how convective cooling effects the field inside the sensor and the measured heat flux. The first phase of this study involves a numerical study of these effects. Subsequent phases will involve experimental verification. A computer model of the heat transfer around a Garden-type heat flux sensor was developed. Two specific geometries are being considered are: (1) heat flux sensor mounted on a flat-plate; and (2) heat flux sensor mounted at the stagnation point of a circular cylinder. Both of these configurations are representative of the use of heat flux sensors in the components of the SSME. The purpose of the analysis is to obtain a temperature distribution as a function of the boundary conditions.

  16. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Ü.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, N. J.; Mammarella, I.; Lind, S.; Hyvönen, N.; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, M.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vesala, T.

    2014-08-01

    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring till winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in Eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O/CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emission, lasting for about two weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterised by an up to two orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.1 to 1 nmol m-2 s-1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher value during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reason for these episodic higher and lower estimates by the two instruments is not currently known, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and, in particular, simultaneous accurate determination of water vapour concentration due to its large impact on small N2O fluxes through spectroscopic and dilution corrections. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterised by the lowest noise level (std around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate), as compared to N2O/CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). Both instruments based on Continuous-Wave Quantum Cascade Lasers, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, were able to determine

  17. Understanding time scales of diffusive fluxes and the implication for steady state and steady shape conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazaei, Farhad; Simpson, Matthew J.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion equation is one of the most commonly used models for describing environmental problems involving heat, solute, and water transport. A diffusive system can be either transient or steady state. When a system is transient, the dependent variable (e.g., temperature, concentration, or hydraulic head) varies with time; whereas at steady state, the temporal variations are negligible. Here we consider an intermediate state, called steady shape, corresponding to the situation where temporal variations in diffusive fluxes are negligible but the dependent variable may remain transient. We present a general theoretical framework for identifying steady shape conditions and propose a novel method for evaluating the time scale needed for a diffusive system to approach both steady shape and steady state conditions.

  18. Improving material separation of high-flux whole-body photon counting computed tomography by K-edge pre-filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polster, C.; Gutjahr, R.; Berner, M.; Flohr, T.; Hertel, M.; Kappler, S.; Stierstorfer, K.; Dietrich, O.

    2017-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors in computed tomography (CT) allow for measuring the energy of the incident xray photons within certain energy windows. This information can be used to enhance contrast or reconstruct CT images of different material bases. Compared to energy-integrating CT-detectors, pixel dimensions have to be smaller to limit the negative effect of pulse pile-up at high X-ray fluxes. Unfortunately, reducing the pixel size leads to increased K-escape and charge sharing effects. As a consequence, an incident X-ray may generate more than one detector signal, and with deteriorated energy information. In earlier simulation studies it has been shown that these limitations can be mitigated by optimizing the X-ray spectrum using K-edge pre-filtration. In the current study, we have used a whole-body research CT scanner with a high-flux capable photon-counting detector, in which for the first time a pre-patient hafnium filter was installed. Our measurement results demonstrate substantial improvement of the material decomposition capability at comparable dose levels. The results are in agreement with the predictions provided in simulations.

  19. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Heat flux and temperature investigation of main radiators for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun

    2016-09-01

    The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in Parallel Plate Microchannel with Viscous Dissipation and Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Hari Mohan; Sahu, Santosh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed, laminar, incompressible, forced convective heat transfer characteristics of gaseous flows through a parallel plate microchannel with different constant heat flux boundary conditions. The first order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered in the analysis. Here, three different thermal boundary conditions such as: both plates kept at different constant heat fluxes, both plates kept at equal constant heat fluxes and one plate kept at constant heat flux and other one insulated are considered for the analysis. The deviation in Nusselt number between the model that considers both first order velocity slip and temperature jump and the one that considers only velocity slip is reported. Also, the effect of various heat flux ratios on the Nusselt number is reported in this analysis. In addition, the deviation in Nusselt number between first and second order slip model is discussed in this study.

  1. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Ü.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, N. J.; Mammarella, I.; Lind, S.; Hyvönen, N.; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, M.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-01-01

    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring until winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O / CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emissions, lasting for about 2 weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterized by an up to 2 orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.01 to 1 nmol m-2 s-1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced the cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher values during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reasons for systematic differences were not identified, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and any other factors that can systematically affect the accuracy of flux measurements. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterized by the lowest noise level (with a standard deviation of around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate) as compared to N2O / CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). We identified that for all instruments except CW-TILDAS-CS the random error due to instrumental noise was an important source of uncertainty at the 30 min averaging level and the total stochastic error was frequently

  2. Measuring Total Flux of Organic Vapors From the Unsaturated Zone Under Natural Conditions: Design, Laboratory and Field Testing of a Flux Chamber Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, F. D.; Choi, J.; Smith, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    A simple, easy-to-use, and inexpensive device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions was designed and tested both in a controlled laboratory environment and in a natural field setting. The chamber consists of a stainless-steel right circular cylinder open on one end with a flexible, impermeable membrane allowing for chamber expansion and contraction. Air is pumped from inside the chamber through activated carbon traps and returned to the chamber maintaining a net zero pressure gradient from the inside to the outside of the chamber. The traps are analyzed using thermal desorption/GC-FID and the mass of contaminant is divided by the product of the sampled area and sample time to give VOC flux measured by the chamber. Design parameters for the chamber were selected using continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-equation based modeling under step, sinusoidal and transport-model simulation flux inputs. Laboratory testing of the flux chamber under both diffusion and advection dominated conditions was performed in a device constructed to simulate unsaturated zone transport. Aqueous trichloroethene (TCE) solution was pumped through the bottom of a steel drum inside which 50-cm of fine sand was suspended. For diffusion-dominated transport experiments, the chamber was installed in the sand at the top of the simulator and operated in the same manner as would occur in the field. The flux measurement of the chamber was then compared to flux prediction based on measured linear concentration data from the simulator and Fick's law. Advective transport is initiated in the vadose zone simulator by flowing humidified, pressurized air into an input port in the bottom of the simulator below the suspended porous media. Soil-gas velocity is calculated by dividing the airflow input by the surface area of the simulator. Flux was measured with the chamber and compared to flux predicted using airflow and concentration data from the simulator. Results from both the diffusion-only and

  3. Characterisation of initial fouling in aerobic submerged membrane bioreactors in relation to physico-chemical characteristics under different flux conditions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Chiang Albert; Ng, How Yong

    2010-04-01

    The initial fouling characteristics of aerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were analysed under different flux conditions. Physico-chemical analyses of the mixed liquor hinted that carbohydrates were more important to membrane fouling than proteins. However, this contrasted with the characterisation of foulants on the membrane surfaces. Micro-structural analyses of the foulants on the membrane surfaces showed that the dominant foulants were different under different flux conditions. Membrane fouling occurred through a biofilm-dominated process under lower flux conditions, but the mechanism shifted towards a non-biofilm, organic fouling process as the flux was increased. In spite of the differences in fouling mechanisms, it was found that the protein fraction on the membrane surfaces, in the initial stages of MBR operations, had the greatest impact in the rise of transmembrane pressure. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of CETP activity in vivo under non-steady-state conditions: influence of anacetrapib on HDL-TG flux[S

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, David G.; Previs, Stephen F.; Phair, Robert D.; Stout, Steven J.; Xie, Dan; Chen, Ying; Salituro, Gino M.; Xu, Suoyu S.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.; Opiteck, Gregory J.; Akinsanya, Karen O.; Cleary, Michele A.; Dansky, Hayes M.; Johns, Douglas G.; Roddy, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in lipoprotein kinetics almost exclusively rely on steady-state approaches to modeling. Herein, we have used a non-steady-state experimental design to examine the role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in mediating HDL-TG flux in vivo in rhesus macaques, and therefore, we developed an alternative strategy to model the data. Two isotopomers ([2H11] and [13C18]) of oleic acid were administered (orally and intravenously, respectively) to serve as precursors for labeling TGs in apoB-containing lipoproteins. The flux of a specific TG (52:2) from these donor lipoproteins to HDL was used as the measure of CETP activity; calculations are also presented to estimate total HDL-TG flux. Based on our data, we estimate that the peak total postprandial TG flux to HDL via CETP is ∼13 mg·h−1·kg−1 and show that this transfer was inhibited by 97% following anacetrapib treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HDL TG flux can be used as a measure of CETP activity in vivo. The fact that the donor lipoproteins can be labeled in situ using well-established stable isotope tracer techniques suggests ways to measure this activity for native lipoproteins in free-living subjects under any physiological conditions. PMID:26658238

  5. Improving riverine constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ball, William P.

    2017-04-01

    Regression-based approaches are often employed to estimate riverine constituent concentrations and fluxes based on typically sparse concentration observations. One such approach is the recently developed WRTDS (;Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season;) method, which has been shown to provide more accurate estimates than prior approaches in a wide range of applications. Centered on WRTDS, this work was aimed at developing improved models for constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions. Twelve modified models were developed and tested, each of which contains one additional flow variable to represent antecedent conditions and which can be directly derived from the daily discharge record. High-resolution (∼daily) data at nine diverse monitoring sites were used to evaluate the relative merits of the models for estimation of six constituents - chloride (Cl), nitrate-plus-nitrite (NOx), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS). For each site-constituent combination, 30 concentration subsets were generated from the original data through Monte Carlo subsampling and then used to evaluate model performance. For the subsampling, three sampling strategies were adopted: (A) 1 random sample each month (12/year), (B) 12 random monthly samples plus additional 8 random samples per year (20/year), and (C) flow-stratified sampling with 12 regular (non-storm) and 8 storm samples per year (20/year). Results reveal that estimation performance varies with both model choice and sampling strategy. In terms of model choice, the modified models show general improvement over the original model under all three sampling strategies. Major improvements were achieved for NOx by the long-term flow-anomaly model and for Cl by the ADF (average discounted flow) model and the short-term flow-anomaly model. Moderate improvements were achieved for SS, TP, and TKN

  6. On cosmic rays flux variations in midlatitudes and their relations to geomagnetic and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Anna; Blanco, Juan Jose; Mendes Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando

    The cosmic rays flux is globally modulated by the solar cycle and shows anti-correlation with the sunspot number. Near to the Earth it is modulated by the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The analysis of the secondary cosmic rays produced when they interact in the low stratosphere allows extracting information about solar wind structures surrounding Earth's orbit, the magnetic field of the Earth and the temperature of the stratosphere. Recently, a new cosmic ray detector, the TRAGALDABAS, composed by RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) planes, has been developed and installed to go deeper into the understanding of the cosmic rays arriving to the Earth surface. An international collaboration has been organized for keeping the detector operative and for analyzing the data. Here we present the analysis of the cosmic rays flux variations measured by two cosmic rays detectors of different types located in Spain (Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor - CaLMa - in Guadalajara and TRAGALDABAS in Santiago de Compostela) and their comparison to changes both in the geomagnetic field components measured by the Coimbra Geomagnetic Observatory (Portugal) and in the atmospheric conditions (tropo- and stratosphere) measured by Spanish and Portuguese meteorological stations. The study is focused on a number of recent cosmic rays events and pays specific attention to the comparison of the CaLMa series and the preliminary TRAGALDABAS data.

  7. Burgers equation with no-flux boundary conditions and its application for complete fluid separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumoto, Sohei; Higurashi, Tomohiro; Ono, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Burgers equation in a one-dimensional bounded domain with no-flux boundary conditions at both ends is proven to be exactly solvable. Cole-Hopf transformation converts not only the governing equation to the heat equation with an extra damping but also the nonlinear mixed boundary conditions to Dirichlet boundary conditions. The average of the solution v bar is conserved. Consequently, from an arbitrary initial condition, solutions converge to the equilibrium solution which is unique for the given v bar. The problem arises naturally as a continuum limit of a network of certain micro-devices. Each micro-device imperfectly separates a target fluid component from a mixture of more than one component, and its input-output concentration relationships are modeled by a pair of quadratic maps. The solvability of the initial boundary value problem is used to demonstrate that such a network acts as an ideal macro-separator, separating out the target component almost completely. Another network is also proposed which leads to a modified Burgers equation with a nonlinear diffusion coefficient.

  8. One-photon scattering by an atomic chain in a two-mode resonator: cyclic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a chain of N identical two-level atoms coupled with a quantized electromagnetic field, initially prepared via a single-photon Fock state, is investigated. The N-particle state amplitude of the system is calculated for several space configurations of the atoms in the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. It was shown that the space configuration of an atomic chain, the total number of atoms, and even the available volume for the field modes define the behavior of the system state amplitude with time. Applying the condition of ‘cyclic bonds’, presented in this work, to the elaborated theory allows to describe the system time evolution, practically, for any space configuration. PMID:24860278

  9. Optical anisotropy of cubic photonic crystals under conditions of multiple-mode light propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukleev, T. A.; Yurasova, D. I.; Shevchenko, N. N.; Sel'kin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Bragg reflection spectra of light are studied for opal-like photonic crystals made of polystyrene spheres. A resonant enhancement of reflectivity is observed in cross-polarization configuration of the analyzer and polarizer when varying the azimuthal orientation of a sample in respect to the incidence plane. The cross-polarization effect takes place at oblique incidence of light on the lateral (111) crystal plane with the plane of incidence being non-perpendicular to the inclined (11-1) crystal plane. The effect is shown to be due to the multiple Bragg diffraction of light when the resonant Bragg conditions are fulfilled at a certain angle of incidence and azimuth for the lateral and inclined crystal planes simultaneously.

  10. Hydromagnetic flow of third grade nanofluid with viscous dissipation and flux conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-08-01

    This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic flow of third grade nanofluid with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Energy equation is considered in the presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. Rosseland's approximation is employed for thermal radiation. The heat and concentration flux conditions are taken into account. The governing nonlinear mathematical expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration are converted into dimensionless expressions via transformations. Series solutions of the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration are developed. Convergence of the constructed solutions is checked out both graphically and numerically. Effects of interesting physical parameters on the temperature and concentration are plotted and discussed in detail. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are computed for the hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow cases.

  11. Modeling tangent hyperbolic nanoliquid flow with heat and mass flux conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Ullah, I.; Alsaedi, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2017-03-01

    This attempt predicts the hydromagnetic flow of a tangent hyperbolic nanofluid originated by a non-linear impermeable stretching surface. The considered nanofluid model takes into account the Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis characteristics. An incompressible liquid is electrically conducted in the presence of a non-uniformly applied magnetic field. Heat and mass transfer phenomena posses flux conditions. Mathematical formulation is developed by utilizing the boundary layer approach. A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by employing adequate variables. Convergence for obtained series solutions is checked and explicitly verified through tables and plots. Effects of numerous pertinent variables on velocity, temperature and concentration fields are addressed. Computations for surface drag coefficient, heat transfer rate and mass transfer rate are presented and inspected for the influence of involved variables. Temperature is found to enhance for a higher magnetic variable. Present and previous outcomes in limiting sense are also compared.

  12. Hydromagnetic flow of third grade nanofluid with viscous dissipation and flux conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, T.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-08-15

    This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic flow of third grade nanofluid with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Energy equation is considered in the presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. Rosseland’s approximation is employed for thermal radiation. The heat and concentration flux conditions are taken into account. The governing nonlinear mathematical expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration are converted into dimensionless expressions via transformations. Series solutions of the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration are developed. Convergence of the constructed solutions is checked out both graphically and numerically. Effects of interesting physical parameters on the temperature and concentration are plotted and discussed in detail. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are computed for the hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow cases.

  13. Critical heat flux in forced convective boiling with a plane jet (Revised correlation for saturated condition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monde, M.; Wang, X.

    Critical heat flux (CHF) has been measured in saturated forced convective boiling with a wall jet on a rectangular heated surface of 40 and 80mm in length and 20mm in width. The jet velocity is varied from 3 to 15 m/s, and the system pressure is 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4MPa for R113. It is found that the existing correlation for saturation condition can be applied to the CHF at high and low ρl/ρg values (e.g. water and R22), but hardly to the CHF at medium ρl/ρg values (e.g. R113 at 0.2 and 0.4MPa). A revised correlation is proposed to predict most of the CHF data within an accuracy of +/-25%.

  14. Relative importance of gas-phase diffusive and advective tichloroethene (TCE) fluxes in the unsaturated zone under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jee-Won; Tillman, Fred D; Smith, James A

    2002-07-15

    diffusion flux. When averaged over the second sampling event, the advection and diffusion fluxes were comparable in magnitude. Sensitivity analyses indicate that diffusion fluxes increase significantly with increases in air-filled porosity near land surface, whereas advection fluxes do not. For October 1996, the comparable advection and diffusion fluxes were caused by high moisture content near land surface and a subsequent reduction in the diffusion flux relative to the advection flux. These results indicate that under certain environmental conditions, the organic vapor advection flux from the unsaturated zone to the atmosphere may be equal to or greater than the diffusion flux.

  15. Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate

  16. Interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions for different solar activities interacting with spacecraft and astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions by using data from several satellites such as Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in particular GOES 9, GOES 11, GOES 12, GOES 13, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) to determine proton flux in different solar wind conditions. The data from above satellites were used to determine space weather conditions in which the goals are to evaluate proton fluxes for four periods of solar cycle activity: a solar cycle 23/24 minimum (2008), close to a solar cycle 22/23 minimum (1997), with intermediate activity (2011) and for about maximum activity for the cycle 23 (2003), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 2003 and 2008 (Max vs. Min), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 1997 and 2008 (Min vs. Min), to compare soft X-ray flux from SOHO with proton 1-10 MeV flux from GOES 9 for strong flare in 1997. To conclude the above evaluations are being used to determine the interaction between the space weather conditions and the following consequences of these conditions important for astronautics and everyday human activity: 1- Satellite and Spacecraft charging, 2-Dangerous conditions for onboard electronics and astronauts during strong solar flare events, and 3- Total Electron Content (TEC), Global Positioning System (GPS), and radio communication problems related to solar activity.

  17. Nitrous Oxide Production and Fluxes from Coastal Sediments under Varying Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebis, W.; Wankel, S. D.; de Beer, D.; Dentinger, J.; Buchwald, C.; Charoenpong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Although coastal zones represent important contributors to the increasing levels of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), it is still unclear which role benthic processes play and whether marine sediments represent sinks or sources for N2O, since interactions among closely associated microbial groups lead to a high degree of variability. In addition, coastal areas are extremely dynamic regions, often exposed to increased nutrient loading and conditions of depleted oxygen. We investigated benthic N2O fluxes and how environmental conditions affect N2O production in different sediments at 2 different geographical locations (German Wadden Sea, a California coastal lagoon). At each location, a total of 32 sediment cores were taken in areas that differed in sediment type, organic content and pore-water nutrient concentrations, as well as in bioturbation activity. Parallel cores were incubated under in-situ conditions, low oxygen and increased nitrate levels for 10 days. Zones of N2O production and consumption were identified in intact cores by N2O microprofiles at the beginning and end of the experiments. In a collaborative effort to determine the dominant sources of N2O, samples were taken throughout the course of the experiments for the determination of the isotopic composition of N2O (as well as nitrate, nitrite and ammonium). Our results indicate that both, nitrate addition and low oxygen conditions in the overlying water, caused an increase of subsurface N2O production in most sediments, with a high variability between different sediment types. N2O production in the sediments was accompanied by N2O consumption, reducing the fluxes to the water column. In general, organic rich sediments showed the strongest response to environmental changes with increased production and efflux of N2O into the overlying water. Bioturbation activity added to the complexity of N2O dynamics by an increase in nitrification-denitrification processes, as well as enhanced pore-water transport

  18. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer to provide absolute photoionization rates of inflowing interstellar neutrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype spectrometer has been developed for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. The energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  19. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests

  20. Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Modulus Evolution of Thermal Barrier Coatings under High Heat Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.

  1. Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2003-01-01

    Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

  2. New constraints from haverah park data on the photon and iron fluxes of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    PubMed

    Ave; Hinton; Vazquez; Watson; Zas

    2000-09-11

    Using data from inclined events ( 60 degrees photons (iron nuclei) at the 95% confidence level. Above 4x10(19) eV less than 65% of the cosmic rays can be photonic at the same confidence level. These limits place important constraints on some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Details of two new events above 10(20) eV are reported.

  3. Demonstration and Validation of a Passive Flux Meter under Controlled Field Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M.; Cho, J.; Parker, B.; Cherry, J.

    2003-12-01

    Subsurface contaminant mass flows and fluxes are increasingly being viewed as critical information needed to address issues pertinent to aquifer and groundwater remediation. Theses issues include; source prioritization, risk prediction, compliance monitoring, remediation endpoint evaluation, and contaminant attenuation assessment. Field experiments were conducted to demonstrate and validate a passive flux meter (PFM), which is a down-hole monitoring technology that provides for simultaneous, direct, in situ, point measurements of cumulative or time-averaged contaminant mass flux and water flux. The experiments were conducted in a subsurface flume located at the Base Borden Test facility in Ontario, Canada. The sheet-pile enclosed flume was 15-m long and 2 m wide. Steady flow was established using four pumping wells located in the closed end of the flume. Flow rates and contaminant concentrations measured at the producing wells provided estimates of average groundwater and contaminant fluxes within the flume. Flux estimates were compared to direct measurements obtained from 6 flux meters and to calculated fluxes generated from multilevel samplers. Fuzzy analysis was used to characterize the uncertainty in MTBE mass flow and flux estimates generated from spatially integrating PFM measurements.

  4. Surf zone, infragravity wave energy flux, and runup in extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, J. W.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Waves, currents, and sand levels were observed on a 1.4 km-long cross-shore transect extending from the back beach to ~11 m water depth at Agate Beach, Oregon in Fall 2013. Wave runup and water table fluctuations on this low slope (1:80) beach were measured with a cliff-mounted scanning Lidar and buried pressure sensors. Significant wave heights at an offshore buoy in 128m depth ranged from small (0.5m) to extreme (7.5m), with peak periods between 4-22 seconds. Infragravity frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) horizontal runup excursions exceeded 100m, and infragravity cross-shore velocity exceeded 3 m/s. Cross-shore patterns of infragravity wave energy flux, observed with seven co-located pressure and current meters, indicate 'proto-saturation' of the inner surfzone in extreme conditions. That is, the intensification of incident wave forcing (e.g. higher energy, longer swell) leads to a wider surfzone and an increase in the shoreward infragravity wave energy seaward of the surfzone, but produces more modest increases in flux in the inner surfzone, and in the runup. Nonlinear energy balances, based on the observations, show transfer of energy from sea-swell to infragravity waves, and vice-versa. The infragravity energy balance closes in cases with low energy incident sea-swell. With more energetic incident waves, there is an unexplained inner surfzone energy sink at the lowest IG frequencies (0.004-0.02 Hz). Ongoing work aims to quantify the effect on infragravity energy balances by infragravity wave breaking and bottom friction. Additionally, the estimates may be degraded by contamination with rotational velocities of surfzone eddies. Whatever the dynamical explanation, infragravity wave runup on a low slope beach in high-energy conditions is limited significantly by dissipation. The slow rate of runup increase suggests nascent, or 'proto' saturation. This work was supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  5. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  6. BOREAS TF-4 SSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Canopy Condition Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-4) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Young Jack Pine (SSA-YJP) site during the growing season of 1994. In addition, meteorological data were collected both above and within the canopy. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  7. Evaluating Flux-Variance Relationships Under Strongly Advective Conditions During BEAREX08

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flux-variance approaches for latent and sensible heat flux using eddy covariance (EC) tower data from the Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment (BEAREX_08) are evaluated for irrigated and non-irrigated cotton,a pasture grassland surface, a fallow wheat field and a 10 m EC tow...

  8. Transient Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux of FC-72 Under Saturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fitri, Sutopo P.; Katsuya Fukuda; Qiusheng Liu; Jongdoc Park

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the steady-state and transient critical heat fluxes (CHFs) in pool boiling were measured on 1.0 mm diameter horizontal cylinders of gold and platinum heaters under saturated conditions due to transient heat inputs, Q{sub 0}exp(t/t), in a pool of Fluorinert FC-72. Heaters were heated by electric current with the periods, t, ranged from 10 ms to 20 s, and the pressures ranged from atmospheric up to around 1.2 MPa. The steady-state CHFs measured are dependent on pressure and almost agree with the values obtained by Kutateladze's correlation based on hydrodynamic instability (HI) model. It was considered that the boiling inception and the direct transition during the steady-state period occur by the pre-pressure of {approx}1.2 MPa. The trend of typical transient CHFs were clearly divided into the first, second, and third groups for long, short, and intermediate periods, respectively. The direct transition processes to film boiling without nucleate boiling for the short periods obtained from both heaters were confirmed due to the heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation (HSN) in flooded cavities on the cylinder surface. The empirical correlations to express each of corresponding CHFs measured on both heaters for the short periods are presented in this paper. (authors)

  9. Vegetation and water fluxes under Mediterranean mountain conditions. The Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.; Muzylo, A.; Rubio, C. M.; Latron, J.; Delgado, J.; Gallart, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Vallcebre research catchments are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (North Eastern Spain). These catchments were originally covered by Quercus pubescens but were deforested for agricultural use in the past. Nowadays they are covered by mesophyle grasses with spontaneous afforestation by Pinus sylvestris, covering 64% of the catchment area. In this context, different investigations studying water fluxes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum have been performed. The main objective of these studies is the analysis of the role of vegetation cover on the catchment water balance in a framework of climate and land use changes. The dynamics of transpiration and rainfall interception by Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pubescens, are investigated in terms of their dependence on meteorological conditions, on soil moisture and water table depth. Furthermore, the role of vegetation on catchment water balance is analysed. The results underline: (a) The importance of rainfall interception losses, representing about 24% of the bulk rainfall by the Scots pine and between 6 and 24%, by the Pubescent oak (depending on phenology), and the high temporal variability of this flux. (b) The effect of forest covers on soil moisture, which was apparent when comparing neighbouring soil moisture profiles under forest and meadows. (c) The differences in transpiration between species. Transpiration by Scots pines represented twice the value found in the nearby Pubescent oak stand. Scots pines showed a strong reduction of transpiration during dry summer periods, even in the studied area where the annual rainfall slightly exceeds the reference evapotranspiration. On the contrary, Pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits. Rainfall interception as well as trees transpiration processes have been modelled (Gash and Jarvis-type models respectively) at the plot scale with a twofold objective: the comprehension of each studied process and the analysis

  10. The photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Russell L.

    2009-10-01

    There are no TEM waves, only photons. Lets build a photon, using a radio antenna. A short antenna (2L<< λ) simplifies the calculation, letting B fall off everywhere as 1/r^2. The Biot-Savart law finds B = (μ0/4π)(LI0/r^2)θφt. The magnetic flux thru a semi-circle of radius λ/2 is set equal to the flux quantum h/e, determining the needed source strength, LI0. From this, one can integrate the magnetic energy density over a sphere of radius λ/2 and finds it to be 1.0121 hc/λ. Pretty close. A B field collapses when the current ceases, but the photon evades this by creating a ɛ0E / t displacement current at center that fully supports the toroidal B assembly as it moves at c. This E=vxB arises because the photon moves at c. Stopped, a photon decays. At every point along the photon's path, an observer will note a transient oscillation of an E field. This sources the EM ``guiding wave'', carrying little or no energy and expanding at c. At the head of the photon, all these spherical guiding waves gather ``in-phase'' as a planar wavefront. This model speaks to all the many things we know about light. The photon is tiny, but its guiding wave is huge.

  11. Methanol emissions from maize: Ontogenetic dependence to varying light conditions and guttation as an additional factor constraining the flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffar, A.; Schoon, N.; Digrado, A.; Bachy, A.; Delaplace, P.; du Jardin, P.; Fauconnier, M.-L.; Aubinet, M.; Heinesch, B.; Amelynck, C.

    2017-03-01

    Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural crops are believed to be a large source of methanol, emission inventories from those crop ecosystems are still scarce and little information is available concerning the driving mechanisms for methanol production and emission at different developmental stages of the plants/leaves. This study focuses on methanol emissions from Zea mays L. (maize), which is vastly cultivated throughout the world. Flux measurements have been performed on young plants, almost fully grown leaves and fully grown leaves, enclosed in dynamic flow-through enclosures in a temperature and light-controlled environmental chamber. Strong differences in the response of methanol emissions to variations in PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density) were noticed between the young plants, almost fully grown and fully grown leaves. Moreover, young maize plants showed strong emission peaks following light/dark transitions, for which guttation can be put forward as a hypothetical pathway. Young plants' average daily methanol fluxes exceeded by a factor of 17 those of almost fully grown and fully grown leaves when expressed per leaf area. Absolute flux values were found to be smaller than those reported in the literature, but in fair agreement with recent ecosystem scale flux measurements above a maize field of the same variety as used in this study. The flux measurements in the current study were used to evaluate the dynamic biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission model of Niinemets and Reichstein. The modelled and measured fluxes from almost fully grown leaves were found to agree best when a temperature and light dependent methanol production function was applied. However, this production function turned out not to be suitable for modelling the observed emissions from the young plants

  12. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R.; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the "most active hours/days" (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  13. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes.

    PubMed

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the "most active hours/days" (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  14. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    DOE PAGES

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; ...

    2016-08-08

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence ofmore » favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the “most active hours/days” (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.« less

  15. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R.; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-08-08

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the “most active hours/days” (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  16. The marine atmospheric boundary layer under strong wind conditions: Organized turbulence structure and flux estimates by airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Durand, Pierre; Canut, Guylaine

    2017-02-01

    During winter, cold air outbreaks take place in the northwestern Mediterranean sea. They are characterized by local strong winds (Mistral and Tramontane) which transport cold and dry continental air across a warmer sea. In such conditions, high values of surface sensible and latent heat flux are observed, which favor deep oceanic convection. The HyMeX/ASICS-MED field campaign was devoted to the study of these processes. Airborne measurements, gathered in the Gulf of Lion during the winter of 2013, allowed for the exploration of the mean and turbulent structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). A spectral analysis based on an analytical model was conducted on 181 straight and level runs. Profiles of characteristic length scales and sharpness parameter of the vertical wind spectrum revealed larger eddies along the mean wind direction associated with an organization of the turbulence field into longitudinal rolls. These were highlighted by boundary layer cloud bands on high-resolution satellite images. A one-dimensional description of the vertical exchanges is then a tricky issue. Since the knowledge of the flux profile throughout the entire MABL is essential for the estimation of air-sea exchanges, a correction of eddy covariance turbulent fluxes was developed taking into account the systematic and random errors due to sampling and data processing. This allowed the improvement of surface fluxes estimates, computed from the extrapolation of the stacked levels. A comparison between those surface fluxes and bulk fluxes computed at a moored buoy revealed considerable differences, mainly regarding the latent heat flux under strong wind conditions.

  17. The whistler heat flux instability: Threshold conditions in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S.P.; Scime, E.E.; Phillips, J.L.; Feldman, W.C.

    1994-12-01

    Solar wind electrons are observed often to consist of two components: a core and a halo. The anisotropies and relative average speeds of these two components correspond to a heat flux that has the potential to excite several different electromagnetic instabilities; wave-particle scattering by the resulting enhanced fluctuations can limit this heat flux. This manuscript describes theoretical studies using the linear Vlasov dispersion equation for drifting bi-Maxwellian component distributions in a homogeneous plasma to examine the threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. Expressions for this threshold are obtained from two different parametric baselines: a local model that yields scalings as functions of local dimensionless plasma parameters, and a global model based on average electron properties observed during the in-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission. The latter model yields an expression for the heat flux at threshold of the whistler instability as a function of heliospheric radius that scales in the same way as the average heat flux observed from Ulysses and that provides an approximate upper bound for that same quantity. This theoretical scaling is combined with the observational results to yield a semiempirical closure relation for the average electron heat flux in the solar wind between 1 and 5 AU. 29 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Gravity wave activity in the thermosphere inferred from GOCE data, and its dependence on solar flux conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Bruinsma, Sean; Doornbos, Eelco; Massarweh, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on the effect of solar flux conditions on the dynamics of Gravity Waves (GW) in thermosphere. Air density and cross-wind in situ estimates from the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometers are analyzed for the whole mission duration. The analysis was performed in the Fourier spectral domain averaging spectral results over periods of 2 months close to solstices. First the Amplitude Spectral Density (ASD) and the Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC) of physical parameters are linked to local gravity waves. Then, a new GW marker (called Cf3) was introduced here to constrain GWs activity under Low, Medium and High solar flux conditions, showing a clear solar dumping effect on GW activity. Most of GW signal has been found in a spectral range above 8 mHz in GOCE data, meaning a maximum horizontal wavelength around 1000 km. The level GW activity at GOCE altitude is strongly decreasing with increasing solar flux. Furthermore, a shift in the dominant frequency with solar flux conditions has been noted, leading to a larger horizontal wavelengths (from 200 to 500 km) during high solar flux conditions. The influence of correlated error sources, between air density and cross-winds, is discussed. Consistency of the spectral domain results has been verified in time-domain with a global mapping of high frequency perturbations along GOCE orbit. This analysis shows a clear dependence with geomagnetic latitude with strong perturbations at magnetic poles, and an extension to lower latitudes favoured by low solar activity conditions. Various possible causes of this spatial trend are discussed.

  19. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems.

  20. Measurement of the light flux density patterns from luminaires proposed as photon sources for photosynthesis during space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Two luminaires were evaluated to determine the light flux density pattern on a horizontal plane surface. NASA supplied both luminaires; one was made by NASA and the other is commercially available. Tests were made for three combinations of luminaire height and luminaire lens material using the NASA luminaire; only one configuration of the commercial luminaire was tested. Measurements were made using four sensors with different wavelength range capabilities. The data are presented in graphical and tabular formats.

  1. Focusing and photon flux measurements of the 2.88-nm radiation at the sample plane of the soft x-ray microscope, based on capillary discharge source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. Fahad; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Limpouch, Jiri; Pina, Ladislav

    2015-05-01

    Feasibility measurements leading to the development of a Soft X-ray (SXR) microscopy setup, based on capillary discharge XUV source is presented. Here the Z-pinching plasma is acting as a source of XUV radiation, emitting incoherent radiation in the "water-window" (λ = 2.3 - 4.4 nm) region of interest (natural contrast between the carbon and oxygen edges).This soft X-ray microscopy setup will realize imaging of the biological objects with high spatial resolution. The 2.88 nm radiation line is filtered out from the water-window band, and is focused by an axi-symmetric ellipsoidal mirror, coated with nickle. The focussed spot size is measured and reported. Flux measurements for the available number of photons (photons/pulse) at the sample plane has been carried out with AXUV PIN diode at the sample plane (slightly out of focus). For imaging, a fresnel zone plate lens will be used as an objective. The overall compact transmission SXR microscopy setup design is presented.

  2. Influence of the extreme conditions on the water quality and material exchange flux in the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altıok, Hüsne; Aslan, Aslı; Övez, Süleyman; Demirel, Nazlı; Yüksek, Ahsen; Kıratlı, Nur; Taş, Seyfettin; Müftüoğlu, Ahmet Edip; Sur, Halil Ibrahim; Okuş, Erdoğan

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the influence of extreme hydrological events on the water quality of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus), a stratified waterway, polluted by sewage outfalls and non-point sources. Monthly collected water quality parameters (nitrate + nitrite, ortho-phosphate, silicate, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a and fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform and enterococci)) were evaluated together with the hydrological data (salinity, temperature and current flow) for 1 year. Two blockage events, identified as extreme conditions, were detected during the study: a lower layer blockage in February 2003 and an upper layer blockage in October 2003. During the lower layer blockage, the volume fluxes of the upper layer significantly increased to 28,140 m3 s- 1 and the lower layer almost stopped flowing (19 m3 s- 1). The dissolved oxidative nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and silicate inputs outflowing from the Black Sea were 117, 17.6, and 309 tons which were 3, 2, and 4 times the average daily fluxes respectively, in addition to enhancement of fecal indicator bacteria contamination in the sea surface flow. During the upper layer blockage, the volume flux of the upper layer was 3837 m3 s- 1 and the counter flow reached 24,985 m3 s- 1 at the northern exit of the Strait of Istanbul resulting in 2.7 fold increase in the mean bottom flow. The daily exports of nutrients, total suspended solid and dissolved oxygen by the lower layer flow increased by at least 2 fold compared to the mass fluxes estimated from the seasonal/annual means of volume flux and concentrations. On the other hand, fecal indicator bacteria flux by the lower layer inflow to the Black Sea decreased by at least 2 fold compared to the mean daily flux. These results show that the material exchange between the Marmara and the Black seas becomes more important during blockage events.

  3. Oxidation flux change on spermatozoa membrane in important pathologic conditions leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2008-06-01

    Free radicals or reactive oxygen species mediate their action through proinflammatory cytokines and this mechanism has been proposed as a common underlying factor for male infertility. There is extensive literature on oxidative stress and its role in male infertility and sperm DNA damage and its effects on assisted reproductive techniques. However, there has never been a report on the oxidation flux change in spermatozoa. Here, the author determined the oxidation flux change in such hypoxic cases, using the simulation test based on nanomedicine technique is used. Of interest, change of flux can be detected. The main pathogenesis should be the direct injury of membrane structure of spermatozoa by free radicals which can lead to sperm defect. Therefore, this work can support the finding that the oxidation flux change corresponding to oxygen pressure change in spermatozoa does not exist. However, the flux change can be seen if the membrane thickness of spermatozoa is varied. Thin membrane spermatozoa are more prone to oxidative stress than thick membrane ones. The defect in the enzymatic system within the spermatozoa should be a better explanation for vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. The use of enzymatic modification technique by antioxidants can be useful alternative in management of male infertility.

  4. Accuracy validation of incident photon fluence on DQE for various measurement conditions and X-ray units.

    PubMed

    Haba, Tomonobu; Kondo, Shimpei; Hayashi, Daiki; Koyama, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely used as a comprehensive metric for X-ray image evaluation in digital X-ray units. The incident photon fluence per air kerma (SNR²(in)) is necessary for calculating the DQE. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) reports the SNR²(in) under conditions of standard radiation quality, but this SNR²(in) might not be accurate as calculated from the X-ray spectra emitted by an actual X-ray tube. In this study, we evaluated the error range of the SNR²(in) presented by the IEC62220-1 report. We measured the X-ray spectra emitted by an X-ray tube under conditions of standard radiation quality of RQA5. The spectral photon fluence at each energy bin was multiplied by the photon energy and the mass energy absorption coefficient of air; then the air kerma spectrum was derived. The air kerma spectrum was integrated over the whole photon energy range to yield the total air kerma. The total photon number was then divided by the total air kerma. This value is the SNR²(in). These calculations were performed for various measurement parameters and X-ray units. The percent difference between the calculated value and the standard value of RQA5 was up to 2.9%. The error range was not negligibly small. Therefore, it is better to use the new SNR²(in) of 30694 (1/(mm(2) μGy)) than the current [Formula: see text] of 30174 (1/(mm(2) μGy)).

  5. Evaluation of CETP activity in vivo under non-steady-state conditions: influence of anacetrapib on HDL-TG flux.

    PubMed

    McLaren, David G; Previs, Stephen F; Phair, Robert D; Stout, Steven J; Xie, Dan; Chen, Ying; Salituro, Gino M; Xu, Suoyu S; Castro-Perez, Jose M; Opiteck, Gregory J; Akinsanya, Karen O; Cleary, Michele A; Dansky, Hayes M; Johns, Douglas G; Roddy, Thomas P

    2016-03-01

    Studies in lipoprotein kinetics almost exclusively rely on steady-state approaches to modeling. Herein, we have used a non-steady-state experimental design to examine the role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in mediating HDL-TG flux in vivo in rhesus macaques, and therefore, we developed an alternative strategy to model the data. Two isotopomers ([(2)H11] and [(13)C18]) of oleic acid were administered (orally and intravenously, respectively) to serve as precursors for labeling TGs in apoB-containing lipoproteins. The flux of a specific TG (52:2) from these donor lipoproteins to HDL was used as the measure of CETP activity; calculations are also presented to estimate total HDL-TG flux. Based on our data, we estimate that the peak total postprandial TG flux to HDL via CETP is ∼ 13 mg · h(-1) · kg(-1) and show that this transfer was inhibited by 97% following anacetrapib treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HDL TG flux can be used as a measure of CETP activity in vivo. The fact that the donor lipoproteins can be labeled in situ using well-established stable isotope tracer techniques suggests ways to measure this activity for native lipoproteins in free-living subjects under any physiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Potential formalism of optical spatial soliton propagation in a two-photon photovoltaic-photorefractive material under open circuit condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhouri, B. P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    Propagation characteristics of optical spatial solitons in a two-photon photovoltaic-photorefractive medium under open circuit condition have been investigated using the formalism of a particle in a potential well. Optical nonlinearity has been evaluated using Castro-Camus model. Variational formalism has been employed to investigate the resulting modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Potential formalism has been examined to identify localized optical spatial solitons.

  7. Carbon 13-Metabolic Flux Analysis derived constraint-based metabolic modelling of Clostridium acetobutylicum in stressed chemostat conditions.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, Janne; Maaheimo, Hannu; Eerikäinen, Tero

    2016-11-01

    The metabolism of butanol producing bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied in chemostat with glucose limited conditions, butanol stimulus, and as a reference cultivation. COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) was applied using additional constraints from (13)C Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) and experimental measurement results. A model consisting of 451 metabolites and 604 reactions was utilized in flux balance analysis (FBA). The stringency of the flux spaces considering different optimization objectives, i.e. growth rate maximization, ATP maintenance, and NADH/NADPH formation, for flux variance analysis (FVA) was studied in the different modelled conditions. Also a previously uncharacterized exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by C. acetobutylicum was characterized on monosaccharide level. The major monosaccharide components of the EPS were 40n-% rhamnose, 34n-% glucose, 13n-% mannose, 10n-% galactose, and 2n-% arabinose. The EPS was studied to have butanol adsorbing property, 70(butanol)mg(EPS)g(-1) at 37°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DSMC simulation of rarefied gas flows under cooling conditions using a new iterative wall heat flux specifying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, H.; Roohi, E.; Myong, R. S.

    2012-11-01

    Micro/nano geometries with specified wall heat flux are widely encountered in electronic cooling and micro-/nano-fluidic sensors. We introduce a new technique to impose the desired (positive/negative) wall heat flux boundary condition in the DSMC simulations. This technique is based on an iterative progress on the wall temperature magnitude. It is found that the proposed iterative technique has a good numerical performance and could implement both positive and negative values of wall heat flux rates accurately. Using present technique, rarefied gas flow through micro-/nanochannels under specified wall heat flux conditions is simulated and unique behaviors are observed in case of channels with cooling walls. For example, contrary to the heating process, it is observed that cooling of micro/nanochannel walls would result in small variations in the density field. Upstream thermal creep effects in the cooling process decrease the velocity slip despite of the Knudsen number increase along the channel. Similarly, cooling process decreases the curvature of the pressure distribution below the linear incompressible distribution. Our results indicate that flow cooling increases the mass flow rate through the channel, and vice versa.

  9. Evaluation of carbon isotope flux partitioning theory under simplified and controlled environmental conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Separation of the photosynthetic (Fp) and respiratory (Fr) fluxes of net CO2 exchange (Fn)remains a necessary step toward understanding the biological and physical controls on carbon cycling between the soil, biomass, and atmosphere. Despite recent advancements in stable carbon isotope partitioning ...

  10. Comparison of estimated surface energy fluxes using METRIC and two-source algorithms for Advective Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface energy fluxes have long been recognized as playing an important role in determining exchanges of energy and mass between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. In this study, we applied the METRIC (Mapping ET at high Resolutions with Internal Calibration) algorithm to derive daily surfa...

  11. Importance of early season conditions and grazing on carbon dioxide fluxes in Colorado shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the influence of environmental and management drivers on fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for optimizing carbon (C) uptake and storage in livestock production systems. Herein, using 15 treatment-years (two three-year experiments, one with three grazing treatments, the other ...

  12. Communication: Conditions for one-photon coherent phase control in isolated and open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, Michael; Arango, Carlos A.; Brumer, Paul

    2010-10-21

    Coherent control of observables using the phase properties of weak light that induces one-photon transitions is considered. Measurable properties are shown to be categorizable as either class A, where control is not possible, or class B, where control is possible. Using formal arguments, we show that phase control in open systems can be environmentally assisted.

  13. Design and laboratory testing of a chamber device to measure total flux of volatile organic compounds from the unsaturated zone under natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Smith, James A.

    2004-11-01

    To determine if an aquifer contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has potential for natural remediation, all natural processes affecting the fate and transport of VOCs in the subsurface must be identified and quantified. This research addresses the quantification of air-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leaving the unsaturated zone soil gas and entering the atmosphere—including the additional flux provided by advective soil-gas movement induced by barometric pumping. A simple and easy-to-use device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions is presented. The vertical flux chamber (VFC) was designed using numerical simulations and evaluated in the laboratory. Mass-balance numerical simulations based on continuously stirred tank reactor equations (CSTR) provided information on flux measurement performance of several sampling configurations with the final chamber configuration measuring greater than 96% of model-simulated fluxes. A laboratory device was constructed to evaluate the flux chamber under both diffusion-only and advection-plus-diffusion transport conditions. The flux chamber measured an average of 82% of 15 diffusion-only fluxes and an average of 95% of 15 additional advection-plus-diffusion flux experiments. The vertical flux chamber has the capability of providing reliable measurement of VOC flux from the unsaturated zone under both diffusion and advection transport conditions.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Nucleate Boiling on High Heat-Flux and High Subcooling Condition for Reactivity Initiation Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, S.; Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.

    2002-07-01

    This paper shows the numerical simulation study on the growth of the bubble in the transient pool boiling using MPS-MAFL method. The growth process of a bubble with the different initial radii is calculated in a high heat-flux and high subcooling condition expected in nuclear reactor core during RIA. The smaller initial radius is, the earlier the growth starts. The initial bubble radius has little effect on the growth initiation time and the bubble departure radius. (authors)

  15. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  16. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  17. Infrared thermography with non-uniform heat flux boundary conditions on the rotor endwall of an axial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzi Gazzini, S.; Schädler, R.; Kalfas, A. I.; Abhari, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    It is technically challenging to measure heat fluxes on the rotating components of gas turbines, yet accurate knowledge of local heat loads under engine-representative conditions is crucial for ensuring the reliability of the designs. In this work, quantitative image processing tools were developed to perform fast and accurate infrared thermography measurements on 3D-shaped film-heaters directly deposited on the turbine endwalls. The newly developed image processing method and instrumentation were used to measure the heat load on the rotor endwalls of an axial turbine. A step-transient heat flux calibration technique is applied to measure the heat flux generated locally by the film heater, thus eliminating the need for a rigorously iso-energetic boundary condition. On-board electronics installed on the rotor record the temperature readings of RTDs installed in the substrate below the heaters in order to evaluate the conductive losses in the solid. Full maps of heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature are produced for two different operating conditions, demonstrating the sensitivity of the technique to local flow features and variations in heat transfer due to Reynolds number effect.

  18. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and burnout in condition of nonuniform megawatt heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Komendantov, A.S.; Kuzma-Kichta, Y.A.; Vasil'eva, L.T.; Ovodkov, A.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper burnout is investigated in tubes under nonuniform heating on the perimeter. Data on heat transfer and critical heat flux (q{sub chf}) in the case of water were obtained for ranges of mass velocity {rho}w = 200--3000 kg/m{sup 2} s, pressure p = 1--1 MPa, and inlet water temperature T = 25--98{degrees}C. The test section was a horizontal copper tube of 21 mm outer diameter, 8 mm inner diameter with a technically smooth surface and heat transfer-intensifying twisted tape and porous sintered coating. The test section was heated by bombardment with electrons. It is established that a redistribution of heat fluxes and an increase of wall temperature fluctuations occur at burnout. The range of regime parameters to prevent burnout of a heat transfer surface is determined.

  19. On the upward flux of sea-spray spume droplets in high-wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Cheng, Xueling; Zeng, Qingcun; Jin, Jiangbo; Huang, Jian; Feng, Yerong

    2017-06-01

    It has been speculated that the spume droplets torn off from ocean waves in high wind speeds (larger than about 9 m s-1) enhance air-sea fluxes. However, the vertical transport of spume droplets in the high-wind atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is little researched and lacks the support of numerical simulations. Based on observational data and the characteristics of high-wind ABL above the ocean, the vertical transport of spume droplets is studied and simulated. It is revealed that the existence of gusty wind with coherent structure during high winds is favorable for the vertical transport of the large-size droplets. The trajectories of 1000 spume droplets with different sizes under different wind speeds in the range 10-35 m s-1 are calculated, and the uplifting fraction of spume droplets that can reach the 100 m height in the ABL is parameterized by using a nondimensional factor U102/(r80g), where U10 is the wind speed at 10 m height, r80 the equilibrium radius of droplet at an equivalent 80% relative humidity, and g the gravitational acceleration. Then, the upward flux of large-size spume droplets and the mass concentration at 100 m height are evaluated. These numerical results are comparable to some observational data and show that the large-size spume droplets can be entrained into the ABL during high winds and then contribute to the air-sea mass fluxes.

  20. An improved empirical model of electron and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit based on upstream solar wind conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Denton, M. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; ...

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new empirical model of the electron fluxes and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is introduced, based on observations by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellites. The model provides flux predictions in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV, as a function of local time, energy, and the strength of the solar wind electric field (the negative product of the solar wind speed and the z component of the magnetic field). Given appropriate upstream solar wind measurements, the model provides a forecast of the fluxes at GEO with a ~1 h lead time. Model predictionsmore » are tested against in-sample observations from LANL satellites and also against out-of-sample observations from the Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II detector on the AMC-12 satellite. The model does not reproduce all structure seen in the observations. However, for the intervals studied here (quiet and storm times) the normalized root-mean-square deviation < ~0.3. It is intended that the model will improve forecasting of the spacecraft environment at GEO and also provide improved boundary/input conditions for physical models of the magnetosphere.« less

  1. An improved empirical model of electron and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit based on upstream solar wind conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.; Woodroffe, J.; Hartley, D. P.; Pitchford, D.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new empirical model of the electron fluxes and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is introduced, based on observations by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellites. The model provides flux predictions in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV, as a function of local time, energy, and the strength of the solar wind electric field (the negative product of the solar wind speed and the z component of the magnetic field). Given appropriate upstream solar wind measurements, the model provides a forecast of the fluxes at GEO with a ~1 h lead time. Model predictions are tested against in-sample observations from LANL satellites and also against out-of-sample observations from the Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II detector on the AMC-12 satellite. The model does not reproduce all structure seen in the observations. However, for the intervals studied here (quiet and storm times) the normalized root-mean-square deviation < ~0.3. It is intended that the model will improve forecasting of the spacecraft environment at GEO and also provide improved boundary/input conditions for physical models of the magnetosphere.

  2. Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2012-04-01

    This study provided an early effort to investigate the draw solutions as catholytes, FO membrane conditions, and backwash for membrane cleaning in an osmotic microbial fuel cell (OsMFC). The results demonstrated that sodium chloride was a suitable candidate as a catholyte solute with good performance in both electricity generation and water flux, although its pH required buffering via acid addition. Adding a small amount of hydrochloric acid decreased the catholyte pH from 9.0 to 2.5 and increased the current generation by 50%, but did not affect water flux. It was also found that the fouled FO membrane improved electricity generation but lost the function of water flux. The damaged FO membrane resulted in a water flux of 0.39 LMH, much lower than 2-3 LMH with a new FO membrane. Backwash with adding NaCl (0.2-0.5M) into the anolyte was examined but did not obviously alleviate membrane fouling.

  3. An improved empirical model of electron and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit based on upstream solar wind conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.; Woodroffe, J.; Hartley, D. P.; Pitchford, D.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new empirical model of the electron fluxes and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is introduced, based on observations by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellites. The model provides flux predictions in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV, as a function of local time, energy, and the strength of the solar wind electric field (the negative product of the solar wind speed and the z component of the magnetic field). Given appropriate upstream solar wind measurements, the model provides a forecast of the fluxes at GEO with a ~1 h lead time. Model predictions are tested against in-sample observations from LANL satellites and also against out-of-sample observations from the Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II detector on the AMC-12 satellite. The model does not reproduce all structure seen in the observations. However, for the intervals studied here (quiet and storm times) the normalized root-mean-square deviation < ~0.3. It is intended that the model will improve forecasting of the spacecraft environment at GEO and also provide improved boundary/input conditions for physical models of the magnetosphere.

  4. An improved empirical model of electron and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit based on upstream solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, M. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.; Woodroffe, J.; Hartley, D. P.; Pitchford, D.

    2016-07-01

    A new empirical model of the electron fluxes and ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is introduced, based on observations by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellites. The model provides flux predictions in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV, as a function of local time, energy, and the strength of the solar wind electric field (the negative product of the solar wind speed and the z component of the magnetic field). Given appropriate upstream solar wind measurements, the model provides a forecast of the fluxes at GEO with a ~1 h lead time. Model predictions are tested against in-sample observations from LANL satellites and also against out-of-sample observations from the Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II detector on the AMC-12 satellite. The model does not reproduce all structure seen in the observations. However, for the intervals studied here (quiet and storm times) the normalized root-mean-square deviation < ~0.3. It is intended that the model will improve forecasting of the spacecraft environment at GEO and also provide improved boundary/input conditions for physical models of the magnetosphere.

  5. Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation. I. Influence of nitrogen nutrition, phosphorus nutrition, photon flux density, and ambient partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ during ontogeny. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.C.; Cowan, I.R.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Plants of Zea mays were grown with different concentrations of nitrate (0.6, 4, 12, and 24 millimolar) and phosphate (0.04, 0.13, 0.53, and 1.33 millimolar) supplied to the roots, photon flux densities (0.04, 0.13, 0.53, and 1.33 millimolar) supplied to the roots, photon flux densities (0.12, 0.5, and 2 millimoles per square meter per second), and ambient partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ (305 and 610 microbars). Differences in mineral nutrition and irradiance led to a large variation in rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation per unit leaf area (A, 11 to 58 micromoles per square meter per second) when measured under standard conditions. The variation was shown, with the plants that had received different amounts of nitrate, to be related to variations in the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and phosphoenolpyruvate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activities per unit leaf area. Irrespective of growth treatment, A and leaf conductance to CO/sub 2/ transfer (g), measured under standard conditions were in almost constant proportion, implying that intercellular partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ (p/sub i/), was almost constant at 95 microbars. The same proportionality was maintained as A and g increased in an initially nitrogen-deficient plant that had been supplied with abundant nitrate. It was shown that p/sub i/ measured at a given ambient partial pressure was not affected by the ambient partial pressure at which the plants had been grown, although it was different when measured at different ambient partial pressures. This suggests that the close coupling between A and g in these experiments is not associated with sensitivity of stomata to change in p/sub i/. Similar, though less comprehensive, experiments were done with Gosypium hirsutum, and yielded similar conclusions, except that the proportionality between A and g at normal ambient partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ implied p/sub i/ approx. = 200 microbars. 11 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  6. Microdosimetric study on influence of low energy photons on relative biological effectiveness under therapeutic conditions using 6 MV linac.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kase, Yuki; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Fujita, Yukio; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Itami, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Microdosimetry has been developed for the evaluation of radiation quality, and single-event dose-mean lineal energy y(D) is well-used to represent the radiation quality. In this study, the changes of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values under the therapeutic conditions using a 6 MV linac were investigated with a microdosimetric method. The y(D) values under the various irradiation conditions for x-rays from a 6 MV linac were measured with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) at an extremely low dose rate of a few tens of microGy/min by decreasing the gun grid voltage of the linac. According to the microdosimetric kinetic model (MK model), the RBE(MK) values for cell killing of the human salivary gland (HSG) tumor cells can be derived if the y(D) values are obtained from TEPC measurements. The Monte Carlo code GEANT4 was also used to calculate the photon energy distributions and to investigate the changes of the y(D) values under the various conditions. The changes of the y(D) values were less than approximately 10% when the field size and the depth in a phantom varied. However, in the measurements perpendicular to a central beam axis, large changes were observed between the y(D) values inside the field and those outside the field. The maximum increase of approximately 50% in the y(D) value outside the field was obtained compared with those inside the field. The GEANT4 calculations showed that there existed a large relative number of low energy photons outside of the field as compared with inside of the field. The percentages of the photon fluences below 200 keV outside the field were approximately 40% against approximately 8% inside the field. By using the MK model, the field size and the depth dependence of the RBEMK values were less than approximately 2% inside the field. However, the RBEMK values outside the field were 6.6% higher than those inside the field. The increase of the RBE(MK) values by 6.6% outside the field was observed. This

  7. Microdosimetric study on influence of low energy photons on relative biological effectiveness under therapeutic conditions using 6 MV linac

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kase, Yuki; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Fujita, Yukio; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Itami, Jun

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Microdosimetry has been developed for the evaluation of radiation quality, and single-event dose-mean lineal energy y{sub D} is well-used to represent the radiation quality. In this study, the changes of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values under the therapeutic conditions using a 6 MV linac were investigated with a microdosimetric method. Methods: The y{sub D} values under the various irradiation conditions for x-rays from a 6 MV linac were measured with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) at an extremely low dose rate of a few tens of {mu}Gy/min by decreasing the gun grid voltage of the linac. According to the microdosimetric kinetic model (MK model), the RBE{sub MK} values for cell killing of the human salivary gland (HSG) tumor cells can be derived if the y{sub D} values are obtained from TEPC measurements. The Monte Carlo code GEANT4 was also used to calculate the photon energy distributions and to investigate the changes of the y{sub D} values under the various conditions. Results: The changes of the y{sub D} values were less than approximately 10% when the field size and the depth in a phantom varied. However, in the measurements perpendicular to a central beam axis, large changes were observed between the y{sub D} values inside the field and those outside the field. The maximum increase of approximately 50% in the y{sub D} value outside the field was obtained compared with those inside the field. The GEANT4 calculations showed that there existed a large relative number of low energy photons outside of the field as compared with inside of the field. The percentages of the photon fluences below 200 keV outside the field were approximately 40% against approximately 8% inside the field. By using the MK model, the field size and the depth dependence of the RBE{sub MK} values were less than approximately 2% inside the field. However, the RBE{sub MK} values outside the field were 6.6% higher than those inside the field

  8. RF Conditioning of the Photo-Cathode RF Gun at the Advanced Photon Source - NWA RF Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T. L.; DiMonte, N.; Nassiri, A.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new S-band Photo-cathode (PC) gun was recently installed and RF conditioned at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Injector Test-stand (ITS) at Argonne National Lab (ANL). The APS PC gun is a LCLS type gun fabricated at SLAC [1]. The PC gun was delivered to the APS in October 2013 and installed in the APS ITS in December 2013. At ANL, we developed a new method of fast detection and mitigation of the guns internal arcs during the RF conditioning process to protect the gun from arc damage and to RF condition more efficiently. Here, we report the results of RF measurements for the PC gun and an Auto-Restart method for high power RF conditioning.

  9. Critical heat flux investigations for fusion-relevant conditions with the use of a rastered electron beam apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Croessmann, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    With the use of a rastered electron beam apparatus, investigations of critical heat flux (CH) and associated noise, pressure and flow spectra have been completed for water-cooled test targets under conditions relevant to the design of high-heat-flux components for fusion energy applications. Targets tested were copper tubes with attached graphite armor tiles. Water flows with velocities ranging from 3 to 10 m/s were used, with axially uniform heat fluxes ranging from 10 to 60 MW/m/sup 2/ applied along only one side of the tube to simulate the heating pattern often encountered by plasma facing components in fusion applications. Targets included stainless steel twisted tapes mechanically locked into the tube bore to increase CH levels. Exit conditions typical of highly subcooled flow boiling were considered, e.g., exit qualities of about /minus/0.3, with exit pressures near 1 MPa, and exit temperatures in the 30 to 40 C range. Besides observation of CHF and the comparison to CHF correlations, the studies also examined possible means for predicting and preventing tube burnout. Diagnostics tried included acoustic amplitude and spectra in both the audible and above audible frequency ranges, exit pressure amplitude and spectra, and flow variations and spectra. During testing, signals from the diagnostics showed a large increase in amplitude before CHF occurred. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Coral reef calcification: carbonate, bicarbonate and proton flux under conditions of increasing ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Jokiel, P L

    2013-08-07

    Data on calcification rate of coral and crustose coralline algae were used to test the proton flux model of calcification. There was a significant correlation between calcification (G) and the ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to proton concentration ([DIC] : [H(+)] ratio). The ratio is tightly correlated with [CO3(2-)] and with aragonite saturation state (Ωa). An argument is presented that correlation does not prove cause and effect, and that Ωa and [CO3(2-)] have no basic physiological meaning on coral reefs other than a correlation with [DIC] : [H(+)] ratio, which is the driver of G.

  11. Magnetic reconnection in plasma under inertial confinement fusion conditions driven by heat flux effects in Ohm's law.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, A S; Thomas, A G R; Fox, W; Bhattacharjee, A

    2014-03-14

    In the interaction of high-power laser beams with solid density plasma there are a number of mechanisms that generate strong magnetic fields. Such fields subsequently inhibit or redirect electron flows, but can themselves be advected by heat fluxes, resulting in complex interplay between thermal transport and magnetic fields. We show that for heating by multiple laser spots reconnection of magnetic field lines can occur, mediated by these heat fluxes, using a fully implicit 2D Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code. Under such conditions, the reconnection rate is dictated by heat flows rather than Alfvènic flows. We find that this mechanism is only relevant in a high β plasma. However, the Hall parameter ωcτei can be large so that thermal transport is strongly modified by these magnetic fields, which can impact longer time scale temperature homogeneity and ion dynamics in the system.

  12. Time and Space Resolved Wall Temperature Measurements during Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work is to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleate bubbles on a constant heat flux surface. This was performed using a microheater array with 100 micron resolution that allowed effectively simultaneous measurements of surface temperature while supplying a constant dissipative heat flux. This data is then correlated with high speed (> 1000Hz) visual recordings of the bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that a significant source of energy during bubble nucleation and initial growth is the superheated layer around the bubble. Bubble coalescence was not observed to decrease surface temperature as significantly as bubble departure from the surface. Since bubble departure is typically followed by a sharp increase in the heater surface temperature, it is surmised that the departing bubble effectively removes the superheated layer, allowing a high local heat transfer rate with the bulk fluid through transient conduction/micro-convection during rewetting.

  13. Effects of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance on Soybean : V. The Dependence of Plant Sensitivity on the Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density during and after Leaf Expansion.

    PubMed

    Mirecki, R M; Teramura, A H

    1984-03-01

    Soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Essex) were grown in a green-house, and the first trifoliate leaf was either allowed to expand under a high photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (1.4 millimoles per square meter per second) or a low PPFD (0.8 millimoles per square meter per second). After full leaf expansion, plants from each treatment were placed into a factorial design experiment with two levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (0 and 80 milliwatts per square meter biologically effective UV-B) and two levels of concomitant PPFD (0.8 and 1.4 millimoles per square meter per second) resulting in a total of eight treatments. Measurements of net photosynthesis and the associated diffusion conductances, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, chlorophyll and flavonoid concentrations, and leaf anatomy were examined for all treatments. Leaves expanded in the high PPFD were unaffected by UV-B radiation while those expanded in the low PPFD were sensitive to UV-B-induced damage. Likewise, plants which were UV-B irradiated concomitantly with the high PPFD were resistant to UV-B damage, while plants irradiated under the low PPFD were sensitive. The results of this study indicate that both anatomical/morphological and physiological/biochemical factors contribute toward plant sensitivity to UV-B radiation.

  14. Optimizing LED lighting for space plant growth unit: Joint effects of photon flux density, red to white ratios and intermittent light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, O. V.; Berkovich, Yu. A.; Konovalova, I. O.; Radchenko, S. G.; Lapach, S. N.; Bassarskaya, E. M.; Kochetova, G. V.; Zhigalova, T. V.; Yakovleva, O. S.; Tarakanov, I. G.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters. Results of the fractional 3-factor experiment demonstrated the share of the PPFD level participation in the crop dry weight accumulation was 84.4% at almost any combination of other lighting parameters, but when PPFD value increased up to 500 μmol m-2 s-1 the pulse light and supplemental light from red LEDs could additionally increase crop productivity. Analysis of the optimality criterion response to variation of lighting parameters showed that the maximum coordinates were the following: PPFD = 500 μmol m-2 s-1, about 70%-proportion of the red component of the light spectrum (PPFDLEDred/PPFDLEDwhite = 1.5) and the duty cycle with a period of 501 μs. Thus, LED crop lighting with these parameters was optimal for achieving high crop productivity and for efficient use of energy in the given range of lighting parameter values.

  15. Multi-scale modeling of Arabidopsis thaliana response to different CO2 conditions: From gene expression to metabolic flux.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Shen, Fangzhou; Xin, Changpeng; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale investigation from gene transcript level to metabolic activity is important to uncover plant response to environment perturbation. Here we integrated a genome-scale constraint-based metabolic model with transcriptome data to explore Arabidopsis thaliana response to both elevated and low CO2 conditions. The four condition-specific models from low to high CO2 concentrations show differences in active reaction sets, enriched pathways for increased/decreased fluxes, and putative post-transcriptional regulation, which indicates that condition-specific models are necessary to reflect physiological metabolic states. The simulated CO2 fixation flux at different CO2 concentrations is consistent with the measured Assimilation-CO2intercellular curve. Interestingly, we found that reactions in primary metabolism are affected most significantly by CO2 perturbation, whereas secondary metabolic reactions are not influenced a lot. The changes predicted in key pathways are consistent with existing knowledge. Another interesting point is that Arabidopsis is required to make stronger adjustment on metabolism to adapt to the more severe low CO2 stress than elevated CO2 . The challenges of identifying post-transcriptional regulation could also be addressed by the integrative model. In conclusion, this innovative application of multi-scale modeling in plants demonstrates potential to uncover the mechanisms of metabolic response to different conditions.

  16. Hydrodynamic and thermal slip flow boundary layers over a flat plate with constant heat flux boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Abdul

    2010-03-01

    In this paper the boundary layer flow over a flat plat with slip flow and constant heat flux surface condition is studied. Because the plate surface temperature varies along the x direction, the momentum and energy equations are coupled due to the presence of the temperature gradient along the plate surface. This coupling, which is due to the presence of the thermal jump term in Maxwell slip condition, renders the momentum and energy equations non-similar. As a preliminary study, this paper ignores this coupling due to thermal jump condition so that the self-similar nature of the equations is preserved. Even this fundamental problem for the case of a constant heat flux boundary condition has remained unexplored in the literature. It was therefore chosen for study in this paper. For the hydrodynamic boundary layer, velocity and shear stress distributions are presented for a range of values of the parameter characterizing the slip flow. This slip parameter is a function of the local Reynolds number, the local Knudsen number, and the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient representing the fraction of the molecules reflected diffusively at the surface. As the slip parameter increases, the slip velocity increases and the wall shear stress decreases. These results confirm the conclusions reached in other recent studies. The energy equation is solved to determine the temperature distribution in the thermal boundary layer for a range of values for both the slip parameter as well as the fluid Prandtl number. The increase in Prandtl number and/or the slip parameter reduces the dimensionless surface temperature. The actual surface temperature at any location of x is a function of the local Knudsen number, the local Reynolds number, the momentum accommodation coefficient, Prandtl number, other flow properties, and the applied heat flux.

  17. Revisit boundary conditions for the self-adjoint angular flux formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick N.

    2015-03-01

    We revisit the boundary conditions for SAAF. We derived the equivalent parity variational form ready for coding up. The more rigorous approach of evaluating odd parity should be solving the odd parity equation coupled with the even parity. We proposed a symmetric reflecting boundary condition although neither positive definiteness nor even-odd decoupling is achieved. A simple numerical test verifies the validity of these boundary conditions.

  18. Adapting FAO-56 Spreadsheet Program to estimate olive orchard transpiration fluxes under soil water stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallo, G.; Provenzano, G.; Manzano-Juárez, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the Mediterranean environment, where the period of crops growth does not coincide with the rainy season, the crop is subject to water stress periods that may be amplified with improper irrigation management. Agro-hydrological models can be considered an economic and simple tool to optimize irrigation water use, mainly when water represents a limiting factor for crop production. In the last two decades, agro-hydrological physically based models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (Feddes et al., 1978; Bastiaanssen et al., 2007). Unfortunately these models, although very reliable, as a consequence of the high number of required variables and the complex computational analysis, cannot often be used. Therefore, simplified agro-hydrological models may represent an useful and simple tool for practical irrigation scheduling. The main objective of the work is to assess, for an olive orchard, the suitability of FAO-56 spreadsheet agro-hydrological model to estimate a long time series of field transpiration, soil water content and crop water stress dynamic. A modification of the spreadsheet is suggested in order to adapt the simulations to a crop tolerant to water stress. In particular, by implementing a new crop water stress function, actual transpiration fluxes and an ecophysiological stress indicator, i. e. the relative transpiration, are computed in order to evaluate a plant-based irrigation scheduling parameter. Validation of the proposed amendment is carried out by means of measured sap fluxes, measured on different plants and up-scaled to plot level. Spatial and temporal variability of soil water contents in the plot was measured, at several depths, using the Diviner 2000 capacitance probe (Sentek Environmental Technologies, 2000) and TDR-100 (Campbell scientific, Inc.) system. The detailed measurements of soil water content, allowed to explore the high spatial variability of soil water content due

  19. Unsteady slip flow of Carreau nanofluid over a wedge with nonlinear radiation and new mass flux condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M.; Azam, M.; Alshomrani, A. S.

    This article addresses a numerical investigation for the unsteady 2D slip flow of Carreau nanofluid past a static and/or moving wedge with the nonlinear radiation. A zero nanoparticle mass flux and convective boundary conditions are implemented. Further, the most recently devised model for nanofluid is adopted that incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A set of suitable transformation is demonstrated to alter the nonlinear partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then tackled numerically by employing bvp4c in Matlab package. The numerical computations for the wall heat flux (Nusselt number) and wall mass flux (Sherwood number) are also performed. Effects of several controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration are explored and discussed in detail. Our study reveals that the temperature and the associated thermal boundary layer thickness are enhancing function of the temperature ratio parameter for both shear thickening and shear thinning fluids. Moreover, it is noticed that the velocity in case of moving wedge is higher than static wedge.

  20. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity.

  1. An Integrated Biogeophysically Based Model Of Land Surface Water And Energy Fluxes And Its Application To Different Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Iijima, Y.; Yabuki, H.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, Y.; Ohata, T.

    2008-12-01

    A land surface model was developed to evaluate the dynamics of water, energy, and CO2 fluxes in the soil- vegetation-atmosphere system of the Arctic regions. The model includes three submodels: vegetation, snow cover, and soil. The energy budgets are solved for the radiative and energy fluxes both at the canopy layer and the soil surface. The snow submodel calculates snow temperature, depth, density, and water content. In the soil submodel, the soil moisture transport scheme was retained, and the thermal and moisture fluxes are solved separately. At each time step, thermal fluxes through the soil layers are solved prior to the prediction of soil layer ice content. Subsequently, moisture fluxes are computed using the estimated ice contents. The model provides a consistent treatment of carbon exchange by plants, by linking photosynthesis with stomatal conductance. The model also represents spatial heterogeneity in land cover by dividing each grid cell into three land cover types: lake, wetland, and vegetation. The vegetated portion of the grid cell is further divided into several patches of plant functional types. Multiple plant functional types can co-occur in a grid cell so that, for example, a mixed broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen forest may consist of patches of broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, and other vegetation. The land surface model was applied to the three Arctic sites (Tiksi, Yaktsuk, and Fairbanks) of the different climatic and land surface conditions. The model performance was validated to the temporal dynamics of water, energy, and carbon budget. Spin-up required about 1000 model years, achieved by cycling the 25-a time series (1980-2004) of atmospheric forcing. At Yakutsk, four plant functional types were initially established by the model. Arctic grasses initially dominate and decline as trees grow. This similar pattern of plant dynamics was found in Fairbanks. However, Tiksi was mainly dominated by arctic grasses

  2. A new implementation of a flux condition at the grounding line in a flow line ice sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    peyaud, vincent; Ritz, catherine; Durand, Gaël

    2013-04-01

    Among the main issues concerning the future of marine ice sheets, grounding line dynamics is a key process that governs the evolution of the grounded ice volume. Grounding line position is driven by the balance between upstream and downstream fluxes which control ice thickness evolution. It is thus crucial to represent ice flow as well as possible in this key area characterized by a transition from vertical shearing (in the grounded zone) to longitudinal deformation (in ice shelves). It has been shown (Pattyn 2012) that correct simulation of grounding line migration requires either a very small grid, close to 100 meters near the grounding line, or a moving grid. Fixed grid models with too large spatial resolution are unable to reproduce the behavior of the grounding line without the use of a parameterisation. Schoof (2007) developed an analytical solution for the ice flux at the grounding line and up to now parameterisations are based on this equation. Pollard (2009) proposed an implementation that prescribes this "Schoof" flux on a point close to the grounding line. Because of the fixed grid, this point is not exactly at the grounding line and an heuristic choice between upstream and downstream grid points has to be made. Here we propose an other kind of implementation with a additional moving grid point that fixes the flux condition at the exact location of the grounding line. Results and analysis are shown for a flow line model. They are compared to the MISMIP intercomparison experiments, and to the complementary analysis from Drouet (2013) that inquired the transient behavior of the various type of models.

  3. Detection of air-gap eccentricity and broken-rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor using the radial flux sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Don-Ha; Han, Sang-Bo; Woo, Byung-Chul; Sun, Jong-Ho; Kang, Dong-Sik; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Cho, Youn-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    A new method for detecting eccentricity and broken rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed. Air-gap flux variation analysis is done using search coils, which are inserted at stator slots. Using this method, the leakage flux in radial direction can be directly detected. Using finite element method, the air-gap flux variation is accurately modeled and analyzed. From the results of the simulation, a motor under normal condition shows maximum magnetic flux density of 1.3T. On the other hand, the eccentric air-gap condition displays about 1.1T at 60° and 1.6T at 240°. A difference of flux density is 0.5T in the abnormal condition, whereas no difference is detected in the normal motor. In the broken rotor bar conditions, the flux densities at 65° and 155° are about 0.4 T and 0.8T, respectively. These simulation results are coincided with those of experiment. Consequently, the measurement of the magnetic flux at air gap is one of effective ways to discriminate the faulted conditions of the eccentricity and broken rotor bars.

  4. Detection of air-gap eccentricity and broken-rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor using the radial flux sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Don-Ha; Woo, Byung-Chul; Sun, Jong-Ho; Kang, Dong-Sik; Han, Sang-Bo; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Cho, Youn-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    A new method for detecting eccentricity and broken rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed. Air-gap flux variation analysis is done using search coils, which are inserted at stator slots. Using this method, the leakage flux in radial direction can be directly detected. Using finite element method, the air-gap flux variation is accurately modeled and analyzed. From the results of the simulation, a motor under normal condition shows maximum magnetic flux density of 1.3 T. On the other hand, the eccentric air-gap condition displays about 1.1 T at 60 deg. and 1.6 T at 240 deg. A difference of flux density is 0.5 T in the abnormal condition, whereas no difference is detected in the normal motor. In the broken rotor bar conditions, the flux densities at 65 deg. and 155 deg. are about 0.4 T and 0.8 T, respectively. These simulation results are coincided with those of experiment. Consequently, the measurement of the magnetic flux at air gap is one of effective ways to discriminate the faulted conditions of the eccentricity and broken rotor bars.

  5. Sufficient condition for the existence of interface states in some two-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.

    2014-08-01

    There is no assurance that interface states can be found at the boundary separating two materials. While a strong perturbation typically favors wave localization, we show on the contrary that in some two-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) possessing a Dirac-like cone at k = 0 derived from monopole and dipoles excitation, a small perturbation is sufficient to create interface states. The conical dispersion together with the flat band at the zone center generates the existence of gaps in the projected band structure and the existence of single mode interface states inside the projected band gaps stems from the geometric phases of the bulk bands. The underlying physics for the existence of an interface state is related to the sign change of the surface impedance in the gaps above and below the flat band. The established results are applicable for long wavelength regimes where there is only one propagating diffraction order for an interlayer scattering.

  6. Flux effects on defect production and damage accumulation in cu and fe exposed to IFE-like conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, E A; Caturla, M; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Perlado, J M; Stoller, R E

    1999-08-26

    Radiation damage production and accumulation in solids can be divided into two stages. In the production stage, the impinging particle gradually gives off its kinetic energy to lattice atoms in the form of energetic recoils. These deposit their energy by generating secondary and higher order recoils that result in a displacement collision cascade. The outcome of this stage, of the time scale of a few to 100 picoseconds, is a population of point or clustered defects known as the primary state of damage. In the second stage, which can extend over seconds, defects that survive recombination within their nascent cascade migrate over long distances, interacting with the microstructure. These freely migrating defects (FMD) are responsible for the changes in the macroscopic properties of metals under irradiation, such as void swelling, embrittlement, radiation enhanced diffusion, etc. Such changes in mechanical properties are most often detrimental and severely limit the flexibility in materials choice and operating temperature when designing a fusion power plant. Under most conditions, such as those that would be present in a magnetic fusion energy plant, or when bombarding with fission or spallation neutrons, irradiation takes place at a certain dose rate and temperature, but in a continuous manner. However, in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor, or when using a pulsed neutron source such as that recently proposed by Perkins [1], the irradiation flux is pulsed and the interplay between temperature, flux and pulse frequency controls the kinetics of damage accumulation. For sufficiently low pulse frequency, and at elevated temperature where the defects migrate fast, it may be expected that annealing between pulses may result in a significantly decreased rate of damage accumulation compared to that seen under steady state conditions. On the other hand, very high neutron fluxes in the pulse itself may severely limit recombination therefore leading to extremely fast

  7. Spatial variations in xylem sap flux density in the trunk of orchard-grown, mature mango trees under changing soil water conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Müller, Warren J.; Chacko, Elias K.

    2000-05-01

    Circumferential and radial variations in xylem sap flux density in trunks of 13-year-old mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees were investigated with Granier sap flow sensor probes under limiting and non-limiting soil water conditions. Under non-limiting soil water conditions, circumferential variation was substantial, but there was no apparent relationship between sap flux density and aspect (i.e., the radial position of the sensor probes on the trunk relative to the compass). Hourly sap flux densities over 24 hours at different aspects were highly pair-wise correlated. The relationships between different aspects were constant during well-watered periods but highly variable under changing soil water conditions. Sap flux density showed marked radial variation within the trunk and a substantial flux was observed at the center of the trunk. For each selected aspect on each tree, changes in sap flux densities over time at different depths were closely correlated, so flux at a particular depth could be extrapolated as a multiple of flux from 0 to 2 cm beneath the cambium. However, depth profiles of sap flux density differed between trees and even between aspects within a tree, and also varied in an unpredictable manner as soil water conditions changed. Nevertheless, over a period of non-limiting soil water conditions, depth profiles remained relatively constant. Based on the depth profiles obtained during these periods, a method is described for calculating total sap flow in a mango tree from sap flux density at 0-2 cm beneath the cambium. Total daily sap flows obtained were consistent with water use estimated from soil water balance.

  8. Optimizing LED lighting for space plant growth unit: Joint effects of photon flux density, red to white ratios and intermittent light pulses.

    PubMed

    Avercheva, O V; Berkovich, Yu A; Konovalova, I O; Radchenko, S G; Lapach, S N; Bassarskaya, E M; Kochetova, G V; Zhigalova, T V; Yakovleva, O S; Tarakanov, I G

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters. Results of the fractional 3-factor experiment demonstrated the share of the PPFD level participation in the crop dry weight accumulation was 84.4% at almost any combination of other lighting parameters, but when PPFD value increased up to 500µmol m(-2)s(-1) the pulse light and supplemental light from red LEDs could additionally increase crop productivity. Analysis of the optimality criterion response to variation of lighting parameters showed that the maximum coordinates were the following: PPFD = 500µmol m(-2)s(-1), about 70%-proportion of the red component of the light spectrum (PPFDLEDred/PPFDLEDwhite = 1.5) and the duty cycle with a period of 501µs. Thus, LED crop lighting with these parameters was optimal for achieving high crop productivity and for efficient use of energy in the given range of lighting parameter values. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Light-induced systemic regulation of photosynthesis in primary and trifoliate leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris: effects of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) versus spectrum.

    PubMed

    Murakami, K; Matsuda, R; Fujiwara, K

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work using Phaseolus vulgaris were to examine whether the light spectrum incident on mature primary leaves (PLs) is related to leaf-to-leaf systemic regulation of developing trifoliate leaves (TLs) in photosynthetic characteristics, and to investigate the relative importance of spectrum and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in light-induced systemic regulation. Systemic regulation was induced by altering PPFD and the spectrum of light incident on PLs using a shading treatment and lighting treatments including either white, blue, green or red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Photosynthetic characteristics were evaluated by measuring the light-limited and light-saturated net photosynthetic rates and the amounts of nitrogen (N), chlorophyll (Chl) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39). Shading treatment on PLs decreased the amounts of N, Chl and Rubisco of TLs and tended to decrease the photosynthetic rates. However, we observed no systemic effects induced by the light spectrum on PLs in this study, except that a higher amount of Rubisco of TLs was observed when the PLs were irradiated with blue LEDs. Our results imply that photoreceptors in mature leaves have little influence on photosynthetic rates and amounts of N and Chl of developing leaves through systemic regulation, although the possibility of the action of blue light irradiation on the amount of Rubisco cannot be ruled out. Based on these results, we concluded that the light spectrum incident on mature leaves has little systemic effect on developing leaves in terms of photosynthetic characteristics and that the light-induced systemic regulation was largely accounted for by PPFD.

  10. Effective conditions for the neutron flux density at axial boundaries of the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristarkhova, E. A.; Malofeev, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Analytical expressions for elements of the triangular matrix of effective conditions at the boundary of the core with a multiregion reflector are derived in the few-group diffusion approximation. The developed technique is verified using the example of fuel assemblies of a light-water reactor with an intermediate neutron spectrum.

  11. Effective conditions for the neutron flux density at axial boundaries of the core

    SciTech Connect

    Aristarkhova, E. A. Malofeev, V. M.

    2016-12-15

    Analytical expressions for elements of the triangular matrix of effective conditions at the boundary of the core with a multiregion reflector are derived in the few-group diffusion approximation. The developed technique is verified using the example of fuel assemblies of a light-water reactor with an intermediate neutron spectrum.

  12. Sensible Heat Flux from the Earth's Surface under Natural Convective Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Junsei; Ishida, Sachinobu

    1997-02-01

    A value for the exchange speed of sensible heat CHU under natural convective conditions was determined by both indoor and field experiments. Regardless of the type of experiment, the relationships for the CHU were obtained as CHU = b(TS T)1/3. For a wet surface, Tv should be substituted for (TS T). Here, TS is the ground surface temperature, T the air temperature, and Tv the virtual temperature difference. In addition, b is a coefficient having a value of 0.0011 m s1 K1/3 for a smooth surface and 0.0038 m s1 K1/3 over a rough surface. From the field observation data, it was concluded that under strongly unstable conditions (1 > > 477) the best pair of stability profile functions was proposed.

  13. Energy Harvesting for GaAs Photovoltaics Under Low-Flux Indoor Lighting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Teran, Alan S; Moon, Eunseong; Lim, Wootaek; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Inhee; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D

    2016-07-01

    GaAs photovoltaics are promising candidates for indoor energy harvesting to power small-scale (≈1 mm(2)) electronics. This application has stringent requirements on dark current, recombination, and shunt leakage paths due to low-light conditions and small device dimensions. The power conversion efficiency and the limiting mechanisms in GaAs photovoltaic cells under indoor lighting conditions are studied experimentally. Voltage is limited by generation-recombination dark current attributed to perimeter sidewall surface recombination based on the measurements of variable cell area. Bulk and perimeter recombination coefficients of 1.464 pA/mm(2) and 0.2816 pA/mm, respectively, were extracted from dark current measurements. Resulting power conversion efficiency is strongly dependent on cell area, where current GaAs of 1-mm(2) indoor photovoltaic cells demonstrates power conversion efficiency of approximately 19% at 580 lx of white LED illumination. Reductions in both bulk and perimeter sidewall recombination are required to increase maximum efficiency (while maintaining small cell area near 1 mm(2)) to approach the theoretical power conversion efficiency of 40% for GaAs cells under typical indoor lighting conditions.

  14. Energy Harvesting for GaAs Photovoltaics Under Low-Flux Indoor Lighting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Teran, Alan S.; Moon, Eunseong; Lim, Wootaek; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Inhee; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D.

    2016-01-01

    GaAs photovoltaics are promising candidates for indoor energy harvesting to power small-scale (≈1 mm2) electronics. This application has stringent requirements on dark current, recombination, and shunt leakage paths due to low-light conditions and small device dimensions. The power conversion efficiency and the limiting mechanisms in GaAs photovoltaic cells under indoor lighting conditions are studied experimentally. Voltage is limited by generation–recombination dark current attributed to perimeter sidewall surface recombination based on the measurements of variable cell area. Bulk and perimeter recombination coefficients of 1.464 pA/mm2 and 0.2816 pA/mm, respectively, were extracted from dark current measurements. Resulting power conversion efficiency is strongly dependent on cell area, where current GaAs of 1-mm2 indoor photovoltaic cells demonstrates power conversion efficiency of approximately 19% at 580 lx of white LED illumination. Reductions in both bulk and perimeter sidewall recombination are required to increase maximum efficiency (while maintaining small cell area near 1 mm2) to approach the theoretical power conversion efficiency of 40% for GaAs cells under typical indoor lighting conditions. PMID:28133394

  15. Freshwater fluxes in the Berau estuary and shelf during peak river discharge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Vegt, M.; Tarya, A.; Hoitink, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf is located close to the Equator in the Indonesian Archipelago, hosting a complex of coral reefs and atolls along its oceanic edge. It is important to understand how river water, sediments, and other materials derived from land are carried to reefs by physical mechanisms, since they can have beneficial as well as negative effects. Furthermore, at several of the atolls unique seagrass meadows are found. These ecosystems need exclusively marine conditions and are intolerant to freshwater. In the Berau Continental shelf much uncertainty remains about how much of the riverine water reaches the reefs and the atolls. In a recent study we showed that tides are the main contributor to the spreading of freshwater at the Berau Continental Shelf under average conditions: relatively small river discharge, weak winds, strong tides. A three-dimensional model (ECOMSED) was calibrated and validated with observational data collected in the context of the East Kalimantan Research Programme. Data-model comparison showed high skill scores and small systematic errors. Model analysis has shown that tides effect the plume by causing vertical mixing, by stratifying the plume due to tidal straining and by transporting freshwater. This causes the depth-integrated freshwater transport to be mainly north-eastward, toward the barrier reef. Under these average conditions freshwater does not reach the atolls. The main aim of this study is to study plume dynamics at the Berau shelf during peak river discharge and peak wind conditions. Because the Berau delta is urbanizing rapidly increasing peak river discharges and sediment loads are expected. In addition, although the yearly mean wind is small, peak wind events concurrent with peak floods might push the stratified top layer of the water column towards the reefs and atolls. Using the results of a hydrological model we estimated realistic peak values of the river discharge based on scenarios for the economical

  16. Measurements of heat fluxes and soil moisture patterns in the field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanda, M.; Snehota, M.; Haase, T.; Wild, J.

    2011-12-01

    New combined thermal and soil moisture unit coded TMS2 is presented. It is a prototype designed on good experience with TMS1. The device combines three thermometers for use approximately at -10, 0 and +15 cm relative to soil surface when installed vertically. Soil moisture measurement is performed based on time domain transmission (TDT) principle for the full range of soil moisture. Presented new version incorporates lifetime power supply for approximately 5 year operation and life time permanent data storage (0.5 mil logs) if values are acquired every 10 minutes. Lifetime operation log accompanies lifetime data storage with lockable data blocks. Data are retrieved by contact portable pocket collector. Both vertical/surface or buriable/subsurface installation is possible thanks to additional communication interface on demand. Original model TMS1, proved durability in harsh outdoor environment with good functioning in wet conditions withstanding mechanical destruction. Extended testing in the sandstone area of the National Park Bohemian Switzerland, Czech Republic is performed since 2009 by the Institute of Botany of the ASCR. Results of long-term measurement at hundreds of localities are successfully used for i) evaluation of species-specific environmental requirements (for different species of plants, bryophytes and fungi) and ii) extrapolation of microclimatic conditions over large areas of rugged sandstone relief with assistance of accurate, LiDAR based, digital terrain model. TMS1 units are also applied for continuous measurement of temperature and moisture of coarse woody debris, which serves as an important substrate for establishment and growth of seedlings and is thus crucial for natural regeneration of many forest ecosystems. The TMS1 sensors have been tested and calibrated in soil laboratories of Czech Technical University in Prague for three soil materials: arenic cambisol, podzol and quartz sand, showing good linearity and minor influence of the

  17. Mercury flux measurements in a naturally enriched area: Correlation with environmental conditions during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; Casimir, Alain

    1999-09-01

    An international intercomparison of micrometerological techniques and dynamic flux chamber methods applied to measure mercury fluxes was conducted from September 1 to 4, 1997, during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS) in Reno, Nevada. Nine research groups from four countries met in the Steamboat Springs, Nevada Geothermal Area, to participate in the first international flux intercomparison ever attempted for mercury. The highly heterogeneous soil Hg concentrations and complex landscape within the study area (4 ha) were unfavorable for spatial intercomparison of Hg fluxes between the research groups. However, reliable and correlated Hg fluxes were measured between our micrometerological technique and a dynamic flux chamber method (r2 = 0.29), run side by side (5 m). Hg fluxes and their relationships with environmental factors were complex. After ˜90 days of dry condition, a series of storm events impacted the site and increased the soil moisture from <0.5 to 6.6%. This appeared to promote strong Hg evasion during the transition period from dry to wet soil conditions. However, the subsequent relationship between soil moisture and Hg flux was significantly negatively correlated. Multivariate analysis was applied to extract the principal components (principal component analysis). Three principal components were extracted (explained up to 79% of the total variance) and discussed with respect to their environmental signification. Environmental conditions under southern wind sectors were optimal to promote Hg fluxes. Turbulence rather than Hg air concentrations seemed to be the main factor promoting the determined Hg fluxes during this study.

  18. Effects of orbit progression on the radiation exposures from solar proton fluxes in low Earth orbit under geomagnetic storm conditions.

    PubMed

    Nealy, J E; Wilson, J W; Shea, M A; Smart, D F

    1996-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of orbit progression on the exposures within a Space Station Freedom module in a 51.6-degree inclined orbit at 450 km. The storm evolution is modeled after the November 1960 event, and the solar proton flux evolution is taken from the August 1972 solar proton event. The effects of a strong magnetic shock, such as was observed during the October 1989 event, is also modeled. The statistics on hourly average storm fields for the last forty years reveal that the largest geomagnetic storms approach a Dst value of -500 nanotesla at the storm peak. Similarly, one of the largest satellite-measured proton flux (> 10 MeV) for space exposures is the event of August 1972. The effects of orbit progression (advance of the line of nodes) is examined for the above conditions to study the variation of exposures under differing times of occurrence of the solar proton peak intensity, attainment of geomagnetic storm maximum, and the location of the line of nodes of the last geomagnetically protected orbit. The impact of the inherent inhomogeneity of the space station module is examined as a limiting factor on exposure with regard to the need of additional parasitic shielding.

  19. Effects of orbit progression on the radiation exposures from solar proton fluxes in low Earth orbit under geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of orbit progression on the exposures within a Space Station Freedom module in a 51.6-degree inclined orbit at 450 km. The storm evolution is modeled after the November 1960 event, and the solar proton flux evolution is taken from the August 1972 solar proton event. The effects of a strong magnetic shock, such as was observed during the October 1989 event, is also modeled. The statistics on hourly average storm fields for the last forty years reveal that the largest geomagnetic storms geomagnetic storms approach a Dst value of -500 nanotesla at the storm peak. Similarly, one of the largest satellite-measured proton flux (greater than 10 MeV) for space exposures is the event of August 1972. The effects of orbit progression (advance of the line of nodes) is examined for the above conditions to study the variation of exposures under differing times of occurrence of the solar proton peak intensity, attainment of geomagnetic storm maximum, and the location of the line of nodes of the last geomagnetically protected orbit. The impact of the inherent inhomogeneity of the space station module is examined as a limiting factor on exposure with regard to the need of additional parasitic shielding.

  20. Experimental and numerical assessment of normal heat flux first wall qualification mock-ups under ITER relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Bürger, A.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Bellin, B.; Zacchia, F.; Eaton, R.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R.

    2014-04-01

    The ITER first wall (FW) panel consists of beryllium in the form of tiles covering its surface, high strength copper alloy as the heat sink material and stainless steel as the structural material. Small-scale normal heat flux FW mock-ups, provided by Fusion for Energy, are tested in the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 at Forschungszentrum Jülich to determine the performance of this design under thermal fatigue. The mock-ups are loaded cyclically under a surface heat flux of 2 MW m-2 with ITER relevant water coolant conditions. In this study, three-dimensional finite element method thermo-mechanical analyses are performed with ANSYS to simulate the thermal fatigue behaviour of the mock-ups. The temperature results indicate that the beryllium surface temperature is below the maximum allowed temperature (600 °C) of beryllium to be tested. The thermal mechanical results indicate that copper rupture and debonding between Be and copper are the drivers of the failure of a mock-up. In addition, the experimental data, e.g. the surface temperature measured using an infrared camera and the bulk temperature measured using thermocouples, are reported. A comparative study between experimental and simulation results is performed.

  1. Statistical analysis of short-term water stress conditions at Riggs Creek OzFlux tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-08-01

    A large range of indices and proxies are available to describe the water stress conditions of an area subject to different applications, which have varying capabilities and limitations depending on the prevailing local climatic conditions and land cover. The present study uses a range of spatio-temporally high-resolution (daily and within daily) data sources to evaluate a number of drought indices (DIs) for the Riggs Creek OzFlux tower site in southeastern Australia. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to evaluate the statistical characteristics of individual DIs subject to short-term water stress conditions. In order to derive a more general and therefore representative DI, a new criterion is required to specify the statistical similarity between each pair of indices to allow determining the dominant drought types along with their representative DIs. The results show that the monitoring of water stress at this case study area can be achieved by evaluating the individual behaviour of three clusters of (i) vegetation conditions, (ii) water availability and (iii) water consumptions. This indicates that it is not necessary to assess all individual DIs one by one to derive a comprehensive and informative data set about the water stress of an area; instead, this can be achieved by analysing one of the DIs from each cluster or deriving a new combinatory index for each cluster, based on established combination methods.

  2. Alkalinity to calcium flux ratios for corals and coral reef communities: variances between isolated and community conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jokiel, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Calcification in reef corals and coral reefs is widely measured using the alkalinity depletion method which is based on the fact that two protons are produced for every mole of CaCO3 precipitated. This assumption was tested by measuring the total alkalinity (TA) flux and Ca2+ flux of isolated components (corals, alga, sediment and plankton) in reference to that of a mixed-community. Experiments were conducted in a flume under natural conditions of sunlight, nutrients, plankton and organic matter. A realistic hydrodynamic regime was provided. Groups of corals were run separately and in conjunction with the other reef components in a mixed-community. The TA flux to Ca2+ flux ratio (ΔTA: ΔCa2+) was consistently higher in the coral-only run (2.06 ± 0.19) than in the mixed-community run (1.60 ± 0.14, p-value = 0.011). The pH was higher and more stable in the mixed-community run (7.94 ± 0.03 vs. 7.52 ± 0.07, p-value = 3 × 10−5). Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) was also higher in the mixed-community run (2.51 ± 0.2 vs. 1.12 ± 0.14, p-value = 2 × 10−6). The sediment-only run revealed that sediment is the source of TA that can account for the lower ΔTA: ΔCa2+ ratio in the mixed-community run. The macroalgae-only run showed that algae were responsible for the increased pH in the mixed-community run. Corals growing in a mixed-community will experience an environment that is more favorable to calcification (higher daytime pH due to algae photosynthesis, additional TA and inorganic carbon from sediments, higher Ωarag). A paradox is that the alkalinity depletion method will yield a lower net calcification for a mixed-community versus a coral-only community due to TA recycling, even though the corals may be calcifying at a higher rate due to a more optimal environment. PMID:24688834

  3. Alkalinity to calcium flux ratios for corals and coral reef communities: variances between isolated and community conditions.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Liana J A; Jokiel, Paul L; Atkinson, Marlin J

    2014-01-01

    Calcification in reef corals and coral reefs is widely measured using the alkalinity depletion method which is based on the fact that two protons are produced for every mole of CaCO3 precipitated. This assumption was tested by measuring the total alkalinity (TA) flux and Ca(2+) flux of isolated components (corals, alga, sediment and plankton) in reference to that of a mixed-community. Experiments were conducted in a flume under natural conditions of sunlight, nutrients, plankton and organic matter. A realistic hydrodynamic regime was provided. Groups of corals were run separately and in conjunction with the other reef components in a mixed-community. The TA flux to Ca(2+) flux ratio (ΔTA: ΔCa(2+)) was consistently higher in the coral-only run (2.06 ± 0.19) than in the mixed-community run (1.60 ± 0.14, p-value = 0.011). The pH was higher and more stable in the mixed-community run (7.94 ± 0.03 vs. 7.52 ± 0.07, p-value = 3 × 10(-5)). Aragonite saturation state (Ω arag) was also higher in the mixed-community run (2.51 ± 0.2 vs. 1.12 ± 0.14, p-value = 2 × 10(-6)). The sediment-only run revealed that sediment is the source of TA that can account for the lower ΔTA: ΔCa(2+) ratio in the mixed-community run. The macroalgae-only run showed that algae were responsible for the increased pH in the mixed-community run. Corals growing in a mixed-community will experience an environment that is more favorable to calcification (higher daytime pH due to algae photosynthesis, additional TA and inorganic carbon from sediments, higher Ω arag). A paradox is that the alkalinity depletion method will yield a lower net calcification for a mixed-community versus a coral-only community due to TA recycling, even though the corals may be calcifying at a higher rate due to a more optimal environment.

  4. Co-effect of increased humidity and meteorological conditions on greenhouse gas fluxes in a young hybrid aspen forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Raili; Mander, Ülo; Kupper, Priit; Soosaar, Kaido; Maddison, Martin; Sõber, Jaak; Lõhmus, Krista

    2014-05-01

    Due to the climate change, higher precipitation and an increase in air humidity is expected in northern Europe in the near future (IPCC 2007). There are some studies about irrigation, elevated CO2 and O3 etc., but still we have too little knowledge about the humidity effect on the deciduous forest ecosystem. In 2006 a free-air humidity manipulation (FAHM) facility was established in Estonia and in 2008 we started to artificially increase the air humidity in young hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) forest trials on an Endogleyic Planosol of former arable land. Air humidity was raised on average about 7% compared to ambient condition (Tullus et al., 2012). We measured the carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from the FAHM system using closed static chamber and gas-chromatograph techniques from July 2009 to November 2012 during snow free periods. Flux measurements were done once a month in three humidification (h) plots and in three control (c) plots. We monitored soil temperature, soil water potential (SWP), precipitation and relative humidity. The vegetation period was rainy in 2009, droughty in 2010 and 2011 (according to SWP the drought was severe in 2011) and cold in 2012. Soil respiration was the lowest in 2011 both in c and h plots; however it was significantly higher in h. Most of the time the soil was a sink for methane, but less CH4 was oxidized in the soil of h plots. Emission of N2O did not have good correlation with air humidity, although one could observe a clear tendency of bigger N2O fluxes when soil was continuously water-saturated. Expectedly, soil respiration had strong positive correlations with soil temperature and CH4 emission demonstrated strong positive correlation with SWP. Hence, interaction of humidification and precipitation affected greenhouse gas fluxes. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2007. Tullus A, Kupper P, Sellin A, Parts L, Sõber J

  5. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent M. Laboure; Yaqi Wang; Mark D. DeHart

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment, in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  6. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Laboure, Vincent M.; Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids [1] in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment [2], in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework [3] using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  7. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo. PMID:24926191

  8. Transient oscillatory patterns in the diffusive non-local blowfly equation with delay under the zero-flux boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ying; Zou, Xingfu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatial-temporal patterns of the solutions to the diffusive non-local Nicholson's blowflies equations with time delay (maturation time) subject to the no flux boundary condition. We establish the existence of both spatially homogeneous periodic solutions and various spatially inhomogeneous periodic solutions by investigating the Hopf bifurcations at the spatially homogeneous steady state. We also compute the normal form on the centre manifold, by which the bifurcation direction and stability of the bifurcated periodic solutions can be determined. The results show that the bifurcated homogeneous periodic solutions are stable, while the bifurcated inhomogeneous periodic solutions can only be stable on the corresponding centre manifold, implying that generically the model can only allow transient oscillatory patterns. Finally, we present some numerical simulations to demonstrate the theoretic results. For these transient patterns, we derive approximation formulas which are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  9. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-05-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo.

  10. Observed and simulated effect of plant physiology and structure on land surface energy fluxes and soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yen-Sen; Rihani, Jehan; Langensiepen, Matthias; Simmer, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    The parameterization of stomatal conductance and leaf area index (LAI) in land surface models largely influence simulated terrestrial system states. While stomatal conductance mainly controls transpiration, latent heat flux, and root-water-uptake, LAI impacts additionally the radiative energy exchange. Thus both affect canopy evaporation and transpiration and land surface energy and water fluxes as a whole. Common parameterizations of stomatal conductance follow either semi-mechanistic forms based on photosynthesis (Ball-Berry Type (BB)) or forms which consider environmental factors such as impact of light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture (Jarvis-Stewart Type (JS)). Both approaches differ also in the interpretation of humidity effects and light-use efficiency. While soil moisture plays an important role for root-water-uptake there is no clear conclusion yet about how soil moisture interacts with stomata activity. Values for LAI can be obtained from field measurements, satellite estimates or modelling and are used as an essential model input. While field measurements are very time consuming and only represent single points, satellite estimates may have biases caused by variable albedo and sensor limitations. Representing LAI within land surface models requires complex schemes in order to represent all processes contributing to plant growth. We use the Terrestrial System Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP) over the Rur watershed in Germany for studying the influence of plant physiology and structure on the state of the terrestrial system. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center 32 (TR32) extensively monitors this catchment for almost a decade. The land surface (CLM3.5) and the subsurface (ParFlow) modules of TerrSysMP are conditioned based on satellite-retrieved land cover and the soil map from FAO and forced with a high-resolution reanalysis by DWD. For studying the effect of plant physiology, the Ball-Berry-Leuning, and Jarvis-Stewart stomatal

  11. Adjustment of carbon fluxes to light conditions regulates the daily turnover of starch in plants: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Flis, Anna; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2014-03-04

    In the light, photosynthesis provides carbon for metabolism and growth. In the dark, plant growth depends on carbon reserves that were accumulated during previous light periods. Many plants accumulate part of their newly-fixed carbon as starch in their leaves in the day and remobilise it to support metabolism and growth at night. The daily rhythms of starch accumulation and degradation are dynamically adjusted to the changing light conditions such that starch is almost but not totally exhausted at dawn. This requires the allocation of a larger proportion of the newly fixed carbon to starch under low carbon conditions, and the use of information about the carbon status at the end of the light period and the length of the night to pace the rate of starch degradation. This regulation occurs in a circadian clock-dependent manner, through unknown mechanisms. We use mathematical modelling to explore possible diurnal mechanisms regulating the starch level. Our model combines the main reactions of carbon fixation, starch and sucrose synthesis, starch degradation and consumption of carbon by sink tissues. To describe the dynamic adjustment of starch to daily conditions, we introduce diurnal regulators of carbon fluxes, which modulate the activities of the key steps of starch metabolism. The sensing of the diurnal conditions is mediated in our model by the timer α and the "dark sensor"β, which integrate daily information about the light conditions and time of the day through the circadian clock. Our data identify the β subunit of SnRK1 kinase as a good candidate for the role of the dark-accumulated component β of our model. The developed novel approach for understanding starch kinetics through diurnal metabolic and circadian sensors allowed us to explain starch time-courses in plants and predict the kinetics of the proposed diurnal regulators under various genetic and environmental perturbations.

  12. Responses of Alnus glutinosa to anaerobic conditions--mechanisms and rate of oxygen flux into the roots.

    PubMed

    Dittert, K; Wötzel, J; Sattelmacher, B

    2006-03-01

    Upon exposure to waterlogged growing conditions two-year-old alder trees reduced total root mass. Roots were concentrated in the uppermost soil horizon, and only few coarse roots penetrated into deeper soil layers. Root porosity was only slightly affected and did not exceed 8 % in fine roots. Porosity of coarse roots was higher (27 %) but unaffected by growing conditions. The stem base area covered by lenticels increased strongly and so did the cross section diameter of the stem base. The latter showed a highly significant correlation with O (2) transport into the roots, measured by a Clark type oxygen electrode. Exposure of the lower 5 cm of the stem base, where lenticels were concentrated, to pure N (2) led to a cessation of O (2) transport, confirming that lenticels were the major site of air entry into the stem. In alder plants grown under waterlogged conditions, temperature had a pronounced effect on O (2) gas exchange of the root system. The temperature compensation point, i.e., the temperature where O (2) transport equals O (2) consumption by respiration, was 10.5 degrees C for the entire root system, when measured in a range of 0.15 - 0.20 mmol dissolved O (2) L (-1), which is typical for an open water surface equilibrated with air. O (2) net flow was inversely related to O (2) concentration in the rooting media, indicating that higher root and microbial respiration induced higher net fluxes of O (2) into the root system. With 0.04 mmol dissolved O (2) L (-1) nutrient solution, the temperature compensation point increased to 20 degrees C. Measurement of O (2) gradients in the rhizosphere of agar-embedded roots using O (2) microelectrodes showed a preference for O (2) release in the tip region of coarse roots. Increasing stem temperature over air temperature by 5 degrees C stimulated O (2) flux into the roots as suggested by the model of thermo-osmotic gas transport. However determination of stem and air temperature in a natural alder swamp in northern

  13. Two-photon polymerized "nichoid" substrates maintain function of pluripotent stem cells when expanded under feeder-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Nava, Michele M; Piuma, Alessio; Figliuzzi, Marina; Cattaneo, Irene; Bonandrini, Barbara; Zandrini, Tommaso; Cerullo, Giulio; Osellame, Roberto; Remuzzi, Andrea; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-09-09

    The use of pluripotent cells in stem cell therapy has major limitations, mainly related to the high costs and risks of exogenous conditioning and the use of feeder layers during cell expansion passages. We developed an innovative three-dimensional culture substrate made of "nichoid" microstructures, nanoengineered via two-photon laser polymerization. The nichoids limit the dimension of the adhering embryoid bodies during expansion, by counteracting cell migration between adjacent units of the substrate by its microarchitecture. We expanded mouse embryonic stem cells on the nichoid for 2 weeks. We compared the expression of pluripotency and differentiation markers induced in cells with that induced by flat substrates and by a culture layer made of kidney-derived extracellular matrix. The nichoid was found to be the only substrate, among those tested, that maintained the expression of the OCT4 pluripotency marker switched on and, simultaneously, the expression of the differentiation markers GATA4 and α-SMA switched off. The nichoid promotes pluripotency maintenance of embryonic stem cells during expansion, in the absence of a feeder layer and exogenous conditioning factors, such as the leukocyte inhibitory factor. We hypothesized that the nichoid microstructures induce a genetic reprogramming of cells by controlling their cytoskeletal tension. Further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanism by which the physical constraint provided by the nichoid architecture is responsible for cell reprogramming. The nichoid may help elucidate mechanisms of pluripotency maintenance, while potentially cutting the costs and risks of both feed-conditioning and exogenous conditioning for industrial-scale expansion of stem cells.

  14. Decomposition of jellyfish carrion in situ: Short-term impacts on infauna, benthic nutrient fluxes and sediment redox conditions.

    PubMed

    Chelsky, Ariella; Pitt, Kylie A; Ferguson, Angus J P; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Welsh, David T

    2016-10-01

    Jellyfish often form blooms that persist for weeks to months before they collapse en masse, resulting in the sudden release of large amounts of organic matter to the environment. This study investigated the biogeochemical and ecological effects of the decomposition of jellyfish in a shallow coastal lagoon in New South Wales, Australia. Catostylus mosaicus carrion was added to the surface of shallow sub-tidal sediments and biogeochemical parameters and macrofaunal abundance immediately below the jellyfish carrion were measured over three days. Sediment plots without jellyfish served as controls. Sediment oxygen demand and carbon and nitrogen efflux increased by up to 60-fold in the jellyfish plots, compared to control plots, and dissolved organic nutrient fluxes were more sustained than in previous studies due to the use of fresh rather than frozen biomass. The decomposing jellyfish progressively altered sediment redox conditions, indicated by an increase in porewater iron (II) and sulfide concentrations measured by high-resolution in situ diffusive samplers. Abundance of some macrofaunal taxa in the jellyfish plots decreased relative to controls, however, the abundance of a carnivorous gastropod, which was presumably feeding on the carrion, increased in the jellyfish plots. While jellyfish carrion may be a food source for some macrofauna, low oxygen conditions coupled with the accumulation of toxic dissolved sulfides in the near-surface sediments may explain the overall change in the macroinfaunal community.

  15. Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate the successful operation of a multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array integrated with a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout circuit in a compact 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. A time-resolved readout technique, where output signals from each element enter the SFQ readout circuit with finite time intervals, revealed crosstalk-free operation of the four-element SSPD array connected with the SFQ readout circuit. The timing jitter and the system detection efficiency were measured to be 50 ps and 11.4%, respectively, which were comparable to the performance of practical single-pixel SSPD systems.

  16. A method for accounting for maintenance costs in flux balance analysis improves the prediction of plant cell metabolic phenotypes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Williams, Thomas C R; Poolman, Mark G; Fell, David A; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2013-09-01

    Flux balance models of metabolism generally utilize synthesis of biomass as the main determinant of intracellular fluxes. However, the biomass constraint alone is not sufficient to predict realistic fluxes in central heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells because of the major demand on the energy budget due to transport costs and cell maintenance. This major limitation can be addressed by incorporating transport steps into the metabolic model and by implementing a procedure that uses Pareto optimality analysis to explore the trade-off between ATP and NADPH production for maintenance. This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative steps of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. We show that accounting for transport and maintenance costs substantially improves the accuracy of fluxes predicted from a flux balance model of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells in culture, irrespective of the objective function used in the analysis. Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. It is concluded that the hyper-osmotic conditions tested did not impose a metabolic stress, in as much as the metabolic network is not forced to devote more resources to cell maintenance.

  17. Direct Observations of Heat and Salt Entrainment Fluxes Across the Base of the Ocean Mixing Layer Under Marginal Ice Conditions in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaher, S.; Stanton, T. P.; Shaw, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of turbulent fluxes of heat and salt across the base of the upper ocean mixed layer in summer marginal ice zone conditions in the Beaufort Sea were made using two eddy-correlation flux sensors with a vertical separation of 6m mounted on a depth-controlled frame. A third flux sensor measured fluxes 2m below the ice. A 16 element thermistor string measured finescale thermal gradients while a high resolution ADCP measured current profiles every 20cm across the frame to resolve finescale shear. Every hour the frame was profiled between 2m and 60m depth then re-positioned to span the base of the active mixing layer, determined primarily from the density profile, allowing the surface mixed layer entrainment fluxes to be determined. A range of wind conditions allowed mixed layer entrainment fluxes to be compared with several bulk entrainment formulations based on surface friction velocity values and the density jump across the base of the surface mixing layer.

  18. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    Treesearch

    Jakob Zscheischler; Simone Fatichi; Sebastian Wolf; Peter D. Blanken; Gil Bohrer; Ken Clark; Ankur R. Desai; David Hollinger; Trevor Keenan; Kimberly A. Novick; Sonia I. Seneviratne

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their...

  19. The use of an electrothermal plasma gun to simulate the extremely high heat flux conditions of a tokamak disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, John; Bourham, Mohamed

    1993-09-01

    Disruption damage conditions for future large tokamaks like ITER are nearly impossible to simulate on current tokamaks. The electrothermal plasma source SIRENS has been designed, constructed, and operated to produce high density (> 1025/m3), low temperature (1-3 eV) plasma formed by the ablation of the insulator with currents of up to 100 kA (100 μs pulse length) and energies up to 15 kJ. The source heat fluence (variable from 0.2 to 7 MJ/m2) is adequate for simulation of the thermal quench phase of plasma disruption in future fusion tokamaks. Different materials have been exposed to the high heat flux in SIRENS, where comparative erosion behavior was obtained. Vapor shield phenomena has been characterized for different materials, and the energy transmission factor through the shielding layer is obtained. The device is also equipped with a magnet capable of producing a parallel magnetic field (up to 16 T) over a 8 msec pulse length. The magnetic field is produced to decrease the turbulent energy transport through the vapor shield, which provides further reduction of surface erosion (magnetic vapor shield effect).

  20. The use of an electrothermal plasma gun to simulate the extremely high heat flux conditions of a tokamak disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan, J.; Bourham, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Disruption damage conditions for future large tokamaks like ITER are nearly impossible to simulate on current tokamaks. The electrothermal plasma source SIRENS has been designed, constructed, and operated to produce high density (> 10[sup 25]/m[sup 3]), low temperature (1-3 eV) plasma formed by the ablation of the insulator with currents of up to 100 kA (100 [mu]s pulse length) and energies up to 15 kJ. The source heat fluence (variable from 0.2 to 7 MJ/m[sup 2]) is adequate for simulation of the thermal quench phase of plasma disruption in future fusion tokamaks. Different materials have been exposed to the high heat flux in SIRENS, where comparative erosion behavior was obtained. Vapor shield phenomena has been characterized for different materials, and the energy transmission factor through the shielding layer is obtained. The device is also equipped with a magnet capable of producing a parallel magnetic field (up to 16 T) over a 8 msec pulse length. The magnetic field is produced to decrease the turbulent energy transport through the vapor shield, which provides further reduction of surface erosion (magnetic vapor shield effect).

  1. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  2. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  3. An adjoint view on flux consistency and strong wall boundary conditions to the Navier–Stokes equations

    SciTech Connect

    Stück, Arthur

    2015-11-15

    Inconsistent discrete expressions in the boundary treatment of Navier–Stokes solvers and in the definition of force objective functionals can lead to discrete-adjoint boundary treatments that are not a valid representation of the boundary conditions to the corresponding adjoint partial differential equations. The underlying problem is studied for an elementary 1D advection–diffusion problem first using a node-centred finite-volume discretisation. The defect of the boundary operators in the inconsistently defined discrete-adjoint problem leads to oscillations and becomes evident with the additional insight of the continuous-adjoint approach. A homogenisation of the discretisations for the primal boundary treatment and the force objective functional yields second-order functional accuracy and eliminates the defect in the discrete-adjoint boundary treatment. Subsequently, the issue is studied for aerodynamic Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes problems in conjunction with a standard finite-volume discretisation on median-dual grids and a strong implementation of noslip walls, found in many unstructured general-purpose flow solvers. Going out from a base-line discretisation of force objective functionals which is independent of the boundary treatment in the flow solver, two improved flux-consistent schemes are presented; based on either body wall-defined or farfield-defined control-volumes they resolve the dual inconsistency. The behaviour of the schemes is investigated on a sequence of grids in 2D and 3D.

  4. Metabolic Flux Analysis of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔnrtABCD Mutant Reveals a Mechanism for Metabolic Adaptation to Nitrogen-Limited Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsubasa; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Toya, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic flux redirection during nitrogen-limited growth was investigated in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 glucose-tolerant (GT) strain under photoautotrophic conditions by isotopically non-stationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA). A ΔnrtABCD mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed to reproduce phenotypes arising during nitrogen starvation. The ΔnrtABCD mutant and the wild-type GT strain were cultured under photoautotrophic conditions by a photobioreactor. Intracellular metabolites were labeled over a time course using NaH13CO3 as a carbon source. Based on these data, the metabolic flux distributions in the wild-type and ΔnrtABCD cells were estimated by INST-MFA. The wild-type GT and ΔnrtABCD strains displayed similar distribution patterns, although the absolute levels of metabolic flux were lower in ΔnrtABCD. Furthermore, the relative flux levels for glycogen metabolism, anaplerotic reactions and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were increased in ΔnrtABCD. This was probably due to the increased expression of enzyme genes that respond to nitrogen depletion. Additionally, we found that the ratio of ATP/NADPH demand increased slightly in the ΔnrtABCD mutant. These results indicated that futile ATP consumption increases under nitrogen-limited conditions because the Calvin-Benson cycle and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway form a metabolic futile cycle that consumes ATP without CO2 fixation and NADPH regeneration.

  5. Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, L. I.; Prinz, R.; Mölg, T.; Kaser, G.

    2013-08-01

    The Lewis Glacier on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical glaciers, but full understanding of the interaction of the glacier mass balance and its climatic drivers has been hampered by a lack of long-term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the glacier surface from October 2009 to February 2012. The location of measurements is in the upper portion of Lewis Glacier, but this location experiences negative annual mass balance, and the conditions are comparable to those experienced in the lower ablation zones of South American glaciers in the inner tropics. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial East Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris, where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle, and Kilimanjaro, where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical glaciers, and melt rate was high throughout the year, with the glacier surface reaching the melting point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear-sky conditions, and thus the frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the glacier surface. The analyses shown here form the basis for future glacier-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the glaciers of Mt Kenya.

  6. Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, L.; Prinz, R.; Mölg, T.; Kaser, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Lewis Glacier on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical glaciers, but full understanding of the interaction of the glacier mass balance and climate forcing has been hampered by a lack of long term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the glacier surface from October 2009-February 2012, which indicate that mean meteorological conditions in the upper zone of Lewis Glacier are comparable to those experienced in the ablation zones of South American tropical glaciers. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial east Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle and Kilimanjaro where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by hourly measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical glaciers and melt rate was high throughout the year, with the glacier surface reaching the melting point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear sky conditions, and thus the more frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya, and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the glacier surface. The analyses shown here are the basis for glacier-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the glaciers of Mt Kenya.

  7. Investigation of correction factors for non-reference conditions in ion chamber photon dosimetry with Monte-Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Jörg; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Karle, Heiko; Zink, Klemens

    2010-01-01

    Current dosimetry protocols require geometrical reference conditions for the determination of absorbed dose in external radiotherapy. Whenever these geometrical conditions cannot be maintained the application of additional corrections becomes necessary, in principle. The current DIN6800-2 protocol includes a corresponding factor k(NR), but numerical values are lacking and no definite information about the magnitude of this correction is available yet. This study presents Monte-Carlo based calculations within the 6 MV-X photon field of a linear accelerator for a common used ion chamber (PTW31010) employing the EGSnrc code system. The linear accelerator model was matched to measurements, showing good agreement and is used as a realistic source. The individual perturbation correction factors as well as the resulting correction factor k(NR) were calculated as a function of depth for three field sizes, as a function of central axis distance for the largest field and within the build-up region. The behaviour of the ion chamber was further investigated for an idealized hypothetical field boundary. Within the field of the linear accelerator where charged particle equilibrium is achieved the factor k(NR) was generally below approximately 0.5%. In the build-up region a depth dependent correction of up to 2% was calculated when positioning the chamber according to DIN6800-2. Minimizing the depth dependence of the corrections in the build-up region lead to a slightly different positioning of the ion chamber as currently recommended. In regions of the hypothetical field boundary with missing charged particle equilibrium and high dose gradients, the ion chamber response changed by up to approximately 40%, caused by the comparatively large volume (0.125 cm(3)) of the investigated chamber. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Effect of the size of yeast flocs and zinc supplementation on continuous ethanol fermentation performance and metabolic flux distribution under very high concentration conditions.

    PubMed

    Xue, C; Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2010-04-01

    Taking continuous ethanol fermentation with the self-flocculating yeast SPSC01 under very high concentration conditions as an example, the fermentation performance of the yeast flocs and their metabolic flux distribution were investigated by controlling their average sizes at 100, 200, and 300 microm using the focused beam reflectance online measurement system. In addition, the impact of zinc supplementation was evaluated for the yeast flocs at the size of 300 microm grown in presence or absence of 0.05 g L(-1) zinc sulfate. Among the yeast flocs with different sizes, the group with the average size of 300 microm exhibited highest ethanol production (110.0 g L(-1)) and glucose uptake rate (286.69 C mmol L(-1) h(-1)), which are in accordance with the increased flux from pyruvate to ethanol and decreased flux to glycerol. And in the meantime, zinc supplementation further increased ethanol production and cell viability comparing with the control. Zinc addition enhanced the carbon fluxes to the biosynthesis of ergosterol (28.6%) and trehalose (43.3%), whereas the fluxes towards glycerol, protein biosynthesis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle significantly decreased by 37.7%, 19.5%, and 27.8%, respectively. This work presents the first report on the regulation of metabolic flux by the size of yeast flocs and zinc supplementation, which provides the potential for developing engineering strategy to optimize the fermentation system. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Non-reference condition correction factor kNR of typical radiation detectors applied for the dosimetry of high-energy photon fields in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2012-09-01

    According to accepted dosimetry protocols, the "radiation quality correction factor"k(Q) accounts for the energy-dependent changes of detector responses under the conditions of clinical dosimetry for high-energy photon radiations. More precisely, a factor k(QR) is valid under reference conditions, i.e. at a point on the beam axis at depth 10 cm in a large water phantom, for 10×10 cm(2) field size, SSD 100 cm and the given radiation quality with quality index Q. Therefore, a further correction factor k(NR) has been introduced to correct for the influences of spectral quality changes when detectors are used under non-reference conditions such as other depths, field sizes and off-axis distances, while under reference conditions k(NR) is normalized to unity. In this paper, values of k(NR) are calculated for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, using published data of the energy-dependent responses of various radiation detectors to monoenergetic photon radiations, and weighting these responses with validated photon spectra of clinical high-energy photon beams from own Monte-Carlo-calculations for a wide variation of the non-reference conditions within a large water phantom. Our results confirm the observation by Scarboro et al. [26] that k(NR) can be represented by a unique function of the mean energy Em, weighted by the spectral photon fluence. Accordingly, the numerical variations of Em with depth, field size and off-axis distance have been provided. Throughout all considered conditions, the deviations of the k(NR) values from unity are at most 2% for a Farmer type ion chamber, and they remain below 15% for the thermoluminescent detectors LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P. For the shielded diode EDP-10, k(NR) varies from unity up to 20%, while the unshielded diode EDD-5 shows deviations up to 60% in the peripheral region. Thereby, the restricted application field of unshielded diodes has been clarified. For small field dosimetry purposes k(NR) can be converted into k(NCSF), the non

  10. Fibre-integrated noise gating of high-purity heralded single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis-Jones, Robert J. A.; Mosley, Peter J.

    2017-10-01

    We present an all-fibre source of high-purity heralded single photons with an integrated conditional optical gate that reduces uncorrelated noise by almost an order of magnitude. Generating photon pairs by four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibre, we observe with the noise gate active a factor of 7 reduction in the rate of single counts in the heralded channel with no measurable drop in coincidence count rate. In contrast to electronic post-selection of coincidence events, the real reduction in the flux of unwanted photons is beneficial for example to avoid bleaching light-sensitive samples or in generating entangled states.

  11. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  12. A two-photon fluorescent probe for nitroreductase imaging in living cells, tissues and zebrafish under hypoxia conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Baoping; Hu, Wei; Sun, Jinyu; Chi, Siyu; Lei, Yidi; Zhang, Fang; Zhong, Cheng; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-04-04

    A two-photon fluorescent probe FNTR for nitroreductase was synthesized by using 9,9-dimethyl-2-acetyl-fluoren-7-methylamino (1) as a two-photon fluorophore and a p-nitrobenzyl carbamate group as a recognition domain for nitroreductase (NTR). The probe and the fluorophore were tested under one- and two-photon modes respectively. After reacting with nitroreductase, FNTR had a 130-fold fluorescence enhancement at 563 nm in 10 min and the maximal two-photon action cross-section value was detected as 66 GM at 750 nm. The probe showed a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 23.67 ng ml(-1), high selectivity, low cytotoxicity and good photostability. In the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), endogenous NTR was detected in living cells, tissues and zebrafish. Cobalt chloride was used to induce chemical hypoxia to produce NTR, which generated enhanced fluorescence in cells and tumor tissues. Finally, two-photon fluorescence imaging of NTR was achieved in zebrafish at a penetration depth of up to 200 μm.

  13. Carbon dioxide(CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in an agro-ecosystems under changing physical and biological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L.; Eberwein, J.; Oikawa, P.; Jenerette, D.; Grantz, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Liyin Liang1, Jennifer Eberwein1, Patty Oikawa1, Darrel Jenerette1, David Grantz1 1Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the major greenhouse gases and together produce a strong positive radiative forcing in the atmosphere. The fluxes of CO2 and N2O from soil to atmosphere vary with physical and biological factors, e.g., temperature, soil moisture, pH value, soil organic carbon contents, microorganism communities and so on. Understanding the interactions among these factors is critical to estimation of CO2 and N2O emissions. We investigate these fluxes in an extreme production environment with very high maximum temperatures, at the agricultural experiment station of University of California-Desert Research Center in the Imperial Valley of southern California. In this research, we measured the CO2 and N2O fluxes from soil incubation under controlled laboratory conditions, in surface chambers under field conditions and by eddy covariance. We explore the variation of CO2 and N2O fluxes and relationship between them in this extreme biofuel production environment. The discrete chamber measurements showed that the N2O flux in our field sites is 2.39×0.70 μg N m-2 hr-1, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.86 to 3.92 μg N m-2 hr-1. Compared to the previous reported value (0.45~26.26 μg N m-2 hr-1) of N2O flux in California, the N2O flux from biofuel crop land is in the lower level, although more observations should be took to confirm it. The N2O flux also shows very high variability within a field of biomass Sorghum, ranging from 0.40 to 8.19 μg N m-2 hr-1 across 11 sites owning to the high variability of physical and biological factors. Soil incubation measurements will be conducted to identify the sources of this variability. The eddy covariance measurements will allow calculation of the CO2 and N2O emissions at the ecosystem level as a step in quantifying

  14. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.; Filliatre, P.; Lopez, A. Legrand; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Bréaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 1020 n/cm2. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  15. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions.

    PubMed

    Geslot, B; Vermeeren, L; Filliatre, P; Lopez, A Legrand; Barbot, L; Jammes, C; Bréaud, S; Oriol, L; Villard, J-F

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 10(20) n∕cm(2). A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  16. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Lopez, A. Legrand

    2011-03-15

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  17. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flows in bifurcate channel at rotating inflow boundary conditions and resulted different outflow fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qing-Dong

    2011-08-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate the flow field in a bifurcate channel which is a simplified model of the draft tube of hydraulic turbine machine. According to the simulation results, some qualitative conclusions can be deduced. The reason of uneven flux in different branches of draft tube is given. Not only the vortex rope itself, but also the attenuation of the rotation strength is important in bringing on the uneven flux. The later leads to adverse pressure gradient, and changes the velocity profile. If the outlet contains more than one exit, the one that contains the vortex rope will lose flux because of this adverse pressure gradient. Several possible methods can be used to minimize the adverse pressure gradient domain in order to improve the efficiency of turbine machine.

  19. Greenhouse gas fluxes from a grazed grassland soil after slurry injections and mineral fertilizer applications under the Atlantic climatic conditions of NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Louro, Aránzazu; Cárdenas, Laura M; García, María Isabel; Báez, Dolores

    2016-12-15

    The number of studies that investigate how agricultural practices on dairy farms in the North West (NW) of Spain affect greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from soils is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the application of mineral fertilizers and cattle slurry injections on GHG fluxes from a grassland soil with grazing dairy cattle, in Galicia (NW Spain). We also aimed to identify the type of fertilizer associated with high grass production and low GHG fluxes. To achieve this, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), grass yields and soil mineral nitrogen (N) contents were monitored after three applications (in spring, summer and autumn) of surface broadcasted mineral fertilizer (MN) and injected cattle slurry (CS) and compared with no fertilization (zero N). Dry soil conditions (<60% water-filled pore space (WFPS)) were observed during the spring and summer, contrasting with the higher soil WFPS (>60%) in autumn due to the more frequent rainfall. Overall, total cumulative N2O fluxes from CS were similar than from MN (P>0.05), indicating that denitrification in this C-rich soil was not stimulated by slurry-carbon applications. Large losses of CH4 and CO2 were related to CS, but overall only total cumulative CH4 fluxes were larger with respect to MN (P<0.05). Dry weather conditions would have stimulated organic matter mineralization in this soil, which resulted in the low efficiency of both fertilizers to increase yields. As we obtained similar total CO2 equivalents to produce same yields with both types of fertilization (P>0.05), this study did not show a clear type of fertilization related to low GHG fluxes and high yields. We believe that longer-term studies are required to provide more robust estimations and conclusions about the effect of fertilizer applications on GHG fluxes from grassland soils in NW Spain. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photobioreactor design for isotopic non-stationary 13C-metabolic flux analysis (INST 13C-MFA) under photoautotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Martzolff, Arnaud; Cahoreau, Edern; Cogne, Guillaume; Peyriga, Lindsay; Portais, Jean-Charles; Dechandol, Emmanuel; Le Grand, Fabienne; Massou, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Olivier; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack

    2012-12-01

    Adaptive metabolic behavior of photoautotrophic microorganisms toward genetic and environmental perturbations can be interpreted in a quantitative depiction of carbon flow through a biochemical reaction network using isotopic non-stationary (13) C-metabolic flux analysis (INST (13) C-MFA). To evaluate (13) C-metabolic flux maps for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an original experimental framework was designed allowing rapid, reliable collection of high-quality isotopomer data against time. It involved (i) a short-time (13) C labeling injection device based on mixing control in a torus-shaped photobioreactor with plug-flow hydrodynamics allowing a sudden step-change in the (13) C proportion in the substrate feed and (ii) a rapid sampling procedure using an automatic fast filtration method coupled to a manual rapid liquid nitrogen quenching step. (13) C-substrate labeling enrichment was controlled through the total dissolved inorganic carbon concentration in the pulsed solution. First results were obtained from steady-state continuous culture measurements allowing the characterization of the kinetics of label incorporation into light-limited growing cells cultivated in a photobioreactor operating at the maximal biomass productivity for an incident photon flux density of 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1). (13)C label incorporation was measured for 21 intracellular metabolites using IC-MS/MS in 58 samples collected across a labeling experiment duration of 7 min. The fastest labeling rate was observed for 2/3-phosphoglycerate with an apparent isotopic stationary state reached after 300 s. The labeling rate was consistent with the optimized mixing time of about 4.9 s inside the reactor and the shortest reliable sampling period assessed at 5 s.

  1. On the discrepancy between eddy covariance and lysimetry-based surface flux measurements under strongly advective conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Discrepancies can arise among surface flux measurements collected using disparate techniques due to differences in both the instrumentation and theoretical underpinnings of the different measurement methods. Using data collected primarily over a pair of irrigated cotton fields as a part of the Bushl...

  2. Sedimentary record of water column trophic conditions and sediment carbon fluxes in a tropical water reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Carnero-Bravo, Vladislav; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2015-03-01

    Valle de Bravo (VB) is the main water reservoir of the Cutzamala hydraulic system, which provides 40% of the drinking water consumed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and exhibits symptoms of eutrophication. Nutrient (C, N and P) concentrations were determined in two sediment cores to reconstruct the water column trophic evolution of the reservoir and C fluxes since its creation in 1947. Radiometric methods ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) were used to obtain sediment chronologies, using the presence of pre-reservoir soil layers in one of the cores as an independent chronological marker. Mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.56 g cm(-2) year(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes from 122 to 380 g m(-2) year(-1). Total N ranged 4.9-48 g m(-2) year(-1), and total P 0.6-4.2 g m(-2) year(-1). The sedimentary record shows that all three (C, N and P) fluxes increased significantly after 1991, in good agreement with the assessed trophic evolution of VB and with historic and recent real-time measurements. In the recent years (1992-2006), the TOC flux to the bottom of VB (average 250 g m(-2) year(-1), peaks 323 g m(-2) year(-1)) is similar to that found in highly eutrophic reservoirs and impoundments. Over 1/3 of the total C burial since dam construction, circa 70,000 t, has occurred in this recent period. These results highlight the usefulness of the reconstruction of carbon and nutrient fluxes from the sedimentary record to assess carbon burial and its temporal evolution in freshwater ecosystems.

  3. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of glucose and xylose metabolism in Escherichia coli under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Long, Christopher P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2017-01-01

    Glucose and xylose are the two most abundant sugars derived from the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass. While aerobic glucose metabolism is relatively well understood in E. coli, until now there have been only a handful of studies focused on anaerobic glucose metabolism and no (13)C-flux studies on xylose metabolism. In the absence of experimentally validated flux maps, constraint-based approaches such as MOMA and RELATCH cannot be used to guide new metabolic engineering designs. In this work, we have addressed this critical gap in current understanding by performing comprehensive characterizations of glucose and xylose metabolism under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, using recent state-of-the-art techniques in (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA). Specifically, we quantified precise metabolic fluxes for each condition by performing parallel labeling experiments and analyzing the data through integrated (13)C-MFA using the optimal tracers [1,2-(13)C]glucose, [1,6-(13)C]glucose, [1,2-(13)C]xylose and [5-(13)C]xylose. We also quantified changes in biomass composition and confirmed turnover of macromolecules by applying [U-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]xylose tracers. We demonstrated that under anaerobic growth conditions there is significant turnover of lipids and that a significant portion of CO2 originates from biomass turnover. Using knockout strains, we also demonstrated that β-oxidation is critical for anaerobic growth on xylose. Quantitative analysis of co-factor balances (NADH/FADH2, NADPH, and ATP) for different growth conditions provided new insights regarding the interplay of energy and redox metabolism and the impact on E. coli cell physiology.

  5. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  6. Experimental investigation of effect of surface gravity waves and spray on heat and momentum flux at strong wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily

    2015-04-01

    The most important characteristics that determine the interaction between atmosphere and ocean are fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. For their parameterization the dimensionless exchange coefficients (the surface drag coefficient CD and the heat transfer coefficient or the Stanton number CT) are used. Numerous field and laboratory experiments show that CD increases with increasing wind speed at moderate and strong wind, and as it was shows recently CD decreases at hurricane wind speed. Waves are known to increase the sea surface resistance due to enhanced form drag, the sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the 'drag reduction' at hurricane conditions. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient CD on the wind speed is not so certain and the role of the mechanism associated with the wave disturbances in the mass transfer is not completely understood. Observations and laboratory data show that this dependence is weaker than for the CD, and there are differences in the character of the dependence in different data sets. The purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of surface waves on the turbulent exchange of momentum and heat within the laboratory experiment, when wind and wave parameters are maintained and controlled. The effect of spray on turbulent exchange at strong winds is also estimated. A series of experiments to study the processes of turbulent exchange of momentum and heat in a stably stratified temperature turbulent boundary layer air flow over waved water surface were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS, the peculiarity of this experiment was the option to change the surface wave parameters regardless of the speed of the wind flow in the channel. For this purpose a polyethylene net with the variable depth (0.25 mm thick and a cell of 1.6 mm × 1.6mm) has been stretched along the channel. The waves were absent when the net was located at the level of the undisturbed water surface, and had maximum

  7. SU-E-T-126: Non-Reference Condition Correction Factor KNR of Typical Radiation Detectors for the Dosimetry of High-Energy Photons.

    PubMed

    Chofor, N; Poppe, B; Harder, D

    2012-06-01

    To correct for the deviations of the detector response when typical radiation detectors are used under non-reference conditions, factor kNR was calculated from the known energy dependence of the detector response at photon energies from 10 keV upwards and from clinical photon spectra within a large water phantom beneath a Siemens Primus 6/15 MV linac. A Farmer type ion chamber (NE2571), two TLD detector types and two diodes were investigated. Factor kNR was obtained as the ratio of the weighted responses Yt of a given detector t under reference conditions xref (axial distance r = 0 cm, depth d = 10 cm, field size 10 × 10 cm(2) and SSD = 100 cm) and that under non-reference conditions × (off-axis points and depths for various field sizes); kNR = Yt(xref)/Yt(x). For small field (SF) dosimetry, we evaluated correction factor kNRSF, which refers to small field reference conditions (4 × 4 cm(2) field). For all detectors investigated, the deviations of kNR from unity were highest outside the field, due to prevailing low-energy scatter contributions. For the Farmer chamber and EDP-10 diode, the kNR deviations did not exceed 2%, but were up to 60% for the EDD-5 diode, while kNR values for LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti deviated at most 15% and 5% respectively. kNR values appear as unique functions of the mean photon energy at the point of interest. Air-filled ion chambers show only small kNR variations, while for non-water equivalent detectors, kNR variations depend on the detector response at low photon energy. kNR can be presented as a unique function of the mean photon energy at the point of interest. A 4 × 4 cm(2) reference field is recommended for small fields, with correction factor kNRSF varying almost negligibly from kNR except for unshielded Si diodes. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Liquid crystal modified photonic crystal fiber (LC-PCF) fabricated with an un-cured SU-8 photoresist sealing technique for electrical flux measurement.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Szu-Ming; Cheng, Wood-Hi; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2011-09-12

    The optical transmission properties of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) can be manipulated by modifying the pattern arrangement of the air channels within them. This paper presents a novel MEMS-based technique for modifying the optical transmission properties of commercial photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) by selectively filling the voids within the fiber structure with liquid crystals. In the proposed approach, an un-cured SU-8 ring pattern with a thickness of 5 μm is fabricated using a novel stamping method. The PCF is then brought into contact with the SU-8 pattern and an infra-red (IR) laser beam is passed through the fiber in order to soften the SU-8 surface; thereby selectively sealing some of the air channels with molten SU-8. Liquid crystals (LCs) are then infiltrated into the un-sealed holes in the PCF via capillary effects in order to modify the transmission properties of the PCF. Two selectively-filled PCFs are fabricated, namely an inner-ring LC-PCF and a single-line LC-PCF, respectively. It is shown that the two LC-PCFs exhibit significantly different optical behaviors. The practical applicability of the proposed selective-filling approach is demonstrated by fabricating an electric field sensor. The experimental results show that the sensor has the ability to measure electric fields with an intensity of up to 40 kV/cm.

  9. CdTe Timepix detectors for single-photon spectroscopy and linear polarimetry of high-flux hard x-ray radiation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Weber, G; Märtin, R; Höfer, S; Kämpfer, T; Stöhlker, Th

    2016-04-01

    Single-photon spectroscopy of pulsed, high-intensity sources of hard X-rays - such as laser-generated plasmas - is often hampered by the pileup of several photons absorbed by the unsegmented, large-volume sensors routinely used for the detection of high-energy radiation. Detectors based on the Timepix chip, with a segmentation pitch of 55 μm and the possibility to be equipped with high-Z sensor chips, constitute an attractive alternative to commonly used passive solutions such as image plates. In this report, we present energy calibration and characterization measurements of such devices. The achievable energy resolution is comparable to that of scintillators for γ spectroscopy. Moreover, we also introduce a simple two-detector Compton polarimeter setup with a polarimeter quality of (98 ± 1)%. Finally, a proof-of-principle polarimetry experiment is discussed, where we studied the linear polarization of bremsstrahlung emitted by a laser-driven plasma and found an indication of the X-ray polarization direction depending on the polarization state of the incident laser pulse.

  10. CdTe Timepix detectors for single-photon spectroscopy and linear polarimetry of high-flux hard x-ray radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, C. Höfer, S.; Kämpfer, T.; Weber, G.; Märtin, R.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-04-15

    Single-photon spectroscopy of pulsed, high-intensity sources of hard X-rays — such as laser-generated plasmas — is often hampered by the pileup of several photons absorbed by the unsegmented, large-volume sensors routinely used for the detection of high-energy radiation. Detectors based on the Timepix chip, with a segmentation pitch of 55 μm and the possibility to be equipped with high-Z sensor chips, constitute an attractive alternative to commonly used passive solutions such as image plates. In this report, we present energy calibration and characterization measurements of such devices. The achievable energy resolution is comparable to that of scintillators for γ spectroscopy. Moreover, we also introduce a simple two-detector Compton polarimeter setup with a polarimeter quality of (98 ± 1)%. Finally, a proof-of-principle polarimetry experiment is discussed, where we studied the linear polarization of bremsstrahlung emitted by a laser-driven plasma and found an indication of the X-ray polarization direction depending on the polarization state of the incident laser pulse.

  11. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  12. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; ...

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore » with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  13. InP-based photonic integrated circuits for optical performance surveillance, signal conditioning, and bandwidth management in DWDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, Valery I.; Wu, Fang; Logvin, Yury; Densmore, Adam; Pimenov, Kirill; Grabtchak, Serge

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports the design of InP-based monolithic photonic integrated circuits for performance surveillance and bandwidth management in DWDM transmission systems. It is based on a building block approach, which allows a large variety of optical components to be built from a few monolithically integrable elements, by using only one-step epitaxial growth and standard semiconductor fabrication technologies. These include: (i) polarization-compensated echelle diffractive grating (de)multiplexer, along with the elements of passive waveguide circuitry for coupling the light to and directing it through the InP-based photonic chip, and (ii) single-mode vertically integrated waveguide active devices with detecting, attenuating and amplifying features, inserted in the (in)output channels of the planar (de)multiplexer. The paper presents the design and characterization examples of these elements and discusses the related integrated components for controlling / manipulating the DWDM optical signals on a per frequency basis.

  14. Surface morphology changes and deuterium retention in Toughened, Fine-grained Recrystallized Tungsten under high-flux irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, M.; Lee, H. T.; Ueda, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Oyaidzu, M.; Hayashi, T.; Yoshida, N.; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-08-01

    Surface morphology changes and deuterium (D) retention in Toughened, Fine-Grained Recrystallized Tungsten (TFGR W) with TaC dispersoids (W-TaC) and pure tungsten exposed to D plasmas to a fluence of 1026 D/m2 s were studied as a function of the D ion flux (1022-1024 D/m2 s). As the flux increased from 1022 D/m2 s to 1024 D/m2 s, the numbers of blisters increased for both materials. However, smaller blisters were observed on W-TaC compared to pure W. In W-TaC, cracks beneath the surface along grain boundaries were observed, which were comparable to the blister sizes. The reason for the smaller blister sizes may arise from smaller grain sizes of W-TaC. In addition, reduction of the D retention in W-TaC was observed for higher flux exposures. D depth profiles indicate this reduction arises due to decrease in trapping in the bulk.

  15. Observation of trapped light induced by Dwarf Dirac-cone in out-of-plane condition for photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Subir; Biswas, Tushar; Bhadra, Shaymal K.

    2016-10-01

    Existence of out-of-plane conical dispersion for a triangular photonic crystal lattice is reported. It is observed that conical dispersion is maintained for a number of out-of-plane wave vectors (k z ). We study a case where Dirac like linear dispersion exists but the photonic density of states is not vanishing, called Dwarf Dirac cone (DDC) which does not support localized modes. We demonstrate the trapping of such modes by introducing defects in the crystal. Interestingly, we find by k-point sampling as well as by tuning trapped frequency that such a conical dispersion has an inherent light confining property and it is governed by neither of the known wave confining mechanisms like total internal reflection, band gap guidance. Our study reveals that such a conical dispersion in a non-vanishing photonic density of states induces unexpected intense trapping of light compared with those at other points in the continuum. Such studies provoke fabrication of new devices with exciting properties and new functionalities. Project supported by Director, CSIR-CGCRI, the DST, Government of India, and the CSIR 12th Plan Project (GLASSFIB), India.

  16. Quantitative analysis of flux along the gluconeogenic, glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways under reducing conditions in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, J M; Blum, J J

    1983-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of fed rats and incubated with a mixture of glucose (10 mM), ribose (1 mM), mannose (4 mM), glycerol (3 mM), acetate (1.25 mM), and ethanol (5 mM) with one substrate labelled with 14C in any given incubation. Incorporation of label into CO2, glucose, glycogen, lipid glycerol and fatty acids, acetate and C-1 of glucose was measured at 20 and 40 min after the start of the incubation. The data (about 48 measurements for each interval) were used in conjunction with a single-compartment model of the reactions of the gluconeogenic, glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways and a simplified model of the relevant mitochondrial reactions. An improved method of computer analysis of the equations describing the flow of label through each carbon atom of each metabolite under steady-state conditions was used to compute values for the 34 independent flux parameters in this model. A good fit to the data was obtained, thereby permitting good estimates of most of the fluxes in the pathways under consideration. The data show that: net flux above the level of the triose phosphates is gluconeogenic; label in the hexose phosphates is fully equilibrated by the second 20 min interval; the triose phosphate isomerase step does not equilibrate label between the triose phosphates; substrate cycles are operating at the glucose-glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate-pyruvate-oxaloacetate cycles; and, although net flux through the enzymes catalysing the non-oxidative steps of the pentose phosphate pathway is small, bidirectional fluxes are large. PMID:6411069

  17. Investigation of growth conditions for the liquid phase epitaxy of hexaferrite films using a Bi 2O 3-BaO-B 2O 3 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K. C.; Storrick, R. P.; Kramer, W. E.; Stewart, A. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1987-11-01

    Conditions favoring the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth of barium hexaferrite films have been investigated using the Bi 2O 3-BaO-B 2O 3 flux system. The barium hexaferrite-saturated solutions based on this flux system exhibit relatively large degrees of supercooling (up to 65°C). However, the BaFe 12O 19 phase field occupies a limited region of the BaO/Fe 2O 3/Bi 2O 3 pseudo ternary phase diagram. LPE films of pure barium hexaferrite and aluminum-substituted hexaferrite were successfully grown on Sr(Ga, Mg, Zr) 12O 19 substrates using this flux system. Microstructural evaluation of the films by X-ray topography and optical microscopy indicates that smooth, uncracked barium hexaferrite films can be grown on strontium hexagallate substrates from selected compositions in the BaO/Fe 2O 3/Bi 2O 3 ternary system under conditions which minimize lattice mismatch between film and substrate.

  18. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Study on spatial resolution of micromegas as a neutron detector under condition of high neutron flux and γ ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ji-Jin; Hu, Bi-Tao

    2009-02-01

    In this paper Micromegas has been designed to detect neutrons. The simulation of the spatial resolution of Micromegas as neutron detector is carried out by GEANT4 toolkit. The neutron track reconstruction method based on the time coincidence technology is employed in the present work. The influence of the flux of incident 14 MeV neutron and high gamma background on the spatial resolution is carefully studied. Our results show that the spatial resolution of the detector is sensitive to the neutron flux, but insensitive to the intensity of γ background if the neutron track reconstruction method proposed by our group is used. The γ insensitivity makes it possible for us to use the Micromegas detector under condition which has high γ-rays background.

  19. Responses of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes between atmosphere and forest soil to changes in multiple environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Keya; Qin, Fen; Wang, Wantong; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of multiple environmental conditions on greenhouse gas (CO2 , N2 O, CH4 ) fluxes, we transferred three soil monoliths from Masson pine forest (PF) or coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (MF) at Jigongshan to corresponding forest type at Dinghushan. Greenhouse gas fluxes at the in situ (Jigongshan), transported and ambient (Dinghushan) soil monoliths were measured using static chambers. When the transported soil monoliths experienced the external environmental factors (temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition) at Dinghushan, its annual soil CO2 emissions were 54% in PF and 60% in MF higher than those from the respective in situ treatment. Annual soil N2 O emissions were 45% in PF and 44% in MF higher than those from the respective in situ treatment. There were no significant differences in annual soil CO2 or N2 O emissions between the transported and ambient treatments. However, annual CH4 uptake by the transported soil monoliths in PF or MF was not significantly different from that at the respective in situ treatment, and was significantly lower than that at the respective ambient treatment. Therefore, external environmental factors were the major drivers of soil CO2 and N2 O emissions, while soil was the dominant controller of soil CH4 uptake. We further tested the results by developing simple empirical models using the observed fluxes of CO2 and N2 O from the in situ treatment and found that the empirical models can explain about 90% for CO2 and 40% for N2 O of the observed variations at the transported treatment. Results from this study suggest that the different responses of soil CO2 , N2 O, CH4 fluxes to changes in multiple environmental conditions need to be considered in global change study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Dirichlet boundary conditions for arbitrary-shaped boundaries in stellarator-like magnetic fields for the Flux-Coordinate Independent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Peter; Shanahan, Brendan; Dudson, Ben

    2017-04-01

    We present a technique for handling Dirichlet boundary conditions with the Flux Coordinate Independent (FCI) parallel derivative operator with arbitrary-shaped material geometry in general 3D magnetic fields. The FCI method constructs a finite difference scheme for ∇∥ by following field lines between poloidal planes and interpolating within planes. Doing so removes the need for field-aligned coordinate systems that suffer from singularities in the metric tensor at null points in the magnetic field (or equivalently, when q → ∞). One cost of this method is that as the field lines are not on the mesh, they may leave the domain at any point between neighbouring planes, complicating the application of boundary conditions. The Leg Value Fill (LVF) boundary condition scheme presented here involves an extrapolation/interpolation of the boundary value onto the field line end point. The usual finite difference scheme can then be used unmodified. We implement the LVF scheme in BOUT++ and use the Method of Manufactured Solutions to verify the implementation in a rectangular domain, and show that it does not modify the error scaling of the finite difference scheme. The use of LVF for arbitrary wall geometry is outlined. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using the FCI approach in no n-axisymmetric configurations for a simple diffusion model in a "straight stellarator" magnetic field. A Gaussian blob diffuses along the field lines, tracing out flux surfaces. Dirichlet boundary conditions impose a last closed flux surface (LCFS) that confines the density. Including a poloidal limiter moves the LCFS to a smaller radius. The expected scaling of the numerical perpendicular diffusion, which is a consequence of the FCI method, in stellarator-like geometry is recovered. A novel technique for increasing the parallel resolution during post-processing, in order to reduce artefacts in visualisations, is described.

  1. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  2. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  3. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  4. Net ammonium and nitrate fluxes in wheat roots under different environmental conditions as assessed by scanning ion-selective electrode technique.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-11-27

    Wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world, its availability affects global food security. In this study, we investigated variations in NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes in the fine roots of wheat using a scanning ion-selective electrode technique in the presence of different nitrogen (N) forms, N concentrations, and pH levels as well as under water stress. Our results show that the fine roots of wheat demonstrated maximum NH4(+) and NO3(-) influxes at 20 mm and 25 mm from the root tip, respectively. The maximal net NH4(+) and NO3(-) influxes were observed at pH 6.2 in the presence of a 1/4 N solution. We observed N efflux in two different cultivars following the exposure of roots to a 10% PEG-6000 solution. Furthermore, the drought-tolerant cultivar generally performed better than the drought-intolerant cultivar. Net NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes may be determined by plant growth status, but environmental conditions can also affect the magnitude and direction of N flux. Interestingly, we found that NO3(-) was more sensitive to environmental changes than NH4(+). Our results may be used to guide future hydroponic experiments in wheat as well as to aid in the development of effective fertilisation protocols for this crop.

  5. Net ammonium and nitrate fluxes in wheat roots under different environmental conditions as assessed by scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world, its availability affects global food security. In this study, we investigated variations in NH4+ and NO3- fluxes in the fine roots of wheat using a scanning ion-selective electrode technique in the presence of different nitrogen (N) forms, N concentrations, and pH levels as well as under water stress. Our results show that the fine roots of wheat demonstrated maximum NH4+ and NO3− influxes at 20 mm and 25 mm from the root tip, respectively. The maximal net NH4+ and NO3− influxes were observed at pH 6.2 in the presence of a 1/4 N solution. We observed N efflux in two different cultivars following the exposure of roots to a 10% PEG-6000 solution. Furthermore, the drought-tolerant cultivar generally performed better than the drought-intolerant cultivar. Net NH4+ and NO3− fluxes may be determined by plant growth status, but environmental conditions can also affect the magnitude and direction of N flux. Interestingly, we found that NO3− was more sensitive to environmental changes than NH4+. Our results may be used to guide future hydroponic experiments in wheat as well as to aid in the development of effective fertilisation protocols for this crop. PMID:25428199

  6. Dynamic characteristics of laser-Doppler flux in normal individuals and patients with Raynaud's phenomenon before and after treatment with nifedipine under different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A; Bendayan, P; Leger, P; Boccalon, H; Möller, K O

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed at choosing an appropriate characteristic of laser-Doppler flux (LDF) data for (1) distinguishing patients with Raynaud's disease from normal controls and (2) evaluating the effect of nifedipine under different thermal conditions. We checked the reliability of three characteristics of nonlinear dynamics as statistical dimension Ds, correlation dimension D2 and power-law index PLI. Their values depended heavily on the thermal condition. The most reliable characteristics that enabled us to distinguish the patients from normal controls and the effect of nifedipine under definite thermal condition proved to be Ds and PLI. The latter is simple for computation and is thus recommendable for clinical practice. Ds and PLI were higher in patients with Raynaud's compared to normal controls and diminished during the transitions from low to high temperature. However, the characteristics used were unable to distinguish significantly Raynaud's I from Raynaud's II patients.

  7. Flux response of glycolysis and storage metabolism during rapid feast/famine conditions in Penicillium chrysogenum using dynamic (13)C labeling.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Lodewijk; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2014-03-01

    The scale-up of fermentation processes frequently leads to a reduced productivity compared to small-scale screening experiments. Large-scale mixing limitations that lead to gradients in substrate and oxygen availability could influence the microorganism performance. Here, the impact of substrate gradients on a penicillin G producing Penicillium chrysogenum cultivation was analyzed using an intermittent glucose feeding regime. The intermittent feeding led to fluctuations in the extracellular glucose concentration between 400 μM down to 6.5 μM at the end of the cycle. The intracellular metabolite concentrations responded strongly and showed up to 100-fold changes. The intracellular flux changes were estimated on the basis of dynamic (13) C mass isotopomer measurements during three cycles of feast and famine using a novel hybrid modeling approach. The flux estimations indicated a high turnover of internal and external storage metabolites in P. chrysogenum under feast/famine conditions. The synthesis and degradation of storage requires cellular energy (ATP and UTP) in competition with other cellular functions including product formation. Especially, 38% of the incoming glucose was recycled once in storage metabolism. This result indicated that storage turnover is increased under dynamic cultivation conditions and contributes to the observed decrease in productivity compared to reference steady-state conditions.

  8. Open path measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor under foggy conditions - technical problems, approaches and effects on flux measurements and budget calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Madany, T.; Griessbaum, F.; Maneke, F.; Chu, H.-S.; Wu, C.-C.; Chang, S. C.; Hsia, Y.-J.; Juang, J.-Y.; Klemm, O.

    2010-07-01

    To estimate carbon dioxide or water vapor fluxes with the Eddy Covariance method high quality data sets are necessary. Under foggy conditions this is challenging, because open path measurements are influenced by the water droplets that cross the measurement path as well as deposit on the windows of the optical path. For the LI-7500 the deposition of droplets on the window results in an intensity reduction of the infrared beam. To keep the strength of the infrared beam under these conditions, the energy is increased. A measure for the increased energy is given by the AGC value (Automatic Gain Control). Up to a AGC threshold value of 70 % the data from the LI-7500 is assumed to be of good quality (personal communication with LICOR). Due to fog deposition on the windows, the AGC value rises above 70 % and stays there until the fog disappears and the water on the windows evaporates. To gain better data quality during foggy conditions, a blower system was developed that blows the deposited water droplets off the window. The system is triggered if the AGC value rises above 70 %. Then a pneumatic jack will lift the blower system towards the LI-7500 and the water-droplets get blown off with compressed air. After the AGC value drops below 70 %, the pneumatic jack will move back to the idle position. Using this technique showed that not only the fog droplets on the window causing significant problems to the measurement, but also the fog droplets inside the measurement path. Under conditions of very dense fog the measured values of carbon dioxide can get unrealistically high, and for water vapor, negative values can be observed even if the AGC value is below 70 %. The negative values can be explained by the scatter of the infrared beam on the fog droplets. It is assumed, that different types of fog droplet spectra are causing the various error patterns observed. For high quality flux measurements, not only the AGC threshold value of 70 % is important, but also the fluctuation

  9. Air-sea heat fluxes associated to mesoscale eddies in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and their dependence on different regional conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyba, Inés M.; Saraceno, Martín; Solman, Silvina A.

    2016-11-01

    Heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere largely represent the link between the two media. A possible mechanism of interaction is generated by mesoscale ocean eddies. In this work we evaluate if eddies in Southwestern Atlantic (SWA) Ocean may significantly affect flows between the ocean and the atmosphere. Atmospherics conditions associated with eddies were examined using data of sea surface temperature (SST), sensible (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. On average, we found that NCEP-CFSR reanalysis adequately reflects the variability expected from eddies in the SWA, considering the classical eddy-pumping theory: anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies cause maximum positive (negative) anomalies with maximum mean anomalies of 0.5 °C (-0.5 °C) in SST, 6 W/m2 (-4 W/m2) in SHF and 12 W/m2 (-9 W/m2) in LHF. However, a regional dependence of heat fluxes associated to mesoscale cyclonic eddies was found: in the turbulent Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region they are related with positive heat flux anomaly (ocean heat loss), while in the rest of the SWA they behave as expected (ocean heat gain). We argue that eddy-pumping do not cool enough the center of the cyclonic eddies in the BMC region simply because most of them trapped very warm waters when they originate in the subtropics. The article therefore concludes that in the SWA: (1) a robust link exists between the SST anomalies generated by eddies and the local anomalous heat flow between the ocean and the atmosphere; (2) in the BMC region cyclonic eddies are related with positive heat anomalies, contrary to what is expected.

  10. Trace elements and radioactivity in lunar rocks: implications for meteorite infall, solar-wind flux, and formation conditions of moon.

    PubMed

    Keays, R R; Ganapathy, R; Laul, J C; Anders, E; Herzog, G F; Jeffery, P M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar soil and type C breccias are enriched 3-to 100-fold in Ir, Au, Zn, Cd, Ag, Br, Bi, and Tl, relative to type A, B rocks. Smaller enrichments were found for Co, Cu, Ga, Pd, Rb, and Cs. The solar wind at present intensity can account for only 3 percent of this enrichment; an upper limit to the average proton flux during the last 4.5 x 109 years thus is 8 x 10(9) cm(-2) yr(-1). The remaining enrichment seems to be due to a 1.5 to 2 percent admixture of carbonaceous-chondritelike material, corresponding to an average influx rate of meteoritic and cometary matter of 2.9 x 10(-9) g cm(-2) yr(-1) at Tranquility Base. This is about one-quarter the terrestrial rate. Type A, B rocks are depleted 10-to 100-fold in Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, In, Tl, and Bi, relative to terrestrial basalts. This suggests loss by high-temperature volatilization, before or after accretion of the moon. Positron activities due mainly to (22)Na and (26)Al range from 90 to 220 beta(+) min(-1) kg(-1) in five small rocks or fragments (9 to 29 g). The higher activities presumably indicate surface locations. Th and U contents generally agree with those found by the preliminary examination team.

  11. Modeling the diversion of primary carbon flux into secondary metabolism under variable nitrate and light/dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Larbat, Romain; Robin, Christophe; Lillo, Cathrine; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter

    2016-08-07

    In plants, the partitioning of carbon resources between growth and defense is detrimental for their development. From a metabolic viewpoint, growth is mainly related to primary metabolism including protein, amino acid and lipid synthesis, whereas defense is based notably on the biosynthesis of a myriad of secondary metabolites. Environmental factors, such as nitrate fertilization, impact the partitioning of carbon resources between growth and defense. Indeed, experimental data showed that a shortage in the nitrate fertilization resulted in a reduction of the plant growth, whereas some secondary metabolites involved in plant defense, such as phenolic compounds, accumulated. Interestingly, sucrose, a key molecule involved in the transport and partitioning of carbon resources, appeared to be under homeostatic control. Based on the inflow/outflow properties of sucrose homeostatic regulation we propose a global model on how the diversion of the primary carbon flux into the secondary phenolic pathways occurs at low nitrate concentrations. The model can account for the accumulation of starch during the light phase and the sucrose remobilization by starch degradation during the night. Day-length sensing mechanisms for variable light-dark regimes are discussed, showing that growth is proportional to the length of the light phase. The model can describe the complete starch consumption during the night for plants adapted to a certain light/dark regime when grown on sufficient nitrate and can account for an increased accumulation of starch observed under nitrate limitation.

  12. Generalized binomial distribution in photon statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    The photon-number distribution between two parts of a given volume is found for an arbitrary photon statistics. This problem is related to the interaction of a light beam with a macroscopic device, for example a diaphragm, that separates the photon flux into two parts with known probabilities. To solve this problem, a Generalized Binomial Distribution (GBD) is derived that is applicable to an arbitrary photon statistics satisfying probability convolution equations. It is shown that if photons obey Poisson statistics then the GBD is reduced to the ordinary binomial distribution, whereas in the case of Bose- Einstein statistics the GBD is reduced to the Polya distribution. In this case, the photon spatial distribution depends on the phase-space volume occupied by the photons. This result involves a photon bunching effect, or collective behavior of photons that sharply differs from the behavior of classical particles. It is shown that the photon bunching effect looks similar to the quantum interference effect.

  13. Unconventional Photon Blockade Based on Two-Photon Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Shen, H. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The study on the unconventional photon blockade mainly focus on Kerr nonlinearity. In this paper, we study the unconventional photon blockade based on another kind of nonlinearity, that is two-photon tunneling. The optimal conditions for strong antibunching are found by analytic calculations and numerical simulations, and the results are compared with the unconventional photon blockade based on Kerr nonlinearity, we find that the two-photon tunneling system has advantages for the larger antibunching area. Finally, we show that, after the symmetric-antisymmetric mode transformation, the two kinds of nonlinearities are equivalent from the perspective of photon antibunching.

  14. Breakdown of Bragg-Gray behaviour for low-density detectors under electronic disequilibrium conditions in small megavoltage photon fields.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Fenwick, John D; Underwood, Tracy S A; Deshpande, Deepak D; Scott, Alison J D; Nahum, Alan E

    2015-10-21

    In small photon fields ionisation chambers can exhibit large deviations from Bragg-Gray behaviour; the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code system has been employed to investigate this 'Bragg-Gray breakdown'. The total electron (+positron) fluence in small water and air cavities in a water phantom has been computed for a full linac beam model as well as for a point source spectrum for 6 MV and 15 MV qualities for field sizes from 0.25  ×  0.25 cm(2) to 10  ×  10 cm(2). A water-to-air perturbation factor has been derived as the ratio of total electron (+positron) fluence, integrated over all energies, in a tiny water volume to that in a 'PinPoint 3D-chamber-like' air cavity; for the 0.25  ×  0.25 cm(2) field size the perturbation factors are 1.323 and 2.139 for 6 MV and 15 MV full linac geometries respectively. For the 15 MV full linac geometry for field sizes of 1  ×  1 cm(2) and smaller not only the absolute magnitude but also the 'shape' of the total electron fluence spectrum in the air cavity is significantly different to that in the water 'cavity'. The physics of this 'Bragg-Gray breakdown' is fully explained, making reference to the Fano theorem. For the 15 MV full linac geometry in the 0.25  ×  0.25 cm(2) field the directly computed MC dose ratio, water-to-air, differs by 5% from the product of the Spencer-Attix stopping-power ratio (SPR) and the perturbation factor; this 'difference' is explained by the difference in the shapes of the fluence spectra and is also formulated theoretically. We show that the dimensions of an air-cavity with a perturbation factor within 5% of unity would have to be impractically small in these highly non-equilibrium photon fields. In contrast the dose to water in a 0.25  ×  0.25 cm(2) field derived by multiplying the dose in the single-crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDDo) by the Spencer-Attix ratio is within 2.9% of the dose computed directly in the water voxel for full linac

  15. Observation-based parameterization of air-sea fluxes in terms of wind speed and atmospheric stability under low-to-moderate wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhongshui; Zhao, Dongliang; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Jun A.; Huang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    This study explores the behavior of the exchange coefficients for wind stress (CD), sensible heat flux (CH), and water vapor flux (CE) as functions of surface wind speed (U10) and atmospheric stability using direct turbulent flux measurements obtained from a platform equipped with fast-response turbulence sensors in a low-to-moderate wind region. Turbulent fluxes are calculated using the eddy-correlation method with extensive observations. The total numbers of quality-controlled 30 min flux runs are 12,240, 5813, and 5637 for estimation of CD, CH, and CE, respectively. When adjusted to neutral stability using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST), we found that CDN, CHN, and CEN decrease with neutral-adjusted wind speed when wind speed is less than 5 m/s. CDN is constant over the range 5 m/s < U10N < 12 m/s, then increases with U10N when U10N > 12 m/s. In contrast, CHN and CEN exhibit no clear dependence on wind speed and are generally constant, with mean values of 0.96 × 10-3 and 1.2 × 10-3, respectively. This behavior of neutral exchange coefficients is consistent with the findings of previous studies. We also found that CDN under offshore winds is generally greater than that under onshore wind conditions, which is ascribed to the younger wind waves present due to the shorter fetch in the former case. However, this behavior is not exhibited by CHN or CEN. The original CD, CH, and CE values without MOST adjustment are also investigated to develop a new parameterization based on wind speed and stability. Three stability parameters are tested, including the bulk Richardson number, stability as defined in COARE 3.0, and a simplified Richardson number using the Charnock parameter. This new parameterization is free of MOST and the associated self-correlation. Compared with previous studies and COARE 3.0 results, the new parameterization using the simplified Richardson number performs well, with an increased correlation coefficient and reduction of root

  16. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  17. Comparing the observed differences in snowmelt energy fluxes during rain-on-snow and clear sky conditions at numerous open and forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvelmann, J.; Pohl, S.; Weiler, M.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of snowcover processes and the associated energy balance factors are still not well understood, especially in forested environments. A high-density network consisting of novel, low cost, standalone snow monitoring stations (SnoMoS) was deployed to measure snow depth and the meteorological variables controlling the available energy fluxes at the snow surface in the Black Forest, a typical mid latitude medium elevation mountain range (500-1500m). The winter periods in this environment are characterized by multiple snow accumulation and melt periods including frequent rain-on-snow events. A stratified sampling design was set-up to cover most of the elevation range and exposures in the study area. Furthermore SnoMoS pairs (forest/open) were installed to investigate the influence of the forest cover on the snow accumulation and melt processes. The meteorological variables measured in hourly intervals allowed for a continuous direct estimation of the individual surface energy balance components for different topographic situations, different vegetation covers, and a variety of climatic conditions. The study shows the relative importance and quantifies the contributions of the individual snowmelt energy balance components along with their respective spatial variability during a rain-on-snow event in December 2012 compared to clear sky snowmelt in early spring 2013 based on the data of 65 SnoMoS. The derived snowmelt energy balance for the 65 open and forested locations in the study area show the importance of the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat accounting for, on average, 62% of the total melt energy available for snowmelt at open sites during a rain-on-snow event. At the forested sites, net longwave radiation (55%) and turbulent energy fluxes (32%) dominated snowmelt during this time. In contrast, during clear sky conditions net global radiation was dominating the energy balance at the open sites (92%) and forested sites

  18. Dissociative recombination and electron-impact de-excitation in CH photon emission under ITER divertor-relevant plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swaaij, G. A.; Bystrov, K.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; van der Vegt, L. B.; van Rooij, G. J.; De Temmerman, G.; Goedheer, W. J.

    2012-09-01

    For understanding carbon erosion and redeposition in nuclear fusion devices, it is important to understand the transport and chemical break-up of hydrocarbon molecules in edge plasmas, often diagnosed by emission of the CH A 2Δ-X 2Π Gerö band around 430 nm. The CH A-level can be excited either by electron-impact (EI) or by dissociative recombination (DR) of hydrocarbon ions. These processes were included in the 3D Monte Carlo impurity transport code ERO. A series of methane injection experiments was performed in the high-density, low-temperature linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI, and simulated emission intensity profiles were benchmarked against these experiments. It was confirmed that excitation by DR dominates at Te < 1.5 eV. The results indicate that the fraction of DR events that lead to a CH radical in the A-level and consequent photon emission is at least 10%. Additionally, quenching of the excited CH radicals by EI de-excitation was included in the modeling. This quenching is shown to be significant: depending on the electron density, it reduces the effective CH emission by a factor of 1.4 at ne = 1.3 × 1020 m-3, to 2.8 at ne = 9.3 × 1020 m-3. Its inclusion significantly improved agreement between experiment and modeling.

  19. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide on soil heat storage and heat flux under unheated low-tunnels conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Kayssi, A W; Mustafa, S H

    2016-11-01

    Suboptimal regimes of air and soil temperature usually occur under unheated low-tunnels during winter crop cycles. CO2 is one of the most important gases linked to climate change and posing challenge to the current agricultural productivity. Field experiment was conducted in unheated low-tunnels (10.0 m long, 1.5 m wide and 1.0 m high) during winter and spring periods to evaluate the increasing CO2 concentration (352, 709, 1063, 1407, and 1761 ppm) on net radiation budget, soil-air thermal regime and pepper plants growth development and yield. CO2 was injected into each hollow space of the tunnel double-layer transparent polyethylene covers. Recorded integral net longwave radiation increased from 524.81 to 1111.84 Wm(-2) on January when CO2 concentration increased from 352 to 1761 ppm. A similar trend was recorded on February. Moreover, minimum soil surface and air temperatures were markedly increased from -1.3 and -6.8 °C to 3.4 and 0.6 °C, when CO2 concentration increased from 352 to 1761 ppm. Additionally, soil heat flux as well as soil heat storage increased with increasing CO2 concentrations accordingly. Increasing the tunnel minimum air and soil temperatures with the CO2 concentration treatments 1063, 1407 and 1761 ppm reflected in a significant pepper yield (3.19, 5.06 and 6.13 kg m(-2)) due to the modification of the surrounding plants microenvironment and prevented pepper plants from freezing and the accelerated the plant growth. On the contrary, the drop of minimum air and soil temperatures to freezing levels with the CO2 concentration treatments 352 and 709 ppm resulted in the deterioration of pepper plants development during the early growth stages on January. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental study on the effect of temperature and flux conditions on moisture distribution in vadose zone soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinguo; Zheng, Hu

    2017-02-01

    Moisture distribution in vadose zone soil is the most important parameter for land productivity and vegetation status of ecological systems, and is sensitive to temperature variation. In this study, laboratory scale tests were conducted to determine the effect of temperature on variation in moisture distribution in covered and uncovered conditions. The results indicated that soil moisture from 2.65 to 20 cm was positively correlated with temperature and temperature gradient, and the top 2.65 to 5 cm was dramatically influenced by temperature changes in both covered and uncovered conditions. The moisture content when temperature was increasing was higher than that when temperature was decreasing for the same temperature, when the film covered the top of the soil column. In contrast, the moisture content when temperature was increasing was lower than when the temperature was decreasing for the uncovered soil column. The difference between treatments was not maintained as soil depth increased.

  1. A two-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from rice paddies under contrasting climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huifeng; Zhou, Sheng; Fu, Zishi; Chen, Guifa; Zou, Guoyan; Song, Xiangfu

    2016-06-01

    The effects of three irrigation levels (traditional normal amount of irrigation [NA100%], 70%, and 30% of the normal amount [NA70% and NA30%]) and two rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. Huayou14 and Hanyou8) on CH4 and N2O emissions were investigated over two years under contrasting climate conditions (a ‘warm and dry’ season in 2013 and a normal season in 2014). Hanyou8 was developed as a drought-resistant variety. The mean seasonal air temperature in 2013 was 2.3 °C higher than in 2014, while the amount of precipitation from transplanting to the grain-filling stage in 2013 was only 36% of that in 2014. CH4 emission rose by 93-161%, but rice grain yield fell by 7-13% in 2013, compared to 2014 under the NA100% conditions. Surface standing water depths (SSWD) were higher in Hanyou8 than in Huayou14 due to the lower water demand by Hanyou8. A reduction in the amount of irrigation water applied can effectively reduce the CH4 emissions regardless of the rice variety and climate condition. However, less irrigation during the ‘warm and dry’ season greatly decreased Huayou14 grain yield, but had little impact on Hanyou8. In contrast, N2O emission depended more on fertilization and SSWD than on rice variety.

  2. A two-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from rice paddies under contrasting climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huifeng; Zhou, Sheng; Fu, Zishi; Chen, Guifa; Zou, Guoyan; Song, Xiangfu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three irrigation levels (traditional normal amount of irrigation [NA100%], 70%, and 30% of the normal amount [NA70% and NA30%]) and two rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. Huayou14 and Hanyou8) on CH4 and N2O emissions were investigated over two years under contrasting climate conditions (a ‘warm and dry’ season in 2013 and a normal season in 2014). Hanyou8 was developed as a drought-resistant variety. The mean seasonal air temperature in 2013 was 2.3 °C higher than in 2014, while the amount of precipitation from transplanting to the grain-filling stage in 2013 was only 36% of that in 2014. CH4 emission rose by 93–161%, but rice grain yield fell by 7–13% in 2013, compared to 2014 under the NA100% conditions. Surface standing water depths (SSWD) were higher in Hanyou8 than in Huayou14 due to the lower water demand by Hanyou8. A reduction in the amount of irrigation water applied can effectively reduce the CH4 emissions regardless of the rice variety and climate condition. However, less irrigation during the ‘warm and dry’ season greatly decreased Huayou14 grain yield, but had little impact on Hanyou8. In contrast, N2O emission depended more on fertilization and SSWD than on rice variety. PMID:27321231

  3. Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, Immo; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Hansen, Sofie Lindskov; Midolo, Leonardo; Javadi, Alisa; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Pregnolato, Tommaso; El-Ella, Haitham; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Jin Dong; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Engineering photon emission and scattering is central to modern photonics applications ranging from light harvesting to quantum-information processing. To this end, nanophotonic waveguides are well suited as they confine photons to a one-dimensional geometry and thereby increase the light-matter interaction. In a regular waveguide, a quantum emitter interacts equally with photons in either of the two propagation directions. This symmetry is violated in nanophotonic structures in which non-transversal local electric-field components imply that photon emission and scattering may become directional. Here we show that the helicity of the optical transition of a quantum emitter determines the direction of single-photon emission in a specially engineered photonic-crystal waveguide. We observe single-photon emission into the waveguide with a directionality that exceeds 90% under conditions in which practically all the emitted photons are coupled to the waveguide. The chiral light-matter interaction enables deterministic and highly directional photon emission for experimentally achievable on-chip non-reciprocal photonic elements. These may serve as key building blocks for single-photon optical diodes, transistors and deterministic quantum gates. Furthermore, chiral photonic circuits allow the dissipative preparation of entangled states of multiple emitters for experimentally achievable parameters, may lead to novel topological photon states and could be applied for directional steering of light.

  4. Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Hansen, Sofie Lindskov; Midolo, Leonardo; Javadi, Alisa; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Pregnolato, Tommaso; El-Ella, Haitham; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Jin Dong; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Engineering photon emission and scattering is central to modern photonics applications ranging from light harvesting to quantum-information processing. To this end, nanophotonic waveguides are well suited as they confine photons to a one-dimensional geometry and thereby increase the light-matter interaction. In a regular waveguide, a quantum emitter interacts equally with photons in either of the two propagation directions. This symmetry is violated in nanophotonic structures in which non-transversal local electric-field components imply that photon emission and scattering may become directional. Here we show that the helicity of the optical transition of a quantum emitter determines the direction of single-photon emission in a specially engineered photonic-crystal waveguide. We observe single-photon emission into the waveguide with a directionality that exceeds 90% under conditions in which practically all the emitted photons are coupled to the waveguide. The chiral light-matter interaction enables deterministic and highly directional photon emission for experimentally achievable on-chip non-reciprocal photonic elements. These may serve as key building blocks for single-photon optical diodes, transistors and deterministic quantum gates. Furthermore, chiral photonic circuits allow the dissipative preparation of entangled states of multiple emitters for experimentally achievable parameters, may lead to novel topological photon states and could be applied for directional steering of light.

  5. The Upper Bound on Solar Power Conversion Efficiency Through Photonic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunlu; Munday, Jeremy

    The power conversion efficiency is a key parameter by which different photovoltaic devices are compared. The maximum value can be calculated under steady-state conditions where the photon flux absorbed by the device equals the outgoing flux of particles (also known as the principle of detailed balance). The photonic engineering of a solar cell offers a new alternative for boosting efficiency. We show that, for an ideally photonic engineered solar cell, its efficiency is subject to an upper bound dictated by a generalized form of detailed balance equation where nano-concentration is taken into account. Results under realistic operating conditions and recent experimental studies will also be discussed. Authors acknowledge the University of Maryland for startup funds to initiate this project and support by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1335857.

  6. Breakdown of Bragg-Gray behaviour for low-density detectors under electronic disequilibrium conditions in small megavoltage photon fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Fenwick, John D.; Underwood, Tracy S. A.; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.

    2015-10-01

    In small photon fields ionisation chambers can exhibit large deviations from Bragg-Gray behaviour; the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code system has been employed to investigate this ‘Bragg-Gray breakdown’. The total electron (+positron) fluence in small water and air cavities in a water phantom has been computed for a full linac beam model as well as for a point source spectrum for 6 MV and 15 MV qualities for field sizes from 0.25  ×  0.25 cm2 to 10  ×  10 cm2. A water-to-air perturbation factor has been derived as the ratio of total electron (+positron) fluence, integrated over all energies, in a tiny water volume to that in a ‘PinPoint 3D-chamber-like’ air cavity; for the 0.25  ×  0.25 cm2 field size the perturbation factors are 1.323 and 2.139 for 6 MV and 15 MV full linac geometries respectively. For the 15 MV full linac geometry for field sizes of 1  ×  1 cm2 and smaller not only the absolute magnitude but also the ‘shape’ of the total electron fluence spectrum in the air cavity is significantly different to that in the water ‘cavity’. The physics of this ‘Bragg-Gray breakdown’ is fully explained, making reference to the Fano theorem. For the 15 MV full linac geometry in the 0.25  ×  0.25 cm2 field the directly computed MC dose ratio, water-to-air, differs by 5% from the product of the Spencer-Attix stopping-power ratio (SPR) and the perturbation factor; this ‘difference’ is explained by the difference in the shapes of the fluence spectra and is also formulated theoretically. We show that the dimensions of an air-cavity with a perturbation factor within 5% of unity would have to be impractically small in these highly non-equilibrium photon fields. In contrast the dose to water in a 0.25  ×  0.25 cm2 field derived by multiplying the dose in the single-crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDDo) by the Spencer-Attix ratio is within 2.9% of the dose computed directly in the water voxel

  7. Tracers and constituents indicating the nature of organic fluxes, their origin and the effect of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadel, F.; Puigbó, A.; Alcan˜iz, J. M.; Charrière, B.; Serve, L.

    1990-09-01

    decreased from the prodelta due to a lower runoff. During the spate, suspended material was rapidly deposited and sediments were enriched in terrestrial phenols. In the open sea environment, in the Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon at 645 m, in summer, the euphotic zone was rich in amino-sugars and contained a large diversity of phenols deriving from fish fecal pellets. In winter/spring, the development of phytoplanktonic blooms in surficial layers led to high contents of nitrogenous compounds. In deeper layers, the nature of organic matter was different from surficial layers in summer and more homogeneous in winter, although a flux of degraded material rich in pyrolysis-derived aromatic hydrocarbons and poor in nitrogenous compounds progressively sank towards the bottom. The two marine prodeltas were compared: organic matter was more degraded in suspended material and sediments collected in the submarine delta of the Rhoˆne River. Organic material originating from the river was transported further offshore, as indicated by a higher content of aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols. In the southwestern part of the Gulf of Lions, the prodelta reflected the influence of local rivers, with lower discharges.

  8. Study on critical heat flux enhancement in flow boiling of SiC nano-fluids under low pressure and low flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Lee, D. W.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is the thermal limit of a phenomenon in which a phase change occurs during heating (such as bubbles forming on a metal surface used to heat water), which suddenly decreases the heat transfer efficiency, thus causing localized overheating of the heating surface. The enhancement of CHF can increase the safety margins and allow operation at higher heat fluxes; thus, it can increase the economy. A very interesting characteristics of nano-fluids is their ability to significantly enhance the CHF. nano-fluids are nano-technology-based colloidal dispersions engineered through stable suspending of nanoparticles. All experiments were performed in round tubes with an inner diameter of 0.01041 m and a length of 0.5 m under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions at a fixed inlet temperature using water, 0.01 vol. % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water and SiC/water nano-fluids. It was found that the CHF of the nano-fluids was enhanced and the CHF of the SiC/water nano-fluid was more enhanced than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nano-fluid. (authors)

  9. High-time resolution measurements of upstream magnetic field and plasma conditions during flux transfer events at the Earth's dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Jamey D.; Carrell, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a study of upstream magnetic field and plasma conditions measured by IRM during flux transfer events observed at the Earth's magnetopause by CCE. This study was designed to determine the importance of various upstream factors in the formation of bipolar magnetic field signatures called flux transfer events (FTEs). Six FTE encounters were examined. In three cases, the two satellites were on similar magnetic field lines. Preliminary investigation showed that fluctuations occurred in the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) resulting in a southward field preceding the FTE in all three of these cases. In two of these cases, the changes were characterized by a distinct rotation from a strong southward to a strong northward field. There were also accompanying changes in the dynamic and thermal pressure in the solar wind immediately before the FTE was encountered. Examination of the 3D plasma distributions showed that these pulses were due to the addition of energetic upstreaming foreshock particles. There were no consistent changes in either Bz or the plasma pressure at IRM for the three events when the satellites were not connected by the IMF.

  10. High-time resolution measurements of upstream magnetic field and plasma conditions during flux transfer events at the Earth's dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Jamey D.; Carrell, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a study of upstream magnetic field and plasma conditions measured by IRM during flux transfer events observed at the Earth's magnetopause by CCE. This study was designed to determine the importance of various upstream factors in the formation of bipolar magnetic field signatures called flux transfer events (FTEs). Six FTE encounters were examined. In three cases, the two satellites were on similar magnetic field lines. Preliminary investigation showed that fluctuations occurred in the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) resulting in a southward field preceding the FTE in all three of these cases. In two of these cases, the changes were characterized by a distinct rotation from a strong southward to a strong northward field. There were also accompanying changes in the dynamic and thermal pressure in the solar wind immediately before the FTE was encountered. Examination of the 3D plasma distributions showed that these pulses were due to the addition of energetic upstreaming foreshock particles. There were no consistent changes in either Bz or the plasma pressure at IRM for the three events when the satellites were not connected by the IMF.

  11. On variational data assimilation for estimating the model initial conditions and emission fluxes for short-term forecasting of SOx concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vira, J.; Sofiev, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study analyses the added value of data assimilation for short-term air quality forecasting by means of three modelling experiments with sulphur oxides. Two ways of utilising the observations are considered: determination of the optimal model initial state and adjustment of the emission fluxes of atmospheric pollutants. It is demonstrated that the influence of the initial conditions on the predicted SOx concentrations disappears within less than a day in European-scale applications. Adjusting the emission fluxes had a longer lasting impact on the model results, frequently covering the whole forecast window. The two-week long data assimilation exercise for Southern Europe showed that the largest improvement of the model score with regard to individual monitoring sites was obtained for the stations with the worst initial model-measurement agreement. With the emission adjustment, a major improvement was achieved for the stations near the Etna volcano, the strongest source in the area, where the SO 2 emission was reduced by almost 50% as a result of the data assimilation.

  12. DeWitt field study: Surface flux observations, in situ soundings and remote sensing of conditions affecting the behavior of the mixed layer over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, R. L.; Wesely, M. L.; Sisterson, D. L.; Martin, T. J.; Hart, R. L.; Cook, D. R.; Hess, P. E.; Eloranta, E. W.; Hicks, B. B.

    1986-03-01

    The DeWitt field study, conducted July 10 to 21, 1979, provides information on the structure of the lower 2 km of the atmosphere and the surface boundary conditions for flat farmland in central Illinois. Mean wind and temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere were measured by in-situ soundings both with high-resolution miniature radiosondes and an instrument package carried aloft by a kytoon. The height and depth of the entrainment zone at the top of the boundary layer, and some wind velocity component means and turbulence statistics were measured with lidar and solar remote sensing systems. Standard meteorological surface observations, measurements of solar and net radiation, and eddy fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapor, and ozone over a local maize canopy complete the body of data collected. This report summarizes methods of observation and data reduction and presents the processed data in tabular and graphic forms in a series of appendices. These results can be used to test models of planetary boundary layer behavior, including the influences of surface fluxes and entrainment aloft on the variation of mixed layer heights and mixing processes in the boundary layer.

  13. Mixing interfaces, fluxes, residence times and redox conditions of the hyporheic zones induced by dune-like bedforms and ambient groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzadri, Alessandra; Tonina, Daniele; Bellin, Alberto; Valli, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies highlighted the importance of the interface between streams and their surrounding sediment, known as the hyporheic zone, where stream waters flow through the alluvium. These pore water fluxes stem from the interaction among streambed morphology, stream hydraulics and surrounding groundwater flow. We analytically model the hyporheic hydraulics induced by a spatially uniform ambient groundwater flow made of a horizontal, underflow, and a vertical, basal, component, which mimics gaining and losing stream conditions. The proposed analytical solution allows to investigate the control of simple hydromorphological quantities on the extent, residence time and redox conditions of the hyporheic zone, and the thickness of the mixing interface between hyporheic and groundwater cells. Our analysis shows that the location of the mixing zone shallows or deepens in the sediment as a function of bedform geometry, surface hydraulic and groundwater flow. The point of stagnation, where hyporheic flow velocities vanish and where the separation surface passes through, is shallower than or coincides with the deepest point of the hyporheic zone only due to underflow. An increase of the ambient flow causes a reduction of the hyporheic zone volume similarly in both losing and gaining conditions. The hyporheic residence time is lognormally distributed under neutral, losing and gaining conditions, with the residence time moments depending on the same set of parameters describing dune morphology and stream flow.

  14. Photon-Limited Information in High Resolution Laser Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    the normalized power measured in the target bin for nominal signal flux of 1 , 5, and 30 photons respectively. The measured photoelectron flux is... August 2013. Area 1 ) Sensitivity and photon information in coherent FMCW ladar FMCW ladar covers many forms of laser ranging which utilize...histograms of the normalized power measured in the target bin for nominal signal flux of 1 , 5, and 30 photons respectively. The measured photoelectron

  15. Linking carbon isotope signatures of nighttime leaf-respiratory and daytime assimilatory CO2 fluxes observed with laser spectrometry under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Sturm, Patrick; Siegwolf, Rolf; Werner, Roland A.; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) of atmospheric CO2 is a valuable tool for constraining the impact of the terrestrial biosphere on atmospheric CO2 dynamics. Alterations of the 13C signal of terrestrial net CO2 fluxes are generally attributed to variations in photosynthetic 13C discrimination. Yet, over the past decade, evidence has emerged that plant metabolism and respiration modify the initial δ13C signature of recent photosynthetic assimilates. Such postphotosynthetic δ13C modifications were reported for all plant organs, but leaf respiratory metabolism may play a central role as it impacts carbon turnover in other plant tissues. Leaf-respired CO2 is frequently 13C enriched with respect to leaf organic matter. Mechanisms potentially explaining this enrichment include the differential use of carbon sources, metabolite fragmentation or the expression of kinetic isotope effects of respiratory enzymes. For global and ecosystem-scale applications of δ13C, it is now important to study, under field conditions, the variability of δ13C in leaf-respired CO2 (δ13CRES) and the deviation of the latter from δ13C of recent assimilates (δ13CAS). Here, we present 74 days of hourly δ13C measurements for daytime assimilatory and nighttime respiratory CO2 fluxes on leafy branches of three mature Fagus sylvatica trees in a temperate forest. Measurements were conducted with a laser spectrometer (QCLAS-ISO, Aerodyne Research Inc.) measuring CO2 isotopologue mixing ratios in ambient and sampling air from photosynthetic gas exchange chambers. We used daytime measurements of photosynthetic 13C discrimination for diurnally flux-weighted estimates of δ13CAS, and found that flux-weighted δ13CRES roughly tracked previous-day shifts in δ13CAS. Deviations between flux-weighted δ13CAS and δ13CRES were further robustly predicted by previous-day assimilation, with δ13CRES displaying 13C enrichment on low and 13C depletion on high assimilation days. On the hourly timescale, δ13CRES either

  16. Effect of CO sub 2 enrichment and high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) on rubisco and PEP-case activities of in vitro cultured strawberry plants

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Y.; Beeson, R.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Standard growing conditions in vitro (low light and CO{sub 2}) are not conducive to autotrophy. An experiment was conducted to improve photosynthesis in vitro in the hope of increasing survival in acclimatization. A factorial experiment was elaborated where CO{sub 2} and PPFD were supplied to in vitro cultured strawberry plants in the rooting stage. Activities of carboxylating enzymes were determined after 4 weeks of culture. The activities of non-activated and activated rubisco and PEP-Case were measured after extraction of the enzymes and a reaction with NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} followed by scintillation counting spectroscopy. High CO{sub 2} concentration significantly increased net assimilation rates (NAR) by 165% over the control for both 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. High PPFD only increased NAR by 12 and 35% for 150 and 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} respectively over the control. Plants grown at 3000 ppm CO{sub 2} had the highest level of chlorophyll/g FW with 97% more than the control. The activity of PEP-Case was the highest at high light levels and high CO{sub 2} with rates of 1.65 for 1650 ppm versus 1.22 mmol CO{sub 2} mg{sup {minus}1} chl. h{sup {minus}1} at 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}. There was no difference in PEP activity at low light levels. The rubisco activity was lower at 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. Increases in NAR correlate more closely to the PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity. Physiological significance of high activity of PEP-Case over rubisco will be discussed.

  17. Simulating Everglades Carbon Fluxes and GHG Emission of Different Landscapes Under Present and Future Climate Conditions by Applying Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y.; Gerber, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon flux in wetland distinguishes from that in other types of ecosystems due to special soil and hydrological processes. Understanding the dynamic of soil hydrology is necessary to explore the responses of the plants, the fate of massive carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions under different climate conditions. However, contrary findings were published regarding the relationship between CO2 emission and water level variations. Both positive and negative conclusions were reached regarding the warming mitigation ability of wetland. By parameterizing the Community Land Model (CLM), our research focuses on simulating the CO2/CH4 fluxes of different landscapes in Everglades, a subtropical wetland in Florida, to explore the following questions: 1) Is it a sink or source for CO2? 2) How may the CO2/CH4 dynamics be altered with water table and soil water content? 3) What environmental factors mainly control CO2/CH4 process? 4) Does this ecosystem contribute or mitigate cliamte warming? 5) What is the difference between landscapes regarding the CO2/CH4 dynamic? We performed several simulations with CLM that address the variation of water table in soil layers and the elevated temperature to compare the impact on the carbon fluxes and GHG emission in the study area. Our results suggest the variation on water table depth has significant influence on the carbon cycle in Everglades. Deeper water table results in a higher CO2 but lower CH4 emission, partly due to the CH4 oxidization and the rapid decomposition of organic carbon. In the wet season, more CH4 is produced when the water table is shallower. Slightly elevated temperature causes a water loss through evapotranspiration which deepens the water table. However, the induced carbon loss is partly offset by the enhanced productivity of vegetation. Both long and short hydroperiod marshes are small carbon sinks in most of years but cannot mitigate the climate warming if considering CH4 emissions. Cypress swamp shows high

  18. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  19. Modeling aerosol effects on shallow cumulus convection under various meteorological conditions observed over the Indian Ocean and implications for development of mass-flux parameterizations for climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailong; McFarquhar, Greg M.

    2008-10-01

    To determine conditions over the Indian Ocean, under which cloud fields are most susceptible to modification from aerosols, and to study how turbulent activities and shallow cumuli vary for different meteorological scenarios, a three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model was initialized using data collected during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). Radiosonde data were used to construct six soundings encompassing the range of temperature and humidity observed. A total of 18 meteorological scenarios were then obtained by adding either an average transition layer (TL), a strong inversion layer (IL), or no stable layer to each sounding. Separate simulations were conducted for each scenario assuming pristine or polluted conditions as observed during INDOEX. For aerosol profiles measured during INDOEX, aerosol semidirect effects always dominated indirect effects, with the positive daytime net indirect forcing (semidirect plus indirect forcings) varying between 0.2 and 4.5 W m-2. Anthropogenic aerosols had a larger net indirect forcing when the environmental relative humidity (RH) was higher and in the absence of the IL and TL. Changes in meteorological factors had larger impacts on the cloud properties than did anthropogenic aerosols, indicating large uncertainties can be introduced when solely using observations to quantify aerosol effects without examining their meteorological context. Because mean lateral detrainment and entrainment rates depended on RH, aerosols, and the presence of stable layers, mass-flux parameterizations in climate models should not use single values for such rates that may not represent the range of conditions observed where trade cumuli form.

  20. The intraspecific variability of short- and long-term carbon allocation, turnover and fluxes under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Frederik; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Werner, Christiane

    2014-05-01

    Carbon allocation strategies differ clearly between functional plant groups (e.g. grasses, shrubs and trees) and to a lesser extent between different species of the same functional group. However, little is known about the plasticity of carbon allocation within the same species. To investigate the variability of carbon (C) allocation, we induced different allocation pattern in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium by changing growing conditions (light and nutrition) and followed the plant development for 15 months. We analyzed morphological and physiological traits, and changes in C allocation and δ13C values in seven tissue classes: 1st generation leaves, 2nd generation leaves, emerging leaves, lateral shoots, stem, main roots and fine roots. We used a soil/canopy chamber system that enables independent measurements of above and belowground δ13CO2-exchange, enabling total estimates of carbon gain during photosynthesis and the carbon loss during respiration on a whole plant level. Moreover, we followed the fate of recently assimilated carbon in all plant tissues by 13CO2 pulse labeling for 13 days. A reduction of light (Low L treatment) increased allocation to stems by 84% and the specific leaf area (SLA) by 29%, compared to control. Reduced nutrient availability (Low N treatment) enhanced carbon allocation into fine roots by 57%. We found high intraspecific variability in turnover times of C pools. The Low N treatment enhanced transport of recently assimilated C from leaves to roots in quantity (22% compared to 7% in control plants) and velocity (13C peak in main roots after 5h compared to 18h in control). The treatments differed also in fractions of 13C recovered within leaves: 48%, 28% and 41% of 13C from labeling were found after 13 days in leaves of control, Low N, and Low L, respectively. Through the combination of natural carbon isotope analysis, 13CO2 labeling and whole-plant chamber measurements we obtained information about long and short-term C

  1. Effects of enhanced soil P on photosynthesis, root respiration and nutrient uptake of Artemisia tridentata in different photosynthetic photon flux densities and CO[sub 2] conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, M.; Caldwell, M.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Responses of leaf photosynthesis, root respiration and P uptake by Artemisia tridentata seedlings to study root physiological adjustments to utilize available nutrient resources in a changing soil environment. Root respiration was measured for intact root systems in split-root chambers. Increasing P in 0.2 [times] Hoagland's solution from 0.04 mmol to 2.0 mmol increased leaf photosynthesis by 6% in 3 days, increased nighttime leaf respiration rate by 8% and root respiration by 18%. After PPFD was reduced from 800 to 200 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] leaf photosynthesis deceased by 67%, and root respiration by 26% in the following day but then decreased by 35% over the next three days. Shading may limit root growth and nutrient uptake by lowering the carbohydrate supply to root systems.

  2. Air-Sea CO2 fluxes and NEP changes in a Baja California Coastal Lagoon during the anomalous North Pacific warm condition in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila López, M. D. C.; Martin Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Camacho-Ibar, V.; Sandoval Gil, J.; Mejía-Trejo, A.; Félix-Bermudez, A.; Pacheco-Ruiz, I.

    2015-12-01

    The present study examines the temporal variability of seawater carbonate chemistry and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in a Baja California Mediterranean-climate coastal lagoon. This study was carried out from Nov-2013 to Nov-2014, a period in which anomalous warm conditions were present in the North Pacific Ocean influenced the local oceanography in the adjacent coastal waters off Baja California. These ocean conditions resulted on a negative anomaly of upwelling index, which led to summer-like season (weak upwelling condition) that could be observed in the response of carbon dynamics and metabolic status in San Quintín Bay. Minor changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration during spring months (~100 µmol kg-1) where observed and were associated to biological processes within the lagoon. High DIC (~2200 µmol kg-1), pCO2 (~800 μatm), and minimum pH (~7.8) values were observed in summer, reflecting the predominance of respiration processes apparently mostly linked to the remineralization of sedimentary organic matter supplied from macroalgal blooms. San Quintín Bay acted as a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the study period, with maximum value observed in July (~10 mmol C m-2 d-1). Temporal biomass production of macroalgae contributed to about 50% of total FCO2 estimated in spring-summer seasons, that was a potencial internal source of organic matter to fuel respiration processes in San Quintín Bay. Eelgrass metabolism contributes in a lower degree in total FCO2. During the anomalous ocean conditions in 2014, the lagoon switched seasonally between net heterotrophy and net autotrophy during the study period, where photosynthesis and respiration processes in the lagoon were closer to a balance. Whole-system metabolism and FCO2 clearly indicated the strong dependence of San Quintín Bay on upwelling conditions and benthic metabolism activity, which was mainly controlled by dominant primary producer communities.

  3. THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang; Roy, Ishani; Fang Lizhi

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

  4. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the United States Under Present Conditions and Future Scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert G.; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Section 712, authorizes the U.S. Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of the Nation's ecosystems focusing on carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and emissions of three greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The major requirements include (1) an assessment of all ecosystems (terrestrial systems, such as forests, croplands, wetlands, shrub and grasslands; and aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers, lakes, and estuaries), (2) an estimation of annual potential capacities of ecosystems to increase carbon sequestration and reduce net GHG emissions in the context of mitigation strategies (including management and restoration activities), and (3) an evaluation of the effects of controlling processes, such as climate change, land use and land cover, and wildlfires. The purpose of this draft methodology for public review is to propose a technical plan to conduct the assessment. Within the methodology, the concepts of ecosystems, carbon pools, and GHG fluxes used for the assessment follow conventional definitions in use by major national and international assessment or inventory efforts. In order to estimate current ecosystem carbon stocks and GHG fluxes and to understand the potential capacity and effects of mitigation strategies, the method will use two time periods for the assessment: 2001 through 2010, which establishes a current ecosystem GHG baseline and will be used to validate the models; and 2011 through 2050, which will be used to assess future potential conditions based on a set of projected scenarios. The scenario framework is constructed using storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), along with initial reference land-use and land-cover (LULC) and land-management scenarios. An additional three LULC and land-management mitigation scenarios will be constructed for each

  5. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  6. Macrolide Antibiotics Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect under Amino Acid-Depleted Culture Condition by Blocking Autophagy Flux in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Kazuhiro; Moriya, Shota; Miyahara, Kana; Kazama, Hiromi; Hirota, Ayako; Takemura, Jun; Abe, Akihisa; Inazu, Masato; Hiramoto, Masaki; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, a self-digestive system for cytoplasmic components, is required to maintain the amino acid pool for cellular homeostasis. We previously reported that the macrolide antibiotics azithromycin (AZM) and clarithromycin (CAM) have an inhibitory effect on autophagy flux, and they potently enhance the cytocidal effect of various anticancer reagents in vitro. This suggests that macrolide antibiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer chemotherapy. Since cancer cells require a larger metabolic demand than normal cells because of their exuberant growth, upregulated autophagy in tumor cells has now become the target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we examined whether macrolides exhibit cytotoxic effect under an amino acid-starving condition in head and neck squamous cancer cell lines such as CAL 27 and Detroit 562 as models of solid tumors with an upregulated autophagy in the central region owing to hypovascularity. AZM and CAM induced cell death under the amino acid-depleted (AAD) culture condition in these cell lines along with CHOP upregulation, although they showed no cytotoxicity under the complete culture medium. CHOP knockdown by siRNA in the CAL 27 cells significantly suppressed macrolide-induced cell death under the AAD culture condition. CHOP-/- murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines also attenuated AZM-induced cell death compared with CHOP+/+ MEF cell lines. Using a tet-off atg5 MEF cell line, knockout of atg5, an essential gene for autophagy, also induced cell death and CHOP in the AAD culture medium but not in the complete culture medium. This suggest that macrolide-induced cell death via CHOP induction is dependent on autophagy inhibition. The cytotoxicity of macrolide with CHOP induction was completely cancelled by the addition of amino acids in the culture medium, indicating that the cytotoxicity is due to the insufficient amino acid pool. These data suggest the possibility of using macrolides for “tumor-starving therapy”. PMID

  7. Photonic Hypercrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a new "universality class" of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  8. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  9. Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2015-08-17

    We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates.

  10. Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates.

  11. 3.55 keV photon lines from axion to photon conversion in the Milky Way and M31

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Day, Francesca V. E-mail: francesca.day@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We further explore a scenario in which the recently observed 3.55 keV photon line arises from dark matter decay to an axion-like particle (ALP) of energy 3.55 keV, which then converts to a photon in astrophysical magnetic fields. This ALP scenario is well-motivated by the observed morphology of the 3.55 keV flux. For this scenario we study the expected flux from dark matter decay in the galactic halos of both the Milky Way and Andromeda (M31). The Milky Way magnetic field is asymmetric about the galactic centre, and so the resulting 3.55 keV flux morphology differs significantly from the case of direct dark matter decay to photons. However the Milky Way magnetic field is not large enough to generate an observable signal, even with ASTRO-H. In contrast, M31 has optimal conditions for a → γ conversion and the intrinsic signal from M31 becomes two orders of magnitude larger than for the Milky Way, comparable to that from clusters and consistent with observations.

  12. Quantum optics: Photons taught new tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Ady

    2016-10-01

    Experiments of the Aharonov-Bohm type typically involve particles that are charged and interact with a magnetic flux. Photons aren't the former and don't do the latter. Yet, an Aharonov-Bohm ring for photons has just been realized experimentally.

  13. Topological photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. C.

    2008-03-01

    We associate intrinsic energy equal to hν /2 with the spin angular momentum of photon, and propose a topological model based on orbifold in space and tifold in time as topological obstructions. The model is substantiated using vector wavefield disclinations. The physical photon is suggested to be a particlelike topological photon and a propagating wave such that the energy hν of photon is equally divided between spin energy and translational energy, corresponding to linear momentum of hν /c. The enigma of wave-particle duality finds natural resolution, and the proposed model gives new insights into the phenomena of interference and emission of radiation.

  14. Direct Photons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor,D.

    2008-07-29

    Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

  15. Improving the Simulation of Sea Ice Lead Conditions and Turbulent Fluxes Using RGPS Products and Merged RADARSAT, AVHRR and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of sea ice leads in the ice-ocean-atmosphere system lies in the fact that each of the boxes in the 'surface processes' interface in this diagram is closely linked to lead conditions. For example, heat, moisture and salt exchange between the Ocean and atmosphere within the ice pack occur nearly entirely through leads. The shear, divergence and convergence associated with lead formation and closure alter surface and basal roughness and topography, which in turn affects momentum transfer in the atmosphere and ocean boundary layers, and modifies the accumulation of snow on the ice surface, which then affects heat conduction and summertime albedo. In addition to providing openings for loss of heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere, leads absorb solar energy, which is used to melt ice and is transmitting to the underlying ocean. Given that leads dominate the ice-ocean interface in this manner, then it stands to reason that focusing on lead treatments within models can identify performance limitations of models and yield routes for significant improvements.

  16. Three-photon frequency down-conversion as an event-ready source of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, Alejandro A.

    2005-03-01

    An event-ready (or deterministic) source of entangled states is of interest in the practical implementation of schemes of quantum computation and cryptography as well as in the experiments aimed to elucidate the foundations of quantum mechanics. I study the phase matching geometry and detection conditions for the process of three-photon frequency down-conversion, which is a possible source of that kind. It is apparently free of some limitations of the schemes based on two-photon frequency down-conversion. The goal of the proposed setup is not the generation of an entangled state of three photons (in a GHZ-state sense), but of an entangled state of two photons with a 'trigger' signal. As an example, I estimate the values of the trios' flux and trigger's reliability for the particular case of crystal calcite illuminated by the fourth harmonic of a Nd:YAG mode-locked laser.

  17. A Kinetic Signature for Parallel Pathways: Conformational Selection and Induced Fit. Links and Disconnects between Observed Relaxation Rates and Fractional Equilibrium Flux under Pseudo-First-Order Conditions.

    PubMed

    Galburt, Eric A; Rammohan, Jayan

    2016-12-20

    Molecular association plays a ubiquitous role in biochemistry and is often accompanied by conformational exchange in one or both binding partners. Traditionally, two limiting mechanisms are considered for the association of two molecules. In a conformational selection (CS) mechanism, a ligand preferentially binds to a subset of conformations in its binding partner. In contrast, an induced fit (IF) mechanism describes the ligand-dependent isomerization of the binding partner in which binding occurs prior to conformational exchange. Measurements of the ligand concentration dependence of observed rates of relaxation are commonly used to probe whether CS or IF is taking place. Here we consider a four-state thermodynamic cycle subject to detailed balance and demonstrate the existence of a relatively unexplored class of kinetic signatures where an initial decrease in the observed rate is followed by a subsequent increase under pseudo-first-order conditions. We elucidate regions of rate space necessary to generate a nonmonotonic observed rate and show that, under certain conditions, the position of the minimum of the observed rate correlates with a transition in equilibrium flux between CS and IF pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrate that monotonic trends in the observed rate can occur when both CS and IF mechanisms are taking place, suggesting that caution must be taken not to overinterpret monotonic trends as evidence of the absence of either CS or IF. Lastly, we conclude that a nonmonotonic kinetic signature is uniquely unambiguous in the sense that when this trend is observed, one may conclude that both CS and IF mechanistic paths are utilized.

  18. Comparison of predilution hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis at temperature-controlled conditions using high calcium-ion concentration in the replacement and dialysis fluid.

    PubMed

    Karamperis, N; Jensen, D; Sloth, E; Jensen, J D

    2007-04-01

    It is the prevailing view that convective dialysis techniques stabilize blood pressure. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamics of high-dose predilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) and low-flux hemodialysis (HD), under matched conditions and using high calcium-ion concentration in the replacement/dialysis fluid. 13 stable hemodialysis patients were investigated in a randomized crossover, blinded controlled trial. The patients were allocated to one session of predilution HDF (substitution fluid 1.20 1/kg BW) and one session of HD at 4.5 hours. At the start of the dialysis the patient's core temperature was "locked" by an automatic feedback system regulating the dialysate temperature, thereby patient's temperature was kept stable throughout the whole treatment. The Ca ion concentration in the substitution/dialysis fluid was 1.75 mM. Cardiac output was measured hourly by the ultrasound velocity dilution method. Within treatments comparisons revealed that both treatments displayed stable mean blood pressure and equally reduced cardiac output. HDF showed decreased stroke volume and increased total peripheral resistance. The pulse rate decreased significantly only during HD. Arterial temperature was kept constant during both treatments. Ultrafiltration volume, cardiopulmonary recirculation, relative blood volume, Kt/V and total energy transfer were matched for HD and HDF. The overall between treatments comparisons revealed no significant differences. We have shown that during matched conditions and high calcium concentrations, the hemodynamic profiles of high dose predilution HDF and lowflux HD were similar. Both modalities showed stable mean blood pressure profiles. An acute circulatory benefit of convective solute removal over diffusive, could not be demonstrated.

  19. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    from T6, but our work extends these twists to a subset of the blow-up modes. In the last part, we discuss the connection of flux vacua to the phenomenology of particle physics. In particular, we study the compatibility conditions between particle physics phenomenology and flux background, and the embedding of the stringy particle physics models into some flux vacua on type IIB T6/( Z2 x Z2 ) orientifolds. The associated phenomenology of these models with fluxes turned on are also discussed. We end up this discussion with some comments on model building in type IIA flux vacua.

  20. The optimal conditions for the correlation of object pulse temporary form with the stimulated photon echo response in the presence of external spatial inhomogeneous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnaeva, G. I.; Nefediev, L. A.; Hakimzyanova, E. I.; Nefedieva, K. L.

    2014-08-01

    The influence of external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields on the reproducibility of the information and effectiveness of stimulated photon echo responses locking at different encoding information in the object laser pulses are investigated.

  1. A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-01-01

    solicited to construct these scenarios.The methods for mapping the current LULC and ecosystem disturbances will require the extensive use of both remote-sensing data and field-survey data (for example, forest inventories) to capture and characterize landscape-changing events. For potential LULC changes and ecosystem disturbances, key drivers such as socioeconomic and climate changes will be used in addition to the biophysical data. The result of these analyses will be a series of maps for each future year for each scenario. These annual maps will form the basis for estimating carbon storage and GHG emissions. For terrestrial ecosystems, carbon storage, carbon-sequestration capacities, and GHG emissions under the present conditions and future scenarios will be assessed using the LULC-change and ecosystem-disturbance estimates in map format with a spatially explicit biogeochemical ensemble modeling system that incorporates properties of management activities (such as tillage or harvesting) and properties of individual ecosystems (such as energy exchange, vegetation characteristics, hydrological cycling, and soil attributes). For aquatic ecosystems, carbon burial in sediments and fluxes of GHG are functions of the present and future potential stream flow and sediment transport and will be assessed using empirical hydrological modeling methods. Validation and uncertainty analysis methods described in the methodology will follow established guidelines to assess the quality of the assessment results.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Level II ecoregions map will be the practical instrument for developing and delivering assessment results. Consequently, the ecoregion (there are 22 modified ecoregions) will be the reporting unit of the assessment because the scenarios, assessment results, validation, and uncertainty analysis will be produced at that scale. The implementation of these methods will require collaborations among various Federal agencies, State agencies

  2. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  3. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  4. Calculation of neutron and gamma fluxes in support to the interpretation of measuring devices irradiated in the core periphery of the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Malouch, Fadhel

    2015-07-01

    Technological irradiations carried out in material testing reactors (MTRs) are used to study the behavior of materials under irradiation conditions required by different types of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For MTRs, specific instrumentation is required for the experiment monitoring and for the characterization of irradiation conditions, in particular the flux of neutrons and photons. To measure neutron and photon flux in experimental locations, different sensors can be used, such as SPNDs (self-powered neutron detectors), SPGDs (self-powered gamma detectors) and ionization chambers. These sensors involve interactions producing ultimately a measurable electric current. Various sensors have been recently tested in the core periphery of the OSIRIS reactor (located at the CEA-Saclay center) in order to qualify their responses to the neutron and the photon flux. One of the key input data for this qualification is to have a relevant evaluation of neutron and gamma fluxes at the irradiation location. The objective of this work is to evaluate the neutron and the gamma flux in the core periphery of the OSIRIS reactor. With this intention, specific neutron-photonic three-dimensional calculations have been performed and are mainly based on the TRIPOLI-4{sup R} three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, developed by CEA (Saclay Center) and extensively validated against reactor dosimetry benchmarks. In the case of the OSIRIS reactor, TRIPOLI-4{sup R} code has been validated against experimental results based on neutron flux and nuclear heating measurements performed in ex-core and in-core experiments. In this work, simultaneous contribution of neutrons and gamma photons in the core periphery is considered using neutron-photon coupled transport calculations. Contributions of prompt and decay photons have been taken into account for the gamma flux calculation. Specific depletion codes are used upstream to provide the decay-gamma sources required by TRIPOLI-4

  5. The Sand Seas of northern China: Important sinks and sources of global sediment fluxes and their changing roles during different climate conditions of Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Although the occurrence of aeolian sands in sedimentary sequences has been widely used as indicators of desert formation or proxies of desert climate, one should be aware that accumulation of aeolian sands does occur along river channels, in lake shores not necessarily associated with arid environment. Our ongoing geomorphological and paleoenvironmental studies in the deserts of northern China reconfirm that formation of sand seas is dependent on not only erodibility (arising from bare surface due to aridity) and wind power but more importantly sand availability related to sediment cycles under interactions between fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian processes. Here we present our ongoing geomorphological and paleoclimatic research on the Late Quaternary landscape and climatic changes in the Taklamkan Desert of northwestern China, the largest sand sea of China in arid zone, and in the Hunshandake Sandy Land at the east part of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt under semiarid climate. We find out that the occurrence of tall sand dunes in the over 300,000 km2 large Taklamakan Sand Sea is closely related to the sites of intensive fluvial sedimentation and convergence zone of surface winds. In the case of Hunshandake, the dunes (although much smaller) mainly occur along the shorelines of the former lake basins, and sediment sources are generally limited because of open hydrological systems in the south and east portions of this desert. The sedimentological and geomorphological records suggest that the climate has changed between arid and less-arid conditions in both of these deserts during Late Quaternary. Under wetter conditions the Taklamakan acts as an important sink of sediments brought by rivers with headwaters in the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan, while under more arid conditions it acts as an important global sediment source whose dust is transported not only to East Asia and Pacific but also to Greenland ice via westerlies. The Hunshandake has the same pattern of

  6. The Role of Dynamic Storage in the Response to Snowmelt Conditions in the Southwestern United States: Flux Hysteresis at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Meixner, T.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Williams, M. W.; Sickman, J. O.; Molotch, N. P.; Jepsen, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The role of dynamic storage in catchment discharge response to earlier snowmelt timing has not been fully quantified. Green Lake 4 (GL4) and Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) have similar high-elevation settings but GL4 has greater estimated storage capacity relative to ELW due to differences in physical structure. Daily catchment area-normalized input (modelled snowmelt estimates) and output (measured discharge) in conjunction with mineral weathering products (hydrochemical data) for eleven snowmelt seasons from GL4 (more storage) and ELW (less storage) were used to determine the role of dynamic storage at the catchment scale. Daily fluxes generally show snowmelt is greater than discharge initially, changing mid-season to discharge being greater than snowmelt, creating a counter-clockwise hysteresis loop for each snowmelt season. This hysteresis loop can be approximated with a least-squares fitted ellipse. The properties of fitted ellipses were used to quantify catchment response, which were then compared between catchments with different storage capacities (GL4 and ELW). The eccentricity of the fitted ellipses can be used to quantify delay between snowmelt and discharge due to connection to subsurface storage; narrower loops show minimal storage delay whereas wider loops show greater storage delay. Variability of mineral weathering products shows changes in contribution from stored water over the snowmelt season. Both catchments show a moderate linear correlation between fitted ellipse area and total snowmelt volume (GL4 R2=0.516, ELW R2=0.614). Ellipse eccentricity is more consistent among years in ELW (range=0.81-0.94) than in GL4 (range=0.54-0.95), indicating a more consistent hydrologic structure and connectivity to shallow storage at ELW. The linear correlation between seasonal eccentricity versus snowmelt timing is stronger in ELW than GL4 (R2=0.741 and 0.223, respectively). ELW shows hydrochemical response independent of snowmelt timing, whereas GL4 shows more

  7. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  8. Virtual and real photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew, Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Maxwell did not believe in photons. However, his equations lead to electro-magnetic field structures that are considered to be photonic by Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED). They are complete, relativistically correct, and unchallenged after nearly 150 years. However, even though his far-field solution has been considered as the basis for photons, as they stand and are interpreted, they are better fitted to the concept of virtual rather than to real photons. Comparison between staticcharge fields, near-field coupling, and photonic radiation will be made and the distinctions identified. The question of similarities in, and differences between, the two will be addressed. Implied assumptions in Feynman's "Lectures" could lead one to believe that he had provided a general classical electrodynamics proof that an orbital electron must radiate. While his derivation is correct, two of the conditions defined do not always apply in this case. As a result, the potential for misinterpretation of his proof (as he himself did earlier) for this particular case has some interesting implications. He did not make the distinction between radiation from a bound electron driven by an external alternating field and one falling in a nuclear potential. Similar failures lead to misinterpreting the differences between virtual and real photons.

  9. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  10. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  11. A quantitative determination of air-water heat fluxes in Hermit Lake, New Hampshire under varying meteorological conditions, time of day, and time of year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyper, Nicholas D.

    An extensive heat flux study is performed at Hermit Lake, New Hampshire from May 26, 2010 till November 7, 2010 to determine the effects of the five individual heat fluxes on Hermit Lake and the surrounding amphibian community. Hermit Lake was chosen due to the relatively long meteorological observations record within the White Mountains of New Hampshire, a new lakeside meteorological station, and ongoing phenology studies of the surrounding eco-system. Utilizing meteorological data from the lakeside weather station and moored water temperature sensors, the incident (Qi), blackbody ( Qbnet ), latent (Qe), sensible (Q s), and net (Qn) heat fluxes are calculated. The incident heat flux is the dominate term in the net flux, accounting for 93% of the variance found in Qn and producing a heat gain of ˜ 19x108 J m-2 throughout the period of study. This large gain produces a net gain of heat in the lake until October 1, 2010, where gains by Qi are offset by the large combined losses of Qbnet , Qs, and Qe thereby producing a gradual decline of heat within the lake. The latent and blackbody heat fluxes produce the largest losses of heat in the net heat flux with a total losses of ˜ -8x108 J m-2 and ˜ -7x108 J m-2, respectively. The sensible heat flux is negligible, producing a total minimal loss of ˜ -1x108 J m-2. Overall the net heat produces a net gain of heat of 2x108 J m-2 throughout the study period. Frog calls indicative of breeding are recorded from May 26, 2010 until August 16, 2010. The spring peeper, American toad, and green frog each produced enough actively calling days to be compared to air temperature, surface water temperature, and wind speed data, as well as data from the five heat fluxes. Linear regression analysis reveals that certain water temperature thresholds affect the calling activities of the spring peeper and green frog, while higher wind speeds have a dramatic effect on the calling activities of both the green frog and American toad. All three

  12. Photon diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, John

    2009-11-01

    In current light models, a particle-like model of light is inconsistent with diffraction observations. A model of light is proposed wherein photon inferences are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). That the photon is a surface with zero surface area in the travel direction is inferred from the Michelson-Morley experiment. That the photons in slits are mathematically treated as a linear antenna array (LAA) is inferred from the comparison of the transmission grating interference pattern and the single slit diffraction pattern. That photons induce a LAA wave into the plenum is inferred from the fractal model. Similarly, the component of the photon (the hod) is treated as a single antenna radiating a potential wave into the plenum. That photons are guided by action on the surface of the hod is inferred from the SPM. The plenum potential waves are a real field (not complex) that forms valleys, consistent with the pilot waves of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the Afshar experiment result is explained, supports Bohm, and falsifies Copenhagen. The papers may be viewed at http://web.citcom.net/˜scjh/.

  13. Photonic lanterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Argyros, Alexander; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-12-01

    Multimode optical fibers have been primarily (and almost solely) used as "light pipes" in short distance telecommunications and in remote and astronomical spectroscopy. The modal properties of the multimode waveguides are rarely exploited and mostly discussed in the context of guiding light. Until recently, most photonic applications in the applied sciences have arisen from developments in telecommunications. However, the photonic lantern is one of several devices that arose to solve problems in astrophotonics and space photonics. Interestingly, these devices are now being explored for use in telecommunications and are likely to find commercial use in the next few years, particularly in the development of compact spectrographs. Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail. Furthermore, we foreshadow future applications of this technology to the field of nanophotonics.

  14. Optimum conditions for correlation of the temporal shape of an object pulse with a stimulated photon echo response in inhomogeneous external electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefediev, L. A.; Khakimzyanova, E. I.; Garnaeva, G. I.

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the information locking effect and the effect of correlation of the shape of an object laser pulse with the shape of a stimulated photon echo response in the presence of external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. We have shown that, for the transition 3H4-3P0 in a LaF3:Pr3+ crystal, one can observe the effect of the correlation of the shape of an object laser pulse with the shape of a stimulated photon echo response and, depending on the scheme of the action of external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields, either the information locking effect or the information destroying effect.

  15. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-05-31

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter {approx}200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  16. Photonics in cardiovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Regar, Evelyn; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-10-01

    The use of photonics technology is bringing new capabilities and insights to cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging and sensing, laser ablation and optical pacing are just some of the functions being explored to help diagnose and treat conditions of the heart and arteries.

  17. A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios

    Treesearch

    Zhiliang Zhu; Brian Bergamaschi; Richard Bernknopf; David Clow; Dennis Dye; Stephen Faulkner; William Forney; Robert Gleason; Todd Hawbaker; Jinxun Liu; Shuguang Liu; Stephen Prisley; Bradley Reed; Matthew Reeves; Matthew Rollins; Benjamin Sleeter; Terry Sohl; Sarah Stackpoole; Stephen Stehman; Robert Striegl; Anne Wein

    2010-01-01

    This methodology was developed to fulfill a requirement by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The EISA legislation mandates the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of carbon storage, carbon sequestration, and fluxes of three principal greenhouse gases (GHG) for the Nation's ecosystems. The...

  18. Controlling photon transport in the single-photon weak-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Jing-Yi; Zhou, Ling

    2015-06-01

    We study the photon statistics properties of few-photon transport in an optomechanical system where an optomechanical cavity couples to two empty cavities. By analytically deriving the one- and two-photon currents in terms of a zero-time-delayed two-order correlation function, we show that a photon blockade can be achieved in both the single-photon strong-coupling regime and the single-photon weak-coupling regime due to the nonlinear interacting and multipath interference. Furthermore, our systems can be applied as a quantum optical diode, a single-photon source, and a quantum optical capacitor. It is shown that this the photon transport controlling devices based on photon antibunching does not require the stringent single-photon strong-coupling condition. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of optomechanics, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum circuit realization.

  19. Green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  20. Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

  1. Assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of carbon storage, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes in the Nation's ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and published the methodology (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5233) and has assembled an interdisciplinary team of scientists to conduct the assessment over the next three to four years, commencing in October 2010. The assessment will fulfill specific requirements of the EISA by (1) quantifying, measuring, and monitoring carbon sequestration and GHG fluxes using national datasets and science tools such as remote sensing, and biogeochemical and hydrological models, (2) evaluating a range of management and restoration activities for their effects on carbon-sequestration capacity and the reduction of GHG fluxes, and (3) assessing effects of climate change and other controlling processes (including wildland fires) on carbon uptake and GHG emissions from ecosystems.

  2. A single-photon counting detector for increased sensitivity in two-photon laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, Richard K.P.; Ashby, William J.; Ring, Elisabeth A.; Piston, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We present the use and characterization of a photon counting detector for increased sensitivity at low signal levels in fluorescence laser scanning microscopy (LSM). Conventional LSM PMT detectors utilize analog current integration and thus suffer from excessive noise at low signal levels, introduced during current measurement. In this letter we describe the implementation of a fast single-photon counting (SPC) detector on a conventional two-photon laser scanning microscope and detail its use in imaging low fluorescence intensities. We show that for a low photon flux, the SPC detector is shot-noise limited and thus provides increased detection sensitivity compared to analog current integration. PMID:19079484

  3. 13C-NMR spectroscopic evaluation of the citric acid cycle flux in conditions of high aspartate transaminase activity in glucose-perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Tran-Dinh, S; Hoerter, J A; Mateo, P; Gyppaz, F; Herve, M

    1998-12-01

    A new mathematical model, based on the observation of 13C-NMR spectra of two principal metabolites (glutamate and aspartate), was constructed to determine the citric acid cycle flux in the case of high aspartate transaminase activity leading to the formation of large amounts of labeled aspartate and glutamate. In this model, the labeling of glutamate and aspartate carbons by chemical and isotopic exchange with the citric acid cycle are considered to be interdependent. With [U-13C]Glc or [1,2-(13)C]acetate as a substrate, all glutamate and aspartate carbons can be labeled. The isotopic transformations of 32 glutamate isotopomers into 16 aspartate isotopomers or vice versa were studied using matrix operations; the results were compiled in two matrices. We showed how the flux constants of the citric acid cycle and the 13C-enrichment of acetyl-CoA can be deduced from 13C-NMR spectra of glutamate and/or aspartate. The citric acid cycle flux in beating Wistar rat hearts, aerobically perfused with [U-13C]glucose in the absence of insulin, was investigated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Surprisingly, aspartate instead of glutamate was found to be the most abundantly-labeled metabolite, indicating that aspartate transaminase (which catalyses the reversible reaction: (glutamate + oxaloacetate <--> 2-oxoglutarate + aspartate) is highly active in the absence of insulin. The amount of aspartate was about two times larger than glutamate. The quantities of glutamate (G0) or aspartate (A0) were approximately the same for all hearts and remained constant during perfusion: G0 = (0.74 +/- 0.03) micromol/g; A0 = (1.49 +/- 0.05) micromol/g. The flux constants, i.e., the fraction of glutamate and aspartate in exchange with the citric acid cycle, were about 1.45 min(-1) and 0.72 min(-1), respectively; the flux of this cycle is about (1.07 +/- 0.02) micromol min(-1) g(-1). Excellent agreement between the computed and experimental data was obtained, showing that: i) in the absence of insulin

  4. Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Ortlepp, T; Hofherr, M; Fritzsch, L; Engert, S; Ilin, K; Rall, D; Toepfer, H; Meyer, H-G; Siegel, M

    2011-09-12

    We demonstrate the transfer of single photon triggered electrical pulses from a superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) to a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse. We describe design and test of a digital SFQ based SNSPD readout circuit and demonstrate its correct operation. Both circuits (SNSPD and SFQ) operate under the same cryogenic conditions and are directly connected by wire bonds. A future integration of the present multi-chip configuration seems feasible because both fabrication process and materials are very similar. In contrast to commonly used semiconductor amplifiers, SFQ circuits combine very low power dissipation (a few microwatts) with very high operation speed, thus enabling count-rates of several gigahertz. The SFQ interface circuit simplifies the SNSPD readout and enables large numbers of detectors for future compact multi-pixel systems with single photon counting resolution. The demonstrated circuit has great potential for scaling the present interface solution to 1,000 detectors by using a single SFQ chip.

  5. Flux based active filter controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, S.; Divan, D.M.; Lorenz, R.D.; Veltman, A. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a synchronous frame flux based control method for a parallel active filer application. The flux based controller directly implements the inverter switchings in the synchronous reference frame by a hysteresis rule based carrierless PWM strategy to achieve high current bandwidth. This paper addresses the issues and impact on parallel active filtering requirements for utility interface of commonly used harmonic front-ends. The synchronous frame flux based controller provides additional insights for harmonic current compensation requirements. Simulation results provide the validation of the flux based active filter controller to meet IEEE 519 recommended harmonic standards for large rated non-linear loads under balanced and unbalanced supply conditions.

  6. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  7. Structure-Phase Condition and Tribological Properties of Coatings Based on Self-Fluxing Nickel Alloy PG-12N-01 After Laser Surfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoino, O. G.; Feldshtein, E. É.; Kardapolova, M. A.; Lutsko, N. I.

    2017-03-01

    Some parameters of laser surfacing of self-fluxing nickel alloy PG-12N-01 are considered. Different structures containing a low-melting γ-Ni - Ni3B eutectic and a γ-Ni - Cr3C2 eutectic that crystallizes at a higher temperature and forms the strength skeleton of the coating may form depending on the rate of the surfacing. The effect of the rate of the surfacing on the wear resistance of the coating and on the coefficients of dry friction are determined.

  8. Microalgae photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floume, Timmy; Coquil, Thomas; Sylvestre, Julien

    2011-05-01

    Due to their metabolic flexibility and fast growth rate, microscopic aquatic phototrophs like algae have a potential to become industrial photochemical converters. Algae photosynthesis could enable the large scale production of clean and renewable liquid fuels and chemicals with major environmental, economic and societal benefits. Capital and operational costs are the main issues to address through optical, process and biochemical engineering improvements. In this perspective, a variety of photonic approaches have been proposed - we introduce them here and describe their potential, limitations and compatibility with separate biotechnology and engineering progresses. We show that only sunlight-based approaches are economically realistic. One of photonics' main goals in the algae field is to dilute light to overcome photosaturation effects that impact upon cultures exposed to full sunlight. Among other approaches, we introduce a widely-compatible broadband spectral adaptation technique called AlgoSun® that uses luminescence to optimize sunlight spectrum in view of the bioconverter's requirements.

  9. Measurement of Integrated Low Frequency Flux Noise in Superconducting Flux/Phase Qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Bo; Qiu Wei; Han Siyuan

    2008-11-07

    We measured the integrated low frequency flux noise ({approx}1 m{phi}{sub 0}) of an rf SQUID as a flux qubit by fitting the resonant peaks from photon assistant tunneling (PAT). The energy relaxation time Tl between the ground and first excited states in the same potential well, measured directly in time domain, is 3 ns. From these results we identified low frequency flux noise as the dominant source of decoherence. In addition, we found that the measured values of integrated flux noise in three qubits of various sizes differ more than an order of magnitude.

  10. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  11. Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Adam; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Elster, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy allows for depth-selective determination of absorption changes in the adult human head that facilitates separation between cerebral and extra-cerebral responses to brain activation. The aim of the present work is to analyze which combinations of moments of measured distributions of times of flight (DTOF) of photons and source-detector separations are optimal for the reconstruction of absorption changes in a two-layered tissue model corresponding to extra- and intra-cerebral compartments. To this end we calculated the standard deviations of the derived absorption changes in both layers by considering photon noise and a linear relation between the absorption changes and the DTOF moments. The results show that the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper (superficial) layer increases (decreases) with the thickness of the superficial layer. It is confirmed that for the deeper layer the use of higher moments, in particular the variance of the DTOF, leads to an improvement. For example, when measurements at four different source-detector separations between 8 and 35 mm are available and a realistic thickness of the upper layer of 12 mm is assumed, the inclusion of the change in mean time of flight, in addition to the change in attenuation, leads to a reduction of the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper tissue layer by a factor of 2.5. A reduction by another 4% can be achieved by additionally including the change in variance.

  12. Photonic homeostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Li, Fan-Hui

    2010-11-01

    Photonic homeostatics is a discipline to study the establishment, maintenance, decay, upgrading and representation of function-specific homoestasis (FSH) by using photonics. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stress may increase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activities above FSH-specific SIRT1 activity to induce a function far from its FSH. On the one hand, low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LLL) can not modulate a function in its FSH or a stress in its stress-specific homeostasis (StSH), but modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. On the other hand, the biophotons from a biosystem with its function in its FSH should be less than the one from the biosystem with its function far from its FSH. The non-resonant interaction of low intensity laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LIL) and a kind of membrane protein can be amplified by all the membrane proteins if the function is far from its FSH. This amplification might hold for biophoton emission of the membrane protein so that the photonic spectroscopy can be used to represent the function far from its FSH, which is called photonomics.

  13. Wakefields in photonic accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, B.; Andonian, G.; Arab, E.; Barber, S.; Fitzmorris, K.; Fukusawa, A.; Hoang, P.; Mahapatra, S.; O'Shea, B.; Valloni, A.; Williams, O.; Yang, C.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2012-12-21

    Control and manipulation of properties - such as vacuum modal confinement, spatial harmonic content, phase velocity, and group velocity - are reasons why an all-dielectric beam-driven accelerator would be expected to benefit by borrowing from the field of optical bandgap photonics. We outline the general conditions for coherent Cerenkov radiation in a photonic crystal, illustrated by three examples: two Bragg mirrors separated by a vacuum gap, a woodpile with a linear waveguide channel, and a stack of photonic slabs having a planar waveguide channel.

  14. Advances in photon counting for bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Martin B.; Powell, Ralph

    1998-11-01

    Photon counting systems were originally developed for astronomy, initially by the astronomical community. However, a major application area is in the study of luminescent probes in living plants, fishes and cell cultures. For these applications, it has been necessary to develop camera system capability at very low light levels -- a few photons occasionally -- and also at reasonably high light levels to enable the systems to be focused and to collect quality images of the object under study. The paper presents new data on MTF at extremely low photon flux and conventional ICCD illumination, counting efficiency and dark noise as a function of temperature.

  15. Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, C.

    2008-02-15

    Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleons and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers.

  16. The photon: issues of integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. L.

    2013-10-01

    A richly diverse range of phenomena and applications, frequently in the context of laser applications, owe their means of operation to the properties of the photon. Yet, since the arrival of the laser, the distinctive and often paradoxical nature of the photon has become more than ever evident, and what the optics community now understands by a `photon' has become richer - certainly less simple, than Einstein's original conception. There has been a marked expansion in the pace of development since the now familiar derivative term `photonics' first emerged, and in much current theory any dividing line between `real' and `virtual' photons proves to be illusory. So if, in this technical sense, no photon can ever be regarded as entirely real, one is drawn to deeper questions of whether the photon is `real' in the broader sense of reality. Some would argue that electromagnetic fields are closer to irreducible reality. Yet whether we elect to describe optical phenomena in terms of fields or photons, neither represents what is actually measured. The surest ground has to be found where theory is cast in terms that explain or predict actual observations, under given conditions. It is consistent with the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics that derivations should not prescribe what intervenes between setup and measurement, but instead allow for all possibilities. Indeed, one of the beauties of the associated mathematics is its capacity to home in on possibilities that most closely conform to post-event physical interpretation. Still, we can ask: how much do or can we know about the photon itself? How much information could this entity contain or convey? And, how essential is a photonic formulation of theory? This study focuses on some of the key issues.

  17. Numerical analysis for radial MHD and mixed convection effects in peristalsis of non-Newtonian nanomaterial with zero mass flux conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Farooq, S.; Alsaedi, A.; Ahmad, B.

    Here peristalsis of Carreau nanofluid in presence of mixed convection and radial magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. Flow in a curved channel is addressed. Heat and mass transfer analysis includes Brownian motion and thermophoresis impacts. Zero mass flux at the channel walls is taken. The relevant equations are first modelled and then simplified through lubrication technique. The system of non-linear equations is solved numerically. Plots for velocity, temperature and concentration are studied through numerical solution. Heat and mass transfer rates at the upper wall of the curved channel is also discussed. Enhancement in concentration is observed. Temperature of the nanoliquid enhances for larger radial magnetic parameter when velocity of the nanoliquids reduces. Significant enhancement in mass transfer rate is seen for larger theromophoretic parameter.

  18. Photon-efficient imaging with a single-photon camera

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongeek; Xu, Feihu; Venkatraman, Dheera; Lussana, Rudi; Villa, Federica; Zappa, Franco; Goyal, Vivek K.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing a scene's 3D structure and reflectivity accurately with an active imaging system operating in low-light-level conditions has wide-ranging applications, spanning biological imaging to remote sensing. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a depth and reflectivity imaging system with a single-photon camera that generates high-quality images from ∼1 detected signal photon per pixel. Previous achievements of similar photon efficiency have been with conventional raster-scanning data collection using single-pixel photon counters capable of ∼10-ps time tagging. In contrast, our camera's detector array requires highly parallelized time-to-digital conversions with photon time-tagging accuracy limited to ∼ns. Thus, we develop an array-specific algorithm that converts coarsely time-binned photon detections to highly accurate scene depth and reflectivity by exploiting both the transverse smoothness and longitudinal sparsity of natural scenes. By overcoming the coarse time resolution of the array, our framework uniquely achieves high photon efficiency in a relatively short acquisition time. PMID:27338821

  19. Photonic Nanojets.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet's minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter d(ν) perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as d(ν)3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the d(ν)6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000(th) the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage.

  20. Photonic Nanojets

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter dν perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as dν3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the dν6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000th the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage. PMID:19946614

  1. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  2. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  3. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion using photonic bandgap selective emitters

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2003-06-24

    A method for thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity comprises heating a metallic photonic crystal to provide selective emission of radiation that is matched to the peak spectral response of a photovoltaic cell that converts the radiation to electricity. The use of a refractory metal, such as tungsten, for the photonic crystal enables high temperature operation for high radiant flux and high dielectric contrast for a full 3D photonic bandgap, preferable for efficient thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

  4. Photon-pair shot noise in electron shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Jean Olivier; Virally, Stéphane; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2017-02-01

    We report the measurement of the statistics of photons in the nonclassical radiation emitted by a tunnel junction. This is obtained by measuring up to the fourth cumulant of the voltage fluctuations generated by the sample. When the electron shot noise generates a squeezed electromagnetic field, the measurement provides a strong signature of the presence of photon pairs, characterized by a Fano factor of the photon flux above unity.

  5. ITMO Photonics: center of excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Bougrov, Vladislav; Kozlov, Sergey; Vasilev, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    ITMO University, the leading Russian center in photonics research and education, has the mission to train highlyqualified competitive professionals able to act in conditions of fast-changing world. This paradigm is implemented through creation of a strategic academic unit ITMO Photonics, the center of excellence concentrating organizational, scientific, educational, financial, laboratory and human resources. This Center has the following features: dissemination of breakthrough scientific results in photonics such as advanced photonic materials, ultrafast optical and quantum information, laser physics, engineering and technologies, into undergraduate and graduate educational programs through including special modules into the curricula and considerable student's research and internships; transformation of the educational process in accordance with the best international educational practices, presence in the global education market in the form of joint educational programs with leading universities, i.e. those being included in the network programs of international scientific cooperation, and international accreditation of educational programs; development of mechanisms for the commercialization of innovative products - results of scientific research; securing financial sustainability of research in the field of photonics of informationcommunication systems via funding increase and the diversification of funding sources. Along with focusing on the research promotion, the Center is involved in science popularization through such projects as career guidance for high school students; interaction between student's chapters of international optical societies; invited lectures of World-famous experts in photonics; short educational programs in optics, photonics and light engineering for international students; contests, Olympics and grants for talented young researchers; social events; interactive demonstrations.

  6. Reactive fluxes delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments to slightly wounded skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The application of atmospheric-pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. In this paper, we report on a computational study of the intersection of plasma filaments in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a small wound in human skin in the context of plasma medicine. The wound is represented as a small cut in the epidermal layer of cells. Intracellular structures and their electrical properties were incorporated into the two-dimensional computational mesh in order to self-consistently couple gas phase plasma transport with the charging of the surface of the wound. We quantify the fluxes of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions and photons produced in or diffusing into the wound as might occur during the first few discharge pulses of treatment. Comparison is made to fluxes predicted by global modelling. We show that the relative location of the plasma filament with respect to the wound is important on plasma time scales (ns) for ions and photons, and for radicals directly produced by electron impact processes. On the longer-term diffusion time scales (ms) the position of the plasma filament relative to the wound is not so critical. For typical DBD conditions, the magnitude of these fluxes to the cellular surfaces corresponds to fluences of radicals nearly equal to the surface site density. These results imply that the biological reactivity is limited by reaction probabilities and not the availability of radical fluxes.

  7. Photon acceleration in plasma wake wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Zhigang; Shen, Baifei Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Shan; Li, Shun

    2015-04-15

    The photon acceleration effect in a laser wake field is investigated based on photon Hamiltonian dynamics. A test laser pulse is injected into a plasma wave at an incident angle θ{sub i}, which could slow down the photon velocity along the propagating direction of the wake wave so as to increase the acceleration distance for the photons. The photon trapping condition is analyzed in detail, and the maximum frequency shift of the trapped photon is obtained. The acceleration gradient and dephasing length are emphatically studied. The compression of the test laser pulse is examined and used to interpret the acceleration process. The limit of finite transverse width of the wake wave on photon acceleration is also discussed.

  8. Long-term trends in suspended chlorophyll a and vertical particle flux with respect to changing physical conditions in eastern Fram Strait, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Kraft, Angelina; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Hardge, Kristin; Kaleschke, Lars; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Klages, Michael; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Fram Strait is the main gateway for water, heat, sea ice and plankton exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. The abundance and composition of phyto- and zooplankton communities is governed to a large extent by key physical factors such as water temperature, salinity, currents, stratification of the water column and the presence or absence of sea ice. With our study we aim at tracing effects of environmental changes in pelagic system structure and impacts on the fate of organic matter produced in the upper water column in a region that is anticipated to react rapidly to climate change. Chlorophyll a, an indicator of biomass standing stock of phytoplankton, has been measured in the upper 100 m of the water column since 1991 during several summer cruises (with RV 'Polarstern') across Fram Strait. Chlorophyll a measurements are used to validate productivity estimates by remote sensing from space. The quantity and composition of export fluxes of organic matter including biomarker have been measured since 2000 by annually moored sediment traps deployed at 200-300m at the AWI long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN in eastern Fram Strait (79°/4°E). Along with sinking particles, zooplankton (so-called 'swimmers') was also caught in the traps. Analyses of the material collected by the sediment traps allowed us to track seasonal and inter-annual changes in the surface waters at HAUSGARTEN. We present temporal trends in the chlorophyll a distribution (1991-2012), in swimmer composition in the traps (2000-2009), and in the export of biomarker (2000-2008), particulate organic carbon, particulate biogenic silica, calcium carbonate, and the protist composition (2000-2012), in relation to the changing sea ice cover and water temperature. Whereas chlorophyll a (integrated values 0-100m) showed only a slight increase, the swimmer composition and the composition of the annual particle flux changed after a warm water event occurring from 2005-2007. The warm anomaly

  9. Dynamic vacuum analysis for APS high heat flux beamline front ends using optical ray-tracing simulation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Nielsen, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The high-power and high-flux x-ray beams produced by third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) can cause significantly high gas desorption rates on beamline front-end components if beam missteering occurs. The effect of this gas desorption needs to be understood for dynamic vacuum analysis. To simulate beam missteering conditions, optical ray-tracing methods have been employed. The results of the ray-tracing analysis have been entered into a system-oriented vacuum program to provide dynamic vacuum calculations for determination of pumping requirements for the beamline front-ends. The APS will provide several types of synchrotron radiation sources, for example, undulators, wigglers, and bending magnets. For the purpose of this study, the wiggler source was chosen as a worst case'' scenario due to its high photon flux, high beam power, and relatively large beam cross section.

  10. Dynamic vacuum analysis for APS high heat flux beamline front ends using optical ray-tracing simulation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Nielsen, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    The high-power and high-flux x-ray beams produced by third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) can cause significantly high gas desorption rates on beamline front-end components if beam missteering occurs. The effect of this gas desorption needs to be understood for dynamic vacuum analysis. To simulate beam missteering conditions, optical ray-tracing methods have been employed. The results of the ray-tracing analysis have been entered into a system-oriented vacuum program to provide dynamic vacuum calculations for determination of pumping requirements for the beamline front-ends. The APS will provide several types of synchrotron radiation sources, for example, undulators, wigglers, and bending magnets. For the purpose of this study, the wiggler source was chosen as a ``worst case`` scenario due to its high photon flux, high beam power, and relatively large beam cross section.

  11. Modelling water, sediment and nutrient fluxes from a mixed land-use catchment in New Zealand: effects of hydrologic conditions on SWAT model performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Me, W.; Abell, J. M.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was configured for the Puarenga Stream catchment (77 km2), Rotorua, New Zealand. The catchment land use is mostly plantation forest, some of which is spray-irrigated with treated wastewater. A Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) procedure was used to auto-calibrate unknown parameter values in the SWAT model which was applied to the Puarenga catchment. Discharge, sediment, and nutrient variables were then partitioned into two components (base flow and quick flow) based on hydrograph separation. A manual procedure (one-at a-time sensitivity analysis) was then used to quantify parameter sensitivity for the two hydrologically-separated regimes. Comparison of simulated daily mean discharge, sediment and nutrient concentrations with high-frequency, event-based measurements allowed the error in model predictions to be quantified. This comparison highlighted the potential for model error associated with quick-flow fluxes in flashy lower-order streams to be underestimated compared with low-frequency (e.g. monthly) measurements derived predominantly from base flow measurements. To overcome this problem we advocate the use of high-frequency, event-based monitoring data during calibration and dynamic parameter values with some dependence on discharge regime. This study has important implications for quantifying uncertainty in hydrological models, particularly for studies where model simulations are used to simulate responses of stream discharge and composition to changes in irrigation and land management.

  12. A model study of the vertical distributions and escape fluxes of the major and minor species in Titan's thermosphere under different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jen-Kai; Liang, Mao-Chang; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2017-04-01

    From the measurements of the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at different close encounters with Titan, it is know that the vertical temperature profile and density distributions of N2, CH4, H2 and other species could have large variations which might be driven by environmental effects such as solar radiation and magnetospheric interaction. For example, the atmospheric temperature as determined from the N2 density profiles can vary between 120 K and 175 K. Following the treatment of Li et al. (PSS, 104 (2014) 48-58) by applying a non-monotonic eddy diffusivity profile, we compute the vertical distributions of different species between Titan's surface to 2000 km altitude, for a range of atmospheric temperatures. Intercomparison between the model results and observations leads to better understanding of the production mechanisms of the minor species like C2H2, C2H4, C2H6 and others, all important to the hydrocarbon budgets of Titan's atmosphere and surface, respectively. Furthermore, such detailed photochemical calculations will also yield accurate estimates of the escape fluxes of H, H2 and CH4 into the circum-planetary region.

  13. An analytical solution of a one-dimensional thermal contact conductance problem with one heat flux and one insulated boundary condition

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Y.M.; Crane, R.A. )

    1992-05-01

    Heat transfer across surfaces in imperfect contact occurs in many practical situations. Since the thermal contact conductance problem has appeared in the literature, substantial efforts have been made to estimate the thermal conductance across the interface. Some of the techniques recently developed of estimating thermal contact conductance are based on experimental temperature data at one or several interior positions of the contacting solids and the calculation of the temperature at these locations for known contact conductance. Consequently, an accurate and efficient method for computing temperature distributions because quite important. FDM and FEM are most widely used. However, for most contact conductance computation methods, only the temperatures at the contacting regions and several other positions near the interface need to be determined, so the general FDM and FEM are not particularly efficient in solving this problem. This paper presents an analytical temperature distribution solution to the one-dimensional symmetric system with heat flux on one outside surface and insulation on the other. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for transient measurement of thermal contact conductance. While it is common practice in steady-state measurements to use a water-cooled heat sink, it is possible to limit the transient solution to time interval prior to any detectable temperature increase at the cold end. This effectively eliminates the need for water cooling and permits the use of an insulated boundary. The analytical solution to the mentioned problem obtained shows that for a symmetric system the temperature distribution solution includes two sets of distinct eigenfunctions.

  14. Pushing the Photon Limit: Nanoantennas Increase Maximal Photon Stream and Total Photon Number

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3–4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especially triplet excited states. The maximal photon stream restricts the attainable enhancement. Furthermore, the total number of photons emitted is limited by photobleaching. The limited brightness and observation time are a drawback for applications, especially in biology. Here we challenge this photon limit, showing that nanoantennas can actually increase both saturation intensity and photostability. So far, this limit-shifting role of nanoantennas has hardly been explored. Specifically, we demonstrate that single light-harvesting complexes, under saturating excitation conditions, show over a 50-fold antenna-enhanced photon emission stream, with 10-fold more total photons, up to 108 detected photons, before photobleaching. This work shows yet another facet of the great potential of nanoantennas in the world of single-molecule biology. PMID:27082249

  15. Pushing the Photon Limit: Nanoantennas Increase Maximal Photon Stream and Total Photon Number.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Emilie; Renger, Jan; Cogdell, Richard; van Hulst, Niek F

    2016-05-05

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3-4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especially triplet excited states. The maximal photon stream restricts the attainable enhancement. Furthermore, the total number of photons emitted is limited by photobleaching. The limited brightness and observation time are a drawback for applications, especially in biology. Here we challenge this photon limit, showing that nanoantennas can actually increase both saturation intensity and photostability. So far, this limit-shifting role of nanoantennas has hardly been explored. Specifically, we demonstrate that single light-harvesting complexes, under saturating excitation conditions, show over a 50-fold antenna-enhanced photon emission stream, with 10-fold more total photons, up to 10(8) detected photons, before photobleaching. This work shows yet another facet of the great potential of nanoantennas in the world of single-molecule biology.

  16. Control of exciton fluxes in an excitonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    High, Alex A; Novitskaya, Ekaterina E; Butov, Leonid V; Hanson, Micah; Gossard, Arthur C

    2008-07-11

    Efficient signal communication uses photons. Signal processing, however, uses an optically inactive medium, electrons. Therefore, an interconnection between electronic signal processing and optical communication is required at the integrated circuit level. We demonstrated control of exciton fluxes in an excitonic integrated circuit. The circuit consists of three exciton optoelectronic transistors and performs operations with exciton fluxes, such as directional switching and merging. Photons transform into excitons at the circuit input, and the excitons transform into photons at the circuit output. The exciton flux from the input to the output is controlled by a pattern of the electrode voltages. The direct coupling of photons, used in communication, to excitons, used as the device-operation medium, may lead to the development of efficient exciton-based optoelectronic devices.

  17. Tevatron direct photon results.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, S.

    1999-09-21

    Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.

  18. Multiplexing photons with a binary division strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiegelow, Christian Tomás; Larotonda, Miguel Antonio

    2014-08-01

    We present a scheme to produce clock-synchronized photons from a single parametric downconversion source with a binary division strategy. The time difference between a clock and detections of the herald photons determines the amount of delay that must be imposed to a photon by actively switching different temporal segments, so that all photons emerge from the output with their wavepackets temporally synchronized with the temporal reference. The operation is performed using a binary division configuration which minimizes the passages through switches. Finally, we extend this scheme to the production of many synchronized photons and find expressions for the optimal amount of correction stages as a function of the pair generation rate and the target coherence time. Our results show that, for the generation of this heralded single-photon per output state at an optimized input photon flux, the output rate of our scheme scales essentially with the reciprocal of the target output photon number. With current technology, rates of up to 104 synchronized pairs per second could be observed with only 7 correction stages.

  19. Dependences of emission intensity of Si light-emitting diodes on dressed-photon-phonon-assisted annealing conditions and driving current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2017-09-01

    We investigated how the injected current and the irradiation light power for dressed-photon-phonon (DPP)-assisted annealing affected the performance of the fabricated device. It was shown that there exists a threshold injection current for DPP-assisted annealing. In the case of the devices we fabricated, the threshold current was about 400 mA: When the injected current was below the threshold, the electroluminescence emission intensity did not change even after DPP-assisted annealing. On the other hand, when the injected current was above the threshold, the emission intensity increased by two orders of magnitude. The role of irradiation light was also examined and it was found that the emission spectral profile varied depending on the intensity of the irradiation light power in DPP-assisted annealing. Furthermore, we confirmed that the emission intensity had a quadratic dependence on the driving current when the driving current was higher than 400 mA. This quadratic dependence was considered to be due to electron-electron scattering.

  20. Decreasing electron flux through the cytochrome and/or alternative respiratory pathways triggers common and distinct cellular responses dependent on growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Kristina; Yin, Guangkun; Duncan, Owen; Law, Simon R; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Kaur, Parwinder; Meyer, Etienne; Wang, Yan; Small, Catherine Colas des Francs; Giraud, Estelle; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, James

    2015-01-01

    Diverse signaling pathways are activated by perturbation of mitochondrial function under different growth conditions.Mitochondria have emerged as an important organelle for sensing and coping with stress in addition to being the sites of important metabolic pathways. Here, responses to moderate light and drought stress were examined in different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant plants lacking a functional alternative oxidase (alternative oxidase1a [aox1a]), those with reduced cytochrome electron transport chain capacity (T3/T7 bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase, mitochondrial, and plastidial [rpoTmp]), and double mutants impaired in both pathways (aox1a:rpoTmp). Under conditions considered optimal for growth, transcriptomes of aox1a and rpoTmp were distinct. Under adverse growth conditions, however, transcriptome changes in aox1a and rpoTmp displayed a highly significant overlap and were indicative of a common mitochondrial stress response and down-regulation of photosynthesis. This suggests that the role of mitochondria to support photosynthesis is provided through either the alternative pathway or the cytochrome pathway, and when either pathway is inhibited, such as under environmental stress, a common, dramatic, and succinct mitochondrial signal is activated to alter energy metabolism in both organelles. aox1a:rpoTmp double mutants grown under optimal conditions showed dramatic reductions in biomass production compared with aox1a and rpoTmp and a transcriptome that was distinct from aox1a or rpoTmp. Transcript data indicating activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in aox1a:rpoTmp were supported by a proteomic analysis of over 200 proteins. Under optimal conditions, aox1a:rpoTmp plants seemed to switch on many of the typical mitochondrial stress regulators. Under adverse conditions, aox1a:rpoTmp turned off these responses and displayed a biotic stress response. Taken together, these results highlight the diverse signaling pathways activated by the

  1. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    PubMed

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  2. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  3. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Disordered photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2013-03-01

    What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

  5. Improving the fidelity of two-photon absorption reference standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Reguardati, S.; Pahapill, J.; Rammo, M.; Rebane, A.

    2017-02-01

    Reference standards with well-defined femtosecond two-photon absorption (2PA) properties facilitate accurate measurement of nonlinear-optical spectra by bypassing tedious characterization of the photon flux. The 2PA standards are increasingly used for developing advanced multi-photon fluorescent probes and, since recently, also for probing intra- and intermolecular electrostatic interactions. We have recently reported 2PA cross section values of a set of common organic dyes in different solvents in 680-1050 nm wavelength range with estimated accuracy of 8%. In the present work, we aim at further improving the accuracy and fidelity of the absolute 2PA cross section data by comparing in a pair-wise manner the relative 2PA efficiency of nine standards with partially overlapping absorption- and fluorescence emission spectra. We measure the relative 2PA-induced fluorescence for each pair under identical excitation conditions, which allows revealing inconsistencies potentially present in the previously published data due to errors in estimating the excitation laser beam spatial- and temporal profile, pulse energy and other critical parameters. Our current measurements confirmed and in some cases improved previously reported error margins thus improving the fidelity of the reference data. We also present refined 2PA cross section data on 9-Chloroanthracene in dichloromethane.

  6. A study of multi-GNSS ionospheric scintillation and cycle-slip over Hong Kong region for moderate solar flux conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaomin; Liu, Zhizhao; Lou, Yidong; Gu, Shengfeng; Chen, Biyan

    2017-09-01

    This study presents the characteristics of Multiple Global Navigation Satellite System (Multi-GNSS) ionospheric scintillation and cycle-slip occurrence through the analysis of Multi-GNSS data collected by a newly installed receiver located at Sha Tin of Hong Kong from 6 October 2015 to 31 December 2016. This period of time was under a moderate solar activity condition with average sunspot number and F10.7 as 44 and 92, respectively. Considering the frequent occurrence of loss of lock in satellites measurements in the presence of ionospheric scintillation, a rate of geometry-free (ROGF) combination is proposed to take the time gap size between two data arcs into account in the cycle-slip detection. The results show that most ionospheric scintillation events and cycle-slips are observed from 20:00 LT to 0:00 LT. Under the strong scintillation (S4 > 0.6) conditions, it is found that the time series of wide-land (WL) ambiguity NWL and ROGF vary significantly and their range can reach more than 50 cycles and 0.1 m/s, respectively. However, the variations of the NWL and ROGF are generally small under weak scintillation (0.2 < S4 ≤ 0.6) or non-scintillation (S4 ≤ 0.2) conditions. A strong correlation of scintillation and cycle-slip occurrence is also verified by the daily and spatial statistics results. In addition, it is found that on average every 1000 strong scintillation events can result in 200, 124, and 171 cycle-slip occurrences in GPS, GLONASS, and BDS, respectively, whereas these values are 7, 12, and 12 per 1000 under weak scintillation conditions. This study suggests that cautions be taken when GNSS measurements are contaminated by the strong ionospheric scintillation in GNSS applications such as real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP).

  7. Experimental investigations of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and two-phase mixture-level swell under high-pressure low heat-flux conditions. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T. M.; Miller, R. J.; White, M. D.

    1982-03-01

    Results are reported from a series of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and mixture-level swell tests. Experimental testing was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). The THTF is an electrically heated bundle test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. The objective of heat transfer testing was to acquire heat transfer coefficients and fluid conditions in a partially uncovered bundle. Testing was performed in a quasi-steady-state mode with the heated core 30 to 40% uncovered. Linear heat rates varied from 0.32 to 2.22 kW/m.rod (0.1 to 0.68 kW/ft.rod). Under these conditions peak clad temperatures in excess of 1050 K (1430/sup 0/F) were observed, and total heat transfer coefficients ranged from 0.0045 to 0.037 W/cm/sup 2/.K (8 to 65 Btu/h.ft/sup 2/./sup 0/F). Spacer grids were observed to enhance heat transfer at, and downstream of, the grid. Radiation heat transfer was calculated to account for as much as 65% of total heat transfer in low-flow tests.

  8. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  9. Detecting Dark Photons with Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. K.

    2017-08-01

    We propose to search for light U (1 ) dark photons, A', produced via kinetically mixing with ordinary photons via the Compton-like process, γ e-→A'e-, in a nuclear reactor and detected by their interactions with the material in the active volumes of reactor neutrino experiments. We derive 95% confidence-level upper limits on ɛ , the A'-γ mixing parameter, ɛ , for dark-photon masses below 1 MeV of ɛ <1.3 ×10-5 and ɛ <2.1 ×10-5, from NEOS and TEXONO experimental data, respectively. This study demonstrates the applicability of nuclear reactors as potential sources of intense fluxes of low-mass dark photons.

  10. A photon-photon quantum gate based on a single atom in an optical resonator.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Bastian; Welte, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan

    2016-08-11

    That two photons pass each other undisturbed in free space is ideal for the faithful transmission of information, but prohibits an interaction between the photons. Such an interaction is, however, required for a plethora of applications in optical quantum information processing. The long-standing challenge here is to realize a deterministic photon-photon gate, that is, a mutually controlled logic operation on the quantum states of the photons. This requires an interaction so strong that each of the two photons can shift the other's phase by π radians. For polarization qubits, this amounts to the conditional flipping of one photon's polarization to an orthogonal state. So far, only probabilistic gates based on linear optics and photon detectors have been realized, because "no known or foreseen material has an optical nonlinearity strong enough to implement this conditional phase shift''. Meanwhile, tremendous progress in the development of quantum-nonlinear systems has opened up new possibilities for single-photon experiments. Platforms range from Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles to single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. Applications such as single-photon switches and transistors, two-photon gateways, nondestructive photon detectors, photon routers and nonlinear phase shifters have been demonstrated, but none of them with the ideal information carriers: optical qubits in discriminable modes. Here we use the strong light-matter coupling provided by a single atom in a high-finesse optical resonator to realize the Duan-Kimble protocol of a universal controlled phase flip (π phase shift) photon-photon quantum gate. We achieve an average gate fidelity of (76.2 ± 3.6) per cent and specifically demonstrate the capability of conditional polarization flipping as well as entanglement generation between independent input photons. This photon-photon quantum gate is a universal quantum logic element, and therefore could perform most existing two-photon operations

  11. Photon Induced Electron Attachment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    initial measure- ments was that high switch currents and long pulse durations appear to lead to substantially enhanced attachment rates in C3F8 ...similar conditions, but with 1.9 x 1015 C3F8 molecules/cm 3 added to the switch gas mixture. The initial current rise is comparable in both plots, but the...enhanced attachment during the switch opening time period. B. C0O Laser Excitation The photon enhanced attachment of the three gases NF3, C3F8 I and

  12. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  13. A simple and general strategy for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-01-01

    Currently, two-photon excitation microscopy is the method of choice for imaging living cells within thick specimen. A remaining problem for this technique is the damage caused by the high photon flux in the excitation region. To reduce the required flux, a promising solution is to use highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs, which are known to induce two-photon transitions much more efficiently. It is still an open question what the best scheme is for generating such photon pairs. Here we propose one simple general strategy for this task. As an example, we show explicitly that this general strategy can be realized faithfully within the widely applicable coherently pumped Jaynes-Cummings model. It is shown quantitatively that this strategy can generate highly frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs which can dramatically enhance two-photon excitation efficiency. We believe the proposed strategy can guide new designs for generating frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs. PMID:27087255

  14. Photonic nanojet effect in multilayer micrometre-sized spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yu E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Panina, E. K.

    2011-06-01

    The spatial and amplitude characteristics of photonic nanojets from micrometre-sized composite particles consisting of a nucleus and several shells with different refractive indices were considered. We investigated the longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the photon jet as well as the dependence of its peak intensity on the optical contrast of the shells. It was shown that, by varying the refractive index of the neighbouring shells in composite spherical microparticles, it is possible to manipulate the photonic nanojet parameters, in particular, increase its length or raise the peak intensity of the photon flux.

  15. Photonic nanojet effect in multilayer micrometre-sized spherical particles

    SciTech Connect

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Panina, E K

    2011-06-30

    The spatial and amplitude characteristics of photonic nanojets from micrometre-sized composite particles consisting of a nucleus and several shells with different refractive indices were considered. We investigated the longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the photon jet as well as the dependence of its peak intensity on the optical contrast of the shells. It was shown that, by varying the refractive index of the neighbouring shells in composite spherical microparticles, it is possible to manipulate the photonic nanojet parameters, in particular, increase its length or raise the peak intensity of the photon flux. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  16. Photon-noise effect on detection in coherent active images.

    PubMed

    Réfrégier, Philippe; Goudail, François; Delyon, Guillaume

    2004-01-15

    We analyze photon-noise effects on target detection performance in low-flux coherent active imagery systems. We show that when photon noise is expected, the performance of classical detection techniques designed for pure and fully developed speckle images can be improved with no increase in algorithm complexity. Furthermore, the mean photon number under which photon noise becomes sensitive is higher when the target and background mean values are unknown than in the idealized case, where they are assumed to be known, and when the reflectivity ratio between the target and the background is low.

  17. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  18. Effect of the Polarization of Photon Splitting on the Cyclotron Lines in Large-Scale Atmospheres with Super-Strong Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Osamu

    2002-04-01

    The cyclotron lines are affected by photon splitting in super-strong magnetized atmospheres (~ 4.4 × 1013 G into which a power-law-type flux is injected. We studied the polarization effect of photon splitting on the cyclotron line formation by treating different modes of splitting. We calculated the emergent spectra for two conditions: only one splitting mode and three splitting modes that could operate in a neutron-star atmosphere with a subcritical magnetic field. Photon splitting can also operate over a larger scale than cyclotron resonant scattering in a neutron-star atmosphere, since photon splitting occurs in a super-strong magnetic field even in the absence of a plasma. We therefore considered atmospheres consisting of lower and higher density regions. Cyclotron resonant scattering is dominant in a higher density region, and photon splitting is dominant in a lower density region. In three splitting modes, we found that the cyclotron absorption l ines are strongly reprocessed by photon splitting, and thus may not be detected even for a magnetic field of about 1.0 × 1013 G in the power-law-type spectra. However, we confirmed that the cyclotron absorption lines are not mostly reprocessed by photon splitting in only one splitting mode.

  19. Fast flux locked loop

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  20. Magnetospheric-ionospheric Poynting flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years of funding SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in determining the total electromagnetic energy flux into the upper atmosphere from DE-B electric and magnetic field measurements and modeling the electromagnetic energy flux at high latitudes, taking into account the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. This effort has been very successful in establishing the DC Poynting flux as a fundamental quantity in describing the coupling of electromagnetic energy between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The DE-B satellite electric and magnetic field measurements were carefully scrutinized to provide, for the first time, a large data set of DC, field-aligned, Poynting flux measurement. Investigations describing the field-aligned Poynting flux observations from DE-B orbits under specific geomagnetic conditions and from many orbits were conducted to provide a statistical average of the Poynting flux distribution over the polar cap. The theoretical modeling effort has provided insight into the observations by formulating the connection between Poynting's theorem and the electromagnetic energy conversion processes that occur in the ionosphere. Modeling and evaluation of these processes has helped interpret the satellite observations of the DC Poynting flux and improved our understanding of the coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  1. Magnetospheric-ionospheric Poynting flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1994-08-01

    Over the past three years of funding SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in determining the total electromagnetic energy flux into the upper atmosphere from DE-B electric and magnetic field measurements and modeling the electromagnetic energy flux at high latitudes, taking into account the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. This effort has been very successful in establishing the DC Poynting flux as a fundamental quantity in describing the coupling of electromagnetic energy between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The DE-B satellite electric and magnetic field measurements were carefully scrutinized to provide, for the first time, a large data set of DC, field-aligned, Poynting flux measurement. Investigations describing the field-aligned Poynting flux observations from DE-B orbits under specific geomagnetic conditions and from many orbits were conducted to provide a statistical average of the Poynting flux distribution over the polar cap. The theoretical modeling effort has provided insight into the observations by formulating the connection between Poynting's theorem and the electromagnetic energy conversion processes that occur in the ionosphere. Modeling and evaluation of these processes has helped interpret the satellite observations of the DC Poynting flux and improved our understanding of the coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  2. Probing the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for assessment of deposited flux of Radon and Thoron progeny in high exposure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R.; Sapra, B. K.; Rout, R. P.; Prajith, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct measurement of Radon and Thoron progeny in the atmosphere and occupational environments such as Uranium mines, Uranium and Thorium handling facilities has gained importance because of its radiological significance in inhalation dose assessment. In this regard, Radon and Thoron Progeny sensors (DTPS and DRPS) are the only passive solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD, LR115) based devices which are being extensively used for time integrated direct progeny measurements. An essential component of the analysis is the chemical etching of the detectors, followed by spark counting of tracks and then estimation of the inhalation dose using appropriate calibration factors. Alternatively, the tracks may be counted using image analysis techniques. However, under high exposure conditions, both these methods have inherent limitations and errors arising due to increased frequency of tracks. In the present work, we probe the use of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyse the deposited fluence of the progeny particulates based on change in transmittance of the nitric group vibrational bands of the LR115. A linear relationship between the transmittance and the deposited fluence was observed, which can be used to estimate the deposited fluence rate and the inhalation dose. This alternative method of analysis will provide a faster and non-destructive technique for inhalation dose assessment, specially for routine large scale measurements.

  3. In situ flow cell for combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry at high photon energies under solar thermochemical looping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothensteiner, Matthäus; Jenni, Joel; Emerich, Hermann; Bonk, Alexander; Vogt, Ulrich F.; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-08-01

    An in situ/operando flow cell for transmission mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and combined XAS/XRD measurements in a single experiment under the extreme conditions of two-step solar thermochemical looping for the dissociation of water and/or carbon dioxide was developed. The apparatus exposes materials to relevant conditions of both the auto-reduction and the oxidation sub-steps of the thermochemical cycle at ambient temperature up to 1773 K and enables determination of the composition of the effluent gases by online quadrupole mass spectrometry. The cell is based on a tube-in-tube design and is heated by means of a focusing infrared furnace. It was tested successfully for carbon dioxide splitting. In combined XAS/XRD experiments with an unfocused beam, XAS measurements were performed at the Ce K edge (40.4 keV) and XRD measurements at 64.8 keV and 55.9 keV. Furthermore, XRD measurements with a focused beam at 41.5 keV were carried out. Equimolar ceria-hafnia was auto-reduced in a flow of argon and chemically reduced in a flow of hydrogen/helium. Under reducing conditions, all cerium(iv) was converted to cerium(iii) and a cation-ordered pyrochlore-type structure was formed, which was not stable upon oxidation in a flow of carbon dioxide.

  4. A photon-photon quantum gate based on a single atom in an optical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Bastian; Welte, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    That two photons pass each other undisturbed in free space is ideal for the faithful transmission of information, but prohibits an interaction between the photons. Such an interaction is, however, required for a plethora of applications in optical quantum information processing. The long-standing challenge here is to realize a deterministic photon-photon gate, that is, a mutually controlled logic operation on the quantum states of the photons. This requires an interaction so strong that each of the two photons can shift the other’s phase by π radians. For polarization qubits, this amounts to the conditional flipping of one photon’s polarization to an orthogonal state. So far, only probabilistic gates based on linear optics and photon detectors have been realized, because “no known or foreseen material has an optical nonlinearity strong enough to implement this conditional phase shift”. Meanwhile, tremendous progress in the development of quantum-nonlinear systems has opened up new possibilities for single-photon experiments. Platforms range from Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles to single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. Applications such as single-photon switches and transistors, two-photon gateways, nondestructive photon detectors, photon routers and nonlinear phase shifters have been demonstrated, but none of them with the ideal information carriers: optical qubits in discriminable modes. Here we use the strong light-matter coupling provided by a single atom in a high-finesse optical resonator to realize the Duan-Kimble protocol of a universal controlled phase flip (π phase shift) photon-photon quantum gate. We achieve an average gate fidelity of (76.2 ± 3.6) per cent and specifically demonstrate the capability of conditional polarization flipping as well as entanglement generation between independent input photons. This photon-photon quantum gate is a universal quantum logic element, and therefore could perform most existing two-photon

  5. Resonator-assisted quantum bath engineering of a flux qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with the controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of the Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99% and the required time on the order of magnitude of a microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

  6. A diamond nanowire single-photon source.

    PubMed

    Babinec, Thomas M; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R; Hemmer, Philip R; Loncar, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy.

  7. Magnetic-field-influenced nonequilibrium transport through a quantum ring with correlated electrons in a photon cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Thorsten; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate magnetic-field-influenced time-dependent transport of Coulomb interacting electrons through a two-dimensional quantum ring in an electromagnetic cavity under nonequilibrium conditions described by a time-convolutionless non-Markovian master equation formalism. We take into account the full electromagnetic interaction of electrons and cavity photons. A bias voltage is applied to semi-infinite leads along the x axis, which are connected to the quantum ring. The magnetic field is tunable to manipulate the time-dependent electron transport coupled to a photon field with either x or y polarization. We find that the lead-system-lead current is strongly suppressed by the y-polarized photon field at magnetic field with two flux quanta due to a degeneracy of the many-body energy spectrum of the mostly occupied states. On the other hand, the lead-system-lead current can be significantly enhanced by the y-polarized field at magnetic field with half-integer flux quanta. Furthermore, the y-polarized photon field perturbs the periodicity of the persistent current with the magnetic field and suppresses the magnitude of the persistent current. The spatial and temporal density distributions reflect the characteristics of the many-body spectrum. The vortex formation in the contact areas to the leads influences the charge circulation in the ring.

  8. Non-invasive, photonics-based diagnostic, imaging, monitoring, and light delivery techniques for the recognition, quantification and treatment of malignant and chronic inflammatory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, N.; Davies-Shaw, D.; Shaw, J. D.

    2007-02-01

    We report firsthand on innovative developments in non-invasive, biophotonic techniques for a wide range of diagnostic, imaging and treatment options, including the recognition and quantification of cancerous, pre-cancerous cells and chronic inflammatory conditions. These techniques have benefited from the ability to target the affected site by both monochromatic light and broad multiple wavelength spectra. The employment of such wavelength or color-specific properties embraces the fluorescence stimulation of various photosensitizing drugs, and the instigation and detection of identified fluorescence signatures attendant upon laser induced fluorescence (LIF) phenomena as transmitted and propagated by precancerous, cancerous and normal tissue. In terms of tumor imaging and therapeutic and treatment options, we have exploited the abilities of various wavelengths to penetrate to different depths, through different types of tissues, and have explored quantifiable absorption and reflection characteristics upon which diagnostic assumptions can be reliably based and formulated. These biophotonic-based diagnostic, sensing and imaging techniques have also benefited from, and have been further enhanced by, the integrated ability to provide various power levels to be employed at various stages in the procedure. Applications are myriad, including non-invasive, non destructive diagnosis of in vivo cell characteristics and functions; light-based tissue analysis; real-time monitoring and mapping of brain function and of tumor growth; real time monitoring of the surgical completeness of tumor removal during laser-imaged/guided brain resection; diagnostic procedures based on fluorescence life-time monitoring, the monitoring of chronic inflammatory conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis), and continuous blood glucose monitoring in the control of diabetes.

  9. Role of the doubly stochastic Neyman type-A and Thomas counting distributions in photon detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teich, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    The sums of Meyman type-A and Thomas random variables are shown to retain their form under the constant multiplication parameter constraint. The conditions under which the two random variables converge in distribution to the fixed multiplicative Poisson, and to the Gaussian, are presented. It is shown that the latter result is important, in that it provides a solution to likelihood-ratio detection, estimation and discrimination problems in the presence of many kinds of signal and noise. Among the explicit applications presented are: (1) the photon-counter scintillation detection of nuclear particles when particle flux is low, (2) the photon-counting detection of weak optical signals in the presence of ionizing radiation, and (3) the design of a star-scanner spacecraft guidance system adequate for hostile space environments.

  10. Role of the doubly stochastic Neyman type-A and Thomas counting distributions in photon detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teich, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    The sums of Meyman type-A and Thomas random variables are shown to retain their form under the constant multiplication parameter constraint. The conditions under which the two random variables converge in distribution to the fixed multiplicative Poisson, and to the Gaussian, are presented. It is shown that the latter result is important, in that it provides a solution to likelihood-ratio detection, estimation and discrimination problems in the presence of many kinds of signal and noise. Among the explicit applications presented are: (1) the photon-counter scintillation detection of nuclear particles when particle flux is low, (2) the photon-counting detection of weak optical signals in the presence of ionizing radiation, and (3) the design of a star-scanner spacecraft guidance system adequate for hostile space environments.

  11. Heralding Pure Single Photons Generated with Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-lin; Xiang, Tong; Chen, Xian-feng

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of generated heralding single photons via spontaneous parametric down conversion using periodically poled lithium niobate crystals with different phase-matching. We use the Schmidt decomposition to calculate the degree of entanglement of photon pairs We simulated the spectral purity, bandwidth, and the joint spectral intensity pictures of degenerate and non-degenerate photon pairs. At last, we obtain an ideal condition of the counter-propagating photons, which can be applied in the quantum communication.

  12. Heralding Pure Single Photons Generated with Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-lin; Xiang, Tong; Chen, Xian-feng

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of generated heralding single photons via spontaneous parametric down conversion using periodically poled lithium niobate crystals with different phase-matching. We use the Schmidt decomposition to calculate the degree of entanglement of photon pairs We simulated the spectral purity, bandwidth, and the joint spectral intensity pictures of degenerate and non-degenerate photon pairs. At last, we obtain an ideal condition of the counter-propagating photons, which can be applied in the quantum communication.

  13. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  14. Photonic crystals with topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Knitter, Sebastian; Xiong, Wen; Cao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    We introduce topological defects to a square lattice of elliptical cylinders. Despite the broken translational symmetry, the long-range positional order of the cylinders leads to a residual photonic band gap in the local density of optical states. However, the band-edge modes are strongly modified by the spatial variation of the ellipse orientation. The Γ -X band-edge mode splits into four regions of high intensity and the output flux becomes asymmetric due to the formation of crystalline domains with different orientation. The Γ -M band-edge mode has the energy flux circulating around the topological defect center, creating an optical vortex. By removing the elliptical cylinders at the center, we create localized defect states, which are dominated by either clockwise or counterclockwise circulating waves. The flow direction can be switched by changing the ellipse orientation. The deterministic aperiodic variation of the unit cell orientation adds another dimension to the control of light in photonic crystals, enabling the creation of a diversified field pattern and energy flow landscape.

  15. Axionic shortcuts for high energy photons

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaidis, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the photon axion mixing in the presence of large extra dimensions. The eigenvalues and eigenstates of the mixing matrix are analyzed and we establish the resonance condition for the total conversion of a high energy photon into a Kaluza-Klein (KK) axion state. This resonant transition, a photon transformed into a KK axion traveling freely through the bulk and converting back into a photon, may provide a plausible explanation for the transparency of the universe to energetic photons. If the brane we live in is curved, then there are shortcuts through the bulk, which the axion can take. Within our model, the photons having the appropriate resonance energy are using the axionic shortcut and arrive earlier compared to the photons which follow the geodesic on the brane. We suggest that such axionic shortcuts are at the root of the dispersion of time arrival of photons observed by the MAGIC telescope. We indicate also the cosmological significance of the existence of axionic shortcuts for the photon.

  16. THE PHOTON UNDERPRODUCTION CRISIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; McEwen, Joseph; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Danforth, Charles; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark; Davé, Romeel; Madau, Piero; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.

    2014-07-10

    We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Lyα forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (Γ{sub HI}) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Lyα forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in Γ{sub HI} results in the mean flux decrement of the Lyα forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10σ discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Lyα forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.

  17. Quantifying streambed advection and conduction heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissie, Daniel; Luce, Charles H.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater and accompanying heat fluxes are particularly relevant for aquatic habitats as they influence living conditions both within the river and streambed. This study focuses on the theory and the development of new equations to estimate conduction and advection heat fluxes into and out of the bed, correcting some earlier misunderstandings and adding parameterizations that extend our understanding of timing of heat fluxes. The new heat flux equations are illustrated using Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) stream/streambed temperature data. We show important relationships between fluxes when the surface water temperature (1) follows a sinusoidal function superimposed on a steady state condition (constant deep streambed temperature) and (2) when sinusoidal variations in stream temperature at two frequencies (annual and diel) are superimposed. When the stream temperature is used as a prescribed boundary condition, the contribution of bed fluid fluxes to stream temperature occurs through the effects of conductive thermal gradients, not through direct contribution/mixing of cold/warm water. Boundary conditions can be modified, however, to account for direct contribution of cold/warm water (e.g., localized upwelling) and consequences for the conduction heat flux. Equations developed allow for prediction of conductive fluxes to the bed during summer driven by diel and annual temperature fluctuations of the stream water and good agreement was observed between analytic solutions and field data. Results from this study provide a better insight into groundwater and heat fluxes which will ultimately result in better stream temperature models and a better management of fisheries resources.

  18. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  19. Surface Fluxes under Weak Wind Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    0188 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 1 2. REPORT DATE 3REOTTYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 i 4 . ’FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) OMo .7...develop at the 10-km location (Figure 3) without any SST change. This type of event did not occur with this strength in the other records. In the

  20. High energy photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  1. Accelerator prospects for photon-photon physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1992-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the accelerators in the world where two-photon physics could be carried out in the future. The list includes facilities where two-photon physics is already an integral part of the scientific program but also mentions some other machines where initiating new programs may be possible.

  2. Simulating single photons with realistic photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Zhen; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Quantum information processing provides remarkable advantages over its classical counterpart. Quantum optical systems have been proved to be sufficient for realizing general quantum tasks, which, however, often rely on single-photon sources. In practice, imperfect single-photon sources, such as a weak-coherent-state source, are used instead, which will inevitably limit the power in demonstrating quantum effects. For instance, with imperfect photon sources, the key rate of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol will be very low, which fortunately can be resolved by utilizing the decoy-state method. As a generalization, we investigate an efficient way to simulate single photons with imperfect ones to an arbitrary desired accuracy when the number of photonic inputs is small. Based on this simulator, we can thus replace the tasks that involve only a few single-photon inputs with the ones that make use of only imperfect photon sources. In addition, our method also provides a quantum simulator to quantum computation based on quantum optics. In the main context, we take a phase-randomized coherent state as an example for analysis. A general photon source applies similarly and may provide some further advantages for certain tasks.

  3. Extra Mass Flux in Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ván, Peter; Pavelka, Michal; Grmela, Miroslav

    2017-04-01

    The conditions of existence of extra mass flux in single-component dissipative nonrelativistic fluids are clarified. By considering Galilean invariance, we show that if total mass flux is equal to total momentum density, then mass, momentum, angular momentum and booster (center of mass) are conserved. However, these conservation laws may be fulfilled also by other means. We show an example of weakly nonlocal hydrodynamics where the conservation laws are satisfied as well although the total mass flux is different from momentum density.

  4. Solid-state Image Sensor with Focal-plane Digital Photon-counting Pixel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1997-01-01

    A solid-state focal-plane imaging system comprises an NxN array of high gain. low-noise unit cells. each unit cell being connected to a different one of photovoltaic detector diodes, one for each unit cell, interspersed in the array for ultra low level image detection and a plurality of digital counters coupled to the outputs of the unit cell by a multiplexer(either a separate counter for each unit cell or a row of N of counters time shared with N rows of digital counters). Each unit cell includes two self-biasing cascode amplifiers in cascade for a high charge-to-voltage conversion gain (greater than 1mV/e(-)) and an electronic switch to reset input capacitance to a reference potential in order to be able to discriminate detection of an incident photon by the photoelectron (e(-))generated in the detector diode at the input of the first cascode amplifier in order to count incident photons individually in a digital counter connected to the output of the second cascade amplifier. Reseting the input capacitance and initiating self-biasing of the amplifiers occurs every clock cycle of an integratng period to enable ultralow light level image detection by the may of photovoltaic detector diodes under such ultralow light level conditions that the photon flux will statistically provide only a single photon at a time incident on anyone detector diode during any clock cycle.

  5. All-optical dynamical Casimir effect in a three-dimensional terahertz photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmüller, David

    2016-06-01

    We identify an architecture for the observation of all-optical dynamical Casimir effect in realistic experimental conditions. We suggest that by integrating quantum wells in a three-dimensional (3D) photonic band-gap material made out of large-scale (˜200 -μ m ) germanium logs, it is possible to achieve ultrastrong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies for the cyclotron transition of a two-dimensional electron gas interacting with long-lived optical modes, in which vacuum Rabi splitting is comparable to the Landau level spacing. When a short, intense electromagnetic transient of duration ˜250 fs and carrying a peak magnetic field ˜5 T is applied to the str