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Sample records for photonic band structures

  1. Photonic band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1993-05-01

    We learned how to create 3-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures which are to photon waves, as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. That is, these photonic crystals have a photonic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, irrespective of propagation direction in space. Photonic bandgaps provide for spontaneous emission inhibition and allow for a new class of electromagnetic micro-cavities. If the perfect 3-dimensional periodicity is broken by a local defect, then local electromagnetic modes can occur within the forbidden bandgap. The addition of extra dielectric material locally, inside the photonic crystal, produces {open_quotes}donor{close_quotes} modes. Conversely, the local removal of dielectric material from the photonic crystal produces {open_quotes}acceptor{close_quotes} modes. Therefore, it will now be possible to make high-Q electromagnetic cavities of volume {approx_lt}1 cubic wavelength, for short wavelengths at which metallic cavities are useless. These new dielectric micro-resonators can cover the range all the way from millimeter waves, down to ultraviolet wavelengths.

  2. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  3. Bi-directional evolutionary optimization for photonic band gap structures

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Fei; Huang, Xiaodong; Jia, Baohua

    2015-12-01

    Toward an efficient and easy-implement optimization for photonic band gap structures, this paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for maximizing photonic band gaps. Photonic crystals are assumed to be periodically composed of two dielectric materials with the different permittivity. Based on the finite element analysis and sensitivity analysis, BESO starts from a simple initial design without any band gap and gradually re-distributes dielectric materials within the unit cell so that the resulting photonic crystal possesses a maximum band gap between two specified adjacent bands. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed optimization algorithm can successfully obtain the band gaps from the first to the tenth band for both transverse magnetic and electric polarizations. Some optimized photonic crystals exhibit novel patterns markedly different from traditional designs of photonic crystals.

  4. Photonic band gaps structure properties of two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ji; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liang, Yu; Wu, Xiang-Yao

    2017-05-01

    The tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals band gap, absolute photonic band gap and semi-Dirac point are beneficial to designing the novel optical devices. In this paper, tunable photonic band gaps structure was realized by a new type two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which dielectric constants of medium columns are functions of space coordinates. However for the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals the dielectric constant does not change with space coordinates. As the parameter adjustment, we found that the photonic band gaps structures are dielectric constant function coefficient, medium columns radius, dielectric constant function form period number and pump light intensity dependent, namely, the photonic band gaps position and width can be tuned. we also obtained absolute photonic band gaps and semi-Dirac point in the photonic band gaps structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals. These results provide an important theoretical foundation for design novel optical devices.

  5. Band structure peculiarities of magnetic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, A. H.; Golik, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we studied light diffraction in magneto-photonic crystals (MPC) having large magneto-optical activity and modulation large depth. The case of arbitrary angles between the direction of the external static magnetic field and the normal to the border of the MPC layer is considered. The problem is solved by Ambartsumian's modified layer addition method. It is found that there is a new type of non-reciprocity, namely, the relation R (α) ≠ R (- α) takes place, where R is the reflection coefficient, and α is the incidence angle. It is shown the formation of new photonic band gap (PBG) at oblique incidence of light, which is not selective for the polarization of the incident light, in the case when the external magnetic field is directed along the medium axis. Such a system can be used as: a tunable polarization filter, polarization mirror, circular (elliptical) polarizer, tunable optical diode, etc.

  6. Photonic crystal digital alloys and their band structure properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongkug; Kim, Dong-Uk; Jeon, Heonsu

    2011-09-26

    We investigated semi-disordered photonic crystals (PCs), digital alloys, and made thorough comparisons with their counterparts, random alloys. A set of diamond lattice PC digital alloys operating in a microwave regime were prepared by alternately stacking two kinds of sub-PC systems composed of alumina and silica spheres of the same size. Measured transmission spectra as well as calculated band structures revealed that when the digital alloy period is short, band-gaps of the digital alloys are practically the same as those of the random alloys. This study indicates that the concept of digital alloys holds for photons in PCs as well.

  7. Band structure of absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lem, Han; Tip, Adriaan; Moroz, Alexander

    2003-06-01

    The band structure for an absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystal made from cylinders consisting of a Drude material is calculated. Absorption causes the spectrum to become complex and form islands in the negative complex half-plane. The boundaries of these islands are not always formed by the eigenvalues calculated for Bloch vectors on the characteristic path, and we find a hole in the spectrum. For realistic parameter values, the real part of the spectrum is hardly influenced by absorption, typically less than 0.25%. The employed method uses a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker procedure together with analytical continuation. This results in an efficient approach that allows these band-structure calculations to be done on a Pentium III personal computer.

  8. Properties of entangled photon pairs generated in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic-band-gap structures

    SciTech Connect

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; Scalora, Michael

    2006-03-15

    We have developed a rigorous quantum model of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a nonlinear 1D photonic-band-gap structure based upon expansion of the field into monochromatic plane waves. The model provides a two-photon amplitude of a created photon pair. The spectra of the signal and idler fields, their intensity profiles in the time domain, as well as the coincidence-count interference pattern in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer are determined both for cw and pulsed pumping regimes in terms of the two-photon amplitude. A broad range of parameters characterizing the emitted down-converted fields can be used. As an example, a structure composed of 49 layers of GaN/AlN is analyzed as a suitable source of photon pairs having high efficiency.

  9. Properties of entangled photon pairs generated in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic-band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Jan, Jr.; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; Scalora, Michael

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a rigorous quantum model of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a nonlinear 1D photonic-band-gap structure based upon expansion of the field into monochromatic plane waves. The model provides a two-photon amplitude of a created photon pair. The spectra of the signal and idler fields, their intensity profiles in the time domain, as well as the coincidence-count interference pattern in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer are determined both for cw and pulsed pumping regimes in terms of the two-photon amplitude. A broad range of parameters characterizing the emitted down-converted fields can be used. As an example, a structure composed of 49 layers of GaN/AlN is analyzed as a suitable source of photon pairs having high efficiency.

  10. Unfolding the band structure of non-crystalline photonic band gap materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrin, Samuel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Amoah, Timothy; Nahal, Geev; Chan, Ho Leung; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining

    2015-08-01

    Non-crystalline photonic band gap (PBG) materials have received increasing attention, and sizeable PBGs have been reported in quasi-crystalline structures and, more recently, in disordered structures. Band structure calculations for periodic structures produce accurate dispersion relations, which determine group velocities, dispersion, density of states and iso-frequency surfaces, and are used to predict a wide-range of optical phenomena including light propagation, excited-state decay rates, temporal broadening or compression of ultrashort pulses and complex refraction phenomena. However, band calculations for non-periodic structures employ large super-cells of hundreds to thousands building blocks, and provide little useful information other than the PBG central frequency and width. Using stereolithography, we construct cm-scale disordered PBG materials and perform microwave transmission measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The photonic dispersion relations are reconstructed from the measured and simulated phase data. Our results demonstrate the existence of sizeable PBGs in these disordered structures and provide detailed information of the effective band diagrams, dispersion relation, iso-frequency contours, and their angular dependence. Slow light phenomena are also observed in these structures near gap frequencies. This study introduces a powerful tool to investigate photonic properties of non-crystalline structures and provides important effective dispersion information, otherwise difficult to obtain.

  11. Unfolding the band structure of non-crystalline photonic band gap materials.

    PubMed

    Tsitrin, Samuel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Amoah, Timothy; Nahal, Geev; Chan, Ho Leung; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining

    2015-08-20

    Non-crystalline photonic band gap (PBG) materials have received increasing attention, and sizeable PBGs have been reported in quasi-crystalline structures and, more recently, in disordered structures. Band structure calculations for periodic structures produce accurate dispersion relations, which determine group velocities, dispersion, density of states and iso-frequency surfaces, and are used to predict a wide-range of optical phenomena including light propagation, excited-state decay rates, temporal broadening or compression of ultrashort pulses and complex refraction phenomena. However, band calculations for non-periodic structures employ large super-cells of hundreds to thousands building blocks, and provide little useful information other than the PBG central frequency and width. Using stereolithography, we construct cm-scale disordered PBG materials and perform microwave transmission measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The photonic dispersion relations are reconstructed from the measured and simulated phase data. Our results demonstrate the existence of sizeable PBGs in these disordered structures and provide detailed information of the effective band diagrams, dispersion relation, iso-frequency contours, and their angular dependence. Slow light phenomena are also observed in these structures near gap frequencies. This study introduces a powerful tool to investigate photonic properties of non-crystalline structures and provides important effective dispersion information, otherwise difficult to obtain.

  12. Unfolding the band structure of non-crystalline photonic band gap materials

    PubMed Central

    Tsitrin, Samuel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Amoah, Timothy; Nahal, Geev; Chan, Ho Leung; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining

    2015-01-01

    Non-crystalline photonic band gap (PBG) materials have received increasing attention, and sizeable PBGs have been reported in quasi-crystalline structures and, more recently, in disordered structures. Band structure calculations for periodic structures produce accurate dispersion relations, which determine group velocities, dispersion, density of states and iso-frequency surfaces, and are used to predict a wide-range of optical phenomena including light propagation, excited-state decay rates, temporal broadening or compression of ultrashort pulses and complex refraction phenomena. However, band calculations for non-periodic structures employ large super-cells of hundreds to thousands building blocks, and provide little useful information other than the PBG central frequency and width. Using stereolithography, we construct cm-scale disordered PBG materials and perform microwave transmission measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The photonic dispersion relations are reconstructed from the measured and simulated phase data. Our results demonstrate the existence of sizeable PBGs in these disordered structures and provide detailed information of the effective band diagrams, dispersion relation, iso-frequency contours, and their angular dependence. Slow light phenomena are also observed in these structures near gap frequencies. This study introduces a powerful tool to investigate photonic properties of non-crystalline structures and provides important effective dispersion information, otherwise difficult to obtain. PMID:26289434

  13. Photonic band gap structure for a ferroelectric photonic crystal at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    King, Tzu-Chyang; Chen, De-Xin; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2015-10-10

    In this work, the photonic band gap (PBG) structure in a one-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal (PC) is theoretically investigated. We consider a PC, air/(AB)N/air, in which layer A is a dielectric of MgO and layer B is taken to be a ferroelectric of Ba0.55Sr0.45TiO3 (BSTO). With an extremely high value in the dielectric constant in BSTO, the calculated photonic band structure at microwave frequencies exhibits some interesting features that are significantly different from those in a usual dielectric-dielectric PC. First, the photonic transmission band consists of multiple and nearly discrete transmission peaks. Second, the calculated bandwidth of the PBG is nearly unchanged as the angle of incidence varies in the TE wave. The bandwidth will slightly reduce for the TM mode. Thus, a wide omnidirectional PBG can be obtained. Additionally, the effect of the thickness of the ferroelectric layer on the PBG is much more pronounced compared to the dielectric layer thickness. That is, the increase of ferroelectric thickness can significantly decrease the PBG bandwidth.

  14. Method of manufacturing flexible metallic photonic band gap structures, and structures resulting therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Sandhya; Tuttle, Gary L.; Sigalas, Mihail; McCalmont, Jonathan S.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2001-08-14

    A method of manufacturing a flexible metallic photonic band gap structure operable in the infrared region, comprises the steps of spinning on a first layer of dielectric on a GaAs substrate, imidizing this first layer of dielectric, forming a first metal pattern on this first layer of dielectric, spinning on and imidizing a second layer of dielectric, and then removing the GaAs substrate. This method results in a flexible metallic photonic band gap structure operable with various filter characteristics in the infrared region. This method may be used to construct multi-layer flexible metallic photonic band gap structures. Metal grid defects and dielectric separation layer thicknesses are adjusted to control filter parameters.

  15. X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Roark A.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

  16. Photonic Band Gap Structures as a Gateway to Nano-Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, IAN J.; GOURLEY, PAUL L.; HAMMONS, G.; HIETALA, VINCENT M.; JONES, ERIC D.; KLEM, JOHN F.; KURTZ, SHARON L.; LIN, SHAWN-YU; LYO, SUNGKWUN K.; VAWTER, GREGORY A.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-08-01

    This LDRD project explored the fundamental physics of a new class of photonic materials, photonic bandgap structures (PBG), and examine its unique properties for the design and implementation of photonic devices on a nano-meter length scale for the control and confinement of light. The low loss, highly reflective and quantum interference nature of a PBG material makes it one of the most promising candidates for realizing an extremely high-Q resonant cavity, >10,000, for optoelectronic applications and for the exploration of novel photonic physics, such as photonic localization, tunneling and modification of spontaneous emission rate. Moreover, the photonic bandgap concept affords us with a new opportunity to design and tailor photonic properties in very much the same way we manipulate, or bandgap engineer, electronic properties through modern epitaxy.

  17. Photonic bands in two-dimensional microplasma arrays. I. Theoretical derivation of band structures of electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakaguchi, Takui; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2007-04-01

    Two theoretical approaches appropriate for two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals reveal dispersions of propagating waves including photonic (electromagnetic) band gaps and multiflatbands. A modified plane-wave expansion method yields dispersions of collisional periodical plasmas, and the complex-value solution of a wave equation by a finite difference method enables us to obtain dispersions with structure effects in an individual microplasma. Periodical plasma arrays form band gaps as well as normal photonic crystals, and multiflatbands are present below the electron plasma frequency in the transverse electric field mode. Electron elastic collisions lower the top frequency of the multiflatbands but have little effect on band gap properties. The spatial gradient of the local dielectric constant resulting from an electron density profile widens the frequency region of the multiflatbands, as demonstrated by the change of surface wave distributions. Propagation properties described in dispersions including band gaps and flatbands agree with experimental observations of microplasma arrays.

  18. Photonic band structure of dielectric membranes periodically textured in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacradouni, V.; Mandeville, W. J.; Cowan, A. R.; Paddon, P.; Young, Jeff F.; Johnson, S. R.

    2000-08-01

    The real and imaginary photonic band structure of modes attached to two-dimensionally textured semiconductor membranes is determined experimentally and theoretically. These porous waveguides exhibit large (1000 cm-1 at 9500 cm-1) second-order optical gaps, highly dispersive lifetimes, and bands with well-defined polarization along directions of high symmetry.

  19. Low-frequency photonic band structures in graphene-like triangular metallic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang

    2016-11-01

    We study the low frequency photonic band structures in triangular metallic lattice, displaying Dirac points in the frequency spectrum, and constructed upon the lowest order regular polygonal tiles. We show that, in spite of the unfavourable geometrical conditions intrinsic to the structure symmetry, the lowest frequency photonic bands are formed by resonance modes sustained by local structure patterns, with the corresponding electric fields following a triangular distribution at low structure filling rate and a honeycomb distribution at high filling rate. For both cases, the lowest photonic bands, and thus the plasma gap, can be described in the framework of a tight binding model, and analysed in terms of local resonance modes and their mutual correlations. At high filling rate, the Dirac points and their movement following the structure deformation are described in the same framework, in relation with local structure patterns and their variations, as well as the particularity of the metallic lattice that enhances the topological anisotropy.

  20. Self-consistent photonic band structure of dielectric superlattices containing nonlinear optical materials.

    PubMed

    Lousse, V; Vigneron, J P

    2001-02-01

    The theory of photonic crystals is extended to include the optical Kerr effect taking place in weak third-order, nonlinear materials present in the unit cell. The influence on the dispersion relations of the illumination caused by a single Bloch mode transiting through the crystal structure is examined. Special attention is given to the modification of the photonic gap width and position. Assuming an instantaneous change of refractive index with illumination, the nonlinear band structure problem is solved as a sequence of ordinary, linear band structure calculations, carried out in a plane-wave field representation.

  1. Photonic crystal alloys: a new twist in controlling photonic band structure properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Dong-Uk; Roh, Young-Geun; Yu, Jaejun; Jeon, Heonsu; Park, Q-Han

    2008-04-28

    We identified new photonic structures and phenomenon that are analogous to alloy crystals and the associated electronic bandgap engineering. From a set of diamond-lattice microwave photonic crystals of randomly mixed silica and alumina spheres but with a well defined mixing composition, we observed that both bandedges of the L-point bandgap monotonically shifted with very little bowing as the composition was varied. The observed results were in excellent agreement with the virtual crystal approximation theory originally developed for electronic properties of alloy crystals. This result signifies the similarity and correspondence between photonics and electronics.

  2. Full band structure calculation of two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J. L.; Rioux, J.; Sipe, J. E.

    2011-03-28

    Degenerate two-photon indirect absorption in silicon is an important limiting effect on the use of silicon structures for all-optical information processing at telecommunication wavelengths. We perform a full band structure calculation to investigate two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon, using a pseudopotential description of the energy bands and an adiabatic bond charge model to describe phonon dispersion and polarization. Our results agree well with some recent experimental results. The transverse acoustic/optical phonon-assisted processes dominate.

  3. Peculiarities of the band structure of multi-component photonic crystals with different dimensions.

    PubMed

    Samusev, A K; Samusev, K B; Rybin, M V; Limonov, M F

    2010-03-24

    In this work we offer a simple analytical method which allows us to determine and study the effects of the selective switching of photonic stop-bands in multi-component photonic crystals (Mc-PhCs) of any dimensionality. The calculations for Mc-PhCs with low dielectric contrast have been performed in the framework of the model based on the scattering form factor analysis. It has been shown that the effects of selective switching of photonic stop-bands predicted theoretically and found experimentally before in three-dimensional (3D) Mc-PhC have a general character and may be observed also in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Mc-PhCs. It is found that 1D, 2D and 3D Mc-PhCs demonstrate unexpectedly similar quasi-periodic behaviour of photonic stop-bands as a function of the reciprocal lattice vector. A proper choice of the structural and dielectric parameters can create a resonance photonic stop-band determining the Bragg wavelengths, to which a photonic crystal can never be transparent.

  4. Diamond Opal-Replica Photonic Crystals and Graphitic Metallic Photonic Band Gap Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, A. A.; Baughman, R. H.; Iqbal, Z.; Khayrullin, I. I.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    1998-03-01

    We demonstrate a new method for the formation of photonic bandgap crystals that operate at optical wavelengths. This method involves the templating of a self-assempled SiO2 lattice with diamond, graphite, or amorphous forms of carbon, followed by the removal of the original SiO2 lattice matrix by chemical means. Such carbon opal replicas are the "air type" of photonic crystal (where air replaces silica spheres) that are most favourable for photonic bandgap formation. Surprisingly, the structure of the original opal lattice having a typical cubic lattice dimension of 250 nm) is reliably replicated down to the nanometer scale using either a diamond, graphite, or amorphous carbon templated material. The optical properties of these photonic bandgap crystals are reported and compared with both theory and experimental results on other types of opal-derived lattices that we have investigated. The graphitic reverse opal is the first example of a network type metallic photonic crystal for the optical domain, for which a large photonic bandgap have been predicted.

  5. Band structure of germanium carbides for direct bandgap silicon photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, C. A. Stillwell, R. A.; Wistey, M. A.; O'Brien, W. A.; Penninger, M. W.; Schneider, W. F.; Gillett-Kunnath, M.; Zajicek, J.; Yu, K. M.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-08-07

    Compact optical interconnects require efficient lasers and modulators compatible with silicon. Ab initio modeling of Ge{sub 1−x}C{sub x} (x = 0.78%) using density functional theory with HSE06 hybrid functionals predicts a splitting of the conduction band at Γ and a strongly direct bandgap, consistent with band anticrossing. Photoreflectance of Ge{sub 0.998}C{sub 0.002} shows a bandgap reduction supporting these results. Growth of Ge{sub 0.998}C{sub 0.002} using tetrakis(germyl)methane as the C source shows no signs of C-C bonds, C clusters, or extended defects, suggesting highly substitutional incorporation of C. Optical gain and modulation are predicted to rival III–V materials due to a larger electron population in the direct valley, reduced intervalley scattering, suppressed Auger recombination, and increased overlap integral for a stronger fundamental optical transition.

  6. Simulation of pulsed optical logic gates based on photonic band gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedov, Igor; Morozov, Yurii; Gusyatnikov, Viktor; Zheltikov, Aleksei

    2001-04-01

    The change in the refractive index of GaAs due to the light-induced generation of nonequilibrium charge carriers is shown to substantially change the transmission of a one-dimensional GaAs/GaAlAs photonic band-gap structure, allowing low-threshold photonic-crystal optical logic gates to be created. Elementary logic operations of the Boolean algebra performed with nonlinear PBG structures, including the biconditional implication, modulo-two addition, Peirce's arrow, and disjunction, are demonstrated. It is demonstrated that different results of optical switching can be achieved and, consequently, different logic operations can be performed with the same photonic band-gap structure at different delay times by varying the energy of the control light pulse.

  7. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, Kevin Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals are periodic dielectric structures that manipulate electromagnetic radiation in a manner similar to semiconductor devices manipulating electrons. Whereas a semiconductor material exhibits an electronic band gap in which electrons cannot exist, similarly, a photonic crystal containing a photonic band gap does not allow the propagation of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon results from the destructive Bragg diffraction interference that a wave propagating at a specific frequency will experience because of the periodic change in dielectric permitivity. This gives rise to a variety of optical applications for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of opto-electronic devices. These applications are reviewed later. Several methods are currently used to fabricate photonic crystals, which are also discussed in detail. This research involves a layer-by-layer micro-transfer molding ({mu}TM) and stacking method to create three-dimensional FCC structures of epoxy or titania. The structures, once reduced significantly in size can be infiltrated with an organic gain media and stacked on a semiconductor to improve the efficiency of an electronically pumped light-emitting diode. Photonic band gap structures have been proven to effectively create a band gap for certain frequencies of electro-magnetic radiation in the microwave and near-infrared ranges. The objective of this research project was originally two-fold: to fabricate a three dimensional (3-D) structure of a size scaled to prohibit electromagnetic propagation within the visible wavelength range, and then to characterize that structure using laser dye emission spectra. As a master mold has not yet been developed for the micro transfer molding technique in the visible range, the research was limited to scaling down the length scale as much as possible with the current available technology and characterizing these structures with other methods.

  8. Detailed Study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Valiaghaie, Soma; Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  9. Band structure of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals using the Fresnel coefficients method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.

    2017-04-01

    The current study has examined the band structures of two types of photonic crystals (PCs). The first is a one-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystal (1DMMPC) composed of double-layered units for which both layers of each unit are dielectric. The second type is a very similar one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) also composed of double-layered units in which the first layer is a dielectric material but the second is a plasma layer. This study compares the band structures of the 1DMMPC with specific optical characteristics of the 1DPPC using the Fresnel coefficients method and also compares the results of this method with the results of the transfer matrix method. It is concluded that the dependency of the electric permittivity of the plasma layer on the incident field frequency causes differences in the band structures in 1DMMPC and 1DPPC for both TE and TM polarizations and their gaps reside in different frequencies. The band structures of the 1DMMPC and 1DPPC are confirmed by the results of the transfer matrix method.

  10. Band structure of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals using the Fresnel coefficients method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.

    2016-11-01

    The current study has examined the band structures of two types of photonic crystals (PCs). The first is a one-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystal (1DMMPC) composed of double-layered units for which both layers of each unit are dielectric. The second type is a very similar one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) also composed of double-layered units in which the first layer is a dielectric material but the second is a plasma layer. This study compares the band structures of the 1DMMPC with specific optical characteristics of the 1DPPC using the Fresnel coefficients method and also compares the results of this method with the results of the transfer matrix method. It is concluded that the dependency of the electric permittivity of the plasma layer on the incident field frequency causes differences in the band structures in 1DMMPC and 1DPPC for both TE and TM polarizations and their gaps reside in different frequencies. The band structures of the 1DMMPC and 1DPPC are confirmed by the results of the transfer matrix method.

  11. Photonic band gaps in three-dimensional network structures with short-range order

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Schreck, Carl F.; Dufresne, Eric R.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui

    2011-12-15

    We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PASs) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PASs with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PASs, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PASs without long-range order.

  12. Analysis of strategies to improve the directionality of square lattice band-edge photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Haroldo T; Schneider, Vitor M; Cazo, Rogério M; Barbosa, Carmem L

    2005-05-20

    Recently, photonic crystal band-edge structures have been analyzed in the literature. However, most devices that have been presented so far emit light in different directions. We present a modal analysis (no gain included) of a few schemes to improve the directionality of these devices, i.e., in such a way that light that exits from them will travel mainly in a certain direction, eventually coupling its energy to a wide waveguide.

  13. Periodic dielectric structure for production of photonic band gap and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Ozbay, E.; Tuttle, G.; Michel, E.; Ho, K.M.; Biswas, R.; Chan, C.T.; Soukoulis, C.

    1995-04-11

    A method is disclosed for fabricating a periodic dielectric structure which exhibits a photonic band gap. Alignment holes are formed in a wafer of dielectric material having a given crystal orientation. A planar layer of elongate rods is then formed in a section of the wafer. The formation of the rods includes the step of selectively removing the dielectric material of the wafer between the rods. The formation of alignment holes and layers of elongate rods and wafers is then repeated to form a plurality of patterned wafers. A stack of patterned wafers is then formed by rotating each successive wafer with respect to the next-previous wafer, and then placing the successive wafer on the stack. This stacking results in a stack of patterned wafers having a four-layer periodicity exhibiting a photonic band gap. 42 figures.

  14. Investigation of the Band Structure of Graphene-Based Plasmonic Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Pingping; Qiu, Weibin; Lin, Zhili; Chen, Houbo; Tang, Yixin; Wang, Jia-Xian; Kan, Qiang; Pan, Jiao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) graphene-based plasmonic photonic crystals (PhCs) are proposed. The band structures and density of states (DOS) have been numerically investigated. Photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in both 1D and 2D PhCs. Meanwhile, graphene-based plasmonic PhC nanocavity with resonant frequency around 175 THz, is realized by introducing point defect, where the chemical potential is from 0.085 to 0.25 eV, in a 2D PhC. Also, the bending wvaguide and the beam splitter are realized by introducing the line defect into the 2D PhC. PMID:28335295

  15. Investigation of the Band Structure of Graphene-Based Plasmonic Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Pingping; Qiu, Weibin; Lin, Zhili; Chen, Houbo; Tang, Yixin; Wang, Jia-Xian; Kan, Qiang; Pan, Jiao-Qing

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) graphene-based plasmonic photonic crystals (PhCs) are proposed. The band structures and density of states (DOS) have been numerically investigated. Photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in both 1D and 2D PhCs. Meanwhile, graphene-based plasmonic PhC nanocavity with resonant frequency around 175 THz, is realized by introducing point defect, where the chemical potential is from 0.085 to 0.25 eV, in a 2D PhC. Also, the bending wvaguide and the beam splitter are realized by introducing the line defect into the 2D PhC.

  16. Periodic dielectric structure for production of photonic band gap and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Ozbay, Ekmel; Tuttle, Gary; Michel, Erick; Ho, Kai-Ming; Biswas, Rana; Chan, Che-Ting; Soukoulis, Costas

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating a periodic dielectric structure which exhibits a photonic band gap. Alignment holes are formed in a wafer of dielectric material having a given crystal orientation. A planar layer of elongate rods is then formed in a section of the wafer. The formation of the rods includes the step of selectively removing the dielectric material of the wafer between the rods. The formation of alignment holes and layers of elongate rods and wafers is then repeated to form a plurality of patterned wafers. A stack of patterned wafers is then formed by rotating each successive wafer with respect to the next-previous wafer, and then placing the successive wafer on the stack. This stacking results in a stack of patterned wafers having a four-layer periodicity exhibiting a photonic band gap.

  17. Omnidirectional photonic band gap enlarged by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haifeng; Liu Shaobin; Kong Xiangkun; Bian Borui; Dai Yi

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap realized by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure, which is composed of homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and two kinds of isotropic dielectric, is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that such an omnidirectional photonic band gap originates from Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, and it is insensitive to the incidence angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave. From the numerical results, the frequency range and central frequency of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be tuned by the thickness and density of the plasma but cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order. The bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be notably enlarged. Moreover, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap. It is shown that such new structure Fibonacci quasiperiodic one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals have a superior feature in the enhancement of frequency range of omnidirectional photonic band gap compared with the conventional ternary and conventional Fibonacci quasiperiodic ternary plasma photonic crystals.

  18. Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic-crystal band-gap structures.

    PubMed

    Men, H; Lee, K Y K; Freund, R M; Peraire, J; Johnson, S G

    2014-09-22

    We perform full 3D topology optimization (in which "every voxel" of the unit cell is a degree of freedom) of photonic-crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and simple-cubic lattices. Even without imposing the constraints of any fabrication process, the resulting optimal gaps are only slightly larger than previous hand designs, suggesting that current photonic crystals are nearly optimal in this respect. However, optimization can discover new structures, e.g. a new fcc structure with the same symmetry but slightly larger gap than the well known inverse opal, which may offer new degrees of freedom to future fabrication technologies. Furthermore, our band-gap optimization is an illustration of a computational approach to 3D dispersion engineering which is applicable to many other problems in optics, based on a novel semidefinite-program formulation for nonconvex eigenvalue optimization combined with other techniques such as a simple approach to impose symmetry constraints. We also demonstrate a technique for robust topology optimization, in which some uncertainty is included in each voxel and we optimize the worst-case gap, and we show that the resulting band gaps have increased robustness to systematic fabrication errors.

  19. Band structure and waveguide modelling of epitaxially regrown photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard J. E.; Williams, David M.; Orchard, Jon R.; Childs, David T. D.; Khamas, Salam; Hogg, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we describe elements of photonic crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) design and operation, highlighting that epitaxial regrowth may provide advantages over current designs incorporating voids. High coupling coefficients are shown to be possible for all-semiconductor structures. We introduce type I and type II photonic crystals (PCs), and discuss the possible advantages of using each. We discussed band structure and coupling coefficients as a function of atom volume for a circular atom on a square lattice. Additionally we explore the effect PC atom size has on in-plane and out-of-plane coupling. We conclude by discussing designs for a PCSEL combined with a distributed Bragg reflector to maximize external efficiency.

  20. Spectral element method for band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo

    2009-11-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is introduced for accurate calculation of band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. The method is based on the finite-element framework with curvilinear hexahedral elements. Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials are used to construct the basis functions. In order to suppress spurious modes, mixed-order vector basis functions are employed and the Bloch periodic boundary condition is imposed into the basis functions with tangential components at the boundary by multiplying a Bloch phase factor. The fields and coordinates in the curvilinear hexahedral elements are mapped to the reference domain by covariant mapping, which preserves the continuity of tangential components of the field. Numerical results show that the SEM has exponential convergence for both square-lattice and triangular-lattice photonic crystals. The sampling density as small as 3.4 points per wavelength can achieve accuracy as high as 99.9%. The band structures of several modified woodpile photonic crystals are calculated by using the SEM.

  1. Spectral element method for band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo

    2009-11-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is introduced for accurate calculation of band structures of three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. The method is based on the finite-element framework with curvilinear hexahedral elements. Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials are used to construct the basis functions. In order to suppress spurious modes, mixed-order vector basis functions are employed and the Bloch periodic boundary condition is imposed into the basis functions with tangential components at the boundary by multiplying a Bloch phase factor. The fields and coordinates in the curvilinear hexahedral elements are mapped to the reference domain by covariant mapping, which preserves the continuity of tangential components of the field. Numerical results show that the SEM has exponential convergence for both square-lattice and triangular-lattice photonic crystals. The sampling density as small as 3.4 points per wavelength can achieve accuracy as high as 99.9%. The band structures of several modified woodpile photonic crystals are calculated by using the SEM.

  2. Exceptional Contours and Band Structure Design in Parity-Time Symmetric Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Cerjan, Alexander; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-05-20

    We investigate the properties of two-dimensional parity-time symmetric periodic systems whose non-Hermitian periodicity is an integer multiple of the underlying Hermitian system's periodicity. This creates a natural set of degeneracies that can undergo thresholdless PT transitions. We derive a k·p perturbation theory suited to the continuous eigenvalues of such systems in terms of the modes of the underlying Hermitian system. In photonic crystals, such thresholdless PT transitions are shown to yield significant control over the band structure of the system, and can result in all-angle supercollimation, a PT-superprism effect, and unidirectional behavior.

  3. Transparent, metallo-dielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M. J.; Pethel, A. S.; Dowling, J. P.; Bowden, C. M.; Manka, A. S.

    1998-03-01

    We investigate numerically the properties of metallo-dielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures. Our theory predicts that interference effects give rise to a new transparent metallic structure that permits the transmission of light over a tunable range of frequencies, for example, the ultraviolet, the visible, or the infrared wavelength range. The structure can be designed to block ultraviolet light, transmit in the visible range, and reflect all other electromagnetic waves of lower frequencies, from infrared to microwaves and beyond. The transparent metallic structure is composed of a stack of alternating layers of a metal and a dielectric material, such that the complex index of refraction alternates between a high and a low value. The structure remains transparent even if the total amount of metal is increased to hundreds of skin depths in net thickness.

  4. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Buechler, Cynthia E.; Edwards, Randall L.; Romero, William P.; Conde, Manoel; Ha, Gwanghui; Power, John G.; Wisniewski, Eric E.; Jing, Chunguang

    2016-02-10

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic band gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. We conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Lastly, excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.

  5. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure.

    PubMed

    Simakov, Evgenya I; Arsenyev, Sergey A; Buechler, Cynthia E; Edwards, Randall L; Romero, William P; Conde, Manoel; Ha, Gwanghui; Power, John G; Wisniewski, Eric E; Jing, Chunguang

    2016-02-12

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic-band-gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have the potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. We conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.

  6. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Buechler, Cynthia E.; Edwards, Randall L.; Romero, William P.; Conde, Manoel; Ha, Gwanghui; Power, John G.; Wisniewski, Eric E.; Jing, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic-band-gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have the potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. We conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.

  7. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure

    DOE PAGES

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Buechler, Cynthia E.; ...

    2016-02-10

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic band gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. Wemore » conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Lastly, excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.« less

  8. Photonic band structure of diamond colloidal crystals in a cholesteric liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizrezaei, Setarehalsadat; Denniston, Colin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the presence of a photonic band gap for a diamond lattice structure made of particles with normal anchoring inside a cholesteric liquid crystal. As is typical for liquid crystals (LCs), there is considerable contrast between the dielectric constant parallel ɛ∥ and perpendicular ɛ⊥ to the director, with ɛ∥/ɛ⊥˜4 here. It is shown that the size of the photonic band gap is directly related to the size of colloidal particles and the contrast between the dielectric constant in the particles and the extreme values of ɛ in the LC medium (one needs either ɛ in the particle much smaller than ɛ⊥ o r much bigger than ɛ∥). No opening is seen in the band diagrams for small particles. For larger particles a partial gap opens when the particles are composed of very low dielectric material but never a complete gap. On the other hand, a complete gap starts to be revealed when the size of the colloidal particles is increased and when a high dielectric constant is used for filling inside the particles. The maximum size of the gap is observed when the particles are large enough so that their surfaces overlap.

  9. Periodic dielectric structure for production of photonic band gap and devices incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Kai-Ming; Chan, Che-Ting; Soukoulis, Costas

    1994-08-02

    A periodic dielectric structure which is capable of producing a photonic band gap and which is capable of practical construction. The periodic structure is formed of a plurality of layers, each layer being formed of a plurality of rods separated by a given spacing. The material of the rods contrasts with the material between the rods to have a refractive index contrast of at least two. The rods in each layer are arranged with their axes parallel and at a given spacing. Adjacent layers are rotated by 90.degree., such that the axes of the rods in any given layer are perpendicular to the axes in its neighbor. Alternating layers (that is, successive layers of rods having their axes parallel such as the first and third layers) are offset such that the rods of one are about at the midpoint between the rods of the other. A four-layer periocity is thus produced, and successive layers are stacked to form a three-dimensional structure which exhibits a photonic band gap. By virtue of forming the device in layers of elongate members, it is found that the device is susceptible of practical construction.

  10. Experimental high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap accelerator structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Brian J.; Zhang, JieXi; Xu, Haoran; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2016-03-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG) accelerator structure. Photonic band-gap (PBG) structures are promising candidates for electron accelerators capable of high-gradient operation because they have the inherent damping of high order modes required to avoid beam breakup instabilities. The 17.1 GHz PBG structure tested was a single cell structure composed of a triangular array of round copper rods of radius 1.45 mm spaced by 8.05 mm. The test assembly consisted of the test PBG cell located between conventional (pillbox) input and output cells, with input power of up to 4 MW from a klystron supplied via a TM01 mode launcher. Breakdown at high gradient was observed by diagnostics including reflected power, downstream and upstream current monitors and visible light emission. The testing procedure was first benchmarked with a conventional disc-loaded waveguide structure, which reached a gradient of 87 MV /m at a breakdown probability of 1.19 ×10-1 per pulse per meter. The PBG structure was tested with 100 ns pulses at gradient levels of less than 90 MV /m in order to limit the surface temperature rise to 120 K. The PBG structure reached up to 89 MV /m at a breakdown probability of 1.09 ×10-1 per pulse per meter. These test results show that a PBG structure can simultaneously operate at high gradients and low breakdown probability, while also providing wakefield damping.

  11. Spectral element method for band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo; Li, Zhibing

    2009-02-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for the accurate calculation of band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. It uses Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials as the basis functions in the finite-element framework with curvilinear quadrilateral elements. Coordination mapping is introduced to make the curved quadrilateral elements conformal with the problem geometry. Mixed order basis functions are used in the vector SEM for full vector calculation. The numerical convergence speed of the method is investigated with both square and triangular lattices, and with isotropic and in-plane anisotropic media. It is shown that this method has spectral accuracy, i.e., the numerical error decreases exponentially with the order of basis functions. With only four points per wavelength, the SEM can achieve a numerical error smaller than 0.1%. The full vector calculation method can suppress all spurious modes with nonzero eigenvalues, thus making it easy to filter out real modes. It is thus demonstrated that the SEM is an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals.

  12. Spectral element method for band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ma; Liu, Qing Huo; Li, Zhibing

    2009-02-01

    A spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for the accurate calculation of band structures of two-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. It uses Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials as the basis functions in the finite-element framework with curvilinear quadrilateral elements. Coordination mapping is introduced to make the curved quadrilateral elements conformal with the problem geometry. Mixed order basis functions are used in the vector SEM for full vector calculation. The numerical convergence speed of the method is investigated with both square and triangular lattices, and with isotropic and in-plane anisotropic media. It is shown that this method has spectral accuracy, i.e., the numerical error decreases exponentially with the order of basis functions. With only four points per wavelength, the SEM can achieve a numerical error smaller than 0.1%. The full vector calculation method can suppress all spurious modes with nonzero eigenvalues, thus making it easy to filter out real modes. It is thus demonstrated that the SEM is an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals.

  13. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, Kevin Jerome

    2001-06-27

    Over the last ten years, photonic band gap (PBG) theory and technology have become an important area of research because of the numerous possible applications ranging from high-efficiency laser diodes to optical circuitry. This research concentrates on reducing the length scale in the fabrication of layered photonic band gap structures and developing procedures to improve processing consistency. Various procedures and materials have been used in the fabrication of layered PBG structures. This research focused on an economical micro transfer molding approach to create the final PBG structure. A poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber mold was created from a silicon substrate. It was filled with epoxy and built layer-by-layer to create a 3-D epoxy structure. This structure was infiltrated with nanoparticle titania or a titania sol-gel, then fired to remove the polymer mold, leaving a monolithic ceramic inverse of the epoxy structure. The final result was a lattice of titania rolds that resembles a face-centered tetragonal structure. The original intent of this research was to miniaturize this process to a bar size small enough to create a photonic band gap for wavelengths of visible electro-magnetic radiation. The factor limiting progress was the absence of a silicon master mold of small enough dimensions. The Iowa State Microelectronics Research Center fabricated samples with periodicities of 2.5 and 1.0 microns with the existing technology, but a sample was needed on the order of 0.3 microns or less. A 0.4 micron sample was received from Sandia National Laboratory, which was made through an electron beam lithography process, but it contained several defects. The results of the work are primarily from the 2.5 and 1.0 micron samples. Most of the work focused on changing processing variables in order to optimize the infiltration procedure for the best results. Several critical parameters were identified, ranging from the ambient conditions to the specifics of the

  14. Analysis of band structure, transmission properties, and dispersion behavior of THz wave in one-dimensional parabolic plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Nasim; Eslami, Esmaeil; Mirzaie, Reza

    2015-11-15

    The photonic band gap of obliquely incident terahertz electromagnetic waves in a one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal is studied. The periodic structure consists of lossless dielectric and inhomogeneous plasma with a parabolic density profile. The dispersion relation and the THz wave transmittance are analyzed based on the electromagnetic equations and transfer matrix method. The dependence of effective plasma frequency and photonic band gap characteristics on dielectric and plasma thickness, plasma density, and incident angle are discussed in detail. A theoretical calculation for effective plasma frequency is presented and compared with numerical results. Results of these two methods are in good agreement.

  15. The properties of photonic band gaps for three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in a diamond structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haifeng; Liu Shaobin; Kong Xiangkun, Chenchen; Bian Borui

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for two types of three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of isotropic dielectric and unmagnetized plasma with diamond lattices are theoretically investigated for electromagnetic waves based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The equations for type-1 structure are theoretically deduced, which depend on the diamond lattices realization (dielectric spheres immersed in plasma background). The influences of dielectric constant of dielectric, plasma collision frequency, filling factor, and plasma frequency on PBGs are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations and the possible methods to realize the three-dimensional PPCs in experiments are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that not only the locations but also the gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs can be tuned by plasma frequency, filling factor, and the relative dielectric constant, respectively. However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the frequency ranges and gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs.

  16. High power breakdown testing of a photonic band-gap accelerator structure with elliptical rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Brian J.; Cook, Alan M.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A. Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; Marsh, Roark A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved single-cell photonic band-gap (PBG) structure with an inner row of elliptical rods (PBG-E) was tested with high power at a 60 Hz repetition rate at X-band (11.424 GHz), achieving a gradient of 128MV/m at a breakdown probability of 3.6×10-3 per pulse per meter at a pulse length of 150 ns. The tested standing-wave structure was a single high-gradient cell with an inner row of elliptical rods and an outer row of round rods; the elliptical rods reduce the peak surface magnetic field by 20% and reduce the temperature rise of the rods during the pulse by several tens of degrees, while maintaining good damping and suppression of high order modes. When compared with a single-cell standing-wave undamped disk-loaded waveguide structure with the same iris geometry under test at the same conditions, the PBG-E structure yielded the same breakdown rate within measurement error. The PBG-E structure showed a greatly reduced breakdown rate compared with earlier tests of a PBG structure with round rods, presumably due to the reduced magnetic fields at the elliptical rods vs the fields at the round rods, as well as use of an improved testing methodology. A post-testing autopsy of the PBG-E structure showed some damage on the surfaces exposed to the highest surface magnetic and electric fields. Despite these changes in surface appearance, no significant change in the breakdown rate was observed in testing. These results demonstrate that PBG structures, when designed with reduced surface magnetic fields and operated to avoid extremely high pulsed heating, can operate at breakdown probabilities comparable to undamped disk-loaded waveguide structures and are thus viable for high-gradient accelerator applications.

  17. Effect of standard deviation, strength of magnetic field and electron density on the photonic band gap of an extrinsic disorder plasma photonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Chittaranjan; Aghajamali, Alireza; Scotognella, Francesco; Saha, Ardhendu

    2017-10-01

    Transmission properties of electromagnetic waves within microwave region of the one-dimensional random extrinsic plasma photonic crystals were computed using the transfer matrix method. The layers thicknesses of the extrinsic random photonic structure follow a Gaussian distribution. Compared with the periodic extrinsic photonic crystal, wider photonic band gaps (PBGs) were found in case of random extrinsic plasma photonic crystals with few resonant peaks. The PBGs are much wider while the randomness was increased and the number and the strength of resonant peaks were enhanced. The above observations were confirmed through analysis of histogram of normalized average transmissions for four different values of standard deviation with one thousand random samples for each group. The normalized average transmission was controlled by changing the strength of external magnetic field and the electron density of magnetized cold plasma. These features of disordered extrinsic plasma photonic structures would have potential applications such as omnidirectional reflectors and random multichannel filters with lower and higher rate of disorder.

  18. High-power narrow-vertical-divergence photonic band crystal laser diodes with optimized epitaxial structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Hongwei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Yejin; Zheng, Wanhua; Wang, Yufei; Qi, Aiyi

    2014-12-08

    900 nm longitudinal photonic band crystal (PBC) laser diodes with optimized epitaxial structure are fabricated. With a same calculated fundamental-mode divergence, stronger mode discrimination is achieved by a quasi-periodic index modulation in the PBC waveguide than a periodic one. Experiments show that the introduction of over 5.5 μm-thick PBC waveguide contributes to only 10% increment of the internal loss for the laser diodes. For broad area PBC lasers, output powers of 5.75 W under continuous wave test and over 10 W under quasi-continuous wave test are reported. The vertical divergence angles are 10.5° at full width at half maximum and 21.3° with 95% power content, in conformity with the simulated angles. Such device shows a prospect for high-power narrow-vertical-divergence laser emission from single diode laser and laser bar.

  19. High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, JieXi; Munroe, Brian J.; Xu, Haoran; ...

    2016-08-31

    This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG) structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM02 mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM11 mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion of the dielectricmore » birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19 MV/m, corresponding to a surface electric field of 78 MV/m, with a breakdown probability of 5×10–1 per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20 MV/m led to runaway breakdowns with extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. As a result, this research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.« less

  20. Fratricide-preventing friend identification tag based on photonic band structure coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, Danny; Sadovnik, Lev S.; Manasson, Vladimir A.

    2000-07-01

    A new friend foe identification tag based on photonic band structure (PBS) is presented. The tag utilizes frequency-coded radar signal return. Targets that include the passive tag responds selectively to slightly different frequencies generated by interrogating MMW radar. It is possible to use in- and out-of-band gap frequencies or defect modes of the PBS in order to obtain frequency dependent radar waves reflections. This tag can be made in the form of patch attachable such as plate or corner reflectors, to be worn by an individual marine, or to be integrated into the platform camouflage. Ultimately, it can be incorporated as smart skin or a ground or airborne vehicle. The proposed tag takes full advantage of existing sensors for interrogation (minimal chances required), it is lightweight and small in dimensions, it operates in degraded environments, it has no impact on platform vulnerability, it has low susceptibility to spoofing and mimicking (code of the day) and it has low susceptibility to active jamming. We demonstrated the operation of the tag using multi-layer dielectric (Duroid) having periodic structure of metal on top of each of the layers (metal strips in this case). The experimental results are consistent with numerical simulation. The device can be combined with temporal coding to increase target detection and identification resolution.

  1. Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.; Liu, J.-H.

    2010-03-22

    This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

  2. Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendickson, Jon M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Scalora, Michael

    1996-04-01

    We derive an exact expression for the electromagnetic mode density, and hence the group velocity, for a finite, N-period, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structure. We begin by deriving a general formula for the mode density in terms of the complex transmission coefficient of an arbitrary index profile. Then we develop a specific formula that gives the N-period mode density in terms of the complex transmission coefficient of the unit cell. The special cases of mode-density enhancement and suppression at the photonic band edge and also at midgap, respectively, are derived. The specific example of a quarter-wave stack is analyzed, and applications to three-dimensional structures, spontaneous emission control, delay lines, band-edge lasers, and superluminal tunneling times are discussed.

  3. Band structure of cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhymzhanov, A. M.; Gueddida, A.; Alonso-Redondo, E.; Utegulov, Z. N.; Perevoznik, D.; Kurselis, K.; Chichkov, B. N.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2016-05-01

    The phononic band diagram of a periodic square structure fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse-induced two photon polymerization is recorded by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) at hypersonic (GHz) frequencies and computed by finite element method. The theoretical calculations along the two main symmetry directions quantitatively capture the band diagrams of the air- and liquid-filled structure and moreover represent the BLS intensities. The theory helps identify the observed modes, reveals the origin of the observed bandgaps at the Brillouin zone boundaries, and unravels direction dependent effective medium behavior.

  4. Band structure of cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhymzhanov, A. M.; Utegulov, Z. N. E-mail: fytas@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Gueddida, A.; Alonso-Redondo, E.; Perevoznik, D.; Kurselis, K.; Chichkov, B. N.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G. E-mail: fytas@mpip-mainz.mpg.de

    2016-05-16

    The phononic band diagram of a periodic square structure fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse-induced two photon polymerization is recorded by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) at hypersonic (GHz) frequencies and computed by finite element method. The theoretical calculations along the two main symmetry directions quantitatively capture the band diagrams of the air- and liquid-filled structure and moreover represent the BLS intensities. The theory helps identify the observed modes, reveals the origin of the observed bandgaps at the Brillouin zone boundaries, and unravels direction dependent effective medium behavior.

  5. Effect of size of silica microspheres on photonic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Dhiman, N. Sharma, A. Gathania, A. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2014-04-24

    In present work photonic crystals of different size of silica microspheres have been fabricated. The optical properties of these developed photonic crystals have been studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. UV-visible spectroscopy shows that they have photonic band gap that can be tuned in visible and infrared regime by changing the size of silica microspheres. The photonic band gap structures of these photonic crystals have been calculated using MIT photonic band gap package. It also reveals that with the increase in size of silica microspheres the photonic band gap shifts to lower energy region.

  6. Micro-metric electronic patterning of a topological band structure using a photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Mark; Frantzeskakis, Emmanouil; de Jong, Nick; Huang, Yingkai; Wu, Dong; Pan, Yu; de Visser, Anne; van Heumen, Erik; van Bay, Tran; Zwartsenberg, Berend; Pronk, Pieter; Varier Ramankutty, Shyama; Tytarenko, Alona; Xu, Nan; Plumb, Nick; Shi, Ming; Radovic, Milan; Varkhalov, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    The only states crossing EF in ideal, 3D TIs are topological surface states. Single crystals of Bi2Se3andBi2Te3 are too defective to exhibit bulk-insulating behaviour, and ARPES shows topologically trivial 2DEGs at EF in the surface region due to downward band bending. Ternary & quaternary alloys of Bi /Te /Se /Sb hold promise for obtaining bulk-insulating crystals. Here we report ARPES data from quaternary, bulk-insulating, Bi-based TIs. Shortly after cleavage in UHV, downward band bending pulls the bulk conduction band below EF, once again frustrating the ``topological only'' ambition for the Fermi surface. However, there is light at the end of the tunnel: we show that a super-band-gap photon beam generates a surface photovoltage sufficient to flatten the bands, thereby recovering the ideal, ``topological only'' situation. In our bulk-insulating quaternary TIs, this effect is local in nature, and permits the writing of arbitrary, micron-sized patterns in the topological energy landscape at the surface. Support from FOM, NWO and the EU is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Investigation of the effect of noncircular scatterers on the band structure of anisotropic photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T; Rezaei, B; Soltani Vala, A; Kalafi, M

    2013-06-01

    Using the supercell approach based on the plane wave expansion method, we analyze the photonic bandgap (PBG) of square and triangular photonic crystal slabs composed of air holes in an anisotropic tellurium background with SiO(2) as cladding material. Two shapes (square and hexagonal) are considered for air holes. We discuss the maximization of the full PBG width as a function of noncircular air hole parameters, their orientation, and also slab thickness. The numerical results show that both structures represent a full PBG with noticeable width, which can be helpful for designing optical devices.

  8. Spectral and polarization structure of field-induced photonic bands in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Geivandov, A. R.; Kasyanova, I. V.; Palto, V. S.

    2015-09-01

    Transmission of planar layers of cholesteric liquid crystals is studied in pulsed electric fields perpendicular to the helix axis at normal incidence of both linearly polarized and unpolarized light. Spectral and light polarization properties of the primary photonic band and the field-induced bands up to fourth order of Bragg selective reflection are studied in detail. In our experiments we have achieved an electric field strength several times higher than the theoretical values corresponding to the critical field of full helix unwinding. However, the experiments show that despite the high strength of the electric field applied the helix does not unwind, but strongly deforms, keeping its initial spatial period. Strong helix deformation results in distinct spectral band splitting, as well as very high field-induced selective reflectance that can be applied in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Peculiarities of inducing and splitting the bands are discussed in terms of the scattering coefficient approach. All observed effects are confirmed by numerical simulations. The simulations also show that liquid crystal surface anchoring is not the factor that prevents the helix unwinding. Thus, the currently acknowledged concept of continuous helix unwinding in the electric field should be reconsidered.

  9. Method of construction of composite one-dimensional photonic crystal with extended photonic band gaps.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, V; Perova, T; Moore, R

    2005-10-17

    A method of photonic band gap extension using mixing of periodic structures with two or more consecutively placed photonic crystals with different lattice constants is proposed. For the design of the structures with maximal photonic band gap extension the gap map imposition method is utilised. Optimal structures have been established and the gap map of photonic band gaps has been calculated at normal incidence of light for both small and large optical contrast and at oblique incidence of light for small optical contrast.

  10. Photonic band gap effect and structural color from silver nanoparticle gelatin emulsion.

    PubMed

    Kok, Mang Hin; Ma, Rui; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C T; Sheng, Ping; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2005-10-01

    We have fabricated planar structures of silver nanoparticles in monochromatic gelatin emulsion with a continuous spacing ranging from 0.15-0.40 micron using a two-beam interference of a single laser source. Our planar holograms display a colorful "rainbow" pattern and photonic bandgaps covering the visible and IR ranges. We model the planar silver nanoparticle-gelatin composite system using an effective medium approach and good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  11. Photonic band structures of periodic arrays of pores in a metallic host: tight-binding beyond the quasistatic approximation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Stroud, D

    2013-08-26

    We have calculated the photonic band structures of metallic inverse opals and of periodic linear chains of spherical pores in a metallic host, below a plasma frequency ωp. In both cases, we use a tight-binding approximation, assuming a Drude dielectric function for the metallic component, but without making the quasistatic approximation. The tight-binding modes are linear combinations of the single-cavity transverse magnetic (TM) modes. For the inverse-opal structures, the lowest modes are analogous to those constructed from the three degenerate atomic p-states in fcc crystals. For the linear chains, in the limit of small spheres compared to a wavelength, the results bear some qualitative resemblance to the dispersion relation for metal spheres in an insulating host, as calculated by Brongersma et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000)]. Because the electromagnetic fields of these modes decay exponentially in the metal, there are no radiative losses, in contrast to the case of arrays of metallic spheres in air. We suggest that this tight-binding approach to photonic band structures of such metallic inverse materials may be a useful approach for studying photonic crystals containing metallic components, even beyond the quasistatic approximation.

  12. Photonic band structures of periodic arrays of pores in a metallic host: tight-binding beyond the quasistatic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Stroud, David

    2014-03-01

    We have calculated the photonic band structures of metallic inverse opals and of periodic linear chains of spherical pores in a metallic host, below a plasma frequency ωp. In both cases, we use a tight-binding approximation, assuming a Drude dielectric function for the metallic component, but without making the quasistatic approximation. The tight-binding modes are linear combinations of the single-cavity transverse magnetic (TM) modes. For the inverse-opal structures, the lowest modes are analogous to those constructed from the three degenerate atomic p-states in fcc crystals. For the linear chains, in the limit of small spheres compared to a wavelength, the results bear some qualitative resemblance to the dispersion relation for metal spheres in an insulating host, as calculated by Brongersma et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356 (2000)]. Because the electromagnetic fields of these modes decay exponentially in the metal, there are no radiative losses, in contrast to the case of arrays of metallic spheres in air. We suggest that this tight-binding approach to photonic band structures of such metallic inverse materials may be a useful approach for studying photonic crystals containing metallic components. This work was supported by KIAS, by NSF-MRSEC at OSU (DMR-0820414), and by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46424. Computing resources were provided by OSC and by Abacus at KIAS.

  13. Pushing the Gradient Limitations of Superconducting Photonic Band Gap Structure Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Haynes, William B.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry; O'Hara, James F.; Olivas, Eric R.

    2012-06-07

    Superconducting photonic band gap resonators present us with unique means to place higher order mode couples in an accelerating cavity and efficiently extract HOMs. An SRF PBG resonator with round rods was successfully tested at LANL demonstrating operation at 15 MV/m. Gradient in the SRF PBG resonator was limited by magnetic quench. To increase the quench threshold in PBG resonators one must design the new geometry with lower surface magnetic fields and preserve the resonator's effectiveness for HOM suppression. The main objective of this research is to push the limits for the high-gradient operation of SRF PBG cavities. A NCRF PBG cavity technology is established. The proof-of-principle operation of SRF PBG cavities is demonstrated. SRF PBG resonators are effective for outcoupling HOMs. PBG technology can significantly reduce the size of SRF accelerators and increase brightness for future FELs.

  14. Optical processes of photonic band gap structure with dressing field in atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Zhe; Liu, Zhe; Cai, Kang-Ning; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Wei-Tao; Liu, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Peng

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally investigate probe transmission signals (PTS), the four-wave mixing photonic band gap signal (FWM BGS), and the fluorescence signal (FLS) in an inverted Y-type four level atomic system. For the first time, we compare the FLS of the two ground-state hyperfine levels of Rb 85. In particular, the second-order and the fourth-order fluorescence signals perform dramatic dressing discrepancies under the two hyperfine levels. Moreover, we find that the dressing field has some dressing effects on three such types of signals. Therefore, we demonstrate that the characteristics of PTS, FWM BGS, and FLS can be controlled by frequency detunings, the powers or phases of the dressing field. Such research could have potential applications in optical diodes, amplifiers, and quantum information processing.

  15. Designing photonic band gaps in SiO2-based face-centered cubic-structured crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Mei; Volotinen, Tarja T.; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.; Belova, Lyubov; Rao, K. Venkat

    2011-01-01

    We designed face-centered cubic-structured (fcc) photonic crystals whose lattice parameters were tuned by varying the size of the constituent spherical silica particles in the range 100 to 520 nm. From wide-angle optical transmission investigations and Gaussian fitting of the absorbance spectra over UV-Vis-Near IR range, we found that in these crystals the Bragg wavelengths of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) corresponding to the reflected crystal planes linearly increase with the size of the spheres as expected. From this data, the average refractive index along the different crystal planes of the fcc structure was found to be in the 1.24 to 1.32 range. The Bragg wavelengths were tuned between 400 and 1100 nm. Thus, photonic crystals of the same structure can be designed to tune the Bragg wavelengths of PBGs by selecting the sphere size. These studies open up possibilities to design a new class of ``smart'' photonic crystals consisting of dielectric entities of sub-micron silica spheres with added functionality from magnetic or piezoelectric nanoparticles embedded in them.

  16. Theoretical aspects of photonic band gap in 1D nano structure of LN: MgLN periodic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sisodia, Namita

    2015-06-24

    By using the transfer matrix method, we have analyzed the photonic band gap properties in a periodic layer of LN:MgLN medium. The Width of alternate layers of LN and MgLN is in the range of hundred nanometers. The birefringent and ferroelectric properties of the medium (i.e ordinary, extraordinary refractive indices and electric dipole moment) is given due considerations in the formulation of photonic band gap. Effect of electronic transition dipole moment of the medium on photonic band gap is also taken into account. We find that photonic band gap can be modified by the variation in the ratio of the width of two medium. We explain our findings by obtaining numerical values and the effect on the photonic band gap due to variation in the ratio of alternate medium is shown graphically.

  17. Photonic band-edge micro lasers with quantum dot gain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Tandaechanurat, Aniwat; Ota, Yasutomo; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-19

    We demonstrate optically pumped continuous-wave photonic band-edge microlasers on a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. Lasing was observed at a photonic band-edge, where the group velocity was significantly small near the K point of the band structure having a triangular lattice. Lasing was achieved by using a quantum dot gain material, which resulted in a significant decrease in the laser threshold, compared with photonic band-edge lasers using quantum well gain material. Extremely low laser thresholds of approximately 80 nW at 6 K was achieved. Lasing was observed in a defect-free photonic crystal as small as approximately 7 microm square.

  18. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  19. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  20. The Relationship between Oxygen A-band Photon Pathlength Distributions and 3D Structures of Heating Rate Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L.; Min, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Broadband heating directly drives the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation and its vertical profiles strongly depend upon cloud three-dimensional (3D) structures. Due to the complexity of cloud 3D problems and the difficulties in observations of broadband heating rate profiles (BBHRP), there are still large uncertainties in the relationship of clouds, radiation and climate feedback. Oxygen A-band photon pathlength distributions (PPLD) contain rich information about the 3D structures of clouds and BBHRP and can be observed by both ground based and space based measurements. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore the possibility of connecting A-band PPLD and BBHRP and consequently to describe the internal relationship between them together with the cloud 3D effects on BBHRP. A 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer model is applied to simulate solar broadband heating rate profiles and oxygen A-band photon pathlength distributions of several ideal cloud fields and two typical cloud fields generated by cloud resolving model (CRM). Principal components (PCs) and the first four moments are selected to represent the vertical structures of BBHRP and PPLD, respectively. In ideal cloud fields, the moments show clear constraint to PCs of BBHRP. The results demonstrate the feasibility to describe the vertical structures of BBHRP by PPLD. The relationship between moments and PCs turns complicated in CRM cloud fields due to the composition of various 3D effects. However, detailed analysis still show that the moments, the PCs and total cloud optical depth are effective factors in defining BBHRP, especially for the vertical structures of relative low clouds. Further, a statistical fitting between the PCs and the moments by a two-layer neural network is applied to provide a quantitative representation of the linkages.

  1. Experimental high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap accelerator structure

    DOE PAGES

    Munroe, Brian J.; Zhang, JieXi; Xu, Haoran; ...

    2016-03-29

    In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG) accelerator structure. Photonic band-gap (PBG) structures are promising candidates for electron accelerators capable of high-gradient operation because they have the inherent damping of high order modes required to avoid beam breakup instabilities. The 17.1 GHz PBG structure tested was a single cell structure composed of a triangular array of round copper rods of radius 1.45 mm spaced by 8.05 mm. The test assembly consisted of the test PBG cell located between conventional (pillbox) input and output cells, with input power ofmore » up to 4 MW from a klystron supplied via a TM01 mode launcher. Breakdown at high gradient was observed by diagnostics including reflected power, downstream and upstream current monitors and visible light emission. The testing procedure was first benchmarked with a conventional disc-loaded waveguide structure, which reached a gradient of 87 MV=m at a breakdown probability of 1.19 × 10–1 per pulse per meter. The PBG structure was tested with 100 ns pulses at gradient levels of less than 90 MV=m in order to limit the surface temperature rise to 120 K. The PBG structure reached up to 89 MV=m at a breakdown probability of 1.09 × 10–1 per pulse per meter. These test results show that a PBG structure can simultaneously operate at high gradients and low breakdown probability, while also providing wakefield damping.« less

  2. Micro-metric electronic patterning of a topological band structure using a photon beam

    PubMed Central

    Frantzeskakis, E.; De Jong, N.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Huang, Y. K.; Bay, T. V.; Pronk, P.; Van Heumen, E.; Wu, D.; Pan, Y.; Radovic, M.; Plumb, N. C.; Xu, N.; Shi, M.; De Visser, A.; Golden, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In an ideal 3D topological insulator (TI), the bulk is insulating and the surface conducting due to the existence of metallic states that are localized on the surface; these are the topological surface states. Quaternary Bi-based compounds of Bi2−xSbxTe3−ySey with finely-tuned bulk stoichiometries are good candidates for realizing ideal 3D TI behavior due to their bulk insulating character. However, despite its insulating bulk in transport experiments, the surface region of Bi2−xSbxTe3−ySey crystals cleaved in ultrahigh vacuum also exhibits occupied states originating from the bulk conduction band. This is due to adsorbate-induced downward band-bending, a phenomenon known from other Bi-based 3D TIs. Here we show, using angle-resolved photoemission, how an EUV light beam of moderate flux can be used to exclude these topologically trivial states from the Fermi level of Bi1.46Sb0.54Te1.7Se1.3 single crystals, thereby re-establishing the purely topological character of the low lying electronic states of the system. We furthermore prove that this process is highly local in nature in this bulk-insulating TI, and are thus able to imprint structures in the spatial energy landscape at the surface. We illustrate this by ‘writing’ micron-sized letters in the Dirac point energy of the system. PMID:26543011

  3. Systematic study of the hybrid plasmonic-photonic band structure underlying lasing action of diffractive plasmon particle lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schokker, A. Hinke; van Riggelen, Floor; Hadad, Yakir; Alù, Andrea; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2017-02-01

    We study lasing in distributed feedback lasers made from square lattices of silver particles in a dye-doped waveguide. We present a systematic analysis and experimental study of the band structure underlying the lasing process as a function of the detuning between the particle plasmon resonance and the lattice Bragg diffraction condition. To this end, as gain medium we use either a polymer doped with Rh6G only, or polymer doped with a pair of dyes (Rh6G and Rh700) that act as a Förster energy transfer (FRET) pair. This allows for gain, respectively, at 590 or 700 nm when pumped at 532 nm, compatible with the achievable size tunability of silver particles embedded in the polymer. By polarization-resolved spectroscopic Fourier microscopy, we are able to observe the plasmonic/photonic band structure of the array, unraveling both the stop gap width, as well as the loss properties of the four involved bands at fixed lattice Bragg diffraction condition and as a function of detuning of the plasmon resonance. To explain the measurements we derive an analytical model that sheds insights on the lasing process in plasmonic lattices, highlighting the interaction between two competing resonant processes, one localized at the particle level around the plasmon resonance, and one distributed across the lattice. Both are shown to contribute to the lasing threshold and the overall emission properties of the array.

  4. Octave-wide photonic band gap in three-dimensional plasmonic Bragg structures and limitations of radiative coupling.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Richard; Dregely, Daniel; Stroucken, Tineke; Christ, Andre; Giessen, Harald

    2012-02-21

    Radiative coupling between oscillators is one of the most fundamental subjects of research in optics, where particularly a Bragg-type arrangement is of interest and has already been applied to atoms and excitons in quantum wells. Here we explore this arrangement in a plasmonic structure. We observe the emergence of an octave-wide photonic band gap in the optical regime. Compared with atomic or excitonic systems, the coupling efficiency of the particle plasmons utilized here is several orders of magnitude larger and widely tunable by changing the size and geometry of the plasmonic nanowires. We are thus able to explore the regime where the coupling distance is even limited by the large radiative decay rate of the oscillators. This Bragg-stacked coupling scheme will open a new route for future plasmonic applications such as far-field coupling to quantum emitters without quenching, plasmonic cavity structures and plasmonic distributed gain schemes for spasers.

  5. Tuning photonic bands in plasma metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Mayank Kumar; Chaudhari, Sachin

    2016-11-01

    Introducing plasma in the background provides additional degrees of freedom for tuning dispersion curves of photonic crystals. 2D photonic crystals in triangular lattice arrangements offer more global bandgap regions and thus are of more interest for various applications. The dispersion characteristics of a two-dimensional plasma metallic photonic crystal (PMPC) in square as well as triangular lattice arrangements have been analyzed in this paper using the orthogonal finite difference time domain method. The dispersion characteristics of PMPCs for the range of r/a ratios and plasma frequencies for triangular lattice configuration have been analyzed. On introducing plasma in the background, the photonic bands of PMPC are shifted towards higher normalized frequencies. This shift is more for lower bands and increases with plasma frequency. The cut-off frequency was observed for both TE and TM polarizations in PMPC and showed strong dependence on r/a ratio as well as plasma frequency. Photonic bandgaps of PMPC may be tuned by controlling plasma parameters, giving opportunity for utilizing these PMPC structures for various applications such as fine-tuning cavities for enhanced light-matter interaction, plasmonic waveguides, and Gyrotron cavities.

  6. Fabrication of photonic band gap materials

    DOEpatents

    Constant, Kristen; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Biswas, Rana; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2002-01-15

    A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microspheres, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microspheres therefrom. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microspheres may be polystyrene microspheres.

  7. Fabrication of Photonic band gap Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Biswas, Rana; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2000-01-05

    A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microsphere, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microsphere there from. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microsphere may be polystyrenemicrosphere.

  8. Femtosecond Pulse Characterization as Applied to One-Dimensional Photonic Band Edge Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Gamble, Lisa J.; Diffey, William M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to control the group velocity and phase of an optical pulse is important to many current active areas of research. Electronically addressable one-dimensional photonic crystals are an attractive candidate to achieve this control. This report details work done toward the characterization of photonic crystals and improvement of the characterization technique. As part of the work, the spectral dependence of the group delay imparted by a GaAs/AlAs photonic crystal was characterized. Also, a first generation an electrically addressable photonic crystal was tested for the ability to electronically control the group delay. The measurement technique, using 100 femtosecond continuum pulses was improved to yield high spectral resolution (1.7 nanometers) and concurrently with high temporal resolution (tens of femtoseconds). Conclusions and recommendations based upon the work done are also presented.

  9. Complete photonic band gaps and tunable self-collimation in the two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with a new structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Ding, Guo-Wen; Li, Hai-Ming; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, the properties of complete photonic band gaps (CPBGs) and tunable self-collimation in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) with a new structure in square lattices, whose dielectric fillers (GaAs) are inserted into homogeneous and nomagnetized plasma background are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method with a novel technique. The novel PWE method can be utilized to compute the dispersion curves of 2D PPCs with arbitrary-shaped cross section in any lattices. As a comparison, CPBGs of PPCs for four different configurations are numerically calculated. The computed results show that the proposed design has the advantages of achieving the larger CPBGs compared to the other three configurations. The influences of geometric parameters of filled unit cell and plasma frequency on the properties of CPBGs are studied in detail. The calculated results demonstrate that CPBGs of the proposed 2D PPCs can be easily engineered by changing those parameters, and the larger CPBGs also can be obtained by optimization. The self-collimation in such 2D PPCs also is discussed in theory under TM wave. The theoretical simulations reveal that the self-collimation phenomena can be found in the TM bands, and both the frequency range of self-collimation and the equifrequency surface contours can be tuned by the parameters as mentioned above. It means that the frequency range and direction of electromagnetic wave can be manipulated by designing, as it propagates in the proposed PPCs without diffraction. Those results can hold promise for designing the tunable applications based on the proposed PPCs.

  10. Photonic Crystal Laser Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin M

    2003-05-21

    Photonic crystals have great potential for use as laser-driven accelerator structures. A photonic crystal is a dielectric structure arranged in a periodic geometry. Like a crystalline solid with its electronic band structure, the modes of a photonic crystal lie in a set of allowed photonic bands. Similarly, it is possible for a photonic crystal to exhibit one or more photonic band gaps, with frequencies in the gap unable to propagate in the crystal. Thus photonic crystals can confine an optical mode in an all-dielectric structure, eliminating the need for metals and their characteristic losses at optical frequencies. We discuss several geometries of photonic crystal accelerator structures. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are optical fibers which can confine a speed-of-light optical mode in vacuum. Planar structures, both two- and three-dimensional, can also confine such a mode, and have the additional advantage that they can be manufactured using common microfabrication techniques such as those used for integrated circuits. This allows for a variety of possible materials, so that dielectrics with desirable optical and radiation-hardness properties can be chosen. We discuss examples of simulated photonic crystal structures to demonstrate the scaling laws and trade-offs involved, and touch on potential fabrication processes.

  11. Photonic band structure and effective medium properties of doubly-resonant core-shell metallo-dielectric nanowire arrays: low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujetas, D. R.; Paniagua-Domínguez, R.; Nieto-Vesperinas, M.; Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the photonic band structure in the optical domain of an array of core-shell metal-semiconductor nanowires. Corresponding negative-index photonic bands are calculated, showing isotropic equifrequency surfaces. The effective (negative) electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, retrieved from S-parameters, are used to compare the performance of such nanowire arrays with homogeneous media in canonical examples, such as refraction through a prism and flat-lens focusing. Very good agreement is found, confirming the effective medium behavior of the nanowire array as a low-loss, isotropic (2D) and bulk, optical negative index metamaterial. Indeed, disorder is introduced to further stress its robustness.

  12. Modulation of the photonic band structure topology of a honeycomb lattice in an atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R.; Wu, Zhenkun; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-12-15

    In an atomic vapor, a honeycomb lattice can be constructed by utilizing the three-beam interference method. In the method, the interference of the three beams splits the dressed energy level periodically, forming a periodic refractive index modulation with the honeycomb profile. The energy band topology of the honeycomb lattice can be modulated by frequency detunings, thereby affecting the appearance (and disappearance) of Dirac points and cones in the momentum space. This effect can be usefully exploited for the generation and manipulation of topological insulators.

  13. Photonic band structure of one-dimensional aperiodic superlattices composed of negative refraction metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Michał H.; Salejda, Włodzimierz; Klauzer-Kruszyna, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Karol

    2007-05-01

    The dispersion relation for polarized light transmitting through a one-dimensional superlattice composed of aperiodically arranged layers made of ordinary dielectric and negative refraction metamaterials is calculated with finite element method. Generalized Fibonacci, generalized Thue-Morse, double-periodic and Rudin-Shapiro superlattices are investigated, using their periodic approximants. Strong dispersion of metamaterials is taken into account. Group velocities and effective refraction indices in the structures are calculated. The self-similar structure of the transmission spectra is observed.

  14. An Update on the DOE Early Career Project on Photonic Band Gap Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Edwards, Randall L.; Haynes, William B.; Madrid, Michael A.; Romero, Frank P.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Tuzel, Walter M.; Boulware , Chase H.; Grimm, Terry

    2012-06-07

    We performed fabrication of two SRF PBG resonators at 2.1 GHz and demonstrated their proof-of-principle operation at high gradients. Measured characteristics of the resonators were in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We demonstrated that SRF PBG cavities can be operated at 15 MV/m accelerating gradients. We completed the design and started fabrication of the 16-cell PBG accelerating structure at 11.7 GHz for wakefield testing at AWA.

  15. Band structure of a 2D photonic crystal based on ferrofluids of Co(1-x)Znx Fe2O4 nanoparticles under perpendicular applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Javier; Gonzalez, Luz Esther; Quinonez, Mario; Porras, Nelson; Zambrano, Gustavo; Gomez, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Using a ferrfluid of cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Co(1 - x)ZnxFe2O4 coated with oleic acid and suspended in ethanol, we have fabricated a 2D photonic crystal (PC) by the application of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ferrofluid. The 2D PC is made by rods of nanoparticles organized in a hexagonal structure. By means of the plane-wave expansion method, we study its photonic band structure (PBS) which depends on the effective permittivity and on the area ratio of the liquid phase. Additionaly, taking into account the Maxwell-Garnett theory we calculated the effective permittivity of the rods. We have found that the effective refractive index of the ferrofluid increases with its magnetization. Using these results we calculate the band structure of the photonic crystal at different applied magnetic fields, finding that the increase of the applied magnetic field shifts the band structure to lower frequencies with the appearance of more band gaps. Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia

  16. Photonic band gap enhancement in frequency-dependent dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Toader, Ovidiu; John, Sajeev

    2004-10-01

    We illustrate a general technique for evaluating photonic band structures in periodic d -dimensional microstructures in which the dielectric constant epsilon (omega) exhibits rapid variations with frequency omega . This technique involves the evaluation of generalized electromagnetic dispersion surfaces omega ( k--> ,epsilon) in a (d+1) -dimensional space consisting of the physical d -dimensional space of wave vectors k--> and an additional dimension defined by the continuous, independent, variable epsilon . The physical band structure for the photonic crystal is obtained by evaluating the intersection of the generalized dispersion surfaces with the "cutting surface" defined by the function epsilon (omega) . We apply this method to evaluate the band structure of both two- and three-dimensional (3D) periodic microstructures. We consider metallic photonic crystals with free carriers described by a simple Drude conductivity and verify the occurrence of electromagnetic pass bands below the plasma frequency of the bulk metal. We also evaluate the shift of the photonic band structure caused by free carrier injection into semiconductor-based photonic crystals. We apply our method to two models in which epsilon (omega) describes a resonant radiation-matter interaction. In the first model, we consider the addition of independent, resonant oscillators to a photonic crystal with an otherwise frequency-independent dielectric constant. We demonstrate that for an inhomogeneously broadened distribution of resonators impregnated within an inverse opal structure, the full 3D photonic band gap (PBG) can be considerably enhanced. In the second model, we consider a coupled resonant oscillator mode in a photonic crystal. When this mode is an optical phonon, there can be a synergetic interplay between the polaritonic resonance and the geometrical scattering resonances of the structured dielectric, leading to PBG enhancement. A similar effect may arise when resonant atoms that are

  17. Connected hexagonal photonic crystals with largest full band gap.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Chen, Y; Chern, R; Chang, Chien

    2005-10-03

    A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a large full band gap has been designed, fabricated, and characterized. The photonic crystal design was based on a calculation using inverse iteration with multigrid acceleration. The fabrication of the photonic crystal on silicon was realized by the processes of electron-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching. It was found that the hexagonal array of circular columns and rods has an optimal full photonic band gap. In addition, we show that a larger extraction of light from our designed photonic crystal can be obtained when compared with the frequently used photonic crystals reported previously. Our designed PC structure therefore should be very useful for creating highly efficient optoelectronic devices.

  18. A program for calculating photonic band structures, Green's functions and transmission/reflection coefficients using a non-orthogonal FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. J.; Pendry, J. B.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we present an updated version of our ONYX program for calculating photonic band structures using a non-orthogonal finite difference time domain method. This new version employs the same transparent formalism as the first version with the same capabilities for calculating photonic band structures or causal Green's functions but also includes extra subroutines for the calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. Both the electric and magnetic fields are placed onto a discrete lattice by approximating the spacial and temporal derivatives with finite differences. This results in discrete versions of Maxwell's equations which can be used to integrate the fields forwards in time. The time required for a calculation using this method scales linearly with the number of real space points used in the discretization so the technique is ideally suited to handling systems with large and complicated unit cells.

  19. An approach to control tuning range and speed in 1D ternary photonic band gap material nano-layered optical filter structures electro-optically

    SciTech Connect

    Zia, Shahneel Banerjee, Anirudh

    2016-05-06

    This paper demonstrates a way to control spectrum tuning capability in one-dimensional (1D) ternary photonic band gap (PBG) material nano-layered structures electro-optically. It is shown that not only tuning range, but also tuning speed of tunable optical filters based on 1D ternary PBG structures can be controlled Electro-optically. This approach finds application in tuning range enhancement of 1D Ternary PBG structures and compensating temperature sensitive transmission spectrum shift in 1D Ternary PBG structures.

  20. Photon structure function - theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references.

  1. The angular electronic band structure and free particle model of aromatic molecules: High-frequency photon-induced ring current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öncan, Mehmet; Koç, Fatih; Şahin, Mehmet; Köksal, Koray

    2017-05-01

    This work introduces an analysis of the relationship of first-principles calculations based on DFT method with the results of free particle model for ring-shaped aromatic molecules. However, the main aim of the study is to reveal the angular electronic band structure of the ring-shaped molecules. As in the case of spherical molecules such as fullerene, it is possible to observe a parabolic dispersion of electronic states with the variation of angular quantum number in the planar ring-shaped molecules. This work also discusses the transition probabilities between the occupied and virtual states by analyzing the angular electronic band structure and the possibility of ring currents in the case of spin angular momentum (SAM) or orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying light. Current study focuses on the benzene molecule to obtain its angular electronic band structure. The obtained electronic band structure can be considered as a useful tool to see the transition probabilities between the electronic states and possible contribution of the states to the ring currents. The photoinduced current due to the transfer of SAM into the benzene molecule has been investigated by using analytical calculations within the frame of time-dependent perturbation theory.

  2. Theoretical analysis of a palladium-based one-dimensional metallo-dielectric photonic band gap structure for applications to H2 sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Trevisi, Simona; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; Cioffi, Nicola; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we report a numerical study of a palladium-based metallo-dielectric photonic band gap structure for the purpose of detecting H2. In particular, and as an example, we will explore applications to the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption, more commonly known as lactose intolerance condition. This pathology occurs as a result of an incomplete absorption or digestion of different substances, causing an increased spontaneous emission of H2 in human breath. Palladium is considered in order to exploit its well known ability to absorb hydrogen spontaneously. The proposed structure is particularly able to detect the lactose malabsorption level of the patient with relatively high sensitivity and rapidity.

  3. Two-pattern compound photonic crystals with a large complete photonic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Lin; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2011-09-15

    We present a set of two-dimensional aperiodic structures with a large complete photonic band gap (PBG), which are named two-pattern photonic crystals. By superposing two substructures without regard to registration, we designed six new aperiodic PBG structures having a complete PBG larger than 15% for {epsilon}{sub 2}/{epsilon}{sub 1} = 11.4. The rod-honeycomb two-pattern photonic crystal provides the largest complete PBG to date. An aperiodic structure becomes the champion structure with the largest PBG. Surprisingly, the TM and TE gaps of a two-pattern photonic crystal are much less interdependent than the PBGs of conventional photonic crystals proposed before, affording interesting capabilities for us to tune the TM and TE PBGs separately. By altering the respective substructures, optical devices for different polarizations (TE, TM, or both) can readily be designed.

  4. Two-dimensional photonic crystals with large complete photonic band gaps in both TE and TM polarizations.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; David, Sylvain; Checoury, Xavier; El Kurdi, Moustafa; Boucaud, Philippe

    2008-08-04

    Photonic crystals exhibiting a photonic band gap in both TE and TM polarizations are particularly interesting for a better control of light confinement. The simultaneous achievement of large band gaps in both polarizations requires to reduce the symmetry properties of the photonic crystal lattice. In this letter, we propose two different designs of two-dimensional photonic crystals patterned in high refractive index thin silicon slabs. These slabs are known to limit the opening of photonic band gaps for both polarizations. The proposed designs exhibit large complete photonic band gaps: the first photonic crystal structure is based on the honey-comb lattice with two different hole radii and the second structure is based on a "tri-ellipse" pattern in a triangular lattice. Photonic band gap calculations show that these structures offer large complete photonic band gaps deltaomega/omega larger than 10% between first and second photonic bands. This figure of merit is obtained with single-mode slab waveguides and is not restricted to modes below light cone.

  5. Photon ratchet intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Farrell, D. J.; Phillips, C. C.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative concept for solar power conversion—the "photon ratchet" intermediate band solar cell (IBSC)—which may increase the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of IBSCs by increasing the lifetime of charge carriers in the intermediate state. The limiting efficiency calculation for this concept shows that the efficiency can be increased by introducing a fast thermal transition of carriers into a non-emissive state. At 1 sun, the introduction of a "ratchet band" results in an increase of efficiency from 46.8% to 48.5%, due to suppression of entropy generation.

  6. Photonic Band Gap resonators for high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, S.; Smith, D.R.; Kroll, N. |

    1993-12-31

    We have proposed that a new type of microwave resonator, based on Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures, may be particularly useful for high energy accelerators. We provide an explanation of the PBG concept and present data which illustrate some of the special properties associated with such structures. Further evaluation of the utility of PBG resonators requires laboratory testing of model structures at cryogenic temperatures, and at high fields. We provide a brief discussion of our test program, which is currently in progress.

  7. Dual-band photon sorting plasmonic MIM metamaterial sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young Uk; Bendoym, Igor; Golovin, Andrii B.; Crouse, David T.

    2014-06-01

    We propose plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metamaterial designs for the sensing of two infrared wavelength bands, the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) band by using a photon sorting technique. The proposed structures can capture light effectively on the metasurfaces based on coupling of free space energy to a subwavelength plasmonic mode. Photon sorting can be performed such that the incident light with a broad spectrum upon the metasurfaces can be "split" according to wavelength, channeling different spectral bands to different physical regions of the array on the surface where it is then absorbed by the insulator. Two different structures described in this work are (1) Square-type structure which consists of MIM resonators being periodically arranged to form a polarization independent sensor and (2) Meander-type structure which consists of MIM resonators being connected to form the meander shaped sensor. Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) posts are used as absorbing material within the MIM structure to generate free carriers and allow for collection of carrier charges. The proposed structures have compact designs and exhibit efficient light splitting and absorption for the IR spectral band. Structural and material properties, the electric field distribution and Poynting vector fields at the resonance frequencies are provided. Applications include thermal imaging, night vision systems, rifle sights, missile detection and discrimination, dual bandwidth optical filters, light trapping, and electromagnetically induced transparency.

  8. Band Structures of Plasmonic Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-03-01

    In angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the acceleration of a photo-electron upon photon absorption may trigger shake-up excitations in the sample, leading to the emission of phonons, electron-hole pairs, and plasmons, the latter being collective charge-density fluctuations. Using state-of-the-art many-body calculations based on the `GW plus cumulant' approach, we show that electron-plasmon interactions induce plasmonic polaron bands in group IV transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2). We find that the energy vs. momentum dispersion relations of these plasmonic structures closely follow the standard valence bands, although they appear broadened and blueshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on our results we identify general criteria for observing plasmonic polaron bands in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of solids.

  9. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  10. Local density of optical states of an asymmetric waveguide grating at photonic band gap resonant wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatas, Husin; Sumaryada, Tony I.; Ahmad, Faozan

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of local density of optical states (LDOS) at photonic band gap resonant wavelength of an asymmetric waveguide grating based on Green's function formulation. It is found that the LDOS of the considered structure exhibits different characteristics in its localization between the upper and lower resonant wavelengths of the corresponding photonic band gap edges.

  11. Absolute photonic band gap in 2D honeycomb annular photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Gao, Yihua; Tong, Aihong; Hu, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Using the plane wave expansion method, we investigate the effects of structural parameters on absolute photonic band gap (PBG) in two-dimensional honeycomb annular photonic crystals (PCs). The results reveal that the annular PCs possess absolute PBGs that are larger than those of the conventional air-hole PCs only when the refractive index of the material from which the PC is made is equal to 4.5 or larger. If the refractive index is smaller than 4.5, utilization of anisotropic inner rods in honeycomb annular PCs can lead to the formation of larger PBGs. The optimal structural parameters that yield the largest absolute PBGs are obtained.

  12. Hypersonic modulation of light in three-dimensional photonic and phononic band-gap materials.

    PubMed

    Akimov, A V; Tanaka, Y; Pevtsov, A B; Kaplan, S F; Golubev, V G; Tamura, S; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M

    2008-07-18

    The elastic coupling between the a-SiO2 spheres composing opal films brings forth three-dimensional periodic structures which besides a photonic stop band are predicted to also exhibit complete phononic band gaps. The influence of elastic crystal vibrations on the photonic band structure has been studied by injection of coherent hypersonic wave packets generated in a metal transducer by subpicosecond laser pulses. These studies show that light with energies close to the photonic band gap can be efficiently modulated by hypersonic waves.

  13. Photonic band gap spectra in Octonacci metamaterial quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, E. R.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Fulco, U. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we study theoretically the photonic band gap spectra for a one-dimensional quasicrystal made up of SiO2 (layer A) and a metamaterial (layer B) organized following the Octonacci sequence, where its nth-stage Sn is given by the inflation rule Sn =Sn - 1Sn - 2Sn - 1 for n ≥ 3 , with initial conditions S1 = A and S2 = B . The metamaterial is characterized by a frequency dependent electric permittivity ε(ω) and magnetic permeability μ(ω) . The polariton dispersion relation is obtained analytically by employing a theoretical calculation based on a transfer-matrix approach. A quantitative analysis of the spectra is then discussed, stressing the distribution of the allowed photonic band widths for high generations of the Octonacci structure, which depict a self-similar scaling property behavior, with a power law depending on the common in-plane wavevector kx .

  14. Finite element method analysis of band gap and transmission of two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Elif; Landais, Pascal

    2013-10-20

    Photonic band gap and transmission characteristics of 2D metallic photonic crystals at THz frequencies have been investigated using finite element method (FEM). Photonic crystals composed of metallic rods in air, in square and triangular lattice arrangements, are considered for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The modes and band gap characteristics of metallic photonic crystal structure are investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem over a unit cell of the lattice using periodic boundary conditions. A photonic band gap diagram of dielectric photonic crystal in square lattice array is also considered and compared with well-known plane wave expansion results verifying our FEM approach. The photonic band gap designs for both dielectric and metallic photonic crystals are consistent with previous studies obtained by different methods. Perfect match is obtained between photonic band gap diagrams and transmission spectra of corresponding lattice structure.

  15. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kady, Ihab Fathy

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the authors have undertaken a theoretical approach to the complex problem of modeling the flow of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. The focus is to address the feasibility of using the exciting phenomena of photonic gaps (PBG) in actual applications. The authors start by providing analytical derivations of the computational electromagnetic methods used in their work. They also present a detailed explanation of the physics underlying each approach, as well as a comparative study of the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Plane Wave expansion, Transfer Matrix, and Finite Difference time Domain Methods are addressed. They also introduce a new theoretical approach, the Modal Expansion Method. They then shift the attention to actual applications. They begin with a discussion of 2D photonic crystal wave guides. The structure addressed consists of a 2D hexagonal structure of air cylinders in a layered dielectric background. Comparison with the performance of a conventional guide is made, as well as suggestions for enhancing it. The studies provide an upper theoretical limit on the performance of such guides, as they assumed no crystal imperfections and non-absorbing media. Next, they study 3D metallic PBG materials at near infrared and optical wavelengths. The main objective is to study the importance of absorption in the metal and the suitability of observing photonic band gaps in such structures. They study simple cubic structures where the metallic scatters are either cubes or interconnected metallic rods. Several metals are studied (aluminum, gold, copper, and silver). The effect of topology is addressed and isolated metallic cubes are found to be less lossy than the connected rod structures. The results reveal that the best performance is obtained by choosing metals with a large negative real part of the dielectric function, together with a relatively small imaginary part. Finally, they point out a new direction in photonic crystal

  16. Observation of localized flat-band states in Kagome photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yuanyuan; Xia, Shiqiang; Tang, Liqin; Song, Daohong; Hu, Yi; Pei, Yumiao; Su, Jing; Li, Yigang; Chen, Zhigang

    2016-04-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of localized flat-band states in optically induced Kagome photonic lattices. Such lattices exhibit a unique band structure with the lowest band being completely flat (diffractionless) in the tight-binding approximation. By taking the advantage of linear superposition of the flat-band eigenmodes of the Kagome lattices, we demonstrate a high-fidelity transmission of complex patterns in such two-dimensional pyrochlore-like photonic structures. Our numerical simulations find good agreement with experimental observations, upholding the belief that flat-band lattices can support distortion-free image transmission.

  17. Hollow-Core Photonic Band Gap Fibers for Particle Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J.; Spencer, James E.; Kuhlmey, Boris T.; /Sydney U.

    2011-08-19

    Photonic band gap (PBG) dielectric fibers with hollow cores are being studied both theoretically and experimentally for use as laser driven accelerator structures. The hollow core functions as both a longitudinal waveguide for the transverse-magnetic (TM) accelerating fields and a channel for the charged particles. The dielectric surrounding the core is permeated by a periodic array of smaller holes to confine the mode, forming a photonic crystal fiber in which modes exist in frequency pass-bands, separated by band gaps. The hollow core acts as a defect which breaks the crystal symmetry, and so-called defect, or trapped modes having frequencies in the band gap will only propagate near the defect. We describe the design of 2-D hollow-core PBG fibers to support TM defect modes with high longitudinal fields and high characteristic impedance. Using as-built dimensions of industrially-made fibers, we perform a simulation analysis of the first prototype PBG fibers specifically designed to support speed-of-light TM modes.

  18. Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, A.; Meier, C.; Sharma, R.; Diana, F. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Hu, E.; Nakamura, S.; Weisbuch, C.; Benisty, H.

    2005-09-01

    We observe experimentally by photoluminescence the band structure and specific emission properties of an in-plane, light-diffracting photonic crystal formed onto a multimode gallium nitride waveguide. Clear-cut two-dimensional photonic crystal effects are reported. Comparison with modeling results in identification of the band structure, provides insight into the light diffraction mechanism and points out design issues for enhancement of the extraction efficiency.

  19. Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band-gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew

    Quantum electrodynamics predicts the localization of light around an atom in photonic band-gap (PBG) medium or photonic crystal. Here we report the first experimental realization of the strong coupling between a single artificial atom and an one dimensional PBG medium using superconducting circuits. In the photonic transport measurement, we observe an anomalous Lamb shift and a large band-edge avoided crossing when the artificial atom frequency is tuned across the band-edge. The persistent peak within the band-gap indicates the single photon bound state. Furthermore, we study the resonance fluorescence of this bound state, again demonstrating the breakdown of the Born-Markov approximation near the band-edge. This novel architecture can be directly generalized to study many-body quantum electrodynamics and to construct more complicated spin chain models.

  20. Simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in periodic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Pennec, Y; Djafari Rouhani, B; El Boudouti, E H; Li, C; El Hassouani, Y; Vasseur, J O; Papanikolaou, N; Benchabane, S; Laude, V; Martinez, A

    2010-06-21

    We discuss the simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in a periodic array of holes drilled in a Si membrane. We investigate in detail both the centered square lattice and the boron nitride (BN) lattice with two atoms per unit cell which include the simple square, triangular and honeycomb lattices as particular cases. We show that complete phononic and photonic band gaps can be obtained from the honeycomb lattice as well as BN lattices close to honeycomb. Otherwise, all investigated structures present the possibility of a complete phononic gap together with a photonic band gap of a given symmetry, odd or even, depending on the geometrical parameters.

  1. Achieving omnidirectional photonic band gap in sputter deposited TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} one dimensional photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, S. Tokas, R. B.; Sarkar, P.; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K.; Haque, S. Maidul; Misal, J. S.; Rao, K. D.

    2015-06-24

    The multilayer structure of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} (11 layers) as one dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) has been designed and then fabricated by using asymmetric bipolar pulse DC magnetron sputtering technique for omnidirectional photonic band gap. The experimentally measured photonic band gap (PBG) in the visible region is well matched with the theoretically calculated band structure (ω vs. k) diagram. The experimentally measured omnidirectional reflection band of 44 nm over the incident angle range of 0°-70° is found almost matching within the theoretically calculated band.

  2. Photonic band gaps in quasiperiodic photonic crystals with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. S.; Mauriz, P. W.; de Medeiros, F. F.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the photonic band gaps in quasiperiodic photonic crystals made up of both positive (SiO2) and negative refractive index materials using a theoretical model based on a transfer matrix treatment. The quasiperiodic structures are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (Fibonacci sequences) or singular continuous (Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). These substitutional sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey peculiar recursion relations. We discussed the photonic band gap spectra for both the ideal cases, where the negative refractive index material can be approximated as a constant in the frequency range considered, as well as the more realistic case, taking into account the frequency-dependent electric permittivity γ and magnetic permeability μ . We also present a quantitative analysis of the results, pointing out the distribution of the allowed photonic bandwidths for high generations, which gives a good insight about their localization and power laws.

  3. Effect of shape of scatterers and plasma frequency on the complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we analyze complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals with triangular and square lattices, composed of plasma rods with different geometrical shapes in the anisotropic tellurium background. Using the finite-difference time-domain method we discuss the maximization of the complete photonic band gap width as a function of plasma frequency and plasma rods parameters with different shapes and orientations. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed structures represent significantly wide complete photonic band gaps in comparison to previously studied dielectric-plasma photonic crystals.

  4. Nonlocal Structures: Bilocal Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Roger E.

    1980-01-01

    As a starting point, it is postulated that all particles and fields are built from a single primitive field, which must then be a massless fermion with a σ spin of one-half. Two helicities are embodied in a τ spin of one-half. The vacuum is an open Fermi sea whose height is a wave number κ. Elementary particles are structures having the form of standing-wave systems floating on the vacuum sea, with the height κ providing both the scale of inner structural size and the mass unit for the elementary particle mass spectrum. A bilocal photon starts with a function describing two primitive quanta with parallel σ spin and opposite τ spin. A centroid-time wave equation then couples-in an infinite set of orthogonal functions. The introduction of an operator Q λ permits the reduction of the infinite secular determinant to a finite six-by-six determinant. Solutions (for the infinite expansion) are obtained describing photons with right-handed and left-handed polarizations. Superpositions of these give linearly polarized photons. Electric and magnetic field vectors, satisfying the vacuum Maxwell equations, are obtained from a bilocal Hertz vector given by п= (2/κ3 c)(∂/∂ t r)∇rΨ(1,2), where Ψ(1,2) is the bilocal wave function, and tr and r are the relative time and relative position variables.

  5. Spectroscopy of photonic band gaps in mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Voinov, Yu. P.; Shchavlev, V. V.; Bi, Dongxue; Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide have been synthesized by electrochemical etching method. Reflection spectra of the obtained mesoporous samples in a wide spectral range that covers several band gaps are presented. Microscopic parameters of photonic crystals are calculated and corresponding reflection spectra for the first six band gaps are presented.

  6. Optical properties of honeycomb photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnik, Artem D.; Rybin, Mikhail V.; Lukashenko, Stanislav Y.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Samusev, Kirill B.

    2017-06-01

    We study, theoretically and experimentally, optical properties of different types of honeycomb photonic structures, known also as "photonic graphene." First, we employ the two-photon polymerization method to fabricate the honeycomb structures. In the experiment, we observe a strong diffraction from a finite number of elements, thus providing a unique tool to define the exact number of scattering elements in the structure with the naked eye. Next, we study theoretically the transmission spectra of both honeycomb single layer and two-dimensional (2D) structures of parallel dielectric circular rods. When the dielectric constant of the rod materials ɛ is increasing, we reveal that a 2D photonic graphene structure transforms into a metamaterial when the lowest TE 01 Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg band gap. We also observe two Dirac points in the band structure of 2D photonic graphene at the K point of the Brillouin zone and demonstrate a manifestation of Dirac lensing for the TM polarization. The performance of the Dirac lens is that the 2D photonic graphene layer converts a wave from point source into a beam with flat phase surfaces at the Dirac frequency for the TM polarization.

  7. Localization and characterization of the metallic band gaps in a ternary metallo-dielectric photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo-Molina, Adalberto; Romero-Antequera, David L.; Sánchez-Mondragón, José J.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the existence of structural metallic band gaps in a ternary material, dielectric-dielectric-metal, and we show analytical equations for their computation. We show the existence of metallic band gaps not only in the lowest band but also for high frequencies. These gaps are structural ones but different and additional to the dielectric ones in the dielectric photonic crystal substrate. Therefore, as the desire properties of both, the dielectric and metallic photonic crystals, are present the applications for this particular structure are straightforward.

  8. Recent progress on photonic band gap accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.; Li, D.; Vier, D.C.; Kroll, N. |; Schultz, S.; Wang, H.

    1997-03-01

    We report on the current status of our program to apply Photonic Band Gap (PBG) concepts to produce novel high-energy, high-intensity accelerator cavities. The PBG design on which we have concentrated our inital efforts consists of a square array of metal cylinders, terminated by conducting or superconducting sheets, and surrounded by microwave absorber on the periphery of the structure. A removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. In previous work, we have proposed that this structure could be utilized as an accelerator cavity, with advantageous properties over conventional cavity designs. In the present work, we present further studies, including MAFIA-based numerical calculations and experimental measurements, demonstrating the feasibility of using the proposed structure in a real accelerator application. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Recent progress on photonic band gap accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.; Li, D.; Vier, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    We report on the current status of our program to apply Photonic Band Gap (PBG) concepts to produce novel high-energy, high-intensity accelerator cavities. The PBG design on which we have concentrated our initial efforts consists of a square array of metal cylinders, terminated by conducting or superconducting sheets, and surrounded by microwave absorber on the periphery of the structure. A removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. In previous work, we have proposed that this structure could be utilized as an accelerator cavity, with advantageous properties over conventional cavity designs. In the present work, we present further studies, including MAFIA-based numerical calculations and experimental measurements, demonstrating the feasibility of using the proposed structure in a real accelerator application.

  10. Etched distributed Bragg reflectors as three-dimensional photonic crystals: photonic bands and density of states.

    PubMed

    Pavarini, E; Andreani, L C

    2002-09-01

    The photonic band dispersion and density of states (DOS) are calculated for the three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal structure corresponding to a distributed Bragg reflector patterned with a 2D triangular lattice of circular holes. Results for the Si/SiO(2) and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As systems determine the optimal parameters for which a gap in the 2D plane occurs and overlaps the 1D gap of the multilayer. The DOS is considerably reduced in correspondence with the overlap of 2D and 1D gaps. Also, the local density of states (i.e., the DOS weighted with the squared electric field at a given point) has strong variations depending on the position. Both results imply substantial changes of spontaneous emission rates and patterns for a local emitter embedded in the structure and make this system attractive for the fabrication of a 3D photonic crystal with controlled radiative properties.

  11. Simultaneous two-dimensional phononic and photonic band gaps in opto-mechanical crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Saeed; Eftekhar, Ali A; Khelif, Abdelkrim; Adibi, Ali

    2010-04-26

    We demonstrate planar structures that can provide simultaneous two-dimensional phononic and photonic band gaps in opto-mechanical (or phoxonic) crystal slabs. Different phoxonic crystal (PxC) structures, composed of square, hexagonal (honeycomb), or triangular arrays of void cylindrical holes embedded in silicon (Si) slabs with a finite thickness, are investigated. Photonic band gap (PtBG) maps and the complete phononic band gap (PnBG) maps of PxC slabs with different radii of the holes and thicknesses of the slabs are calculated using a three-dimensional plane wave expansion code. Simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps with band gap to midgap ratios of more than 10% are shown to be readily obtainable with practical geometries in both square and hexagonal lattices, but not for the triangular lattice.

  12. Parasitic Photon-Pair Suppression via Photonic Stop-Band Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helt, L. G.; Brańczyk, Agata M.; Liscidini, Marco; Steel, M. J.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate that an appropriate modification of the field associated with only one of the photons of a photon pair can suppress generation of the pair entirely. From this general result, we develop a method for suppressing the generation of undesired photon pairs utilizing photonic stop bands. For a third-order nonlinear optical source of frequency-degenerate photons, we calculate the modified frequency spectrum (joint spectral intensity) and show a significant increase in a standard metric, the coincidence to accidental ratio. These results open a new avenue for photon-pair frequency correlation engineering.

  13. Analysis of Photonic Band Gaps in a Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice with Superconducting Hollow Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Valencia, B. F.; Calero, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use the plane wave expansion method to calculate photonic band structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals which consist of high-temperature superconducting hollow rods arranged in a triangular lattice. The variation of the photonic band structure with respect to both, the inner radius and the system temperature, is studied, taking into account temperatures below the critical temperature of the superconductor in the low frequencies regime and assuming E polarization of the incident light. Permittivity contrast and nontrivial geometry of the hollow rods lead to the appearance of new band gaps as compared with the case of solid cylinders. Such band gaps can be modulated by means of the inner radius and system temperature.

  14. Trapping of coherence and entanglement in photonic band-gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xing, Gui-Chao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the coherence trapping of a two-level atom transversally interacting with a reservoir with a photonic band-gap structure function. We then focus on the multipartite entanglement dynamics via genuinely multipartite concurrence among N independent atoms each locally coupled with its own reservoir. By considering the Lorentzian width and the system size, we find that for the resonant and near-resonant conditions, the increase of Lorentzian width and the decrease of system size can lead to the occurrence of coherence trapping and entanglement trapping. By choosing the multipartite GHZ state as atomic initial state, we show that the multipartite entanglement may exhibit entanglement sudden death depending on the initial condition and the system size. In addition, we also analyze how the crossover behaviors of two dynamical regimes are influenced by the Lorentzian width and the weight ratio, in terms of the non-Markovianity.

  15. Design and Analysis of Planar Photonic Band Gap Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatadze, V.; Bijamov, A., Jr.; Kakulia, D.; Saparishvili, G.; Kakulia, D.; Zaridze, R.; Hafner, Ch.; Erni, D.

    2008-12-01

    The need for a highly efficient numerical simulation platform for designing photonic band gap (PBG) structures is outlined in the context of various functional device topologies. In this paper we therefore introduce the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) as a semi-analytical, frequency-domain method for computational optics, which has already proven its accuracy and efficiency in various other fields of electrodynamics. The proposed software package provides an easy-to-handle approach to full-wave analysis of two-dimensional (2D) PBG circuits, PBG-based antennas as well as to dense-integrated optics components that contain optical waveguides, scatterers, resonators and other functional elements. Experimental verifications of the numerical results have been conducted along large-scale prototypes in the microwave frequency range for several device topologies.

  16. Photonic band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummer, Karikkuzhi Variyath; Vijaya, Ramarao

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement in photonic band-edge-induced absorption and emission from rhodamine-B dye doped polystyrene pseudo gap photonic crystals is studied. The band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption is achieved by selecting the incident angle of the excitation beam so that the absorption spectrum of the emitter overlaps the photonic band edge. The band-edge-induced enhancement in emission, on the other hand, is possible with and without an enhancement in band-edge-induced absorption, depending on the collection angle of emission. Through a simple set of measurements with suitably chosen angles for excitation and emission, we achieve a maximum enhancement of 70% in emission intensity with band-edge-induced effects over and above the intrinsic emission in the case of self-assembled opals. This is a comprehensive effort to interpret tunable lasing in opals as well as to predict the wavelength of lasing arising as a result of band-edge-induced distributed feedback effects.

  17. Band gap characterization and slow light effects in periodic and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghdoudi, J.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-04-01

    Slow light offers many opportunities for photonic devices by increasing the effective interaction length of imposed refractive index changes. The slow wave effect in photonic crystals is based on their unique dispersive properties and thus entirely dielectric in nature. In this work we demonstrate an interesting opportunity to decrease drastically the group velocity of light in one-dimensional photonic crystals constructed form materials with large dielectric constant without dispersion). We use numerical analysis to study the photonic properties of periodic (Bragg mirror) and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystals realized to engineer slow light effects. Various geometries of the photonic pattern have been characterized and their photonic band-gap structure analyzed. Indeed, one dimensional quasi periodic photonic multilayer structure based on Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and Cantor sequences were studied. Quasiperiodic structures have a rich and highly fragmented reflectivity spectrum with many sharp resonant peaks that could be exploited in a microcavity system. A comparison of group velocity through periodic and quasiperiodic photonic crystals was discussed in the context of slow light propagation. The velocity control of pulses in materials is one of the promising applications of photonic crystals. The material systems used for the numerical analysis are TiO II/SiO II and Te/SiO II which have a refractive index contrast of approximately 1.59 and 3.17 respectively. The proposed structures were modelled using the Transfer Matrix Method.

  18. Special purpose modes in photonic band gap fibers

    DOEpatents

    Spencer, James; Noble, Robert; Campbell, Sara

    2013-04-02

    Photonic band gap fibers are described having one or more defects suitable for the acceleration of electrons or other charged particles. Methods and devices are described for exciting special purpose modes in the defects including laser coupling schemes as well as various fiber designs and components for facilitating excitation of desired modes. Results are also presented showing effects on modes due to modes in other defects within the fiber and due to the proximity of defects to the fiber edge. Techniques and devices are described for controlling electrons within the defect(s). Various applications for electrons or other energetic charged particles produced by such photonic band gap fibers are also described.

  19. Flat and self-trapping photonic bands through coupling of two unidirectional edge modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; He, Han-Qing; Hu, Jian-xia; Chen, Lin-kun; Wen, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    We find a flat band and a self-trapping band through the coupling of two unidirectional edge modes, which was originally achieved by Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013905 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.013905; Nature 461, 772 (2009), 10.1038/nature08293] in two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals. We break up a square-lattice yttrium-iron-garnet photonic crystal forming a waveguide and two edges. Given a proper interval of the two edges, two unidirectional edge modes with opposite group velocity directions can be coupled. The coupling leads to a wide flat band in which the group velocity is near zero, and a self-trapping band in which light is totally localized around the source. The position of the flat band and the group velocity can be adjusted by the external magnetic field. Numerical simulations and theoretical analysis both demonstrate the two interesting band structures.

  20. Band gap and dispersion engineering of photonic crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Caihua

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) have been of great interest in a variety of fields in the past decade due to their great capability for manipulating photons in a manner similar to how electrons are controlled in a semiconductor material. In particular, PhCs are expected to revolutionize such fields as optical signal processing and optical communication by allowing the development of novel optical devices for high-density photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The development of PhC devices will be greatly accelerated by systematic designs. In this dissertation, I developed several procedures to systematically engineer the dispersion properties of PhCs. Using these procedures, I presented a variety of novel applications intended for use in future high-density PICs. These were achieved through efficient implementations of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the plane wave method (PWM). Specifically, by combining these efficient electromagnetic tools with the direct binary search (DBS) method or simulated annealing (SA), I developed very efficient synthesis processes and used them to optimize absolute photonic band gaps (PBGs) of PhC structures and a beam steering device based on a PhC with PBG(s). I also presented another novel PhC device working in PBG, namely a PhC ring drop filter. On the other hand, I utilized the FDTD method and the PWM to shape dispersion surfaces and/or contours of PhC structures for manipulating light propagation. In particular, I engineered PhCs with square- and circle-shaped equi-frequency contours (EFCs) and presented several applications using these two unique PhCs. These applications include optical beam routing, coupling and splitting a wide beam into multiple narrow self-guiding beams, a unidirectional emitter, and an in-plane lens coupler. I also explored negative refraction and left-handed behavior in PhCs and presented a flat lens using a PhC exhibiting negative refraction and left-handed behavior.

  1. Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Monika; Altepeter, Joseph B.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Oza, Neal N.; Kumar, Prem

    2014-12-04

    We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter.

  2. Experimental Work With Photonic Band Gap Fiber: Building A Laser Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Melissa; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Nobel, Robert; Siemann, Robert; /SLAC

    2006-09-29

    In the laser acceleration project E-163 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, work is being done toward building a traveling wave accelerator that uses as its accelerating structure a length of photonic band gap fiber. The small scale of the optical fiber allows radiation at optical wavelengths to be used to provide the necessary accelerating energy. Optical wavelength driving energy in a small structure yields higher accelerating fields. The existence of a speed-of-light accelerating mode in a photonic band gap fiber has been calculated previously [1]. This paper presents an overview of several of the experimental challenges posed in the development of the proposed photonic band gap fiber accelerator system.

  3. Reconfigurable photonic delay line filter working in Ku band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mandeep; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastava, Nimish Kumar

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a tunable microwave photonic filter working in ‘Ku’ frequency band (12-18 GHz). We followed three different schemes: double side band (double-SB), single side band (single-SB) and optical-carrier suppression (optical-CS) for our proposed photonic link. We also derived and numerically solved the transfer function for each case. Re-configurability (change in transfer function) of the filter is achieved by using laser switching (ON/OFF) and carefully windowing (using a higher order cosine window—the Blackman window) of the time samples in the range of 1-20 GHz. Moreover, we also investigate the amplitude comparison function (difference of power fading function) with the help of a vector network analyzer. Our experimental and simulation investigations are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  4. Design of a three-dimensional photonic band gap cavity in a diamondlike inverse woodpile photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldering, Léon A.; Mosk, Allard P.; Vos, Willem L.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the design of cavities in a three-dimensional (3D) inverse woodpile photonic crystal. This class of cubic diamondlike crystals has a very broad photonic band gap and consists of two perpendicular arrays of pores with a rectangular structure. The point defect that acts as a cavity is centered on the intersection of two intersecting perpendicular pores with a radius that differs from the ones in the bulk of the crystal. We have performed supercell band structure calculations with up to 5×5×5 unit cells. We find that up to five isolated and dispersionless bands appear within the 3D photonic band gap. For each isolated band, the electric-field energy is localized in a volume centered on the point defect, hence the point defect acts as a 3D photonic band gap cavity. The mode volume of the cavities resonances is as small as 0.8 λ3 (resonance wavelength cubed), indicating a strong confinement of the light. By varying the radius of the defect pores we found that only donorlike resonances appear for smaller defect radius, whereas no acceptorlike resonances appear for greater defect radius. From a 3D plot of the distribution of the electric-field energy density we conclude that peaks of energy are found in sharp edges situated at the point defect, similar to how electrons collect at such features. This is different from what is observed for cavities in noninverted woodpile structures. Since inverse woodpile crystals can be fabricated from silicon by CMOS-compatible means, we project that single cavities and even cavity arrays can be realized, for wavelength ranges compatible with telecommunication windows in the near infrared.

  5. Fabrication of Ceramic Layer-by-Layer Infrared Wavelength Photonic Band Gap Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Henry Hao-Chuan

    2004-12-19

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals, also known as photonic crystals, are periodic dielectric structures which form a photonic band gap that prohibit the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves of certain frequencies at any incident angles. Photonic crystals have several potential applications including zero-threshold semiconductor lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emission, dielectric mirrors, and wavelength filters. If defect states are introduced in the crystals, light can be guided from one location to another or even a sharp bending of light in micron scale can be achieved. This generates the potential for optical waveguide and optical circuits, which will contribute to the improvement in the fiber-optic communications and the development of high-speed computers.

  6. New edge-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Hua; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new class of edge-centered photonic square lattices with multiple flat bands, and consider in detail two examples: the Lieb-5 and Lieb-7 lattices. In these lattices, there are 5 and 7 sites in the unit cell and in general, the number is restricted to odd integers. The number of flat bands m in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites N in the unit cell by a simple formula m =(N - 1) / 2. The flat bands reported here are independent of the pseudomagnetic field. The properties of lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We consider the localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong mode localization. In the Lieb-7 lattice, the beam will also oscillate during propagation and still not diffract. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for investigating light trapping, photonic topological insulators, and pseudospin-mediated vortex generation.

  7. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, N.; Amin, M.; Naureen, S.; Anand, S.

    2013-03-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications.

  8. Manipulating full photonic band gaps in two dimensional birefringent photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Verma, Prabhat; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Shoji, Satoru; Kawata, Satoshi

    2008-09-15

    The probability to realize a full photonic band gap in two-dimensional birefringent photonic crystals can be readily manipulated by introducing symmetry reduction or air holes in the crystal elements. The results lie in either creation of new band gaps or enlargement of existing band gaps. In particular, a combination of the two processes produces an effect much stronger than a simple summation of their individual contributions. Materials with both relatively low refractive index (rutile) and high refractive index (tellurium) were considered. The combined effect of introduction of symmetry reduction and air holes resulted in a maximum enlargement of the band gaps by 8.4% and 20.2%, respectively, for the two materials.

  9. Nonequilibrium Band Mapping of Unoccupied Bulk States below the Vacuum Level by Two-Photon Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.D.; Hao, Z.; Dadap, J.I.; Knox, K.R.; Yilmaz, M.B.; Zaki, N.; Osgood, R.M.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate angle-resolved, tunable, two-photon photoemission (2PPE) to map a bulk unoccupied band, viz. the Cu sp band 0 to 1 eV below the vacuum level, in the vicinity of the L point. This short-lived bulk band is seen due to the strong optical pump rate, and the observed transition energies and their dispersion with photon energy {h_bar}{omega}, are in excellent agreement with tight-binding band-structure calculations. The variation of the final-state energy with {h_bar}{omega} has a measured slope of -1.64 in contrast to values of 1 or 2 observed for 2PPE from two-dimensional states. This unique variation illustrates the significant role of the perpendicular momentum {h_bar}k{perpendicular} in 2PPE.

  10. Nonequilibrium Band Mapping of Unoccupied Bulk States below the Vacuum Level by Two-Photon Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Zhaofeng; Dadap, J. I.; Knox, K. R.; Zaki, N.; Osgood, R. M.; Yilmaz, M. B.; Johnson, P. D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate angle-resolved, tunable, two-photon photoemission (2PPE) to map a bulk unoccupied band, viz. the Cu sp band 0 to 1 eV below the vacuum level, in the vicinity of the L point. This short-lived bulk band is seen due to the strong optical pump rate, and the observed transition energies and their dispersion with photon energy ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}, are in excellent agreement with tight-binding band-structure calculations. The variation of the final-state energy with ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega} has a measured slope of {approx}1.64 in contrast to values of 1 or 2 observed for 2PPE from two-dimensional states. This unique variation illustrates the significant role of the perpendicular momentum ({h_bar}/2{pi})k{sub perpendicular} in 2PPE.

  11. Extreme narrow photonic bands and strong photonic localization produced by 2D defect two-segment-connected quadrangular waveguide networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Yang, Xiangbo; Timon Liu, Chengyi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of optical transmission and photonic localization of two-dimensional (2D) defect two-segment-connected quadrangular waveguide networks (DTSCQWNs) and find that many groups of extreme narrow photonic bands are created in the middle of the transmission spectra. The electromagnetic (EM) waves in DTSCQWNs with the frequencies of extreme narrow photonic bands can produce strong photonic localizations by adjusting defect broken degree. On the other hand, we obtain the formula of extreme narrow photonic bands' frequencies dependent on defect broken degree and the formula of the largest intensity of photonic localization dependent on defect broken degree, respectively. It may possess potential application for designing all-optical devices based on strong photonic localizations. Additionally, we propose a so-called defecton mode to study the splitting rules of extreme narrow photonic bands, where decomposition-decimation method is expanded from the field of electronic energy spectra to that of optical transmission spectra.

  12. Toward an Impurity Band PV: Dynamics of Carriers Generated via Sub-band gap Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph; Simmons, Christie; Akey, Austin; Aziz, Michael; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-03-01

    Intermediate band solar cells are a pathway to cells that surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit by enabling the utilization of sub-band gap photons. A proposed method for fabricating an intermediate band material is to use impurities that introduce electronic levels within the band gap. At sufficiently high dopant concentrations, band formation may lead to a suppression of Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination, an idea known as ``lifetime recovery''. We investigate a proposed intermediate band material, silicon hyper-doped with sulfur. This material system exhibits strong sub-band gap optical absorption and metallic conductivity at sufficiently high sulfur concentrations, which makes it a strong candidate for an impurity-band material. We employ low-temperature photoconductivity using sub-band gap light to estimate the trapping rate of electrons in the conduction band. We vary the sulfur concentration near the critical value for the metal-insulator transition to test the idea of ``lifetime recovery'' in the S:Si system.

  13. Photonic band gaps in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals with arbitrary magnetic declination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haifeng; Liu Shaobin; Kong Xiangkun

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps and dispersion relations of one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals composed of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers with arbitrary magnetic declination are theoretically investigated for TM polarized wave based on transfer matrix method. As TM wave propagates in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals, the electromagnetic wave can be divided into two modes due to the influence of Lorentz force. The equations for effective dielectric functions of such two modes are theoretically deduced, and the transfer matrix equation and dispersion relations for TM wave are calculated. The influences of relative dielectric constant, plasma collision frequency, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency on transmission, and dispersion relation are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that plasma collision frequency cannot change the locations of photonic band gaps for both modes, and also does not affect the reflection and transmission magnitudes. The characteristics of photonic band gaps for both modes can be obviously tuned by relative dielectric constant, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency, respectively. These results would provide theoretical instructions for designing filters, microcavities, and fibers, etc.

  14. A novel method for measurement of concentration using two dimensional photonic crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palai, Gopinath; Tripathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2012-05-01

    A novel method to measure the concentration of sugar, sodium chloride and alcohol, in their aqueous solution by using two dimensional photonic crystal structures is presented. This measurement is very accurate as the principle is based on variation of photonic band gap with respect to concentration. Photonic band gap here is computed using plane wave expansion method.

  15. Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography.

    PubMed

    Chan, Timothy Y M; Toader, Ovidiu; John, Sajeev

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate an approach for fabricating photonic crystals with large three-dimensional photonic band gaps (PBG's) using single-exposure, single-beam, optical interference lithography based on diffraction of light through an optical phase mask. The optical phase mask (OPM) consists of two orthogonally oriented binary gratings joined by a thin, solid layer of homogeneous material. Illuminating the phase mask with a normally incident beam produces a five-beam diffraction pattern which can be used to expose a suitable photoresist and produce a photonic crystal template. Optical-phase-mask Lithography (OPML) is a major simplification from the previously considered multibeam holographic lithography of photonic crystals. The diffracted five-beam intensity pattern exhibits isointensity surfaces corresponding to a diamondlike (face-centered-cubic) structure, with high intensity contrast. When the isointensity surfaces in the interference patterns define a silicon-air boundary in the resulting photonic crystal, with dielectric contrast 11.9 to 1, the optimized PBG is approximately 24% of the gap center frequency. The ideal index contrast for the OPM is in the range of 1.7-2.3. Below this range, the intensity contrast of the diffraction pattern becomes too weak. Above this range, the diffraction pattern may become too sensitive to structural imperfections of the OPM. When combined with recently demonstrated polymer-to-silicon replication methods, OPML provides a highly efficient approach, of unprecedented simplicity, for the mass production of large-scale three-dimensional photonic band-gap materials.

  16. Investigation on the properties of omnidirectional photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang

    2016-01-15

    The properties of omnidirectional photonic band gaps (OBGs) in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) are theoretically investigated by the modified plane wave expansion method. In the simulation, we consider the off-plane incident wave vector. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the triangular lattices filled with the nonmagnetized plasma cylinders in the homogeneous and isotropic dielectric background. The calculated results show that the proposed 2D PPCs possess a flatbands region and the OBGs. Compared with the OBGs in the conventional 2D dielectric-air PCs, it can be obtained more easily and enlarged in the 2D PPCs with a similar structure. The effects of configurational parameters of the PPCs on the OBGs also are studied. The simulated results demonstrate that the locations of OBGs can be tuned easily by manipulating those parameters except for changing plasma collision frequency. The achieved OBGs can be enlarged by optimizations. The OBGs of two novel configurations of PPCs with different cross sections are computed for a comparison. Both configurations have the advantages of obtaining the larger OBGs compared with the conventional configuration, since the symmetry of 2D PPCs is broken by different sizes of periodically inserted plasma cylinders or connected by the embedded plasma cylinders with thin veins. The analysis of the results shows that the bandwidths of OBGs can be tuned by changing geometric and physical parameters of such two PPCs structures. The theoretical results may open a new scope for designing the omnidirectional reflectors or mirrors based on the 2D PPCs.

  17. Reflectivity calculated for a three-dimensional silicon photonic band gap crystal with finite support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devashish, D.; Hasan, Shakeeb B.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.; Vos, Willem L.

    2017-04-01

    We study numerically the reflectivity of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a complete 3D photonic band gap. We employ the finite element method to study crystals with the cubic diamondlike inverse woodpile structure. The high-index backbone has a dielectric function similar to silicon. We study crystals with a range of thicknesses up to ten unit cells (L ≤10 c ). The crystals are surrounded by vacuum, and have a finite support as in experiments. The polarization-resolved reflectivity spectra reveal Fabry-Pérot fringes related to standing waves in the finite crystal, as well as broad stop bands with nearly 100 % reflectivity, even for thin crystals. The frequency ranges of the stop bands change little with angle of incidence, which is plausible since the stop bands are part of the 3D band gap. Moreover, this result supports the previous assertion that intense reflection peaks measured with a large numerical aperture provide a faithful signature of the 3D photonic band gap. For p -polarized waves, we observe an intriguing hybridization between the Fabry-Pérot resonances and the Brewster angle that remains to be observed in experiments. From the strong reflectivity peaks, it is inferred that the maximum reflectivity observed in experiments is not limited by finite size. The frequency ranges of the stop bands agree very well with stop gaps in the photonic band structure that pertain to infinite and perfect crystals. The angle-dependent reflectivity spectra provide an improved interpretation of the reflectivity measurements performed with a certain numerical aperture and a new insight in the crystal structure, namely unequal pore radii in X and Z directions. The Bragg attenuation lengths LB are found to be smaller by a factor 6 to 9 than earlier estimates that are based on the width of the stop band. Hence, crystals with a thickness of 12 unit cells studied in experiments are in the thick crystal limit (L ≫LB ). Our reflectivity calculations suggest

  18. Thermal tuning the reversible optical band gap of self-assembled polystyrene photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili Tahami, S. H.; Pourmahdian, S.; Shirkavand Hadavand, B.; Azizi, Z. S.; Tehranchi, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    Nano-sized polymeric colloidal particles could undergo self-organization into three-dimensional structures to produce desired optical properties. In this research, a facile emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method was employed to synthesize highly mono-disperse sub-micron polystyrene colloids. A high quality photonic crystal (PhC) structure was prepared by colloidal polystyrene. The reversible thermal tuning effect on photonic band gap position as well as the attenuation of the band gap was investigated in detail. The position of PBG can be tuned from 420 nm to 400 nm by varying the temperature of the PhC structure, reversibly. This reversible effect provides a reconfigurable PhC structure which could be used as thermo-responsive shape memory polymers.

  19. Band structures in 101Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, S.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Palit, R.; Malik, S. S.; Singh, N.; Garg, U.; Mehta, D.

    2017-06-01

    Excited states in the 101Pd nucleus were investigated through the 75As(31P,2 p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=125 MeV by using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme is considerably extended for medium spin values. New positive-parity band structures in 101Pd have been studied within the framework of the projected shell model and are found to undergo transition from single quasiparticle to high-K three quasiparticle configuration after band crossing, i.e., from principal-axis rotation to tilted-axis rotation. The negative-parity band structures are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking shell model calculations. The observed alignment gain in the lowest excited ν h11 /2 negative-parity band results from successive (νg7 /2) 2 and (πg9 /2) 2 pair alignments. The higher excited negative-parity bands are reproduced for the ν [h11 /2(g7/2/d5 /2) 2] and (πg9 /2) -2⊗ν h11 /2 configurations.

  20. A versatile optical junction using photonic band-gap guidance and self collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Man Mohan; Medhekar, Sarang

    2014-09-29

    We show that it is possible to design two photonic crystal (PC) structures such that an optical beam of desired wavelength gets guided within the line defect of the first structure (photonic band gap guidance) and the same beam gets guided in the second structure by self-collimation. Using two dimensional simulation of a design made of the combination of these two structures, we propose an optical junction that allows for crossing of two optical signals of same wavelength and same polarization with very low crosstalk. Moreover, the junction can be operated at number of frequencies in a wide range. Crossing of multiple beams with very low cross talk is also possible. The proposed junction should be important in future integrated photonic circuits.

  1. Compact flat band states in optically induced flatland photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkin, Evgenij; Diebel, Falko; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    We realize low-dimensional tight-binding lattices that host flat bands in their dispersion relation and demonstrate the existence of optical compact flat band states. The lattices are resembled by arrays of optical waveguides fabricated by the state-of-the-art spatio-temporal Bessel beam multiplexing optical induction in photorefractive media. We work out the decisive details of the transition from the discrete theory to the real optical system ensuring that the experimental lattices stand up to numerical scrutiny exhibiting well-approximated band structures. Our highly flexible system is a promising candidate for further experimental investigation of theoretically studied disorder effects in flat band lattices.

  2. Finite element computation of grating scattering matrices and application to photonic crystal band calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dossou, Kokou . E-mail: Kokou.Dossou@uts.edu.au; Byrne, Michael A.; Botten, Lindsay C.

    2006-11-20

    We consider the calculation of the band structure and Bloch mode basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals, modelled as stacks of one-dimensional diffraction gratings. The scattering properties of each grating are calculated using an efficient finite element method (FEM) and allow the complete mode structure to be derived from a transfer matrix method. A range of numerical examples showing the accuracy, flexibility and utility of the method is presented.

  3. Efficient light amplification in low gain materials due to a photonic band edge effect.

    PubMed

    Ondič, L; Pelant, I

    2012-03-26

    One of the possibilities of increasing optical gain of a light emitting source is by embedding it into a photonic crystal (PhC). If the properties of the PhC are tuned so that the emission wavelength of the light source with gain falls close to the photonic band edge of the PhC, then due to low group velocity of the light modes near the band edge caused by many multiple reflections of light on the photonic structure, the stimulated emission can be significantly enhanced. Here, we perform simulation of the photonic band edge effect on the light intensity of spectrally broad source interacting with a diamond PhC with low optical gain. We show that even for the case of low gain, up to 10-fold increase of light intensity output can be obtained for the two-dimensional PhC consisting of only 19 periodic layers of infinitely high diamond rods ordered into a square lattice. Moreover, considering the experimentally feasible structure composed of diamond rods of finite height - PhC slab - we show that the gain enhancement, even if reduced compared to the ideal case of infinite rods, still remains relatively high. For this particular structure, we show that up to 3.5-fold enhancement of light intensity can be achieved.

  4. Introducing Defects in Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Elliott C.; /North Dakota State U. /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) fibers are a periodic array of optical materials arranged in a lattice called a photonic crystal. The use of PBG fibers for particle acceleration is being studied by the Advanced Accelerator Research Department (AARD) at SLAC. By introducing defects in such fibers, e.g. removing one or more capillaries from a hexagonal lattice, spatially confined modes suitable for particle acceleration may be created. The AARD has acquired several test samples of PBG fiber arrays with varying refractive index, capillary size, and length from an external vendor for testing. The PBGs were inspected with a microscope and characteristics of the capillaries including radii, spacing, and errors in construction were determined. Transmission tests were performed on these samples using a broad-range spectrophotometer. In addition, detailed E-field simulations of different PBG configurations were done using the CUDOS and RSOFT codes. Several accelerating modes for different configurations were found and studied in detail.

  5. Design of two-dimensional photonic crystals with large absolute band gaps using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Linfang; Ye, Zhuo; He, Sailing

    2003-07-01

    A two-stage genetic algorithm (GA) with a floating mutation probability is developed to design a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal of a square lattice with the maximal absolute band gap. The unit cell is divided equally into many square pixels, and each filling pattern of pixels with two dielectric materials corresponds to a chromosome consisting of binary digits 0 and 1. As a numerical example, the two-stage GA gives a 2D GaAs structure with a relative width of the absolute band gap of about 19%. After further optimization, a new 2D GaAs photonic crystal is found with an absolute band gap much larger than those reported before.

  6. High-Power Fiber Lasers Using Photonic Band Gap Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiDomenico, Leo; Dowling, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers (HPFLs) would be made from photonic band gap (PBG) materials, according to the proposal. Such lasers would be scalable in the sense that a large number of fiber lasers could be arranged in an array or bundle and then operated in phase-locked condition to generate a superposition and highly directed high-power laser beam. It has been estimated that an average power level as high as 1,000 W per fiber could be achieved in such an array. Examples of potential applications for the proposed single-fiber lasers include welding and laser surgery. Additionally, the bundled fibers have applications in beaming power through free space for autonomous vehicles, laser weapons, free-space communications, and inducing photochemical reactions in large-scale industrial processes. The proposal has been inspired in part by recent improvements in the capabilities of single-mode fiber amplifiers and lasers to produce continuous high-power radiation. In particular, it has been found that the average output power of a single strand of a fiber laser can be increased by suitably changing the doping profile of active ions in its gain medium to optimize the spatial overlap of the electromagnetic field with the distribution of active ions. Such optimization minimizes pump power losses and increases the gain in the fiber laser system. The proposal would expand the basic concept of this type of optimization to incorporate exploitation of the properties (including, in some cases, nonlinearities) of PBG materials to obtain power levels and efficiencies higher than are now possible. Another element of the proposal is to enable pumping by concentrated sunlight. Somewhat more specifically, the proposal calls for exploitation of the properties of PBG materials to overcome a number of stubborn adverse phenomena that have impeded prior efforts to perfect HPFLs. The most relevant of those phenomena is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which causes saturation of gain and power

  7. Analysis of photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals with rods covered by a thin interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L.F.; Pallares, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-11-15

    We investigate different aspects of the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional photonic structures consisting of rods covered with a thin dielectric film. Specifically, triangular and honeycomb lattices in both complementary arrangements, i.e., air rods drilled in silicon matrix and silicon rods in air, are studied. We consider that the rods are formed of a dielectric core (silicon or air) surrounded by a cladding layer of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), or germanium (Ge). Such photonic lattices present absolute photonic band gaps, and we study the evolution of these gaps as functions of the cladding material and thickness. Our results show that in the case of air rods in dielectric media the existence of dielectric cladding reduces the absolute gap width and may cause complete closure of the gap if thick layers are considered. For the case of dielectric rods in air, however, the existence of a cladding layer can be advantageous and larger absolute PBG's can be achieved.

  8. Photonic band gaps of increasingly isotropic crystals at high dielectric contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, M. E.; Parker, G. J.; Charlton, M. D. B.

    2012-03-01

    Photonic band gaps (PBGs) are highly sensitive to lattice geometry and dielectric contrast. Here, we report theoretical and experimental confirmation of PBGs in photonic crystals (PhCs) with increasing levels of structural isotropy. These structures are: a standard 6-fold hexagonal lattice, a locally 12-fold Archimedean-like crystal, a true quasicrystal generated by non-random Stampfli inflation, and a biomimetic crystal based on Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Experimental transmission spectra were obtained at microwave frequencies using high-index alumina (ɛ = 9.61) rods. The results were compared to FDTD-calculated transmission spectra and PWE-calculated band diagrams. Wide and deep (> 60dB) primary TM gaps present in all high-index samples are related to reciprocal space vectors with the strongest Fourier coefficients. Their mid-gap frequencies are largely independent of the lattice geometry for comparable fill factors, whereas the gap ratios shrink monotonically as structural isotropy increases.

  9. Analysing photonic structures in plants.

    PubMed

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-10-06

    The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. Some of these structures include ordered periodic multilayers and diffraction gratings that give rise to interesting optical appearances. The colour arising from such structures is generally brighter than pigment-based colour. Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. These experimental approaches allow identification of the physical mechanisms producing structural colours with a high degree of confidence.

  10. Analysing photonic structures in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. Some of these structures include ordered periodic multilayers and diffraction gratings that give rise to interesting optical appearances. The colour arising from such structures is generally brighter than pigment-based colour. Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. These experimental approaches allow identification of the physical mechanisms producing structural colours with a high degree of confidence. PMID:23883949

  11. Six wave mixing process in photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanyong; Rasheed Mahesar, Abdul; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yunzhe; Gong, Rui; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2017-07-01

    For the first time, we have experimentally and theoretically researched the double dressing effect on the six wave mixing photonic band gap signal (SWM BGS), probe transmission signal (PTS) and fluorescence signal (FLS) in an inverted Y-type four level atomic system. We investigate the characteristics of the SMW BGS, PTS and FLS, which can be controlled by beam, power and detuning. At the same time, the relative phase which is caused by the incident angle of dressing beams plays a vital role in modulating the intensity of the SWM BGS, PTS and FLS. Such a scheme has potential applications in optical diodes, amplifiers and quantum information processing.

  12. Chaos in the band structure of a soft Sinai lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Max D.; Barr, Aaron; Barr, Ariel; Reichl, L. E.

    2017-05-01

    We study the effect of broken spatial and dynamical symmetries on the band structure of two lattices with unit cells that are soft versions of the classic Sinai billiard. We find significant signatures of chaos in the band structure of these lattices, in energy regimes where the underlying classical unit cell undergoes a transition to chaos. Broken dynamical symmetries and the presence of chaos can diminish the feasibility of changing and controlling band structure in a wide variety of two-dimensional lattice-based devices, including two-dimensional solids, optical lattices, and photonic crystals.

  13. Two-Dimensional Phononic-Photonic Band Gap Optomechanical Crystal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Hill, Jeff T.; Meenehan, Seán; Chan, Jasper; Gröblacher, Simon; Painter, Oskar

    2014-04-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of an artificial crystal structure formed from a thin film of silicon that has a full phononic band gap for microwave X-band phonons and a two-dimensional pseudo-band gap for near-infrared photons. An engineered defect in the crystal structure is used to localize optical and mechanical resonances in the band gap of the planar crystal. Two-tone optical spectroscopy is used to characterize the cavity system, showing a large coupling (g0/2π≈220 kHz) between the fundamental optical cavity resonance at ωo/2π =195 THz and colocalized mechanical resonances at frequency ωm/2π ≈9.3 GHz.

  14. Wide-field-of-view narrow-band spectral filters based on photonic crystal nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Wataru; Sun, Pang-Chen; Chen, Chyong-Hua; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2002-02-01

    We describe a novel approach to implementing wide-field-of-view narrow-band spectral filters, using an array of resonant nanocavities consisting of periodic defects in a two-dimensional three-material photonic-crystal nanostructure. We analyze the transmissivity of this type of filter for a range of wavelengths and in-plane incidence angles as a function of the defect's refractive index, the number of layers in the photonic-crystal reflectors, and the period of the defects and find that this structure diminishes the angular sensitivity of the resonance condition relative to that of a standard multilayer filter.

  15. On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecommunication-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A.; Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R.

    2011-12-15

    Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

  16. Raman-tailored photonic crystal fiber for telecom band photon-pair generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, M.; Orieux, A.; Gabet, R.; Harlé, T.; Dubreuil, N.; Diamanti, E.; Delaye, P.; Zaquine, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the experimental characterization of a novel nonlinear liquid-filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber for the generation of photon pairs at telecommunication wavelength through spontaneous four-wave-mixing. We show that the optimization procedure in view of this application links the choice of the nonlinear liquid to the design parameters of the fiber, and we give an example of such an optimization at telecom wavelengths. Combining the modeling of the fiber and classical characterization techniques at these wavelengths, we identify, for the chosen fiber and liquid combination, spontaneous four-wave-mixing phase matching frequency ranges with no Raman scattering noise contamination. This is a first step toward obtaining a telecom band fibered photon-pair source with a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Band structure in 113Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of collective bands in 113Sn, populated in the reaction 100Mo(19F,p 5 n ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV, has been studied. A new positive-parity sequence of eight states extending up to 7764.9 keV and spin (39 /2+) has been observed. The band is explained as arising from the coupling of the odd valence neutron in the g7 /2 or the d5 /2 orbital to the deformed 2p-2h proton configuration of the neighboring even-A Sn isotope. Lifetimes of six states up to an excitation energy of 9934.9 keV and spin 47 /2-belonging to a Δ I =2 intruder band have been measured for the first time, including an upper limit for the last state, from Doppler-shift-attenuation data. A moderate average quadrupole deformation β2=0.22 ±0.02 is deduced from these results for the five states up to spin 43 /2- . The transition quadrupole moments decrease with increase in rotational frequency, indicating a reduction of collectivity with spin, a feature common for terminating bands. The behavior of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia as a function of rotational frequency has been studied and total Routhian surface calculations have been performed in an attempt to obtain an insight into the nature of the states near termination.

  18. Quantum structures for multiband photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.

    2006-06-01

    The work describes multiband photon detectors based on semiconductor micro-and nano-structures. The devices considered include quantum dot, homojunction, and heterojunction structures. In the quantum dot structures, transitions are from one state to another, while free carrier absorption and internal photoemission play the dominant role in homo or heterojunction detectors. Quantum dots-in-a-well (DWELL) detectors can tailor the response wavelength by varying the size of the well. A tunnelling quantum dot infrared photodetector (T-QDIP) could operate at room temperature by blocking the dark current except in the case of resonance. Photoexcited carriers are selectively collected from InGaAs quantum dots by resonant tunnelling, while the dark current is blocked by AlGaAs/InGaAs tunnelling barriers placed in the structure. A two-colour infrared detector with photoresponse peaks at ˜6 and ˜17 μm at room temperature will be discussed. A homojunction or heterojunction interfacial workfunction internal photoemission (HIWIP or HEIWIP) infrared detector, formed by a doped emitter layer, and an intrinsic layer acting as the barrier followed by another highly doped contact layer, can detect near infrared (NIR) photons due to interband transitions and mid/far infrared (MIR/FIR) radiation due to intraband transitions. The threshold wavelength of the interband response depends on the band gap of the barrier material, and the MIR/FIR response due to intraband transitions can be tailored by adjusting the band offset between the emitter and the barrier. GaAs/AlGaAs will provide NIR and MIR/FIR dual band response, and with GaN/AlGaN structures the detection capability can be extended into the ultraviolet region. These detectors are useful in numerous applications such as environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis, battlefield-imaging, space astronomy applications, mine detection, and remote-sensing.

  19. Quantum structures for multiband photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.

    2005-09-01

    The work describes multiband photon detectors based on semiconductor micro- and nano-structures. The devices considered include quantum dot, homojunction, and heterojunction structures. In the quantum dot structures, transitions are from one state to another, while free carrier absorption and internal photoemission play the dominant role in homo or heterojunction detectors. Quantum Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) detectors can tailor the response wavelength by varying the size of the well. A tunneling Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (T-QDIP) could operate at room temperature by blocking the dark current except in the case of resonance. Photoexcited carriers are selectively collected from InGaAs quantum dots by resonant tunneling, while the dark current is blocked by AlGaAs/InGaAs tunneling barriers placed in the structure. A two-color infrared detector with photoresponse peaks at ~6 and ~17 μm at room temperature will be discussed. A Homojunction or HEterojunction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HIWIP or HEIWIP) infrared detector, formed by a doped emitter layer, and an intrinsic layer acting as the barrier followed by another highly doped contact layer, can detect near infrared (NIR) photons due to interband transitions and mid/far infrared (MIR/FIR) radiation due to intraband transitions. The threshold wavelength of the interband response depends on the band gap of the barrier material, and the MIR/FIR response due to intraband transitions can be tailored by adjusting the band offset between the emitter and the barrier. GaAs/AlGaAs will provide NIR and MIR/FIR dual band response, and with GaN/AlGaN structures the detection capability can be extended into the ultraviolet region. These detectors are useful in numerous applications such as environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis, battlefield-imaging, space astronomy applications, mine detection, and remote-sensing.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Photonic Band gaps in Artificial Opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yin, Ming; Arammash, Fouzi; Datta, Timir

    2014-03-01

    Photonic band structure and band gap were numerically computed for a number of closed packed simple cubic and Hexagonal arrangements of non-conducting spheres using ``Finite Difference Time Domain Method''. Photonic gaps were found to exist in the simple cubic overlapping spheres with index of refraction (n) >3.2. Gap increased linearly from 0.117- 0.161 (1/micron) as lattice constant decreased from 0.34 to 0.18 (micron). For less than 3.2 no gap was obtained. Also, no gaps were obtained for hexagonal packing. UV-VIS reflectivity and transmission measurements of polycrystalline bulk artificial opals of silica (SiO2) spheres, ranging from 250nm to 300nm in sphere diameter indicate a reflection peak in the 500-600 nm regimes. Consistent with photonic band gap behavior we find that reflectivity is enhanced in the same wavelength where transmission is reduced. To the best of our knowledge this is the first observation of photonic gap in the visible wave length under ambient conditions. The wave length at the reflectance peak increases with the diameter of the SiO2 spheres, and is approximately twice the diameter following Bragg reflection. DOD Award No 60177-RT-H from ARO.

  1. Photonic-magnonic crystals: Multifunctional periodic structures for magnonic and photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kłos, J. W. Krawczyk, M.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the properties of a photonic-magnonic crystal, a complex multifunctional one-dimensional structure with magnonic and photonic band gaps in the GHz and PHz frequency ranges for spin waves and light, respectively. The system consists of periodically distributed dielectric magnetic slabs of yttrium iron garnet and nonmagnetic spacers with an internal structure of alternating TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} layers which form finite-size dielectric photonic crystals. We show that the spin-wave coupling between the magnetic layers, and thus the formation of the magnonic band structure, necessitates a nonzero in-plane component of the spin-wave wave vector. A more complex structure perceived by light is evidenced by the photonic miniband structure and the transmission spectra in which we have observed transmission peaks related to the repetition of the magnetic slabs in the frequency ranges corresponding to the photonic band gaps of the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack. Moreover, we show that these modes split to very high sharp (a few THz wide) subpeaks in the transmittance spectra. The proposed novel multifunctional artificial crystals can have interesting applications and be used for creating common resonant cavities for spin waves and light to enhance the mutual influence between them.

  2. Deep-subwavelength plasmonic-photonic hybrid band gap opening by acoustic Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, the efficient generation of tunable optical band gaps with the help of acousto-optic (AO) interactions in the deep subwavelength regime is proposed. The optical system consists of a thin dielectric slab and a metal surface separated by a nanoscale air gap. This structure allowed for the confinement of hybridized plasmonic-photonic gap modes, which are highly guided within the air gap. The enhanced AO interaction originated from the disturbance of the acoustic Lamb waves of the slab that can strongly boost the AO interface effect and scatter the optical fields. Therefore, wide optical band gaps and forbidden transmissions were observed in hybrid gap modes at telecommunication wavelengths.

  3. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-09-09

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing.

  4. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing. PMID:26349444

  5. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-09-01

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing.

  6. Photonic crystals, light manipulation, and imaging in complex nematic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravnik, Miha; Å timulak, Mitja; Mur, Urban; Čančula, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-03-01

    Three selected approaches for manipulation of light by complex nematic colloidal and non-colloidal structures are presented using different own custom developed theoretical and modelling approaches. Photonic crystals bands of distorted cholesteric liquid crystal helix and of nematic colloidal opals are presented, also revealing distinct photonic modes and density of states. Light propagation along half-integer nematic disclinations is shown with changes in the light polarization of various winding numbers. As third, simulated light transmission polarization micrographs of nematic torons are shown, offering a new insight into the complex structure characterization. Finally, this work is a contribution towards using complex soft matter in optics and photonics for advanced light manipulation.

  7. Role of Short-Range Order and Hyperuniformity in the Formation of Band Gaps in Disordered Photonic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froufe-Pérez, Luis S.; Engel, Michael; Damasceno, Pablo F.; Muller, Nicolas; Haberko, Jakub; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Scheffold, Frank

    2016-07-01

    We study photonic band gap formation in two-dimensional high-refractive-index disordered materials where the dielectric structure is derived from packing disks in real and reciprocal space. Numerical calculations of the photonic density of states demonstrate the presence of a band gap for all polarizations in both cases. We find that the band gap width is controlled by the increase in positional correlation inducing short-range order and hyperuniformity concurrently. Our findings suggest that the optimization of short-range order, in particular the tailoring of Bragg scattering at the isotropic Brillouin zone, are of key importance for designing disordered PBG materials.

  8. Wide-Band Microwave Receivers Using Photonic Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Yu, Nan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy

    2008-01-01

    In wide-band microwave receivers of a type now undergoing development, the incoming microwave signals are electronically preamplified, then frequency-up-converted to optical signals that are processed photonically before being detected. This approach differs from the traditional approach, in which incoming microwave signals are processed by purely electronic means. As used here, wide-band microwave receivers refers especially to receivers capable of reception at any frequency throughout the range from about 90 to about 300 GHz. The advantage expected to be gained by following the up-conversion-and-photonic-processing approach is the ability to overcome the limitations of currently available detectors and tunable local oscillators in the frequency range of interest. In a receiver following this approach (see figure), a preamplified incoming microwave signal is up-converted by the method described in the preceeding article. The frequency up-converter exploits the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic response of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator made of LiNbO3. Up-conversion takes place by three-wave mixing in the resonator. The WGM resonator is designed and fabricated to function simultaneously as an electro-optical modulator and to exhibit resonance at the microwave and optical operating frequencies plus phase matching among the microwave and optical signals circulating in the resonator. The up-conversion is an efficient process, and the efficiency is enhanced by the combination of microwave and optical resonances. The up-converted signal is processed photonically by use of a tunable optical filter or local oscillator, and is then detected. Tunable optical filters can be made to be frequency agile and to exhibit high resonance quality factors (high Q values), thereby making it possible to utilize a variety of signal-processing modalities. Therefore, it is anticipated that when fully developed, receivers of this type will be compact and will be capable of both

  9. Isotropic band gaps and freeform waveguides observed in hyperuniform disordered photonic solids

    PubMed Central

    Man, Weining; Florescu, Marian; Williamson, Eric Paul; He, Yingquan; Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Leung, Brian Y. C.; Liner, Devin Robert; Torquato, Salvatore; Chaikin, Paul M.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, disordered photonic media and random textured surfaces have attracted increasing attention as strong light diffusers with broadband and wide-angle properties. We report the experimental realization of an isotropic complete photonic band gap (PBG) in a 2D disordered dielectric structure. This structure is designed by a constrained optimization method, which combines advantages of both isotropy due to disorder and controlled scattering properties due to low-density fluctuations (hyperuniformity) and uniform local topology. Our experiments use a modular design composed of Al2O3 walls and cylinders arranged in a hyperuniform disordered network. We observe a complete PBG in the microwave region, in good agreement with theoretical simulations, and show that the intrinsic isotropy of this unique class of PBG materials enables remarkable design freedom, including the realization of waveguides with arbitrary bending angles impossible in photonic crystals. This experimental verification of a complete PBG and realization of functional defects in this unique class of materials demonstrate their potential as building blocks for precise manipulation of photons in planar optical microcircuits and has implications for disordered acoustic and electronic band gap materials. PMID:24043795

  10. Isotropic band gaps and freeform waveguides observed in hyperuniform disordered photonic solids.

    PubMed

    Man, Weining; Florescu, Marian; Williamson, Eric Paul; He, Yingquan; Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Leung, Brian Y C; Liner, Devin Robert; Torquato, Salvatore; Chaikin, Paul M; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    Recently, disordered photonic media and random textured surfaces have attracted increasing attention as strong light diffusers with broadband and wide-angle properties. We report the experimental realization of an isotropic complete photonic band gap (PBG) in a 2D disordered dielectric structure. This structure is designed by a constrained optimization method, which combines advantages of both isotropy due to disorder and controlled scattering properties due to low-density fluctuations (hyperuniformity) and uniform local topology. Our experiments use a modular design composed of Al2O3 walls and cylinders arranged in a hyperuniform disordered network. We observe a complete PBG in the microwave region, in good agreement with theoretical simulations, and show that the intrinsic isotropy of this unique class of PBG materials enables remarkable design freedom, including the realization of waveguides with arbitrary bending angles impossible in photonic crystals. This experimental verification of a complete PBG and realization of functional defects in this unique class of materials demonstrate their potential as building blocks for precise manipulation of photons in planar optical microcircuits and has implications for disordered acoustic and electronic band gap materials.

  11. Hydrogen production by tuning the photonic band gap with the electronic band gap of TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, G I N; Wahab, A K; Al-Oufi, M; Jovic, V; Anjum, D H; Sun-Waterhouse, D; Llorca, J; Idriss, H

    2013-10-10

    Tuning the photonic band gap (PBG) to the electronic band gap (EBG) of Au/TiO2 catalysts resulted in considerable enhancement of the photocatalytic water splitting to hydrogen under direct sunlight. Au/TiO2 (PBG-357 nm) photocatalyst exhibited superior photocatalytic performance under both UV and sunlight compared to the Au/TiO2 (PBG-585 nm) photocatalyst and both are higher than Au/TiO2 without the 3 dimensionally ordered macro-porous structure materials. The very high photocatalytic activity is attributed to suppression of a fraction of electron-hole recombination route due to the co-incidence of the PBG with the EBG of TiO2 These materials that maintain their activity with very small amount of sacrificial agents (down to 0.5 vol.% of ethanol) are poised to find direct applications because of their high activity, low cost of the process, simplicity and stability.

  12. Tunable photonic band-gaps in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing linear graded index material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated control of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) in 1-D photonic crystals using linear graded index material. The analysis of PBG has been done in THz region by considering photonic crystals in the form of ten periods of second, third and fourth generation of the Fibonacci sequence as unit cell. The unit cells are constituted of two kinds of layers; one is taken of linear graded index material and other of normal dielectric material. For this investigation, we used a theoretical model based on transfer matrix method. We have obtained a large number of PBGs and their bandwidths can be tuned by changing the grading profile and thicknesses of linear graded index layers. The number of PBGs increases with increase in the thicknesses of layers and their bandwidths can be controlled by the contrast of initial and final refractive index of the graded layers. In this way, we provide more design freedom for photonic devices such as reflectors, filters, optical sensors, couplers, etc.

  13. Design and testing of photonic band gap channel-drop-filters

    SciTech Connect

    Shchegolkov, Dmitry; Earley, Lawrence M; Health, Cynthia E; Smirnova, Evgenya I

    2009-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and tested several novel passive mm-wave spectrometers based on Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures. Our spectrometers were designed to operate in the frequency ranges of 90-130 and 220-300 GHz. We built and tested both metallic and dielectric silicon Channel-Drop-Filter (CDF) structures at 90-130 GHz. We are currently fabricating a dielectric CDF structure to operate at 220-300 GHz. The complete recent test results for the metal version and preliminary test results for the higher frequency silicon versions will be presented at the conference.

  14. Photonic and omnidirectional band gap engineering in stack of exponential graded index material and negative index material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Dikshit, Ashutosh K.; Thapa, Khem B.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the photonic band gaps (PBG) and omnidirectional band gaps in one-dimensional photonic crystals made up of alternate layer of exponential graded index material and negative index material. We have considered the influence of material properties, geometrical parameters and material composition on the PBG and omnidirectional band gap. Results show that the parameters of exponential graded index material and negative index material can change the photonic and omnidirectional band structures remarkably. Number and bandwidth of PBG increases with increasing the negative index material layer thicknesses while thicknesses of graded index layer only have an effect on the bandwidth of PBGs. The bandwidth of PBG also depends on grading profile parameter of exponential graded index layers and bandwidth can be tuned with increase the value of grading profile parameter. This work can facilitate the design of filters and reflectors, and provide the basic understanding of the influence of graded index materials and metamaterials on the PBG properties.

  15. Strain-driven electronic band structure modulation of si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki-Ha; Kim, Jongseob; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Shin, Jai Kwang

    2008-05-01

    One of the major challenges toward Si nanowire (SiNW) based photonic devices is controlling the electronic band structure of the Si nanowire to obtain a direct band gap. Here, we present a new strategy for controlling the electronic band structure of Si nanowires. Our method is attributed to the band structure modulation driven by uniaxial strain. We show that the band structure modulation with lattice strain is strongly dependent on the crystal orientation and diameter of SiNWs. In the case of [100] and [111] SiNWs, tensile strain enhances the direct band gap characteristic, whereas compressive strain attenuates it. [110] SiNWs have a different strain dependence in that both compressive and tensile strain make SiNWs exhibit an indirect band gap. We discuss the origin of this strain dependence based on the band features of bulk silicon and the wave functions of SiNWs. These results could be helpful for band structure engineering and analysis of SiNWs in nanoscale devices.

  16. Optimization of photonic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Smajic, Jasmin; Hafner, Christian; Erni, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    We report on the numerical structural optimization of two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) power dividers by using two different classes of optimization algorithms, namely, a modified truncated Newton (TN) gradient search as deterministic local optimization scheme and an evolutionary optimization representing the probabilistic global search strategies. Because of the severe accuracy requirements during optimization, the proper PhC device has been simulated by using the multiple-multipole program that is contained in the MaX-1 software package. With both optimizer classes, we found reliable and promising solutions that provide vanishing power reflection and perfect power balance at any specified frequency within the photonic bandgap. This outcome is astonishing in light of the discrete nature inherent in the underlying PhC structure, especially when the optimizer is allowed to intervene only within a very small volume of the device. Even under such limiting constraints structural optimization is not only feasible but has proven to be highly successful.

  17. Telecom-band two-photon Michelson interferometer using frequency entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate a telecom-band fiber-optic two-photon Michelson interferometer using near-degenerate and collinear photon pairs with frequency entanglement. For spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), a continuous-wave laser diode pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. Two threshold single-photon detectors record coincidence counts to observe two-photon interference and evaluate the correlation function. Multi-pair emission events are inevitable in SPDC and photon pairs without frequency entanglement are unintentionally registered as coincidence counts. In the demonstrated experiment, a mixture of photon pairs with and without frequency entanglement is present. The effects of such a mixed state on the correlation function are experimentally investigated. Two-photon interference of photon pairs without frequency entanglement is also measured for comparison.

  18. Structuring β-Ga2O3 photonic crystal photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Zhen, Xiuzheng; Meng, Sugang; Xian, Jiangjun; Shao, Yu; Fu, Xianzhi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-03

    Coupling photocatalysts with photonic crystals structure is based on the unique property of photonic crystals in confining, controlling, and manipulating the incident photons. This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively. Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of 135 nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

  19. All-optical dynamical Casimir effect in a three-dimensional terahertz photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenmüller, David

    2016-06-01

    We identify an architecture for the observation of all-optical dynamical Casimir effect in realistic experimental conditions. We suggest that by integrating quantum wells in a three-dimensional (3D) photonic band-gap material made out of large-scale (˜200 -μ m ) germanium logs, it is possible to achieve ultrastrong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies for the cyclotron transition of a two-dimensional electron gas interacting with long-lived optical modes, in which vacuum Rabi splitting is comparable to the Landau level spacing. When a short, intense electromagnetic transient of duration ˜250 fs and carrying a peak magnetic field ˜5 T is applied to the structure, the cyclotron transition can be suddenly tuned on resonance with a desired photon mode, switching on the light-matter interaction and leading to a Casimir radiation emitted parallel to the quantum well plane. The radiation spectrum consists of sharp peaks with frequencies coinciding with engineered optical modes within the 3D photonic band gap, and its characteristics are extremely robust to the nonradiative damping which can be large in our system. Furthermore, the absence of continuum with associated low-energy excitations for both electromagnetic and electronic quantum states can prevent the rapid absorption of the photon flux which is likely to occur in other proposals for all-optical dynamical Casimir effect.

  20. Resonant behavior and selective switching of stop bands in three-dimensional photonic crystals with inhomogeneous components.

    PubMed

    Baryshev, A V; Khanikaev, A B; Inoue, M; Lim, P B; Sel'kin, A V; Yushin, G; Limonov, M F

    2007-08-10

    We demonstrate that, in contrast with the well-studied photonic crystals consisting of two homogeneous components, photonic crystals comprised of inhomogeneous or multiple (three or more) components may bring new opportunities to photonics due to the discovered quasiperiodic resonant behavior of their (hkl) stop bands as a function of the reciprocal lattice vector. A resonant stop band cannot be switched off for any permittivity of structural components. Tuning the permittivity or structural parameters allows the selective on-off switching of nonresonant (hkl) stop bands. This independent manipulation of light at different Bragg wavelengths provides a new degree of freedom to design selective optical switches and waveguides. Transmission experiments performed on synthetic opals confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  1. Superlattice for photonic band gap opening in monolayers of dielectric spheres.

    PubMed

    Vynck, Kevin; Cassagne, David; Centeno, Emmanuel

    2006-07-24

    Dielectric spheres synthesized for the fabrication of self-organized photonic crystals such as opals offer large opportunities for the design of novel nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we show that a hexagonal superlattice monolayer of dielectric spheres exhibits an even photonic band gap below the light cone for refractive indices higher than 1.93. The use of spheres with refractive index 2.9 and diameter 0.33 mum tunes the photonic band gap to the telecommunications range (lambda=1.55 mum). As a practical example for the use of such a photonic band gap, we demonstrate the possibility of waveguiding light linearly through the monolayer.

  2. Photonic band gaps of wurtzite GaN and AlN photonic crystals at short wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, E. G.; Alayo, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    Group III-nitride materials such as GaN and AlN have attracted a great attention in researches on photonic devices that operate at short light wavelengths. The large band gaps of these materials turn them suitable for nanophotonic devices that operate in light ranges from visible to deep ultraviolet. The physical properties of wurtzite GaN and AlN such as their second and third order nonlinear susceptibilities, and their thermal and piezoelectric coefficients, also make them excellent candidates for integrate photonic devices with electronics, microelectromechanics, microfluidics and general sensing applications. Using a plane wave expansion method (PWE) the photonic band gap maps of 36 different two-dimensional photonic crystal lattices in wurtzite GaN and AlN were obtained and analyzed. The wavelength dependence and the effects of the material anisotropy on the position of the photonic band gaps are also discussed. The results show regions with slow group velocity at the edges of a complete photonic band gap in the M-K direction of the triangular lattices with circular, hexagonal, and rhombic air holes. Was also found a very interesting disposition of the photonic band gaps in the lattices composed of rhombic air holes.

  3. Geometric phase and entanglement of Raman photon pairs in the presence of photonic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Berrada, K.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2015-03-28

    Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to different noise effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we propose a useful quantum system with real physical parameters by studying the GP of a pair of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, involving Raman emission processes with and without photonic band gap (PBG) effect. We show that the properties of GP are very sensitive to the change of the Rabi frequency and time, exhibiting collapse phenomenon as the time becomes significantly large. The system allows us to obtain a state which remains with zero GP for longer times. This result plays a significant role to enhance the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Finally, we investigate the nonlocal correlation (entanglement) between the pair photons by taking into account the effect of different parameters. An interesting correlation between the GP and entanglement is observed showing that the PBG stabilizes the fluctuations in the system and makes the entanglement more robust against the change of time and frequency.

  4. Geometric phase and entanglement of Raman photon pairs in the presence of photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2015-03-01

    Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to different noise effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we propose a useful quantum system with real physical parameters by studying the GP of a pair of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, involving Raman emission processes with and without photonic band gap (PBG) effect. We show that the properties of GP are very sensitive to the change of the Rabi frequency and time, exhibiting collapse phenomenon as the time becomes significantly large. The system allows us to obtain a state which remains with zero GP for longer times. This result plays a significant role to enhance the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Finally, we investigate the nonlocal correlation (entanglement) between the pair photons by taking into account the effect of different parameters. An interesting correlation between the GP and entanglement is observed showing that the PBG stabilizes the fluctuations in the system and makes the entanglement more robust against the change of time and frequency.

  5. Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-03-28

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

  6. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. PMID:23539027

  7. Effect of photonic crystal stop-band on photoluminescence of a -Si1 -xCx:H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Zherzdev, Alexander V.; Feoktistov, Nikolay A.; Pevtsov, Alexander B.

    2017-04-01

    Effects associated with the change in the local density of photonic states in a periodic structure based on alternating a -Si1 -xCx:H and a -SiO2 amorphous layers forming a one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal have been analyzed. The use of a -Si1 -xCx:H as the emitting material made it possible to examine the transformation of the photoluminescence spectrum contour that is comparable in width with the photonic stop-band. It was experimentally demonstrated that the emission is enhanced and suppressed in the vicinity of the stop-band. The relative intensities of the luminescence peaks at different edges of the stop-band vary with the detuning of the stop-band position and photoluminescence peak of a single a -Si1 -xCx:H film. The Purcell effect in the system under consideration was theoretically described by the method in which the local density of photonic states is calculated in terms of a 1D model. It was shown that the specific part of local density of states substantially increases at the long-wavelength (low-frequency) edge of the stop-band of a 1D photonic crystal as a result of the predominant localization of the electric field of the light wave in the spatial regions of a -Si1 -xCx:H which have a higher relative permittivity as compared with a -SiO2 .

  8. Communication: Excitation band modulation with high-order photonic band gap in PMMA:Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Bai, Xue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Sai; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2013-05-01

    Changes in the excitation spectra of luminescent species inserted in photorefractive crystals as a function of changes in the high-order photonic band gap (PBG) have not been previously observed. In this communication, we present our results monitoring the excitation band of Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 inserted in the PMMA opal photonic crystals as a function of the changes in the high-order PBG of the crystals. We find shifts in the complex excitation band and changes in the integrated emission intensity that correlates with shifts in the high-order PBG through coupling to the excitation transition.

  9. Communication: excitation band modulation with high-order photonic band gap in PMMA:Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 opals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Bai, Xue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Sai; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2013-05-14

    Changes in the excitation spectra of luminescent species inserted in photorefractive crystals as a function of changes in the high-order photonic band gap (PBG) have not been previously observed. In this communication, we present our results monitoring the excitation band of Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 inserted in the PMMA opal photonic crystals as a function of the changes in the high-order PBG of the crystals. We find shifts in the complex excitation band and changes in the integrated emission intensity that correlates with shifts in the high-order PBG through coupling to the excitation transition.

  10. Optical properties of one-dimensional disordered multilayer photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotognella, Francesco; Chiasera, Alessandro; Criante, Luigino; Varas, Stefano; Kriegel, Ilka; Bellingeri, Michele; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    The investigation of the differences between ordered and disordered materials (in the hundreds of nanometer lengthscale) is a crucial topic for a better understanding of light transport in photonic media. Here we study the light transmission properties of 1D photonic structures in which disorder is introduced in two different ways. In the first study, we have grouped the high refractive index layers in layer clusters, randomly distributed among layers of low refractive index. We have controlled the maximum size of such clusters and the ratio of the high-low refractive index layers (here called dilution). We studied the total transmission of the disordered structure within the photonic band gap of the ordered structure as a function of the maximum cluster size, and we have observed a valley in trend of the total transmission for a specific maximum cluster size. This value increases with increasing dilution. Furthermore, within one dilution we observe oscillations of the total transmission with increasing cluster size. In the second study, we have realized photonic structures with a random variation of the layer thickness. The structures were fabricated by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique. The transmission spectrum of the disordered structure was simulated by taking into account the refractive index dispersion of the materials, resulting in a good agreement between the experimental data and the simulations. We found that the transmission of the photonic structure in the range 300- 1200 nm is lower with respect the corresponding periodic photonic crystal. The studied disordered 1D photonic structures are very interesting for the modelization and realization of broad band filters and light harvesting devices.

  11. Photonic-band-gap traveling-wave gyrotron amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nanni, E A; Lewis, S M; Shapiro, M A; Griffin, R G; Temkin, R J

    2013-12-06

    We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small signal gain of 38 dB and 45 W output power at 247.7 GHz with an instantaneous -3  dB bandwidth of 0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245-256 GHz. The widest instantaneous -3  dB bandwidth of 4.5 GHz centered at 253.25 GHz was observed with a gain of 24 dB. The PBG circuit provides stability from oscillations by supporting the propagation of transverse electric (TE) modes in a narrow range of frequencies, allowing for the confinement of the operating TE03-like mode while rejecting the excitation of oscillations at nearby frequencies. This experiment achieved the highest frequency of operation for a gyrotron amplifier; at present, there are no other amplifiers in this frequency range that are capable of producing either high gain or high output power. This result represents the highest gain observed above 94 GHz and the highest output power achieved above 140 GHz by any conventional-voltage vacuum electron device based amplifier.

  12. Photonic-Band-Gap Traveling-Wave Gyrotron Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, E. A.; Lewis, S. M.; Shapiro, M. A.; Griffin, R. G.; Temkin, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small signal gain of 38 dB and 45 W output power at 247.7 GHz with an instantaneous −3 dB bandwidth of 0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245–256 GHz. The widest instantaneous −3 dB bandwidth of 4.5 GHz centered at 253.25 GHz was observed with a gain of 24 dB. The PBG circuit provides stability from oscillations by supporting the propagation of transverse electric (TE) modes in a narrow range of frequencies, allowing for the confinement of the operating TE03-like mode while rejecting the excitation of oscillations at nearby frequencies. This experiment achieved the highest frequency of operation for a gyrotron amplifier; at present, there are no other amplifiers in this frequency range that are capable of producing either high gain or high output power. This result represents the highest gain observed above 94 GHz and the highest output power achieved above 140 GHz by any conventional-voltage vacuum electron device based amplifier. PMID:24476286

  13. Frequency-selective plasmonic wave propagation through the overmoded waveguide with photonic-band-gap slab arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min

    2012-05-15

    Confined propagation of guided waves through the periodically corrugated channel sandwiched between two staggered dielectric photonic-band-gap slab arrays is investigated with the band-response analysis. Numerical simulations show that longitudinally polarized evanescent waves within the band gap propagate with insertion loss of {approx}-0.2 to 1 dB (-0.05 to 0.4 dB/mm at G-band) in the hybrid band filter. This structure significantly suppresses low energy modes and higher-order-modes beyond the band-gap, including background noises, down to {approx}-45 dB. This would enable the single-mode propagation in the heavily over-moded waveguide (TEM-type), minimizing abnormal excitation probability of trapped modes. This band filter could be integrated with active and passive RF components for electron beam and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    DOEpatents

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  15. Analysis of photonic band gap in dispersive properties of tunable three-dimensional photonic crystals doped by magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang HaiFeng; Liu Shaobin; Yang Huan; Kong Xiangkun

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, the magnetooptical effects in dispersive properties for two types of three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) containing homogeneous dielectric and magnetized plasma with diamond lattices are theoretically investigated for electromagnetic (EM) wave based on plane wave expansion (PWE) method, as incidence EM wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field. The equations for two types of MPPCs with diamond lattices (dielectric spheres immersed in magnetized plasma background or vice versa) are theoretically deduced. The influences of dielectric constant, plasma collision frequency, filling factor, the external magnetic field, and plasma frequency on the dispersive properties for both types of structures are studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that the photonic band gaps (PBGs) for both types of MPPCs can be manipulated by plasma frequency, filling factor, the external magnetic field, and the relative dielectric constant of dielectric, respectively. Especially, the external magnetic field can enlarge the PBG for type-2 structure (plasma spheres immersed in dielectric background). However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the dispersive properties of two types of three-dimensional MPPCs. The locations of flatbands regions for both types of structures cannot be tuned by any parameters except for plasma frequency and the external magnetic field. The analytical results may be informative and of technical use to design the MPPCs devices.

  16. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-12-16

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.

  17. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.

  18. Propagation of optical vortices in a nonlinear atomic medium with a photonic band gap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Zhang, Yiqi; Cao, Mingtao; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2017-03-15

    We experimentally generate a vortex beam through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process after satisfying the phase-matching condition in a rubidium atomic vapor cell with a photonic band gap (PBG) structure. The observed FWM vortex can also be viewed as the reflected part of the launched probe vortex from the PBG. Further, we investigate the propagation behaviors, including the spatial shift and splitting of the probe and FWM vortices in the medium with enhanced Kerr nonlinearity induced by electromagnetically induced transparency. This Letter can be useful for better understanding and manipulating the applications involving the interactions between optical vortices and the medium.

  19. Square spiral photonic crystals: robust architecture for microfabrication of materials with large three-dimensional photonic band gaps.

    PubMed

    Toader, Ovidiu; John, Sajeev

    2002-07-01

    We provide a blueprint for microfabricating photonic crystals with very large and robust three-dimensional photonic band gaps (PBG's). These crystals are based on interleaving polygonal spiral posts and can be efficiently manufactured on a large scale in a one-step process using the recently introduced technique of glancing angle deposition. We classify various families of spiral photonic crystals based on (i) the parent three-dimensional (3D) point lattice to which they are most closely related, (ii) the crystallographic axis of the parent lattice around which the spiral posts wind, and (iii) the set of points of the parent lattice which the spiral arms connect or nearly connect. We obtain optimal geometries for the spiral photonic crystals by detailed mapping of the size and location of the PBG within a multidimensional parameter space which characterizes the shape of each spiral post. For the optimum PBG, the spiral arms and elbows may deviate significantly from the points of the original point lattice. The largest 3D PBG's are obtained for square spiral posts that wind around the [001] axis of diamond (or face centered cubic) lattice and in which the spiral arm segments approximately connect either the fifth or first nearest-neighbor points of the parent lattice. In the case of silicon posts (with a dielectric constant of 11.9) in an air background, whose arm segments nearly connect fifth nearest-neighbor point of the diamond lattice, the full PBG can be as large as 16% of the gap center frequency. For the corresponding air posts in a silicon background, the maximum PBG is 24% of the gap center frequency. We compute both the total electromagnetic density of states and the electromagnetic field distributions near the PBG. It is suggested the PBG in an optimized structure is highly tolerant to various forms of disorder that may arise during the manufacturing process.

  20. Zero- n bar band gap in two-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía-Salazar, J. R.; Porras-Montenegro, N.

    2015-04-01

    We have theoretically studied metamaterial photonic crystals (PCs) composed by air and double negative (DNG) material. Numerical data were obtained by means of the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, with results indicating the possibility for the existence of the zero- n bar non-Bragg gap in two-dimensional metamaterial PCs, which has been previously observed only in one-dimensional photonic superlattices. Validity of the present FDTD algorithm for the study of one-dimensional metamaterial PCs is shown by comparing with results for the transmittance spectra obtained by means of the well known transfer matrix method (TMM). In the case of two-dimensional metamaterial PCs, we have calculated the photonic band structure (PBS) in the limiting case of a one-dimensional photonic superlattice and for a nearly one-dimensional PC, showing a very similar dispersion relation. Finally, we show that due to the strong electromagnetic field localization on the constitutive rods, the zero- n bar non-Bragg gap may only exist in two-dimensional systems under strict geometrical conditions.

  1. Photonic-band-gap engineering for volume plasmon polaritons in multiscale multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Orlov, Alexey A.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Sipe, J. E.

    2014-07-01

    We study theoretically the propagation of large-wave-vector waves (volume plasmon polaritons) in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials with two levels of structuring. We show that when the parameters of a subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayer (substructure) are modulated (superstructured) on a larger, wavelength scale, the propagation of volume plasmon polaritons in the resulting multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials is subject to photonic-band-gap phenomena. A great degree of control over such plasmons can be exerted by varying the superstructure geometry. When this geometry is periodic, stop bands due to Bragg reflection form within the volume plasmonic band. When a cavity layer is introduced in an otherwise periodic superstructure, resonance peaks of the Fabry-Pérot nature are present within the stop bands. More complicated superstructure geometries are also considered. For example, fractal Cantor-like multiscale metamaterials are found to exhibit characteristic self-similar spectral signatures in the volume plasmonic band. Multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials are shown to be a promising platform for large-wave-vector bulk plasmonic waves, whether they are considered for use as a kind of information carrier or for far-field subwavelength imaging.

  2. Photonic crystal film with three alternating layers for simultaneous R, G, B multi-mode photonic band-gaps.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoungchoo; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sun Woong; Ho Park, Jin

    2008-09-15

    We studied 1-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal (PC) films with three alternating layers to investigate multi-mode photonic band-gaps (PBGs) at red, green, and blue color regions. From simulations, it was shown that PCs with three alternating layered elements of [a/b/c] structure have sharp PBGs at the three color regions with the central wavelengths of 459 nm, 527 nm, and 626 nm, simultaneously. Experimentally, it was proven that red, green, and blue PBGs were generated clearly by the PCs, which were made of multilayers of [SiO(2)/Ta(2)O(5)/TiO(2)], based on the simulation. It was also shown that the measured wavelengths of the PBGs corresponded exactly to those of the simulated results. Moreover, it was demonstrated that a 1-D PC of [a/b/c] structure can be used for making white organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with improved color rendering index (CRI) for color display or lighting.

  3. Characterization of photonic amorphous structures with different characteristic lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Cheng-Chi; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2016-04-01

    Photonic amorphous structure (PAS) has attracted increasing research attention due to their interesting characteristics, such as noniridescent structural colors and isotropic photonic band gap. In this work, we present PAS with different characteristic lengths and analyze their structural and topological properties. First, a Fourier spectral method was used to solve Cahn-Hilliard equation and generate a spinodal binary phase structure. By changing the time of the evolution of phase field, mobility, and standard deviation, the characteristic length of amorphous structures can be adjusted. We present the numerical analysis based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to characterize the density of state (DOS) of PAS based on different time of the evolution of phase field. The corresponding spatial Fourier spectrum of PAS is calculated to examine the characteristic length, and the photonic band gap properties will be discussed in association with the characteristic length. These results are crucial for design of new optical materials display devices base on dielectric amorphous photonic structures.

  4. Direct imaging of isofrequency contours in photonic structures

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Emma C.; Igarashi, Yuichi; Zhen, Bo; Kaminer, Ido; Hsu, Chia Wei; Shen, Yichen; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The isofrequency contours of a photonic crystal are important for predicting and understanding exotic optical phenomena that are not apparent from high-symmetry band structure visualizations. We demonstrate a method to directly visualize the isofrequency contours of high-quality photonic crystal slabs that show quantitatively good agreement with numerical results throughout the visible spectrum. Our technique relies on resonance-enhanced photon scattering from generic fabrication disorder and surface roughness, so it can be applied to general photonic and plasmonic crystals or even quasi-crystals. We also present an analytical model of the scattering process, which explains the observation of isofrequency contours in our technique. Furthermore, the isofrequency contours provide information about the characteristics of the disorder and therefore serve as a feedback tool to improve fabrication processes. PMID:28138536

  5. Natural photonic crystals: formation, structure, function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Dahlby, Michael R.; Barrows, Frank P.; Richens, Zachary J.; Terooatea, Tommy; Jorgensen, Matthew R.

    2012-03-01

    The structure and properties of natural photonic crystals are discussed using the colored scales of the beetle Lamprocyphus augustus as an example. While the exact mechanism behind the formation of these biopolymeric photonic structures has yet to be fully explored, similarities of these structures to intracellular cubic membrane architectures are introduced. Some crucial parameters behind the formation of cubic membranes are discussed. Using these insights, intracellular cubic membrane structures are transformed into an extracellular environment.

  6. Observation of the four wave mixing photonic band gap signal in electromagnetically induced grating.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Zakir; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-12-01

    For the first time, we experimentally and theoretically research about the probe transmission signal (PTS), the reflected four wave mixing band gap signal(FWM BGS) and fluorescence signal (FLS) under the double dressing effect in an inverted Y-type four level system. FWM BGS results from photonic band gap structure. We demonstrate that the characteristics of PTS, FWM BGS and FLS can be controlled by power, phase and the frequency detuning of the dressing beams. It is observed in our experiment that FWM BGS switches from suppression to enhancement, corresponding to the switch from transmission enhancement to absorption enhancement in the PTS with changing the relative phase. We also observe the relation among the three signals, which satisfy the law of conservation of energy. Such scheme could have potential applications in optical diodes, amplifiers and quantum information processing.

  7. Localized photonic band edge modes and orbital angular momenta of light in a golden-angle spiral.

    PubMed

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Trevino, Jacob; Negro, Luca Dal; Cao, Hui

    2011-11-21

    We present a numerical study on photonic bandgap and band edge modes in the golden-angle spiral array of air cylinders in dielectric media. Despite the lack of long-range translational and rotational order, there is a large PBG for the TE polarized light. Due to spatial inhomogeneity in the air hole spacing, the band edge modes are spatially localized by Bragg scattering from the parastichies in the spiral structure. They have discrete angular momenta that originate from different families of the parastichies whose numbers correspond to the Fibonacci numbers. The unique structural characteristics of the golden-angle spiral lead to distinctive features of the band edge modes that are absent in both photonic crystals and quasicrystals.

  8. Wakefields in photonic accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, B.; Andonian, G.; Arab, E.; Barber, S.; Fitzmorris, K.; Fukusawa, A.; Hoang, P.; Mahapatra, S.; O'Shea, B.; Valloni, A.; Williams, O.; Yang, C.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2012-12-21

    Control and manipulation of properties - such as vacuum modal confinement, spatial harmonic content, phase velocity, and group velocity - are reasons why an all-dielectric beam-driven accelerator would be expected to benefit by borrowing from the field of optical bandgap photonics. We outline the general conditions for coherent Cerenkov radiation in a photonic crystal, illustrated by three examples: two Bragg mirrors separated by a vacuum gap, a woodpile with a linear waveguide channel, and a stack of photonic slabs having a planar waveguide channel.

  9. Fabrication of 3-D Photonic Band Gap Crystals Via Colloidal Self-Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Girija; Blank, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of photons in a Photonic Crystals, PCs, is like that of electrons in a semiconductor in that, it prohibits light propagation over a band of frequencies, called Photonic Band Gap, PBG. Photons cannot exist in these band gaps like the forbidden bands of electrons. Thus, PCs lend themselves as potential candidates for devices based on the gap phenomenon. The popular research on PCs stem from their ability to confine light with minimal losses. Large scale 3-D PCs with a PBG in the visible or near infra red region will make optical transistors and sharp bent optical fibers. Efforts are directed to use PCs for information processing and it is not long before we can have optical integrated circuits in the place of electronic ones.

  10. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Anup; Maiti, Biswajit; Chanda, Debasree

    2014-04-14

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup →}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1−y} lattice matched to InP, as example of III–V compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  11. Three-dimensional band structure of LaSb and CeSb: Absence of band inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinuma, H.; Souma, S.; Takane, D.; Nakamura, T.; Nakayama, K.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Yoshida, M.; Ochiai, A.; Takahashi, T.; Sato, T.

    2017-07-01

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) of LaSb and CeSb, a candidate of topological insulators. Using soft-x-ray photons, we have accurately determined the three-dimensional bulk band structure and revealed that the band inversion at the Brillouin-zone corner, a prerequisite for realizing the topological-insulator phase, is absent in both LaSb and CeSb. Moreover, unlike the ARPES data obtained with soft-x-ray photons, those with VUV photons were found to suffer significant kz broadening. These results suggest that LaSb and CeSb are topologically trivial semimetals, and unusual Dirac-cone-like states observed with VUV photons are not of the topological origin.

  12. Absolute photonic band gaps of two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals with Taiji-shaped dielectric rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xing-Dao; Du, Shou-Xiao; Liu, Bin; Li, Shu-Jing; Li, Shan

    2011-07-01

    A novel structure of two-dimensional (2D) square-lattice photonic crystal (SLPC) composed of Taiji-shaped dielectric rods imbedded in air is constructed and the properties of absolute photonic band gap (PBG) are theoretically analyzed in both the number and width by Plane Wave Expansion Method (PWM). By comparing the absolute PBGs in 2D SLPCs consisting of four shapes of rods with different symmetries (circle, button, semicircle and Taiji) at the same filling ratio, we find that both the number and width of absolute PBG significantly increase with the breaking of scatterer's symmetry, and the Taiji-shaped rods with the poorest symmetry can attain both the most number and the largest width of absolute PBGs. Additionally, we also study the influence of dielectric constant ɛ and three geometric parameters of Taiji-shaped scatterer on the absolute PBG and discover that the SLPC with Taiji-shaped rods can generate at most nine absolute PBGs and the largest absolute PBG with the width 0.0485 (ωa/2πc).

  13. Field demonstration of X-band photonic antenna remoting in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Lutes, G.; Logan, R. T., Jr.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We designed a photonic link for antenna remoting based on our integrated system analysis. With this 12-km link, we successfully demonstrated photonic antenna-remoting capability at X-band (8.4 GHz) at one of NASA's Deep Space Stations while tracking the Magellan spacecraft.

  14. Effective band structure of random alloys.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-06-11

    Random substitutional A(x)B(1-x) alloys lack formal translational symmetry and thus cannot be described by the language of band-structure dispersion E(k(→)). Yet, many alloy experiments are interpreted phenomenologically precisely by constructs derived from wave vector k(→), e.g., effective masses or van Hove singularities. Here we use large supercells with randomly distributed A and B atoms, whereby many different local environments are allowed to coexist, and transform the eigenstates into an effective band structure (EBS) in the primitive cell using a spectral decomposition. The resulting EBS reveals the extent to which band characteristics are preserved or lost at different compositions, band indices, and k(→) points, showing in (In,Ga)N the rapid disintegration of the valence band Bloch character and in Ga(N,P) the appearance of a pinned impurity band.

  15. Hydrogen production by Tuning the Photonic Band Gap with the Electronic Band Gap of TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, G. I. N.; Wahab, A. K.; Al-Oufi, M.; Jovic, V.; Anjum, D. H.; Sun-Waterhouse, D.; Llorca, J.; Idriss, H.

    2013-01-01

    Tuning the photonic band gap (PBG) to the electronic band gap (EBG) of Au/TiO2 catalysts resulted in considerable enhancement of the photocatalytic water splitting to hydrogen under direct sunlight. Au/TiO2 (PBG-357 nm) photocatalyst exhibited superior photocatalytic performance under both UV and sunlight compared to the Au/TiO2 (PBG-585 nm) photocatalyst and both are higher than Au/TiO2 without the 3 dimensionally ordered macro-porous structure materials. The very high photocatalytic activity is attributed to suppression of a fraction of electron-hole recombination route due to the co-incidence of the PBG with the EBG of TiO2 These materials that maintain their activity with very small amount of sacrificial agents (down to 0.5 vol.% of ethanol) are poised to find direct applications because of their high activity, low cost of the process, simplicity and stability. PMID:24108361

  16. Robustness and fragility of photonic bandgap in photonic amorphous diamond structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imagawa, Shigeki; Edagawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    The robustness and fragility of the photonic bandgap (PBG) in disordered or modified photonic amorphous diamond (PAD) structures were investigated via numerical calculations. The original PAD has a rod-connected random network structure with a highly ordered local tetrahedral configuration, and it forms a sizable PBG. Our calculations indicated that the PBG of PAD is relatively robust against the introduction of positional disorder that distorts the local tetrahedral configuration, but considerably fragile against the fragmentation of the network structure. PBG formation in a higher frequency region was found in a PAD structure of isolated dielectric spheres. Based on these findings, the physical origin of PBG formation in PADs has been discussed in light of the picture of dielectric and air bands.

  17. Photonics aided ultra-wideband W-band signal generation and air space transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-02-01

    We achieve several field trial demonstrations of ultra-wideband W-band millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal generation and its long-distance air space transmission based on some enabling technologies and advanced devices. First, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 1.7-km wireless delivery of 20-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing. Then, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 300-m wireless delivery of 80-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing as well as multi-band multiplexing. We also demonstrated photonics generation and up to 100-m wireless delivery of 100-Gb/s QPSK signal at W-band, adopting antenna polarization multiplexing.

  18. Enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystals at band-gap pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gorbunov, Evgeny A.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Zotov, Arsen K.; Masalov, Vladimir M.; Emelchenko, Gennadi A.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.

    2017-02-01

    More than one order enhancement of third-harmonic generation is observed experimentally at band-gap pumping of globular photonic crystals. Due to a lateral modulation of the dielectric permittivity in two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, sharp peaks of light intensity (light localization) arise in the media at the band-gap pumping. The light localization enhances significantly the nonlinear light conversion, in particular, third-harmonic generation, in the near-surface volume of photonic crystal. The observed way to enhance the nonlinear conversion can be useful for creation of novel compact elements of nonlinear and laser optics.

  19. Wave propagation in ordered, disordered, and nonlinear photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lidorikis, Elefterios

    1999-12-10

    Photonic band gap materials are artificial dielectric structures that give the promise of molding and controlling the flow of optical light the same way semiconductors mold and control the electric current flow. In this dissertation the author studied two areas of photonic band gap materials. The first area is focused on the properties of one-dimensional PBG materials doped with Kerr-type nonlinear material, while, the second area is focused on the mechanisms responsible for the gap formation as well as other properties of two-dimensional PBG materials. He first studied, in Chapter 2, the general adequacy of an approximate structure model in which the nonlinearity is assumed to be concentrated in equally-spaced very thin layers, or 6-functions, while the rest of the space is linear. This model had been used before, but its range of validity and the physical reasons for its limitations were not quite clear yet. He performed an extensive examination of many aspects of the model's nonlinear response and comparison against more realistic models with finite-width nonlinear layers, and found that the d-function model is quite adequate, capturing the essential features in the transmission characteristics. The author found one exception, coming from the deficiency of processing a rigid bottom band edge, i.e. the upper edge of the gaps is always independent of the refraction index contrast. This causes the model to miss-predict that there are no soliton solutions for a positive Kerr-coefficient, something known to be untrue.

  20. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, K; Stavenga, D G

    2008-01-06

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, analytical modelling and computer-generated TEM micrographs, we find that the three-dimensional cuticular structures can be modelled by gyroid structures with various filling fractions and lattice parameters. We give a brief discussion of the formation of cubic gyroid membranes from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the scale's cell, which dry and harden to leave the cuticular structure behind when the cell dies. The scales of C. rubi are a potentially attractive biotemplate for producing three-dimensional optical photonic crystals since for these scales the cuticle-filling fraction is nearly optimal for obtaining the largest photonic band gap in a gyroid structure.

  1. Biomimetic photonic materials with tunable structural colors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Guo, Zhiguang

    2013-09-15

    Nature is a huge gallery of art involving nearly perfect structures and forms over the millions of years developing. Inspiration from natural structures exhibiting structural colors is first discussed. We give some examples of natural one-, two-, and three-dimensional photonic structures. This review article presents a brief summary of recent progress on bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors, including the different facile and efficient routes to construct the nano-architectures, and the development of the artificial variable structural color photonic materials. Besides the superior optical properties, the excellent functions such as robust mechanical strength, good wettability are also mentioned, as well as the technical importance in various applications. This review will provide significant insight into the fabrication, design and application of the structural color materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. First High power test results for 2.1 GHz superconducting photonic band gap accelerator cavities.

    PubMed

    Simakov, Evgenya I; Haynes, W Brian; Madrid, Michael A; Romero, Frank P; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Tuzel, Walter M; Boulware, Chase H; Grimm, Terry L

    2012-10-19

    We report the results of the recent high power testing of superconducting radio frequency photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator cells. Tests of the two single-cell 2.1 GHz cavities were performed at both 4 and 2 K. An accelerating gradient of 15 MV/m and an unloaded quality factor Q(0) of 4×10(9) were achieved. It has been long realized that PBG structures have great potential in reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. A PBG structure confines the fundamental TM(01)-like accelerating mode, but does not support higher order modes. Employing PBG cavities to filter out higher order modes in superconducting particle accelerators will allow suppression of dangerous beam instabilities caused by wakefields and thus operation at higher frequencies and significantly higher beam luminosities. This may lead towards a completely new generation of colliders for high energy physics and energy recovery linacs for the free-electron lasers.

  3. Analysis of plasma-magnetic photonic crystal with a tunable band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, electromagnetic wave propagation through the one-dimensional plasma-magnetic photonic crystal in the presence of external magnetic field has been analyzed. The dispersion relation, transmission and reflection coefficients have been obtained by using the transfer matrix method. It is investigated how photonic band gap of photonic crystals will be tuned when both dielectric function {epsilon} and magnetic permeability {mu} of the constitutive materials, depend on applied magnetic field. This is shown by one dimensional photonic crystals consisting of plasma and ferrite material layers stacked alternately.

  4. Enhancement of negligible transmission band using hybrid periodic/Fibonacci photonic crystal in near infrared and microwave domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouldi, Abir; Kanzari, Mounir

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid structure of the type Bragg mirror-(Fibonacci)S is proposed to enhance the zero transmission band through the one dimensional photonic crystal in microwave domain and in the infrared. The efficiency of the configuration is proved in microwave domain for angles below 57°. In the infrared, the use of the configuration exhibits a large photonic band gap at any angle of incidence and for both polarizations. The proposed structure is a quarter wavelength omnidirectional mirror of 37 layers with a bandwidth larger than that of the periodic structure with an increasing ratio 3.7 and it covers all the optical telecommunication wavelengths 0.85, 1.3 and 1.55 μm. Unlike the previous devices, the structure is simple to fabricate and it shows interesting optical properties. The configuration Bragg mirror-(Fibonacci)S-Bragg mirror is also investigated to more extend the photonic band gap. Since different physical phenomena have their own appropriate physical scales, we exploited the physical properties of the proposed hybrid structure in different wavelength domains.

  5. Two-photon photoemission from a copper cathode in an Χ-band photoinjector

    DOE PAGES

    Li, H.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; ...

    2016-02-24

    This study presents two-photon photoemission from a copper cathode in an X-band photoinjector. We experimentally verified that the electron bunch charge from photoemission out of a copper cathode scales with laser intensity (I) square for 400 nm wavelength photons. We compare this two-photon photoemission process with the single photon process at 266 nm. Despite the high reflectivity (R) of the copper surface for 400 nm photons (R=0.48) and higher thermal energy of photoelectrons (two-photon at 200 nm) compared to 266 nm photoelectrons, the quantum efficiency of the two-photon photoemission process (400 nm) exceeds the single-photon process (266 nm) when themore » incident laser intensity is above 300 GW/cm2. At the same laser pulse energy (E) and other experimental conditions, emitted charge scales inversely with the laser pulse duration. A thermal emittance of 2.7 mm-mrad per mm root mean square (rms) was measured on our cathode which exceeds by sixty percent larger compared to the theoretical predictions, but this discrepancy is similar to previous experimental thermal emittance on copper cathodes with 266 nm photons. The damage of the cathode surface of our first-generation X-band gun from both rf breakdowns and laser impacts mostly explains this result. Using a 400 nm laser can substantially simplify the photoinjector system, and make it an alternative solution for compact pulsed electron sources.« less

  6. Effect of Photonic Structure on Optical Properties of YVO4:Eu3+ Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Shashi; Dhiman, Naresh; Sharma, Amit; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2017-04-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) photonic crystal has been prepared on quartz substrate by the self-assembly vertical deposition technique. YVO4:Eu3+ inverse opal was obtained by annealing PMMA photonic crystal infiltrated with YVO4:Eu3+ nanophosphors at 500°C for 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the development of the photonic and inverse opal structures. Photoluminescence study showed that the luminescence characteristics depended on the position of the photonic stop band. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of YVO4:Eu3+ inverse opal was enhanced near the photonic stop bandgap edge as compared with the intensity of a YVO4:Eu3+ nanophosphor powder sample.

  7. Effect of Photonic Structure on Optical Properties of YVO4:Eu3+ Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Shashi; Dhiman, Naresh; Sharma, Amit; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2016-11-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) photonic crystal has been prepared on quartz substrate by the self-assembly vertical deposition technique. YVO4:Eu3+ inverse opal was obtained by annealing PMMA photonic crystal infiltrated with YVO4:Eu3+ nanophosphors at 500°C for 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the development of the photonic and inverse opal structures. Photoluminescence study showed that the luminescence characteristics depended on the position of the photonic stop band. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of YVO4:Eu3+ inverse opal was enhanced near the photonic stop bandgap edge as compared with the intensity of a YVO4:Eu3+ nanophosphor powder sample.

  8. Measurement of spontaneous-emission enhancement near the one-dimensional photonic band edge of semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Michael D.; Scalora, Michael; Bloemer, Mark J.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Bowden, Charles M.

    1996-04-01

    We present results of an experimental investigation into alteration of the spontaneous emission spectrum of GaAs from within one-dimensional photonic band gap (PBG) structures. The PBG samples are multilayer AlAs/Al0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs p-i-n light-emitting diodes, with layers arranged as a distributed Bragg reflector. The emission spectra normal to the layers are measured, and we use a simple method to model the power spectrum of spontaneous emission from within the structures. We find that the emitted power is enhanced by a factor of 3.5 at the frequencies near the photonic band edge.

  9. Fabrication of ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, XiaoHong Wu, YuLong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Wei; Han, Juan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-05-15

    Compared to periodic crystals, quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry and are more favorable in achieving complete band-gaps. In this report, a top-cut prism interferometer is designed to fabricate ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures. By optimizing the exposing conditions and material characteristics, appropriate quasicrystals have been obtained in the SU8 photoresist films. Atomic Force Microscopy and laser diffraction are used to characterize the fabricated structures. The measurement results show the consistence between the theoretical design and experiments. This will provide guidance for the large-area and fast production of ten-fold quasicrystalline structures with high quality.

  10. Defect guidance in kagome-clad fibers: the role of photonic band gaps and self-similarity of the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, H.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the influence of the structural self-similarity of the kagome lattice on the defect modes and waveguiding properties of hollow-core kagome-cladding fibers. We show that the guidance of such fibers is influenced by photonic band gaps (PBGs) which appear for a subset of the kagome lattice. Using these insights, we provide design considerations to further decrease loss in kagome-clad fibers.

  11. 2D photonic crystal complete band gap search using a cyclic cellular automaton refination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, R.; Castañón, G.; Hernández-Figueroa, H. E.

    2014-11-01

    We present a refination method based on a cyclic cellular automaton (CCA) that simulates a crystallization-like process, aided with a heuristic evolutionary method called differential evolution (DE) used to perform an ordered search of full photonic band gaps (FPBGs) in a 2D photonic crystal (PC). The solution is proposed as a combinatorial optimization of the elements in a binary array. These elements represent the existence or absence of a dielectric material surrounded by air, thus representing a general geometry whose search space is defined by the number of elements in such array. A block-iterative frequency-domain method was used to compute the FPBGs on a PC, when present. DE has proved to be useful in combinatorial problems and we also present an implementation feature that takes advantage of the periodic nature of PCs to enhance the convergence of this algorithm. Finally, we used this methodology to find a PC structure with a 19% bandgap-to-midgap ratio without requiring previous information of suboptimal configurations and we made a statistical study of how it is affected by disorder in the borders of the structure compared with a previous work that uses a genetic algorithm.

  12. Photonic band-gap engineering in UV fiber gratings by the arc discharge technique.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Andrea; Iadicicco, Agostino; Paladino, Domenico; Campopiano, Stefania; Cutolo, Antonello

    2008-09-29

    Localized heat treatments combined with local non-adiabatic tapering is proposed as suitable tool for the engineering of photonic band-gaps in UV-written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). In particular, here, we propose the use of the electric arc discharge to achieve localized defects along the FBG structure, however differently from previously reported works, we demonstrate how this post processing tool properly modified can be exploited to achieve the full control of the spectral characteristics of the final device. Also, we show how the suitable choice of the grating features and the correct selection of the defect geometry can be efficiently used to achieve interesting features for both communication and sensing applications.

  13. Free-Standing Photonic Crystal Films with Gradient Structural Colors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Liu, Cihui; Ye, Baofen; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-03-23

    Hydrogel colloidal crystal composite materials have a demonstrated value in responsive photonic crystals (PhCs) via controllable stimuli. Although they have been successfully exploited to generate a gradient of color distribution, the soft hydrogels have limitations in terms of stability and storage caused by dependence on environment. Here, we present a practical strategy to fabricate free-standing PhC films with a stable gradient of structural colors using binary polymer networks. A colloidal crystal hydrogel film was prepared for this purpose, with continuously varying photonic band gaps corresponding to the gradient of the press. Then, a second polymer network was used to lock the inside non-close-packed PhC structures and color distribution of the hydrogel film. It was demonstrated that our strategy could bring about a solution to the angle-dependent structural colors of the PhC films by coating the surface with special microstructures.

  14. A design of intermediate band solar cell for photon ratchet with multi-layer MoS2 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo-Fan; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2017-05-01

    We presented an idea to increase the efficiency of the MoS2 solar cells with the special E-k relation of the intermediate band in MoS2 nanoribbon structures. From the calculations of armchair nanoribbon structures by the tight binding method, we found that the continuous surface states forming at the middle bandgap has the lowest energy states at X-valley. This dispersion relation will allow phonons to rapidly scatter electrons to the lower X valley of the intermediate band in pico-second scale. Simulations show that this will prevent electrons to be directly recombined with the holes in the Γ valley. After modelling the transition rates of photon absorption and emission with the solar spectrum, it shows a significant improvement of the short circuit current compared to the bulk MoS2 structures without intermediate bands.

  15. Energy transfer from Rhodamine-B to Oxazine-170 in the presence of photonic stop band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunita; Sinha, Sucharita

    2015-03-01

    Photonic crystals can effectively suppress spontaneous emission of embedded emitter in the direction were photonic stop band overlaps emission band of emitter. This property of PhC has been successfully exploited to enhance energy transfer from a donor Rhodamine-B dye to an acceptor Oxazine-170 dye by inhibiting the fluorescence emission of donor in a controlled manner. Self-assembled PhC were synthesized using RhB dye doped polystyrene microspheres subsequently infiltrated with O-170 dye molecules dissolved in ethanol. An angle dependent enhancement of emission intensity of acceptor via energy transfer in photonic crystal environment was observed. These results were compared with observations made on a dye mixture solution of the same two dyes. Restricted number of available modes in photonic crystal inhibited de-excitation of donor thereby enabling efficient transfer of energy from excited donor to acceptor dye molecules.

  16. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-08

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangular lattice symmetry and the C6 point group symmetry give rich physics in accidental touching points of photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points at the Brillouin zone center for transverse-magnetic harmonic modes when the geometry and permittivity of the core-shell material are continuously tuned. The accidental nodal points can have different dispersions and topological properties (i.e., Berry phases). These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase of the photonic crystal. They are thus very important for the study of topological photonic states. We show that, without breaking time-reversal symmetry, by tuning the geometry of the core-shell material, a phase transition into the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator can be achieved. Here the "spin" is defined as the orbital angular momentum of a photon. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  17. Engineering band structure in nanoscale quantum-dot supercrystals.

    PubMed

    Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Fedorov, Anatoly V

    2013-07-01

    Supercrystals made of periodically arranged semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising structures for nanophotonics applications due to almost unlimited degrees of freedom enabling fine tuning of their optical responses. Here we demonstrate broad engineering opportunities associated with the possibility of tailoring the energy bands of excitons in two-dimensional quantum-dot supercrystals through the alteration in the QD arrangement. These opportunities offer an unprecedented control over the optical properties of the supercrystals, which may be used as a versatile material base for advanced photonics devices on the nanoscale.

  18. Photofield emission spectroscopy of the tungsten <112> band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radoń, T.; Jaskółka, S.

    1991-05-01

    Optical transitions in photofield emission (PFE) characteristics from the (112) plane of tungsten have been observed at five values of photon energy in the visible range. To measure very small PFE currents modulated laser radiation and phase-sensitive detection have been used. Shoulders in the characteristics obtained with s-polarized light correspond to transitions in the bulk band structure near the Fermi level in accordance with the theoretical results of Christensen and Feuerbacher [1]. Using p-polarized light, peaks of the surface density of states, lying below the Fermi level, were observed in a good agreement with both the field and photofield emission distributions.

  19. Quantum speedup of an atom coupled to a photonic-band-gap reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Nan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Han-Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    For a model of an atom embedded in a photonic-band-gap reservoir, it was found that the speedup of quantum evolution is subject to the atomic frequency changes. In this work, we propose different points of view on speeding up the evolution. We show that the atomic embedded position, the width of the band gap and the defect mode also play an important role in accelerating the evolution. By changing the embedded position of the atom and the coupling strength with the defect mode, the speedup region lies even outside the band-gap region, where the non-Markovian effect is weak. The mechanism for the speedup is due to the interplay of atomic excited population and the non-Markovianity. The feasible experimental system composed of quantum dots in the photonic crystal is discussed. These results provide new degree of freedoms to depress the quantum speed limit time in photonic crystals.

  20. A super narrow band filter based on silicon 2D photonic crystal resonator and reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Deyuan; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Juebin; Tao, Shangbin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of super narrow band filter based on two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods in air for 1.5 um communication is proposed and studied. COMSOL Multiphysics4.3b software is used to simulate the optical behavior of the filter. The filter consists of one point-defect-based resonator and two line-defect-based reflectors. The resonance frequency, transmission coefficient and quality factor are investigated by varying the parameters of the structure. In design, a silicon rod is removed to form the resonator; for the rows of rods above and below the resonator, a part of the rods are removed to form the reflectors. By optimizing the parameters of the filter, the quality factor and transmission coefficient of the filter at the resonance frequency of 2e14 Hz can reach 1330 and 0.953, respectively. The super narrow band filter can be integrated into optical circuit for its micron size. Also, it can be used for wavelength selection and noise filtering of optical amplifier in future communication application.

  1. Low-voltage tunable photonics devices: grove on thin porous structures containing liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criante, Luigino; Moretti, Luca; Scotognella, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of one-dimensional porous multilayer photonic crystals made by metal oxide nanoparticles. We show the infiltration of these porous structures with a liquid crystal via a very simple method, resulting in a red shift of the photonic band gap due to increase of the effective refractive index of the medium. Taking advantage of structure thickness of only few micrometers, we have observed a blue shift of the photonic band gap owing the non-linear response of the liquid crystals by applying a very low external electric voltage, i.e. 8 V. The experimental observation of electric voltage tuning on the transmission spectrum has been corroborated by transfer matrix method simulations, by taking into account the non-linear optical properties of the liquid crystal. In this framework, we propose how the optical properties of these structure can be accurately predicted by our simulation software in terms of diffraction efficiency, of photonic band gap position when the porous photonic crystals is doped with a liquid crystal, of modulation of the photonic band gap position (electro-optic tuning) in the presence of applied voltage. According with results carried out by the custom simulation software it is possible to control the optical proprieties of the photonics crystal in very thin structures. Furthermore, the presented device could be very interesting for applications where high sensitivity sensor and selective color tunability is needed with the use of cheap and low voltage power supplies.

  2. Zero-coupling-gap degenerate band edge resonators in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Burr, Justin R; Reano, Ronald M

    2015-11-30

    Resonances near regular photonic band edges are limited by quality factors that scale only to the third power of the number of periods. In contrast, resonances near degenerate photonic band edges can scale to the fifth power of the number periods, yielding a route to significant device miniaturization. For applications in silicon integrated photonics, we present the design and analysis of zero-coupling-gap degenerate band edge resonators. Complex band diagrams are computed for the unit cell with periodic boundary conditions that convey characteristics of propagating and evanescent modes. Dispersion features of the band diagram are used to describe changes in resonance scaling in finite length resonators. Resonators with non-zero and zero coupling gap are compared. Analysis of quality factor and resonance frequency indicates significant reduction in the number of periods required to observe fifth power scaling when degenerate band edge resonators are realized with zero-coupling-gap. High transmission is achieved by optimizing the waveguide feed to the resonator. Compact band edge cavities with large optical field distribution are envisioned for light emitters, switches, and sensors.

  3. Photonic bands and group-velocity dispersion in Si/SiO2 photonic crystals from white-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, M.; Bajoni, D.; Marabelli, F.; Andreani, L. C.; Pavesi, L.; Pucker, G.

    2004-03-01

    The phase delay of a light beam transmitted through (Si/SiO2)m multilayers with m=2,4,6,8 is measured by white-light interferometry based on a fixed Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled to a scanning Michelson interferometer. Results for photonic band and group velocity dispersion are obtained in a wide frequency spectrum and compare successfully with the predictions of electromagnetic theory. In particular, a strong slowing down of the group velocity at the band edges and superluminal propagation within the gap are demonstrated.

  4. Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using heralded narrow-band single photons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Zhang, Shanchao; Zhao, Luwei; Chen, Peng; Fung, C-H F; Chau, H F; Loy, M M T; Du, Shengwang

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate the first proof of principle differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) using narrow-band heralded single photons with amplitude-phase modulations. In the 3-pulse case, we obtain a quantum bit error rate (QBER) as low as 3.06% which meets the unconditional security requirement. As we increase the pulse number up to 15, the key creation efficiency approaches 93.4%, but with a cost of increasing the QBER. Our result suggests that narrow-band single photons maybe a promising source for the DPS-QKD protocol.

  5. Nonlinear Photonic Systems for V- and W-Band Antenna Remoting Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0088 Nonlinear Photonic Systems for V- and W-Band Antenna Remoting Applications Sheng-Kwang Hwang NATIONAL CHENG KUNG...Antenna Remoting Applications 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1-4026 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Sheng-Kwang Hwang...AOARD Grant FA2386-15-1-4026 Project Title Nonlinear Photonic Systems for V- and W-Band Antenna Remoting Applications – Microwave Generation and

  6. Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Li, Juntao; White, Thomas P; O'Faolain, Liam; Gomez-Iglesias, Alvaro; Krauss, Thomas F

    2008-04-28

    We present a systematic procedure for designing "flat bands" of photonic crystal waveguides for slow light propagation. The procedure aims to maximize the group index - bandwidth product by changing the position of the first two rows of holes of W1 line defect photonic crystal waveguides. A nearly constant group index - bandwidth product is achieved for group indices of 30-90 and as an example, we experimentally demonstrate flat band slow light with nearly constant group indices of 32.5, 44 and 49 over 14 nm, 11 nm and 9.5 nm bandwidth around 1550 nm, respectively.

  7. Nonreciprocal microwave band-gap structures.

    PubMed

    Belov, P A; Tretyakov, S A; Viitanen, A J

    2002-07-01

    An electrically controlled nonreciprocal electromagnetic band-gap material is proposed and studied. The new material is a periodic three-dimensional regular lattice of small magnetized ferrite spheres. In this paper, we consider plane electromagnetic waves in this medium and design an analytical model for the material parameters. An analytical solution for plane-wave reflection from a planar interface is also presented. In the proposed material, a new electrically controlled stop band appears for one of the two circularly polarized eigenwaves in a frequency band around the ferrimagnetic resonance frequency. This frequency can be well below the usual lattice band gap, which allows the realization of rather compact structures. The main properties of the material are outlined.

  8. Quantum correlation of fiber-based telecom-band photon pairs through standard loss and random media.

    PubMed

    Sua, Yong Meng; Malowicki, John; Lee, Kim Fook

    2014-08-15

    We study quantum correlation and interference of fiber-based telecom-band photon pairs with one photon of the pair experiencing multiple scattering in a random medium. We measure joint probability of two-photon detection for signal photon in a normal channel and idler photon in a channel, which is subjected to two independent conditions: standard loss (neutral density filter) and random media. We observe that both conditions degrade the correlation of signal and idler photons, and depolarization of the idler photon in random medium can enhance two-photon interference at certain relative polarization angles. Our theoretical calculation on two-photon polarization correlation and interference as a function of mean free path is in agreement with our experiment data. We conclude that quantum correlation of a polarization-entangled photon pair is better preserved than a polarization-correlated photon pair as one photon of the pair scatters through a random medium.

  9. Band structures of121,123I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, R.; Sethi, B.; Sarkar, M. S.; Sen, S.

    1995-12-01

    The band structures of121, 123I nuclei have been studied using a version of the particle-rotor-model in which the experimental excitation energies of the neighbouring (A-1) cores can be fed directly as input parameters. The calculations have been carried out with axially symmetric Nilsson potential with both prolate and oblate deformations. The parameters of the model have been chosen from earlier theoretical work and experimental odd-even mass differences. Only the Coriolis attenuation factor has been treated as adjustable parameter. The theoretical band structures are in very good agreement with the available experimental data.

  10. Structurally Integrated X-Band Array Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    work in progress towards the development of a very large structural x-band electronically scanned array (ESA). A building block approach that...significant structural testing from coupon through large scale structural validation have been complete and is reported. The active array testing will...mechanical performance, so trades could be used to develop the most promising configuration. This involved evaluating coupons to understand the

  11. Designing of Metallic Photonic Structures and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-Sung

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis our main interest has been to investigate metallic photonic crystal and its applications. We explained how to solve a periodic photonic structure with transfer matrix method and when and how to use modal expansion method. Two different coating methods were introduced, modifying a photonic structure's intrinsic optical properties and rigorous calculation results are presented. Two applications of metallic photonic structures are introduced. For thermal emitter, we showed how to design and find optimal structure. For conversion efficiency increasing filter, we calculated its efficiency and the way to design it. We presented the relation between emitting light spectrum and absorption and showed the material and structural dependency of the absorption spectrum. By choosing a proper base material and structural parameters, we can design a selective emitter at a certain region we are interested in. We have developed a theoretical model to analyze a blackbody filament enclosed by a metallic mesh which can increase the efficiency of converting a blackbody radiation to visible light. With this model we found that a square lattice metallic mesh enclosing a filament might increase the efficiency of incandescent lighting sources. Filling fraction and thickness dependency were examined and presented. Combining these two parameters is essential to achieve the maximum output result.

  12. Optical properties of periodic, quasi-periodic, and disordered one-dimensional photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Chiasera, Alessandro; Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Photonic structures are building blocks for many optical applications in which light manipulation is required spanning optical filtering, lasing, light emitting diodes, sensing and photovoltaics. The fabrication of one-dimensional photonic structures is achievable with a variety of different techniques, such as spin coating, sputtering, evaporation, pulse laser deposition, or extrusion. Such different techniques enable facile integration of the photonic structure with many types of devices. Photonic crystals are characterized by a spatial modulation of the dielectric constant on the length scale of the wavelength of light giving rise to energy ranges where light cannot propagate through the crystal - the photonic band gap. While mostly photonic crystals are referred to as periodic arrangements, in this review we aim to highlight as well how aperiodicity and disorder affects light modulation. In this review article, we introduce the concepts of periodicity, quasi-periodicity, and disorder in photonic crystals, focussing on the one-dimensional case. We discuss in detail the physical peculiarities, the fabrication techniques, and the applications of periodic, quasi-periodic, and disorder photonic structures, highlighting how the degree of crystallinity matters in the manipulation of light. We report different types of disorder in 1D photonic structures and we discuss their properties in terms of light transmission. We discuss the relationship between the average total transmission, in a range of wavelengths around the photonic band gap of the corresponding photonic crystal, and the homogeneity of the photonic structures, quantified by the Shannon index. Then we discuss the light transmission in structures in which the high refractive index layers are aggregated in clusters following a power law distribution. Finally, in the case of structures in which the high refractive index layers are aggregated in clusters with a truncated uniform distribution, we discuss: i) how

  13. Recent progress in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals for laser applications.

    PubMed

    Furumi, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a brief review of recent research advances in chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) for laser applications. The CLC molecules have an intrinsic capability to spontaneously organize supramolecular helical assemblages consisting of liquid crystalline layers through their helical twisting power. Such CLC supramolecular helical structures can be regarded as one-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs). Owing to their supramolecular helical structures, the CLCs show negative birefringence along the helical axis. Selective reflection of circularly polarized light is the most unique and important optical property in order to generate internal distributed feedback effect for optically-excited laser emission. When a fluorescent dye is embedded in the CLC medium, optical excitation gives rise to stimulated laser emission peak(s) at the band edge(s) and/or within the CLC selective reflection. Furthermore, the optically-excited laser emission peaks can be controlled by external stimuli through the self-organization of CLC molecules. This review introduces the research background of CLCs carried out on the PhC realm, and highlights intriguing precedents of various CLC materials for laser applications. It would be greatly advantageous to fabricate active CLC laser devices by controlling the supramolecular helical structures. Taking account of the peculiar features, we can envisage that a wide variety of supramolecular helical structures of CLC materials will play leading roles in next-generation optoelectronic molecular devices. Copyright © 2010 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with square-like Archimedean lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Shao-Bin E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.

  15. Tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with square-like Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the tunable all-angle negative refraction and photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional (2D) plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of homogeneous plasma and dielectric (GaAs) with square-like Archimedean lattices (ladybug and bathroom lattices) for TM wave are theoretically investigated based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The type-1 structure is dielectric rods immersed in the plasma background, and the complementary structure is named as type-2 PPCs. Theoretical simulations demonstrate that the both types of PPCs with square-like Archimedean lattices have some advantages in obtaining the higher cut-off frequency, the larger PBGs, more number of PBGs, and the relative bandwidths compared to the conventional square lattices as the filling factor or radius of inserted rods is same. The influences of plasma frequency and radius of inserted rod on the properties of PBGs for both types of PPCs also are discussed in detail. The calculated results show that PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. The possibilities of all-angle negative refraction in such two types of PPCs at low bands also are discussed. Our calculations reveal that the all-angle negative phenomena can be observed in the first two TM bands, and the frequency range of all-angle negative refraction can be tuned by changing plasma frequency. Those properties can be used to design the optical switching and sensor.

  16. Effective parameters for periodic photonic structures of resonant elements.

    PubMed

    Tserkezis, C

    2009-04-15

    We report on the effective electromagnetic parameters of metamaterials consisting of resonant building units, through systematic full-electrodynamic calculations by the layer-multiple-scattering method on a model system: a photonic crystal of metallic nanoshells. The results obtained by the S-matrix retrieval procedure for single- and multi-layer slabs of ordered arrays of such nanoshells are analysed in conjunction with the complex band structure of the corresponding infinite crystal and the Maxwell-Garnett effective-medium approximation. We discuss conditions that must be fulfilled in order for an effective-medium description of a metamaterial to be valid and explain artefacts which often occur in numerical calculations of the effective parameters. In particular, we propose a method to resolve ambiguities in the determination of the effective refractive index, which become prominent for thick slabs, based on the complex band structure of the infinite crystal.

  17. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  18. Experimental Generation of Narrow-Band Paired Photons: from Damped Rabi Oscillation to Group Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai-Yu; Yan, Hui; He, Jun-Yu; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2014-03-01

    We report the experimental generation of narrow-band paired photons through electromagnetically induced transparency and spontaneous four-wave mixing in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). By controlling the optical depth of the 2D MOT from 0 to 40, the temporal length of the generated narrow-band paired photons can be varied from 50 to 900 ns. The ‘transition’ between damped Rabi oscillation and group delay is observed undisputedly. In the damped Rabi oscillation regime, a violation factor of the Cauchy—Schwartz inequality as large as 6642 is observed. In the group delay regime, sub-MHz linewidth (~ 0.65 MHz) paired photons are obtained with a generation rate of about 0.8 × 105 s-1.

  19. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al0.3Ga0.7As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  20. Carrier dynamics in GaAs photonic crystal cavities near the material band edge.

    PubMed

    Bose, Ranojoy; Pelc, Jason S; Vo, Sonny; Santori, Charles M; Beausoleil, Raymond G

    2015-05-18

    We measure fast carrier decay rates (6 ps) in GaAs photonic crystal cavities with resonances near the GaAs bandgap energy at room temperature using a pump-probe measurement. Carriers generated via photoexcitation using an above-band femtosecond pulse cause a substantial blue-shift of three time the cavity linewidth for the cavity peak. The experimental results are compared to theoretical models based on free carrier effects near the GaAs band edge. The probe transmission is modified by nearly 30% for an estimated above-band pump energy of 4.2 fJ absorbed in the GaAs slab.

  1. Magnetoresponsive Photonic Microspheres with Structural Color Gradient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Jongkook; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Jung H; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-02-06

    Photonic Janus particles are created by alternately sputtering silica and titania on microspheres in order to obtain a structural color gradient. In addition, the microspheres are rendered magnetoresponsive. The Janus microspheres with optical and magnetic anisotropy enable on-demand control over orientation and structural color through manipulation of an external magnetic field, thereby being useful as active color pigments for reflection-mode displays.

  2. Midfrequency band dynamics of large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.; Levine, Marie B.

    2004-09-01

    High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.

  3. 160 Gbit/s photonics wireless transmission in the 300-500 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Jia, S.; Hu, H.; Galili, M.; Morioka, T.; Jepsen, P. U.; Oxenløwe, L. K.

    2016-11-01

    To accommodate the ever increasing wireless traffic in the access networks, considerable efforts have been recently invested in developing photonics-assisted wireless communication systems with very high data rates. Superior to photonic millimeter-wave systems, terahertz (THz) band (300 GHz-10 THz) provides a much larger bandwidth and thus promises an extremely high capacity. However, the capacity potential of THz wireless systems has by no means been achieved yet. Here, we successfully demonstrate 160 Gbit/s wireless transmission by using a single THz emitter and modulating 25 GHz spaced 8 channels (20 Gbps per channel) in the 300-500 GHz band, which is the highest bitrate in the frequency band above 300 GHz, to the best of our knowledge.

  4. Generation of Nondegenerate Narrow-Band Photon Pairs for a Hybrid Quantum Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Peng-YinJie; Cui, Jin-Ming; Liu, Bi-Heng; Tang, Jian-Shun; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-12-01

    In a hybrid quantum network, the linking of two types of quantum nodes through photonic channels requires excellent matching of the central frequency and bandwidth between both nodes and their interfacing photons. However, preexisting photon sources cannot fulfill this requirement. Using a novel conjoined double-cavity strategy, we report the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band photon pairs by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The central frequencies and bandwidths of the signal and idler photons are independently set to match with trapped ions and solid-state quantum memories. With this source we achieve the bandwidths and central wavelengths of 4 MHz at 935 nm and 5 MHz at 880 nm for the signal and idler photons, respectively, with a normalized spectral brightness of 4.9 photon pairs /(s MHz mW ) . Because of its ability to be independently locked to two different wavelengths, the conjoined double cavity is universally suitable for a hybrid quantum network consisting of various quantum nodes.

  5. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  6. Electronic band structure of defect chalcopyrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoshu; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.

    2001-03-01

    The defect chalcopyrites of chemical composition II-III-VI4 in which II, III and VI mean group-II elements such as Cd or Hg, group-III elements such as Al and Ga and group-VI elements such as S, Se, Te, form an interesting family of semiconductor compounds with potential nonlinear optical applications. They can be thought of as derived from the regular I-III-VI2 chalcopyrites by doubling the formula unit and replacing the group I element, for example, Ag by the group-II element and a vacancy in an ordered manner. The chalcopyrites themselves are derived from II-VI compounds by replacing the group-II by a group I and a group-III element. In this contribution we present electronic band structure calculations of some of these compounds, calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital method combined with the local density functional approximation. We discuss the relation of the band structures of the corresponding zincblende, chalcopyrite and defect chalcopyrite compounds. In particular, the role of the group I or group II d-band energy will be shown to be important. The trends with chemical substutions and the effects of structural distortions c/a and internal parameters accompanying the chemical distortion will be discussed.

  7. Electrospinning for nano- to mesoscale photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Andriolo, Jessica M.; Murphy, John P.; Ross, Brandon M.

    2017-08-01

    The fabrication of photonic and electronic structures and devices has directed the manufacturing industry for the last 50 years. Currently, the majority of small-scale photonic devices are created by traditional microfabrication techniques that create features by processes such as lithography and electron or ion beam direct writing. Microfabrication techniques are often expensive and slow. In contrast, the use of electrospinning (ES) in the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale devices for the manipulation of photons and electrons provides a relatively simple and economic viable alternative. ES involves the delivery of a polymer solution to a capillary held at a high voltage relative to the fiber deposition surface. Electrostatic force developed between the collection plate and the polymer promotes fiber deposition onto the collection plate. Issues with ES fabrication exist primarily due to an instability region that exists between the capillary and collection plate and is characterized by chaotic motion of the depositing polymer fiber. Material limitations to ES also exist; not all polymers of interest are amenable to the ES process due to process dependencies on molecular weight and chain entanglement or incompatibility with other polymers and overall process compatibility. Passive and active electronic and photonic fibers fabricated through the ES have great potential for use in light generation and collection in optical and electronic structures/devices. ES produces fiber devices that can be combined with inorganic, metallic, biological, or organic materials for novel device design. Synergistic material selection and post-processing techniques are also utilized for broad-ranging applications of organic nanofibers that span from biological to electronic, photovoltaic, or photonic. As the ability to electrospin optically and/or electronically active materials in a controlled manner continues to improve, the complexity and diversity of devices fabricated from this

  8. Electrospinning for nano- to mesoscale photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Andriolo, Jessica M.; Murphy, John P.; Ross, Brandon M.

    2016-12-01

    The fabrication of photonic and electronic structures and devices has directed the manufacturing industry for the last 50 years. Currently, the majority of small-scale photonic devices are created by traditional microfabrication techniques that create features by processes such as lithography and electron or ion beam direct writing. Microfabrication techniques are often expensive and slow. In contrast, the use of electrospinning (ES) in the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale devices for the manipulation of photons and electrons provides a relatively simple and economic viable alternative. ES involves the delivery of a polymer solution to a capillary held at a high voltage relative to the fiber deposition surface. Electrostatic force developed between the collection plate and the polymer promotes fiber deposition onto the collection plate. Issues with ES fabrication exist primarily due to an instability region that exists between the capillary and collection plate and is characterized by chaotic motion of the depositing polymer fiber. Material limitations to ES also exist; not all polymers of interest are amenable to the ES process due to process dependencies on molecular weight and chain entanglement or incompatibility with other polymers and overall process compatibility. Passive and active electronic and photonic fibers fabricated through the ES have great potential for use in light generation and collection in optical and electronic structures/devices. ES produces fiber devices that can be combined with inorganic, metallic, biological, or organic materials for novel device design. Synergistic material selection and post-processing techniques are also utilized for broad-ranging applications of organic nanofibers that span from biological to electronic, photovoltaic, or photonic. As the ability to electrospin optically and/or electronically active materials in a controlled manner continues to improve, the complexity and diversity of devices fabricated from this

  9. Partial Wave Analysis of Coupled Photonic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The very high quality factors sustained by microcavity optical resonators are relevant to applications in wavelength filtering, routing, switching, modulation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing. Increases in the density of photonic elements require that attention be paid to how electromagnetic (EM) coupling modifies their optical properties. This is especially true when cavity resonances are involved, in which case, their characteristics may be fundamentally altered. Understanding the optical properties of microcavities that are near or in contact with photonic elements---such as other microcavities, nanostructures, couplers, and substrates---can be expected to advance our understanding of the roles that these structures may play in VLSI photonics, biosensors and similar device technologies. Wc present results from recent theoretical studies of the effects of inter- and intracavity coupling on optical resonances in compound spherical particles. Concentrically stratified spheres and bispheres constituted from homogeneous and stratified spheres are subjects of this investigation. A new formulation is introduced for the absorption of light in an arbitrary layer of a multilayered sphere, which is based on multiple reflections of the spherical partial waves of the Lorenz-Mie solution for scattering by a sphere. Absorption efficiencies, which can be used to profile cavity resonances and to infer fluorescence yields or the onset of nonlinear optical processes in the microcavities, are presented. Splitting of resonances in these multisphere systems is paid particular attention, and consequences for photonic device development and possible performance enhancements through carefully designed architectures that exploit EM coupling are considered.

  10. Photonic density of states of two-dimensional quasicrystalline photonic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Lin; Bita, Ion; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2011-08-15

    A large photonic band gap (PBG) is highly favorable for photonic crystal devices. One of the most important goals of PBG materials research is identifying structural design strategies for maximizing the gap size. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the PBG properties of two-dimensional (2D) quasicrystals (QCs), where rotational symmetry, dielectric fill factor, and structural morphology were varied systematically in order to identify correlations between structure and PBG width at a given dielectric contrast (13:1, Si:air). The transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) PBGs of 12 types of QCs are investigated (588 structures). We discovered a 12mm QC with a 56.5% TE PBG, the largest reported TE PBG for an aperiodic crystal to date. We also report here a QC morphology comprising ''throwing star''-like dielectric domains, with near-circular air cores and interconnecting veins emanating radially around the core. This interesting morphology leads to a complete PBG of {approx}20% , which is the largest reported complete PBG for aperiodic crystals.

  11. Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Urbas, Augustine; Tondiglia, Vincent; Natarajan, Lalgudi; Sutherland, Richard; Yu, Haiping; Li, J-H; Bunning, Timothy

    2004-10-27

    Photo-optic materials offer the possibility of light controlled photonic devices, intelligent and environmentally adaptive optical materials. One strategy for creating these materials is the combination of structure formation through holographic photopolymerization and the variable optical properties of liquid crystals. Holographically patterned, polymer stabilized liquid crystals (HPSLCs) have proven to be useful optical materials. By incorporating photo-optic, azobenzene-derived liquid crystal blends into such material systems, we have generated practical photoresponsive optical materials.

  12. The band-gap enhanced photovoltaic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tessler, Nir

    2016-05-02

    We critically examine the recently suggested structure that was postulated to potentially add 50% to the photo-conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. We find that the structure could be realized using stepwise increase in the gap as long as the steps are not above 0.1 eV. We also show that the charge extraction is not compromised due to an interplay between the contact's space charge and the energy level modification, which result in a flat energy band at the extracting contact.

  13. Photonic band gap and defect mode of one-dimensional photonic crystal coated from a mixture of (HMDSO, N2) layers deposited by PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri, R.; Sahel, S.; Gamra, D.; Lejeune, M.; Clin, M.; Zellama, K.; Bouchriha, H.

    2017-04-01

    One dimensional photonic crystal based on a mixture of an organic compound HMDSO and nitrogen N2, is elaborated by radiofrequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF-PECVD) at different radiofrequency powers. The variation of the radiofrequency power for a flow of N2/HMDSO ratio equal to 0.4, leads to obtain two kinds of layers A and B with refractive index nA = 2 and nB = 1.55 corresponding to RF power of 200 W and 20 W, respectively. The analysis of the infrared results shows that these layers have the same chemical composition element with different structure. These layers, which exhibit a good indexes difference (nA - nB) contrast, allowed then the elaboration of a one-photonic crystal from the same initial gas mixture, which is the aim of this work. After the optimization of the layers thickness, we have measured transmission and reflection spectra and we found that the photonic band gap (PBG) appears after 15 periods of alternating A and B deposited layers. The introduction of defect in the structure leads to obtain a localized mode in the center of the PBG corresponding to the telecommunication wave length 1.55 μm. Finally, we have successfully interpreted our experimental results by using a theoretical model based on transfer matrix method.

  14. Generation of nondegenerate narrow-band photon pairs for hybrid quantum network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Pengyinjie; Cui, Jinming; Liu, Biheng; Tang, Jianshun; Huang, Yunfeng; Li, Chuanfeng; Guo, Guangcan

    In a hybrid quantum network, the linking two types of quantum nodes through photonic channels requires excellent matching of the central frequency and bandwidth between both nodes and their interfacing photons. However, pre-existing photon sources cannot fulfill this requirement. Using a novel conjoined double-cavity strategy, we report the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band photon pairs by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The central frequencies and bandwidths of the signal and idler photons are independently set to match with trapped ions and solid-state quantum memories. With this source we achieve the bandwidths and central frequencies of 4 MHz at 935 nm and 5 MHz at 880 nm for the signal and idler photons, respectively, with a normalized spectral brightness of 4.9/s/MHz/mW. Due to its ability to be independently locked to two different wavelengths, the conjoined double-cavity is universally suitable for a hybrid quantum network consisting of various quantum nodes.

  15. Topological Insulators: Electronic Band Structure and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaz, S.; Koc, H.; Mamedov, A. M.; Ozbay, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present the results of our ab initio calculation of the elastic constants, density of states, charge density, and Born effective charge tensors for ferroelectric (rhombohedral) and paraelectric phases (cubic) of the narrow band ferroelectrics (GeTe, SnTe) pseudopotentials. The related quantities such as bulk modulus and shear modulus using obtained elastic constants have also been estimated in the present work. The total and partial densities of states corresponding to the band structure of Sn(Ge)Te(S,Se) were calculated. We also calculated the Born effective charge tensor of an atom (for instance, Ge, Sn, Te, etc.), which is defined as the induced polarization of the solid along the main direction by a unit displacement in the perpendicular direction of the sublattice of an atom at the vanishing electric field.

  16. Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalora, M.; Flynn, R. J.; Reinhardt, S. B.; Fork, R. L.; Bloemer, M. J.; Tocci, M. D.; Bowden, C. M.; Ledbetter, H. S.; Bendickson, J. M.; Dowling, J. P.; Leavitt, R. P.

    1996-08-01

    We examine optical pulse propagation through a 30-period, GaAs/AlAs, one-dimensional, periodic structure at the photonic band-edge transmission resonance. We predict theoretically-and demonstrate experimentally-an approximate energy, momentum, and form invariance of the transmitted pulse, as well as large group index (up to 13.5). The group index is tunable and many orders of magnitude more sensitive to variation in material refractive index than for bulk material. We interpret this observation in terms of time-dependent electromagnetic states of the pulse-crystal system.

  17. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  18. 5 CFR 9701.321 - Structure of bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Structure of bands. 9701.321 Section 9701... Structure of bands. (a) DHS may, after coordination with OPM, establish ranges of basic pay for bands, with... rates. (b) For each band within an occupational cluster, DHS will establish a common rate range...

  19. Complete Band-Gap in Two-Dimensional Quasiperiod Photonic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Fang; Feng, Shuai; Ren, Kun; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Cheng, Bing-Ying; Zhang, Dao-Zhong

    2005-08-01

    The transmission properties of quasiperiodic photonic crystals (QPCs) based on the random square-triangle tiling system are investigated by the multiple scattering method. The hollow cylinders are introduced in our calculation. It is found that QPCs with hollow cylinders also possess a complete band gap common to s- and p-polarized waves when the inner radius of hollow cylinders is larger than a certain value. The QPCs possessing the complete band gap can be applied to the fields of light emitting, wave-guides, optical filters, high-Q resonators and antennas.

  20. Research of dual-band microwave photonic filter for WLAN based on optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Lingke; Pan, Linbing; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-07-20

    This paper presents a dual-band microwave photonic filter for a wireless local area networks with independently tunable passband center frequencies and bandwidths. The two bands of the filter were 2.4 GHz and 5.725 GHz, respectively. The filter was based on a stimulated Brillouin scattering and an optical frequency comb (OFC) scheme. We created this filter using OFC pumps instead of a single pump. The OFC scheme consists of a cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a dual-parallel MZM (DPMZM) hybrid modulation that generated seven and 11 lines. The experimental results show that the two passbands of the filter were 80 and 130 MHz.

  1. Photonic band-gap and defect modes of a one-dimensional photonic crystal under localized compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A.; Porta, A. V.; Orozco, S.

    2017-05-01

    The rupture of periodicity caused by one defect (defect layer) in a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPhC) results in a narrow transmission spectral line in the photonic band-gap, and the field distribution shows a strong confinement in the proximity of the defect layer. In this work, we present a theoretical model to calculate the frequency of defect modes caused by defect layers induced by localized mechanical stress. Two periodical arrangements were studied: one with layers of poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), PMMA-PS; the other with layers of PMMA and fused silica (SiO2), PMMA-SiO2. The defect layers were induced by localized compression (tension). The frequencies of the defect modes were calculated using elasto-optical theory and plane wave expansion and perturbation methods. Numerical results show that the frequency of the defect mode increases (decreases) when the compression (tension) increases. Based on the theoretical model developed, we show that compression of n layers of a 1DPhC induces n defect modes whose frequencies depend on the compression magnitude in the case of normal incidence of electromagnetic waves, in accordance with the results reported for other types of defect layers. The methodology shows the feasibility of the plane wave expansion and perturbation methods to study the frequency of the defect modes. Both periodical arrangements are suitable for designing mechanically tunable (1DPhC)-based narrow pass band filters and narrow reflectors in the (60, 65) THz range.

  2. Midinfrared sensors meet nanotechnology: Trace gas sensing with quantum cascade lasers inside photonic band-gap hollow waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Christy; Temelkuran, Burak; Dellemann, Gregor; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2005-05-01

    An integrated midinfrared sensing system for trace level (ppb) gas analysis combining a quantum cascade laser with an emission frequency of 10.3μm with a frequency matched photonic band-gap hollow core waveguide has been developed, demonstrating the sensing application of photonic band-gap fibers. The photonic band-gap fiber simultaneously acts as a wavelength selective waveguide and miniaturized gas cell. The laser emission wavelength corresponds to the vibrational C-H stretch band of ethyl chloride gas. This sensing system enabled the detection of ethyl chloride at concentration levels of 30ppb (v/v) with a response time of 8s probing a sample volume of only 1.5mL in a transmission absorption measurement within the photonic band-gap hollow core waveguide, which corresponds to a sensitivity improvement by three orders of magnitude compared to previously reported results obtained with conventional hollow waveguides.

  3. Atom–atom interactions around the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Jonathan D.; Goban, Akihisa; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Lu, Mingwu; Yu, Su-Peng; Chang, Darrick E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the interactions between quantum emitters and single photons constitutes one of the cornerstones of quantum optics. Coupling a quantum emitter to the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) provides a unique platform for tuning these interactions. In particular, the cross-over from propagating fields E(x)∝e±ikxx outside the bandgap to localized fields E(x)∝e−κx|x| within the bandgap should be accompanied by a transition from largely dissipative atom–atom interactions to a regime where dispersive atom–atom interactions are dominant. Here, we experimentally observe this transition by shifting the band edge frequency of the PCW relative to the D1 line of atomic cesium for N¯=3.0±0.5 atoms trapped along the PCW. Our results are the initial demonstration of this paradigm for coherent atom–atom interactions with low dissipation into the guided mode. PMID:27582467

  4. Atom-atom interactions around the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Hood, Jonathan D; Goban, Akihisa; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Lu, Mingwu; Yu, Su-Peng; Chang, Darrick E; Kimble, H J

    2016-09-20

    Tailoring the interactions between quantum emitters and single photons constitutes one of the cornerstones of quantum optics. Coupling a quantum emitter to the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) provides a unique platform for tuning these interactions. In particular, the cross-over from propagating fields [Formula: see text] outside the bandgap to localized fields [Formula: see text] within the bandgap should be accompanied by a transition from largely dissipative atom-atom interactions to a regime where dispersive atom-atom interactions are dominant. Here, we experimentally observe this transition by shifting the band edge frequency of the PCW relative to the [Formula: see text] line of atomic cesium for [Formula: see text] atoms trapped along the PCW. Our results are the initial demonstration of this paradigm for coherent atom-atom interactions with low dissipation into the guided mode.

  5. Photonic band gap in isotropic hyperuniform disordered solids with low dielectric contrast.

    PubMed

    Man, Weining; Florescu, Marian; Matsuyama, Kazue; Yadak, Polin; Nahal, Geev; Hashemizad, Seyed; Williamson, Eric; Steinhardt, Paul; Torquato, Salvatore; Chaikin, Paul

    2013-08-26

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a TE-polarization photonic band gap (PBG) in a 2D isotropic hyperuniform disordered solid (HUDS) made of dielectric media with a dielectric index contrast of 1.6:1, very low for PBG formation. The solid is composed of a connected network of dielectric walls enclosing air-filled cells. Direct comparison with photonic crystals and quasicrystals permitted us to investigate band-gap properties as a function of increasing rotational isotropy. We present results from numerical simulations proving that the PBG observed experimentally for HUDS at low index contrast has zero density of states. The PBG is associated with the energy difference between complementary resonant modes above and below the gap, with the field predominantly concentrated in the air or in the dielectric. The intrinsic isotropy of HUDS may offer unprecedented flexibilities and freedom in applications (i. e. defect architecture design) not limited by crystalline symmetries.

  6. Spatially graded TiO₂-SiO₂ Bragg reflector with rainbow-colored photonic band gap.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dhruv Pratap; Lee, Seung Hee; Choi, Il Yong; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2015-06-29

    A simple single-step method to fabricate spatially graded TiO2-SiO2 Bragg stack with rainbow colored photonic band gap is presented. The gradation in thickness of the Bragg stack was accomplished with a modified glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with dynamic shadow enabled by a block attached to one edge of the rotating substrate. A linear gradation in thickness over a distance of about 17 mm resulted in a brilliant colorful rainbow pattern. Interestingly, the photonic band gap position can be changed across the whole visible wavelength range by linearly translating the graded Bragg stack over a large area substrate. The spatially graded Bragg stack may find potential applications in the tunable optical devices, such as optical filters, reflection gratings, and lasers.

  7. Coupled-mode theory for photonic band-gap inhibition of spatial instabilities.

    PubMed

    Gomila, Damià; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2005-07-01

    We study the inhibition of pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems using intracavity photonic crystals. We consider mean-field models for singly and doubly degenerate optical parametric oscillators. Analytical expressions for the new (higher) modulational thresholds and the size of the "band gap" as a function of the system and photonic crystal parameters are obtained via a coupled-mode theory. Then, by means of a nonlinear analysis, we derive amplitude equations for the unstable modes and find the stationary solutions above threshold. The form of the unstable mode is different in the lower and upper parts of the band gap. In each part there is bistability between two spatially shifted patterns. In large systems stable wall defects between the two solutions are formed and we provide analytical expressions for their shape. The analytical results are favorably compared with results obtained from the full system equations. Inhibition of pattern formation can be used to spatially control signal generation in the transverse plane.

  8. High brightness photonic band crystal semiconductor lasers in the passive mode locking regime

    SciTech Connect

    Rosales, R.; Kalosha, V. P.; Miah, M. J.; Bimberg, D.; Posilović, K.; Pohl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2014-10-20

    High brightness photonic band crystal lasers in the passive mode locking regime are presented. Optical pulses with peak power of 3 W and peak brightness of about 180 MW cm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} are obtained on a 5 GHz device exhibiting 15 ps pulses and a very low beam divergence in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

  9. Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

  10. Alcohol sensing over O+E+S+C+L+U transmission band based on porous cored octagonal photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bikash Kumar; Islam, Md. Shadidul; Ahmed, Kawsar; Asaduzzaman, Sayed

    2017-06-01

    A micro structure porous cored octagonal photonic crystal fiber (P-OPCF) has been proposed to sense aqueous analysts (alcohol series) over a wavelength range of 0.80 μm to 2.0 μm. By implementing a full vectorial finite element method (FEM), the numerical simulation on the proposed O-PCF has been analyzed. Numerical investigation shows that high sensitivity can be gained by changing the structural parameters. The obtained result shows the sensitivities of 66.78%, 67.66%, 68.34%, 68.72%, and 69.09%, and the confinement losses of 2.42×10-10 dB/m, 3.28×10-11 dB/m, 1.21×10-6 dB/m, 4.79×10-10 dB/m, and 4.99×10-9 dB/m at the 1.33 μm wavelength for methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol, respectively can satisfy the condition of much legibility to install an optical system. The effects of the varying core and cladding diameters, pitch distance, operating wavelength, and effective refractive index are also reported here. It reflects that a significant sensitivity and low confinement loss can be achieved by the proposed P-OPCF. The proposed P-OPCF also covers the wavelength band (O+E+S+C+L+U). The investigation also exhibits that the sensitivity increases when the wavelength increases like S O-band< S E-band < S S-band < S C-band < S L-band < S U-band. This research observation has much pellucidity which has remarkable impact on the field of optical fiber sensor.

  11. Alcohol sensing over O+E+S+C+L+U transmission band based on porous cored octagonal photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bikash Kumar; Islam, Md. Shadidul; Ahmed, Kawsar; Asaduzzaman, Sayed

    2017-03-01

    A micro structure porous cored octagonal photonic crystal fiber (P-OPCF) has been proposed to sense aqueous analysts (alcohol series) over a wavelength range of 0.80 μm to 2.0 μm. By implementing a full vectorial finite element method (FEM), the numerical simulation on the proposed O-PCF has been analyzed. Numerical investigation shows that high sensitivity can be gained by changing the structural parameters. The obtained result shows the sensitivities of 66.78%, 67.66%, 68.34%, 68.72%, and 69.09%, and the confinement losses of 2.42×10-10 dB/m, 3.28×10-11 dB/m, 1.21×10-6 dB/m, 4.79×10-10 dB/m, and 4.99×10-9 dB/m at the 1.33 μm wavelength for methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol, respectively can satisfy the condition of much legibility to install an optical system. The effects of the varying core and cladding diameters, pitch distance, operating wavelength, and effective refractive index are also reported here. It reflects that a significant sensitivity and low confinement loss can be achieved by the proposed P-OPCF. The proposed P-OPCF also covers the wavelength band (O+E+S+C+L+U). The investigation also exhibits that the sensitivity increases when the wavelength increases like S O-bandband band < S C-band band band. This research observation has much pellucidity which has remarkable impact on the field of optical fiber sensor.

  12. Light Localization by Defects in Optically Induced Photonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianke; Wang, Xiaosheng; Wang, Jiandong; Chen, Zhigang

    In the past ten years, there has blossomed an interest in the study of collective behavior of wave propagation in periodic waveguide arrays and photonic lattices [1-3]. The unique bandgap structures of these periodic media, coupled with nonlinear effects, give rise to many types of novel soliton structures [1- 26]. On the other hand, it is well known that one of the unique and most interesting features of photonic band-gap structures is a fundamentally different way of waveguiding by defects in otherwise uniformly periodic structures. Such waveguiding has been demonstrated with an "air-hole" in photonic crystal fibers (PCF) for optical waves [27, 28], in an isolated defect in two-dimensional arrays of dielectric cylinders for microwaves [29-31], and recently in all-solid PCF with a lower-index core [32, 33]. In addition, laser emission based on photonic defect modes has been realized in a number of experiments [34-38]. In one-dimensional (1D) fabricated semiconductor waveguide arrays, previous experiments have investigated nonlinearity-induced escape from a defect state [39] and interactions of discrete solitons with structural defects [40] (see also [41]). Despite the above efforts, theoretical understanding on defect guiding was still limited, and experimental demonstrations of defect guiding was still scarce. In addition, when nonlinear effects are significant, how defect guiding is affected by nonlinearity is largely an open issue. Recently, in a series of theoretical and experimental studies, we optically induced 1D, 2D and ringlike photonic lattices with single-site negative defects in photorefractive crystals, and investigated their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties [42-48]. This work will be reviewed in this Chapter. In addition, we present the first experimental demonstration of nonlinear defect modes which undergoes nonlinear propagation through the defects. Our work not only has a direct link to technologically important systems of periodic

  13. Experimental evidence of the photonic band gap in hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal based on a mixture of (HMDSO, O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri, R.; Sahel, S.; Manaa, C.; Bouaziz, L.; Gamra, D.; Lejeune, M.; Clin, M.; Zellama, K.; Bouchriha, H.

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid One-dimensional photonic crystal coated from a mixture of an organic compound (HMDSO) and oxygen (O2) is elaborated by PECVD technique. The originality of the method consists in obtaining layers of different permittivity with the same gas mixture, but with different flow. The change in flow is optimized to obtain organic/inorganic layers of good quality with high and low refractive index of 2.1 and 1.4 corresponding respectively to HMDSO and SiO2 materials as assigned by IR measurement. Evidence of the photonic band gap is obtained by measuring the transmissions and reflections spectra which show that it appears only after 13 periods with a width of 325 nm corresponding to energy 3.8 eV. We have also introduced a defect in this photonic structure by changing the thickness of central layer, and observed the presence of a frequency mode corresponding to this defect. Our results are interpreted by using a theoretical model based on transfer matrix wich well reproduced the experimental data.

  14. Photonic band-gap modulation of blue phase liquid crystal (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2015-10-01

    Blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) are self-assembled 3D photonic crystals exhibiting high susceptibility to external stimuli. Two methods for the photonic bandgap tuning of BPs were demonstrated in this work. Introducing a chiral azobenzene into a cholesteric liquid crystal could formulate a photoresponsive BPLC. Under violet irradiation, the azo dye experiences trans-cis isomerization, which leads to lattice swelling as well as phase transition in different stages of the process. Ultrawide reversible tuning of the BP photonic bandgap from ultraviolet to near infrared has been achieved. The tuning is reversible and nonvolatile. We will then demonstract the electric field-induced bandgap tuning in polymer-stabilized BPLCs. Under different BPLCs material preparation conditions, both red-shift and broadening of the photonic bandgaps have been achieved respectively. The stop band can be shifted over 100 nm. The bandwidth can be expanded from ~ 30 nm to ~ 250 nm covering nearly the full visible range. It is believed that the developed approaches could strongly promote the use of BPLC in photonic applications.

  15. Extreme Band Engineering of III-Nitride Nanowire Heterostructures for Electronic and Photonic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, ATM Golam

    Bottom-up nanowires are attractive for realizing semiconductor devices with extreme heterostructures because strain relaxation through the nanowire sidewalls allows the combination of highly lattice mismatched materials without creating dislocations. The resulting nanowires are used to fabricate light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, solar cells, and sensors. The aim of this work is to investigate extreme heterostructures, which are impossible or very hard to realize in conventional planar films, exploiting the strain accommodation property of nanowires and engineer their band structure for novel electronic and photonic applications. To this end, in this thesis, III-Nitride semiconductor nanowires are investigated. In the first part of this work, a complete growth phase diagram of InN nanowires on silicon using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy is developed, and structural and optical characteristics are mapped as a function of growth parameters. Next, a novel up-side down pendeoepitaxial growth of InN forming mushroom-like microstructures is demonstrated and detail structural and optical characterizations are performed. Based on this, a method to grow strain-free large area single crystalline InN or thin film is proposed and the growth of InN on patterned GaN is investigated. The optimized growth conditions developed for InN are further used to grow InGaN nanowires graded over the whole composition range. Numerical energy band simulation is performed to better understand the effect of polarization charge on photo-carrier transport in these extremely graded nanowires. A novel photodetector device with negative differential photocurrent is demonstrated using the graded InGaN nanowires. In the second part of this thesis, polarization-induced nanowire light emitting diodes (PINLEDs) are investigated. The electrical and optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure are engineered and optimized for ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet applications. The electrical

  16. Strong enhancement of spontaneous emission in amorphous-silicon-nitride photonic crystal based coupled-microcavity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayindir, M.; Tanriseven, S.; Aydinli, A.; Ozbay, E.

    We investigated photoluminescence (PL) from one-dimensional photonic band gap structures. The photonic crystals, a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator and a coupled-microcavity (CMC) structure, were fabricated by using alternating hydrogenated amorphous-silicon-nitride and hydrogenated amorphous-silicon-oxide layers. It was observed that these structures strongly modify the PL spectra from optically active amorphous-silicon-nitride thin films. Narrow-band and wide-band PL spectra were achieved in the FP microcavity and the CMC structure, respectively. The angle dependence of PL peak of the FP resonator was also investigated. We also observed that the spontaneous emission increased drastically at the coupled-cavity band edge of the CMC structure due to extremely low group velocity and long photon lifetime. The measurements agree well with the transfer-matrix method results and the prediction of the tight-binding approximation.

  17. Broad-band, RF-photonic antennas: System and integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ligeng

    1997-07-01

    We analyze an optically controlled microwave phased array antenna system whereby beam forming is accomplished with a large number of antenna elements that can receive any of several different true-time-delays from a single fiber using multi-channel optical heterodyne techniques. The system performance such as the signal-to-noise ratio, signal-to-interchannel interference ratio, and dynamic range (DR) for various modulation-demodulation schemes (i.e., AM, FM and PM) are quantitatively analyzed. An experimental system insensitive to laser linewidth and IF frequency instabilities is demonstrated for the first time. We demonstrate accurate true-time delay across the L band (from 0.8 to 1.5 GHz). The DR for one channel is 52 dB/MHz. For a narrow channel spacing of 1 A at 1.55 μm wavelength, the interchannel interference is <- 50dB. It is found that this system provides improved controllability over direct detection methods, and can meet the stringent requirements of modern high resolution microwave antenna systems. Monolithic photonic integration using vertical twin- waveguide (TG) structure based on a single-step MBE grown InP/InGaAsP material is also studied as a means for practically implementing large scale photonic systems such as the above system. Specifically, integration of a MQW laser with a passive waveguide is demonstrated in this material with a record high 45% light coupling. An InGaAs loss layer is introduced for the first time to ensure a constant laser feedback and output coupling by eliminating even mode propagation, while having little effect on the odd mode. Finally, we have investigated means to obtain high efficiency, high power semiconductor lasers for use in high DR, and high density RF-optical links, employing a 1.5 μm wavelength InGaAsP/InP separate confinement multi-quantum well structure with broadened waveguides. A record low internal loss of 1.3 cm -1 (compared to a previous value of 3.5 cm-1) and threshold current density of 73 A/cm2 per

  18. Photonic quantum well composed of photonic crystal and quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaohui; Zhu, Yiping; Wang, Lianwei; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-02-01

    A photonic quantum well structure composed of photonic crystal and Fibonacci quasicrystal is investigated by analyzing the transmission spectra and electric field distributions. The defect band in the photonic well can form confined quantized photonic states that can change in the band-gap of the photonic barriers by varying the thickness ratio of the two stacking layers. The number of confined states can be tuned by adjusting the period of the photonic well. The photons traverse the photonic quantum well by resonance tunneling and the coupling effect leads to the high transmission intensity of the confined photonic states.

  19. Band-structure parameters by genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Starrost, F.; Bornholdt, S.; Solterbeck, C.; Schattke, W.

    1996-05-01

    A genetic algorithm has been used to solve a complex multidimensional parameter-fitting problem. We will focus on the parameters of an empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian. The method is used to approximate the electronic energy band structure if energy values are known for a few wave vectors of high symmetry. Compared to the usual manual procedure this method is more accurate and automatic. This approach, based on the extended H{umlt u}ckel theory (EHT), has provided a list of EHT parameters for IV-IV and III-V semiconductors with zinc-blende structure and helped us to find a symmetry in the EHT. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. One-photon band gap engineering of borate glass doped with ZnO for photonics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, Fathy A.; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2012-04-01

    Lithium tungsten borate glass of the composition (0.56-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Li{sub 2}O-xZnO-0.04WO{sub 3} (0 {<=}x{<=} 0.1 mol. %) is prepared for photonics applications. The glass is doped with ZnO to tune the glass absorption characteristics in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm). Chemical bond approach, including chemical structure, electronegativity, bond ionicity, nearest-neighbor coordination, and other chemical bonding aspect, is used to analyze and to explain the obtained glass properties such as: transmittance, absorption, electronic structure parameters (bandgap, Fermi level, and Urbach exciton-phonon coupling), Wannier free excitons excitation (applying Elliott's model), and two-photon absorption coefficient as a result of replacement of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} by ZnO.

  1. Structural noise tolerance of photonic crystal optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odontsengel, Nyam-Erdene; Cai, DongSheng; Cole, James B.

    2016-12-01

    Using nonstandard (NS) finite difference time domain (FDTD) scheme to perform 2D electromagnetic (EM) simulations, we investigate how the optical properties of 2D photonic crystals (PCs) are affected by various different kinds of structural noises in the PC lattice. While the transmission spectrum is strongly affected by noises, the position and the depth of the band gap in the transmission spectrum are remarkably robust. It is shown that rather coarse numerical grids can be used to evaluate various PC structures in NS-FDTD EM simulations. The combination of noises affects transmission spectrum in the same way as the most influential individual noise. It is shown that reducing the most influential individual noise is a very efficient method to make PC more accurate.

  2. Light transport and lasing in complex photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Seng Fatt

    Complex photonic structures refer to composite optical materials with dielectric constant varying on length scales comparable to optical wavelengths. Light propagation in such heterogeneous composites is greatly different from homogeneous media due to scattering of light in all directions. Interference of these scattered light waves gives rise to many fascinating phenomena and it has been a fast growing research area, both for its fundamental physics and for its practical applications. In this thesis, we have investigated the optical properties of photonic structures with different degree of order, ranging from periodic to random. The first part of this thesis consists of numerical studies of the photonic band gap (PBG) effect in structures from 1D to 3D. From these studies, we have observed that PBG effect in a 1D photonic crystal is robust against uncorrelated disorder due to preservation of long-range positional order. However, in higher dimensions, the short-range positional order alone is sufficient to form PBGs in 2D and 3D photonic amorphous structures (PASS). We have identified several parameters including dielectric filling fraction and degree of order that can be tuned to create a broad isotropic PBG. The largest PBG is produced by the dielectric networks due to local uniformity in their dielectric constant distribution. In addition, we also show that deterministic aperiodic structures (DASs) such as the golden-angle spiral and topological defect structures can support a wide PBG and their optical resonances contain unexpected features compared to those in photonic crystals. Another growing research field based on complex photonic structures is the study of structural color in animals and plants. Previous studies have shown that non-iridescent color can be generated from PASs via single or double scatterings. For better understanding of the coloration mechanisms, we have measured the wavelength-dependent scattering length from the biomimetic samples. Our

  3. Photon structure and the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons.

    SciTech Connect

    Klasen, M.

    1999-07-22

    We give a pedagogical introduction to hard photoproduction processes at HERA, including the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons. Recent theoretical developments in the three areas are reviewed. In summary, hard photoproduction processes can provide very useful information on the hadronic structure of the photon, in particular on the gluon density, which is complimentary to the information coming from deep inelastic photon-photon scattering at electron-positron colliders. Among the different hadronic final states, jets are most easily accessible experimentally and phenomenologically. On the other hand, inclusive hadron production offers the possibility to test the universality of hadron fragmentation functions and measure the photon structure down to very low values of p{sub T} and x{sub {gamma}}. Prompt photon production suffers from a reduced cross section and limited data, but allows for the additional testing of photon fragmentation functions.

  4. A theoretical roadmap for optical lithography of photonic band gap microchips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Timothy Y. M.

    This thesis presents designs and fabrication algorithms for 3D photonic band gap (PBG) material synthesis and embedded optical waveguide networks. These designs are suitable for large scale micro-fabrication using optical lithography methods. The first of these is a criss-crossing pore structure based on fabrication by direct photo-electrochemical etching in single-crystal silicon. We demonstrate that a modulation of the pore radius between pore crossing points leads to a moderately large PBG. We delineate a variety of PBG architectures amenable to fabrication by holographic lithography. In this technique, an optical interference pattern exposes a photo-sensitive material, leading to a template structure in the photoresist whose dielectric-air interface corresponds to an iso-intensity surface in the exposing interference pattern. We demonstrate PBG architectures obtainable from the interference patterns from four independent beams. The PBG materials may be fabricated by replicating the developed photoresist with established silicon replication methods. We identify optical beam configurations that optimize the intensity contrast in the photoresist. We describe the invention of a new approach to holographic lithography of PBG materials using the diffraction of light through a three-layer optical phase mask (OPM). We show how the diffraction-interference pattern resulting from single beam illumination of our OPM closely resembles a diamondlike architecture for suitable designs of the phase mask. It is suggested that OPML may both simplify and supercede all previous optical lithography approaches to PBG material synthesis. Finally, we demonstrate theoretically the creation of three-dimensional optical waveguide networks in holographically defined PBG materials. This requires the combination of direct laser writing (DLW) of lines of defects within the holographically-defined photoresist and the replication of the microchip template with a high refractive index

  5. Squark contributions to photon structure functions and positivity constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kitadono, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yutaka; Sahara, Ryo; Uematsu, Tsuneo

    2011-10-01

    Photon structure functions in supersymmetric QCD are investigated in terms of the parton model where squark contributions are evaluated. We calculate the eight virtual photon structure functions by taking the discontinuity of the squark massive one-loop diagrams of the photon-photon forward amplitude. The model-independent positivity constraints derived from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequalities are satisfied by the squark parton model calculation and actually the two equality relations hold for the squark contribution. We also show that our polarized photon structure function g{sub 1}{sup {gamma}} for the real photon leads to the vanishing first moment sum rule, and the constraint |g{sub 1}{sup {gamma}}|{<=}F{sub 1}{sup {gamma}} is satisfied by the real photon. We also discuss a squark signature in the structure function W{sub TT}{sup {tau}}.

  6. Bandgap properties of diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Haitao; Li, Yong; Wang, Hong

    2014-06-14

    The 3D (dimensional) diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with different lattice constants were prepared using rapid prototyping and gel casting with alumina. In this paper, heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces were designed and its bandgap properties were studied. The normalized resonant intensity of electromagnetic wave in heterostructure with inclined and curved interface is stronger than that in the ordinary heterostructure without modified interface. The influence of curved interface on transmission properties of electromagnetic wave was investigated with the radius of curvature ranging from 17 mm to 37 mm at 5 mm interval. The results show that two resonant modes appear in the photonic band gap, being similar to the band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals with two defects inside. With the increasing of the radius of curvature, the resonant mode shift to higher frequency. In the structure with a radius of curvature of 32 mm, a guiding band appears in the photonic band gap. Further increase in the radius of curvature, the guiding band will split into two resonant modes again and the two resonant modes shift to lower frequencies.

  7. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  8. Rotational band structure in 32Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, H. L.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Poves, A.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Bowry, M.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Gade, A.; Ideguchi, E.; Iwasaki, H.; Langer, C.; Lee, I. Y.; Loelius, C.; Lunderberg, E.; Morse, C.; Richard, A. L.; Rissanen, J.; Smalley, D.; Stroberg, S. R.; Weisshaar, D.; Whitmore, K.; Wiens, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.; Yamamato, T.

    2016-03-01

    There is significant evidence supporting the existence of deformed ground states within the neutron-rich N ≈20 neon, sodium, and magnesium isotopes that make up what is commonly called the "island of inversion." However, the rotational band structures, which are a characteristic fingerprint of a rigid nonspherical shape, have yet to be observed. In this work, we report on a measurement and analysis of the yrast (lowest lying) rotational band in 32Mg up to spin I =6+ produced in a two-step projectile fragmentation reaction and observed using the state-of-the-art γ -ray tracking detector array, GRETINA (γ -ray energy tracking in-beam nuclear array). Large-scale shell-model calculations using the SDPF-U-MIX effective interaction show excellent agreement with the new data. Moreover, a theoretical analysis of the spectrum of rotational states as a function of the pairing gap, together with cranked-shell-model calculations, provides intriguing evidence for a reduction in pairing correlations with increased angular momentum, also in line with the shell-model results.

  9. Rotational Band Structure in 32Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Heather; NSCL E11029 Collaboration Team

    2016-03-01

    There is significant evidence supporting the existence of deformed ground states within the neutron-rich N =20 neon, sodium, and magnesium isotopes that make up what is commonly called the ``Island of Inversion''. However, rotational band structures, a characteristic fingerprint of a rigid non-spherical shape, have yet to be observed. We report on a measurement and analysis of the yrast (lowest lying) rotational band in 32Mg up to spin I = 6+, produced in a two-step projectile fragmentation reaction and observed using the state-of-the-art γ-ray tracking detector array, GRETINA. Large-scale shell model calculations using the SDPF-U-MIX effective interaction show excellent agreement with the new data. Moreover, a theoretical analysis of the spectrum of rotational states as a function of the pairing gap, together with cranked shell model calculations, provides intriguing evidence for a reduction in pairing correlations with increased angular momentum, also in line with the shell-model results. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, NP Office under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL). GRETINA was funded by the U.S. DOE Office of Science. Operation of the array at NSCL was supported by NSF.

  10. Giant gain enhancement in photonic crystals with a degenerate band edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Yazdi, Farshad; Figotin, Alex; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new approach leading to giant gain enhancement. It is based on unconventional slow-wave resonance associated with a degenerate band edge (DBE) in the dispersion diagram for a special class of photonic crystals supporting four modes at each frequency. We show that the gain enhancement in a Fabry-Pérot cavity (FPC) when operating at the DBE is several orders of magnitude stronger when compared to a cavity of the same length made of a standard photonic crystal with a regular band edge (RBE). The giant gain condition is explained by a significant increase in the photon lifetime and in the local density of states. We have demonstrated the existence of DBE operated special cavities that provide for superior gain conditions for solid-state lasers, quantum cascade lasers, traveling wave tubes, and distributed solid-state amplifiers. We also report the possibility to achieve low-threshold lasing in FPC with DBE compared to RBE-based lasers.

  11. Efficient heralding of O-band passively spatial-multiplexed photons for noise-tolerant quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao Tong; Lim, Han Chuen

    2014-09-22

    When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.

  12. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-03

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech.

  13. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

  14. Flat-Band Slow Light in a Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguide by Vertical Geometry Adjustment and Selective Infiltration of Optofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Janfaza, Morteza; Tavousi, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal slab waveguide (PhCSW) for slow light applications is presented. To obtain widest possible flat-bands of slow light regions—regions with large group index (n g), and very low group velocity dispersion (GVD)—two core parameters of PhCSW structure are investigated. The design procedure is based on vertical shifting of the first row of the air holes adjacent to the waveguide center and concurrent selective optofluidic infiltration of the second row. The criteria of {{< n_g \\rangle}} ± 10% variations is used for ease of definition and comparison of flat-band regions. By applying various geometry optimizations for the first row, our results suggest that a waveguide core of W 1.09 would provide a reasonable wide flat-band. Furthermore, infiltration of optofluidics in the second row alongside with geometry adjustments of the first row result in flexible control of 10 < n g < 32 and provide flat-band regions with large bandwidth (10 nm < Δλ < 21.5 nm). Also, negligible GVD as low as β 2 = 10-24 (s2/m) is achieved. Numerical simulations are calculated by means of the three-dimensional plane wave expansion method.

  15. THz photonic wireless links with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao; Yu, Jinlong; Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Galili, Michael; Morioka, Toshio; Oxenløwe, Leif K

    2016-10-17

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate THz photonic wireless communication systems with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band. The overall throughput reaches as high as 80 Gbit/s by exploiting four THz channels with 5 Gbaud 16-QAM baseband modulation per channel. We create a coherent optical frequency comb (OFC) for photonic generation of multiple THz carriers based on photo-mixing in a uni-travelling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD). The OFC configuration also allows us to generate reconfigurable THz carriers with low phase noise. The multiple-channel THz radiation is received by using a Schottky mixer based electrical receiver after 0.5 m free-space wireless propagation. 2-channel (40 Gbit/s) and 4-channel (80 Gbit/s) THz photonic wireless links with 16-QAM modulation are reported in this paper, and the bit error rate (BER) performance for all channels in both cases is below the hard decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8e-3 with 7% overhead. In addition, we also successfully demonstrate hybrid photonic wireless transmission of 40 Gbit/s 16-QAM signal at carrier frequencies of 400 GHz and 425 GHz over 30 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) between the optical baseband signal transmitter and the THz wireless transmitter with negligible induced power penalty.

  16. Photonic-band-gap properties for two-component slow light

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseckas, J.; Kudriasov, V.; Juzeliunas, G.; Unanyan, R. G.; Otterbach, J.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2011-06-15

    We consider two-component ''spinor'' slow light in an ensemble of atoms coherently driven by two pairs of counterpropagating control laser fields in a double tripod-type linkage scheme. We derive an equation of motion for the spinor slow light (SSL) representing an effective Dirac equation for a massive particle with the mass determined by the two-photon detuning. By changing the detuning the atomic medium acts as a photonic crystal with a controllable band gap. If the frequency of the incident probe light lies within the band gap, the light experiences reflection from the sample and can tunnel through it. For frequencies outside the band gap, the transmission and reflection probabilities oscillate with the increasing length of the sample. In both cases the reflection takes place into the complementary mode of the probe field. We investigate the influence of the finite excited state lifetime on the transmission and reflection coefficients of the probe light. We discuss possible experimental implementations of the SSL using alkali-metal atoms such as rubidium or sodium.

  17. 5 CFR 9701.321 - Structure of bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Structure of bands. 9701.321 Section 9701.321 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM... Structure of bands. (a) DHS may, after coordination with OPM, establish ranges of basic pay for bands, with...

  18. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  19. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  20. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Semere A.; Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  1. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Semere A.; Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-11-01

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  2. Prospects of photon counting lidar for savanna ecosystem structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, D.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Discrete return and waveform lidar have demonstrated a capability to measure vegetation height and the associated structural attributes such as aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Since discrete return lidar (DRL) is mainly suitable for small scale studies and the only existing spaceborne lidar sensor (ICESat-GLAS) has been decommissioned, the current question is what the future holds in terms of large scale lidar remote sensing studies. The earliest planned future spaceborne lidar mission is ICESat-2, which will use a photon counting technique. To pre-validate the capability of this mission for studying three dimensional vegetation structure in savannas, we assessed the potential of the measurement approach to estimate canopy height in a typical savanna landscape. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard. MABEL fires laser pulses in the green (532 nm) and near infrared (1064 nm) bands at a nominal repetition rate of 10 kHz and records the travel time of individual photons that are reflected back to the sensor. The photons' time of arrival and the instrument's GPS positions and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) orientation are used to calculate the distance the light travelled and hence the elevation of the surface below. A few transects flown over the Tejon ranch conservancy in Kern County, California, USA were used for this work. For each transect we extracted the data from one near infrared channel that had the highest number of photons. We segmented each transect into 50 m, 25 m and 10 m long blocks and aggregated the photons in each block into a histogram based on their elevation values. We then used an expansion window algorithm to identify cut off points where the cumulative density of photons from the highest elevation resembles the canopy top and likewise where such cumulative density from the lowest elevation resembles mean ground elevation. These cut off

  3. Dispersion-tolerant two-photon Michelson interferometer using telecom-band frequency-entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Noritsugu

    2015-05-01

    The chromatic group velocity dispersion tolerance of a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer is characterized for telecom-band photon pairs that are frequency entangled. Two indium-gallium-arsenide single-photon detectors are used to record the coincidence counts. A single-wavelength laser diode continuously pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide of 1-mm length. For near-degenerate spontaneous parametric downconversion, it generates wideband entangled collinear photon pairs. The spectral width of 115.8 nm is centered at 1550 nm. It is restricted by the performance of the single-photon detectors whose efficiency is poor beyond 1610 nm. Using a Michelson interferometer, two-photon interference signals are recorded with and without frequency entanglement. The frequency-entangled photon pairs are found to exhibit dispersion-tolerant two-photon interference, even though the two paths through the interferometer have different group velocity dispersion. The observed two-photon interference signal has a correlation time of 42.7 fs, in good agreement with calculations for a 115.8-nm spectral width. For comparison, results are also presented for photon pairs lacking frequency entanglement.

  4. Numerical investigation of the flat band Bloch modes in a 2D photonic crystal with Dirac cones

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Fietz, Chris; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2015-04-14

    A numerical method combining complex-k band calculations and absorbing boundary conditions for Bloch waves is presented. We use this method to study photonic crystals with Dirac cones. We demonstrate that the photonic crystal behaves as a zero-index medium when excited at normal incidence, but that the zero-index behavior is lost at oblique incidence due to excitation of modes on the flat band. We also investigate the formation of monomodal and multimodal cavity resonances inside the photonic crystals, and the physical origins of their different line-shape features.

  5. Numerical investigation of the flat band Bloch modes in a 2D photonic crystal with Dirac cones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Fietz, Chris; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2015-04-20

    A numerical method combining complex-k band calculations and absorbing boundary conditions for Bloch waves is presented. We use this method to study photonic crystals with Dirac cones. We demonstrate that the photonic crystal behaves as a zero-index medium when excited at normal incidence, but that the zero-index behavior is lost at oblique incidence due to excitation of modes on the flat band. We also investigate the formation of monomodal and multimodal cavity resonances inside the photonic crystals, and the physical origins of their different line-shape features.

  6. Optical nonreciprocal transmission in an asymmetric silicon photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zheng; Chen, Juguang; Ji, Mengxi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Yi E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Ying E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-11-30

    An optical nonreciprocal transmission (ONT) is realized by employing the nonlinear effects in a compact asymmetric direct-coupled nanocavity-waveguide silicon photonic crystal structure with a high loaded quality factor (Q{sub L}) of 42 360 and large extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB. Applying a single step lithography and successive etching, the device can realize the ONT in an individual nanocavity, alleviating the requirement to accurately control the resonance of the cavities. A maximum nonreciprocal transmission ratio of 21.1 dB as well as a working bandwidth of 280 pm in the telecommunication band are obtained at a low input power of 76.7 μW. The calculated results by employing a nonlinear coupled-mode model are in good agreement with the experiment.

  7. Axisymmetric photonic structures with PT-symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Waqas W.; Herrero, Ramon; Botey, Muriel; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    PT-symmetric structures in photonic crystals, combining refractive index and gain-loss modulations is becoming a research field with increasing interest due to the light directionality induced by these particular potentials. Here, we consider PT-symmetric potentials with axial symmetry to direct light to the crystal central point obtaining a localization effect. The axial and PT-symmetric potential intrinsically generates an exceptional central point in the photonic crystal by the merge of both symmetries. This particular point in the crystal lattice causes field amplitude gradients with exponential slopes around the crystal center. The field localization strongly depends on the phase of the central point and on the complex amplitude of the PT-potential. The presented work analyzes in a first stage 1D linear PT-axisymmetric crystals and the role of the central point phase that determines the defect character, i.e. refractive index defect, gain-loss defect or a combination of both. The interplay of the directional light effect induced by the PT-symmetry and the light localization around the central point through the axial symmetry enhances localization and allows higher field concentration for certain phases. The linearity of the studied crystals introduces an exponential growth of the field that mainly depends on the complex amplitude of the potential. The work is completed by the analysis of 2D PT-axisymmetric potentials showing different spatial slopes and growth rates caused by symmetry reasons.

  8. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  9. Fabrication, characterization, and simulation of photonic bandgap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao

    Photonic bandgap (PBG) structures are artificial materials which are featured with periodically changed refractive index having a periodicity in the range of optical wavelengths. The studies in PBG structures are making rapid progress. However, the investigations of three-dimensional (3-D) PBG structures are still challenging. In this work, laser-assisted fabrication of 3-D PBG structures based on self-assembled silica colloidal crystals was developed. 3-D PBG structures were fabricated by laser-assisted nano-imprinting and laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD), based on the self-assembled silica colloidal crystals. Silica colloidal crystals were self-assembled on silicon substrates using isothermal heating evaporation-induced self-assembly. To infiltrate the silica colloidal crystals, the laser-assisted imprinting technique was used using a short pulse (23 ns pulse duration) of a KrF excimer laser. The nanosecond laser pulse instantaneously melted the silicon substrates, which infiltrated and solidified over the assembled silica particles on the substrates. By removing silica particles embedded in the silicon using hydrofluoric acid, inverseopal PBG structures were produced. In the LCVD technique, a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser (1.064 mum wavelength) and a CO2 laser (10.6 mum wavelength) were used as the energy source. Silica-core-silicon-shell PBG structures were obtained. This technique is capable of fabricating structures with various PBGs by obtaining different silicon-shell thickness with different LCVD parameters. Both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements to investigate the optical properties of the PBG structures were carried out. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to identify PBGs. The plain-wave expansion (PWE) method was used to calculate the photonic-band diagrams of the structures, which agreed with the experimental results. The calculation also provided fitting results of the Si-shell thicknesses. To investigate the

  10. Narrow-band single-photon emission in the near infrared for quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Wu, E; Jacques, Vincent; Zeng, Heping; Grangier, Philippe; Treussart, François; Roch, Jean-François

    2006-02-06

    We present a detailed study of photophysical properties of single color centers in natural diamond samples emitting in the near infrared under optical excitation. Photoluminescence of these single emitters has several striking features, including narrow-band (FWHM 2 nm) fully polarized emission around 780 nm, a short excited-state lifetime of about 2 ns, and perfect photostability at room temperature under our excitation conditions. Development of a triggered single-photon source relying on this single color center is discussed for application to quantum key distribution.

  11. Telecom-band degenerate-frequency photon pair generation in silicon microring cavities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Shuai; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2014-04-15

    In this Letter, telecom-band degenerate-frequency photon pairs are generated in a specific mode of a silicon microring cavity by the nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) process, under two continuous-wave pumps at resonance wavelength of two different cavity modes. The ratio of coincidence to accidental coincidence is up to 100 under a time bin width of 5 ns, showing their characteristics of quantum correlation. Their quantum interference in balanced and unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the results show potential in quantum metrology and quantum information.

  12. Flat Supercontinuum Generation within the Telecommunication Wave Bands in a Photonic Crystal Fiber with Central Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ying; Hou, Lan-Tian; Zhou, Gui-Yao; Yuan, Jin-Hui; Xia, Chang-Ming; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Hou, Zhi-Yun

    2012-05-01

    Flat supercontinuum in the telecommunication wave bands of E+S+C is generated by coupling a train of femtosecond pulses generated by a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser into the fundamental mode of a photonic crystal fiber with central holes fabricated in our lab. The pulse experiences the anomalous dispersion regime, and the soliton dynamic effect plays an important role in supercontinuum generation. The output spectrum in the wavelength range of 1360-1565 nm does not include significant ripples due to higher pump peak power, and the normalized intensity shows less fluctuation.

  13. Photonic Band Gap Materials: A New Frontier in Quantum and Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, S.

    Photonic band gap materials represent a new paradigm in quantum and nonlinear optics. These materials were predicted theoretically as a means to realize two fundamentally new optical principles, namely (i) the localization and trapping of light in a bulk material [1,2] and (ii) the complete inhibition of spontaneous emission [3,4] over a broad frequency range. The novel consequences of PBG materials flow directly from the realization and implementation of these two underlying principles. Unlike optical confinement of a single resonance mode in a high quality (Q) optical cavity, localized electromagnetic modes in a bulk PBG material are completely decoupled from the vacuum modes of free space and the spatial extent of the localized modes can be engineered to be an arbitrary number of optical wavelengths. Unlike Fabry-Perot resonators or distributed feedback laser cavities which confine light in one spatial dimension, the PBG material facilitates coherent localization of light in all spatial directions. Unlike microdisk or microsphere cavity resonators which perturb the local density of states (LDOS) of the electromagnetic vacuum, the PBG material completely suppresses the total photon density of states (DOS). Accordingly, the trapping of light in localized modes of a PBG material is far more robust than the resonance trapping of light in conventional microcavity modes. Moreover, it is possible to engineer an arbitrary number of individual localized states which may interact weakly with each other inside a large scale PBG material, but which maintain their immunity from vacuum modes outside the PBG material. This facilitates the development of large scale integrated optical circuits within a PBG in which the nature of radiative dynamics is controlled by the LDOS of photons within the photonic crystal rather than the free space DOS outside the photonic crystal. This unique combination of light localization and the complete control of radiative dynamics distinguishes

  14. Optically decomposed near-band-edge structure and excitonic transitions in Ga2S3

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The band-edge structure and band gap are key parameters for a functional chalcogenide semiconductor to its applications in optoelectronics, nanoelectronics, and photonics devices. Here, we firstly demonstrate the complete study of experimental band-edge structure and excitonic transitions of monoclinic digallium trisulfide (Ga2S3) using photoluminescence (PL), thermoreflectance (TR), and optical absorption measurements at low and room temperatures. According to the experimental results of optical measurements, three band-edge transitions of EA = 3.052 eV, EB = 3.240 eV, and EC = 3.328 eV are respectively determined and they are proven to construct the main band-edge structure of Ga2S3. Distinctly optical-anisotropic behaviors by orientation- and polarization-dependent TR measurements are, respectively, relevant to distinguish the origins of the EA, EB, and EC transitions. The results indicated that the three band-edge transitions are coming from different origins. Low-temperature PL results show defect emissions, bound-exciton and free-exciton luminescences in the radiation spectra of Ga2S3. The below-band-edge transitions are respectively characterized. On the basis of experimental analyses, the optical property of near-band-edge structure and excitonic transitions in the monoclinic Ga2S3 crystal is revealed. PMID:25142550

  15. A ministop band in a single-defect photonic crystal waveguide based on silicon on insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hai-Xia; Zuo, Yu-Hua; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Qi-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that a two-dimensional single-defect photonic crystal waveguide in the Γ-K direction with triangular lattice on a silicon-on-insulator substrate is fabricated by the combination of electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. A ministop band (MSB) is observed by the measurement of transmission characteristics. It results from the coupling between the two modes with the same symmetry, which is analysed from the stimulated band diagram by the effective index and the two-dimensional plane wave expansion methods. The parameter working on the MSB is the ratio of the radius of air holes to the lattice constant, r/a. It is obtained that the critical r/a value determining the occurrence or disappearance of MSB is 0.36. When r/a is larger than or equal to 0.36, the MSB occurs. However, when r/a is smaller than 0.36, the MSB disappears.

  16. Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers.

    PubMed

    Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Ahmad, Faisal R; Müller, Dirk; Venkataraman, Natesan; Gallagher, Michael T; Thomas, Malcolm G; Silcox, John; Koch, Karl W; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2003-09-19

    The measured dispersion of a low-loss, hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber is anomalous throughout most of the transmission band, and its variation with wavelength is large compared with that of a conventional step-index fiber. For an air-filled fiber, femtosecond self-frequency--shifted fundamental solitons with peak powers greater than 2megawatts can be supported. For Xe-filled fibers, nonfrequency-shifted temporal solitons with peak powers greater than 5.5 megawatts can be generated, representing an increase in the power that can be propagated in an optical fiber of two orders of magnitude. The results demonstrate a unique capability to deliver high-power pulses in a single spatial mode over distances exceeding 200 meters.

  17. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar; Dusad, Lalit Kumar

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  18. Venus banded terrain - Tectonic models for band formation and their relationship to lithospheric thermal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Two classes of tectonic models for the formation of band structure on Venus mountain ranges are quantitatively evaluated: folding models and extensional models. The characteristics of banded terrain on Ishtar Terra are reviewed, particularly the evidence for a tectonic origin and such important details of band geometry as the spacing between adjacent bands. The tectonic models are tested against these observed features, and it it shown that both classes of models are possible explanations of banded terrain as long as the outer elastic-brittle layer of the Venus crust is at most a few kilometers thick. A general assessment is given of hypotheses for the origin of banded terrain and of the relationship between mechanical models for band formation and the thermal structure of the Venus lithosphere.

  19. Controlling photonic structures using optical forces.

    PubMed

    Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Chen, Long; Gondarenko, Alexander; Lipson, Michal

    2009-12-03

    The use of optical forces to manipulate small objects is well known. Applications include the manipulation of living cells by optical tweezers and optical cooling in atomic physics. The miniaturization of optical systems (to the micro and nanoscale) has resulted in very compliant systems with masses of the order of nanograms, rendering them susceptible to optical forces. Optical forces have been exploited to demonstrate chaotic quivering of microcavities, optical cooling of mechanical modes, actuation of a tapered-fibre waveguide and excitation of the mechanical modes of silicon nano-beams. Despite recent progress in this field, it is challenging to manipulate the optical response of photonic structures using optical forces; this is because of the large forces that are required to induce appreciable changes in the geometry of the structure. Here we implement a resonant structure whose optical response can be efficiently statically controlled using relatively weak attractive and repulsive optical forces. We demonstrate a static mechanical deformation of up to 20 nanometres in a silicon nitride structure, using three milliwatts of continuous optical power. Because of the sensitivity of the optical response to this deformation, such optically induced static displacement introduces resonance shifts spanning 80 times the intrinsic resonance linewidth.

  20. Investigations of the Band Structure and Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Kevin R.

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the electronic structure of two very different types of two-dimensional systems: valence band electrons in single layer graphene and electronic states created at the vacuum interface of single crystal copper surfaces. The characteristics of both electronic systems depend intimately on the morphology of the surfaces they inhabit. Thus, in addition to discussing the respective band structures of these systems, a significant portion of this dissertation will be devoted to measurements of the surface morphology of these systems. Free-standing exfoliated monolayer graphene is an ultra-thin flexible membrane and, as such, is known to exhibit large out-of-plane deformation due to substrate and adsorbate interaction as well as thermal vibrations and, possibly, intrinsic buckling. Such crystal deformation is known to limit mobility and increase local chemical reactivity. Additionally, deformations present a measurement challenge to researchers wishing to determine the band structure by angle-resolved photoemission since they limit electron coherence in such measurements. In this dissertation, I present low energy electron microscopy and micro probe diffraction measurements, which are used to image and characterize corrugation in SiO2-supported and suspended exfoliated graphene at nanometer length scales. Diffraction line-shape analysis reveals quantitative differences in surface roughness on length scales below 20 nm which depend on film thickness and interaction with the substrate. Corrugation decreases with increasing film thickness, reflecting the increased stiffness of multilayer films. Specifically, single-layer graphene shows a markedly larger short range roughness than multilayer graphene. Due to the absence of interactions with the substrate, suspended graphene displays a smoother morphology and texture than supported graphene. A specific feature of suspended single-layer films is the dependence of corrugation on both adsorbate load

  1. Dynamical behavior of atom-photon entanglement for a four-level atom near the band edge of a 3D-anisotropic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahrai, M.; Boroojerdi, V. Tahmoorian Askari

    2017-06-01

    Time evolution of the entanglement between a four-level atom near the band edge of a photonic crystal and its spontaneous emission field is investigated. It is shown that the quantum entropy has a faster oscillator behavior as the upper levels move further into the band gap. Entanglement oscillations can be controlled by the intensity and the detuning of the coupling field. An enhanced entanglement is achieved in the presence of quantum interference resulting from the two possible decay channels. In addition, the atom-photon entanglement will be influenced noticeably by the reservoir coupling constant, intensity of coupling field, and the detuning.

  2. The properties of photonic band gap and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional magnetized photonic crystals as the mixed polarized modes considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gap (PBG) and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, in which the homogeneous magnetized plasma spheres are immersed in the homogeneous dielectric background, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is perpendicular to the external magnetic field at any time). The dispersive properties of all of the EM modes are studied because the PBG is not only for the extraordinary and ordinary modes but also for the mixed polarized modes. The equations for PBGs also are theoretically deduced. The numerical results show that the PBG and a flatbands region can be observed. The effects of the dielectric constant of dielectric background, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the dispersive properties of all of the EM modes in such 3D MPPCs are investigated in detail, respectively. Theoretical simulations show that the PBG can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. Compared to the conventional dielectric-air PCs with similar structure, the larger PBG can be obtained in such 3D MPPCs. It is also shown that the upper edge of flatbands region cannot be tuned by the filling factor and dielectric constant of dielectric background, but it can be manipulated by the plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency.

  3. Valence and conduction band structure of the quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor Sn S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racke, David A.; Neupane, Mahesh R.; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of both the valence and the conduction band region in the quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals-layered indirect band gap semiconductor Sn S2 . Using a combination of angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (AR-2PPE) spectroscopy, we characterize the band structure of bulk Sn S2 . Comparison with density functional theory calculations shows excellent quantitative agreement in the valence band region and reveals several localized bands that likely originate from defects such as sulfur vacancies. Evidence for a moderate density of defects is also observed by AR-2PPE in the conduction band region, leading to localized bands not present in the computational results. The energetic structure and dispersion of the conduction bands is captured well by the computational treatment, with some quantitative discrepancies remaining. Our results provide a broader understanding of the electronic structure of Sn S2 in particular and van der Waals-layered semiconductors in general.

  4. Photon-Assisted Transmission through a Double-Barrier Structure

    SciTech Connect

    LYO,SUNGKWUN K.

    2000-06-27

    The authors study multi-photon-assisted transmission of electrons through single-step, single-barrier and double-barrier potential-energy structures as a function of the photon energy and the temperature. Sharp resonances in the spectra of the tunneling current through double-barrier structures are relevant to infra-red detectors.

  5. Distance between Cys-201 in erythrocyte band 3 and the bilayer measured by single-photon radioluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Thevenin, B J; Bicknese, S E; Park, J; Verkman, A S; Shohet, S B

    1996-01-01

    Single-photon radioluminescence (SPR), the excitation of fluorophores by short-range beta-decay electrons, was developed for the measurement of submicroscopic distances. The cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3) is the primary, multisite anchorage for the erythrocyte skeleton. To begin to define the membrane arrangement of the highly asymmetrical cdb3 structure, the distance from the bilayer of Cys-201 next to the "hinge" of cdb3 was measured by both SPR and resonance energy transfer (RET). cdb3 was labeled at Cys-201 with fluorescein maleimide. For SPR measurements, the bilayer was labeled with [3H]oleic acid. The corrected cdb3-specific SPR signal was 98 +/- 2 cps microCi-1 [mumol band 3]-1. From this and the signal from a parallel sample in which 3H2O was substituted for [3H]oleic acid to create uniform geometry between 3H and the fluorophores, a Cys-201-to-bilayer separation of 39 +/- 7 A was calculated. Confirmatory distances of 40 and 43 A were obtained by RET between fluorescein on Cys-201 and eosin and rhodamine B lipid probes, respectively. This distance indicates that Cys-201 lies near band 3's vertical axis of symmetry and that the subdomain of cdb3 between the hinge and the membrane is not significantly extended. In addition, these results validate SPR as a measure of molecular distances in biological systems. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8913602

  6. Experimental Demonstration of a Hybrid-Quantum-Emitter Producing Individual Entangled Photon Pairs in the Telecom Band.

    PubMed

    Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-05-26

    Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems.

  7. Experimental Demonstration of a Hybrid-Quantum-Emitter Producing Individual Entangled Photon Pairs in the Telecom Band

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems. PMID:27225881

  8. Ultracompact photonic-waveguide circuits in Si-pillar photonic-crystal structures for integrated nanophotonic switches.

    PubMed

    Tokushima, Masatoshi; Olmos, J J Vegas; Kitayama, Ken-Ichi

    2010-03-01

    Highly integrated optical device technology based on square-lattice Si-pillar photonic-crystal-(PC) waveguides is described. The Si-pillar PC waveguides are now ready to use, since efficient optical coupling structures to Si-wire waveguides have been devised. Nanophotonic switches using the Si-pillar-PC waveguides were experimentally demonstrated. The nanophotonic switches make use of two of the features of Si-pillar photonic crystal waveguides. One is the property of slow-light and the other is the usability of zero-radius 90 degrees bends, both of which enable waveguide-based optical devices to be greatly miniaturized. Even apart from the cut-off wavelength, the group index of the pillar-PC waveguides was about 7.8, which was about twice that of a Si-wire waveguide for the entire C-band of telecommunications wavelengths. The 3-dB couplers we fabricated were only 3.2-microm long thanks to the 90 degrees sharp bends, and they operated throughout the entire C-band. Waveguide-cross operation was also demonstrated in the entire C-band. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) were configured by using the 3-dB couplers in an area of 13.2 x 37.2 microm. An MZI with a Si-wire heater successfully operated with an extinction ratio of about 20 dB at a heating power of 17 mW. It is strongly suggested that Si-pillar PC photonic-waveguide technology should help us to achieve densely integrated optical-matrix switches demanded for future photonic-telecommunication systems.

  9. Zero-n gap in one dimensional photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chobey, Mahesh K. Suthar, B.

    2016-05-06

    We study a one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal composed of Double Positive (DPS) and Double Negative (DNG) material. This structure shows omnidirectional photonic bandgap, which is insensitive with angle of incidence and polarization. To study the effect of structural parameters on the photonic band structure, we have calculated photonic band gap at various thicknesses of DPS and DNG.

  10. Compact photonic crystal circulator with flat-top transmission band created by cascading magneto-optical resonance cavities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Lin, Mi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-11-20

    A new type of compact three-port circulator with flat-top transmission band (FTTB) in a two-dimensional photonic crystal has been proposed, through coupling the cascaded magneto-optical resonance cavities to waveguides. The coupled-mode theory is applied to investigate the coupled structure and analyze the condition to achieve FTTB. According to the theoretical analysis, the structure is further optimized to ensure that the condition for achieving FTTB can be satisfied for both cavity-cavity coupling and cavity-waveguide coupling. Through the finite-element method, it is demonstrated that the design can realize a high quality, nonreciprocal circulating propagation of waves with an insertion loss of 0.023 dB and an isolation of 23.3 dB, covering a wide range of operation frequency. Such a wideband circulator has potential applications in large-scale integrated photonic circuits for guiding or isolating harmful optical reflections from load elements.

  11. Nanoscale photonics of structural transformations in gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Fedotov, V. A.; MacDonald, K. F.; Stevens, G. C.; Pochon, Sebastien C.; Woodford, M.

    2002-11-01

    We have found recently that Gallium, confined at an interface with silica, responds dramatically to low power optical excitation when held at temperatures close to its melting point (29.8oC). Intensities of just a few kW/cm2 can reversibly modulate the intensity (by up to 40%) and phase (by as much as several degrees) of reflected light as the result of a light-induced structural transition occurring in a layer of gallium of only a few nm thick. Here, we report that this concept - of achieving a nonlinearity via a light-induced transformation in a confined solid at a temperature close to a phase transition temperature - can also be applied to gallium nanoparticles. We present the transient all-optical switching characteristics of gallium nanoparticle films comprising particles, typically 80 nm in diameter, which were formed directly on the ends of optical fibers using a new light-assisted self-assembly technique. We also report, for the first time, that this light-induced structural transition in gallium confined at an interface with silica underlies a new mechanism for photoconductivity. In our opinion, the exploitation of the light-induced phase transition in gallium may be a means of enabling the development of nanoscale photonic devices.

  12. High-quality photonic crystals with a nearly complete band gap obtained by direct inversion of woodpile templates with titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Marichy, Catherine; Muller, Nicolas; Froufe-Pérez, Luis S.; Scheffold, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal materials are based on a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant on length scales comparable to the wavelength of light. These materials can exhibit photonic band gaps; frequency regions for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden due to the depletion of the density of states. In order to exhibit a full band gap, 3D PCs must present a threshold refractive index contrast that depends on the crystal structure. In the case of the so-called woodpile photonic crystals this threshold is comparably low, approximately 1.9 for the direct structure. Therefore direct or inverted woodpiles made of high refractive index materials like silicon, germanium or titanium dioxide are sought after. Here we show that, by combining multiphoton lithography and atomic layer deposition, we can achieve a direct inversion of polymer templates into TiO2 based photonic crystals. The obtained structures show remarkable optical properties in the near-infrared region with almost perfect specular reflectance, a transmission dip close to the detection limit and a Bragg length comparable to the lattice constant. PMID:26911540

  13. High-quality photonic crystals with a nearly complete band gap obtained by direct inversion of woodpile templates with titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marichy, Catherine; Muller, Nicolas; Froufe-Pérez, Luis S; Scheffold, Frank

    2016-02-25

    Photonic crystal materials are based on a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant on length scales comparable to the wavelength of light. These materials can exhibit photonic band gaps; frequency regions for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden due to the depletion of the density of states. In order to exhibit a full band gap, 3D PCs must present a threshold refractive index contrast that depends on the crystal structure. In the case of the so-called woodpile photonic crystals this threshold is comparably low, approximately 1.9 for the direct structure. Therefore direct or inverted woodpiles made of high refractive index materials like silicon, germanium or titanium dioxide are sought after. Here we show that, by combining multiphoton lithography and atomic layer deposition, we can achieve a direct inversion of polymer templates into TiO2 based photonic crystals. The obtained structures show remarkable optical properties in the near-infrared region with almost perfect specular reflectance, a transmission dip close to the detection limit and a Bragg length comparable to the lattice constant.

  14. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, Ralf; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert; Gruhler, Nico; Pernice, Wolfram

    2015-07-27

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  15. Relationship between quantum speed limit time and memory time in a photonic-band-gap environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wu, Y. N.; Mo, M. L.; Zhang, H. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Non-Markovian effect is found to be able to decrease the quantum speed limit (QSL) time, and hence to enhance the intrinsic speed of quantum evolution. Although a reservoir with larger degree of non-Markovianity may seem like it should cause smaller QSL times, this seemingly intuitive thinking may not always be true. We illustrate this by investigating the QSL time of a qubit that is coupled to a two-band photonic-band-gap (PBG) environment. We show how the QSL time is influenced by the coherent property of the reservoir and the band-gap width. In particular, we find that the decrease of the QSL time is not attributed to the increasing non-Markovianity, while the memory time of the environment can be seen as an essential reflection to the QSL time. So, the QSL time provides a further insight and sharper identification of memory time in a PBG environment. We also discuss a feasible experimental realization of our prediction.

  16. Relationship between quantum speed limit time and memory time in a photonic-band-gap environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Wu, Y. N.; Mo, M. L.; Zhang, H. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Markovian effect is found to be able to decrease the quantum speed limit (QSL) time, and hence to enhance the intrinsic speed of quantum evolution. Although a reservoir with larger degree of non-Markovianity may seem like it should cause smaller QSL times, this seemingly intuitive thinking may not always be true. We illustrate this by investigating the QSL time of a qubit that is coupled to a two-band photonic-band-gap (PBG) environment. We show how the QSL time is influenced by the coherent property of the reservoir and the band-gap width. In particular, we find that the decrease of the QSL time is not attributed to the increasing non-Markovianity, while the memory time of the environment can be seen as an essential reflection to the QSL time. So, the QSL time provides a further insight and sharper identification of memory time in a PBG environment. We also discuss a feasible experimental realization of our prediction. PMID:28008937

  17. The energy band structure of Si and Ge nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xueke; Huang, Weiqi; Huang, Zhongmei; Qin, Chaojie; Tang, Yanlin

    2016-12-01

    First-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were carried out to investigate the energy band gap structure of Si and Ge nanofilms. Calculation results show that the band gaps of Si(111) and Ge(110) nanofilms are indirect structures and independent of film thickness, the band gaps of Si(110) and Ge(100) nanofilms could be transfered into the direct structure for nanofilm thickness of less than a certain value, and the band gaps of Si(100) and Ge(111) nanofilms are the direct structures in the present model thickness range (about 7 nm). Moreover, the changes of the band gaps on the Si and Ge nanofilms follow the quantum confinement effects. It will be a good way to obtain direct band gap emission in Si and Ge materials, and to develop Si and Ge laser on Si chip.

  18. Observation of self-trapping and rotation of higher-band gap solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shiqiang; Song, Daohong; Zong, Yuanyuan; Tang, Liqin; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate self-trapping and rotation of higher-band dipole and quadruple-like gap solitons by single-site excitation in a two-dimensional square photonic lattice under self-focusing nonlinearity. Experimental results show that the second-band dipole gap solitons reside in the first photonic (Bragg reflection) gap, whereas the quadruple-like gap solitons are formed in an even higher photonic gap, resulting from modes of the third-band. Moreover, both dipole and quadruple-like gap solitons exhibit dynamical rotation around the lattice principle axes and the direction of rotation is changing periodically during propagation, provided that they are excited under appropriate initial conditions. In the latter case, the nonlinear rotation is accompanied by periodic transitions between quadruple and doubly-charged vortex states. Our numerical simulations find good agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Engineering the Electronic Band Structure for Multiband Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, N.; Reichertz, L.A.; Yu, K.M.; Campman, K.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-07-12

    Using the unique features of the electronic band structure of GaNxAs1-x alloys, we have designed, fabricated and tested a multiband photovoltaic device. The device demonstrates an optical activity of three energy bands that absorb, and convert into electrical current, the crucial part of the solar spectrum. The performance of the device and measurements of electroluminescence, quantum efficiency and photomodulated reflectivity are analyzed in terms of the Band Anticrossing model of the electronic structure of highly mismatched alloys. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using highly mismatched alloys to engineer the semiconductor energy band structure for specific device applications.

  20. Engineering the electronic band structure for multiband solar cells.

    PubMed

    López, N; Reichertz, L A; Yu, K M; Campman, K; Walukiewicz, W

    2011-01-14

    Using the unique features of the electronic band structure of GaN(x)As(1-x) alloys, we have designed, fabricated and tested a multiband photovoltaic device. The device demonstrates an optical activity of three energy bands that absorb, and convert into electrical current, the crucial part of the solar spectrum. The performance of the device and measurements of electroluminescence, quantum efficiency and photomodulated reflectivity are analyzed in terms of the band anticrossing model of the electronic structure of highly mismatched alloys. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using highly mismatched alloys to engineer the semiconductor energy band structure for specific device applications.

  1. Design of full-k-space flat bands in photonic crystals beyond the tight-binding picture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Wang, Gang; Hang, Zhi Hong; Luo, Jie; Chan, C T; Lai, Yun

    2015-12-11

    Based on a band engineering method, we propose a theoretical prescription to create a full-k-space flat band in dielectric photonic crystals covering the whole Brillouin Zone. With wave functions distributed in air instead of in the dielectrics, such a flat band represents a unique mechanism for achieving flat dispersions beyond the tight-binding picture, which can enormously reduce the requirement of permittivity contrast in the system. Finally, we propose and numerically demonstrate a unique application based on the full-k-space coverage of the flat band: ultra-sensitive detection of small scatterers.

  2. Design of full-k-space flat bands in photonic crystals beyond the tight-binding picture

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Changqing; Wang, Gang; Hang, Zhi Hong; Luo, Jie; Chan, C. T.; Lai, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Based on a band engineering method, we propose a theoretical prescription to create a full-k-space flat band in dielectric photonic crystals covering the whole Brillouin Zone. With wave functions distributed in air instead of in the dielectrics, such a flat band represents a unique mechanism for achieving flat dispersions beyond the tight-binding picture, which can enormously reduce the requirement of permittivity contrast in the system. Finally, we propose and numerically demonstrate a unique application based on the full-k-space coverage of the flat band: ultra-sensitive detection of small scatterers. PMID:26656882

  3. Experimental Studies of Band-Structure Properties in Bloch Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flees, Daniel J.

    1998-03-01

    One of the most striking features in small SIS tunnel junctions is the energy-band structure produced by Josephson coupling and charging effects. These energy bands are analogous to Bloch bands in crystalline solids. The superconducting single-electron (Bloch) transistor is the simplest system in which the energy bands can be readily studied. It consists of a superconducting island coupled to a source and drain through two small tunnel junctions. The elastic tunneling of Cooper-Pairs onto the island mixes the discrete charge states of the island. The shapes of the resulting energy bands can be modified by changing the electrostatic energies of these charge states with a voltage applied to a capacitively coupled gate. The maximum zero-voltage current (supercurrent) of each band depends upon the shape of the band and so the gate modulates the supercurrent. Each band has a different characteristic supercurrent modulation, with excited bands generally having lower currents. Thus! we can use the reduction in super current associated with a transition to an excited band to begin probing band- structure properties such as the band-gap.(Daniel J. Flees, Siyuan Han, and J.E. Lukens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 4817 (1997).

  4. Vorticity structuring and velocity rolls triggered by gradient shear bands.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Suzanne M

    2007-07-01

    We suggest a mechanism by which vorticity structuring and velocity rolls can form in complex fluids, triggered by the linear instability of one-dimensional gradient shear banded flow. We support this with a numerical study of the diffusive Johnson-Segalman model. In the steady vorticity structured state, the thickness of the interface between the bands remains finite in the limit of zero stress diffusivity, presenting a possible challenge to the accepted theory of shear banding.

  5. Universality of Mallmann correlations for nuclear band structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mǎrginean, N.

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that the Mallmann's energy ratio correlations, first time proposed 50 years ago for the ground state bands of the even-even nuclei, are universal: all band structures in collective nuclei obey the same systematics. Based on a second order anharmonic vibrator description, parameter-free recurrence relations are proposed for Mallmann-type energy ratios, which can be used to extrapolate band structures to higher spin.

  6. Weak morphology dependent valence band structure of boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Chunyi; Ueda, Shigenori; Zeng, Haibo; Wang, Xuebin; Tian, Wei; Wang, Xi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-08-01

    We report a hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) investigation on valence band structure of Boron Nitrides (BN) having different morphologies, including nanosheets, nanotubes, and micro-sized particles. Very weak morphology/valence band structure dependence was observed. For each case, the B-N π-band overlapping with σ-band between 0 to -12.5 eV and the s-band below -15 eV were identified. No obvious morphology-induced band shifts and intensity variations were observed. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory were performed and the results were compared with the experimental data. This theoretical analysis well explains the weak morphology dependent valence band spectra of BN nanomaterials obtained during HX-PES measurements.

  7. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-21

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  8. Topological structure of the inter-band phase difference soliton in two-band superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Iyo, A.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Crisan, A.; Sundaresan, A.; Terada, N.

    2010-11-01

    Two-component superconductivity based on the two-band superconductor has a functional topology such as an inter-band phase difference soliton (i-soliton) to realize topological electronics (topolonics). Many gauge field theories are applied to investigate the topology of two-band superconductivity. To ease experimental and electronics applications, these theories should be refined. Weinberg-Salam theory and SU(2) (two-dimensional special unitary symmetry) gauge field theory are proper starting points. An effective extra force field because of the crystal structure and inter-band Josephson interaction, rather than spontaneous symmetry breaking, simplifies the conventional gauge field theory.

  9. Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

  10. Band structure controlled by chiral imprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Garay, P.; Adrian Reyes, J.; Ramos-Garcia, R.

    2007-09-01

    Using the configuration of an imprinted cholesteric elastomer immersed in a racemic solvent, the authors find the solution of the boundary-value problem for the reflection and transmission of incident optical waves due to the elastomer. They show a significant width reduction of the reflection band for certain values of nematic penetration depth, which depends on the volume fraction of molecules from the solvent, whose handedness is preferably absorbed. The appearance of nested band gaps of both handednesses during the sorting mixed chiral process is also obtained. This suggests the design of chemically controlled optical filters and optically monitored chiral pumps.

  11. Effect of photonic stop-band on the modes of a weakly scattering DCM-PVA waveguide random laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Ojha, N. N. Subhashree; Bhaktha, B. N. Shivakiran

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental study on the effect of the photonic stop-band (PSB) on the random laser (RL) emission characteristics of a 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film (DCM-PVA). The film, having its refractive index greater than the substrate and density variations at the microscopic scale, acts as a disordered active planar waveguide. The propagation losses for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes of the waveguide are observed to be 0.50 and 0.74 dB/cm, respectively, at λ = 632.8 nm. The waveguiding DCM-PVA film is then sandwiched between two silica 3-D photonic crystals (opals). The overlap of the DCM-PVA photoluminescence with the PSB of the opals is controlled by the choice of the particle size used for opal fabrication. The random lasing threshold studies have been carried out for both TM and TE polarizations for opals with different particle sizes. A reduction in the threshold of RL emission, with respect to the DCM-PVA waveguide, by about 20 times (to 0.67 mJ/cm2) is observed when the photoluminescence of the DCM-PVA film overlaps with the PSB of the opal structure for TM polarization, showing that the embedding of an RL in an engineered PSB material is an effective way to reduce the thresholds of RLs.

  12. Nonaqueous sol-gel chemistry applied to atomic layer deposition: tuning of photonic band gap properties of silica opals.

    PubMed

    Marichy, Catherine; Dechézelles, Jean-Francois; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Pinna, Nicola; Ravaine, Serge; Vallée, Renaud

    2010-05-01

    Combining both electromagnetic simulations and experiments, it is shown that the photonic pseudo band gap (PPBG) exhibited by a silica opal can be fully controlled by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of titania into the pores of the silica spheres constituting the opal. Different types of opals were assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique: homogeneous closed packed structures set up of, respectively, 260 and 285 nm silica spheres, as well as opal heterostructures consisting of a monolayer of 430 nm silica spheres embedded within 10 layers of 280 nm silica spheres. For the stepwise infiltration of the opals with titania, titanium isopropoxide and acetic acid were used as metal and oxygen sources, in accordance with a recently published non-aqueous approach to ALD. A shift of the direct PPBG, its disappearance, and the subsequent appearance and shifting of the inverse PPBG are observed as the opal is progressively filled. The close agreement between simulated and experimental results is striking, and promising in terms of predicting the properties of advanced photonic materials. Moreover, this work demonstrates that the ALD process is rather robust and can be applied to the coating of complex nanostructures.

  13. Proposal for in-fiber generation of telecom-band polarization-entangled photon pairs using a periodically poled fiber.

    PubMed

    Helt, L G; Zhu, Eric Y; Liscidini, Marco; Qian, Li; Sipe, J E

    2009-07-15

    We treat spontaneous parametric downconversion in a periodically poled fiber, quasi-phase matched to allow for the generation of photon pairs at wavelengths within the low-loss telecommunications window. For an appropriate pump polarization, the unusual properties of such a fiber's effective chi(2) result in a biphoton wave function that is symmetric upon simultaneous exchange of downconverted photon frequencies and polarizations and that is nonzero over a wide range of downconverted frequencies. This could lead to a significant technical simplification of sources of in-fiber telecom-band polarization-entangled photons.

  14. Polarisation-preserving photon frequency conversion from a trapped-ion-compatible wavelength to the telecom C-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutyanskiy, V.; Meraner, M.; Schupp, J.; Lanyon, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate polarisation-preserving frequency conversion of single-photon-level light at 854 nm, resonant with a trapped-ion transition and qubit, to the 1550-nm telecom C band. A total photon in / fiber-coupled photon out efficiency of ˜30% is achieved, for a free-running photon noise rate of ˜60 Hz. This performance would enable telecom conversion of 854 nm polarisation qubits, produced in existing trapped-ion systems, with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1. In combination with near-future trapped-ion systems, our converter would enable the observation of entanglement between an ion and a photon that has travelled more than 100 km in optical fiber: three orders of magnitude further than the state-of-the-art.

  15. Ultra stable all-fiber telecom-band entangled photon-pair source for turnkey quantum communication applications.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chuang; Lee, Kim Fook; Levin, Todd; Chen, Jun; Kumar, Prem

    2006-07-24

    We demonstrate a novel alignment-free all-fiber source for generating telecom-band polarization-entangled photon pairs. Polarization entanglement is created by injecting two relatively delayed, orthogonally polarized pump pulses into a piece of dispersion-shifted fiber, where each one independently engages in four-photon scattering, and then removing any distinguishability between the correlated photon-pairs produced by each pulse at the fiber output. Our scheme uses a Michelson-interferometer configuration with Faraday mirrors to achieve practically desirable features such as ultra-stable performance and turnkey operation. Up to 91.7% two-photon-interference visibility is observed without subtracting the accidental coincidences that arise from background photons while operating the source at room temperature.

  16. Scanning nonreciprocity spatial four-wave mixing process in moving photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Yunzhe; Li, Mingyue; Ma, Danmeng; Guo, Ji; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the scanning nonreciprocity of four-wave mixing process induced by optical parametric amplification in moving photonic band gap, which is different from the propagation nonreciprocity in the optical diode. Meanwhile the frequency offset and the intensity difference are observed when we scan the frequency of the beams on two arm ramps of one round trip. Such scanning nonreciprocities can be controlled by changing the frequency detuning of the dressing beams. For the first time, we find that the intensity difference can cause the nonreciprocity in spatial image. In the nonreciprocity process, the focusing or defocusing is resulted from the feedback dressing self-phase modulation while shift and split is attributed to feedback dressing cross-phase modulation. Our study could have a potential application in the controllable optical diode.

  17. Multiwavelength L-band fiber laser with bismuth-oxide EDF and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzia Salem, A. M.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Hizam, H.; Mohd Noor, S. B.; Abu Bakar, M. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    A multiwavelength laser comb using a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber and 50 m photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated in a ring cavity configuration. The fiber laser is solely pumped by a single 1455 nm Raman pump laser to exploit its higher power delivery compared to that of a single-mode laser diode pump. At 264 mW Raman pump power and 1 mW Brillouin pump power, 38 output channels in the L-band have been realized with an optical signal-to-noise ratio above 15 dB and a Stokes line spacing of 0.08 nm. The laser exhibits a tuning range of 12 nm and produces stable Stokes lines across the tuning range between Brillouin pump wavelengths of 1603 nm and 1615 nm.

  18. Band warping, band non-parabolicity, and Dirac points in electronic and lattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resca, Lorenzo; Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-10-01

    We illustrate at a fundamental level the physical and mathematical origins of band warping and band non-parabolicity in electronic and vibrational structures. We point out a robust presence of pairs of topologically induced Dirac points in a primitive-rectangular lattice using a p-type tight-binding approximation. We analyze two-dimensional primitive-rectangular and square Bravais lattices with implications that are expected to generalize to more complex structures. Band warping is shown to arise at the onset of a singular transition to a crystal lattice with a larger symmetry group, which allows the possibility of irreducible representations of higher dimensions, hence band degeneracy, at special symmetry points in reciprocal space. Band warping is incompatible with a multi-dimensional Taylor series expansion, whereas band non-parabolicities are associated with multi-dimensional Taylor series expansions to all orders. Still band non-parabolicities may merge into band warping at the onset of a larger symmetry group. Remarkably, while still maintaining a clear connection with that merging, band non-parabolicities may produce pairs of conical intersections at relatively low-symmetry points. Apparently, such conical intersections are robustly maintained by global topology requirements, rather than any local symmetry protection. For two p-type tight-binding bands, we find such pairs of conical intersections drifting along the edges of restricted Brillouin zones of primitive-rectangular Bravais lattices as lattice constants vary relatively to each other, until these conical intersections merge into degenerate warped bands at high-symmetry points at the onset of a square lattice. The conical intersections that we found appear to have similar topological characteristics as Dirac points extensively studied in graphene and other topological insulators, even though our conical intersections have none of the symmetry complexity and protection afforded by the latter more

  19. Enhanced image resolution in photonic crystal structure by modification of the surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ashwini; Rani, Preeti; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, enhanced image resolution by modification in the two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structures has been proposed. The equal frequency contour (EFC) analysis have been done using plane wave expansion method which shows that the structure exhibits an effective isotropic refractive index, neff = -1 at a normalized frequency of ω = 0.2908(2πc/a) for TM polarization, located near the second band. At ω = 0.2908(2πc/a) for TM polarization, the considered PhC structure behaves as a superlens, as analyzed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The image resolution and stability of the photonic crystal slab lens has been enhanced by creating disorder in the top and bottom layer of the PhC structure. The intensity field distributions of the optimized structure exhibit the enhanced image quality with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.311 λ. The proposed structure can also be used to sense the different type of blood constituents.

  20. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette M.; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kinds of hollow core band gap fibers. The light source for this experiment consists of ytterbium-doped double clad fiber aeroGAIN-ROD-PM85 in a high power amplifier setup. It provided 22ps pulses with a maximum average power of 95W, 40MHz repetition rate at 1032nm (~2.4μJ pulse energy), with M2 <1.3. We determined the facet damage threshold for a 7-cells hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and showed up to 59W average power output for a 5 meters fiber. The damage threshold for a 19-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber exceeded the maximum power provided by the light source and up to 76W average output power was demonstrated for a 1m fiber. In both cases, no special attention was needed to mitigate bend sensitivity. The fibers were coiled on 8 centimeters radius spools and even lower bending radii were present. In addition, stimulated rotational Raman scattering arising from nitrogen molecules was measured through a 42m long 19 cell hollow core fiber.

  1. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV.

  2. Observation of nonlinear bands in near-field scanning optical microscopy of a photonic-crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Huisman, S. R.; Ctistis, G. Mosk, A. P.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Korterik, J. P.; Herek, J. L.

    2015-01-21

    We have measured the photonic bandstructure of GaAs photonic-crystal waveguides with high resolution in energy as well as in momentum using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Intriguingly, we observe additional bands that are not predicted by eigenmode solvers, as was recently demonstrated by Huisman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012)]. We study the presence of these additional bands by performing measurements of these bands while varying the incident light power, revealing a non-linear power dependence. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the observed additional bands are caused by a waveguide-specific near-field tip effect not previously reported, which can significantly phase-modulate the detected field.

  3. Formation of Deformation Band Structures Normal to the Shear Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasko, C. M.; Schultz, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    Recent fieldwork has shown that many of the geometric relationships previously observed in cataclastic deformation bands are based on a two dimensional view of a three dimensional structure. When the bands are viewed in the shear direction lenses and inosculating bands are seen, as first noted by Aydin [1978] and later by many others. When viewed normal to the shear direction "ladder structures" (linked mode II echelon stepovers or duplexes) and conjugate structures are seen [Davis, 1999]. Davis [1999] grouped these two geometries as different classes of deformation bands and many have interpreted the duplexes as strain localization in Riedel shear zones. Here we demonstrate an alternative explanation. When viewed normal to the shear direction, deformation bands display either mutually crosscutting ("conjugate") sets or contractional stepovers ("duplexes") between interacting mode-II bands. Our field observations reveal that the principal difference between the two is the relative distance separating the parallel echelon bands. Bands that are sufficiently close interact mechanically to promote linking bands within the stepovers. These linking bands are younger than the bounding echelon bands. Because the orientations of bands within the stepovers are the same as that of "conjugate" bands that are more widely spaced, we infer that the magnitude of stress within the stepovers was increased somewhat over background values, but that stress rotations within the stepovers were negligible. To accomplish this, the echelon deformation bands must be strong relative to the host rock and accommodate only small offsets, leading to only minor perturbations of the local stress state in their vicinity. Ladder structure, "radiator rock" [Davis, 1999], and linked echelon stepovers demonstrate a progression from distributed to more localized strain of the sandstone, with the scale dependent on the size and offset magnitude of individual bands. Occurrence of linked echelon stepovers

  4. Band structures in the nematic elastomers phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2017-02-01

    As one kind of new intelligent materials, nematic elastomers (NEs) represent an exciting physical system that combines the local orientational symmetry breaking and the entropic rubber elasticity, producing a number of unique physical phenomena. In this paper, the potential application of NEs in the band tuning is explored. The band structures in two kinds of NE phononic crystals (PCs) are investigated. Through changing NE intrinsic parameters, the influence of the porosity, director rotation and relaxation on the band structures in NE PCs are analyzed. This work is a meaningful try for application of NEs in acoustic field and proposes a new intelligent strategy in band turning.

  5. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  6. Multi-level diffractive optics for single laser exposure fabrication of telecom-band diamond-like 3-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Debashis; Abolghasemi, Ladan E; Haque, Moez; Ng, Mi Li; Herman, Peter R

    2008-09-29

    We present a novel multi-level diffractive optical element for diffractive optic near-field lithography based fabrication of large-area diamond-like photonic crystal structure in a single laser exposure step. A multi-level single-surface phase element was laser fabricated on a thin polymer film by two-photon polymerization. A quarter-period phase shift was designed into the phase elements to generate a 3D periodic intensity distribution of double basis diamond-like structure. Finite difference time domain calculation of near-field diffraction patterns and associated isointensity surfaces are corroborated by definitive demonstration of a diamond-like woodpile structure formed inside thick photoresist. A large number of layers provided a strong stopband in the telecom band that matched predictions of numerical band calculation. SEM and spectral observations indicate good structural uniformity over large exposure area that promises 3D photonic crystal devices with high optical quality for a wide range of motif shapes and symmetries. Optical sensing is demonstrated by spectral shifts of the Gamma-Zeta stopband under liquid emersion.

  7. Effect of temperature on terahertz photonic and omnidirectional band gaps in one-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals composed of semiconductor InSb.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bipin K; Pandey, Praveen C

    2016-07-20

    Engineering of thermally tunable terahertz photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps has been demonstrated theoretically in one-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals (PCs) containing semiconductor and dielectric materials. The considered quasi-periodic structures are taken in the form of Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and double periodic sequences. We have shown that the photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps in the quasi-periodic structures with semiconductor constituents are strongly depend on the temperature, thickness of the constituted semiconductor and dielectric material layers, and generations of the quasi-periodic sequences. It has been found that the number of photonic bandgaps increases with layer thickness and generation of the quasi-periodic sequences. Omnidirectional bandgaps in the structures have also been obtained. Results show that the bandwidths of photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps are tunable by changing the temperature and lattice parameters of the structures. The generation of quasi-periodic sequences can also change the properties of photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps remarkably. The frequency range of the photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps can be tuned by the change of temperature and layer thickness of the considered quasi-periodic structures. This work will be useful to design tunable terahertz PC devices.

  8. Band structures of cylindrical AlN/GaN quantum dots with fully coupled piezoelectric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick

    2010-08-01

    We study the coupled electro-mechanical effects in the band structure calculations of low dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (LDSNs) such as AlN/GaN quantum dots. Some effects in these systems are essentially nonlinear. Strain, piezoelectric effects, eigenvalues and wave functions of a quantum dot have been used as tuning parameters for the optical response of LDSNs in photonics, band gap engineering and other applications. However, with a few noticeable exceptions, the influence of piezoelectric effects in the electron wave functions in Quantum Dots (QDs) studied with fully coupled models has been largely neglected in the literature. In this paper, by using the fully coupled model of electroelasticity, we analyze the piezoelectric effects into the band structure of cylindrical quantum dots. Results are reported for III-V type semiconductors with a major focus given to AlN/GaN based QD systems.

  9. Junction-type photonic crystal waveguides for notch- and pass-band filtering.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Naeem; Amin, Muhammad; Naureen, Shagufta; Swillo, Marcin; Anand, Srinivasan

    2011-10-10

    Evolution of the mode gap and the associated transmission mini stop-band (MSB) as a function of photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide width is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The change of line-defect width is identified to be the most appropriate way since it offers a wide MSB wavelength tuning range. A high transmission narrow-band filter is experimentally demonstrated in a junction-type waveguide composed of two PhC waveguides with slightly different widths. The full width at half maximum is 5.6 nm; the peak transmission is attenuated by only ~5 dB and is ~20 dB above the MSBs. Additionally, temperature tuning of the filter were also performed. The results show red-shift of the transmission peak and the MSB edges with a gradient of dλ/dT = 0.1 nm/°C. It is proposed that the transmission MSBs in such junction-type cascaded PhC waveguides can be used to obtain different types of filters.

  10. Probing the graphite band structure with resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, J.A.; Shirley, E.L.; Hudson, E.A.

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation offers several advantages over surface sensitive spectroscopies for probing the electronic structure of complex multi-elemental materials. Due to the long mean free path of photons in solids ({approximately}1000 {angstrom}), SXF is a bulk-sensitive probe. Also, since core levels are involved in absorption and emission, SXF is both element- and angular-momentum-selective. SXF measures the local partial density of states (DOS) projected onto each constituent element of the material. The chief limitation of SXF has been the low fluorescence yield for photon emission, particularly for light elements. However, third generation light sources, such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), offer the high brightness that makes high-resolution SXF experiments practical. In the following the authors utilize this high brightness to demonstrate the capability of SXF to probe the band structure of a polycrystalline sample. In SXF, a valence emission spectrum results from transitions from valence band states to the core hole produced by the incident photons. In the non-resonant energy regime, the excitation energy is far above the core binding energy, and the absorption and emission events are uncoupled. The fluorescence spectrum resembles emission spectra acquired using energetic electrons, and is insensitive to the incident photon`s energy. In the resonant excitation energy regime, core electrons are excited by photons to unoccupied states just above the Fermi level (EF). The absorption and emission events are coupled, and this coupling manifests itself in several ways, depending in part on the localization of the empty electronic states in the material. Here the authors report spectral measurements from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  11. New Band Structures in Aapprox110 Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, S. J.; Wang, J. G.; Ding, H. B.; Gu, L.; Xu, Q.; Yeoh, E. Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Liu, S. H.; Li, K.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Lee, I. Y.; Qi, B.; Meng, J.

    2010-05-12

    The high spin states of neutron-rich nuclei in Aapprox110 region have been carefully investigated by measuring prompt gamma-gamma-gamma coincident measurements populated in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf with the Gammasphere detector array. Many new collective bands have been discovered. In this proceeding paper, we introduce some interesting new band structures recently observed by our cooperative groups, that is, the one-phonon- and two-phonon gamma-vibrational bands in odd-A {sup 103}Nb, {sup 105}Mo and {sup 107}Tc, the chiral doublet bands in even-even {sup 106}Mo, {sup 110}Ru and {sup 112}Ru, and the pseudospin partner bands with in {sup 108}Tc. The characteristics of these band structures have been discussed.

  12. Simultaneous multi-channel CMW-band and MMW-band UWB monocycle pulse generation using FWM effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Fu, Songnian; Xu, Kun; Li, Yan; Hong, Xiaobin; Shum, Ping; Lin, Jintong

    2010-07-19

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to simultaneously realize multi-channel centimeter wave (CMW) band and millimeter wave (MMW) band ultra-wideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation using four wave mixing (FWM) effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF). Two lightwaves carrying polarity-reversed optical Gaussian pulses with appropriate time delay and another lightwave carrying a 20 GHz clock signal are launched into the HNL-PCF together. By filtering out the FWM idlers, two CMW-band UWB monocycle signals and two MMW-band UWB monocycle signals at 20 GHz are obtained simultaneously. Experimental measurements of the generated UWB monocycle pulses at individual wavelength, which comply with the FCC regulations, verify the feasibility and flexibility of proposed scheme for use in practical UWB communication systems.

  13. A three-dimensional photonic crystal model: Hollow-spherical non-closed-packed face-centered cubic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Bo; Cao, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Yong-Zheng; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chi, Yuan-Bin

    2006-05-01

    We report a photonic crystal model, which consists of hollow spheres located at face-centered cubic lattice sites and each sphere connected to all of its 12 nearest neighbors by cylindrical rods. Theoretical calculations show that this kind of structure exhibits two large complete photonic band gaps. The maximum relative gap sizes reach 17.3% between the eighth and ninth bands, and 15.1% between the 13th and 14th bands for a dielectric contrast of 11.9, and the minimal dielectric contrasts needed to open the two gaps are 5.8 and 7.3, respectively, which are lower than that of other face-centered cubic photonic crystal structures.

  14. Engineered band structure for an enhanced performance on quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Bin Bin; Wang, Ye Feng; Wei, Dong; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Jing Hui; Cui, Bin

    2016-06-20

    A photon-to-current efficiency of 2.93% is received for the Mn-doped CdS (MCdS)-quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using Mn:ZnO (MZnO) nanowire as photoanode. Hydrothermal synthesized MZnO are spin-coated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with P25 paste to serve as photoanode after calcinations. MCdS was deposited on the MZnO film by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The long lived excitation energy state of Mn{sup 2+} is located inside the conduction band in the wide bandgap ZnO and under the conduction band of CdS, which increases the energetic overlap of donor and acceptor states, reducing the “loss-in-potential,” inhibiting charge recombination, and accelerating electron injection. The engineered band structure is well reflected by the electrochemical band detected using cyclic voltammetry. Cell performances are evidenced by current density-voltage (J-V) traces, diffuse reflectance spectra, transient PL spectroscopy, and incident photon to current conversion efficiency characterizations. Further coating of CdSe on MZnO/MCdS electrode expands the light absorption band of the sensitizer, an efficiency of 4.94% is received for QDSSCs.

  15. Engineered band structure for an enhanced performance on quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bin Bin; Wang, Ye Feng; Wei, Dong; Cui, Bin; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2016-06-01

    A photon-to-current efficiency of 2.93% is received for the Mn-doped CdS (MCdS)-quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using Mn:ZnO (MZnO) nanowire as photoanode. Hydrothermal synthesized MZnO are spin-coated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with P25 paste to serve as photoanode after calcinations. MCdS was deposited on the MZnO film by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The long lived excitation energy state of Mn2+ is located inside the conduction band in the wide bandgap ZnO and under the conduction band of CdS, which increases the energetic overlap of donor and acceptor states, reducing the "loss-in-potential," inhibiting charge recombination, and accelerating electron injection. The engineered band structure is well reflected by the electrochemical band detected using cyclic voltammetry. Cell performances are evidenced by current density-voltage (J-V) traces, diffuse reflectance spectra, transient PL spectroscopy, and incident photon to current conversion efficiency characterizations. Further coating of CdSe on MZnO/MCdS electrode expands the light absorption band of the sensitizer, an efficiency of 4.94% is received for QDSSCs.

  16. Universality of Mallmann correlations for nuclear band structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.; Căta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.

    2008-10-01

    It is shown that the Mallmann's energy ratio correlations, for the first time observed for the ground state band of the even-even nuclei, are universal: various band structures in all collective nuclei obey the same systematics, and consequently the same spin dependence. Based on a second order anharmonic vibrator description, parameter-free recurrence relations between Mallmann-type energy ratios are deduced, which can be used to extrapolate bands to higher spin.

  17. Electronic Band Structure and Sub-band-gap Absorption of Nitrogen Hyperdoped Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Shao, Hezhu; Dong, Xiao; Li, Ning; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the atomic geometry, electronic band structure, and optical absorption of nitrogen hyperdoped silicon based on first-principles calculations. The results show that all the paired nitrogen defects we studied do not introduce intermediate band, while most of single nitrogen defects can introduce intermediate band in the gap. Considering the stability of the single defects and the rapid resolidification following the laser melting process in our sample preparation method, we conclude that the substitutional nitrogen defect, whose fraction was tiny and could be neglected before, should have considerable fraction in the hyperdoped silicon and results in the visible sub-band-gap absorption as observed in the experiment. Furthermore, our calculations show that the substitutional nitrogen defect has good stability, which could be one of the reasons why the sub-band-gap absorptance remains almost unchanged after annealing. PMID:26012369

  18. Electronic Band Structure and Sub-band-gap Absorption of Nitrogen Hyperdoped Silicon.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Shao, Hezhu; Dong, Xiao; Li, Ning; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-05-27

    We investigated the atomic geometry, electronic band structure, and optical absorption of nitrogen hyperdoped silicon based on first-principles calculations. The results show that all the paired nitrogen defects we studied do not introduce intermediate band, while most of single nitrogen defects can introduce intermediate band in the gap. Considering the stability of the single defects and the rapid resolidification following the laser melting process in our sample preparation method, we conclude that the substitutional nitrogen defect, whose fraction was tiny and could be neglected before, should have considerable fraction in the hyperdoped silicon and results in the visible sub-band-gap absorption as observed in the experiment. Furthermore, our calculations show that the substitutional nitrogen defect has good stability, which could be one of the reasons why the sub-band-gap absorptance remains almost unchanged after annealing.

  19. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): A Wavelength-Tunable Fiber-Coupled Narrow-Band Twin-Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Fa; Liu, Bi-Heng; Fang, Bin; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2009-07-01

    We present a wavelength-tunable narrow-band fiber-coupled source to generate correlated photon pairs at 539nm and 1550nm. Using a 10-mm PPLN crystal, we obtain more than 50mm tunable range near 1550nm. This source, given its spectral property and tunable property, is well suited for tasks in fiber-optic quantum communication and cryptography networks.

  20. Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-10-26

    The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers.

  1. Anisotropic and omnidirectional focusing in Luneburg lens structure with gradient photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    We propose a flexible design for implementation of the Luneburg lens with gradient photonic crystals. The full-wave simulation results demonstrate the excellent performance of omnidirectional focusing of the designed Luneburg lens over a broad frequency band, and firstly exhibit anisotropic focusing in the designed Luneburg lens with a specific frequency band. In this study, our effort is focused on figuring out the operating wavelength range where the effective medium approximation theory is applicable, and the mechanism for generating anisotropic and omnidirectional focusing in Luneburg lens structure.

  2. Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor M.

    2007-02-12

    The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements.

  3. Transport in bilayer and trilayer graphene: band gap engineering and band structure tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Controlling the stacking order of atomically thin 2D materials offers a powerful tool to control their properties. Linearly dispersed bands become hyperbolic in Bernal (AB) stacked bilayer graphene (BLG). Both Bernal (ABA) and rhombohedral (ABC) stacking occur in trilayer graphene (TLG), producing distinct band structures and electronic properties. A symmetry-breaking electric field perpendicular to the sample plane can further modify the band structures of BLG and TLG. In this talk, I will describe our experimental effort in these directions using dual-gated devices. Using thin HfO2 film deposited by ALD as gate dielectric, we are able to apply large displacement fields D > 6 V/nm and observe the opening and saturation of the field-induced band gap Eg in bilayer and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene, where the conduction in the mid gap changes by more than six decades. Its field and temperature dependence highlights the crucial role played by Coulomb disorder in facilitating hopping conduction and suppressing the effect of Eg in the tens of meV regime. In contrast, mid-gap conduction decreases with increasing D much more rapidly in clean h-BN dual-gated devices. Our studies also show the evolution of the band structure in ABA-stacked TLG, in particular the splitting of the Dirac-like bands in large D field and the signatures of two-band transport at high carrier densities. Comparison to theory reveals the need for more sophisticated treatment of electronic screening beyond self-consistent Hartree calculations to accurately predict the band structures of trilayer graphene and graphenic materials in general.

  4. Optical extinction due to intrinsic structural variations of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, A. Femius; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-10-01

    Unavoidable variations in size and position of the building blocks of photonic crystals cause light scattering and extinction of coherent beams. We present a model for both two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals that relates the extinction length to the magnitude of the variations. The predicted lengths agree well with our experiments on high-quality opals and inverse opals, and with literature data analyzed by us. As a result, control over photons is limited to distances up to 50 lattice parameters (˜15 μm) in state-of-the-art structures, thereby impeding applications that require large photonic crystals, such as proposed optical integrated circuits. Conversely, scattering in photonic crystals may lead to different physics such as Anderson localization and nonclassical diffusion.

  5. Band structure in Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Tomaras, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    We show how Yang-Mills theory on S3 × ℝ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different θ sectors coexist and are only mixed by (non-local) volume operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that B + L violation at LHC is unsuppressed.

  6. Unfolding the band structure of GaAsBi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maspero, R.; Sweeney, S. J.; Florescu, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Typical supercell approaches used to investigate the electronic properties of GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) produce highly accurate, but folded, band structures. Using a highly optimized algorithm, we unfold the band structure to an approximate E≤ft(\\mathbf{k}\\right) relation associated with an effective Brillouin zone. The dispersion relations we generate correlate strongly with experimental results, confirming that a regime of band gap energy greater than the spin-orbit-splitting energy is reached at around 10% bismuth fraction. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the unfolding algorithm throughout the Brillouin zone (BZ), which is key to enabling transition rate calculations, such as Auger recombination rates. Finally, we show the effect of disorder on the effective masses and identify approximate values for the effective mass of the conduction band and valence bands for bismuth concentrations from 0-12%.

  7. Atom-atom interactions around the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Jonathan D.; Goban, Akihisa; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Lu, Mingwu; Yu, Su-Peng; Chang, Darrick E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    Tailoring the interactions between quantum emitters and single photons constitutes one of the cornerstones of quantum optics. Coupling a quantum emitter to the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) provides a unique platform for tuning these interactions. In particular, the cross-over from propagating fields E(x)e±ikxxE(x)∝e±ikxx outside the bandgap to localized fields E(x)e-κx|x|E(x)∝e-κx|x| within the bandgap should be accompanied by a transition from largely dissipative atom-atom interactions to a regime where dispersive atom-atom interactions are dominant. Here, we experimentally observe this transition by shifting the band edge frequency of the PCW relative to the D1D1 line of atomic cesium for N¯=3.0±0.5

  8. True-time-delay photonic beamformer for an L-band phased array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuda, Henry; Toughlian, Edward N.; Payson, Paul M.; Malowicki, John E.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of obtaining a true-time-delay photonic beamformer has recently been a topic of great interest. Many interesting and novel approaches to this problem have been studied. This paper examines the design, construction, and testing of a dynamic optical processor for the control of a 20-element phased array antenna operating at L-band (1.2-1.4 GHz). The approach taken here has several distinct advantages. The actual optical control is accomplished with a class of spatial light modulator known as a segmented mirror device (SMD). This allows for the possibility of controlling an extremely large number (tens of thousands) of antenna elements using integrated circuit technology. The SMD technology is driven by the HDTV and laser printer markets so ultimate cost reduction as well as technological improvements are expected. Optical splitting is efficiently accomplished using a diffractive optical element. This again has the potential for use in antenna array systems with a large number of radiating elements. The actual time delay is achieved using a single acousto-optic device for all the array elements. Acousto-optic device technologies offer sufficient delay as needed for a time steered array. The topological configuration is an optical heterodyne system, hence high, potentially millimeter wave center frequencies are possible by mixing two lasers of slightly differing frequencies. Finally, the entire system is spatially integrated into a 3D glass substrate. The integrated system provides the ruggedness needed in most applications and essentially eliminates the drift problems associated with free space optical systems. Though the system is presently being configured as a beamformer, it has the ability to operate as a general photonic signal processing element in an adaptive (reconfigurable) transversal frequency filter configuration. Such systems are widely applicable in jammer/noise canceling systems, broadband ISDN, and for spread spectrum secure communications

  9. Study on the anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals containing the epsilon-negative materials and uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the properties of anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) composed of the anisotropic positive-index materials (the uniaxial materials) and the epsilon-negative (ENG) materials with body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattices are theoretically studied by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, which are the uniaxial materials spheres inserted in the epsilon-negative materials background. The anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) and one flatbands region can be achieved in first irreducible Brillouin zone. The influences of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, the electronic plasma frequency, the dielectric constant of ENG materials and the damping factor on the properties of anisotropic PBGs for such 3D PCs are studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in such 3D PCs with bcc lattices composed of the ENG materials and uniaxial materials, and the complete PBGs can be obtained compared to the conventional 3D PCs containing the isotropic materials. The calculated results also show that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above except for the damping factor. Introducing the uniaxial materials into 3D PCs containing the ENG materials can obtain the larger complete PBGs as such 3D PCs with high symmetry, and also provides a way to design the tunable devices.

  10. Various photonic crystal structures fabricated by using a top-cut hexagonal prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Tao, X. M.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate a holographic approach for the fabrication of large-area photonic crystal (PhC) microstructures by applying a single top-cut hexagonal prism (TCHP). The interference patterns of the beams from the TCHP are calculated. Various two-dimensional PhC structures are fabricated in photo-resist films. They include symmetrical hexagonal structures, the honey-comb structure and the hexagonal structure with skewed elliptical rods. The first structures come from six-beam and symmetrical three-beam interfering. The second structure appears when the beam is incident on the TCHP obliquely. The third structure is obtained when adjacent three beams or four beams are interfered. The period can be decreased to 285 nm. SPM observations of the PhCs provide the basis for measurement of their structural parameters. A good agreement is obtained for the measured structural parameters and calculated results for the PhCs. The photonic band gaps of the hexagonal symmetrical and honeycomb structures are derived by using the plane wave method. These results reveal that, by varying the number of split beams and the incident angle, using the single TCHP PhCs, different band gaps can be achieved.

  11. Locally resonant periodic structures with low-frequency band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhibao; Shi, Zhifei; Mo, Y. L.; Xiang, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this paper are study results of dispersion relationships of periodic structures composited of concrete and rubber, from which the frequency band gap can be found. Two models with fixed or free boundary conditions are proposed to approximate the bound frequencies of the first band gap. Studies are conducted to investigate the low-frequency and directional frequency band gaps for their application to engineering. The study finds that civil engineering structures can be designed to block harmful waves, such as earthquake disturbance.

  12. Calculation of 2D electronic band structure using matrix mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelich, R. L.; Marsiglio, F.

    2016-12-01

    We extend previous work, applying elementary matrix mechanics to one-dimensional periodic arrays (to generate energy bands), to two-dimensional arrays. We generate band structures for the square-lattice "2D Kronig-Penney model" (square wells), the "muffin-tin" potential (circular wells), and Gaussian wells. We then apply the method to periodic arrays of more than one atomic site in a unit cell, specifically to the case of materials with hexagonal lattices like graphene. These straightforward extensions of undergraduate-level calculations allow students to readily determine band structures of current research interest.

  13. Active Narrow-Band Vibration Isolation of Large Engineering Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zahidul; Spanos, John

    1994-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control method using a variant of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm to isolate slowly changing periodic disturbances from engineering structures. The advantage of the algorithm is that it has a simple architecture and is relatively easy to implement while it can isolate disturbances on the order of 40-50 dB over decades of frequency band. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on a flexible truss structure. The average disturbance rejection achieved is over 40 dB over the frequency band of 5 Hz to 50 Hz.

  14. Active Narrow-Band Vibration Isolation of Large Engineering Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zahidul; Spanos, John

    1994-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control method using a variant of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm to isolate slowly changing periodic disturbances from engineering structures. The advantage of the algorithm is that it has a simple architecture and is relatively easy to implement while it can isolate disturbances on the order of 40-50 dB over decades of frequency band. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on a flexible truss structure. The average disturbance rejection achieved is over 40 dB over the frequency band of 5 Hz to 50 Hz.

  15. Banded Electron Structure Formation in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    1997-01-01

    Banded electron structures in energy-time spectrograms have been observed in the inner magnetosphere concurrent with a sudden relaxation of geomagnetic activity. In this study, the formation of these banded structures is considered with a global, bounce-averaged model of electron transport, and it is concluded that this structure is a natural occurrence when plasma sheet electrons are captured on closed drift paths near the Earth. These bands do not appear unless there is capture of plasma sheet electrons; convection along open drift paths making open pass around the Earth do not have time to develop this feature. The separation of high-energy bands from the injection population due to the preferential advection of the gradient-curvature drift creates spikes in the energy distribution, which overlap to form a series of bands in the energy spectrograms. The lowest band is the bulk of the injected population in the sub-key energy range. Using the Kp history for an observed banded structure event, a cloud of plasma sheet electrons is captured and the development of their distribution function is examined and discussed.

  16. The effect of disorder of small spheres on the photonic properties of the inverse binary NaCl-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattabhiraman, Harini; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-09-01

    Inverse opal structures are experimentally realisable photonic band gap materials. They suffer from the drawback of possessing band gaps that are extremely susceptible to structural disorders. A binary colloidal NaCl lattice, which is also experimentally realisable, is a promising alternative to these opals. In this work, we systematically analyse the effect of structural disorder of the small spheres on the photonic properties of an inverse binary NaCl lattice with a size ratio of 0.30 between the small and large spheres. The types of structural disorders studied include the position of the small spheres in the octahedral void of the large spheres, polydispersity in size of the small spheres, and the fraction of small spheres in the crystal. We find a low susceptibility of the band gap of the inverse NaCl lattice to the disorder of the small spheres.

  17. Propagation of the Ultra-Short Laser Pulses Through the Helical 1D Photonic Crystal Structure with Twist Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Dmitrii V.; Iegorov, Roman

    2016-02-01

    The presence of the photonic band-gap is a featured property of the cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC). It can be practically realized for almost any reasonable wavelengths with very high degree of tunability. We have investigated theoretically the influence of the twist defect of the CLC helical structure onto the bandwidth-limited ultra-short laser pulse propagating inside the photonic band-gap. The changes of both pulse duration and peak power with defect angle were observed together with pulse acceleration and retardation for a case of normal incidence of the light.

  18. Three-dimensional nature of the band structure of ZrTe5 measured by high-momentum-resolution photoemission spectroscopy [3D nature ZrTe5 band structure measured by high-momentum-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, H.; Sobota, J. A.; Yang, S. -L.; ...

    2017-05-10

    Here, we have performed a systematic high-momentum-resolution photoemission study on ZrTe5 using 6-eV photon energy. We have measured the band structure near the Γ point, and quantified the gap between the conduction and valence band as 18 ≤ Δ ≤ 29 meV. We have also observed photon-energy-dependent behavior attributed to final-state effects and the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the material's band structure. Our interpretation indicates the gap is intrinsic and reconciles discrepancies on the existence of a topological surface state reported by different studies. The existence of a gap suggests that ZrTe5 is not a 3D strong topological insulator normore » a 3D Dirac semimetal. Therefore, our experiment is consistent with ZrTe5 being a 3D weak topological insulator.« less

  19. Multi-beam-interference-based methodology for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stay, Justin L.

    lithographically useful interference patterns (meaning high contrast and localized intensity extrema). By understanding the richness of possibilities within MBIL, a number of useful interference patterns are found that can be created in a straightforward manner. These patterns can be both lithographically useful and structurally useful (providing interference contours that can define wide-bandgap photonic crystals). Included within this investigation are theoretical calculations of band structures for photonic crystals that are fabricatable through MBIL. The resulting calculations show that not only do most MBIL-defined structures exhibit similar performance characteristics compared to conventionally designed photonic crystal structures, but in some cases MBIL-defined structures show a significant increase in bandgap size. Using the results from this analysis, a number of hexagonal photonic crystals are fabricated using a variety of process conditions. It is shown that both rod- and hole-type photonic crystal structures can be fabricated using processes based on both positive and negative photoresist. The "light-field" and "dark-field" interference patterns used to define the hexagonal photonic crystal structures are quickly interchanged by the proper adjustment of each beam's intensity and polarization. The resulting structures, including a large area (˜1 cm2, 1 x 109 lattice points) photonic crystal are imaged using a scanning electron microscope. Multi-beam-interference lithography provides an enabling initial step for the wafer-scale, cost-effective integration of the impressive PC-based devices into manufacturable DIPCS. While multi-beam-interference lithography represents a promising methodology for the fabrication of PC structures, it lacks in the ability to produce PC-based integrated photonic circuits. Future research will target the lack of a large-scale, cost-effective fabrication methodology for photonic crystal devices. By utilizing diffractive elements, a photomask

  20. Application of Novel High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method to Photonic Band-Gap Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Rieben, R; White, D; Rodrigue, G

    2004-01-13

    In this paper we motivate the use of a novel high order time domain vector finite element method that is of arbitrary order accuracy in space and up to 5th order accurate in time; and in particular, we apply it to the case of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. Such structures have been extensively studied in the literature with several practical applications; in particular, for the low loss transmission of electromagnetic energy around sharp 90 degree bends [1]. Typically, such structures are simulated via a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations either in the frequency domain or directly in the time domain over a computational grid. The majority of numerical simulations performed for such structures make use of the widely popular finite difference time domain (FDTD) method [2], where the time dependent electric and magnetic fields are discretized over a ''dual'' grid to second order accuracy in space and time. However, such methods do not generalize to unstructured, non-orthogonal grids or to higher order spatial discretization schemes. To simulate more complicated structures with curved boundaries, such as the structure of [3], a cell based finite element method with curvilinear elements is preferred over standard stair-stepped Cartesian meshes; and to more efficiently reduce the effects of numerical dispersion, a higher order method is highly desirable. In this paper, the high order basis functions of [5] are used in conjunction with the high order energy conserving symplectic time integration algorithms of [6] resulting in a high order, fully mimetic, mixed vector finite element method.

  1. Progress in the research and development of photonic structure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Pham, Van Dai; Cham Tran, Thi; Trang Hoang, Thu; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the results of the research and development of photonic structure devices performed in the Institute of Materials Science in the period from 2010-2015. We have developed a configuration of 1D photonic crystal (PC) microcavities based on porous silicon (PS) layers and applied them to optical sensing devices that can be used for the determination of organic content with a very low concentration in different liquid environments. Various important scientific and technological applications of photonic devices such as the ultralow power operation of microcavity lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emissions and the manipulation of light amplification by combining the surface plasmonic effect and the microcavity are expected. We developed new kinds of photonic structures for optical filters based on guided-mode resonances in coupled slab waveguide gratings, which have great potential for application in fiber-optic communication and optical sensors.

  2. Birefringence property of asymmetric structure photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingsheng; Yue, Yingjuan; Li, Yan

    2010-12-01

    The random offset of hole-position or random variation of hole-diameter always occur during the actual manufacture process of asymmetric structure photonic crystal fibers. Birefringence of asymmetric photonic crystal fibers with circular air holes and photonic crystal fibers with elliptical air holes are studied numerically based on the finite element method under the perturbation circumstance. The results indicate that when the intrinsic-birefringence of asymmetric photonic crystal fiber is smaller, the random offset of hole-position has larger influence than the variation of hole-diameter. Birefringence resulted from perturbation is less sensitive to asymmetric structures with large pitch or small air-hole. Moreover, the desired birefringence can be obtained by controlling the relative size of the two air holes or the ellipticity of the elliptical-hole.

  3. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-02-09

    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  4. Bringing some photonic structures for solar cells to the fore.

    PubMed

    Escoubas, Ludovic; Simon, Jean-Jacques; Torchio, Philippe; Duché, David; Vedraine, Sylvain; Vervisch, Wilfried; Le Rouzo, Judikaël; Flory, François; Rivière, Guillaume; Yeabiyo, Gizachew; Derbal, Hassina

    2011-03-20

    A review on the use of photonic structures enabling a better absorption of solar radiation within solar cells is proposed. Specific geometric configurations, such as folded solar cells or fiber-based architectures, are shown to be promising solutions to reach better light absorption. Electromagnetic optimization of thin-film solar cells and the use of angular thin-film filters, proposed by several research groups, also provide solutions to better concentrate solar radiation within the active layers of solar cells. Finally, results on "photonized" solar cells comprising gratings or more advanced photonic components, such as photonic crystals or plasmonic structures, and their effects on light-matter interaction in solar cells are highlighted.

  5. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-20

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ~ 7 eV) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν >/~ 400 eV) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of CeMIn5(M = Rh, Ir, and Co) and YbRh2Si2 with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant U5f compounds such as UFeGa5, their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all U5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized U5f compounds such as UPd3 and UO2 are essentially explained by the localized model that treats U5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion U-based compounds such as the hidden-order compound URu2Si2, their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures are generally well-explained by the band-structure calculation, whereas the states in the vicinity of EF show some deviations due to electron correlation effects. Furthermore, the electronic structures of URu2Si2 in the paramagnetic and hidden-order phases are

  6. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ∼ 7~\\text{eV} ) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν ≳ 400~\\text{eV} ) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of \\text{Ce}M\\text{I}{{\\text{n}}5} (M=\\text{Rh} , \\text{Ir} , and \\text{Co} ) and \\text{YbR}{{\\text{h}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UFeG}{{\\text{a}}5} , their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all \\text{U}~5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UP}{{\\text{d}}3} and \\text{U}{{\\text{O}}2} are essentially explained by the localized model that treats \\text{U}~5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion \\text{U} -based compounds such as the hidden-order compound \\text{UR}{{\\text{u}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} , their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures

  7. Tamm plasmon polaritons in composite structures composed of the metal film and truncated photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guiqiang; Cui, Liyong; Zhang, Liwei; Jiang, Haitao

    2012-12-01

    Tamm plasmon polaritons (TPPs) are studied theoretically and experimentally in heterostructures and sandwiched structures with the metallic film and truncated photonic crystals. Different from conventional surface plasmon polaritons, TPPs can be realized in both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and they can be excited from a free space. Because of nonreciprocal electromagnetic field distributions of TPPs, the structures possess strongly nonreciprocal absorption and reflection. Moreover, two tunneling peaks or a narrow transmission band can be realized in sandwiched structures for both polarizations due to the coupling effect between two TPPs.

  8. Automated effective band structures for defective and mismatched supercells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Peter; Quigley, David

    2014-12-01

    In plane-wave density functional theory codes, defects and incommensurate structures are usually represented in supercells. However, interpretation of E versus k band structures is most effective within the primitive cell, where comparison to ideal structures and spectroscopy experiments are most natural. Popescu and Zunger recently described a method to derive effective band structures (EBS) from supercell calculations in the context of random alloys. In this paper, we present bs_sc2pc, an implementation of this method in the CASTEP code, which generates an EBS using the structural data of the supercell and the underlying primitive cell with symmetry considerations handled automatically. We demonstrate the functionality of our implementation in three test cases illustrating the efficacy of this scheme for capturing the effect of vacancies, substitutions and lattice mismatch on effective primitive cell band structures.

  9. Automated effective band structures for defective and mismatched supercells.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Peter; Quigley, David

    2014-12-03

    In plane-wave density functional theory codes, defects and incommensurate structures are usually represented in supercells. However, interpretation of E versus k band structures is most effective within the primitive cell, where comparison to ideal structures and spectroscopy experiments are most natural. Popescu and Zunger recently described a method to derive effective band structures (EBS) from supercell calculations in the context of random alloys. In this paper, we present bs_sc2pc, an implementation of this method in the CASTEP code, which generates an EBS using the structural data of the supercell and the underlying primitive cell with symmetry considerations handled automatically. We demonstrate the functionality of our implementation in three test cases illustrating the efficacy of this scheme for capturing the effect of vacancies, substitutions and lattice mismatch on effective primitive cell band structures.

  10. Deformed band structures at high spin in 200Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Das Gupta, S.; Pai, H.; Mukherjee, G.; Palit, R.; Xu, F. R.; Wu, Q.; Shrivastava, A.; Asgar, Md. A.; Banik, R.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Chanda, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Goswami, A.; Nanal, V.; Pandit, S. K.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Roy, T.; Thakur, S.

    2017-01-01

    High-spin band structures of 200Tl have been studied by γ -ray spectroscopic methods using the 198Pt(7Li,5 n )200Tl reaction at 45 MeV of beam energy. The level scheme of 200Tl has been extended significantly and several new band structures have been established with the observation of 60 new transitions. The π h9 /2⊗ν i13 /2 oblate band has been extended beyond the particle alignment frequencies. The band structures and the other excited states have been compared with the neighboring odd-odd Tl isotopes. Total Routhian surface calculations have been performed to study the deformation and shape changes as a function of spin in this nucleus. These calculations could reproduce the particle alignment frequency and suggest that the neutron pair alignment in ν i13 /2 orbital induces γ softness in 200Tl.

  11. Electronic band structure of surface-doped black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jimin; Ryu, Sae Hee; Sohn, Yeongsup; Kim, Keun Su

    2015-03-01

    There are rapidly growing interests in the study of few-layer black phosphorus owing to its promising device characteristics that may impact our future electronics technology. The low-energy band structure of black phosphorus has been widely predicted to be controllable by external perturbations, such as strain and doping. In this work, we attempt to control the electronic band structure of black phosphorous by in-situ surface deposition of alkali-metal atoms. We found that surface doping induces steep band bending towards the bulk, leading to the emergence of new 2D electronic states that are confined within only few phosphorene layers of black phosphorus. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we directly measured the electronic band structure and its evolution as a function of dopant density. Supported by IBS.

  12. Band-structure engineering in conjugated 2D polymers.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico

    2016-10-26

    Conjugated polymers find widespread application in (opto)electronic devices, sensing, and as catalysts. Their common one-dimensional structure can be extended into the second dimension to create conjugated planar sheets of covalently linked molecules. Extending π-conjugation into the second dimension unlocks a new class of semiconductive polymers which as a consequence of their unique electronic properties can find usability in numerous applications. In this article the theoretical band structures of a set of conjugated 2D polymers are compared and information on the important characteristics band gap and valence/conduction band dispersion is extracted. The great variance in these characteristics within the investigated set suggests 2D polymers as exciting materials in which band-structure engineering can be used to tailor sheet-like organic materials with desired electronic properties.

  13. Photon Bubbles and the Vertical Structure of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2006-06-01

    We consider the effects of ``photon bubble'' shock trains on the vertical structure of radiation pressure-dominated accretion disks. These density inhomogeneities are expected to develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated accretion disks where magnetic pressure exceeds gas pressure, even in the presence of magnetorotational instability (MRI). They increase the rate at which radiation escapes from the disk and may allow disks to exceed the Eddington limit by a substantial factor without blowing themselves apart. To refine our earlier analysis of photon bubble transport in accretion disks, we generalize the theory of photon bubbles to include the effects of finite optical depths and radiation damping. Modifications to the diffusion law at low τ tend to ``fill in'' the low-density regions of photon bubbles, while radiation damping inhibits the formation of photon bubbles at large radii, small accretion rates, and small heights above the equatorial plane. Accretion disks dominated by photon bubble transport may reach luminosities from 10 to >100 times the Eddington limit (LEdd), depending on the mass of the central object, while remaining geometrically thin. However, photon bubble-dominated disks with α-viscosity are subject to the same thermal and viscous instabilities that plague standard radiation pressure-dominated disks, suggesting that they may be intrinsically unsteady. Photon bubbles can lead to a ``core-halo'' vertical disk structure. In super-Eddington disks the halo forms the base of a wind, which carries away substantial energy and mass, but not enough to prevent the luminosity from exceeding LEdd. Photon bubble-dominated disks may have smaller color corrections than standard accretion disks of the same luminosity. They remain viable contenders for some ultraluminous X-ray sources and may play a role in the rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift.

  14. High efficiency single transverse mode photonic band crystal lasers with low vertical divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shaoyu; Qu, Hongwei; Liu, Yun; Li, Lunhua; Chen, Yang; Zhou, Xuyan; Lin, Yuzhe; Liu, Anjin; Qi, Aiyi; Zheng, Wanhua

    2016-10-01

    High efficiency 980 nm longitudinal photonic band crystal (PBC) edge emitting laser diodes are designed and fabricated. The calculated results show that eight periods of Al0.1Ga0.9As and Al0.25Ga0.75As layer pairs can reduce the vertical far field divergence to 10.6° full width at half maximum (FWHM). The broad area (BA) lasers show a very high internal quantum efficiency ηi of 98% and low internal loss αi of 1.92 cm-1. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 3 mm cavity length and 5um strip width provide 430 mW stable single transverse mode output at 500 mA injection current with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 47% under continuous wave (CW) mode. A maximum PCE of 50% is obtained at the 300 mA injection current. A very low vertical far field divergence of 9.4° is obtained at 100 mA injection. At 500 mA injection, the vertical far field divergence increases to 11°, the beam quality factors M2 values are 1.707 in vertical direction and 1.769 in lateral direction.

  15. Topologically evolved photonic crystals: breaking the world record in band gap size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Osama R.; El-Beltagy, Mohammed A.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2012-04-01

    Using topology optimization, a photonic crystal (PtC) unit cell can be designed to exhibit favorable electromagnetic wave propagation properties. Among these is the opening of a band gap (BG) with the largest possible ratio of width to midgap frequency. In this paper the aim is to maximize the relative size of the first and fourth relative BGs of two-dimensional (2D) PtCs with a square lattice configuration. In addition, we examine the effects of the degree of unit cell symmetry on the relative BG size and on the geometric traits of the optimized topologies. We use a specialized genetic algorithm (GA) for our search. The results show that the type of symmetry constraint imposed has a significant, and rather subtle, effect on the unit cell topology and BG size of the emerging optimal designs. In pursuit of record values of BG size, we report two low-symmetry unit cells as an outcome of our search efforts to date: one with a relative BG size of 46% for TE waves and the other with a relative BG size of 47% for TM waves.

  16. Coherent all-optical switching by resonant quantum-dot distributions in photonic band-gap waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujic, Dragan; John, Sajeev

    2007-12-01

    We study the detailed propagative characteristics of optical pulses in photonic band-gap (PBG) waveguides, coupled near resonantly to inhomogeneously broadened distributions of quantum dots. The line centers of the quantum-dot (QD) distributions are placed near a sharp discontinuity in the local electromagnetic density of states. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of optical pulse dynamics and independent QD susceptibilities associated with resonance fluorescence, we demonstrate subpicosecond switching from pulse absorption to pulse amplification using steady-state optical holding and gate fields with power levels on the order of 1 milliwatt. In the case of collective response of QDs within the periodic dielectric microstructure, the gate power level is reduced to 200 microwatt for room temperature operation. In principle, this enables 200 Gbits per second optical information processing at wavelengths near 1.5 microns in various wavelength channels. The allowed pulse bandwidth in a given waveguide channel exceeds 0.5 THz allowing switching of subpicosecond laser pulses without pulse distortion. The switching contrast from absorption to gain is governed by the QD oscillator strength and dipole dephasing time scale. We consider dephasing time scales ranging from nanoseconds (low-temperature operation) to one picosecond (room-temperature operation). This all-optical transistor action is based on simple Markovian models of single-dot and collective-dot inversion and switching by coherent resonant pumping near the photon density of states discontinuity. The structured electromagnetic vacuum is provided by two-mode waveguide architectures in which one waveguide mode has a cutoff that occurs, with very large Purcell factor, near the QDs resonance, while the other waveguide mode exhibits nearly linear dispersion for fast optical propagation and modulation. Unlike optical switching based on Kerr nonlinearities in an optical cavity resonator, switching

  17. Development of X-Band Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S. H.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Kinkead, A. K.

    2010-11-04

    This paper presents a progress report on the development and testing of X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structures. Recent tests on several quartz DLA structures with different inner diameters are reported. Designs for gap-free DLA structures are presented. Also, planned new experiments are discussed, including higher gradient traveling-wave and standing-wave structures and special grooved structures for multipactor suppression.

  18. Photonic polymer-blend structures and method for making

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Michael D.

    2004-06-29

    The present invention comprises the formation of photonic polymer-blend structures having tunable optical and mechanical properties. The photonic polymer-blend structures comprise monomer units of spherical microparticles of a polymer-blend material wherein the spherical microparticles have surfaces partially merged with one another in a robust inter-particle bond having a tunable inter-particle separation or bond length sequentially attached in a desired and programmable architecture. The photonic polymer-blend structures of the present invention can be linked by several hundred individual particles sequentially linked to form complex three-dimensional structures or highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of 3D columns with 2D spacing.

  19. Investigation of 2D photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator for CWDM system

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar Dusad, Lalit Kumar

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, the design & performance of two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter is investigated using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator. In this paper, Photonic Crystal (PhC) based on square lattice periodic arrays of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in air structure have been investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and photonic band gap is being calculated using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The PhC designs have been optimized for telecommunication wavelength λ= 1571 nm by varying the rods lattice constant. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20, with lattice constant 0.540 nm it illustrates that the arrangement of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in the structure which gives the overall size of the device around 11.4 µm × 10.8 µm. The designed filter gives good dropping efficiency using 3.298, refractive index. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  20. Topological lasing in resonant photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilozzi, Laura; Conti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We exploit topological edge states in resonant photonic crystals to attain strongly localized resonances and demonstrate lasing in these modes upon optical excitation. The use of virtually lossless topologically isolated edge states may lead to a class of thresholdless lasers operating without inversion. One needs, however, to understand whether topological states may be coupled to external radiation and act as active cavities. We study a two-level topological insulator and show that self-induced transparency pulses can directly excite edge states. We simulate laser emission by a suitably designed topological cavity and show that it can emit tunable radiation. For a configuration of sites following the off-diagonal Aubry-André-Harper model, we solve the Maxwell-Bloch equations in the time domain and provide a first-principles confirmation of topological lasers. Our results open the road to a class of light emitters with topological protection for applications ranging from low-cost energetically effective integrated laser sources, also including silicon photonics, to strong-coupling devices for studying ultrafast quantum processes with engineered vacuum.

  1. Outstanding problems in the band structures of 152Sm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. B.; Hamilton, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    The recent data on B (E 2 ) values, deduced from the multi-Coulex excitation of the low spin states in the decay of 152Sm, and other experimental findings in the last two decades are compared with the predictions from the microscopic dynamic pairing plus quadrupole model of Kumar and Baranger. The 1292.8 keV 2+ state is assigned to the 03 + band, and the K =2 assignment of the 1769 keV 2+ state is confirmed. The anomaly of the shape coexistence of the assumed spherical β band versus the deformed ground band is resolved. The values from the critical point symmetry X(5) support the collective character of the β band. The problem with the two-term interacting boson model Hamiltonian in predicting β and γ bands in 152Sm leads to interesting consequences. The collective features of the second excited Kπ=03 + band are preferred over the "pairing isomer" view. Also the multiphonon nature of the higher lying Kπ=22 +β γ band and Kπ=4+ band are illustrated vis-à-vis the new data and the nuclear structure theory.

  2. Effective band structure of random III-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Random substitutional alloys have no long range order (LRO) or translational symmetry so rigorously speaking they have no E(k) band structure or manifestations thereof. Yet, many experiments on alloys are interpreted using the language of band theory, e.g. inferring Van Hove singularities, band dispersion and effective masses. Many standard alloy theories (VCA- or CPA-based) have the LRO imposed on the alloy Hamiltonian, assuming only on-site disorder, so they can not be used to judge the extent of LRO that really exists. We adopt the opposite way, by using large (thousand atom) randomly generated supercells in which chemically identical alloy atoms are allowed to have different local environments (a polymorphous representation). This then drives site-dependent atomic relaxation as well as potential fluctuations. The eigenstates from such supercells are then mapped onto the Brillouin zone (BZ) of the primitive cell, producing effective band dispersion. Results for (In,Ga)X show band-like behaviour only near the centre and faces of the BZ but rapidly lose such characteristics away from γ or for higher bands. We further analyse the effects of stoichiometry variation, internal relaxation, and short-range order on the alloy band structure.

  3. Valence band structure in crystalline pentacene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Richard; Huber, David; Höchst, Hartmut

    2009-03-01

    Organic semiconductors, such as pentacene (Pn), are beginning to show promise as a low-cost substitute for conventional semiconductors for a variety of electronic devices. The overlap of π-orbitals in the Pn crystal leads to molecular orbital-derived bands. We used angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to reveal the Pn in-plane band structure of the two highest occupied molecular orbital-derived bands in crystalline thin film Pn (grown on a Bi substrate) for various temperatures between 75 K and 300 K. We mapped these two bands in several crystallographic directions with special attention given to the region near the top of the valence band and show, within the limits of our experimental resolution, that temperature does not change the dispersions of these bands. We fit the band structure to a tight binding model and compared our results with recent theoretical predictions[1-2]. We also calculated the in-plane reciprocal effective mass for the M point and compared it with the measured mobility. [1] H. Yoshida et. al. Phys. Rev. B 77, 235205 (2008). [2] G. A. de Wijs et. al. Synth. Met. 139, 109 (2003).

  4. Impact of the Electronic Band Structure in High-Harmonic Generation Spectra of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Mücke, Oliver D.; Kärtner, Franz X.; Rubio, Angel

    2017-02-01

    An accurate analytic model describing the microscopic mechanism of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals; (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential; the yield is increased for heavier atoms; and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.

  5. Impact of the Electronic Band Structure in High-Harmonic Generation Spectra of Solids.

    PubMed

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Mücke, Oliver D; Kärtner, Franz X; Rubio, Angel

    2017-02-24

    An accurate analytic model describing the microscopic mechanism of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals; (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential; the yield is increased for heavier atoms; and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.

  6. Radiative coupling of quantum dots in photonic crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2013-03-01

    We derive a general formalism to model the polariton states resulting from the radiation-matter interaction between an arbitrary number of excitonic transitions in semiconductor quantum dots and photon modes in a photonic crystal structure in which the quantum dots are embedded. The Maxwell equations, including the linear nonlocal susceptibility of the exciton transitions in the quantum dots, are cast into an eigenvalue problem, which can be applied to any structure whose photon modes can be computed with reliable accuracy, and in addition naturally allows for disorder effects to be taken into account. We compute realistic photon modes using Bloch-mode expansion. As example systems, we study typical InGaAs quantum dots in a GaAs photonic crystal structures—an Ln cavity or a W1 waveguide. For a single dot, we reproduce known analytical results, while for the two-dot case we study the radiative excitation transfer mechanism and characterize its strength, the dependence on the detuning between quantum dot and photon modes, and the dependence on interdot distance. We find in particular that the interdot radiative coupling strength can reach 100μeV in a short cavity, and its decay with distance in longer cavities and waveguides is determined by the group velocity of the exchanged photons and their radiative lifetime. We also show that, for an Ln cavity of increasing length, the radiative excitation transfer mechanism is subject to a crossover from a regime where a single photon mode is dominating, to a multimode regime—occurring around n = 150 for the system under study.

  7. Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2012-03-01

    The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.

  8. Spin-wave band-pass filters based on yttrium iron garnet films for tunable microwave photonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Drozdovskii, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports on development of tunable band-pass microwave filters for microwave photonic generators. The filters were fabricated with the use of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films. Principle of operation of the filters was based on excitation, propagation, and reception of spin waves. In order to obtain narrow pass band, the filtering properties of excitation and reception antennas were exploited. The filters demonstrated insertion losses of 2-3 dB, bandwidth of 25-35 MHz, and tuning range of up to 1.5 GHz in the range 3-7 GHz.

  9. Compact Couplers for Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin; Lin, M.C.; Schwartz, Brian; Byer, Robert; McGuinness, Christopher; Colby, Eric; England, Robert; Noble, Robert; Spencer, James; /SLAC

    2012-07-02

    Photonic crystal waveguides are promising candidates for laser-driven accelerator structures because of their ability to confine a speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure. Because of the difference between the group velocity of the waveguide mode and the particle bunch velocity, fields must be coupled into the accelerating waveguide at frequent intervals. Therefore efficient, compact couplers are critical to overall accelerator efficiency. We present designs and simulations of high-efficiency coupling to the accelerating mode in a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide from a waveguide adjoining it at 90{sup o}. We discuss details of the computation and the resulting transmission. We include some background on the accelerator structure and photonic crystal-based optical acceleration in general.

  10. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Mukherjee, Shaibal; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.

    2015-10-28

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and −2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar{sup +} ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  11. Spontaneous emission from a two-level atom in anisotropic one-band photonic crystals: A fractional calculus approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.-N.; Huang, C.-H.; Cheng, S.-C.; Hsieh, W.-F.

    2010-02-15

    Spontaneous emission (SE) from a two-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal (PC) is investigated by the fractional calculus. Physical phenomena of the SE are studied analytically by solving the fractional kinetic equations of the SE. There is a dynamical discrepancy between the SE of anisotropic and isotropic PCs. We find that, contrary to the SE phenomenon of the isotropic PC, the SE near the band edge of an anisotropic PC shows no photon-atom bound state. It is consistent with the experimental results of Barth, Schuster, Gruber, and Cichos [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 243902 (2006)] that the anisotropic property of the system enhances the SE. We also study effects of dispersion curvatures on the changes of the photonic density of states and the appearance of the diffusion fields in the SE.

  12. Complex Photonic Structures for Light Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Burresi, Matteo; Pratesi, Filippo; Riboli, Francesco; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, micro- and nanophotonics have roused a strong interest in the scientific community for their promising impact on the development of novel kinds of solar cells. Certain thin- and ultrathin-film solar cells are made of innovative, often cheap, materials which suffer from a low energy conversion efficiency. Light-trapping mechanisms based on nanophotonics principles are particularly suited to enhance the absorption of electromagnetic waves in these thin media without changing the material composition. In this review, the latest results achieved in this field are reported, with particular attention to the realization of prototypes, spanning from deterministic to disordered photonic architectures, and from dielectric to metallic nanostructures. PMID:26640755

  13. Dual-function photonic integrated circuit for frequency octo-tupling or single-side-band modulation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-06-01

    A dual-function photonic integrated circuit for microwave photonic applications is proposed. The circuit consists of four linear electro-optic phase modulators connected optically in parallel within a generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The photonic circuit is arranged to have two separate output ports. A first port provides frequency up-conversion of a microwave signal from the electrical to the optical domain; equivalently single-side-band modulation. A second port provides tunable millimeter wave carriers by frequency octo-tupling of an appropriate amplitude RF carrier. The circuit exploits the intrinsic relative phases between the ports of multi-mode interference couplers to provide substantially all the static optical phases needed. The operation of the proposed dual-function photonic integrated circuit is verified by computer simulations. The performance of the frequency octo-tupling and up-conversion functions is analyzed in terms of the electrical signal to harmonic distortion ratio and the optical single side band to unwanted harmonics ratio, respectively.

  14. Ultrathin conformal coating for complex magneto-photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Pascu, Oana; Caicedo, José Manuel; López-García, Martín; Canalejas, Víctor; Blanco, Álvaro; López, Cefe; Arbiol, Jordi; Fontcuberta, Josep; Roig, Anna; Herranz, Gervasi

    2011-11-01

    We report on an extremely fast and versatile synthetic approach, based on microwave assisted sol-gel chemistry, that allows a conformal nanometric coating of intricate three-dimensional structures. Using this methodology, we have achieved a conformal coverage of large areas of three-dimensional opals with a superparamagnetic manganese ferrite layer, yielding magneto-photonic crystals with excellent quality. The use of a ternary oxide for the ultrathin coating demonstrates the potential of this methodology to realize three-dimensional structures with complex materials that may find applications beyond photonics, such as energy, sensing or catalysis.

  15. Thin film solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures.

    PubMed

    Mutitu, James G; Shi, Shouyuan; Chen, Caihua; Creazzo, Timothy; Barnett, Allen; Honsberg, Christiana; Prather, Dennis W

    2008-09-15

    In this paper we present novel light trapping designs applied to multiple junction thin film solar cells. The new designs incorporate one dimensional photonic crystals as band pass filters that reflect short light wavelengths (400 - 867 nm) and transmit longer wavelengths(867 -1800 nm) at the interface between two adjacent cells. In addition, nano structured diffractive gratings that cut into the photonic crystal layers are incorporated to redirect incoming waves and hence increase the optical path length of light within the solar cells. Two designs based on the nano structured gratings that have been realized using the scattering matrix and particle swarm optimization methods are presented. We also show preliminary fabrication results of the proposed devices.

  16. Non-Optical Applications of Photonic Crystal Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-23

    antenna created by covering a metallic ground plane with a periodic band-gap structure. By incorporating varactor diodes into the structure, they have...defects can be created in alumina band-gap materials by use of laser machining. (a) 1ncalizcd A 1II Cavity Fig 10 - (a) Schematics of propagation of...The primary applications are in dentistry and dermatology . The scale length of Terahertz devices simplifies the problems of fabrication and

  17. Novel band structures in germanene on aluminium nitride substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Miaojuan; Li, Mingming

    2017-09-01

    Germanene is difficult to grow epitaxially on conventional semiconductor substrates, and to open a sizable band gap is also a hot topic. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of germanene/aluminium nitride heterobilayers (Ge/AlN HBLs). The results indicate that the Dirac cone with the nearly linear band dispersion of germanene is almost maintained in the band gap of the substrate. Very low effective masses and high carrier mobilities are achieved, and the band gap of germanene can be effectively tuned from 0.004 to 0.46 eV. These results suggest a possible method to design effective field effect transistors that can operate at room temperature.

  18. Preparation, structural, and calorimetric characterization of bicomponent metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Udod, I.; Khayrullin, I. I.; Baughman, R. H.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2007-03-01

    We report preparation and characterization of novel bicomponent metal-based photonic crystals having submicron three-dimensional (3D) periodicity. Fabricated photonic crystals include SiO2 sphere lattices infiltrated interstitially with metals, carbon inverse lattices filled with metal or metal alloy spheres, Sb inverse lattices, and Sb inverse lattices filled with Bi spheres. Starting from a face centered SiO2 lattice template, these materials were obtained by sequences of either templating and template extraction or templating, template extraction, and retemplating. Surprising high fidelity was obtained for all templating and template extraction steps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the structure and the effects of the structure on calorimetric properties. To the best of our knowledge, SAXS data on metallic photonic crystals were collected for first time.

  19. Photonic structures and their application for measuring material parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, D. A. Skripal', A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Bogolyubov, A. S.; Kulikov, M. Yu.

    2009-12-15

    A computer simulation and an experimental study of the frequency dependences of the transmission coefficients of photonic crystals are carried out on the basis of microstrip lines with distortion in their periodicity in the form of change in the microstrip dimensions and the permittivity of a substrate of one of the alternate pieces of the microstrip line in the range of 0-20 GHz. Good quantitative agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is obtained. It is shown that there is a possibility of using open microwave transmission lines, namely, microstrip photonic structures, to implement a method for measuring the parameters of material samples with the specified geometrical shape and a certain size that perform a function of nonuniformity in the photonic structure.

  20. Calculation of RIXS spectra of cuprates using band structure parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yifei; Klich, Israel; Benjamin, David; Demler, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    We explore the quasi particle theory to study the Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering(RIXS) by using the band structure parameters. We use both the determinant method(D. Benjamin, I. Klich and E. Demler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247002(2014)) and the expansion in the core-hole potential. The methods are applied to the (CaxLa1?x)(Ba1 . 75 - xLa0 . 25 + x)Cu3Oy, (x= 0 . 1 and 0 . 4). We find that by using the band structure alone we can obtain quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the position of the peak.

  1. DNA-Based Photonic Bandgap Structures and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-29

    Self-Assembly, Photonic Band Gap Materials Nadrian C . Seeman, Hong-Liang Cui New York University Office of Sponsored Programs New York University New...York, NY 10003 - REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE b. ABSTRACT UU c . THIS PAGE UU 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 15. NUMBER OF... C . Mao, J. Kopatsch, T. Wang, and N.C. Seeman, Six-Helix Bundles Designed from DNA, NanoLetters 5, 661 -665 (2005). 2. N.C. Seeman, DNA Enables

  2. Tunable band structure and effective mass of disordered chalcopyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze-Lian; Xie, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Hong

    2017-02-01

    The band structure and effective mass of disordered chalcopyrite photovoltaic materials Cu1- x Ag x Ga X 2 ( X = S, Se) are investigated by density functional theory. Special quasirandom structures are used to mimic local atomic disorders at Cu/Ag sites. A local density plus correction method is adopted to obtain correct semiconductor band gaps for all compounds. The bandgap anomaly can be seen for both sulfides and selenides, where the gap values of Ag compounds are larger than those of Cu compounds. Band gaps can be modulated from 1.63 to 1.78 eV for Cu1- x Ag x Ga Se 2, and from 2.33 to 2.64 eV for Cu1- x Ag x Ga S 2. The band gap minima and maxima occur at around x = 0:5 and x = 1, respectively, for both sulfides and selenides. In order to show the transport properties of Cu1- x Ag x Ga X 2, the effective mass is shown as a function of disordered Ag concentration. Finally, detailed band structures are shown to clarify the phonon momentum needed by the fundamental indirect-gap transitions. These results should be helpful in designing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices, with both better absorption and high mobility, by Ag-doping in CuGa X 2.

  3. Photonic dual RF beam reception of an X band phased array antenna using a photonic crystal fiber-based true-time-delay beamformer.

    PubMed

    Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Chen, Ray T

    2008-12-01

    We report dual RF beam reception of an X band phased array antenna using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based delay network. Each incoming RF signal can be independently received, and the angle of arrival can be determined based on the delay time-dependent wavelength. Two RF signals with frequencies 8.4 and 12 GHz impinge upon an X-band antenna array from -7.4 degrees and -21.2 degrees . These signals are detected, and the angle of arrival is determined with a very good degree of accuracy using PCF-based true-time delay. The total number of RF beams that can be simultaneously detected is limited by the hardware availability and the bandwidth of the wavelength differentiation capability of the system.

  4. Tight-Binding Approximations in 1D and 2D Coupled-Cavity Photonic Crystal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Nicole C. L.

    Light confinement and controlling an optical field has numerous applications in the field of telecommunications for optical signals processing. When the wavelength of the electromagnetic field is on the order of the period of a photonic microstructure, the field undergoes reflection, refraction, and coherent scattering. This produces photonic bandgaps, forbidden frequency regions or spectral stop bands where light cannot exist. Dielectric perturbations that break the perfect periodicity of these structures produce what is analogous to an impurity state in the bandgap of a semiconductor. The defect modes that exist at discrete frequencies within the photonic bandgap are spatially localized about the cavity-defects in the photonic crystal. In this thesis the properties of two tight-binding approximations (TBAs) are investigated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled-cavity photonic crystal structures. We require an efficient and simple approach that ensures the continuity of the electromagnetic field across dielectric interfaces in complex structures. In this thesis we develop E- and D-TBAs to calculate the modes in finite 1D and 2D two-defect coupled-cavity photonic crystal structures. In the E- and D-TBAs we expand the coupled-cavity [vector electron]-modes in terms of the individual [vector electron]- and [vector D meson]-modes, respectively. We investigate the dependence of the defect modes, their frequencies and quality factors on the relative placement of the defects in the photonic crystal structures. We then elucidate the differences between the two TBA formulations, and describe the conditions under which these formulations may be more robust when encountering a dielectric perturbation. Our 1D analysis showed that the 1D modes were sensitive to the structure geometry. The antisymmetric D mode amplitudes show that the D. TBA did not capture the correct (tangential [vector electron]-field) boundary conditions. However, the D-TBA did not yield

  5. Band structure engineering at heterojunction interfaces via the piezotronic effect.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Starr, Matthew B; Wang, Xudong

    2012-09-04

    Engineering the electronic band structure using the piezopotential is an important aspect of piezotronics, which describes the coupling between the piezoelectric property and semiconducting behavior and functionalities. The time-independent band structure change under short-circuit condition is believed to be due to the remnant piezopotential present at the interface, a result of the finite charge-screening depth at the interface. A series of materials, including metals, semiconductors and electrolytes, are selected to investigate the interfacial band structure engineered by remnant piezopotential when they are in contact with a strained piezoelectric semiconductor. The remnant piezopotential at the interface can switch the junction between Ohmic and Schottky characters, enhance charge combination/separation, regulate barrier height, and modulate reaction kinetics. The difference between the regular time-dependent, pulse-type piezopotential and constant remnant piezopotential is also discussed in detail using a ZnO-based photoelectrochemical anode as an example. The piezotronic effect offers a new pathway for engineering the interface band structure without altering the interface structure or chemical composition, which is promising for improving the performance of many electronics, optoelectronics, and photovoltaic devices.

  6. Electronic band structure and phonons in V2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Churna; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.

    2013-03-01

    Among the vanadium oxides, V2O5 presents special interest as a layered material. As for other layered materials, it is of interest to search for changes in its electronic structure and phonon spectrum in the monolayer modification of this material. For example, reduced screening may modify phonon modes affected by long-range Coulomb interactions. As a preliminary we here present a first-principles study of the bulk electronic band structure and the phonons at the Γ-point. Density functional calculations in the local density approximation were carried out for the electronic band structure and the density functional perturbation method was used for the phonon calculations. We used LDA and norm-conserving pseudopotentials in the abinit code. A group theoretical analysis is used to label the phonon modes. Non-analyticity is included for the LO modes. The band structures are in good agreement with previous work and yield an indirect band gap. Relaxed structural properties are also in good agreement with experiment. Simulated infrared and Raman spectra will be presented. Our results will be compared with experimental and previous theoretical work.

  7. Reconfigurable wave band structure of an artificial square ice

    SciTech Connect

    lacocca, Ezio; Gliga, Sebastian; Stamps, Robert L.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-04-18

    Artificial square ices are structures composed of magnetic nanoelements arranged on the sites of a twodimensional square lattice, such that there are four interacting magnetic elements at each vertex, leading to geometrical frustration. Using a semianalytical approach, we show that square ices exhibit a rich spin-wave band structure that is tunable both by external magnetic fields and the magnetization configuration of individual elements. Internal degrees of freedom can give rise to equilibrium states with bent magnetization at the element edges leading to characteristic excitations; in the presence of magnetostatic interactions these form separate bands analogous to impurity bands in semiconductors. Full-scale micromagnetic simulations corroborate our semianalytical approach. Our results show that artificial square ices can be viewed as reconfigurable and tunable magnonic crystals that can be used as metamaterials for spin-wave-based applications at the nanoscale.

  8. Band structure mapping of bilayer graphene via quasiparticle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankowitz, Matthew; Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Li, Suchun; Birdwell, A. Glen; Chen, Yu-An; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Quek, Su Ying; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; LeRoy, Brian J.

    2014-09-01

    A perpendicular electric field breaks the layer symmetry of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene, resulting in the opening of a band gap and a modification of the effective mass of the charge carriers. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we examine standing waves in the local density of states of bilayer graphene formed by scattering from a bilayer/trilayer boundary. The quasiparticle interference properties are controlled by the bilayer graphene band structure, allowing a direct local probe of the evolution of the band structure of bilayer graphene as a function of electric field. We extract the Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure model tight binding parameters as γ0 = 3.1 eV, γ1 = 0.39 eV, and γ4 = 0.22 eV.

  9. Reconfigurable wave band structure of an artificial square ice

    DOE PAGES

    lacocca, Ezio; Gliga, Sebastian; Stamps, Robert L.; ...

    2016-04-18

    Artificial square ices are structures composed of magnetic nanoelements arranged on the sites of a twodimensional square lattice, such that there are four interacting magnetic elements at each vertex, leading to geometrical frustration. Using a semianalytical approach, we show that square ices exhibit a rich spin-wave band structure that is tunable both by external magnetic fields and the magnetization configuration of individual elements. Internal degrees of freedom can give rise to equilibrium states with bent magnetization at the element edges leading to characteristic excitations; in the presence of magnetostatic interactions these form separate bands analogous to impurity bands in semiconductors.more » Full-scale micromagnetic simulations corroborate our semianalytical approach. Our results show that artificial square ices can be viewed as reconfigurable and tunable magnonic crystals that can be used as metamaterials for spin-wave-based applications at the nanoscale.« less

  10. Reconfigurable wave band structure of an artificial square ice

    SciTech Connect

    lacocca, Ezio; Gliga, Sebastian; Stamps, Robert L.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-04-18

    Artificial square ices are structures composed of magnetic nanoelements arranged on the sites of a twodimensional square lattice, such that there are four interacting magnetic elements at each vertex, leading to geometrical frustration. Using a semianalytical approach, we show that square ices exhibit a rich spin-wave band structure that is tunable both by external magnetic fields and the magnetization configuration of individual elements. Internal degrees of freedom can give rise to equilibrium states with bent magnetization at the element edges leading to characteristic excitations; in the presence of magnetostatic interactions these form separate bands analogous to impurity bands in semiconductors. Full-scale micromagnetic simulations corroborate our semianalytical approach. Our results show that artificial square ices can be viewed as reconfigurable and tunable magnonic crystals that can be used as metamaterials for spin-wave-based applications at the nanoscale.

  11. Photonic entanglement processing with a single sub-wavelength structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Buese, Alexander; Juan, Mathieu; Tischler, Nora

    2017-04-01

    A fundamental problem of using photonic states as carriers of quantum information is that they interact weakly with matter and that the interaction volume is typically limited by the wavelength of light. The use of metallic structures in quantum plasmonics has the potential to alleviate these problems. Here, we present the first results showing that a single subwavelength plasmonic nanoaperture can controllably modify the quantum state of light. We achieve this effect by using a specially engineered two photon state to match the properties of the nanoaperture.

  12. Band-structure loops and multistability in cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Larson, J.; O'Dell, D. H. J.

    2011-06-01

    We calculate the band structure of ultracold atoms located inside a laser-driven optical cavity. For parameters where the atom-cavity system exhibits bistability, the atomic band structure develops loop structures akin to the ones predicted for Bose-Einstein condensates in ordinary (noncavity) optical lattices. However, in our case the nonlinearity derives from the cavity back-action rather than from direct interatomic interactions. We find both bi- and tristable regimes associated with the lowest band, and show that the multistability we observe can be analyzed in terms of swallowtail catastrophes. Dynamic and energetic stability of the mean-field solutions is also discussed, and we show that the bistable solutions have, as expected, one unstable and two stable branches. The presence of loops in the atomic band structure has important implications for proposals concerning Bloch oscillations of atoms inside optical cavities [Peden , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.043803 80, 043803 (2009); Prasanna Venkatesh , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.063834 80, 063834 (2009)].

  13. Band structure of W and Mo by empirical pseudopotential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, C. G.; Whiting, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    The empirical pseudopotential method (EPM) is used to calculate the band structure of tungsten and molybdenum. Agreement between the calculated reflectivity, density of states, density of states at the Fermi surface and location of the Fermi surface from this study and experimental measurements and previous calculations is good. Also the charge distribution shows the proper topological distribution of charge for a bcc crystal.

  14. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states.

  15. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals

    PubMed Central

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states. PMID:27877676

  16. Lyapunov exponents for one-dimensional aperiodic photonic bandgap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Glen J.

    2011-10-01

    Existing in the "gray area" between perfectly periodic and purely randomized photonic bandgap structures are the socalled aperoidic structures whose layers are chosen according to some deterministic rule. We consider here a onedimensional photonic bandgap structure, a quarter-wave stack, with the layer thickness of one of the bilayers subject to being either thin or thick according to five deterministic sequence rules and binary random selection. To produce these aperiodic structures we examine the following sequences: Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period doubling, Rudin-Shapiro, as well as the triadic Cantor sequence. We model these structures numerically with a long chain (approximately 5,000,000) of transfer matrices, and then use the reliable algorithm of Wolf to calculate the (upper) Lyapunov exponent for the long product of matrices. The Lyapunov exponent is the statistically well-behaved variable used to characterize the Anderson localization effect (exponential confinement) when the layers are randomized, so its calculation allows us to more precisely compare the purely randomized structure with its aperiodic counterparts. It is found that the aperiodic photonic systems show much fine structure in their Lyapunov exponents as a function of frequency, and, in a number of cases, the exponents are quite obviously fractal.

  17. Graded Photonic Bandgap Structures and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke

    The development of periodic nanostructured materials with specific optical properties can significantly impact the development of optical based sensors. Moreover, the development of these structures in inexpensive polymer systems can reduce much of the costs in these systems related to wavelength filtering and spectral analysis. For example, highly reflective Bragg filters can be produced by creating a multilayered polymeric structure with a modulated refractive index profile. One mechanism to produce such periodic structures is by using spatially selective photoinitiated polymerization of a pre-polymer solution containing a photoinitiator, coinitiator, and monomer (along with various other components depending on the desired end product). In order to provide a periodic illumination pattern on the order of hundreds of nanometers, optical holography using laser beams can be used. For example, there has been significant research in the use of laser based holography to control the location, and size, of nanoscale droplets of liquid crystals in a polymeric structure - the appropriately named area of holographic polymer dispersed liquid cystals (H-PDLC). These structures have been demonstrated to be easily tuned and designed to have desired optical switching properties. The efforts presented in this dissertation build on that prior work and can be categorized into three parts: (1) Tailoring of the H-PDLC material systems to meet application needs in terms of bandwidth, absorption spectrum, resonant wavelength peak, background fluorescence, etc.; (2) Designing new architecture using these different material systems, e.g., graded gratings; and (3) Applying these reflection gratings and graded gratings in optical sensors and spectral analysis devices. Obviously, all these efforts are interconnected with each other. Chapter 1 and 2 describe the properties of the material systems and the fabricated samples. Specifically, we present how we modified the

  18. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  19. Control of spontaneous emission of a single quantum emitter through a time-modulated photonic-band-gap environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calajò, Giuseppe; Rizzuto, Lucia; Passante, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    We consider the spontaneous emission of a two-level quantum emitter, such as an atom or a quantum dot, in a modulated time-dependent environment with a photonic band gap. An example of such an environment is a dynamical photonic crystal or any other environment with a band gap whose properties are modulated in time, in the effective mass approximation. After introducing our model of a dynamical photonic crystal, we show that it allows new possibilities to control and tailor the physical features of the emitted radiation, specifically its frequency spectrum. In the weak-coupling limit and in an adiabatic case, we obtain the emitted spectrum and we show the appearance of two lateral peaks due to the presence of the modulated environment, separated from the central peak by the modulation frequency. We show that the two side peaks are not symmetric in height, and that their height ratio can be exploited to investigate the density of states of the environment. Our results show that a dynamical environment can give further possibilities to modify the spontaneous emission features, such as its spectrum and emission rate, with respect to a static one. Observability of the phenomena we obtain is discussed, as well as relevance for tailoring and engineering radiative processes.

  20. Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong

    2014-09-28

    Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with δ-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.