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Sample records for photonic crystal fibre

  1. Better photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. C.

    2008-11-01

    The development of optical fibers with two-dimensional patterns of air holes running down their length has reinvigorated research in the field of fiber optics. It has greatly - and fundamentally - broadened the range of specialty optical fibers, by demonstrating that optical fibers can be more 'special" than previously thought. Applications of such special fibers have not been hard to find. Fibers with air cores have made it possible to deliver energetic femtosecond-scale optical pulses, transform limited, as solitons, using single-mode fiber. Other fibers with anomalous dispersion at visible wavelengths have spawned a new generation of single-mode optical supercontinuum sources, spanning visible and near-infrared wavelengths and based on compact pump sources. A third example is in the field of fiber lasers, where the use of photonic crystal fiber concepts has led to a new hybrid laser technology, in which the very high numerical aperture available using air holes have enabled fibers so short they are more naturally held straight than bent. However, commercial success demands more than just a fiber and an application. The useful properties of the fibers need to be optimized for the specific application. This tutorial will describe some of the basic physics and technology behind these photonic crystal fibers (PCF's), illustrated with some of the impressive demonstrations of the past 18 months.

  2. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Russell, P St J; Beravat, R; Wong, G K L

    2017-02-28

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic 'space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of 'numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  3. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic ‘space’, cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of ‘numerical experiments’ based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069771

  4. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. St. J.; Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-02-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic `space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of `numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  5. Polymer photonic crystal fibre for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David J.

    2010-04-01

    Polymer photonic crystal fibres combine two relatively recent developments in fibre technology. On the one hand, polymer optical fibre has very different physical and chemical properties to silica. In particular, polymer fibre has a much smaller Young's modulus than silica, can survive higher strains, is amenable to organic chemical processing and, depending on the constituent polymer, may absorb water. All of these features can be utilised to extend the range of applications of optical fibre sensors. On the other hand, the photonic crystal - or microstructured - geometry also offers advantages: flexibility in the fibre design including control of the dispersion properties of core and cladding modes, the possibility of introducing minute quantities of analyte directly into the electric field of the guided light and enhanced pressure sensitivity. When brought together these two technologies provide interesting possibilities for fibre sensors, particularly when combined with fibre Bragg or long period gratings. This paper discusses the features of polymer photonic crystal fibre relevant to sensing and provides examples of the applications demonstrated to date.

  6. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; benmerkhi, ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE-TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z-axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres.

  7. Soft glass photonic crystal fibres and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczyński, Ryszard; Klimczak, Mariusz; Pysz, Dariusz; Stepniewski, Grzegorz; Siwicki, Bartłomiej; Cimek, Jarosław; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Piechal, Bernard; Stepień, Ryszard

    2015-05-01

    Most of the research work related to photonic crystal fibres has to date been focused on silica based fibres. Only in the recent years has there been a fraction of research devoted to fibres based on soft glasses, since some of them offer interesting properties as significantly higher nonlinearity than silica glass and wide transparency in the infrared range. On the other hand, attenuation in those glasses is usually one or more orders of magnitude higher that in silica glass, which limits their application area due to limited length of the fibres, which can be practically used. We report on the development of single-mode photonic crystal fibres made of highly nonlinear lead-bismuth-gallate glass with a zero dispersion wavelength at 1460 nm and flat anomalous dispersion. A two-octave spanning supercontinuum in the range 700-3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of the fibre. In contrast to the silica glass, various oxide based soft glasses with large refractive index difference can jointly undergo multiple thermal processing steps without degradation. The use of two soft glasses gives additional degrees of freedom in the design of photonic crystal fibres. As a result, highly nonlinear fibres with unique dispersion characteristics can be obtained. Soft glass allow also development of fibres with complex subwavelength refractive index distribution inside core of the fibre. A highly birefringent fibre with anisotropic core composed of subwavelength glass layers ordered in a rectangular structure was developed and is demonstrated

  8. Flying particle sensors in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, D. S.; Schmidt, O. A.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical fibre sensors make use of diverse physical effects to measure parameters such as strain, temperature and electric field. Here we introduce a new class of reconfigurable fibre sensor, based on a ‘flying-particle’ optically trapped inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre and illustrate its use in electric field and temperature sensing with high spatial resolution. The electric field distribution near the surface of a multi-element electrode is measured with a resolution of ∼100 μm by monitoring changes in the transmitted light signal due to the transverse displacement of a charged silica microparticle trapped within the hollow core. Doppler-based velocity measurements are used to map the gas viscosity, and thus the temperature, along a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. The flying-particle approach represents a new paradigm in fibre sensors, potentially allowing multiple physical quantities to be mapped with high positional accuracy over kilometre-scale distances.

  9. [INVITED] New perspectives in photonic crystal fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro, Joel; Zubia, Joseba

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyse the recent advances on sensors based on photonic crystal fibres(PCFs) and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Some innovative approaches to overcome the main limitations of PCF sensors are also analysed. In addition, we discuss some opportunities and challenges in PCF sensing for the coming years.

  10. Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres for laser dentistry.

    PubMed

    Konorov, Stanislav O; Mitrokhin, Vladimir P; Fedotov, Andrei B; Sidorov-Biryukov, Dmitrii A; Beloglazov, Valentin I; Skibina, Nina B; Wintner, Ernst; Scalora, Michael; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2004-04-07

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres (PCFs) for the delivery of high-fluence laser radiation capable of ablating tooth enamel are developed. Sequences of picosecond pulses of 1.06 microm Nd:YAG-laser radiation with a total energy of about 2 mJ are transmitted through a hollow-core photonic-crystal fibre with a core diameter of approximately 14 microm and are focused on a tooth surface in vitro to ablate dental tissue. The hollow-core PCF is shown to support the single-fundamental-mode regime for 1.06 microm laser radiation, serving as a spatial filter and allowing the laser beam quality to be substantially improved. The same fibre is used to transmit emission from plasmas produced by laser pulses on the tooth surface in the backward direction for detection and optical diagnostics.

  11. Characterisation of longitudinal variation in photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Francis-Jones, Robert J A; Mosley, Peter J

    2016-10-31

    We present a method by which the degree of longitudinal variation in photonic crystal fibre (PCF) may be characterised through seeded four-wave mixing (FWM). Using an iterative numerical reconstruction, we created a theoretical model of the PCF that displays FWM phasematching properties that are similar to experiment across all measured length scales. Our results demonstrate that the structure of our PCF varies by less than ±1 % and that the characteristic length of the variations is approximately 15 cm.

  12. An ion trap built with photonic crystal fibre technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenfelser, F. Keitch, B.; Kienzler, D.; Home, J. P.; Bykov, D.; Uebel, P.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-03-15

    We demonstrate a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated using techniques transferred from the manufacture of photonic-crystal fibres. This provides a relatively straightforward route for realizing traps with an electrode structure on the 100 micron scale with high optical access. We demonstrate the basic functionality of the trap by cooling a single ion to the quantum ground state, allowing us to measure a heating rate from the ground state of 787 ± 24 quanta/s. Variation of the fabrication procedure used here may provide access to traps in this geometry with trap scales between 100 μm and 10 μm.

  13. Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Epple, G.; Kleinbach, K. S.; Euser, T. G.; Joly, N. Y.; Pfau, T.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.

    2014-01-01

    The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms—six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms—makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems. PMID:24942281

  14. In-line microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibres as a highly sensitive refractometer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuang; Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Guan, Bai-Ou; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-11-07

    Photonic crystal fibres appear to be an ideal platform for the realisation of novel optofluidic devices and sensors due to their waveguide nature and microstructured architecture. In this paper, we present the fabrication and characterisation of an in-line photonic crystal fibre microfluidic refractometer enabled by a C-shaped fibre. The C-shaped fibre spliced in-between the photonic crystal fibre and the single-mode fibre allows simultaneous in-line optical signal delivery and analyte fluid feeding. Through an arc discharge pre-treatment technique, we successfully achieve selective exploitation of only the central two channels of the photonic crystal fibre for microfluidic sensing. After constructing a Sagnac interferometer, a highly sensitive refractometer with a sensitivity of 8699 nm per RIU was achieved experimentally; this agrees very well with the theoretical value of 8675 nm per RIU. As a demonstration for label-free optical sensing application, the refractometer was used to measure the concentration of NaCl solution with a sensitivity of 15.08 nm/(1 wt%) and a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-3) wt% (23 ppm).

  15. Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabid, F.; Couny, F.; Knight, J. C.; Birks, T. A.; Russell, P. St J.

    2005-03-01

    Gas-phase materials are used in a variety of laser-based applications-for example, in high-precision frequency measurement, quantum optics and nonlinear optics. Their full potential has however not been realized because of the lack of a suitable technology for creating gas cells that can guide light over long lengths in a single transverse mode while still offering a high level of integration in a practical and compact set-up or device. As a result, solid-phase materials are still often favoured, even when their performance compares unfavourably with gas-phase systems. Here we report the development of all-fibre gas cells that meet these challenges. Our structures are based on gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, in which we have recently demonstrated substantially enhanced stimulated Raman scattering, and which exhibit high performance, excellent long-term pressure stability and ease of use. To illustrate the practical potential of these structures, we report two different devices: a hydrogen-filled cell for efficient generation of rotational Raman scattering using only quasi-continuous-wave laser pulses; and acetylene-filled cells, which we use for absolute frequency-locking of diode lasers with very high signal-to-noise ratios. The stable performance of these compact gas-phase devices could permit, for example, gas-phase laser devices incorporated in a `credit card' or even in a laser pointer.

  16. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-06-17

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the (1)S0-(3)P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time.

  17. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    PubMed Central

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom–atom and atom–wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom–atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0−3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478

  18. Transient dynamic distributed strain sensing using photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Shafeek A.; Hegde, G. M.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Hanagud, S.

    2014-02-01

    A technique to determine the strain field in one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) involving high strain rate, high temperature around shock or ballistic impact is proposed. Transient strain sensing is important in aerospace and other structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We consider a MEMS based smart sensor design with photonic crystal integrated on a silicon substrate for dynamic strain correlation. Deeply etched silicon rib waveguides with distributed Bragg reflectors are suitable candidates for miniaturization of sensing elements, replacing the conventional FBG. Main objective here is to investigate the effect of non-uniform strain localization on the sensor output. Computational analysis is done to determine the static and dynamic strain sensing characteristics of the 1D photonic crystal based sensor. The structure is designed and modeled using Finite Element Method. Dynamic localization of strain field is observed. The distributed strain field is used to calculated the PC waveguide response. The sensitivity of the proposed sensor is estimated to be 0.6 pm/μɛ.

  19. Thermoluminescence Response of Ge-Doped Cylindrical-, Flat- and Photonic Crystal Silica-Fibres to Electron and Photon Radiation.

    PubMed

    Entezam, A; Khandaker, M U; Amin, Y M; Ung, N M; Bradley, D A; Maah, J; Safari, M J; Moradi, F

    2016-01-01

    Study has been made of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of silica-based Ge-doped cylindrical, flat and photonic crystal fibres (referred to herein as PCF-collapsed) to electron (6, 12 and 20 MeV) and photon (6, 10 MV) irradiation and 1.25 MeV γ-rays, for doses from 0.1 Gy to 100 Gy. The electron and photon irradiations were delivered through use of a Varian Model 2100C linear accelerator located at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and γ-rays delivered from a 60Co irradiator located at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Tailor-made to be of various dimensions and dopant concentrations (6-10% Ge), the fibres were observed to provide TL yield linear with radiation dose, reproducibility being within 1-5%, with insensitivity to energy and angular variation. The sensitivity dependency of both detectors with respect to field size follows the dependency of the output factors. For flat fibres exposed to 6 MV X-rays, the 6% Ge-doped fibre provided the greatest TL yield while PCF-collapsed showed a response 2.4 times greater than that of the 6% Ge-doped flat fibres. The response of cylindrical fibres increased with core size. The fibres offer uniform response, high spatial resolution and sensitivity, providing the basis of promising TL systems for radiotherapy applications.

  20. Thermoluminescence Response of Ge-Doped Cylindrical-, Flat- and Photonic Crystal Silica-Fibres to Electron and Photon Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Entezam, A.; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Ung, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, J.; Safari, M. J.; Moradi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Study has been made of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of silica-based Ge-doped cylindrical, flat and photonic crystal fibres (referred to herein as PCF-collapsed) to electron (6, 12 and 20 MeV) and photon (6, 10 MV) irradiation and 1.25 MeV γ-rays, for doses from 0.1 Gy to 100 Gy. The electron and photon irradiations were delivered through use of a Varian Model 2100C linear accelerator located at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and γ-rays delivered from a 60Co irradiator located at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Tailor-made to be of various dimensions and dopant concentrations (6–10% Ge), the fibres were observed to provide TL yield linear with radiation dose, reproducibility being within 1–5%, with insensitivity to energy and angular variation. The sensitivity dependency of both detectors with respect to field size follows the dependency of the output factors. For flat fibres exposed to 6 MV X-rays, the 6% Ge-doped fibre provided the greatest TL yield while PCF-collapsed showed a response 2.4 times greater than that of the 6% Ge-doped flat fibres. The response of cylindrical fibres increased with core size. The fibres offer uniform response, high spatial resolution and sensitivity, providing the basis of promising TL systems for radiotherapy applications. PMID:27149115

  1. Highly versatile in-reflection photonic crystal fibre interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Rajan; Villatoro, Joel; Kreuzer, Mark; Finazzi, Vittoria; Pruneri, Valerio

    2009-10-01

    We report a simple and highly versatile photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer that operates in reflection mode. The device consists of a short section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard single mode fiber. The air-holes of the PCF are intentionally collapsed over a microscopic region around the splice. The collapsed region broadens the propagating mode because of diffraction. This allows the coupling and recombination of two PCF modes. Depending on the PCF structure two core modes or a core and a cladding mode can be excited. In either case the devices exhibit sinusoidal interference patterns with fringe spacing depending on the PCF length. The interferometers are highly stable over time and can operate at high temperatures with minimal degradation. The interferometers are suitable for highresolution sensing of strain, refractive index (biosensing), gases, volatile organic compounds, etc.

  2. High birefringence, low loss terahertz photonic crystal fibres with zero dispersion at 0.3 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guo-Bing; Li, Shu-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuo

    2011-09-01

    A terahertz photonic crystal fibre (THz-PCF) is designed for terahertz wave propagation. The dispersion property and model birefringence are studied by employing the finite element method. The simulation result reveals the changing patten of dispersion parameter versus the geometry. The influence of the large frequency band of terahertz on birefringence is also discussed. The design of low loss, high birefringence THz-PCFs with zero dispersion frequency at 0.3 THz is presented.

  3. Multimodal interference based on large-core air-clad photonic crystal fibres for simultaneous measurement of multiparameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Susana; Santos, J. L.; Malcata, F. X.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Frazão, O.

    2011-05-01

    This work describes a large-core air-clad photonic crystal fibre-based sensing structure that is sensitive to refractive index, temperature and strain. The sensing head is based on multimodal interference, and relies on a single mode - largecore air-clad photonic crystal fibre - single mode fibre configuration. Using two distinct large-core air-clad PCF geometries it is possible to obtain an optical spectrum with two dominant loss bands, at wavelengths that have different sensitivities to physical parameters. This characteristic is explored to demonstrate a sensing head that permits the straintemperature discrimination functionality. It is also shown the large-core air-clad photonic crystal fibre can be applied to implement a sensing head sensitive to the water refractive index changes induced by temperature variations.

  4. Responses of photonic crystal fibres to pressure, axial strain and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Meng

    Photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) show different elastic and optical properties from conventional silica fibres because they contain periodic transverse microstructures in their profiles. In this dissertation, the microstructure cladding of PCF is regarded as a honeycomb structure which has inhomogeneous elastic properties. Both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this region are anisotropic, and are the functions of the air-filling ratio of the microstructure cladding. Based on this assumption, three theoretical models for three types of PCFs (solid-core PCF, hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre and hybrid PCF) are constructed. Using the theoretical models, the responses of PCFs to axial strain, acoustic pressure, temperature and lateral pressure are investigated respectively. The simulation results show that compared with conventional silica fibres, PCFs are predicted to have several novel or improved responses to external measurands, which can be used to enhance the performance of the fibre sensors or construct new PCF-based devices. Hybrid PCF guides light by a novel guiding mechanism, which is a combination of index-guiding and bandgap-guiding. Because the guiding mechanisms of the hybrid PCF are different in two orthogonal directions, high birefringence property is expected. To our knowledge, there is no theoretical model that can simulate the birefringence properties of hybrid PCFs. In this dissertation, a theoretical model for hybrid PCFs is constructed to simulate the birefringence property of hybrid PCFs and the responses of hybrid fibres' birefringence to axial strain and temperature. Using this theoretical model, the birefringence/responses of hybrid PCFs are predicted, as the functions of their design parameters. In experiment, the birefringence of one type of hybrid PCF and its responses to axial strain and temperature is measured. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results, which give us the confidence to use this theoretical model

  5. Periodically tapered photonic crystal fibre based strain sensor fabricated by a CO2 laser technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Gerald; Bo, Lin; Guan, Chunying; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei

    2014-05-01

    A focused CO2 laser beam has been previously used to successfully fabricate both symmetric and asymmetric long period fiber gratings which have been used for a variety of sensing applications. However fabrication by a CO2 laser beam demands a time consuming laser scanning process which increases the difficulty and cost of fabrication. In this paper a fibre sensor based on a fibre heterostructure with a simple configuration consisting of a series of periodical tapers in a photonic crystal fibre (PCF) sandwiched between two singlemode fibres is proposed and investigated experimentally. The tapers are periodically fabricated along the PCF section using a CO2 laser beam. The proposed fibre heterostructure can be used for strain sensing by measuring the wavelength blueshift of the multimode interference dip of the transmission spectrum as a function of strain. An average stain sensitivity of -68.4 pm/μ ɛ has been experimentally achieved over a microstrain range from 0 to 100 μ ɛ. Assuming in practice that the sensor is interrrogated with a ratiometric power measurement system, then the strain resolution is estimated to be better than 1.18×10-2 microstrain. The mechanisms for refractive index modulation periodically tapered PCF under tensile strain measurements are complex but may be regarded as a combination of stress-relaxation and refractive index perturbations over the length of the tapered PCF induced by strain and by tapering. The proposed fibre strain sensor has the advantage of low temperature sensitivity (average 8.4 pm/°C) and an experimental demonstration of this reduced sensitivity is also presented. The proposed strain sensor benefits from simplicity of fabrication and achieves a competitive sensitivity compared with other existing fibre-optic sensors.

  6. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    passive and active versions of each fiber designed under this task. Crystal Fibre shall provide characteristics of the fiber fabricated to include core...passive version of multicore fiber iteration 2. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Laser physics, Fibre Lasers, Photonic Crystal, Multicore, Fiber Laser 16...9 00* 0 " CRYSTAL FIBRE INT ODUCTION This report describes the photonic crystal fibers developed under agreement No FA8655-o5-a- 3046. All

  7. Nonlinear ultrafast switching based on soliton self-trapping in dual-core photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, P.; Bugar, I.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic numerical study of a novel ultrafast nonlinear switching concept based on soliton self-trapping in dual-core (DC) photonic crystal fibre (PCF). The geometrical parameters of highly-nonlinear (HN) DC microstructure are optimized with regard to desired linear and nonlinear propagation characteristics. The comparable magnitude of fibre coupling length and soliton period is identified as a key condition for presented switching concept. The optimized DC PCF design is subjected to detailed nonlinear numerical study. Complex temporal-spectral-spatial transformations of 100 fs hyperbolic secant pulse at 1550 nm in the DC PCF are studied numerically employing a model based on coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations solved by a split-step Fourier method. For the optimized DC structure, mutual interplay of solitonic and coupling processes gives rise to nonlinear switching of self-trapped soliton. The output channel (fibre core) for the generated soliton can be controlled via the input pulse energy. For vertical polarization, the optimal soliton switching with extinction ratio contrast of 32.4 dB at 10.75 mm propagation distance is achieved. Even better switching contrast of 34.8 dB can be achieved for horizontal polarization at optimal propagation distance of 10.25 mm. Besides energy-controlled soliton self-trapping switching, the fibre supports also nonlinear polarization switching with soliton switching contrast as high as 37.4 dB. The proposed fibre holds a high application potential allowing efficient ultrafast switching of sub-nanojoule pulses at over-Tb/s data rates requiring only about 1 cm fibre length.

  8. Reinforced concrete structural corrosion monitoring using Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibres in a fiber loop structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, M.; McCague, C.; Fabian, M.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Mergo, P.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Sun, T.

    2014-05-01

    A novel sensing approach has been developed for in-situ corrosion monitoring of steel in reinforced concrete structures, using a fibre loop interferometer sensor system based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibre (PCF). To do so an accurate fibre alignment procedure has been implemented in order to improve the performance of the sensor system embedded into the concrete structure when it is subjected to an accelerated corrosion test. The positive results obtained have confirmed the effectiveness of such a sensor system for applications in structural health monitoring.

  9. Analysis of a highly birefringent asymmetric photonic crystal fibre based on a surface plasmon resonance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Famei; Zheng, Shijie; Sun, Tao; Lv, Jingwei; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Lin; Mu, Haiwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre is proposed and characterized based on a surface plasmon resonance sensor. The birefringence of the sensor is numerically analyzed by the finite-element method. In the numerical simulation, the resonance wavelength can be directly positioned at this birefringence abrupt change point and the depth of the abrupt change of birefringence reflects the intensity of excited surface plasmon. Consequently, the novel approach can accurately locate the resonance peak of the system without analyzing the loss spectrum. Simulated average sensitivity is as high as 1131 nm/RIU, corresponding to a resolution of 1 × 10-4 RIU in this sensor. Therefore, results obtained via the approach not only show polarization independence and less noble metal consumption, but also reveal better performance in terms of accuracy and computation efficiency.

  10. Microwave-driven plasmas in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debord, B.; Alves, L. L.; Gérôme, F.; Jamier, R.; Leroy, O.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Leprince, P.; Benabid, F.

    2014-02-01

    Argon micro-plasmas a few centimetres long are generated at low gas pressure (6 mbar) in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres with 100 µm core diameter, using microwave excitation (2.45 GHz) based on a surfatron, with no damage to the host structure. Electromagnetic simulations assist the design of the surfatron cavity, finding optimal conditions for discharge ignition and maintenance. The plasma characterization reveals an electron density in the range 8 × 1014-1015 cm-3 (estimated from a semi-empirical analysis of the power coupled to the plasma, along the axial-direction) and a gas temperature of 1100-1300 K at the centre of the fibre (measured by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics), thus showing an impressive ionization degree of ˜10-2 for power densities of ˜0.1 MW cm-3. The micro-plasma dynamics is investigated using a self-consistent one-dimensional (radial) fluid model, describing the charged particle and the electron energy transport, the electromagnetic excitation and the gas heating. Model results are used to confirm the diagnostics, revealing an extreme plasma confinement and a steep temperature gradient that give rise to the main operation features of this novel compact UV source.

  11. Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, W; Joly, N; Knight, J; Birks, T; Biancalana, F; Russell, P

    2004-01-26

    Photonic crystal fibres exhibiting endlessly single-mode operation and dispersion zero in the range 1040 to 1100 nm are demonstrated. A sub-ns pump source at 1064 nm generates a parametric output at 732 nm with an efficiency of 35%, or parametric gain of 55 dB at 1315 nm. A broad, flat supercontinuum extending from 500 nm to beyond 1750 nm is also demonstrated using the same pump source.

  12. Ge and B doped collapsed photonic crystal optical fibre, a potential TLD material for low dose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozaila, Z. Siti; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Offering a number of advantageous features, tailor-made silica-based fibres are attracting attention as thermoluminesence (TL) dosimeters. We have performed a detailed study of the TL properties of Ge-doped and Ge-B-doped collapsed photonic crystal fibres (PCFc), most particularly with regard to their potential use for the environmental and X-ray diagnostic dose monitoring. Extrinsic doping and defects generated by strain at the fused inner walls of the collapsed fibres result in the PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge fibres producing markedly greater TL response than that of the phosphor-based dosimeter TLD-100, by some 9 and 7×, respectively. The linearity of TL yield has been investigated for X-ray doses from 0.5 mGy to 10 mGy. For a dose of 1 Gy, the energy response of the PCFs and TLD-100 has been studied using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 20 kVp through to 200 kVp and for the 1.25 MeV mean gamma-ray energy from 60Co. The effective atomic number , Zeffof PCFc-Ge and PCFc-Ge-B was estimated to be 12.5 and 14.4, respectively. Some 35 days post-irradiation, fading of the stored TL signal from PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge were found to be ∼15% and 20% respectively, with mean loss in TL emission of 0.4-0.5% per day. The present doped-silica collapsed PCFs provide greatly improved TLD performance compared to that of previous fibre designs and phosphor-based TLD-100.

  13. Polarized supercontinuum in birefringent photonic crystal fibre pumped at 1064 nm and application to tuneable visible/UV generation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C; Wadsworth, W J

    2008-02-18

    We generate a flat, polarized and single mode supercontinuum (SC) spanning 450-1750 nm in a highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre (PCF) pumped by a 1064 nm microchip laser. More than 99% of the total power is kept in a single linear polarization. The measured power coupling penalty due to the elliptical core is less than 6% (0.25 dB). As one of its applications, we demonstrate tuneable visible/UV generation in the nonlinear crystal BIBO pumped by this polarized SC source. A tuneable range of 400-525 nm is obtained by critical phase matching in BIBO. We also show the results of visible/UV generation in BIBO pumped by the signal wavelength of polarized four-wave mixing (FWM) in PCF.

  14. Toward cold atom guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre using a blue detuned hollow laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Jerome

    This thesis describes advances and techniques toward the efficient coupling of cold 85Rb atoms into a low loss hollow core photonic crystal fibre using a blue-detuned first order hollow beam. In the proposed system, the low diffraction of the blue-detuned first order hollow beam acts as a repulsive potential optical funnel that allows the coupling of cold atoms under the influence of gravity into the fibre's hollow core. Using a low loss fibre with a blue detuned hollow beam shows potential for guiding atoms over an arbitrary path and longer distances on the laboratory scale, which would enable several new applications in nanofabrication and optical metrology. To realize this objective, a Magneto-Optical Trap of 85Rb was built from scratch and by using advanced polarization gradient cooling techniques was turned into a 9 muK cold optical molasses containing 10 7 atoms. These cold atoms were guided over 23 cm in a collimated blue detuned hollow beam tunnel and through a focused hollow beam mimicking as closely as possible the coupling conditions for a hollow core optical fibre. Three classes of atoms were observed: lost, trapped and guided atoms. The dynamics of the system as well as the optimal coupling conditions were identified through the use of a numerical model. A novel approach to modelling cold atom dynamics in an optical funnel was developed during the course of this thesis. This new model was not only able to reproduce the dynamics of atoms in the experiment but also simulate dense cold atoms cooled into the MOT and predict final temperatures attained. This was achieved by 3D modelling of the conservative and non-conservative components of optical forces acting on atoms but also through the implementation of known heat mechanisms: light scattering and momentum diffusion. The model identified the best coupling conditions of this system, confirmed by experiment, and an optimal light potential for a given distance of coupling that must not be exceeded. A

  15. Broad and ultra-flattened supercontinuum generation in the visible wavelengths based on the fundamental mode of photonic crystal fibre with central holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-Hui; Sang, Xin-Zhu; Yu, Chong-Xiu; Xin, Xiang-Jun; Shen, Xiang-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Long; Zhou, Gui-Yao; Li, Shu-Guang; Hou, Lan-Tian

    2011-05-01

    By coupling a train of femtosecond pulses with 100 fs pulse width at a repetition rate of 76 MHz generated by a mode-locked Ti: sapphire laser into the fundamental mode of photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with central holes fabricated through extracting air from the central hole, the broad and ultra-flattened supercontinuum (SC) in the visible wavelengths is generated. When the fundamental mode experiences an anomalous dispersion regime, three phases in the SC generation process are primarily presented. The SC generation (SCG) in the wavelength range from 470 nm to 805 nm does not emerge significant ripples due to a higher pump peak power and the corresponding mode fields at different wavelengths are observed using Bragg gratings. The relative intensity fluctuations of output spectrum in the wavelength ranges of 530 nm to 640 nm and 543 nm to 590 nm are only 0.028 and 0.0071, respectively.

  16. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  17. Dispersion in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzens, Jeremy

    2005-11-01

    Investigations on the dispersive properties of photonic crystals, modified scattering in ring-resonators, monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and advanced data processing techniques for the finite-difference time-domain method are presented. Photonic crystals are periodic mesoscopic arrays of scatterers that modify the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as "natural" crystals modify the properties of electrons in solid-state physics. In this thesis photonic crystals are implemented as planar photonic crystals, i.e., optically thin semiconductor films with periodic arrays of holes etched into them, with a hole-to-hole spacing of the order of the wavelength of light in the dielectric media. Photonic crystals can feature forbidden frequency ranges (the band-gaps) in which light cannot propagate. Even though most work on photonic crystals has focused on these band-gaps for application such as confinement and guiding of light, this thesis focuses on the allowed frequency regions (the photonic bands) and investigates how the propagation of light is modified by the crystal lattice. In particular the guiding of light in bulk photonic crystals in the absence of lattice defects (the self-collimation effect) and the angular steering of light in photonic crystals (the superprism effect) are investigated. The latter is used to design a planar lightwave circuit for frequency domain demultiplexion. Difficulties such as efficient insertion of light into the crystal are resolved and previously predicted limitations on the resolution are circumvented. The demultiplexer is also fabricated and characterized. Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by means of resonantly enhanced grating couplers is investigated. The grating coupler is designed to bend light through a ninety-degree angle and is characterized with the finite-difference time-domain method. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are

  18. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L(-1) levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min(-1), and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L(-1) for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%.

  19. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  20. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser.

    PubMed

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-29

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M(2) reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  1. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    PubMed Central

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066

  2. Narrowband high-fidelity all-fibre source of heralded single photons at 1570 nm.

    PubMed

    McMillan, A R; Fulconis, J; Halder, M; Xiong, C; Rarity, J G; Wadsworth, W J

    2009-04-13

    An all-fibre heralded single photon source operating at 1570 nm has been demonstrated. The device generates correlated photon pairs, widely spaced in frequency, through four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fibre. Separation of the pair photons and narrowband filtering is all achieved in fibre. The output heralded single photon rate was 9.2 x 10(4) per second, with a counts-to-accidentals ratio of 10.4 and a heralding fidelity of 52 %. Furthermore, narrowband filtering ensured that the output single photon state was near time-bandwidth limited with a coherence length of 4 ps. Such a source is well suited to quantum information processing applications.

  3. Matched cascade of bandgap-shift and frequency-conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in a tapered hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Beaudou, B; Couny, F; Wang, Y Y; Light, P S; Wheeler, N V; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2010-06-07

    We report on a novel means which lifts the restriction of the limited optical bandwidth of photonic bandgap hollow-core photonic crystal fiber on generating high order stimulated Raman scattering in gaseous media. This is based on H(2)-filled tapered HC-PCF in which the taper slope is matched with the effective length of Raman process. Raman orders outside the input-bandwidth of the HC-PCF are observed with more than 80% quantum-conversion using a compact, low-power 1064 nm microchip laser. The technique opens prospects for efficient sources in spectral regions that are poorly covered by currently existing lasers such as mid-IR.

  4. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  5. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  6. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-05-31

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter {approx}200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  7. Photonic crystal microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokhov, A. A.; Masalov, V. M.; Sukhinina, N. S.; Matveev, D. V.; Dolganov, P. V.; Dolganov, V. K.; Emelchenko, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spherical samples of photonic crystals formed by colloidal SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. Synthesis of microspheres from 160 nm, 200 nm and 430 nm diameter colloidal nanoparticles was performed over a wide size range, from 5 μm to 50 μm. The mechanism of formation of void microparticles exceeding 50 μm is discussed. The spectral measurements verified the association of the spectra with the peaks of selective reflection from the cubic lattice planes. The microparticle morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. Polymeric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Yoel

    Two novel and practical methods for controlling the propagation of light are presented: First, a design criterion that permits truly omnidirectional reflectivity for all polarizations of incident light over a wide selectable range of frequencies is derived and used in fabricating an alldielectric omnidirectional reflector consisting of multilayer films. Because the omnidirectionality criterion is general, it can be used to design omnidirectional reflectors in many frequency ranges of interest. Potential uses depend on the geometry of the system. For example, coating of an enclosure will result in an optical cavity. A hollow tube will produce a low-loss, broadband waveguide, planar film could be used as an efficient radiative heat barrier or collector in thermoelectric devices. A comprehensive framework for creating one-, two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals out of self- assembling block copolymers has been formulated. In order to form useful band gaps in the visible regime, periodic dielectric structures made of typical block copolymers need to be modified to obtain appropriate characteristic distances and dielectric constants. Moreover, the absorption and defect concentration must also be controlled. This affords the opportunity to tap into the large structural repertoire, the flexibility and intrinsic tunability that these self-assembled block copolymer systems offer. A block copolymer was used to achieve a self assembled photonic band gap in the visible regime. By swelling the diblock copolymer with lower molecular weight constituents control over the location of the stop band across the visible regime is achieved. One and three- dimensional crystals have been formed by changing the volume fraction of the swelling media. Methods for incorporating defects of prescribed dimensions into the self-assembled structures have been explored leading to the construction of a self assembled microcavity light- emitting device. (Copies available exclusively from MIT

  9. Photonic crystal enhanced cytokine immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Patrick C; Ganesh, Nikhil; Cunningham, Brian T

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces are demonstrated as a means for enhancing the detection sensitivity and resolution for assays that use a fluorescent tag to quantify the concentration of an analyte protein molecule in a liquid test sample. Computer modeling of the spatial distribution of resonantly coupled electromagnetic fields on the photonic crystal surface are used to estimate the magnitude of enhancement factor compared to performing the same fluorescent assay on a plain glass surface, and the photonic crystal structure is fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the performance using a sandwich immunoassay for the protein Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The demonstrated photonic crystal fabrication method utilizes a nanoreplica molding technique that allows for large-area inexpensive fabrication of the structure in a format that is compatible with confocal microarray laser scanners. The signal-to-noise ratio for fluorescent spots on the photonic crystal is increased by at least five-fold relative to the glass slide, allowing a TNF-alpha concentration of 1.6 pg/ml to be distinguished from noise on a photonic crystal surface. In addition, the minimum quantitative limit of detection on the photonic crystal surface is one-third the limit on the glass slide - a decrease from 18 pg/ml to 6 pg/ml. The increased performance of the immunoassay allows for more accurate quantitation of physiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-alpha in a protein microarray format that can be expanded to multiple cytokines.

  10. Amplification and ASE suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre.

    PubMed

    Olausson, C B; Falk, C I; Lyngsø, J K; Jensen, B B; Therkildsen, K T; Thomsen, J W; Hansen, K P; Bjarklev, A; Broeng, J

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths around 1030 nm in a cladding-pumped polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic crystal fibre. The fibre works through combined index and bandgap guiding. Furthermore, we show that the peak of the amplified spontaneous emission can be shifted towards longer wavelengths by rescaling the fibre dimensions. Thereby one can obtain lasing or amplification at longer wavelengths (1100 nm - 1200 nm) as the amount of amplification in the fibre is shown to scale with the power of the amplified spontaneous emission.

  11. Spherical colloidal photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Colloidal photonic crystals (PhCs), periodically arranged monodisperse nanoparticles, have emerged as one of the most promising materials for light manipulation because of their photonic band gaps (PBGs), which affect photons in a manner similar to the effect of semiconductor energy band gaps on electrons. The PBGs arise due to the periodic modulation of the refractive index between the building nanoparticles and the surrounding medium in space with subwavelength period. This leads to light with certain wavelengths or frequencies located in the PBG being prohibited from propagating. Because of this special property, the fabrication and application of colloidal PhCs have attracted increasing interest from researchers. The most simple and economical method for fabrication of colloidal PhCs is the bottom-up approach of nanoparticle self-assembly. Common colloidal PhCs from this approach in nature are gem opals, which are made from the ordered assembly and deposition of spherical silica nanoparticles after years of siliceous sedimentation and compression. Besides naturally occurring opals, a variety of manmade colloidal PhCs with thin film or bulk morphology have also been developed. In principle, because of the effect of Bragg diffraction, these PhC materials show different structural colors when observed from different angles, resulting in brilliant colors and important applications. However, this angle dependence is disadvantageous for the construction of some optical materials and devices in which wide viewing angles are desired. Recently, a series of colloidal PhC materials with spherical macroscopic morphology have been created. Because of their spherical symmetry, the PBGs of spherical colloidal PhCs are independent of rotation under illumination of the surface at a fixed incident angle of the light, broadening the perspective of their applications. Based on droplet templates containing colloidal nanoparticles, these spherical colloidal PhCs can be

  12. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  13. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  14. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-12-23

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  15. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maigyte, Lina; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  16. Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Electrophoretic Light Scattering Using Optical Fibres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadyen, Allan John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In photon correlation spectroscopy, the fast local fluctuations in the intensity of the light scattered by submicron particles in suspension are recorded and analysed in terms of the particle motion. These may then be related to the particle size, or, when the particles are subjected to an electric field, the electrophoretic mobility. Light scattering apparatus traditionally incorporates a fixed goniometer arrangement. Recently, however, systems have been reported which incorporate optical fibres for use in remote or on-line situations. In this thesis, recent advances in the development of fibre-based photon correlation systems are reviewed and the design and construction of two novel optical fibre apparatus prototypes, incorporating "SELFOC" lenses, miniature prisms and single mode detection fibre, is discussed. The final outcome, an optical fibre sensor, which combines both photon correlation and electrophoretic light scattering measurements in a single, compact dip -in probe for the first time, is described. Results are presented for a variety of colloidal particles in suspension including polystyrene and "Microsilica" spheres, PTFE ellipsoids and kaolinite platelets, all of which demonstrate the viability of the apparatus.

  17. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  18. Mechanically tunable photonic crystal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Tamma, V. A.; Lee, J.-B.; Park, W.

    2010-08-01

    We designed, fabricated and characterized MEMS-enabled mechanically-tunable photonic crystal lens comprised of 2D photonic crystal and symmetrical electro-thermal actuators. The 2D photonic crystal was made of a honeycomb-lattice of 340 nm thick, 260 nm diameter high-index silicon rods embedded in low-index 10 μm thick SU-8 cladding. Silicon input waveguide and deflection block were also fabricated for light in-coupling and monitoring of focused spot size, respectively. When actuated, the electro-thermal actuators induced mechanical strain which changed the lattice constant of the photonic crystal and consequently modified the photonic band structure. This in turn modified the focal-length of the photonic crystal lens. The fabricated device was characterized using a tunable laser (1400~1602 nm) and an infrared camera during actuation. At the wavelength of 1450 nm, the lateral light spot size observed at the deflection block gradually decreased 40%, as applied current increased from 0 to 0.7 A, indicating changes in focal length in response to the mechanical stretching.

  19. Radiating dipoles in photonic crystals

    PubMed

    Busch; Vats; John; Sanders

    2000-09-01

    The radiation dynamics of a dipole antenna embedded in a photonic crystal are modeled by an initially excited harmonic oscillator coupled to a non-Markovian bath of harmonic oscillators representing the colored electromagnetic vacuum within the crystal. Realistic coupling constants based on the natural modes of the photonic crystal, i.e., Bloch waves and their associated dispersion relation, are derived. For simple model systems, well-known results such as decay times and emission spectra are reproduced. This approach enables direct incorporation of realistic band structure computations into studies of radiative emission from atoms and molecules within photonic crystals. We therefore provide a predictive and interpretative tool for experiments in both the microwave and optical regimes.

  20. From optical MEMS to photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Jideog; Lee, Hong-Seok; Moon, Il-Kwon; Won, JongHwa; Ku, Janam; Choi, Hyung; Shin, Hyungjae

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the emergence of photonic crystals as significant optomechatronics components, following optical MEMS. It is predicted that, in the coming years, optical MEMS and photonic crystals may go through dynamic interactions leading to synergy as well as competition. First, we present the Structured Defect Photonic Crystal (SDPCTM) devised by the authors for providing the freedom of designing photonic bandgap structures, such that the application of photonic crystals be greatly extended. Then, we present the applications of optical MEMS and photonic crystals to displays and telecommunications. It is shown that many of the applications that optical MEMS can contribute to telecommunications and displays may be implemented by photonic crystals.

  1. Multicore fibre technology: the road to multimode photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Min, Seong-Sik; Lindley, Emma; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Ellis, Simon; Lawrence, Jon; Beyrand, Nicolas; Roth, Martin; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    For the past forty years, optical fibres have found widespread use in ground-based and space-based instruments. In most applications, these fibres are used in conjunction with conventional optics to transport light. But photonics offers a huge range of optical manipulations beyond light transport that were rarely exploited before 2001. The fundamental obstacle to the broader use of photonics is the difficulty of achieving photonic action in a multimode fibre. The first step towards a general solution was the invention of the photonic lantern1 in 2004 and the delivery of high-efficiency devices (< 1 dB loss) five years on2. Multicore fibres (MCF), used in conjunction with lanterns, are now enabling an even bigger leap towards multimode photonics. Until recently, the single-moded cores in MCFs were not sufficiently uniform to achieve telecom (SMF-28) performance. Now that high-quality MCFs have been realized, we turn our attention to printing complex functions (e.g. Bragg gratings for OH suppression) into their N cores. Our first work in this direction used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (near-field phase mask) but this approach was only adequate for N=7 MCFs as measured by the grating uniformity3. We have now built a Sagnac interferometer that gives a three-fold increase in the depth of field sufficient to print across N >= 127 cores. We achieved first light this year with our 500mW Sabre FRED laser. These are sophisticated and complex interferometers. We report on our progress to date and summarize our first-year goals which include multimode OH suppression fibres for the Anglo-Australian Telescope/PRAXIS instrument and the Discovery Channel Telescope/MOHSIS instrument under development at the University of Maryland.

  2. Photonic crystals as optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, P.; Krokhin, A. A.; Arriaga, J.

    1999-11-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have already found numerous applications associated with the photonic band gap. We point out that PCs could be also employed as custom-made optical components in the linear region well below the photonic gap. As an example, we discuss a birefringent PC lens that acts as a polarizing beam splitter. This idea is supported by a precise method of calculation of the optical constants of a transparent two-dimensional (2D) PC. Such a process of homogenization is performed for hexagonal arrays of polymer-based PCs and also for the mammalian cornea. Finally, 2D PCs are classified as optically uniaxial or biaxial.

  3. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles. PMID:22146390

  4. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-23

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  5. Higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gansch, Roman; Kalchmair, Stefan; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2011-08-15

    We present a detailed investigation of higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs. In such structures the resonances exhibit a blue-shift compared to an ideal two-dimensional photonic crystal, which depends on the order of the slab mode and the polarization. By fabricating a series of photonic crystal slab photo detecting devices, with varying ratios of slab thickness to photonic crystal lattice constant, we are able to distinguish between 0th and 1st order slab modes as well as the polarization from the shift of resonances in the photocurrent spectra. This method complements the photonic band structure mapping technique for characterization of photonic crystal slabs.

  6. Dispersion compensation in slot photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastun, Alexander; Konyukhov, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    Dispersion tailoring using photonic crystal cladding for slot waveguide is proposed. Numerical modeling based on the Maxwell equation for Te and TM modes of the photonic crystal is performed. Slot waveguide provide high intencity at the central area. Photonic crystal cladding of the slot waveguide allow us to compensate high values of the host glass dispersion.

  7. Photonic quantum well composed of photonic crystal and quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaohui; Zhu, Yiping; Wang, Lianwei; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-02-01

    A photonic quantum well structure composed of photonic crystal and Fibonacci quasicrystal is investigated by analyzing the transmission spectra and electric field distributions. The defect band in the photonic well can form confined quantized photonic states that can change in the band-gap of the photonic barriers by varying the thickness ratio of the two stacking layers. The number of confined states can be tuned by adjusting the period of the photonic well. The photons traverse the photonic quantum well by resonance tunneling and the coupling effect leads to the high transmission intensity of the confined photonic states.

  8. Photonic bandgap single-mode optical fibre with ytterbium-doped silica glass core

    SciTech Connect

    Egorova, O N; Semenov, S L; Vel'miskin, V V; Dianov, Evgenii M; Salganskii, M Yu; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2011-01-24

    A photonic bandgap fibre with an ytterbium-doped silica glass core is fabricated and investigated. The possibility of implementing single-mode operation of such fibres in a wide spectral range at a large (above 20 {mu}m) mode field diameter makes them promising for fibre lasers and amplifiers. To ensure a high quality of the beam emerging from the fibre, particular attention is paid to increasing the optical homogeneity of the ytterbium-doped core glass. (optical fibres)

  9. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals

    PubMed Central

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states. PMID:27877676

  10. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  11. Hybrid colloidal plasmonic-photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Sergei G; Korovin, Alexander V; Regensburger, Alois; Peschel, Ulf

    2011-06-17

    We review the recently emerged class of hybrid metal-dielectric colloidal photonic crystals. The hybrid approach is understood as the combination of a dielectric photonic crystal with a continuous metal film. It allows to achieve a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering at electronic excitations in the metal component into moulding of the light flow in series to the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystal. We consider different realizations of hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals based on two- and three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals in association with flat and corrugated metal films. In agreement with model calculations, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tuneable functionality of these crystals.

  12. Resonant photonic States in coupled heterostructure photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jd; Sabarinathan, J; Singh, Mr

    2010-02-09

    In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.

  13. Investigation of optical thin films printed on the surface of facets of photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucki, M.; Kraus, S.; Zeleny, R.; Zehetner, J.; Seyringer, D.; Latal, J.; Perecar, F.

    2015-05-01

    Optical fibres are widely used in various applications as a medium for optical signals or optical transfer. This transport can be realized on long distance, compared to free space optics, which significantly extends reach of applications. Free space optics and fibre optics are combined in practice to yield the maximum performance of individual components forming a particular system. In such cases, light coupling from free space into fibres is required and it is frequently implemented with the use of lenses. An optical signal coupled into a fibre may also need certain modifications of spectral and spatial properties to allow its propagation down the fibre or reduce the amount of power carried in. The above requirement has been fulfilled by modifying surface of facets of photonic crystal fibres. By extrusion of a certain amount of host material from the surface, it is possible to obtain a structure resembling a thin film or an opaque layer for certain wavelengths. Several different structures of photonic crystal fibres and materials are considered to show influence of such thin-film on signal properties. This investigation is carried out in context of abilities of ablation of material from surfaces of photonic crystal fibres. Only certain shapes and geometrical arrangements can be considered. One of the goals is to specify, which of them are key for potential modification of spectral characteristics of photonic crystal fibres. The printed structures could potentially work like a thin-film ablation. Rigorous and versatile finite difference method has been employed to model propagation of light, its incidence onto a surface of the photonic crystal fibre, and subsequent propagation down the fibre. The simulations are carried on small pieces of photonic crystal fibres, with the length of tens of micrometres, due to well-known demands of the simulation technique on computational resources. Nevertheless, such a simplification is valid, since the structure is longitudinally

  14. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  15. Photonic crystal fibers for food quality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinin, A. V.; Zanishevskaja, A. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Skibina, Yu. S.; Silokhin, I. Y.

    2012-06-01

    The aspects of application of the hollow core photonic crystal waveguides for spectroscopic analysis of liquid medium were considered. The possibility of using these structures for analysis of a fruit juice was evaluated. The principles of processing of photonic crystal waveguide transmission spectra, which is sensitive to quality of juice, its composition, and main component concentration, were revealed.

  16. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  17. Photonic crystal negative refractive optics.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshihiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Asatsuma, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are multi-dimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the PC. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell's law, can be tailored using photonic band theory. The negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because PCs usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at absorption-free frequencies, affording significant design flexibility for free-space optics. The PC slab, a high-index membrane with a two-dimensional airhole array, must be carefully designed to avoid reflection and diffraction losses. Light focusing based on negative refraction forms a parallel image of a light source, facilitating optical couplers and condenser lenses for wavelength demultiplexing. A compact wavelength demultiplexer can be designed by combining the prism and lens effects. The collimation effect is obtainable not only inside but also outside of the PC by optimizing negative refractive condition.

  18. Photonic crystals with topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Knitter, Sebastian; Xiong, Wen; Cao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    We introduce topological defects to a square lattice of elliptical cylinders. Despite the broken translational symmetry, the long-range positional order of the cylinders leads to a residual photonic band gap in the local density of optical states. However, the band-edge modes are strongly modified by the spatial variation of the ellipse orientation. The Γ -X band-edge mode splits into four regions of high intensity and the output flux becomes asymmetric due to the formation of crystalline domains with different orientation. The Γ -M band-edge mode has the energy flux circulating around the topological defect center, creating an optical vortex. By removing the elliptical cylinders at the center, we create localized defect states, which are dominated by either clockwise or counterclockwise circulating waves. The flow direction can be switched by changing the ellipse orientation. The deterministic aperiodic variation of the unit cell orientation adds another dimension to the control of light in photonic crystals, enabling the creation of a diversified field pattern and energy flow landscape.

  19. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  20. A proposed fibre optic time domain optical coherence tomography system using a micro-photonic stationary optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansz, Paul Vernon; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2008-04-01

    Conventional time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) relies on a reference Optical Delay Line (ODL). These reference ODLs require the physical movement of a mirror to scan a given depth range. This movement results in instrument degradation. We propose a new optical fibre based time domain OCT system that makes use of a micro-photonic structure as a stationary ODL. The proposed system uses an in-fibre interferometer, either a Michelson or a Mach-Zhender. The reference ODL makes use of a collimator to expand the light from the optical fibre. This is them expanded in one dimension via planar optics, that is, a cylindrical lens based telescope, using a concave and convex lens. The expanded beam is them passed through a transmissive Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), specifically a liquid crystal light valve used as an optical switch. Light is then reflected back through the system off the micro-photonic structure. The micro-photonic structure is a one dimensional array of stagged mirror steps, called a Stepped Mirror Structure (SMS). The system enables the selection of discrete optical delay lengths. The proposed ODL is capable of depth hoping and multicasting. We discuss the fabrication of the SMS, which consists of eight steps, each approximately 150 μm high. A change in notch frequency using an in-fibre Mach Zhender interferometer was used to gauge the average step height. The results gave an average step height of 146 μm.

  1. Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Entangled Photon Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    at 77K. The HNLF in plastic buffer coating is cooled to 77K by immersing it into a liquid nitrogen filled Dewar. Advancement of photons arrival...collected by using fiber-to-free space coupler (NA=0.25), which is placed closely right after the PBS. The multiple scattering random media is

  2. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Jin, Jeongwan; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires the processing and storage of quantum information at local nodes and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1,532 nm wavelength photon entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20-m-long silica fibre, using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality.

  3. Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchmair, S.; Detz, H.; Cole, G. D.; Andrews, A. M.; Klang, P.; Nobile, M.; Gansch, R.; Ostermaier, C.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we present a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP), which is fabricated as a photonic crystal slab (PCS). With the PCS it is possible to enhance the absorption efficiency by increasing photon lifetime in the detector active region. To understand the optical properties of the device we simulate the PCS photonic band structure, which differs significantly from a real two-dimensional photonic crystal. By fabricating a PCS-QWIP with 100x less quantum well doping, compared to a standard QWIP, we are able to see strong absorption enhancement and sharp resonance peaks up to temperatures of 170 K.

  4. Photonics crystal fiber Raman sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuan; Bond, Tiziana C.; Zhang, Jin Z.; Li, Yat; Gu, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) employs a guiding mechanism fundamentally different from that in conventional index guiding fibers. In an HCPCF, periodic air channels in a glass matrix act as reflectors to confine light in an empty core. As a result, the interaction between light and glass can be very small. Therefore, HCPCF has been used in applications that require extremely low non-linearity, high breakdown threshold, and zero dispersion. However, their applications in optical sensing, especially in chemical and biological sensing, have only been extensively explored recently. Besides their well-recognized optical properties the hollow cores of the fibers can be easily filled with liquid or gas, providing an ideal sampling mechanism in sensors. Recently, we have demonstrated that by filling up a HCPCF with gas or liquid samples, it is possible to significantly increase the sensitivity of the sensors in either regular Raman or surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. This is because the confinement of both light and sample inside the hollow core enables direct interaction between the propagating wave and the analyte. In this paper, we report our recent work on using HCPCF as a platform for Raman or SERS in the detection of low concentration greenhouse gas (ambient CO2), biomedically significant molecules (e.g., glucose), and bacteria. We have demonstrated that by filling up a HCPCF with gas or liquid samples, it is possible to significantly increase the sensitivity of the sensors in either regular Raman or SERS applications.

  5. Coupled External Cavity Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ~10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ~105× improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays. PMID:23129575

  6. Coupled external cavity photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ∼10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ∼10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.

  7. Photonic crystal: energy-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhuo; Park, Joong-Mok; Constant, Kristen; Kim, Tae-Geun; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-06-08

    We review recent work on photonic-crystal fabrication using soft-lithography techniques. We consider applications of the resulting structures in energy-related areas such as lighting and solar-energy harvesting. In general, our aim is to introduce the reader to the concepts of photonic crystals, describe their history, development, and fabrication techniques and discuss a selection of energy-related applications.

  8. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  9. Microfabricated Optical Cavities and Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lončar, Marko; Scherer, Axel

    Microfabricated periodic structures with a high refractive index contrast have recently become very interesting geometries for the manipulation of light. The existence of a photonic bandgap, a frequency range within which propagation of light is prevented in all directions, is very useful where spatial localization of light is required. Ideally, by constructing three-dimensional confinement geometries, light propagation can be controlled in all three dimensions. However, since the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals is difficult, a more manufacturable approach is based on the use of one- or two-dimensional geometries. Here we describe the evolution of microcavities from 1D Bragg reflectors to 2D photonic crystals. The 1D microcavity laser (VCSEL) has already found widespread commercial use in data communications, and the equivalent 2D geometry has recently attracted a lot of research attention. 2D photonic crystal lasers, fabricated within a thin dielectric membrane and perforated with a two-dimensional lattice of holes, are very appealing for dense integration of photonic devices in telecommunications and optical sensing systems. In this chapter, we describe theory and experiments of planar photonic crystals as well as their applications towards lasers and super-dispersive elements. Low-threshold 2D photonic crystal lasers were recently demonstrated both in air and in different chemical solutions and can now be used to perform spectroscopic tests on ultra-small volumes of analyte.

  10. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  11. Photonic crystal biosensors towards on-chip integration.

    PubMed

    Threm, Daniela; Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Gerken, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal technology has attracted large interest in the last years. The possibility to generate highly sensitive sensor elements with photonic crystal structures is very promising for medical or environmental applications. The low-cost fabrication on the mass scale is as advantageous as the compactness and reliability of photonic crystal biosensors. The possibility to integrate microfluidic channels together with photonic crystal structures allows for highly compact devices. This article reviews different types of photonic crystal sensors including 1D photonic crystal biosensors, biosensors with photonic crystal slabs, photonic crystal waveguide biosensors and biosensors with photonic crystal microcavities. Their applications in biomolecular and pathogen detection are highlighted. The sensitivities and the detection limits of the different biosensors are compared. The focus is on the possibilities to integrate photonic crystal biosensors on-chip.

  12. Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal filled polymer photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Doudou; Chen, Guoxiang; Wang, Lili

    2016-05-01

    A highly tunable bandgap-guiding polymer photonic crystal fiber is designed by infiltrating the cladding air holes with liquid crystal 5CB. Structural parameter dependence and thermal tunability of the photonic bandgaps, mode properties and confinement losses of the designed fiber are investigated. Bandgaps red shift as the temperature goes up. Average thermal tuning sensitivity of 30.9 nm/°C and 20.6 nm/°C is achieved around room temperature for the first and second photonic bandgap, respectively. Our results provide theoretical references for applications of polymer photonic crystal fiber in sensing and tunable fiber-optic devices.

  13. Liquid crystal devices for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2007-11-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) devices for Photonics applications is a hot topic of research. Such elements begin to appear in Photonics market. Passive elements for fiber optical communication systems (DWDM components) based on LC cells can successfully compete with the other elements used for the purpose, such as micro electromechanical (MEM), thermo-optical, opto-mechanical or acousto-optical devices. Application of nematic and ferroelectric LC for high speed communication systems, producing elements that are extremely fast, stable, durable, of low loss, operable over a wide temperature range, and that require small operating voltages and extremely low power consumption. The known LC applications in fiber optics enable to produce switches, filters, attenuators, equalizers, polarization controllers, phase emulators and other fiber optical components. Good robustness due to the absence of moving parts and compatibility with VLSI technology, excellent parameters in a large photonic wavelength range, whereas the complexity of the design and the cost of the device are equivalent to regular passive matrix LC displays makes LC fiber optical devices very attractive for mass production. We have already successfully fabricated certain prototypes of the optical switches based on ferroelectric and nematic LC materials. The electrooptical modes used for the purpose included the light polarization rotation, voltage controllable diffraction and fast switching of the LC refractive index. We used the powerful software to optimize the LC modulation characteristics. Use of photo-alignment technique pioneered by us makes it possible to develop new LC fiber components. Almost all the criteria of perfect LC alignment are met in case of azo-dye layers. We have already used azo-dye materials to align LC in superthin photonic holes, curved and 3D surfaces and as cladding layers in microring silicon based resonators. The prototypes of new LC efficient Photonics devices are envisaged. Controllable

  14. Switching of Photonic Crystal Lasers by Graphene.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Min-Soo; Kim, Ha-Reem; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Jin-Sung; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Won Il; Song, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-03-08

    Unique features of graphene have motivated the development of graphene-integrated photonic devices. In particular, the electrical tunability of graphene loss enables high-speed modulation of light and tuning of cavity resonances in graphene-integrated waveguides and cavities. However, efficient control of light emission such as lasing, using graphene, remains a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate on/off switching of single- and double-cavity photonic crystal lasers by electrical gating of a monolayer graphene sheet on top of photonic crystal cavities. The optical loss of graphene was controlled by varying the gate voltage Vg, with the ion gel atop the graphene sheet. First, the fundamental properties of graphene were investigated through the transmittance measurement and numerical simulations. Next, optically pumped lasing was demonstrated for a graphene-integrated single photonic crystal cavity at Vg below -0.6 V, exhibiting a low lasing threshold of ∼480 μW, whereas lasing was not observed at Vg above -0.6 V owing to the intrinsic optical loss of graphene. Changing quality factor of the graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity enables or disables the lasing operation. Moreover, in the double-cavity photonic crystal lasers with graphene, switching of individual cavities with separate graphene sheets was achieved, and these two lasing actions were controlled independently despite the close distance of ∼2.2 μm between adjacent cavities. We believe that our simple and practical approach for switching in graphene-integrated active photonic devices will pave the way toward designing high-contrast and ultracompact photonic integrated circuits.

  15. Tuning photonic bands in plasma metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Mayank Kumar; Chaudhari, Sachin

    2016-11-01

    Introducing plasma in the background provides additional degrees of freedom for tuning dispersion curves of photonic crystals. 2D photonic crystals in triangular lattice arrangements offer more global bandgap regions and thus are of more interest for various applications. The dispersion characteristics of a two-dimensional plasma metallic photonic crystal (PMPC) in square as well as triangular lattice arrangements have been analyzed in this paper using the orthogonal finite difference time domain method. The dispersion characteristics of PMPCs for the range of r/a ratios and plasma frequencies for triangular lattice configuration have been analyzed. On introducing plasma in the background, the photonic bands of PMPC are shifted towards higher normalized frequencies. This shift is more for lower bands and increases with plasma frequency. The cut-off frequency was observed for both TE and TM polarizations in PMPC and showed strong dependence on r/a ratio as well as plasma frequency. Photonic bandgaps of PMPC may be tuned by controlling plasma parameters, giving opportunity for utilizing these PMPC structures for various applications such as fine-tuning cavities for enhanced light-matter interaction, plasmonic waveguides, and Gyrotron cavities.

  16. Ultrafast optical switching using photonic molecules in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhui; Qian, Chenjiang; Qiu, Kangsheng; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-04-06

    We study the coupling between photonic molecules and waveguides in photonic crystal slab structures using finite-difference time-domain method and coupled mode theory. In a photonic molecule with two cavities, the coupling of cavity modes results in two super-modes with symmetric and anti-symmetric field distributions. When two super-modes are excited simultaneously, the energy of electric field oscillates between the two cavities. To excite and probe the energy oscillation, we integrate photonic molecule with two photonic crystal waveguides. In coupled structure, we find that the quality factors of two super-modes might be different because of different field distributions of super-modes. After optimizing the radii of air holes between two cavities of photonic molecule, nearly equal quality factors of two super-modes are achieved, and coupling strengths between the waveguide modes and two super-modes are almost the same. In this case, complete energy oscillations between two cavities can be obtained with a pumping source in one waveguide, which can be read out by another waveguide. Finally, we demonstrate that the designed structure can be used for ultrafast optical switching with a time scale of a few picoseconds.

  17. Self-assembled Tunable Photonic Hyper-crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER Self - assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals W911NF-09-l-0539 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ABSTRACT Self - assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals Report Title We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the “photonic hyper-crystal...photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self - assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to

  18. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles

    2014-12-19

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of 'defects', which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.

  19. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1–0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum. PMID:25523102

  20. Liquid crystals for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniewicz, A.; Gniewek, A.; Parka, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe application of liquid crystals in optical imaging and processing. Electrically and optically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulators are key elements in real-time holographic devices. Their implementation for beam steering and hologram formation is briefly discussed. The Joint Fourier transform optical correlator for pattern recognition is presented as well as the use of liquid crystals for the adaptive optics purposes is discussed.

  1. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  2. Generation of Wannier functions for photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Christian; Mack, Patrick; Busch, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    We present an approach for the efficient generation of Wannier functions for Photonic Crystal computations that is based on a combination of group-theoretical analysis and efficient minimization strategies. In particular, we describe the symmetry properties that allow for exponential localization of Wannier functions and how they are related to the underlying Bloch mode symmetries of the photonic band structure and we show that no exponentially localized Wannier functions can be created from the physical modes of a three-dimensional crystal. Moreover, we comment on the use of conjugate gradient and randomized minimization algorithms that—together with the group theoretical considerations—facilitate the efficient numerical determination of maximally localized Wannier functions for many bands. This is a requirement for the accurate computation of Photonic Crystal functional elements and devices.

  3. Natural photonic crystals: formation, structure, function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Dahlby, Michael R.; Barrows, Frank P.; Richens, Zachary J.; Terooatea, Tommy; Jorgensen, Matthew R.

    2012-03-01

    The structure and properties of natural photonic crystals are discussed using the colored scales of the beetle Lamprocyphus augustus as an example. While the exact mechanism behind the formation of these biopolymeric photonic structures has yet to be fully explored, similarities of these structures to intracellular cubic membrane architectures are introduced. Some crucial parameters behind the formation of cubic membranes are discussed. Using these insights, intracellular cubic membrane structures are transformed into an extracellular environment.

  4. Veselago lens by photonic hyper-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zun Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2014-07-21

    Based on the recent concept of the photonic hyper-crystal—an artificial optical medium that combines the properties of hyperbolic materials and photonic crystals, we present the imaging system functioning as a Veselago lens. This planar lens shows a nearly constant negative refractive index with substantially reduced image aberrations, and can find potential applications in photolithography and hot-spots detection of silicon-based integrated circuits.

  5. Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI).

    PubMed

    Zain, Ahmad R; Johnson, Nigel P; Sorel, Marc; De La Rue, Richard M

    2008-08-04

    We present experimental results on photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavity structures that demonstrate further enhancement of the quality-factor (Q-factor)--up to approximately 149,000--in the fibre telecommunications wavelength range. The Q-values and the useful transmission levels achieved are due, in particular, to the combination of both tapering within and outside the micro-cavity, with carefully designed hole diameters and non-periodic hole placement within the tapered section. Our 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation approach shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Efficient beaming of self-collimated light from photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Moon; Lee, Sun-Goo; Park, Hae Yong; Kim, Jae-Eun

    2008-12-08

    We propose a novel structure for achieving highly efficient beaming of self-collimated light from two-dimensional photonic crystals. The finite-difference time-domain simulations show that both enhanced transmission and highly directional emission of self-collimated beams from photonic crystals are achieved by using the bending and splitting of self-collimated beams in photonic crystals, and also by introducing an antireflection coating-like photonic crystal collimator to the exit surface of the structure. This structure is potentially important for highly efficient coupling of self-collimated beams from photonic crystals into conventional optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides.

  7. Ultra compact spectrometer apparatus and method using photonic crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of photonic crystal formation, and to methods and apparatus for using such photonic crystals, particularly in conjunction with detector arrays. Photonic crystal parameters and detector array parameters are compared to optimize the selection and orientation of a photonic crystal shape. A photonic crystal is operatively positioned relative to a plurality of light sensors. The light sensors can be separated by a pitch distance and positioned within one half of the pitch distance of an exit surface of the photonic crystals.

  8. Integrated photonic crystal selective emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Yehia, Omar; Bermel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Converting blackbody thermal radiation to electricity via thermophotovoltaics (TPV) is inherently inefficient. Photon recycling using cold-side filters offers potentially improved performance but requires extremely close spacing between the thermal emitter and the receiver, namely a high view factor. Here, we propose an alternative approach for thermal energy conversion, the use of an integrated photonic crystal selective emitter (IPSE), which combines two-dimensional photonic crystal selective emitters and filters into a single device. Finite difference time domain and current transport simulations show that IPSEs can significantly suppress sub-bandgap photons. This increases heat-to-electricity conversion for photonic crystal based emitters from 35.2 up to 41.8% at 1573 K for a GaSb photovoltaic (PV) diode with matched bandgaps of 0.7 eV. The physical basis of this enhancement is a shift from a perturbative to a nonperturbative regime, which maximized photon recycling. Furthermore, combining IPSEs with nonconductive optical waveguides eliminates a key difficulty associated with TPV: the need for precise alignment between the hot selective emitter and cool PV diode. The physical effects of both the IPSE and waveguide can be quantified in terms of an extension of the concept of an effective view factor.

  9. Optical amplification enhancement in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, R.; Leonetti, M.; Froufe-Perez, L. S.; Galisteo-Lopez, J. F.; Lopez, C.; Conti, C.

    2011-02-15

    Improving and controlling the efficiency of a gain medium is one of the most challenging problems of laser research. By measuring the gain length in an opal-based photonic crystal doped with laser dye, we demonstrate that optical amplification is more than twenty-fold enhanced along the {Gamma}-K symmetry directions of the face-centered-cubic photonic crystal. These results are theoretically explained by directional variations of the density of states, providing a quantitative connection between density of the states and light amplification.

  10. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  11. Giant lamb shift in photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Hua; Kivshar, Yuri S; Gu, Ben-Yuan

    2004-08-13

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases.

  12. Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuling; Liu, Yonghao; Zhao, Deyin; Yang, Hongjun; Zhou, Weidong; Sun, Yuze

    2017-02-01

    We report an ultra-compact surface-normal optofluidic refractometric sensor based on a two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal on insulator. In contrast to the conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance that is prevalently used in the label-free sensors, the asymmetric lineshape and steep peak-to-dip transition of a Fano resonance enable the enhanced detection sensitivity. The detection limit of 1.3 × 10-6 refractive index units is achieved, which is among the lowest reported experimentally in the defect-free photonic crystal sensors.

  13. Photon Irradiation Response on Ge and Al-Doped SiO2 Optical Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, Nor Haliza; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Hassan; Asni, Hazila

    2010-07-01

    Recently, research groups have reported a number of radiation effects on the applications of SiO2 optical fibres with possible use as dosimeter material because these optical fibre provide a good basis for medical radiation dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence response and fading characteristic for germanium and aluminium doped SiO2 optical fibres with photon irradiation. These optical fibres are placed in solid phantom and irradiated to 6 and 10 MV photon beam at dose ranging from 0.06 Gy to 0.24 Gy using Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru. In fading studies, the TL measurements were continued up to 14 days period. The optical fibres will produce glow curves whereby the information is then analyzed. Al and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship that is proportionality between the TL signal and the doses. Comparison for TL response between different linear accelerator showed a good agreement because these optical fibres also have a linear dose-TL signal relationship even using different equipments.

  14. Photon Irradiation Response on Ge and Al-Doped SiO{sub 2} Optical Fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakob, Nor Haliza; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Asni, Hazila; Ali, Hassan

    2010-07-07

    Recently, research groups have reported a number of radiation effects on the applications of SiO{sub 2} optical fibres with possible use as dosimeter material because these optical fibre provide a good basis for medical radiation dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence response and fading characteristic for germanium and aluminium doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres with photon irradiation. These optical fibres are placed in solid phantom and irradiated to 6 and 10 MV photon beam at dose ranging from 0.06 Gy to 0.24 Gy using Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru. In fading studies, the TL measurements were continued up to 14 days period. The optical fibres will produce glow curves whereby the information is then analyzed. Al and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship that is proportionality between the TL signal and the doses. Comparison for TL response between different linear accelerator showed a good agreement because these optical fibres also have a linear dose-TL signal relationship even using different equipments.

  15. Fiber based photonic-crystal acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Onur

    Photonic-crystal slabs are two-dimensional photonic crystals etched into a dielectric layer such as silicon. Standard micro fabrication techniques can be employed to manufacture these structures, which makes it feasible to produce them in large areas, usually an important criterion for practical applications. An appealing feature of these structures is that they can be employed as free-space optical devices such as broadband reflectors. The small thickness of the slab (usually in the vicinity of half a micron) also makes it deflectable. These combined optical and mechanical properties make it possible to employ photonic-crystal slabs in a range of practical applications, including displacement sensors, which in turn can be used for example to detect acoustic waves. An additional benefit of employing a photonic-crystal slab is that it is possible to tailor its optical and mechanical properties by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the structure such as hole radius or shape, pitch, and the slab thickness. By altering the hole radius and pitch, it is possible to make broadband reflectors or sharp transmission filters out of these structures. Adjusting the thickness also affects its deformability, making it possible to make broadband mirrors compliant to acoustic waves. Altering the hole shape, for example by introducing an asymmetry, extends the functionalities of photonic-crystal slabs even further. Breaking the symmetry by introducing asymmetric holes enables polarization-sensitive devices such as retarders, polarization beam splitters, and photonic crystals with additional non-degenerate resonances useful for increased sensitivity in sensors. All these practical advantages of photonic-crystal slabs makes them suitable as key components in micromachined sensor applications. We report one such example of an application of photonic-crystal slabs in the form of a micromachined acoustic sensor. It consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer made of a photonic-crystal

  16. One-dimensional opal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitonov, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    One-dimensional opals are 1D self-assembled close packed colloidal crystals consisting of monodisperse colloidal globules. Polystyrene globules with sizes in the 1.9-10 μm range sit on a flat substrate and touch two neighbors in diametrally opposite contact points. These opals are quasi-1D photonic crystals. Optical modes, including whispering gallery modes of individual globules, coupled collective modes, and nanojet-induced modes, are visualized in 1D opals.

  17. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals.

    PubMed

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-07-16

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the "photonic hyper-crystal", which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  18. Photonic crystal microcapsules for label-free multiplex detection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Baofen; Ding, Haibo; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-05-28

    A novel suspension array, which possesses the joint advantages of photonic crystal encoded technology, bioresponsive hydrogels, and photonic crystal sensors with capability of full multiplexing label-free detection is developed.

  19. Test-Paper-Like Photonic Crystal Viscometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqi; Fu, Qianqian; Ge, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    A test-paper-like photonic crystal (PC) viscometer is fabricated based on the positive correlation between viscosity and the infiltration time for viscous liquid to entirely soak the PC film. It can be broadly used in different occasions to quickly determine the viscosity for many liquids, considering its portable and disposable characteristics and the requirement of little samples.

  20. Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    These laboratory experiments are designed to explore aspects of nanoscale chemistry by constructing and spectroscopically analyzing thin films of photonic crystals. Films comprised of colloidal spheres and polydimethylsiloxane exhibit diffraction-based stop bands that shift reversibly upon exposure to some common solvents. Topics covered in these…

  1. Photonic crystal sensors based on porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Pacholski, Claudia

    2013-04-09

    Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.

  2. Emerging Applications of Photonic Crystal Fibers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Philip S. J.

    2016-03-01

    The well-controlled guided modes and long path-lengths offered by both solid and hollow core photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) permit remarkable enhancements (and in some cases reductions) in many kinds of light-matter interaction. Recent examples include: Ultrafast spectrally bright deep and vacuum UV sources based on gas-filled hollow core PCF (pressure-tunable dispersion is a unique feature); generation of stable bright deep UV supercontinuum light in PCF drawn from the fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN; OAM-birefringent helically twisted PCF that preserves the sign of orbital angular momentum; and light-driven optoacoustic devices that permit stable high harmonic mode-locking of fiber ring lasers at GHz repetition rates.

  3. Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Abashin, Maxim; Blair, John; Wu, Qi; Park, Wounjhang; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Summers, Christopher J

    2007-06-25

    An integrated total internal reflection prism is demonstrated that generates a transversely localized evanescent wave along the boundary between a photonic crystal and an etched out trench. The reflection can be described by either the odd symmetry of the Bloch wave or a tangential momentum matching condition. In addition, the Bloch wave propagates through the photonic crystal in a negative refraction regime, which manages diffraction within the prism. A device with three input channels has been fabricated and tested that illuminates different regions of the reflection interface. The reflected wave is then sampled by a photonic wire array, where the individual channels are resolved. Heterodyne near field scanning optical microscopy is used to characterize the spatial phase variation of the evanescent wave and its decay constant.

  4. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the avian adenovirus CELO long fibre

    PubMed Central

    Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Langlois, Patrick; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Avian adenovirus CELO contains two different fibres: fibre 1, the long fibre, and fibre 2, the short fibre. The short fibre is responsible for binding to an unknown avian receptor and is essential for infection of birds. The long fibre is not essential, but is known to bind the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor protein. Both trimeric fibres are attached to the same penton base, of which each icosahedral virus contains 12 copies. The short fibre extends straight outwards, while the long fibre emerges at an angle. The carboxy-terminal amino acids 579–793 of the avian adenovirus long fibre have been expressed with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag and the expressed trimeric protein has been purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and crystallized. Crystals were grown at low pH using PEG 10 000 as precipitant and belonged to space group C2. The crystals diffracted rotating-anode Cu Kα radiation to at least 1.9 Å resolution and a complete data set was collected from a single crystal to 2.2 Å resolution. Unit-cell parameters were a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°, suggesting one trimer per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 46%. The long fibre head does not have significant sequence homology to any other protein of known structure and molecular-replacement attempts with known fibre-head structures were unsuccessful. However, a map calculated using SIRAS phasing shows a clear trimer with a shape similar to known adenovirus fibre-head structures. Structure solution is in progress. PMID:16682773

  5. Quasicompactons in inverted nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A.; Wu Jianxiong; Pang Wei; Wang Sicong; Zhou Jianying

    2011-10-15

    We study large-amplitude one-dimensional solitary waves in photonic crystals featuring competition between linear and nonlinear lattices, with minima of the linear potential coinciding with maxima of the nonlinear pseudopotential, and vice versa (inverted nonlinear photonic crystals, INPCs), in the case of the saturable self-focusing nonlinearity. Such crystals were recently fabricated using a mixture of SU-8 and Rhodamine-B optical materials. By means of numerical methods and analytical approximations, we find that large-amplitude solitons are broad sharply localized stable pulses (quasicompactons, QCs). With the increase of the total power, P, the QC's centroid performs multiple switchings between minima and maxima of the linear potential. Unlike cubic INPCs, the large-amplitude solitons are mobile in the medium with the saturable nonlinearity. The threshold value of the kick necessary to set the soliton in motion is found as a function of P. Collisions between moving QCs are considered too.

  6. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals

    PubMed Central

    Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Yost, Bradley; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, the “photonic hyper-crystal”, which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing. PMID:25027947

  7. Flexible single-crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Hosseini, Amir; Covey, John; Yu, Yalin; Kwong, David; Zhang, Yang; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Lu, Nanshu; Chen, Ray T

    2014-12-23

    Flexible inorganic electronic devices promise numerous applications, especially in fields that could not be covered satisfactorily by conventional rigid devices. Benefits on a similar scale are also foreseeable for silicon photonic components. However, the difficulty in transferring intricate silicon photonic devices has deterred widespread development. In this paper, we demonstrate a flexible single-crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal microcavity through a bonding and substrate removal approach. The transferred cavity shows a quality factor of 2.2×10(4) and could be bent to a curvature of 5 mm radius without deteriorating the performance compared to its counterparts on rigid substrates. A thorough characterization of the device reveals that the resonant wavelength is a linear function of the bending-induced strain. The device also shows a curvature-independent sensitivity to the ambient index variation.

  8. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator.

    PubMed

    Lugo, J E; Doti, R; Sanchez, N; de la Mora, M B; del Rio, J A; Faubert, J

    2014-01-15

    Optical tweezers is an example how to use light to generate a physical force. They have been used to levitate viruses, bacteria, cells, and sub cellular organisms. Nonetheless it would be beneficial to use such force to develop a new kind of applications. However the radiation pressure usually is small to think in moving larger objects. Currently, there is some research investigating novel photonic working principles to generate a higher force. Here, we studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals when light impinges on the off-axis direction. The photonic structure consists of a micro-cavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by a variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. We show experimental evidence of this force when the photonic structure is capable of making auto-oscillations and forced-oscillations. We measured peak displacements and velocities ranging from 2 up to 35 microns and 0.4 up to 2.1 mm/s with a power of 13 mW. Recent evidence showed that giant resonant light forces could induce average velocity values of 0.45 mm/s in microspheres embedded in water with 43 mW light power.

  9. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, J. E.; Doti, R.; Sanchez, N.; de la Mora, M. B.; del Rio, J. A.; Faubert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers is an example how to use light to generate a physical force. They have been used to levitate viruses, bacteria, cells, and sub cellular organisms. Nonetheless it would be beneficial to use such force to develop a new kind of applications. However the radiation pressure usually is small to think in moving larger objects. Currently, there is some research investigating novel photonic working principles to generate a higher force. Here, we studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals when light impinges on the off-axis direction. The photonic structure consists of a micro-cavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by a variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. We show experimental evidence of this force when the photonic structure is capable of making auto-oscillations and forced-oscillations. We measured peak displacements and velocities ranging from 2 up to 35 microns and 0.4 up to 2.1 mm/s with a power of 13 mW. Recent evidence showed that giant resonant light forces could induce average velocity values of 0.45 mm/s in microspheres embedded in water with 43 mW light power. PMID:24423985

  10. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135

  11. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.

  12. Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, Peter Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Maxwell Andrews, Aaron; Gansch, Roman; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-12-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of a photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector (PCS-QCD). By employing a specifically designed resonant cavity, the performance of the photodetector is improved in three distinct ways. The PCS makes the QCD sensitive to surface normal incident light. It resonantly enhances the photon lifetime inside the active zone, thus increasing the photocurrent significantly. And, the construction form of the device inherently decreases the noise. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the PCS-QCD to a PCS - quantum well infrared photodetector and outline the advantages for certain fields of applications.

  13. Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Kyu; Seo, Min-Kyo; Hwang, In-Kag; Kim, Sung-Bock; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2008-11-01

    Resonance-assisted photonic crystal (PhC) slab photodetectors are demonstrated by utilizing six 7-nm-thick InGaAsP quantum wells. In order to encourage efficient photon coupling into the slab from the vertical direction, a coupled-dipole-cavity-array PhC structure is employed. Inheriting the characteristics of the dipole mode, this resonant detector is highly polarization selective and shows a 22-nm-wide spectral width. The maximum responsivity of 0.28A/W, which is >20 times larger than that of the identical detector without the pattern, is observed near 1.56μm.

  14. Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olausson, Christina B.; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei; Noordegraaf, Danny; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Hansen, Kim P.; Bjarklev, Anders

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all-spliced laser cavity based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040- 1065 nm by applying an electric field to the silicon assembly.

  15. Effective medium theory of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W. T.; Zhang, S.; Huang, Y. J.; Sridhar, S.

    2008-03-01

    We develop an effective medium theory for photonic crystals including negative index metamaterials. This theory is based on field summation within the unit cell. The unit cell is determined by the surface termination. The orientation of the surface breaks the field summation symmetry. This theory is self-consistent. The effective permittivity and permeability tensors will give the exact dispersion relation obtained from the band structure calculation. For waves incident into multilayered structures, our theory gives exact transmittance and reflectance for any wavelengths. For interface with periodic surface structures, our theory gives very accurate results for wavelength down to being comparable with the lattice spacing. By properly taking into account the multiple Bloch modes inside the photonic crystal, our theory can be made to give exact Bragg coefficients.

  16. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-26

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  17. Electrical Control of Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity by Graphene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Electrical Control of Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity by Graphene Arka Majumdar,†,‡,∥ Jonghwan Kim,†,∥ Jelena Vuckovic,‡ and Feng Wang...of electronics and photonics . The combination of graphene with photonic crystals is promising for electro-optic modulation. In this paper, we...demonstrate that by electrostatic gating a single layer of graphene on top of a photonic crystal cavity, the cavity resonance can be changed significantly. A

  18. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  19. Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Quantum Information Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemeier, Jenna Nicole

    Quantum information science and technology is a broad and fascinating field, encompassing diverse research areas such as materials science, atomic physics, superconductors, solid-state physics, and photonics. A goal of this field is to demonstrate the basic functions of information initialization, manipulation, and read-out in systems that take advantage of quantum physics to greatly enhance computing performance capabilities. In a hybrid quantum information network, different systems are used to perform different functions, to best exploit the advantageous properties of each system. For example, matter quantum bits (qubits) can be used for local data storage and manipulation while photonic qubits can be used for long-distance communication between storage points of the network. Our research focuses on the following two solid-state realizations of a matter qubit for the purpose of building such a hybrid quantum network: the electronic spin of a self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dot and the electronic spin of a nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond. Light--matter interactions are necessary to transfer the information from the matter qubit to the photonic qubit, and this interaction can be enhanced by embedding the spin system in an optical cavity. We focus on photonic crystal microcavities for this purpose, and we study interactions between the optical cavity modes and incorporated spin systems. To improve the performance of this spin--photon interface, it is important to maximize the coupling strength between the spin and photonic systems and to increase the read-out efficiency of information stored in the cavity. In this thesis, we present our work to deterministically couple a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a photonic crystal microcavity in gallium phosphide. This is achieved by nanopositioning a pre-selected diamond nanocrystal in the intensity maximum of the optical cavity mode. We also present an optimized design of a photonic crystal

  20. Long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Jian; Jin, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The authors review the recent advances in fabricating long-period gratings (LPGs) in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). The novel light-guiding properties of the PCFs allow the demonstration of novel sensors and devices based on such LPGs. The sensitivity of these PCF LPGs to temperature, strain and refractive index is discussed and compared with LPGs made on conventional single-mode fibers. In-fiber devices such as tunable band rejection filters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers are discussed.

  1. Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    2004-03-01

    Recently left-handed materials (LHM) attracted great attention since these materials exhibit negative effective index, which is due to simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity. Pendry proposed that negative effective index in left-handed materials can be used for constructing a perfect lens, which is not limited by diffraction(J. B. Pendry, Negative refraction makes a perfect lens, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 85, 3966 (2000)). Negative refraction is also achievable in a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) that has a periodically modulated positive permittivity and a permeability of unity. Luo et al. has studied negative refraction and subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals(C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, Subwavelength Imaging in Photonic Crystals Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003)). In this presentation, we report our experimental and theoretical investigation of negative refraction and subwavelength focusing of electromagnetic waves in a 2D PC. Our structure consists of a square array of dielectric rods in air. Transmission measurements are performed for experimentally verifying the predicted negative refraction behavior in our structure. Negative index of refraction determined from the experiment is -1.94 which is very close to the theoretical value of -2.06. Negative refraction is observed for the incidence angles of > 20°(Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou, and Costas Soukoulis, Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals, Nature, vol. 423, 604 (2003)). Since we know the optimum frequency for a broad angle negative refraction, we can use our crystal to test the superlensing effect that was predicted for negative refractive materials. Scanning transmission measurement technique is used to measure the spatial power distribution of the focused electromagnetic waves that radiate from a point source. Full width at half maximum of the focused beam is measured to be 0.21λ, which is in good agreement with the finite

  2. Parametric wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sigang; Wu, Zhaohui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Minghua; Xie, Shizhong

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear wavelength conversion provides flexible solutions for generating wideband tunable radiation in novel wavelength band. Parametric process in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has attracted comprehensive interests since it can act as broadband tunable light sources in non-conventional wavelength bands. The current state-of-the-art photonic crystal fibers can provide more freedom for customizing the dispersion and nonlinearity which is critical to the nonlinear process, such as four wave mixing (FWM), compared with the traditional fibers fabricated with doping techniques. Here we demonstrate broadband parametric wavelength conversion in our homemade photonic crystal fibers. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of PCFs is critical for the requirement of phase matching condition in the parametric four wave mixing process. Firstly a procedure of the theoretical design of PCF with the ZDW at 1060 nm is proposed through our homemade simulation software. A group of PCF samples with gradually variable parameters are fabricated according to the theoretical design. The broadband parametric gain around 1060 nm band is demonstrated pumped with our homemade mode locked fiber laser in the anomalous dispersion region. Also a narrow gain band with very large wavelength detune with the pump wavelength in the normal dispersion region is realized. Wavelength conversion with a span of 194 nm is realized. Furthermore a fiber optical parametric oscillator based on the fabricated PCF is built up. A wavelength tunable range as high as 340 nm is obtained. This report demonstrates a systematic procedure to realize wide band wavelength conversion based on PCFs.

  3. Intravitreal properties of porous silicon photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L; Anglin, E; Cunin, F; Kim, D; Sailor, M J; Falkenstein, I; Tammewar, A; Freeman, W R

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the suitability of porous silicon photonic crystals for intraocular drug-delivery. Methods A rugate structure was electrochemically etched into a highly doped p-type silicon substrate to create a porous silicon film that was subsequently removed and ultrasonically fractured into particles. To stabilise the particles in aqueous media, the silicon particles were modified by surface alkylation (using thermal hydrosilylation) or by thermal oxidation. Unmodified particles, hydrosilylated particles and oxidised particles were injected into rabbit vitreous. The stability and toxicity of each type of particle were studied by indirect ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy, tonometry, electroretinography (ERG) and histology. Results No toxicity was observed with any type of the particles during a period of >4 months. Surface alkylation led to dramatically increased intravitreal stability and slow degradation. The estimated vitreous half-life increased from 1 week (fresh particles) to 5 weeks (oxidised particles) and to 16 weeks (hydrosilylated particles). Conclusion The porous silicon photonic crystals showed good biocompatibility and may be used as an intraocular drug-delivery system. The intravitreal injectable porous silicon photonic crystals may be engineered to host a variety of therapeutics and achieve controlled drug release over long periods of time to treat chronic vitreoretinal diseases. PMID:18441177

  4. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the avian adenovirus CELO long fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Langlois, Patrick; Raaij, Mark J. van

    2006-05-01

    Avian adenovirus long-fibre head trimers were expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group C2 (unit-cell parameters a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°). A complete highly redundant data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution at 100 K using a rotating-anode X-ray source. Avian adenovirus CELO contains two different fibres: fibre 1, the long fibre, and fibre 2, the short fibre. The short fibre is responsible for binding to an unknown avian receptor and is essential for infection of birds. The long fibre is not essential, but is known to bind the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor protein. Both trimeric fibres are attached to the same penton base, of which each icosahedral virus contains 12 copies. The short fibre extends straight outwards, while the long fibre emerges at an angle. The carboxy-terminal amino acids 579–793 of the avian adenovirus long fibre have been expressed with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag and the expressed trimeric protein has been purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and crystallized. Crystals were grown at low pH using PEG 10 000 as precipitant and belonged to space group C2. The crystals diffracted rotating-anode Cu Kα radiation to at least 1.9 Å resolution and a complete data set was collected from a single crystal to 2.2 Å resolution. Unit-cell parameters were a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°, suggesting one trimer per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 46%. The long fibre head does not have significant sequence homology to any other protein of known structure and molecular-replacement attempts with known fibre-head structures were unsuccessful. However, a map calculated using SIRAS phasing shows a clear trimer with a shape similar to known adenovirus fibre-head structures. Structure solution is in progress.

  5. FEM modeling of 3D photonic crystals and photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Sven; Klose, Roland; Schaedle, Achim; Schmidt, Frank; Zschiedrich, Lin W.

    2005-03-01

    We present a finite-element simulation tool for calculating light fields in 3D nano-optical devices. This allows to solve challenging problems on a standard personal computer. We present solutions to eigenvalue problems, like Bloch-type eigenvalues in photonic crystals and photonic crystal waveguides, and to scattering problems, like the transmission through finite photonic crystals. The discretization is based on unstructured tetrahedral grids with an adaptive grid refinement controlled and steered by an error-estimator. As ansatz functions we use higher order, vectorial elements (Nedelec, edge elements). For a fast convergence of the solution we make use of advanced multi-grid algorithms adapted for the vectorial Maxwell's equations.

  6. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-26

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0003 TR-2016-0003 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRONIC QUANTUM INTERFERENCE, PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITY, PHOTONIC BAND...2014 – 11 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects...tailoring of dispersion and the photonic band gap. The band gap frequency can be matched to tailor the emission from active medium such as quantum

  7. Single photon emission from diamond nanocrystals in an opal photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L A; Zhai, Y; Dawes, J M; Steel, M J; Rabeau, J R; Withford, M J

    2009-09-28

    We present the first optical measurement of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a three-dimensional photonic crystal. The photonic crystal, fabricated by self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres, exhibits a photonic stopband that overlaps the NV photoluminescence spectrum. A modified emission spectrum and photon antibunching were measured from the NV centers. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements revealed a 30% increase in the source lifetime. Encapsulation of single NV centers in a three-dimensional photonic crystal is a step towards controlling emission properties of a single photon source.

  8. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system.

  9. Slab photonic crystals with dimer colloid bases

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Erin K.; Liddell Watson, Chekesha M.

    2014-06-14

    The photonic band gap properties for centered rectangular monolayers of asymmetric dimers are reported. Colloids in suspension have been organized into the phase under confinement. The theoretical model is inspired by the range of asymmetric dimers synthesized via seeded emulsion polymerization and explores, in particular, the band structures as a function of degree of lobe symmetry and degree of lobe fusion. These parameters are varied incrementally from spheres to lobe-tangent dimers over morphologies yielding physically realizable particles. The work addresses the relative scarcity of theoretical studies on photonic crystal slabs with vertical variation that is consistent with colloidal self-assembly. Odd, even and polarization independent gaps in the guided modes are determined for direct slab structures. A wide range of lobe symmetry and degree of lobe fusion combinations having Brillouin zones with moderate to high isotropy support gaps between odd mode band indices 3-4 and even mode band indices 1-2 and 2-3.

  10. Square lattice photonic crystal surface mode lasers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lu, Shao-Ping; Chiu, Li-Hsun; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2010-12-06

    In this report, we propose a square lattice photonic crystal hetero-slab-edge microcavity design. In numerical simulations, three surface modes in this microcavity are investigated and optimized by tuning the slab-edge termination τ and gradual mirror layer. High simulated quality (Q) factor of 2.3 × 10(5) and small mode volume of 0.105 μm(3) are obtained from microcavity with τ = 0.80. In experiments, we obtain and identify different surface modes lasing. The surface mode in the second photonic band gap shows a very-low threshold of 140 μW and high Q factor of 5,500, which could be an avenue to low-threshold optical lasers and highly sensitive sensor applications with efficient light-matter interactions.

  11. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-05-12

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons.

  12. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons.

  13. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber

    PubMed Central

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons. PMID:27170160

  14. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  15. Photonic crystal devices formed by a charged-particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Koops, Hans W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A photonic crystal device and method. The photonic crystal device comprises a substrate with at least one photonic crystal formed thereon by a charged-particle beam deposition method. Each photonic crystal comprises a plurality of spaced elements having a composition different from the substrate, and may further include one or more impurity elements substituted for spaced elements. Embodiments of the present invention may be provided as electromagnetic wave filters, polarizers, resonators, sources, mirrors, beam directors and antennas for use at wavelengths in the range from about 0.2 to 200 microns or longer. Additionally, photonic crystal devices may be provided with one or more electromagnetic waveguides adjacent to a photonic crystal for forming integrated electromagnetic circuits for use at optical, infrared, or millimeter-wave frequencies.

  16. Glass beads and Ge-doped optical fibres as thermoluminescence dosimeters for small field photon dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Jafari, S M; Alalawi, A I; Hussein, M; Alsaleh, W; Najem, M A; Hugtenburg, R P; Bradley, D A; Spyrou, N M; Clark, C H; Nisbet, A

    2014-11-21

    An investigation has been made of glass beads and optical fibres as novel dosimeters for small-field photon radiation therapy dosimetry. Commercially available glass beads of largest dimension 1.5 mm and GeO2-doped SiO2 optical fibres of 5 mm length and 120 µm diameter were characterized as thermoluminescence dosimeters. Results were compared against Monte-Carlo simulations with BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and a high-resolution 2D-array of liquid-filled ionization chambers. Measurements included relative output factors and dose profiles for square-field sizes of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 cm. A customized Solid-Water® phantom was employed, and the beads and fibres were placed at defined positions along the longitudinal axis to allow accurate beam profile measurement. Output factors and the beam profile parameters were compared against those calculated by BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc. The output factors and field width measurements were found to be in agreement with reference measurements to within better than 3.5% for all field sizes down to 2 cm2 for both dosimetric systems, with the beads showing a discrepancy of no more than 2.8% for all field sizes. The results confirm the potential of the beads and fibres as thermoluminescent dosimeters for use in small photon radiation field sizes.

  17. Young's double-slit experiment in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the transmission of a photonic crystal perforated by two subwavelength slits, separated by two wavelengths. The experimental near-field image of the double-slit design of the photonic crystal shows an interference pattern, which is analogous to Young's experiment. This interference arises as a consequence of the excitation of surface states of the photonic crystals and agrees very well with the simulations.

  18. Hydrogen sensor based on metallic photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Nau, D; Seidel, A; Orzekowsky, R B; Lee, S-H; Deb, S; Giessen, H

    2010-09-15

    We present a hydrogen sensor based on metallic photonic crystal slabs. Tungsten trioxide (WO(3)) is used as a waveguide layer below an array of gold nanowires. Hydrogen exposure influences the optical properties of this photonic crystal arrangement by gasochromic mechanisms, where the photonic crystal geometry leads to sharp spectral resonances. Measurements reveal a change of the transmission depending on the hydrogen concentration. Theoretical limits for the detection range and sensitivity of this approach are discussed.

  19. Young's double-slit experiment in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2012-10-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the transmission of a photonic crystal perforated by two sub-wavelength slits, separated by two wavelengths.The experimental near-field image of the double-slit design of the photonic crystal shows an interference pattern, which is analogous to Young’s experiment. This interference arises as a consequence of the excitation of surface states of the photonic crystals and agrees very well with the simulations.

  20. Photonic crystal self-collimation sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Wang, Hailing; Xue, Qikun; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-05-21

    A novel refractive index sensor based on the two dimensional photonic crystal folded Michelson interferometer employing the self-collimation effect is proposed and its performances are theoretically investigated. Two sensing areas are included in the sensor. Simulation results indicate the branch area is suitable for the small index variety range and fine detection, whereas the reflector area prone to the large index change range and coarse detection. Because of no defect waveguides and no crosstalk of signal, the sensor is desirable to perform monolithic integrated, low-cost, label-free real-time parallel sensing. In addition, a flexible design of self-collimation sensors array is demonstrated.

  1. Tuning quantum correlations with intracavity photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Maria M. de; Gomila, Damia; Zambrini, Roberta; Garcia-March, Miguel Angel

    2011-09-15

    We show how to tune quantum noise in nonlinear systems by means of periodic spatial modulation. We prove that the introduction of an intracavity photonic crystal in a multimode optical parametric oscillator inhibits and enhances light quantum fluctuations. Furthermore, it leads to a significant noise reduction in field quadratures, robustness of squeezing in a wider angular range, and spatial entanglement. These results have potential benefits for quantum imaging, metrology, and quantum information applications and suggest a control mechanism of fluctuations by spatial modulation of interest also in other nonlinear systems.

  2. Super-collimation by axisymmetric photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Purlys, V.; Gailevičius, D.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Maigyte, L.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-06-02

    We propose and experimentally show the mechanism of beam super-collimation by axisymmetric photonic crystals, specifically by periodic (in propagation direction) structure of layers of concentric rings. The physical mechanism behind the effect is an inverse scattering cascade of diffracted wave components back into on- and near-axis angular field components, resulting in substantial enhancement of intensity of these components. We explore the super-collimation by numerical calculations and prove it experimentally. We demonstrate experimentally the axial field enhancement up to 7 times in terms of field intensity.

  3. Vorticity cutoff in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel

    2005-07-22

    Using group-theory arguments, we demonstrate that, unlike in homogeneous media, no symmetric vortices of arbitrary order can be generated in two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear systems possessing a discrete-point symmetry. The only condition needed is that the nonlinearity term exclusively depends on the modulus of the field. In the particular case of 2D periodic systems, such as nonlinear photonic crystals or Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, it is shown that the realization of discrete symmetry forbids the existence of symmetric vortex solutions with vorticity higher than two.

  4. Anomalous bending effect in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Jiang, Zhi; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-04-14

    An unexpected transmission loss up to 50% occurs to intense femtosecond pulses propagating along an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber over a length of 1 m. A specific leaky-fiber mode gains amplification along the fiber at the expense of the fundamental fiber mode through stimulated four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, leading to this transmission loss. Bending near the fiber entrance dissipates the propagating seed of this leaky mode, preventing the leaky mode amplification and therefore enhancing the transmission of these pulses.

  5. Biomimetic Photonic Crystals based on Diatom Algae Frustules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishler, Jonathan; Alverson, Andrew; Herzog, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Diatom algae are unicellular, photosynthetic microorganisms with a unique external shell known as a frustule. Frustules, which are composed of amorphous silica, exhibit a unique periodic nano-patterning, distinguishing diatoms from other types of phytoplankton. Diatoms have been studied for their distinctive optical properties due to their resemblance of photonic crystals. In this regard, diatoms are not only considered for their applications as photonic crystals, but also for their use as biomimetic templates for artificially fabricated photonic crystals. Through the examination and measurement of the physical characteristics of many scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of diatom frustules, a biomimetic photonic crystal derived from diatom frustules can be recreated and modeled with the finite element method. In this approach, the average geometries of the diatom frustules are used to recreate a 2-dimensional photonic crystal, after which the electric field distribution and optical transmission through the photonic crystal are both measured. The optical transmission is then compared to the transmission spectra of a regular hexagonal photonic crystal, revealing the effects of diatom geometry on their optical properties. Finally, the dimensions of the photonic crystal are parametrically swept, allowing for further control over the transmission of light through the photonic crystal.

  6. Switchable Photonic Crystals Using One-Dimensional Confined Liquid Crystals for Photonic Device Application.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Lee, Wonsuk; Choi, Suk-Won; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-01-25

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene. The resultant mixture of LCs in the porous AAO film exhibits a reversible PBG, depending on the cis/trans configuration of azobenzene molecules. The PBG switching is reliable over many cycles, suggesting that the fabricated device can be used in optical and photonic applications such as light modulators, smart windows, and sensors.

  7. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwangyun; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-11-04

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramatically improve many high-precision comb applications. To date, ultrahigh quality-factor (Q) optical resonators have been used to achieve the highest-level repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers. However, ultrahigh-Q optical-resonator-based methods are often fragile, alignment sensitive and complex, which limits their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a fibre-delay line-based repetition-rate stabilization method that enables the all-fibre photonic generation of optical pulse trains with 980-as (20-fs) absolute r.m.s. timing jitter accumulated over 0.01 s (1 s). This simple approach is based on standard off-the-shelf fibre components and can therefore be readily used in various comb applications that require ultra-stable microwave frequency and attosecond optical timing.

  8. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kwangyun; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-11-01

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramatically improve many high-precision comb applications. To date, ultrahigh quality-factor (Q) optical resonators have been used to achieve the highest-level repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers. However, ultrahigh-Q optical-resonator-based methods are often fragile, alignment sensitive and complex, which limits their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a fibre-delay line-based repetition-rate stabilization method that enables the all-fibre photonic generation of optical pulse trains with 980-as (20-fs) absolute r.m.s. timing jitter accumulated over 0.01 s (1 s). This simple approach is based on standard off-the-shelf fibre components and can therefore be readily used in various comb applications that require ultra-stable microwave frequency and attosecond optical timing.

  9. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwangyun; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramatically improve many high-precision comb applications. To date, ultrahigh quality-factor (Q) optical resonators have been used to achieve the highest-level repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers. However, ultrahigh-Q optical-resonator-based methods are often fragile, alignment sensitive and complex, which limits their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a fibre-delay line-based repetition-rate stabilization method that enables the all-fibre photonic generation of optical pulse trains with 980-as (20-fs) absolute r.m.s. timing jitter accumulated over 0.01 s (1 s). This simple approach is based on standard off-the-shelf fibre components and can therefore be readily used in various comb applications that require ultra-stable microwave frequency and attosecond optical timing. PMID:26531777

  10. Thermoluminescent sensitivity of single clad neodymium doped SiO2 optical fibres measured with 6 MeV photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, M. A.; Hossain, I.; Hida, N.; Wagiran, H.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the thermoluminescent sensitivity of neodymium doped SiO2 optical fibre with various dose ranges from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy by 6 MeV photon irradiations. The TL responses of the neodymium doped silica fibres are compared with available TLD-100 dosimeter in order to determine the suitability as a TL material. We found that the TLD-100 and neodymium doped silica fibre have a significant linear signal to dose relationship. Neodymium doped fibres sensitivity is approximately 11% of TLD-100.

  11. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features.

  12. Connected hexagonal photonic crystals with largest full band gap.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Chen, Y; Chern, R; Chang, Chien

    2005-10-03

    A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a large full band gap has been designed, fabricated, and characterized. The photonic crystal design was based on a calculation using inverse iteration with multigrid acceleration. The fabrication of the photonic crystal on silicon was realized by the processes of electron-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching. It was found that the hexagonal array of circular columns and rods has an optimal full photonic band gap. In addition, we show that a larger extraction of light from our designed photonic crystal can be obtained when compared with the frequently used photonic crystals reported previously. Our designed PC structure therefore should be very useful for creating highly efficient optoelectronic devices.

  13. Dielectric matrices with air cavities as a waveguide photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Skripal', A. V.; Merdanov, M. K.; Gorlitskii, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    Frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient of a microwave photonic crystal that represents a structure containing alternating layers of ceramic material (Al2O3) with a relatively large number of cavities and foam plastic are studied in the presence and absence of distortions of the periodicity of a photonic structure. The frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient can be analyzed using a model of effective medium that makes it possible to consider the interaction of electromagnetic wave and photonic crystal using a transfer matrix of a 1D photonic crystal. The band character of the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficient of the photonic crystal related to the periodicity of the photonic crystal in the transverse plane for the waveguide with a standard cross section is not manifested in a certain range of material permittivities.

  14. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  15. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  16. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  17. Flexible photonic crystals for strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Luís M.; Gonçalves, M. Clara; Almeida, Rui M.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals (PCs) have been studied as possible strain sensing materials, based on strain-induced stop band frequency shifting. Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres, achieved by sedimentation over a flexible polyimide tape substrate whose surface hydrophilicity was optimized in order to achieve maximum wettability, led to an organized 3-D direct opal template. This was infiltrated with a silica sol-gel solution by dip-coating or by chemical vapour deposition and an inverse opal structure was ultimately obtained by chemical dissolution of the polymer template. The structural and optical properties of these PCs have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV/visible spectroscopy under variable degrees of strain. FE-SEM showed the presence of ordered domains up to ∼30 μm2. A mechano-optical effect was evidenced by strain-induced shifting of the photonic stop band peak wavelength of the direct, infiltrated and inverse opals up to 50 nm in transmission mode, due to changes in interplanar spacing upon bending the flexible PCs. Optical response strain cycles were studied, suggesting the possible use of these structures in reversible photonic strain sensors integrated in sensor/actuator devices.

  18. Gallium Nitride Based Logpile Photonic Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Wang, George T.; Fischer, Arthur J.

    2011-11-09

    A nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) is demonstrated composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ~ 100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a ''line-defect'' cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25–30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride-based optoelectronic devices.

  19. Gallium nitride based logpile photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Wang, George T; Fischer, Arthur J

    2011-11-09

    We demonstrate a nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ∼100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a "line-defect" cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25-30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride based optoelectronic devices.

  20. Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2009-07-16

    In three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals, refractive-index variations with a periodicity comparable to the wavelength of the light passing through the crystal give rise to so-called photonic bandgaps, which are analogous to electronic bandgaps for electrons moving in the periodic electrostatic potential of a material's crystal structure. Such 3D photonic bandgap crystals are envisioned to become fundamental building blocks for the control and manipulation of photons in optical circuits. So far, such schemes have been pursued by embedding artificial defects and light emitters inside the crystals, making use of 3D bandgap directional effects. Here we show experimentally that photons can be controlled and manipulated even at the 'surface' of 3D photonic crystals, where 3D periodicity is terminated, establishing a new and versatile route for photon manipulation. By making use of an evanescent-mode coupling technique, we demonstrate that 3D photonic crystals possess two-dimensional surface states, and we map their band structure. We show that photons can be confined and propagate through these two-dimensional surface states, and we realize their localization at arbitrary surface points by designing artificial surface-defect structures through the formation of a surface-mode gap. Surprisingly, the quality factors of the surface-defect mode are the largest reported for 3D photonic crystal nanocavities (Q up to approximately 9,000). In addition to providing a new approach for photon manipulation by photonic crystals, our findings are relevant for the generation and control of plasmon-polaritons in metals and the related surface photon physics. The absorption-free nature of the 3D photonic crystal surface may enable new sensing applications and provide routes for the realization of efficient light-matter interactions.

  1. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  2. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  3. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  4. Waveguide circuits in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Rana; Christensen, C.; Muehlmeier, J.; Tuttle, G.; Ho, K.-M.

    2008-04-07

    Waveguide circuits in three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete photonic band gaps are simulated with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, and compared with measurements on microwave scale photonic crystals. The transmission through waveguide bends critically depends on the photonic crystal architecture in the bend region. We have found experimentally and theoretically, a new waveguide bend configuration consisting of overlapping rods in the bend region, that performs better than the simple waveguide bend of terminated rods, especially in the higher frequency portion of the band. Efficient beam splitters with this junction geometry are also simulated.

  5. Dispersion Based Photonic-Crystal Structures for RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    engineered photonic crystal devices," Integrated Photonics Research and Applications and the Nanophotonics Topical Meetings (IPRA/NANO), Uncasville, CT, Apr...D. W. Prather, Integrated Photonics Research, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of American, Washington DC, 2003), p- 3 9 . 41 X. Yu and S. Fan

  6. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  7. Inexpensive photonic crystal spectrometer for colorimetric sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Kurt M; Jia, Zhang; Pervez, Nadia K; Cox, Marshall P; Gazes, Michael J; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2013-02-25

    Photonic crystal spectrometers possess significant size and cost advantages over traditional grating-based spectrometers. In a previous work [Pervez, et al, Opt. Express 18, 8277 (2010)] we demonstrated a proof of this concept by implementing a 9-element array photonic crystal spectrometer with a resolution of 20 nm. Here we demonstrate a photonic crystal spectrometer with improved performance. The dependence of the spectral recovery resolution on the number of photonic crystal arrays and the width of the response function from each photonic crystal is investigated. A mathematical treatment, regularization based on known information of the spectrum, is utilized in order to stabilize the spectral estimation inverse problem and achieve improved spectral recovery. Colorimetry applications, the measurement of CIE 1931 chromaticities and the color rendering index, are demonstrated with the improved spectrometer.

  8. Silicon-based photonic crystal waveguides and couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Stephen G.

    2008-10-01

    Most commercial photonics-related research and development efforts currently fall into one or both of the following technological sectors: silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics [18] is the field concerned with assimilating photonic elements into the well-established CMOS VLSI architecture and IC manufacturing. The convergence of these technologies would be mutually advantageous: photonic devices could increase bus speeds and greatly improve chip-to-chip and board-to-board data rates, whereas photonics, as a field, would benefit from mature silicon manufacturing and economies of scale. On the other hand, those in the photonic integrated circuit sector seek to continue the miniaturization of photonic devices in an effort to obtain an appreciable share of the great windfall of profits that occur when manufacturing, packaging, and testing costs are substantially reduced by shrinking photonic elements to chip-scale dimensions. Integrated photonics companies may [12] or may not [34] incorporate silicon as the platform. In this thesis, we seek to further develop a technology that has the potential to facilitate the forging of silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits: photonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We will first present a brief overview of photonic crystals and their physical properties. We will then detail a finely-tuned procedure for fabricating two-dimensional photonic crystal in the silicon-on-insulator material system. We will then examine transmission properties of our fabricated devices including propagation loss, group index dispersion, and coupling efficiency of directional couplers. Finally, we will present a description of a system for adiabatically tapering optical fibers and the results of using tapered fibers for efficiently coupling light into photonic crystal devices.

  9. Weyl Points and Line Nodes in Gyroid Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Weyl points and line nodes in gyroid photonic crystals Ling Lu*, Liang Fu, John D...are predicted to be topologically non-trivial. However, Weyl points are yet to be discovered in nature. Here, we report photonic crystals based on...2D periodic systems. For example, most of the remarkable properties of graphene are tied to the Dirac points at its Fermi level1,2. In photonics , 2D

  10. Spatial optical solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2002-03-01

    We study spatial optical solitons in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal created by an array of thin-film nonlinear waveguides, the so-called Dirac-comb nonlinear lattice. We analyze modulational instability of the extended Bloch-wave modes and also investigate the existence and stability of bright, dark, and "twisted" spatially localized modes in such periodic structures. Additionally, we discuss both similarities and differences of our general results with the simplified models of nonlinear periodic media described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived in the tight-binding approximation, and the coupled-mode theory, valid for shallow periodic modulations of the optical refractive index.

  11. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Dorfner, D; Zabel, T; Hürlimann, T; Hauke, N; Frandsen, L; Rant, U; Abstreiter, G; Finley, J

    2009-08-15

    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine serum albumin) on the sensor surface. Experiments were performed by evanescent excitation of the cavity mode via a PhC waveguide. This in turn is coupled to a ridge waveguide that allows the introduction of a fluid flow cell on a chip. A response of partial delta lambda/delta c=(4.54+/-0.66)x10(5)nm/M is measured leading to a measured detection limit as good as Delta m=4.0+/-0.6 fg or Delta m/Delta A=(4.9+/-0.7)x10(2)pg/mm(2)in the sensitive area.

  12. Enhanced photoacoustic detection using photonic crystal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Kaiyang; McClelland, John; Lu, Meng

    2014-04-21

    This paper demonstrates the enhanced photoacoustic sensing of surface-bound light absorbing molecules and metal nanoparticles using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) substrate. The PC structure functions as an optical resonator at the wavelength where the analyte absorption is strong. The optical resonance of the PC sensor provides an intensified evanescent field with respect to the excitation light source and results in enhanced optical absorption by surface-immobilized samples. For the analysis of a light absorbing dye deposited on the PC surface, the intensity of photoacoustic signal was enhanced by more than 10-fold in comparison to an un-patterned acrylic substrate. The technique was also applied to detect gold nanorods and exhibited more than 40 times stronger photoacoustic signals. The demonstrated approach represents a potential path towards single molecule absorption spectroscopy with greater performance and inexpensive instrumentation.

  13. Bio-inspired photonic crystals with superwettability.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wang, Jingxia; Jiang, Lei

    2016-12-21

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique light manipulation and potential applications in sensing, catalysts, detection, displays, solar cells and other fields. In particular, many novel applications of PCs are derived from their surface wettability. Generally, the wettability of PCs is determined by a combination of its surface geometrical structures and surface chemical compositions. This review focuses on the recent developments in the mechanism, fabrication and application of bio-inspired PCs with superwettability. It includes information on constructing superwetting PCs based on designing the topographical structure and regulating the surface chemical composition, and information on extending the practical applications of superwetting PCs in humidity/oil/solvent sensing, actuating, anti-fouling and liquid-impermeable surface, chemical detection, etc.

  14. Photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Quiring, W.; Al-Hmoud, M.; Reuter, D.; Zrenner, A.; Rai, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-07-27

    We report about the fabrication and analysis of high Q photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky-contacts. The structures are based on GaAs n-i membranes with an InGaAs quantum well in the i-region and nanostructured low ohmic metal top-gates. They are designed for photocurrent readout within the cavity and fast electric manipulations. The cavity structures are characterized by photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy under resonant excitation. We find strong cavity resonances in the photocurrent spectra and surprisingly high Q-factors up to 6500. Temperature dependent photocurrent measurements in the region between 4.5 K and 310 K show an exponential enhancement of the photocurrent signal and an external quantum efficiency up to 0.26.

  15. Polarization modulation instability in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Kruhlak, R J; Wong, G K; Chen, J S; Murdoch, S G; Leonhardt, R; Harvey, J D; Joly, N Y; Knight, J C

    2006-05-15

    Polarization modulation instability (PMI) in birefringent photonic crystal fibers has been observed in the normal dispersion regime with a frequency shift of 64 THz between the generated frequencies and the pump frequency. The generated sidebands are orthogonally polarized to the pump. From the observed PMI frequency shift and the measured dispersion, we determined the phase birefringence to be 5.3 x 10(-5) at a pump wavelength of 647.1 nm. This birefringence was used to estimate the PMI gain as a function of pump wavelength. Four-wave mixing experiments in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regimes generated PMI frequency shifts that show good agreement with the predicted values over a 70 THz range. These results could lead to amplifiers and oscillators based on PMI.

  16. Tuning light focusing with liquid crystal infiltrated graded index photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.; Giden, I. H.; Kurt, H.

    2017-01-01

    We perform numerical analyses of tunable graded index photonic crystals based on liquid crystals. Light manipulation with such a photonic medium is explored and a new approach for active tuning of the focal distance is proposed. The graded index photonic crystal is realized using the symmetry reduced unit element in two-dimensional photonic crystals without modifying the dielectric filling fraction or cell size dimensions. By applying an external static electric field to liquid crystals, their refractive indices and thus, the effective refractive index of the whole graded index photonic crystal will be changed. Setting the lattice constant to a=400 nm yields a tuning of 680 nm for focal point position. This property can be used for designing an electro-optic graded index photonic crystal-based flat lens with a tunable focal point. Future optical systems may have benefit from such tunable graded index lenses.

  17. Semicrystalline woodpile photonic crystals without complicated alignment via soft lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kuang, Ping; Leung, Wai; Kim, Yong-Sung; Park, Joong-Mok; Kang, Henry; Constant, Kristen; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2010-05-13

    We report the fabrication and characterization of woodpile photonic crystals with up to 12 layers through titania nanoparticle infiltration of a polymer template made by soft lithography. Because the complicated alignment in the conventional layer-by-layer fabrication associated with diamondlike symmetry is replaced by a simple 90{sup o} alignment, the fabricated photonic crystal has semicrystalline phase. However, the crystal performs similarly to a perfectly aligned crystal for the light propagation integrated from the surface normal to 30{sup o} at the main photonic band gap.

  18. Photonic crystal light-emitting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurélien; Benisty, Henri; Weisbuch, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodically structured optical media offering the opportunity for spontaneous emission (SpE) to be strongly controlled in spatial terms (directions) or in absolute terms (rates). We discuss the application of this concept for practical light-emitting sources, summarizing the principles and actual merits of various approaches based on two- and three-dimensional PhCs. We take into consideration the numerous constraints on real-world light-emitting structures and materials. The various mechanisms through which modified photonic bands and band gaps can be used are first revisited in view of their use in light sources. We then present an in-depth discussion of planar emitters and enhanced extraction of light thanks to grating diffraction. Applications to conventional III-V semiconductors and to III-nitrides are reviewed. Comparison with random surface roughening reveals some common physical limitations. Some advanced approaches with complex structures or etched active structures are also discussed. Finally, the most promising mechanism to enhance the SpE rate, the Purcell effect, is considered. Its implementation, including through plasmonic effects, is shown to be effective only for very specific sources. We conclude by outlining the mix of physics and material parameters needed to grasp the relevant issues.

  19. Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Thanks to their high quality factor, combined to the smallest modal volume, defect-cavities in photonic crystal slabs represent a promising, versatile tool for fundamental studies and applications in photonics. In paricular, the L3, H0, and H1 defects are the most popular and widespread cavity designs, due to their compactness, simplicity, and small mode volume. For these cavities, the current best optimal designs still result in Q-values of a few times 105 only, namely one order of magnitude below the bound set by fabrication imperfections and material absorption in silicon. Here, we use a genetic algorithm to find a global maximum of the quality factor of these designs, by varying the positions of few neighbouring holes. We consistently find Q-values above one million - one order of magnitude higher than previous designs. Furthermore, we study the effect of disorder on the optimal designs and conclude that a similar improvement is also expected experimentally in state-of-the-art systems.

  20. Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.

  1. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-03

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  2. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-02-09

    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  3. Thermally Driven Photonic Actuator Based on Silica Opal Photonic Crystal with Liquid Crystal Elastomer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huihui; Li, Jun; Shi, Yang; Guo, Jinbao; Wei, Jie

    2016-04-13

    We have developed a novel thermoresponsive photonic actuator based on three-dimensional SiO2 opal photonic crystals (PCs) together with liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). In the process of fabrication of such a photonic actuator, the LCE precursor is infiltrated into the SiO2 opal PC followed by UV light-induced photopolymerization, thereby forming the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite film with a bilayer structure. We find that this bilayer composite film simultaneously exhibits actuation behavior as well as the photonic band gap (PBG) response to external temperature variation. When the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite film is heated, it exhibits a considerable bending deformation, and its PBG shifts to a shorter wavelength at the same time. In addition, this actuation is quite fast, reversible, and highly repeatable. The thermoresponsive behavior of the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite films mainly derives from the thermal-driven change of nematic order of the LCE layer which leads to the asymmetric shrinkage/expansion of the bilayer structure. These results will be of interest in designing optical actuator systems for environment-temperature detection.

  4. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M.; Corella-Madueño, A.; Rosas-Burgos, R. A.; Reyes, J. Adrian; Avendaño, Carlos G.

    2017-03-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions.

  5. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-03-29

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions.

  6. Spectroscopy of photonic band gaps in mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Voinov, Yu. P.; Shchavlev, V. V.; Bi, Dongxue; Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide have been synthesized by electrochemical etching method. Reflection spectra of the obtained mesoporous samples in a wide spectral range that covers several band gaps are presented. Microscopic parameters of photonic crystals are calculated and corresponding reflection spectra for the first six band gaps are presented.

  7. Dual exposure, two-photon, conformal phasemask lithography for three dimensional silicon inverse woodpile photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shir, Daniel J.; Nelson, Erik C.; Chanda, Debashis; Brzezinski, Andrew; Braun, Paul V.; Rogers, John A.; Wiltzius, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the fabrication and characterization of three dimensional silicon inverse woodpile photonic crystals. A dual exposure, two-photon, conformal phasemask technique is used to create high quality polymer woodpile structures over large areas with geometries that quantitatively match expectations based on optical simulations. Depositing silicon into these templates followed by the removal of the polymer results in silicon inverse woodpile photonic crystals for which calculations indicate a wide, complete photonic bandgap over a range of structural fill fractions. Spectroscopic measurements of normal incidence reflection from both the polymer and siliconphotonic crystals reveal good optical properties.

  8. High extinction ratio bandgap of photonic crystals in LNOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shao-Mei; Cai, Lu-Tong; Jiang, Yun-Peng; Jiao, Yang

    2017-02-01

    A high-extinction-ratio bandgap of air-bridge photonic crystal slab, in the near infrared, is reported. These structures were patterned in single-crystalline LiNbO3 film bonded to SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate by focused ion beam. To improve the vertical confinement of light, the SiO2 layer was removed by 3.6% HF acid. Compared with photonic crystals sandwiched between SiO2 and air, the structures suspending in air own a robust photonic bandgap and high transmission efficiency at valence band region. The measured results are in good agreement with numerically computed transmission spectra by finite-difference time-domain method. The air-bridge photonic crystal waveguides were formed by removing one line holes. We reveal experimentally the guiding characteristics and calculate the theoretical results for photonic crystal waveguides in LiNbO3 film.

  9. Optical extinction due to intrinsic structural variations of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, A. Femius; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-10-01

    Unavoidable variations in size and position of the building blocks of photonic crystals cause light scattering and extinction of coherent beams. We present a model for both two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals that relates the extinction length to the magnitude of the variations. The predicted lengths agree well with our experiments on high-quality opals and inverse opals, and with literature data analyzed by us. As a result, control over photons is limited to distances up to 50 lattice parameters (˜15 μm) in state-of-the-art structures, thereby impeding applications that require large photonic crystals, such as proposed optical integrated circuits. Conversely, scattering in photonic crystals may lead to different physics such as Anderson localization and nonclassical diffusion.

  10. Coupling light in photonic crystal waveguides: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Hemant Sankar; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Varun; Pal, Suchandan

    2016-07-01

    Submicron scale structures with high index contrast are key to compact structures for realizing photonic integrated structures. Ultra-compact optical devices in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates serve compatibility with semiconductor fabrication technology leading to reduction of cost and mass production. Photonic crystal structures possess immense potential for realizing various compact optical devices. However, coupling light to photonic crystal waveguide structures is crucial in order to achieve strong transmission and wider bandwidth of signal. Widening of bandwidth will increase potential for various applications and high transmission will make easy signal detection at the output. In this paper, the techniques reported so far for coupling light in photonic crystal waveguides have been reviewed and analyzed so that a comprehensive guide for an efficient coupling to photonic crystal waveguides can be made possible.

  11. Valley photonic crystals for control of spin and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry. We observe photonic valley Hall effect originating from valley-dependent spin-split bulk bands, even in topologically trivial photonic crystals. Valley-spin locking behaviour results in selective net spin flow inside bulk valley photonic crystals. We also show the independent control of valley and topology in a single system that has been long pursued in electronic systems, resulting in topologically-protected flat edge states. Valley photonic crystals not only offer a route towards the observation of non-trivial states, but also open the way for device applications in integrated photonics and information processing using spin-dependent transportation.

  12. Photonic-crystal slab for terahertz-wave technology platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-03-01

    Photonic crystals manipulate photons in a manner analogous to solid-state crystals, and are composed of a dielectric material with a periodic refractive index distribution. In particular, two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs with high index contrasts (semiconductor/air) are promising for practical applications, owing to the strong optical confinement in simple, thin planar structures. This paper presents the recent progress on a silicon photonic-crystal slab as a technology platform in the terahertz-wave region, which is located between the radio and light wave regions (0.1-10 THz). Extremely low-loss (<0.1 dB/cm) terahertz waveguides based on the photonic-bandgap effect as well as dynamic control and modulation of a terahertz-wave transmission in a photonic-crystal slab by the effective interaction between photoexcited carriers and the terahertz-wave trapping due to the photonic band-edge effect are demonstrated. Terahertz photonic-crystal slabs hold the potential for developing ultralow-loss, compact terahertz components and integrated devices used in applications including wireless communication, spectroscopic sensing, and imaging.

  13. Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Patrick C; Ganesh, Nikhil; Cunningham, Brian T

    2008-12-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces are demonstrated as a means for enhancing the detection sensitivity and resolution for assays that use a fluorescent tag to quantify the concentration of an analyte protein molecule in a liquid test sample. Computer modeling of the spatial distribution of resonantly coupled electromagnetic fields on the photonic crystal surface are used to estimate the magnitude of enhancement factor compared to performing the same fluorescent assay on a plain glass surface, and the photonic crystal structure is fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the performance using a sandwich immunoassay for the protein tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). The demonstrated photonic crystal fabrication method utilizes a nanoreplica molding technique that allows for large-area inexpensive fabrication of the structure in a format that is compatible with confocal microarray laser scanners. The signal-to-noise ratio for fluorescent spots on the photonic crystal is increased by at least 5-fold relative to the glass slide, allowing a TNF-alpha concentration of 1.6 pg/mL to be distinguished from noise on a photonic crystal surface. In addition, the minimum quantitative limit of detection on the photonic crystal surface is one-third the limit on the glass slide--a decrease from 18 to 6 pg/mL. The increased performance of the immunoassay allows for more accurate quantitation of physiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-alpha in a protein microarray format that can be expanded to multiple cytokines.

  14. Photonic crystal alloys: a new twist in controlling photonic band structure properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Dong-Uk; Roh, Young-Geun; Yu, Jaejun; Jeon, Heonsu; Park, Q-Han

    2008-04-28

    We identified new photonic structures and phenomenon that are analogous to alloy crystals and the associated electronic bandgap engineering. From a set of diamond-lattice microwave photonic crystals of randomly mixed silica and alumina spheres but with a well defined mixing composition, we observed that both bandedges of the L-point bandgap monotonically shifted with very little bowing as the composition was varied. The observed results were in excellent agreement with the virtual crystal approximation theory originally developed for electronic properties of alloy crystals. This result signifies the similarity and correspondence between photonics and electronics.

  15. Method of construction of composite one-dimensional photonic crystal with extended photonic band gaps.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, V; Perova, T; Moore, R

    2005-10-17

    A method of photonic band gap extension using mixing of periodic structures with two or more consecutively placed photonic crystals with different lattice constants is proposed. For the design of the structures with maximal photonic band gap extension the gap map imposition method is utilised. Optimal structures have been established and the gap map of photonic band gaps has been calculated at normal incidence of light for both small and large optical contrast and at oblique incidence of light for small optical contrast.

  16. Configurable Dirac-like conical dispersions in complex photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changqing; Lai, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We investigate Dirac-like conical dispersions in photonic crystals with complex unit cells. Comparing with photonic crystals with simple unit cells, the complex-unit-cell design can provide extra degrees of freedom to engineer the frequency of the Dirac-like point in a broad frequency regime. Interestingly, we find that many functionalities of double zero media associated with the Dirac-like point are well preserved in such complex photonic crystals, such as wave tunneling, cloaking, wave front control, etc. Different transmission behaviors, e.g., total reflection and negative refraction, can be achieved by shifting the frequency of the Dirac-like point.

  17. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  18. Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Babak; Huang, Jiandong; Soltani, Mohammad; Askari, Murtaza; Mohammadi, Saeed; Rakhshandehroo, Mohammad; Adibi, Ali

    2006-03-20

    Here, we demonstrate a compact photonic crystal wavelength demultiplexing device based on a diffraction compensation scheme with two orders of magnitude performance improvement over the conventional superprism structures reported to date. We show that the main problems of the conventional superprism-based wavelength demultiplexing devices can be overcome by combining the superprism effect with two other main properties of photonic crystals, i.e., negative diffraction and negative refraction. Here, a 4-channel optical demultiplexer with a channel spacing of 8 nm and cross-talk level of better than -6.5 dB is experimentally demonstrated using a 4500 microm(2) photonic crystal region.

  19. Two-pattern compound photonic crystals with a large complete photonic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Lin; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2011-09-15

    We present a set of two-dimensional aperiodic structures with a large complete photonic band gap (PBG), which are named two-pattern photonic crystals. By superposing two substructures without regard to registration, we designed six new aperiodic PBG structures having a complete PBG larger than 15% for {epsilon}{sub 2}/{epsilon}{sub 1} = 11.4. The rod-honeycomb two-pattern photonic crystal provides the largest complete PBG to date. An aperiodic structure becomes the champion structure with the largest PBG. Surprisingly, the TM and TE gaps of a two-pattern photonic crystal are much less interdependent than the PBGs of conventional photonic crystals proposed before, affording interesting capabilities for us to tune the TM and TE PBGs separately. By altering the respective substructures, optical devices for different polarizations (TE, TM, or both) can readily be designed.

  20. Optics in Microstructured and Photonic Crystal Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. C.

    2008-10-01

    The development of optical fibers with two-dimensional patterns of air holes running down their length has reinvigorated research in the field of fiber optics. It has greatly—and fundamentally—broadened the range of specialty optical fibers, by demonstrating that optical fibers can be more "special" than previously thought. Fibers with air cores have made it possible to deliver energetic femtosecond-scale optical pulses, transform limited, as solitons, using single-mode fiber. Other fibers with anomalous dispersion at visible wavelengths have spawned a new generation of single-mode optical supercontinuum sources, spanning visible and near-infrared wavelengths and based on compact pump sources. A third example is in the field of fiber lasers, where the use of photonic crystal fiber concepts has led to a new hybrid laser technology, in which the very high numerical aperture available sing air holes have enabled fibers so short they are more naturally held straight than bent. This paper describes some of the basic physics and technology behind these developments, illustrated with some of the impressive demonstrations of the past 18 months.

  1. Square spiral photonic crystal with visible bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, Joshua D.; Leontyev, Viktor; Taschuk, Michael T.; Kovalenko, Andriy; Brett, Michael J.

    2012-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography was combined with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of titanium dioxide to fabricate a square spiral columnar film with a bandgap in the visible spectral range. Nanoimprint stamps were fabricated with seed spacing ranging from 80 to 400 nm, and four periods of square spiral film were deposited on top of the 320 nm array of seeds. The ratio of lattice spacing, vertical pitch and spiral arm swing was chosen as a : P : A = 1 : 1.35 : 0.7 and the deposition angle was fixed at 86° to maximize the square spiral film's bandgap. Reflectivity measurements show that the fabricated structure exhibit a pseudo-gap centered at around 600 nm wavelength, in good agreement with finite difference electromagnetic simulations. The absence of a full 3D bandgap is due the deviation of GLAD columns' cross-section from the optimal one, which has to be highly elongated in the deposition plane. However, simulations show that a geometry close to the fabricated one will produce a full 3D bandgap, if the structure is inverted. The material refractive index in such an inverted photonic crystal can be as low as n = 2.15.

  2. Photonic crystal cavities and integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lin; Li, ZhiYuan

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to our recent works on photonic crystal (PhC) cavities and related integrated optical structures and devices. Theoretical background and numerical methods for simulation of PhC cavities are first presented. Based on the theoretical basis, two relevant quantities, the cavity mode volume and the quality factor are discussed. Then the methods of fabrication and characterization of silicon PhC slab cavities are introduced. Several types of PhC cavities are presented, such as the usual L3 missing-hole cavity, the new concept waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavity, and the low-index nanobeam cavity. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of cavity are discussed. This will help the readers to decide which type of PhC cavities to use in particular applications. Furthermore, several integrated optical devices based on PhC cavities, such as optical filters, channel-drop filters, optical switches, and optical logic gates are described in both the working principle and operation characteristics. These devices designed and realized in our group demonstrate the wide range of applications of PhC cavities and offer possible solutions to some integrated optical problems.

  3. Photochemistry in photonic crystal fiber nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jocelyn S Y; Euser, Tijmen G; Farrer, Nicola J; Sadler, Peter J; Scharrer, Michael; Russell, Philip St J

    2010-05-17

    We report the use of a liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as a highly controlled photochemical reactor. Hollow-core PCFs have several major advantages over conventional sample cells: the sample volume per optical path length is very small (2.8 nL cm(-1) in the fiber used), long optical path lengths are possible as a result of very low intrinsic waveguide loss, and furthermore the light travels in a diffractionless single mode with a constant transverse intensity profile. As a proof of principle, the (very low) quantum yield of the photochemical conversion of vitamin B(12), cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to hydroxocobalamin ([H(2)OCbl](+)) in aqueous solution was measured for several pH values from 2.5 to 7.5. The dynamics of the actively induced reaction were monitored in real-time by broadband absorption spectroscopy. The PCF nanoreactor required ten thousand times less sample volume compared to conventional techniques. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and optical pump intensity implied that even systems with very small quantum yields can be measured very quickly--in our experiments one thousand times faster than in a conventional cuvette.

  4. Challenges in characterization of photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzycki, Krzysztof; Kobelke, Jens; Mergo, Pawel; Schuster, Kay

    2011-05-01

    We present experience with photonic crystal fiber (PCF) characterization during COST Action 299, focusing on phenomena causing errors and ways to mitigate them. PCFs developed at IPHT Jena (Germany; UMCS Lublin, Poland), designed for single mode operation were coupled to test instruments by fusion splicing to intermediate lengths of telecom single mode fibers (SMF). PCF samples were short (0.5-100 m), with 20-70 dB/km attenuation at 1310 nm and 1550 nm. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) was best for measuring loss as most PCFs produced strong backscattering, while variable splice losses and difficulties with PCF cleaving for optical power measurements made cutback and insertion loss measurements inaccurate. Experience with PCF handling and cleaving is also reviewed. Quality of splices to fiber under test was critical. Excitation of higher order modes produced strong "noise" during measurements of polarization parameters like PMD or PDL. Multimode propagation and vibration-induced interference precluded testing of fine dependence of PMD on temperature or strain, causing random variations comparable to true changes of PMD. OTDR measurements were not affected, but testing of short fiber sections with very different backscattering intensities puts special demands on instrument performance. Temperature testing of liquid-infiltrated PCF was time-consuming, as settling of parameters after temperature change took up to 40 minutes. PCFs were fragile, breaking below 2% linear expansion, sometimes in unusual way when twisted.

  5. Functional photonic crystal fiber sensing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro, Joel; Finazzi, Vittoria; Pruneri, Valerio

    2011-12-01

    We report on a functional, highly reproducible and cost effective sensing platform based on photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). The platform consists of a centimeter-length segment of an index-guiding PCF fusion spliced to standard single mode fibers (SMFs). The voids of the PCF are intentionally sealed over an adequate length in the PCF-SMF interfaces. A microscopic collapsed region in the PCF induces a mode field mismatch which combined with the axial symmetry of the structure allow the efficient excitation and recombination or overlapping of azimuthal symmetric modes in the PCF. The transmission or reflection spectrum of the devices exhibits a high-visibility interference pattern or a single, profound and narrow notch. The interference pattern or the notch position shifts when the length of the PCF experiences microelongations or when liquids or coatings are present on the PCF surface. Thus, the platform here proposed can be useful for sensing diverse parameters such as strain, vibration, pressure, humidity, refractive index, gases, etc. Unlike other PCF-based sensing platforms the multiplexing of the devices here proposed is simple for which it is possible to implement PCF-based sensor arrays or networks.

  6. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ek, Sara; Lunnemann, Per; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

    2014-09-30

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experimentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers.

  7. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, Sara; Lunnemann, Per; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

    2014-09-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experimentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers.

  8. Photonic crystals for improving light absorption in organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duché, D. Le Rouzo, J.; Masclaux, C.; Gourgon, C.

    2015-02-07

    We theoretically and experimentally study the structuration of organic solar cells in the shape of photonic crystal slabs. By taking advantage of the optical properties of photonic crystals slabs, we show the possibility to couple Bloch modes with very low group velocities in the active layer of the cells. These Bloch modes, also called slow Bloch modes (SBMs), allow increasing the lifetime of photons within the active layer. Finally, we present experimental demonstration performed by using nanoimprint to directly pattern the standard poly-3-hexylthiophène:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butiryc acid methyl ester organic semiconductor blend in thin film form in the shape of a photonic crystal able to couple SBMs. In agreement with the model, optical characterizations will demonstrate significant photonic absorption gains.

  9. Enhanced spontaneous Raman scattering using a photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.P.; Falk, J.; Chen, K.; Woodruff, S.D.

    2008-07-22

    The output power from spontaneous gas-phase Raman scattering is enhanced using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for the gas cell and Stokes light collector, yielding >100 times enhancement over a free-space configuration.

  10. The research on a photonic-crystal fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Cheng, Yi

    2009-07-01

    To study the photonic-crystal fiber applied in the chemical sensor, the photonic-crystal fiber was used as transmission medium. With Sol-Gel method, we selective coated thin film containing fluorescent probe in the photonic-crystal fiber core, then attained an excellent photonic-crystal fiber acetylcholinesterase sensor. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could arrive to 1×10-9~ 1×10-3 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 1×10-10 mol/L.

  11. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-12-20

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  12. All-optical gates based on photonic crystal resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moille, Grégory; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    We briefly review the technology of advanced nonlinear resonators for all-optical gating with a specific focus on the application of high-performance signal sampling and on the properties of III-V semiconductor photonic crystals

  13. Imaging of Protein Crystals with Two-Photon Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Padayatti, Pius; Palczewska, Grazyna; Sun, Wenyu; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Salom, David

    2012-05-02

    Second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC), which portrays second-harmonic generation (SHG) by noncentrosymmetric crystals, is emerging as a powerful imaging technique for protein crystals in media opaque to visible light because of its high signal-to-noise ratio. Here we report the incorporation of both SONICC and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) into one imaging system that allows visualization of crystals as small as 10 {mu}m in their longest dimension. Using this system, we then documented an inverse correlation between the level of symmetry in examined crystals and the intensity of their SHG. Moreover, because of blue-green TPEF exhibited by most tested protein crystals, we also could identify and image SHG-silent protein crystals. Our experimental data suggest that the TPEF in protein crystals is mainly caused by the oxidation of tryptophan residues. Additionally, we found that unspecific fluorescent dyes are able to bind to lysozyme crystals and enhance their detection by TPEF. We finally confirmed that the observed fluorescence was generated by a two-photon rather than a three-photon process. The capability for imaging small protein crystals in turbid or opaque media with nondamaging infrared light in a single system makes the combination of SHG and intrinsic visible TPEF a powerful tool for nondestructive protein crystal identification and characterization during crystallization trials.

  14. Reconfigurable and tunable flat graphene photonic crystal circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zan Hui; Tan, Qi Long; Lao, Jieer; Liang, Yao; Huang, Xu Guang

    2015-07-07

    Photonic crystal waveguides and circuits are one of the basic modules for integrated photonic devices. They mainly rely on photonic bandgaps to achieve light confinement and manipulation. Herein, we propose a novel general principle or method to achieve reconfigurable and tunable flat graphene photonic crystals (FG-PCs) by selectively electrostatic gating a layer of graphene with periodic gold electrodes. The tunable flat photonic bandgap structure of the FG-PCs as a function of the Fermi level is investigated. Reconfigurable FG-PC defect waveguides and cavities created by external patterned-gate-voltage control are also proposed and discussed. The features of reconfigurable/tunable FG-PCs will add more flexibility and capabilities for the single chip integration of graphene-based integrated photonic devices.

  15. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  16. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Angeleene S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals. PMID:28112217

  17. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Angeleene S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals.

  18. Subcritical patterns and dissipative solitons due to intracavity photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gomila, Damia; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2007-10-15

    Manipulation of the bifurcation structure of nonlinear optical systems via intracavity photonic crystals is demonstrated. In particular, subcritical regions between spatially periodic states are stabilized by modulations of the material's refractive index. An family of dissipative solitons within this bistability range due to the intracavity photonic crystal is identified and characterized in both one and two transverse dimensions. Nontrivial snaking of the modulated-cavity soliton solutions is also presented.

  19. Enhanced Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics With Microstructure Fibers And Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    NANOHOLES FREQUENCY-TUNABLE ANTI-STOKES LINE EMISSION BY EIGENMODES OF A BIREFRINGENT MICROSTRUCTURE FIBER GENERATION OF FEMTOSECOND ANTI-STOKES PULSES...laser technologies, and ultrafast photonics. ANTI-STOKES GENERATION IN GUIDED MODES OF PHOTONIC-CRYSTAL FIBERS MODIFIED WITH AN ARRAY OF NANOHOLES

  20. Ultra-flattened negative dispersion for residual dispersion compensation using soft glass equiangular spiral photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran Hasan, Md.; Mahmud, R. R.; Morshed, Monir; Rabiul Hasan, Md.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical investigation of an equiangular spiral photonic crystal fibre (ES-PCF) in soft glass for negative flattened dispersion and ultra-high birefringence. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the simulation of the proposed structure. It is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain average negative dispersion of -526.99 ps/nm/km over 1.05-1.70 μm wavelength range with dispersion variation of 3.7 ps/nm/km. The proposed ES-PCF also offers high birefringence of 0.0226 at the excitation wavelength of 1.55 μm. The results here show that the idea of using the proposed fibre can be potential means of effectively directing for residual dispersion compensation, fibre sensor design, long distance data transmission system and so forth.

  1. Polarisation singularities in photonic crystals for an on-chip spin-photon interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggs, Daryl M.; Young, Andrew B.; Thijssen, Arthur C. T.; Oulton, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Integrated quantum photonic chips are a leading contender for future quantum technologies, which aim to use the entanglement and superposition properties of quantum physics to speed up the manipulation of data. Quantum information may be stored and transmitted in photons, which make excellent flying qubits. Photons suffer little from decoherence, and single qubit gates performed by changing photon phase, are straightforward. Less straightforward is the ability to create two qubit gates, where one photon is used to switch another's state; inherently difficult due to the extremely small interaction cross-section between photons. The required deterministic two-qubit interactions will likely need a hybrid scheme with the ``flying'' photonic qubit interacting with a ``static'' matter qubit. Here we present the design of a photonic crystal waveguide structure that can couple electron-spin to photon path, thus providing an interface between a static and a flying qubit. We will show that the complex polarization properties inherent in the photonic crystal eigenmodes supports polarization singularities - positions in the electric field vector where one of the parameters describing the local polarization ellipse is singular - and that these singularities are ideal for a range of quantum information applications. In particular, we will show that by placing a quantum dot at one of these singularities, the electron-spin becomes correlated with the photon emission direction, creating an in-plane spin-photon interface that can transfer quantum information from static to flying qubits.

  2. Heralded single-photon source in a III-V photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex S; Husko, Chad; Collins, Matthew J; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Xavier, Stéphane; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate heralded single-photon generation in a III-V semiconductor photonic crystal platform through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We achieve a high brightness of 3.4×10(7) pairs·s(-1) nm(-1) W(-1) facilitated through dispersion engineering and the suppression of two-photon absorption in the gallium indium phosphide material. Photon pairs are generated with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio over 60 and a low g(2) (0) of 0.06 proving nonclassical operation in the single photon regime.

  3. High resolution reversible color images on photonic crystal substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pilgyu; Ogunbo, Samuel O; Erickson, David

    2011-08-16

    When light is incident on a crystalline structure with appropriate periodicity, some colors will be preferentially reflected (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Meade, R. D.; Winn, J. N. Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1995; p ix, 137 pp). These photonic crystals and the structural color they generate represent an interesting method for creating reflective displays and drawing devices, since they can achieve a continuous color response and do not require back lighting (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Villeneuve, P. R.; Fan, S. H. Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light. Nature 1997, 386, 143-149; Graham-Rowe, D. Tunable structural colour. Nat. Photonics 2009, 3, 551-553.; Arsenault, A. C.; Puzzo, D. P.; Manners, I.; Ozin, G. A. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays. Nat. Photonics 2007, 1, 468-472; Walish, J. J.; Kang, Y.; Mickiewicz, R. A.; Thomas, E. L. Bioinspired Electrochemically Tunable Block Copolymer Full Color Pixels. Adv. Mater.2009, 21, 3078). Here we demonstrate a technique for creating erasable, high-resolution, color images using otherwise transparent inks on self-assembled photonic crystal substrates (Fudouzi, H.; Xia, Y. N. Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers. Langmuir 2003, 19, 9653-9660). Using inkjet printing, we show the ability to infuse fine droplets of silicone oils into the crystal, locally swelling it and changing the reflected color (Sirringhaus, H.; Kawase, T.; Friend, R. H.; Shimoda, T.; Inbasekaran, M.; Wu, W.; Woo, E. P. High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits. Science 2000, 290, 2123-2126). Multicolor images with resolutions as high as 200 μm are obtained from oils of different molecular weights with the lighter oils being able to penetrate deeper, yielding larger red shifts. Erasing of images is done simply by adding a low vapor pressure oil which dissolves the image, returning the substrate to its original state.

  4. Multicore photonic crystal fiber force meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimlinger, M.; Colalillo, A.; Coompson, J.; Wynne, R.

    2011-04-01

    A silica based three core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) force meter with fast response times (<30μs) for low wind speed detection is presented. Results are provided for PCF structures containing cores with varied lattice spacing. Force meters with high spatial resolution (sample regions <10cm) specially outfitted for extreme environmental conditions are of interest to both industry and basic research institutions. The featured PCF force meter exhibited sensitivities that agreed with theoretical predictions that are useful for the detection of minimum displacements for wind speeds <30m/s. The results of this investigation are relevant to civil engineering applications including urban sensing technologies that involve air quality monitoring. The deflection of the PCF detection interface was measured as a function of the fiber deflection or the applied force (e.g. wind speed). The three core PCF has a core diameter of 3.9μm, outer diameter of 132.5μm and 7.56μm core-core spacing. A 4cm length of the PCF is attached to the surface of a thin metal beam. One end of the PCF section is fusion spliced to a single mode fiber (SMF) at the fiber input. The remaining fiber end is coupled to a CCD camera with a lens at the PCF output. The applied force deflects the supported PCF such that the intensity distribution of the optical field for the multiple cores changes as a function of displacement. Experimental results from static deflection measurements are in agreement with coupled-mode theory and simple beam deflection theory models.

  5. Nonreciprocal Electromagnetic Devices in Gyromagnetic Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Rong-Juan; Gan, Lin; Fu, Jin-Xin; Lian, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Gyromagnetic photonic crystal (GPC) offers a promising way to realize robust transport of electromagnetic waves against backscattering from various disorders, perturbations and obstacles due to existence of unique topological electromagnetic states. The dc magnetic field exerting upon the GPC brings about the time-reversal symmetry breaking, splits the band degeneracy and opens band gaps where the topological chiral edge states (CESs) arise. The band gap can originate either from long-range Bragg-scattering effect or from short-range localized magnetic surface plasmon resonance (MSP). These topological edge states can be explored to construct backscattering-immune one-way waveguide and other nonreciprocal electromagnetic devices. In this paper we review our recent theoretical and experimental studies of the unique electromagnetic properties of nonreciprocal devices built in GPCs. We will discuss various basic issues like experimental instrumental setup, sample preparations, numerical simulation methods, tunable properties against magnetic field, band degeneracy breaking and band gap opening and creation of topological CESs. We will investigate the unidirectional transport properties of one-way waveguide under the influence of waveguide geometries, interface morphologies, intruding obstacles, impedance mismatch, lattice disorders, and material dissipation loss. We will discuss the unique coupling properties between one-wave waveguide and resonant cavities and their application as novel one-way bandstop filter and one-way channel-drop filter. We will also compare the CESs created in the Bragg-scattering band gap and the MSP band gap under the influence of lattice disorders. These results can be helpful for designing and exploring novel nonreciprocal electromagnetic devices for optical integration and information processing.

  6. Photonic crystals, light manipulation, and imaging in complex nematic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravnik, Miha; Å timulak, Mitja; Mur, Urban; Čančula, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-03-01

    Three selected approaches for manipulation of light by complex nematic colloidal and non-colloidal structures are presented using different own custom developed theoretical and modelling approaches. Photonic crystals bands of distorted cholesteric liquid crystal helix and of nematic colloidal opals are presented, also revealing distinct photonic modes and density of states. Light propagation along half-integer nematic disclinations is shown with changes in the light polarization of various winding numbers. As third, simulated light transmission polarization micrographs of nematic torons are shown, offering a new insight into the complex structure characterization. Finally, this work is a contribution towards using complex soft matter in optics and photonics for advanced light manipulation.

  7. Observation of extraordinary optical activity in planar chiral photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kuniaki; Bai, Benfeng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Karvinen, Petri; Turunen, Jari; Svirko, Yuri P; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2008-05-12

    Control of light polarization is a key technology in modern photonics including application to optical manipulation of quantum information. The requisite is to obtain large rotation in isotropic media with small loss. We report on extraordinary optical activity in a planar dielectric on-waveguide photonic crystal structure, which has no in-plane birefringence and shows polarization rotation of more than 25 degrees for transmitted light. We demonstrate that in the planar chiral photonic crystal, the coupling of the normally incident light wave with low-loss waveguide and Fabry-Pérot resonance modes results in a dramatic enhancement of the optical activity.

  8. Determination of blood types using a chirped photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinin, A. V.; Zanishevskaja, A. A.; Skibina, Yu. S.; Silokhin, I. Yu.; Tuchin, V. V.; Dubrovskiy, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    A new type of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) that can be used as sensitive elements of chemical and biological sensors is presented. Hollow core photonic crystal fibers refer to a type of optical waveguides, showing unique optical properties such as photonic band gap formation and high sensitivity for refraction index, absorption and scattering coefficient of a medium within a hollow core. A significant influence of internal medium scattering coefficient on a PCF's guiding properties becomes basis for design of blood typing automatization technique specifically. Recently obtained experimental results, regarding PCF's sensitivity for internal medium optical properties changing, are presented as well.

  9. 2D photonic crystal and its angular reflective azimuthal spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderakova, Dagmar; Drzik, Milan; Tomekova, Juliana

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary, attention is paid to photonic crystals, which can strongly modify light propagation through them and enable a controllable light manipulation. The contribution is focused on a sub-wavelength 2D structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Using various laser sources of light at single wavelength, azimuthal angle dependence of the mirror-like reflected light intensity was recorded photo-electrically. The results obtained can be used to sample the band-structure of leaky modes of the photonic crystal more reliably and help us to map the photonic dispersion diagram.

  10. Alignment of crystal orientations of the multi-domain photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, S; Fujita, H; Kinoshita, S; Matsuhana, B

    2014-03-06

    It is known that the wing scales of the emerald-patched cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type photonic crystals, which produce a green structural colour. However, the photonic crystal is not a single crystal that spreads over the entire scale, but it is separated into many small domains with different crystal orientations. As a photonic crystal generally has band gaps at different frequencies depending on the direction of light propagation, it seems mysterious that the scale is observed to be uniformly green under an optical microscope despite the multi-domain structure. In this study, we have carefully investigated the structure of the wing scale and discovered that the crystal orientations of different domains are not perfectly random, but there is a preferred crystal orientation that is aligned along the surface normal of the scale. This finding suggests that there is an additional factor during the developmental process of the microstructure that regulates the crystal orientation.

  11. Formation of collimated beams behind the woodpile photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Trull, J.; Maigyte, L.; Cojocaru, C.; Mizeikis, V.; Malinauskas, M.; Rutkauskas, M.; Peckus, M.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Staliunas, K.

    2011-09-15

    We experimentally observe formation of narrow laser beams behind the woodpile photonic crystal, when the beam remains well collimated in free propagation behind the crystal. We show that the collimation depends on the input laser beam's focusing conditions, and we interpret theoretically the observed effect by calculating the spatial dispersion of propagation eigenmodes and by numerical simulation of paraxial propagation model.

  12. Acousto-optics studied in polaritonic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Racknor, C.

    2010-10-01

    We have studied the acousto-optic effect on the photon transmission and the spontaneous emission in polaritonic photonic crystal. We have considered that photonic crystals are fabricated from polaritonic materials such as GaP, MgO, LiNbO3 , and LiTaO3 . A two-level quantum dot is doped in a polaritonic crystal to study the decay rate of the spontaneous emission. The decay rate of quantum dots, band structure, and photon transmission coefficient have been calculated. It is found that band-gap width and the decay rate of quantum dots depends strongly on the high-frequency dielectric constant of the polaritonic crystals while the photonic band edges vary inversely by the ratio of longitudinal- to transverse-optical phonon energies. The spontaneous decay rate of the quantum dot can be controlled by the external strain field. This finding is significant because it is well known that the spontaneous emission is source of undesirable noise in different types of electronic and optical devices. Finally, we have also found the system can be switched from transmitting state to reflecting state by applying an external strain field. These are distinct and interesting results and can be used to fabricate new types of photonic couplers and fibers which in turn can be used to fabricate all photonic switches.

  13. Huge group-velocity dispersion in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Cai, Yanyan; Meng, Qingsheng; Lu, Yali; Sun, Yiling; Zhang, Dengguo; Ruan, Shuangchen; Li, Jingzhen

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the group-velocity dispersion of a one dimensional uniform photonic crystal by the optical transmission method. For application in optical communications, the wavelength should be near one of the two edges of a photonic bandgap. Four kinds of dispersion-compensation may be obtained with a photonic crystal. Huge negative and positive group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) about a zero-dispersion-point as large as 5.1 Tera- ps/nm/km by a photonic crystal of 100 periods can be realized. Such a value is about 50 Giga times the GVD of conventional dispersion-compensation fibers. The GVD reaches a maximum when the optical length ratio of the high refractive index material to the low refractive index material is 1.2 for given operating parameters. When we keep the optical length of each layer being constant, the GVD is found to increase rapidly with the refractive index ration of the high refractive index material to the low one and even more rapidly with the number of periods of a photonic crystal. Under quite common operating parameters, a thin piece of photonic crystal of 100 periods may play the role of an ordinary dispersion-compensation fiber with a length over 158 kilo-meters.

  14. Manipulating light propagation and emission using photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Rajesh V.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2014-03-31

    We discuss the synthesis and characterization of self-assembled photonic crystals using polymer colloids having sub-micron diameters. The angle resolved optical reflectivity measurements indicate the hybridization between stop gaps in the multiple Bragg diffraction regimes. Each diffraction resonances in the multiple Bragg diffraction regimes are assigned to respective crystal planes. We also discuss laser-induced studies of spontaneous emission in self-assembled photonic crystals having Rhodamine-B dye doped colloids. Our experimental results reveal more than 51% inhibition in emission intensity within the stop gap as compared to a proper reference sample.

  15. Controllable light diffraction in woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chih-Hua; Zeng, Hao; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Maigyte, Lina; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2015-01-12

    An approach to switching between different patterns of light beams transmitted through the woodpile photonic crystals filled with liquid crystals is proposed. The phase transition between the nematic and isotropic liquid crystal states leads to an observable variation of the spatial pattern transmitted through the photonic structure. The transmission profiles in the nematic phase also show polarization sensibility due to refractive index dependence on the field polarization. The experimental results are consistent with a numerical calculation by Finite Difference Time Domain method.

  16. Dynamic Photonic Materials Based on Liquid Crystals (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0059 DYNAMIC PHOTONIC MATERIALS BASED ON LIQUID CRYSTALS (POSTPRINT) Luciano De Sio and Cesare Umeton University...ON LIQUID CRYSTALS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) (see back...10.1016/B978-0-444-62644-8.00001-7. 14. ABSTRACT Liquid crystals, combining optical non-linearity and self-organizing properties with fluidity, and being

  17. Research on interferometric photonic crystal fiber hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hong; Zhang, Zhen-hui; Wang, Fu-yin; Xiong, Shui-dong

    2013-08-01

    Current research on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for acoustic sensing was focused on the PCF's pressure sensitivity enhancement. However, whether the enhancement of the PCF's pressure sensitivity can be actually realized is still controversial. Practical hydrophone, utilizing PCFs, to manifest its superior sensitivity to normal single mode fibers (SMFs) for acoustic sensing, should be made. Account to this point of view, actual hydrophone was fabricated. Index guiding PCF was used, the fiber core is solid silicon dioxide (SiO2), and the cladding is SiO2 filled with lots of periodical transverse circular air hollows. The PCF, mounted on an air-backed mandrel for structural sensitivity enhancement, was used as a sensing arm of the fiber Michelson interferometer. The other arm, so called reference arm, was made of SMF. Faraday rotator mirrors (FRM) were spliced in the end of each interferometric arm account for polarization induced phase fading, which is a common scheme in fiber interferometric sensing systems. A similar hydrophone, with all the same structure except that the PCF was exchanged into SMF, was also fabrication to make the contrast. The narrowlinewidth and frequency-tunable optical fiber laser was used to achieve high accuracy optical interferometric measurement. Meanwhile, the phase generated carrier (PGC) modulation-demodulation scheme was adopted to interrogate the measurand signal. Experiment was done by using acoustic standing-wave test apparatus. Linearity characteristics of the two hydrophones were measured at frequency 100Hz, 500Hz, and 1000Hz, experimental results showed that the maximum error of the linearity was 10%, a little larger than the theoretical results. Pressure sensitivities of the PCF hydrophone and the SMF hydrophone were measured using a reference standard PZT hydrophone in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1600 Hz, the measurement data showed that the sensitivity of the PCF hydrophone was about -162.8 dB re. rad/μPa, with a

  18. Laser radiation frequency doubling in a single-crystal fibre based on a stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kashin, V V; Nikolaev, D A; Rusanov, S Ya; Tsvetkov, V B

    2015-01-31

    We demonstrate the employment of single-crystal optical fibres based on lithium niobate for doubling the laser radiation frequency. The measured characteristics of the fibre confirm its high quality and spatial homogeneity. Parameters of the frequency doublers for neodymium laser radiation (λ = 1 mm) based on fibre and bulk single crystals are compared. Single crystals are grown by the method of laser-heated pedestal growing with heating by radiation of a CO{sub 2} laser (LHPG-method). (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  19. 3D holographic polymer photonic crystal for superprism application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Sasa; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-02-01

    Photonic crystal based superprism offers a new way to design new optical components for beam steering and DWDM application. 3D photonic crystals are especially attractive as they could offer more control of the light beam based on the needs. A polygonal prism based holographic fabrication method has been demonstrated for a three-dimensional face-centered-cubic (FCC)-type submicron polymer photonic crystal using SU8 as the photo-sensitive material. Therefore antivibration equipment and complicated optical alignment system are not needed and the requirement for the coherence of the laser source is relaxed compared with the traditional holographic setup. By changing the top-cut prism structure, the polarization of the laser beam, the exposure and development conditions we can achieve different kinds of triclinic or orthorhombic photonic crystals on demand. Special fabrication treatments have been introduced to ensure the survivability of the fabricated large area (cm2) nano-structures. Scanning electron microscopy and diffraction results proved the good uniformity of the fabricated structures. With the proper design of the refraction prism we have achieved a partial bandgap for S+C band (1460-1565nm) in the [111] direction. The transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are in good agreement with simulated band structure. The superprism effects around 1550nm wavelength for the fabricated 3D polymer photonic crystal have been theoretically calculated and such effects can be used for beam steering purpose.

  20. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  1. Phenomenological study of binding in optically trapped photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystre, D.; Vincent, P.

    2007-08-01

    We describe a phenomenological theory of the phenomenon of binding observed both experimentally and numerically when particles are trapped by an interference system in order to make a structure close to a photonic crystal. This theory leads to a very simple conclusion, which links the binding phenomenon to the bottom of the lowest bandgap of the trapped crystal in a given direction. The phenomenological theory allows one to calculate the period of the trapped crystal by using numerical tools on dispersion diagrams of photonic crystals. It emerges that the agreement of our theory with our rigorous numerical results given in a previous paper [J. Opt A8, 1059 (2006)] is better than 2% on the crystal period. Furthermore, it is shown that in two-dimensional problems and s polarization, all the optical forces derive from a scalar potential.

  2. Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C; Monat, Christelle; Clark, Alex S; Grillet, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Rarity, John G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-09-01

    We report the generation of correlated photon pairs in the telecom C-band at room temperature from a dispersion-engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. The spontaneous four-wave mixing process producing the photon pairs is enhanced by slow-light propagation enabling an active device length of less than 100 μm. With a coincidence to accidental ratio of 12.8 at a pair generation rate of 0.006 per pulse, this ultracompact photon pair source paves the way toward scalable quantum information processing realized on-chip.

  3. A 2D Rods-in-Air Square-Lattice Photonic Crystal Optical Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    photonic crystal switches, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18 (2) (2006) 358–360. [8] Y. Kanamori , K. Inoue, K. Horie, K. Hane, Photonic crystal switch by...Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, pp. 107–108. [9] K. Umemori, Y. Kanamori , K. Hane, A photonic crystal waveguide switch with a movable bridge slab, in: Proceedings of...Umemori, Yoshiaki Kanamori , Kazuhiro Hane, Photonic crystal waveguide switch with a microelectromechanical actuator, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2) (2006

  4. Photonic crystal enhancement of auger-suppressed infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurić, Zoran; Jakšić, Zoran; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Andreas; Matić, Milan; Popović, Mirjana

    2001-04-01

    We examine theoretically and experimentally the possibilities to reach room-temperature background-limited operation of narrow-bandgap compound semiconductor photodetectors in (3-14) micrometer infrared wavelength range. To this purpose we consider the combination of non-equilibrium Auger suppression with photonic crystal enhancement (PCE). This means that Auger generation-recombination processes are suppressed utilizing exclusion, extraction or magnetoconcentration effects or their combination. The residual radiative recombination is removed by immersing the detector active area into a photonic crystal and using the benefits of re-absorption (photon recycling) to effectively increase the radiative lifetime. In this manner the total generation-recombination noise is strongly quenched in sufficiently defect-free device materials. It is concluded that the operation of thus enhanced photonic detectors could even approach signal fluctuation limit.

  5. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids. PMID:26790372

  6. Self-assembled photonic crystals for a chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdillon, C.; Gam Derouich, S.; Daney de Marcillac, W.; Coolen, L.; Maître, A.; Mangeney, C.; Schwob, C.

    2016-03-01

    As they allow the control of light propagation, photonic crystals find many fields of application. Among them, self-assembled 3D-photonic crystals are ordered at the nanometric scale over centrimetric areas. Furthermore, self-assembly allows the design of complexes structures leading, for example, to the controlled disruption of the crystal periodicity (called defect) and the appearance of permitted optical frequency bands within the photonic bandgap. Light frequencies included in the corresponding passband are then localized in the defect allowing manipulation of nano-emitters fluorescence. We present the fabrication and the optical characterization of a heterostructure composed of a sputtered silica layer sandwiched between two silica opals. We show by photoluminescence measurements than this structure strongly modifies the transmitted fluorescence of nanocrystals.

  7. Co-molding of nanoscale photonic crystals and microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chloe E.; Kadiyala, Anand; Srungarapu, Maurya; Liu, Yuxin; Dawson, Jeremy M.

    2014-03-01

    Photonic crystals are nanofabricated structures that enhance light as it is passed through the constructed design. These structures are normally fabricated out of silicon but have shown to be an improvement if fabricated from a more cost effective material. Photonic crystals have uses within biosensing as they may be used to analyze DNA and other analytes. Microfluidic channels are used to transport different analytes and other samples from one end to another. Microfluidics are used in biosensing as a means of transport and are typically fabricated from biocompatible polymers. Integrated together, the photonic crystals and microfluidic channels would be able to achieve better sensing capabilities and cost effective methods for large scale production. Results will be shown from the co-molding.

  8. Parametric Simulations of Slanted 1D Photonic Crystal Sensors.

    PubMed

    Breuer-Weil, Aaron; Almasoud, Naif Nasser; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Yetisen, Ali K; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Butt, Haider

    2016-12-01

    Photonic crystals and band gap materials act as manipulators of light and have a plethora of applications. They are made up of stacks of alternating dielectric constants. This article shows the simulations of an inclined, one dimensional and tuneble photonic crystal, using numerical finite element methods. The photonic crystal was made up of silver nanoparticles embedded in a hydrogel matrix and it has the ability to change and recover its periodicity. A series of factors concerning the geometry of the lattice were tested in order to analyze the efficiency, performance and optimize the properties of the optical sensor. These factors range from the size of the nanoparticles and their density within the stacks, to observing the effect of diffraction angle in readouts.

  9. Logically combined photonic crystal - A Fabry Perot optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-11-01

    We address the logical combination, as opposed to the linear superposition, of two one - dimensional photonic crystals of slightly different periodicities. The original short range translational symmetry is destroyed in these quasi - periodic system. This induces a strong coupling between Bloch modes of different translational wavevectors, and results in a large number of slow modes in such logically combined photonic crystal. In this article, we show by exploiting the beating feature characteristics of the topology of our system, that these slow modes can be effectively described as modes of a Fabry Perot optical cavity made of a homogenous metamaterial with a dispersive refractive index. The homogenized refractive index of the equivalent metamaterial can be obtained from the band structure calculations, using an extended zone scheme. The density of the slow modes in the logically combined photonic crystal is inversely proportional to the group index of the equivalent metamaterial.

  10. Compact Couplers for Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin; Lin, M.C.; Schwartz, Brian; Byer, Robert; McGuinness, Christopher; Colby, Eric; England, Robert; Noble, Robert; Spencer, James; /SLAC

    2012-07-02

    Photonic crystal waveguides are promising candidates for laser-driven accelerator structures because of their ability to confine a speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure. Because of the difference between the group velocity of the waveguide mode and the particle bunch velocity, fields must be coupled into the accelerating waveguide at frequent intervals. Therefore efficient, compact couplers are critical to overall accelerator efficiency. We present designs and simulations of high-efficiency coupling to the accelerating mode in a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide from a waveguide adjoining it at 90{sup o}. We discuss details of the computation and the resulting transmission. We include some background on the accelerator structure and photonic crystal-based optical acceleration in general.

  11. Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Rindorf, Lars; Jensen, Jesper B; Dufva, Martin; Pedersen, Lars Hagsholm; Høiby, Poul Erik; Bang, Ole

    2006-09-04

    We present experimental results showing that long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers can be used as sensitive biochemical sensors. A layer of biomolecules was immobilized on the sides of the holes of the photonic crystal fiber and by observing the shift in the resonant wavelength of a long-period grating it was possible to measure the thickness of the layer. The long-period gratings were inscribed in a large-mode area silica photonic crystal fiber with a CO2 laser. The thicknesses of a monolayer of poly-L-lysine and double-stranded DNA was measured using the device. We find that the grating has a sensitivity of approximately 1.4nm/1nm in terms of the shift in resonance wavelength in nm per nm thickness of biomolecule layer.

  12. Preparation, structural, and calorimetric characterization of bicomponent metallic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Udod, I.; Khayrullin, I. I.; Baughman, R. H.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2007-03-01

    We report preparation and characterization of novel bicomponent metal-based photonic crystals having submicron three-dimensional (3D) periodicity. Fabricated photonic crystals include SiO2 sphere lattices infiltrated interstitially with metals, carbon inverse lattices filled with metal or metal alloy spheres, Sb inverse lattices, and Sb inverse lattices filled with Bi spheres. Starting from a face centered SiO2 lattice template, these materials were obtained by sequences of either templating and template extraction or templating, template extraction, and retemplating. Surprising high fidelity was obtained for all templating and template extraction steps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the structure and the effects of the structure on calorimetric properties. To the best of our knowledge, SAXS data on metallic photonic crystals were collected for first time.

  13. Integrated photonic crystals and quantum well infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Tsui, D. C.; Choi, K. K.

    2004-03-01

    GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) are becoming very reliable technologies that are widely used to detect mid-infrared light. Photonic crystals, on the other hand, are very powerful tools to manipulate light and thus are very crucial elements in future optical integration circuits. have fabricated a series of devices that incorporate QWIP and 2d photonic crystals together on a single GaAs based chip. These devices work at the 7-13 μ m range. Compared with the conventional photonic crystals designed for fiber communication, these devices have the advantage that they only require photolithography instead of e-beam lithography. The fabrication of such devices is thus far less costly and time-consuming.

  14. Excitation enhancement and extraction enhancement with photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin; Zhen, Bo; Chua, Song-Liang; Lee, Jeongwon; Joannopoulos, John

    2015-03-03

    Disclosed herein is a system for stimulating emission from at least one an emitter, such as a quantum dot or organic molecule, on the surface of a photonic crystal comprising a patterned dielectric substrate. Embodiments of this system include a laser or other source that illuminates the emitter and the photonic crystal, which is characterized by an energy band structure exhibiting a Fano resonance, from a first angle so as to stimulate the emission from the emitter at a second angle. The coupling between the photonic crystal and the emitter may result in spectral and angular enhancement of the emission through excitation and extraction enhancement. These enhancement mechanisms also reduce the emitter's lasing threshold. For instance, these enhancement mechanisms enable lasing of a 100 nm thick layer of diluted organic molecules solution with reduced threshold intensity. This reduction in lasing threshold enables more efficient organic light emitting devices and more sensitive molecular sensing.

  15. Liquid crystal claddings for passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2014-10-01

    Silicon photonics allows for high density component integration on a single chip and it brings promise for low-loss, high-bandwidth data processing in modern computing systems. Owing to silicon's high positive thermo-optic coefficient, temperature fluctuations tend to degrade the device performance. This work explores passive thermal stabilization of silicon photonic devices using nematic liquid crystal (NLC) claddings, as they possess large negative thermo-optic coefficients in addition to low absorption at the telecommunication wavelengths.

  16. Phase-sensitive amplification in silicon photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanbing; Husko, Chad; Schröder, Jochen; Lefrancois, Simon; Rey, Isabella H; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-15

    We experimentally demonstrate phase-sensitive amplification in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide based on pump-degenerate four-wave mixing. An 11 dB phase-extinction ratio is obtained in a record compact 196 μm nanophotonic device due to broadband slow light, in spite of the presence of two-photon absorption and free carriers. Numerical calculations show good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Coupled-cavity QED using planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S

    2007-02-23

    We introduce a technique for controlling cavity QED by indirectly coupling two planar-photonic-crystal nanocavities through an integrated waveguide. Guided by an explicit analytical expression for the photon Green function, the resulting optical response of a single quantum dot, embedded in one of the cavities, is shown to be profoundly influenced by the distant cavity. The regimes of cavity QED, e.g., vacuum Rabi splitting, are made significantly easier and richer than with one cavity alone.

  18. Enhanced live cell imaging via photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weili; Long, Kenneth D; Yu, Hojeong; Tan, Yafang; Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-11-21

    We demonstrate photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) microscopy as a surface-specific fluorescence imaging technique to study the adhesion of live cells by visualizing variations in cell-substrate gap distance. This approach utilizes a photonic crystal surface incorporated into a standard microscope slide as the substrate for cell adhesion, and a microscope integrated with a custom illumination source as the detection instrument. When illuminated with a monochromatic light source, angle-specific optical resonances supported by the photonic crystal enable efficient excitation of surface-confined and amplified electromagnetic fields when excited at an on-resonance condition, while no field enhancement occurs when the same photonic crystal is illuminated in an off-resonance state. By mapping the fluorescence enhancement factor for fluorophore-tagged cellular components between on- and off-resonance states and comparing the results to numerical calculations, the vertical distance of labelled cellular components from the photonic crystal substrate can be estimated, providing critical and quantitative information regarding the spatial distribution of the specific components of cells attaching to a surface. As an initial demonstration of the concept, 3T3 fibroblast cells were grown on fibronectin-coated photonic crystals with fluorophore-labelled plasma membrane or nucleus. We demonstrate that PCEF microscopy is capable of providing information about the spatial distribution of cell-surface interactions at the single-cell level that is not available from other existing forms of microscopy, and that the approach is amenable to large fields of view, without the need for coupling prisms, coupling fluids, or special microscope objectives.

  19. Enhanced live cell imaging via photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weili; Long, Kenneth D.; Yu, Hojeong; Tan, Yafang; Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) microscopy as a surface-specific fluorescence imaging technique to study the adhesion of live cells by visualizing variations in cell-substrate gap distance. This approach utilizes a photonic crystal surface incorporated into a standard microscope slide as the substrate for cell adhesion, and a microscope integrated with a custom illumination source as the detection instrument. When illuminated with a monochromatic light source, angle-specific optical resonances supported by the photonic crystal enable efficient excitation of surface-confined and amplified electromagnetic fields when excited at an on-resonance condition, while no field enhancement occurs when the same photonic crystal is illuminated in an off-resonance state. By mapping the fluorescence enhancement factor for fluorophore-tagged cellular components between on- and off-resonance states and comparing the results to numerical calculations, the vertical distance of labelled cellular components from the photonic crystal substrate can be estimated, providing critical and quantitative information regarding the spatial distribution of the specific components of cells attaching to a surface. As an initial demonstration of the concept, 3T3 fibroblast cells were grown on fibronectin-coated photonic crystals with fluorophore-labelled plasma membrane or nucleus. We demonstrate that PCEF microscopy is capable of providing information about the spatial distribution of cell-surface interactions at the single-cell level that is not available from other existing forms of microscopy, and that the approach is amenable to large fields of view, without the need for coupling prisms, coupling fluids, or special microscope objectives. PMID:25265458

  20. Degenerate photon-pair generation in an ultracompact silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    He, Jiakun; Clark, Alex S; Collins, Matthew J; Li, Juntao; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Xiong, Chunle

    2014-06-15

    We demonstrate degenerate, correlated photon-pair generation via slow-light-enhanced spontaneous four-wave mixing in a 96 μm long silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Our device represents a more than 50 times smaller footprint than silicon nanowires. We have achieved a coincidence-to-accidental ratio as high as 47 at a photon generation rate of 0.001 pairs per pulse and 14 at a photon generation rate of 0.023 pairs per pulse, which are both higher than the useful level of 10. This demonstration provides a path to generate indistinguishable photons in an ultracompact platform for future quantum photonic technologies.

  1. Direct fiber-coupled single photon source based on a photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon Lee, Chang-Min; Lim, Hee-Jin; Schlereth, Thomas W.; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2015-08-24

    A single photon source plays a key role in quantum applications such as quantum computers and quantum communications. Epitaxially grown quantum dots are one of the promising platforms to implement a good single photon source. However, it is challenging to realize an efficient single photon source based on semiconductor materials due to their high refractive index. Here we demonstrate a direct fiber coupled single photon source with high collection efficiency by employing a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide and a tapered micro-fiber. To confirm the single photon nature, the second-order correlation function g{sup (2)}(τ) is measured with a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup. The measured g{sup (2)}(0) value is 0.15, and we can estimate 24% direct collection efficiency from a quantum dot to the fiber.

  2. Diamond Opal-Replica Photonic Crystals and Graphitic Metallic Photonic Band Gap Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, A. A.; Baughman, R. H.; Iqbal, Z.; Khayrullin, I. I.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    1998-03-01

    We demonstrate a new method for the formation of photonic bandgap crystals that operate at optical wavelengths. This method involves the templating of a self-assempled SiO2 lattice with diamond, graphite, or amorphous forms of carbon, followed by the removal of the original SiO2 lattice matrix by chemical means. Such carbon opal replicas are the "air type" of photonic crystal (where air replaces silica spheres) that are most favourable for photonic bandgap formation. Surprisingly, the structure of the original opal lattice having a typical cubic lattice dimension of 250 nm) is reliably replicated down to the nanometer scale using either a diamond, graphite, or amorphous carbon templated material. The optical properties of these photonic bandgap crystals are reported and compared with both theory and experimental results on other types of opal-derived lattices that we have investigated. The graphitic reverse opal is the first example of a network type metallic photonic crystal for the optical domain, for which a large photonic bandgap have been predicted.

  3. Photonic crystal microring resonator for label-free biosensing.

    PubMed

    Lo, Stanley M; Hu, Shuren; Gaur, Girija; Kostoulas, Yiorgos; Weiss, Sharon M; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2017-03-20

    A label-free optical biosensor based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal microring resonator with enhanced light-matter interaction is demonstrated. More than a 2-fold improvement in volumetric and surface sensing sensitivity is achieved compared to conventional microring sensors. The experimental bulk detection sensitivity is ~248nm/RIU and label-free detection of DNA and proteins is reported at the nanomolar scale. With a minimum feature size greater than 100nm, the photonic crystal microring resonator biosensor can be fabricated with the same standard lithographic techniques used to mass fabricate conventional microring resonators.

  4. Ballistic transport in one-dimensional random dimer photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherid, Samira; Bentata, Samir; Zitouni, Ali; Djelti, Radouan; Aziz, Zoubir

    2014-04-01

    Using the transfer-matrix technique and the Kronig Penney model, we numerically and analytically investigate the effect of short-range correlated disorder in Random Dimer Model (RDM) on transmission properties of the light in one dimensional photonic crystals made of three different materials. Such systems consist of two different structures randomly distributed along the growth direction, with the additional constraint that one kind of these layers always appear in pairs. It is shown that the one dimensional random dimer photonic crystals support two types of extended modes. By shifting of the dimer resonance toward the host fundamental stationary resonance state, we demonstrate the existence of the ballistic response in these systems.

  5. Reconfigurable photonic crystal using self-initiated gas breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregório, José; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    We present a resonant photonic crystal for which transmission is time-modulated by a self-initiated gaseous plasma. A resonant cavity in the photonic crystal is used to amplify an incoming microwave field to intensities where gas breakdown is possible. The presence of the plasma in the resonant cavity alters the transmission spectrum of the device. We investigate both transient and steady-state operation with computational simulations using a time-domain model that couples Maxwell’s equations and plasma fluid equations. The predicted plasma ignition and stability are then experimentally verified.

  6. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  7. Photonic crystal hydrogel sensor for detection of nerve agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayu; Yan, Chunxiao; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Chaohua; Hu, Xiaochun; Qi, Fenglian

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the photonic crystal hydrogel materials have shown great promise in the detection of different chemical analytes, including creatinine, glucose, metal ions and so on. In this paper, we developed a novel three-dimensional photonic crystal hydrogel, which was hydrolyzed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and immobilized with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride(EDC). They are demonstrated to be excellent in response to sarin and a limit of detection(LOD) of 1×10‑9 mg mL‑1 was achieved.

  8. Surface platinum metal plasma resonance photonic crystal fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Deyu; Chen, Heming; Bai, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    A two rings, triangular lattice photonic crystal fiber sensor element using surface plasma resonance phenomenon is proposed. The performance of the sensor is analyzed by finite element (FEM) analysis software Multiphysics COMSOL. The influence of structural parameters on the performance of the sensor is discussed. The results show that the maximum sensitivity is 6000nm/RIU, when refractive index is in the range of 1.31 to 1.38. The sensor can be directly placed in the liquid and platinum layer is placed outer surface of the photonic crystal fiber, which can simplify the manufacturing process and the measurement process , has important practical value.

  9. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust.

  10. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  11. A metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Shi, Meiyou

    2013-06-01

    A compact metallic photonic crystal mode converter that converts TEM to TE11 mode for a high power transmission system is presented. Metallic photonic crystal is partially filled along azimuthal direction in the device to divide a single coaxial transmission line into two different partitions with different phase propagation constants for phase-shifting. A three row structure is designed and simulated by commercial software cst microwave studio. Simulation results show that it has high conversion efficiency and the bandwidth is 4.1%. Far-field measurement experiment is carried out and get a typical TE11 mode pattern. The result confirms the validity of the design.

  12. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Lili

    2007-01-01

    We study the emission and absorption properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials using Comsol Multiphysics and Ansoft HFSS as simulation tools. We calculate the emission properties of metallic designs using drude model and the results illustrate that an appropriate termination of the surface of the metallic structure can significantly increase the absorption and therefore the thermal emissivity. We investigate the spontaneous emission rate modifications that occur for emitters inside two-dimensional photonic crystals and find the isotropic and directional emissions with respect to different frequencies as we have expected.

  13. Scalable photonic crystal chips for high sensitivity protein detection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Clarke, Nigel; Patel, Parth; Loncar, Marko; Quan, Qimin

    2013-12-30

    Scalable microfabrication technology has enabled semiconductor and microelectronics industries, among other fields. Meanwhile, rapid and sensitive bio-molecule detection is increasingly important for drug discovery and biomedical diagnostics. In this work, we designed and demonstrated that photonic crystal sensor chips have high sensitivity for protein detection and can be mass-produced with scalable deep-UV lithography. We demonstrated label-free detection of carcinoembryonic antigen from pg/mL to μg/mL, with high quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

  14. Polarization-independent waveguiding with annular photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent

    2009-09-28

    A linear waveguide in an annular photonic crystal composed of a square array of annular dielectric rods in air is demonstrated to guide transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes simultaneously. Overlapping of the guided bands in the full band gap of the photonic crystal is shown to be achieved through an appropriate set of geometric parameters. Results of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations to demonstrate polarization-independent waveguiding with low loss and wavelength-order confinement are presented. Transmission through a 90 degrees bend is also demonstrated.

  15. Optical fiber tips functionalized with semiconductor photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambat, Gary; Provine, J.; Rivoire, Kelley; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a simple and rapid epoxy-based method for transferring photonic crystal (PC) cavities to the facets of optical fibers. Passive Si cavities were measured via fiber taper coupling as well as direct transmission from the fiber facet. Active quantum dot containing GaAs cavities showed photoluminescence that was collected both in free space and back through the original fiber. Cavities maintain a high quality factor (2000-4000) in both material systems. This design architecture provides a practical mechanically stable platform for the integration of photonic crystal cavities with macroscale optics and opens the door for innovative research on fiber-coupled cavity devices.

  16. Dispersion engineering in soft glass photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Le Van, Hieu; Pniewski, Jacek; Cao Long, Van; Ramaniuk, Aleksandr; Grajewski, Karol; Chu Van, Lanh; Karpierz, Mirosław; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczynski, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the dispersion characteristic modification in a nonlinear photonic crystal fibre (PCF) infiltrated with organic solvents. The PCF is made of PBG08 glass and was developed in the stack-and-draw process. The PBG08 glass has a high refractive index (n < 2.0), high nonlinear refractive index (n2 = 4.3×10-19 m2/W) and good rheological properties that allow for thermal processing of the glass without crystallization. In the numerical study 18 different solvents were used. The dispersion, mode area, and losses characteristics were calculated. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the fibre can be shifted towards longer wavelengths by approx. 150 nm by using Nitrobenzene as infiltrating liquid and by a smaller value using other liquids. At the same time the mode area of the fundamental mode increases by approx. 5 to 15% depending on the wavelength considered. The confinement losses increase significantly for six analysed liquids by a few orders of magnitude up to 102 dB/m. Our approach allows to combine high nonlinearities of the soft glass with the possibility to tune zero dispersion wavelength to the desired value.

  17. Tm-Doped Fibre Laser Pumped Cr2+:ZnSe Poly-Crystal Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Tang, Yu-Long; Xu, Jian-Qiu; Hang, Yin

    2008-01-01

    Demonstrations of cw lasing in Cr2+:ZnSe poly-crystal are reported. The laser consists of a 1.7-mm-thick Cr2+:ZnSe poly-crystal disc pumped by a Tm-silica double-clad fibre laser at 2050nm. Using a concave high-reflection mirror with a radius of curvature of 500mm as the rear mirror, the laser delivers up to 1030mW of radiation around 2.367 μm.

  18. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Mark J.; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6322 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the ZnII- and CdII-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-­terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine. PMID:16511119

  19. The thermoluminescence response of doped SiO2 optical fibres subjected to photon and electron irradiations.

    PubMed

    Hashim, S; Al-Ahbabi, S; Bradley, D A; Webb, M; Jeynes, C; Ramli, A T; Wagiran, H

    2009-03-01

    Modern linear accelerators, the predominant teletherapy machine in major radiotherapy centres worldwide, provide multiple electron and photon beam energies. To obtain reasonable treatment times, intense electron beam currents are achievable. In association with this capability, there is considerable demand to validate patient dose using systems of dosimetry offering characteristics that include good spatial resolution, high precision and accuracy. Present interest is in the thermoluminescence response and dosimetric utility of commercially available doped optical fibres. The important parameter for obtaining the highest TL yield during this study is to know the dopant concentration of the SiO2 fibre because during the production of the optical fibres, the dopants tend to diffuse. To achieve this aim, proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), which has no depth resolution but can unambiguously identify elements and analyse for trace elements with detection limits approaching microg/g, was used. For Al-doped fibres, the dopant concentration in the range 0.98-2.93 mol% have been estimated, with equivalent range for Ge-doped fibres being 0.53-0.71 mol%. In making central-axis irradiation measurements a solid water phantom was used. For 6-MV photons and electron energies in the range 6, 9 and 12 MeV, a source to surface distance of 100 cm was used, with a dose rate of 400 cGy/min for photons and electrons. The TL measurements show a linear dose-response over the delivered range of absorbed dose from 1 to 4 Gy. Fading was found to be minimal, less than 10% over five days subsequent to irradiation. The minimum detectable dose for 6-MV photons was found to be 4, 30 and 900 microGy for TLD-100 chips, Ge- and Al-doped fibres, respectively. For 6-, 9- and 12-MeV electron energies, the minimum detectable dose were in the range 3-5, 30-50 and 800-1400 microGy for TLD-100 chip, Ge-doped and Al-doped fibres, respectively.

  20. Radiation damping in atomic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Horsley, S A R; Artoni, M; La Rocca, G C

    2011-07-22

    The force exerted on a material by an incident beam of light is dependent upon the material's velocity in the laboratory frame of reference. This velocity dependence is known to be difficult to measure, as it is proportional to the incident optical power multiplied by the ratio of the material velocity to the speed of light. Here we show that this typically tiny effect is greatly amplified in multilayer systems composed of resonantly absorbing atoms exhibiting ultranarrow photonic band gaps. The amplification effect for optically trapped 87Rb is shown to be as much as 3 orders of magnitude greater than for conventional photonic-band-gap materials. For a specific pulsed regime, damping remains observable without destroying the system and significant for material velocities of a few ms(-1).

  1. Dual concentric crystal low energy photon detector

    DOEpatents

    Guilmette, R.A.

    A photon detector for biological samples includes a block of NaI(T1) having a hole containing a thin walled cylinder of CsI(T1). At least three photo multiplier tubes are evenly spaced around the parameter of the block. Biological samples are placed within the hole, and emissions which are sensed by at least two of the photo multipliers from only the NaI(T1) detector are counted.

  2. Silicon photonic crystal thermal emitter at near-infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Bryan J; Wang, Yue; Krauss, Thomas F

    2015-08-21

    Controlling thermal emission with resonant photonic nanostructures has recently attracted much attention. Most of the work has concentrated on the mid-infrared wavelength range and/or was based on metallic nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the experimental operation of a resonant thermal emitter operating in the near-infrared (≈1.5 μm) wavelength range. The emitter is based on a doped silicon photonic crystal consisting of a two dimensional square array of holes and using silicon-on-insulator technology with a device-layer thickness of 220 nm. The device is resistively heated by passing current through the photonic crystal membrane. At a temperature of ≈1100 K, we observe relatively sharp emission peaks with a Q factor around 18. A support structure system is implemented in order to achieve a large area suspended photonic crystal thermal emitter and electrical injection. The device demonstrates that weak absorption together with photonic resonances can be used as a wavelength-selection mechanism for thermal emitters, both for the enhancement and the suppression of emission.

  3. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Yasha; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Duan, Xiaoman; Zeng, Lirong

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  4. Ultra-refractive and extended-range one-dimensional photonic crystal superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, D. Z. Y.

    2003-01-01

    We describe theoretical analysis and design of one-dimensional photonic crystal prisms. We found that inside the photonic crystal, for frequencies near the band edges, light propagation direction is extremely sensitive to the variations in wavelength and incident angle.

  5. Fabrication of colloidal photonic crystal heterostructures free of interface imperfection based on solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomiao; Zhao, Duobiao; Geng, Chong; Zhang, Lijing; Tan, Tianya; Hu, Mingzhe; Yan, Qingfeng

    2014-11-15

    We describe the transformation of a colloidal photonic crystal into a photonic crystal heterostructure. It was achieved by annealing a polystyrene multilayer colloidal photonic crystal partially immersed in water using a solvent vapor. The floating polystyrene colloidal photonic crystal was divided into two parts by the liquid level, which can be manipulated by the addition of ethanol into the water. The top part protruding out of the water experienced a uniform lattice stretching upon exposure to the solvent vapor. The bottom part that stayed immersed in the water remained unaffected due to the protection by the water. The inconsistent behaviors of the two parts resulted in the formation of a colloidal photonic crystal heterostructure. Such a heterostructure was free of interface imperfection since it was a direct descendant of the original colloidal crystal. Meanwhile, optical measurements demonstrated the presence of a wider photonic band gap along the crystallographic [111] direction in these photonic crystal heterostructures compared with the original colloidal photonic crystals.

  6. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  7. Quantum-dot-tagged photonic crystal beads for multiplex detection of tumor markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Huan; Dong, Shujun; Zhu, Peizhi; Diao, Guowang; Yang, Zhanjun

    2014-12-04

    Novel quantum-dot-tagged photonic crystal beads were fabricated for multiplex detection of tumor markers via self-assembly of quantum dot-embedded polystyrene nanospheres into photonic crystal beads through a microfluidic device.

  8. Enhanced trion emission from colloidal quantum dots with photonic crystals by two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingsheng

    2013-11-15

    For colloidal quantum dots, the ongoing biggest problem is their fluorescence blinking. Until now, there is no generally accepted model for this fluorescence blinking. Here, two-photon excited fluorescence from CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals on silicon nitride photonic crystals is studied using a femtosecond laser. From analysis of the spectra and decay processes, most of the relative trion efficiency is larger than 10%, and the largest relative trion efficiency reaches 46.7%. The photonic crystals enhance the trion emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, where the enhancement is due to the coupling of the trion emission to the leaky mode of the photonic crystal slab. Moreover, the photonic crystals enhance the Auger-assisted trapping efficiency of electrons/holes to surface states, and then enhance the efficiency of the generations of charge separation and DC electric field, which modifies the trion spectrum. Therefore, a model is present for explaining the mechanism of fluorescence blinking including the effect of the environment.

  9. Multicolor fluorescence enhancement from a photonics crystal surface

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, A.; Lu, M.; Huang, C. S.; Schulz, S.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    A photonic crystal substrate exhibiting resonant enhancement of multiple fluorophores has been demonstrated. The device, fabricated uniformly from plastic materials over a ∼3×5 in.2 surface area by nanoreplica molding, utilizes two distinct resonant modes to enhance electric field stimulation of a dye excited by a λ=632.8 nm laser (cyanine-5) and a dye excited by a λ=532 nm laser (cyanine-3). Resonant coupling of the laser excitation to the photonic crystal surface is obtained for each wavelength at a distinct incident angle. Compared to detection of a dye-labeled protein on an ordinary glass surface, the photonic crystal surface exhibited a 32× increase in fluorescent signal intensity for cyanine-5 conjugated streptavidin labeling, while a 25× increase was obtained for cyanine-3 conjugated streptavidin labeling. The photonic crystal is capable of amplifying the output of any fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength in the 532 nm<λ<633 nm range by selection of an appropriate incident angle. The device is designed for biological assays that utilize multiple fluorescent dyes within a single imaged area, such as gene expression microarrays. PMID:20957067

  10. Antiresonant guiding photonic crystal fibers for distributed temperature gradient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, R.; Zeng, J.; Kandel, M.; Fam, A. T.; Cartwright, A. N.; Litchinitser, N. M.

    2011-11-01

    We propose, design, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, distributed refractometric measurement technique based on unique spectral properties of antiresonant-guiding photonic crystal fibers for measuring temperature gradients. We use a simple and accurate analytical model and numerical simulations to guide our experiments. The proposed technique may find applications for monitoring and control of chemical and biological reactions in microfluidic systems.

  11. Broadband frequency tripling in locally ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2013-02-25

    We propose and fabricate a LiNbO₃-based nonlinear photonic crystal with locally ordered ferroelectric domains. The nonlinearity modulation provides sets of uniformly distributed reciprocal lattice vectors, ensuring broadband high frequency conversion efficiency. Frequency tripling via cascading is demonstrated in the range of 1400-1830 nm, with energy conversion efficiency up to ∼15%.

  12. Sub- and superdiffractive resonators with intracavity photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Staliunas, K.; Peckus, M.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2007-11-15

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically plane-mirror Fabry-Perot resonators filled by photonic crystals, i.e., with periodic intracavity refraction index modulation. We show that the diffraction properties of such resonators can be manipulated, resulting in sub- and superdiffractive dynamics of light in the resonator, and in hyperbolic angular transmission profiles.

  13. Multicolor fluorescence enhancement from a photonics crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhriyal, A.; Lu, M.; Huang, C. S.; Schulz, S.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2010-09-01

    A photonic crystal substrate exhibiting resonant enhancement of multiple fluorophores has been demonstrated. The device, fabricated uniformly from plastic materials over a ˜3×5 in.2 surface area by nanoreplica molding, utilizes two distinct resonant modes to enhance electric field stimulation of a dye excited by a λ =632.8 nm laser (cyanine-5) and a dye excited by a λ =532 nm laser (cyanine-3). Resonant coupling of the laser excitation to the photonic crystal surface is obtained for each wavelength at a distinct incident angle. Compared to detection of a dye-labeled protein on an ordinary glass surface, the photonic crystal surface exhibited a 32× increase in fluorescent signal intensity for cyanine-5 conjugated streptavidin labeling, while a 25× increase was obtained for cyanine-3 conjugated streptavidin labeling. The photonic crystal is capable of amplifying the output of any fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength in the 532 nm<λ<633 nm range by selection of an appropriate incident angle. The device is designed for biological assays that utilize multiple fluorescent dyes within a single imaged area, such as gene expression microarrays.

  14. Photonic crystal Fano lasers: experiment and theory (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mork, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Xue, Weiqi; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten

    2016-09-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results for a novel laser structure where one of the mirrors is realized by a Fano resonance between the laser waveguide and a side-coupled nano cavity. The laser may be modulated via the mirror resonance, enabling ultrahigh modulatioon speeds and pulse generation. Experimental results for a photonic crystal structure with quantum dot active layers will be presented.

  15. Photonic crystal fiber sensor for magnetic field detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, Sully M. M.; Martelli, Cicero; Kato, Carla C.; Valente, Luiz C. G.; Braga, Arthur M. B.

    2010-09-01

    A magnetic field sensor comprised of a high birefringence photonic crystal fiber coated by a Terfenol-D/Epoxy composite layer is proposed. Magnetic fields induce strains in the magnetostrictive composite that are transferred to the fiber interfering with light propagation. The sensitivity of the developed sensor with magnetic fields is measured to be 6 pm mT-1.

  16. Nano-photonic organic solar cell architecture for advanced light management utilizing dual photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2015-09-01

    Organic solar cells have rapidly increasing efficiencies, but typically absorb less than half of the incident solar spectrum. To increase broadband light absorption, we rigorously design experimentally realizable solar cell architectures based on dual photonic crystals. Our optimized architecture consists of a polymer microlens at the air-glass interface, coupled with a photonic-plasmonic crystal at the metal cathode. The microlens focuses light on the periodic nanostructure that generates strong light diffraction. Waveguiding modes and surface plasmon modes together enhance long wavelength absorption in P3HT-PCBM. The architecture has a period of 500 nm, with absorption and photocurrent enhancement of 49% and 58%, respectively.

  17. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keijiro; Hamachi, Yohei; Baba, Toshihiko

    2009-12-07

    We report on the fabrication of chalcogenide glass (Ag-As(2)Se(3)) photonic crystal waveguides and the first detailed characterization of the linear and nonlinear optical properties. The waveguides, fabricated by e-beam lithography and ICP etching exhibit typical transmission spectra of photonic crystal waveguides, and exhibit high optical nonlinearity. Nonlinear phase shift of 1.5pi through self-phase modulation is observed at 0.78 W input peak power in a 400 microm long device. The effective nonlinear parameter gamma(eff) estimated from this result reaches 2.6 x 10(4) W(-1)m(-1). Four-wave mixing is also observed in the waveguide, while two-photon absorption at optical communication wavelengths is sufficiently small and the corresponding figure of merit is larger than 11.

  19. Spectral property of two-photon flux generated by four-photon scattering in photonic-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbo; Liu, Xueming; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohui

    2010-12-01

    Based on the scalar four-photon scattering process, the quantum state of a lightwave at the output of fiber is derived by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a perturbation theory. The joint spectral function of two photons is achieved from the derived quantum state. The dispersion operator involves the third-order dispersion term in the case that the pump wavelength is close to the zero dispersion wavelength. Simulation results show the first-order approximation of our joint spectral function is in excellent agreement with the complicated exact solution. By analyzing the spectral property of the two-photon flux generated by four-photon scattering in photonic-crystal fibers, it is found that the sign of dispersion has very little influence on the spectrum except the slight modulation instability in the anomalous dispersion domain.

  20. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:28067332

  1. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment.

  2. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-09

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment.

  3. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Raaij, Mark J. van; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  4. Plasmonic photonic crystals realized through DNA-programmable assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Daniel J.; Zhang, Chuan; Ku, Jessie C.; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals have well-established enhanced light–matter interactions via high Q factors. Their plasmonic counterparts based on arrays of nanoparticles, however, have not been experimentally well explored owing to a lack of available synthetic routes for preparing them. However, such structures should facilitate these interactions based on the small mode volumes associated with plasmonic polarization. Herein we report strong light-plasmon interactions within 3D plasmonic photonic crystals that have lattice constants and nanoparticle diameters that can be independently controlled in the deep subwavelength size regime by using a DNA-programmable assembly technique. The strong coupling within such crystals is probed with backscattering spectra, and the mode splitting (0.10 and 0.24 eV) is defined based on dispersion diagrams. Numerical simulations predict that the crystal photonic modes (Fabry–Perot modes) can be enhanced by coating the crystals with a silver layer, achieving moderate Q factors (∼102) over the visible and near-infrared spectrum. PMID:25548175

  5. Photonic crystal waveguides based on wide-gap semiconductor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Aude; Combrié, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    This review is devoted to integrated photonic platforms based on large band-gap semiconductors, alternatives to silicon photonics. The large electronic band gap of the material employed is chosen to address the specific needs of nonlinear optics, and, in particular, lower nonlinear losses and the capability of handling larger optical power densities. Moreover, these new platforms offer broader transmission spectra, extending to the visible spectral region, which is also required for other applications, particularly sensing and bio-related photonics. The focus is on nanoscale patterned waveguiding structures, which, owing to the tight confinement of light, have demonstrated a large nonlinear response. The third-order nonlinear response and the related parametric interactions will be considered here, encompassing four-wave mixing, phase-sensitive amplification, wavelength conversion, and also nonlinear pulse propagation and soliton dynamics. The comparison between different materials and waveguide design highlights specific features of photonic crystal waveguides.

  6. Density of photonic states in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganov, P. V.

    2015-04-01

    Density of photonic states ρ (ω ) , group vg, and phase vph velocity of light, and the dispersion relation between wave vector k , and frequency ω (k ) were determined in a cholesteric photonic crystal. A highly sensitive method (measurement of rotation of the plane of polarization of light) was used to determine ρ (ω ) in samples of different quality. In high-quality samples a drastic increase in ρ (ω ) near the boundaries of the stop band and oscillations related to Pendellösung beatings are observed. In low-quality samples photonic properties are strongly modified. The maximal value of ρ (ω ) is substantially smaller, and density of photonic states increases near the selective reflection band without oscillations in ρ (ω ) . Peculiarities of ρ (ω ) , vg, and ω (k ) are discussed. Comparison of the experimental results with theory was performed.

  7. Invited Review Article: Development of crystal lenses for energetic photons

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, Robert K.

    2014-08-15

    This paper follows the development of crystal diffraction lenses designed to focus energetic photons. It begins with the search for a solution to the astrophysics problem of how to detect weak astrophysics sources of gamma rays and x-rays. This led to the basic designs for a lens and to the understanding of basic limitations of lens design. The discussion of the development of crystal diffraction lenses is divided into two parts: lenses using crystals with mosaic structure, and lenses that use crystals with curved crystal planes. This second group divides into two sub-groups: (1) Curved crystals that are used to increase the acceptance angle of the diffraction of a monochromatic beam and to increase the energy bandwidth of the diffraction. (2) Curved crystals used to focus gamma ray beams. The paper describes how these two types of crystals affect the design of the corresponding crystal lenses in different fields: astrophysics, medical imaging, detection of weak, distant, gamma-ray sources, etc. The designs of crystal lenses for these applications are given in enough detail to allow the reader to design a lens for his own application.

  8. Free-Standing Photonic Crystal Films with Gradient Structural Colors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Liu, Cihui; Ye, Baofen; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-03-23

    Hydrogel colloidal crystal composite materials have a demonstrated value in responsive photonic crystals (PhCs) via controllable stimuli. Although they have been successfully exploited to generate a gradient of color distribution, the soft hydrogels have limitations in terms of stability and storage caused by dependence on environment. Here, we present a practical strategy to fabricate free-standing PhC films with a stable gradient of structural colors using binary polymer networks. A colloidal crystal hydrogel film was prepared for this purpose, with continuously varying photonic band gaps corresponding to the gradient of the press. Then, a second polymer network was used to lock the inside non-close-packed PhC structures and color distribution of the hydrogel film. It was demonstrated that our strategy could bring about a solution to the angle-dependent structural colors of the PhC films by coating the surface with special microstructures.

  9. Imaging and tuning of coupled photonic crystal cavities (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Photonic microcavities (PMC) coupled through their evanescent field are used for a large variety of classical and quantum devices. In such systems, a molecular-like spatial delocalization of the coupled modes is achieved by an evanescent tunnelling. The tunnelling rate depends on the height and depth of the photonic barrier between two adjacent resonators and therefore it is sensitive to the fabrication-induced disorder present in the center of the molecule. In this contribution, we address the problem of developing a post fabrication control of the tunnelling rate in photonic crystal coupled PMCs. The value of the photonic coupling (proportional to the tunnelling rate) is directly measured by the molecular mode splitting at the anticrossing point. By exploiting a combination of tuning techniques such as local infiltration of water, micro-evaporation, and laser induced non thermal micro-oxidation, we are able to either increase or decrease the detuning and the photonic coupling, independently. Near field imaging is also used for mapping the modes and establish delocalization. By water micro-infiltration, we were able to increase the photon coupling by 28%. On the contrary, by laser induced non thermal oxidation, we got a reduction of g by 30%. The combination of the two methods would therefore give a complete control of g with excellent accuracy. This could make possible the realization of array of photonic cavities with on demand tunnelling rate between each pair of coupled resonators. We believe that this peculiar engineering of photonic crystal molecules would open the road to possible progress in the exploitation of coherent interference between coupled optical resonators both for quantum information processing and optical communication.

  10. Assembly of Dimer-Based Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell Watson, Chekesha M.

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in colloid synthesis to prepare monodisperse shape anisotropic particles provide the opportunity to address challenges related to structural diversity in ordered colloidal solids. In particular, computational simulations and mechanical models suggest that upon system densification nonspherical dimer colloids undergo disorder-order and order-order phase transitions to unconventional solid structures including, base-centered monoclinic crystals, degenerate aperiodic crystals, plastic crystal or rotator, etc. based on free energy minimization. The particle systems have notable analogy to molecular systems, where the shape of molecules and their packing density has been shown to critically influence structural phase behavior and lead to a rich variety of structures, both natural and synthetic. The materials engineering challenges have been in attaining sufficiently monodisperse (size uniformity) colloidal building blocks, as well as the lack of understanding and control of self-assembly processes for non-spherical colloids. This talk highlights our investigations of how particle shape programs the self-organization of colloidal structures. Methods including evaporation mediated assembly and confinement provide a platform to understand the formation of complex colloidal structures from non-spherical building blocks (silica-coated iron oxide, polystyrene, hollow silica shell). Optical property simulations for unconventional 2D and 3D structures with nonspherical particle bases will also be discussed.

  11. Crystallization of the head and galectin-like domains of porcine adenovirus isolate NADC-1 fibre

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Fox, Gavin C.; Glasgow, Joel N.; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The porcine adenovirus NADC-1 isolate, a strain of porcine adenovirus type 4, has a fibre with an atypical architecture. In addition to a classical virus-attachment region, shaft and head domains, it contains an additional galectin-like domain C-­terminal to the head domain and connected to the head domain by a long RGD-containing loop. The galectin-like domain contains two putative carbohydrate-recognition domains. The head and galectin-like domains have been independently crystallized. Diffraction data have been obtained to 3.2 Å resolution from crystals of the head domain and to 1.9 Å resolution from galectin-like domain crystals. PMID:19923738

  12. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  13. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371-553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress.

  14. [Polarization-sensitive characteristics of the transmission spectra in photonic crystal with nematic liquid crystal defects].

    PubMed

    Dai, Qin; Wu, Ri-na; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Rui-liang; Wang, Peng-chong; Quan, Wei; Xu, Song-ning

    2012-05-01

    The polarization-sensitive characteristics in the transmission spectra of TiO2/SiO2 optical multilayer films of one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) with nematic liquid crystal defects were investigated in the present paper. The transmission spectra measurements and simulated results show that the polarization-sensitive feature was obvious when natural light was normal incident onto the parallelly aligned nematic liquid crystal. There were peaks of the extraordinary light (TE mode) with center wavelengths 1831 and 1800 nm and the ordinary light (TM mode) with center wavelengths 1452 and 1418 nm in the photonic forbidden band, respectively. With applied voltage increasing, the peaks of the extraordinary light was blue-shifted, and coincided with the peaks of O light gradually. Their tunable ranges were about 31 and 34 nm, respectively. For the random nematic liquid crystal, polarization sensitivity was not observed. Meanwhile, an individual extraordinary light peak with center wavelength 1801 nm and an individual ordinary light peak with center wavelength 1391 nm were obtained in the photonic forbidden band, respectively. The peaks were also found blue-shifted with applied voltage increasing, and their tunable ranges were about 64 and 15 nm, respectively. The polarization insensitive photonic crystal with nematic liquid crystal defects can be achieved by random liquid crystal molecules, which make the effective refractive index of the extraordinary light equal to that of the ordinary light.

  15. Photonic-magnonic crystals: Multifunctional periodic structures for magnonic and photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kłos, J. W. Krawczyk, M.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the properties of a photonic-magnonic crystal, a complex multifunctional one-dimensional structure with magnonic and photonic band gaps in the GHz and PHz frequency ranges for spin waves and light, respectively. The system consists of periodically distributed dielectric magnetic slabs of yttrium iron garnet and nonmagnetic spacers with an internal structure of alternating TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} layers which form finite-size dielectric photonic crystals. We show that the spin-wave coupling between the magnetic layers, and thus the formation of the magnonic band structure, necessitates a nonzero in-plane component of the spin-wave wave vector. A more complex structure perceived by light is evidenced by the photonic miniband structure and the transmission spectra in which we have observed transmission peaks related to the repetition of the magnetic slabs in the frequency ranges corresponding to the photonic band gaps of the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack. Moreover, we show that these modes split to very high sharp (a few THz wide) subpeaks in the transmittance spectra. The proposed novel multifunctional artificial crystals can have interesting applications and be used for creating common resonant cavities for spin waves and light to enhance the mutual influence between them.

  16. Recent Advances in Biosensing With Photonic Crystal Surfaces: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B T; Zhang, M; Zhuo, Y; Kwon, L; Race, C

    2016-05-15

    Photonic crystal surfaces that are designed to function as wavelength-selective optical resonators have become a widely adopted platform for label-free biosensing, and for enhancement of the output of photon-emitting tags used throughout life science research and in vitro diagnostics. While some applications, such as analysis of drug-protein interactions, require extremely high resolution and the ability to accurately correct for measurement artifacts, others require sensitivity that is high enough for detection of disease biomarkers in serum with concentrations less than 1 pg/ml. As the analysis of cells becomes increasingly important for studying the behavior of stem cells, cancer cells, and biofilms under a variety of conditions, approaches that enable high resolution imaging of live cells without cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes are providing new tools to biologists who seek to observe individual cells over extended time periods. This paper will review several recent advances in photonic crystal biosensor detection instrumentation and device structures that are being applied towards direct detection of small molecules in the context of high throughput drug screening, photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement as utilized for high sensitivity multiplexed cancer biomarker detection, and label-free high resolution imaging of cells and individual nanoparticles as a new tool for life science research and single-molecule diagnostics.

  17. Engineered atom-light interactions in 1D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael J.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Yu, Su-Peng; Goban, Akihisa; Muniz, Juan A.; Hood, Jonathan D.; Norte, Richard; McClung, Andrew C.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Lee, Jae Hoon; Peng, Lucas; Painter, Oskar; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    Nano- and microscale optical systems offer efficient and scalable quantum interfaces through enhanced atom-field coupling in both resonators and continuous waveguides. Beyond these conventional topologies, new opportunities emerge from the integration of ultracold atomic systems with nanoscale photonic crystals. One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides can be engineered for both stable trapping configurations and strong atom-photon interactions, enabling novel cavity QED and quantum many-body systems, as well as distributed quantum networks. We present the experimental realization of such a nanophotonic quantum interface based on a nanoscale photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating a fractional waveguide coupling of Γ1 D /Γ' of 0 . 32 +/- 0 . 08 , where Γ1 D (Γ') is the atomic emission rate into the guided (all other) mode(s). We also discuss progress towards intra-waveguide trapping of ultracold Cs. This work was supported by the IQIM, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support from the Moore Foundation, the DARPA ORCHID program, the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, the DoD NSSEFF program, NSF, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech.

  18. Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael W; Grillet, Christian; Monat, Christelle; Mägi, Eric; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Gai, Xin; Madden, Steve; Choi, Duk-Yong; Bulla, Douglas; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2010-12-06

    We investigate the photosensitive and thermo-optic nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal (PhC) cavities at telecommunications wavelengths. We observe a photosensitive refractive index change in AMTIR-1 (Ge(33)As(12)Se(55)) material in the near-infrared, which is enhanced by light localization in the PhC cavity and manifests in a permanent blue-shift of the nanocavity resonance. Thermo-optic non-linear properties are thoroughly investigated by i) carrying out thermal bistable switching experiments, from which we determined thermal switching times of 63 μs and 93 μs for switch on and switch off respectively and ii) by studying heating of the cavity with a high peak power pulsed laser input, which shows that two-photon absorption is the dominant heating mechanism. Our measurements and analysis highlight the detrimental impact of near-infrared photosensitivity and two-photon absorption on cavity based nonlinear optical switching schemes. We conclude that glass compositions with lower two-photon absorption and more stable properties (reduced photosensitivity) are therefore required for nonlinear applications in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities.

  19. Electrothermally Driven Fluorescence Switching by Liquid Crystal Elastomers Based One Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changxu; Jiang, Yin; Tao, Cheng-An; Yin, Xianpeng; Lan, Yue; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shiqiang; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Li, Guangtao

    2017-03-15

    In this article, an active organic-inorganic one-dimensional photonic crystals structure is fabricated to offer electrothermal fluorescence switching. The film is obtained by spin-coating of liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) and TiO2 nanoparticles alternatively. By utilizing the property of LCEs that can change their size and shape reversibly under external thermal stimulations, the λmax of photonic band-gap of these films is tuned by voltage through electrothermal conversion. The shifted photonic band-gap further changes the matching degree between the photonic band-gap of the film and the emission spectrum of organic dye mounting on the film. With rhodamine B as an example, the enhancement factor of its fluorescence emission is controlled by variating the matching degree. Thus, the fluorescence intensity is actively switched by voltage applied on the system, in a fast, adjustable and reversible manner. The control chain of using the electrothermal stimulus to adjust fluorescence intensity via controlling the photonic band-gap is proved by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the UV-Vis reflectance. This mechanism is also corresponded to the results from the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation. The comprehensive usage of photonic crystals and liquid crystal elastomers opened a new possibility for active optical devices.

  20. Photon assisted hopping conduction mechanism in Tl2SSe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Ziqan, Abdelhalim M.; Jazzar, Suha Kh.; Gasanly, N. M.

    2015-02-01

    In this article, the powder X-ray diffraction data and the dark and the photo-excited electrical conduction parameters of Tl2SSe crystal are reported. The dark and photon excited electrical conduction in the tetragonal crystal are found to be dominated by thermionic emission assisted variable range hopping conduction (VRH). The dark Mott's VRH parameters representing by the degree of disorder (To), the density of localized states near the Fermi level (N (EF)), the average hopping range (R) and average hopping energy (W) exhibited wide tunability via incremental photon intensity. Particularly, while the dark values of T0 , W and R significantly decreased from 2.32 ×108 to 1.52 ×105 K, 114 to 18.25 meV and from 66.15 to 10.58 A°, respectively, the values of N (EF) increased from 7.23 ×1018 to 1.10 ×1022cm-3 /eV when the crystal was photo-excited with a 53.6 mW/cm2 light intensity. These variations in the hopping parameters via photon excitations are promisig for using the crystal in the fabrication of well controlled, widely tunable, low energy consuming and highly efficient electronic devices.

  1. Photoscattering effect in supercontinuum-generating photonic crystal fiber

    PubMed Central

    Tu, H.; Marks, D. L.; Jiang, Z.; Boppart, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    A photosensitivity different from that responsible for fiber grating inscription is found in a supercontinuum-generating photonic crystal fiber transmitting intense 818 nm femtosecond pulses. This photosensitivity progressively generates a waveguide at the entrance of the fiber to scatter light of specific wavelengths and is termed as the photoscattering effect. This effect is linked to the ~800 nm photosensitivity in the microlithography of bulk silica glass. While the effect somewhat limits fiber-optic supercontinuum applications, it can be beneficial to produce new photonic devices. PMID:21350681

  2. Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun L; Kim, Hyunwoo; de Leon, Nathalie; Frank, Ian W; Robinson, Jacob T; McCutcheon, Murray; Liu, Mingzhao; Lukin, Mikhail D; Loncar, Marko; Park, Hongkun

    2013-01-09

    We report a new approach for realizing a flexible photonic crystal (PC) cavity that enables wide-range tuning of its resonance frequency. Our PC cavity consists of a regular array of silicon nanowires embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix and exhibits a cavity resonance in the telecommunication band that can be reversibly tuned over 60 nm via mechanical stretching-a record for two-dimensional (2D) PC structures. These mechanically reconfigurable devices could find potential applications in integrated photonics, sensing in biological systems, and smart materials.

  3. High-efficiency beam bending using graded photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Oner, B B; Turduev, M; Kurt, H

    2013-05-15

    We explore beam-bending properties of graded index (GRIN) waveguide with hyperbolic secant profile. The transmission efficiency and bandwidth features are extracted for GRIN photonic crystal (PC) media composed of dielectric rods. Light guiding performance of the GRIN PC medium is analyzed for 90° and 180° waveguide bends. The finite-difference time-domain method is deployed to investigate the performance of the designed GRIN waveguides. By the help of proposed photonic configuration, bending of light is achieved with a high efficiency within a broad bandwidth, which promotes the use of GRIN PC structures for efficient light-bending purposes.

  4. Spatial filtering of light by chirped photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Staliunas, Kestutis; Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor J.

    2009-05-15

    We propose an efficient method for spatial filtering of light beams by propagating them through two-dimensional (also three dimensional) chirped photonic crystals, i.e., through the photonic structures with fixed transverse lattice period and with the longitudinal lattice period varying along the direction of the beam propagation. We prove the proposed idea by numerically solving the paraxial propagation equation in refraction-index-modulated media and we evaluate the efficiency of the process by harmonic-expansion analysis. The technique can be also applied for filtering (for cleaning) of the packages of atomic waves (Bose condensates), also to improve the directionality of acoustic and mechanical waves.

  5. Photonic crystal digital alloys and their band structure properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongkug; Kim, Dong-Uk; Jeon, Heonsu

    2011-09-26

    We investigated semi-disordered photonic crystals (PCs), digital alloys, and made thorough comparisons with their counterparts, random alloys. A set of diamond lattice PC digital alloys operating in a microwave regime were prepared by alternately stacking two kinds of sub-PC systems composed of alumina and silica spheres of the same size. Measured transmission spectra as well as calculated band structures revealed that when the digital alloy period is short, band-gaps of the digital alloys are practically the same as those of the random alloys. This study indicates that the concept of digital alloys holds for photons in PCs as well.

  6. High-Q silicon carbide photonic-crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanobeam cavities in amorphous silicon carbide. The fundamental mode exhibits intrinsic optical quality factor as high as 7.69 × 10{sup 4} with mode volume ∼0.60(λ/n){sup 3} at wavelength 1.5 μm. A corresponding Purcell factor value of ∼10{sup 4} is the highest reported to date in silicon carbide optical cavities. The device exhibits great potential for integrated nonlinear photonics and cavity nano-optomechanics.

  7. Generation of higher odd harmonics in a defective photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanujam, N. R.; Wilson, K. S. Joseph

    2015-06-24

    A photonic crystal (AB){sup 2}(DB)(AB){sup 2} with high refractive index medium as silicon and low refractive medium as air is considered. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmission properties as a function of wavelength with photonic band gaps has been obtained. We are able to demonstrate the generation of third, fifth, seventh and ninth harmonics in the present work. We show that if the air medium is removed in the defect, the defect modes are generated but not harmonics. It can be designed to have a frequency conversion, and have a potential for becoming the basis for the next generation of optical devices.

  8. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2013-09-01

    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further.

  9. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Foteinopoulou, Stavroula

    2003-01-01

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed

  10. Structuring β-Ga2O3 photonic crystal photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Zhen, Xiuzheng; Meng, Sugang; Xian, Jiangjun; Shao, Yu; Fu, Xianzhi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-03

    Coupling photocatalysts with photonic crystals structure is based on the unique property of photonic crystals in confining, controlling, and manipulating the incident photons. This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively. Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of 135 nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

  11. Two-photon excited UV fluorescence for protein crystal detection

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Jeremy T.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2011-10-01

    Complementary measurements using SONICC and TPE-UVF allow the sensitive and selective detection of protein crystals. Two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence (TPE-UVF) microscopy is explored for sensitive protein-crystal detection as a complement to second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Like conventional ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), TPE-UVF generates image contrast based on the intrinsic fluorescence of aromatic residues, generally producing higher fluorescence emission within crystals than the mother liquor by nature of the higher local protein concentration. However, TPE-UVF has several advantages over conventional UVF, including (i) insensitivity to optical scattering, allowing imaging in turbid matrices, (ii) direct compatibility with conventional optical plates and windows by using visible light for excitation, (iii) elimination of potentially damaging out-of-plane UV excitation, (iv) improved signal to noise through background reduction from out-of-plane excitation and (v) relatively simple integration into instrumentation developed for SONICC.

  12. Magneto-optical properties of biogenic photonic crystals in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaka, M.; Mizukawa, Y.

    2014-05-07

    In the present study, the effects of strong static magnetic fields on the structural colors of the cell covering crystals on a microalgae, coccolithophore, were investigated. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, generates a precise assembly of calcite crystals called coccoliths by biomineralization. The coccoliths attached to the cells exhibited structural colors under side light illumination, and the colors underwent dynamic transitions when the magnetic fields were changed between 0 T and 5 T, probably due to diamagnetically induced changes of their inclination under the magnetic fields. The specific light-scattering property of individual coccoliths separated from the cells was also observed. Light scattering from a condensed suspension of coccoliths drastically decreased when magnetic fields of more than 4 T were applied parallel to the direction of observation. The magnetically aligned cell-covering crystals of the coccolithophores exhibited the properties of both a photonic crystal and a minimum micromirror.

  13. A composite hydrogels-based photonic crystal multi-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiangrong; Yu, Wei; Liu, Mingju; Ge, Qiaoqiao; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-04-01

    A facile route to prepare stimuli-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) gelated crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal material was developed. PVA was physically gelated by utilizing an ethanol-assisted method, the resulting hydrogel/crystal composite film was then functionalized with PAA to form an interpenetrating hydrogel film. This sensor film is able to efficiently diffract the visible light and rapidly respond to various environmental stimuli such as solvent, pH and strain, and the accompanying structural color shift can be repeatedly changed and easily distinguished by naked eye.

  14. Fabrication of photonic crystal structures by tertiary-butyl arsine-based metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy for photonic crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Masato; De Zoysa, Menaka; Ishizaki, Kenji; Hatsuda, Ranko; Noda, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    The fabrication of air/semiconductor two-dimensional photonic crystal structures by air-hole-retained crystal regrowth using tertiary-butyl arsine-based metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy for GaAs-based photonic crystal lasers is investigated. Photonic crystal air holes with filling factors of 10-13%, depths of ˜280 nm, and widths of 120-150 nm are successfully embedded. The embedded air holes exhibit characteristic shapes due to the anisotropy of crystal growth. Furthermore, a low lasing threshold of ˜0.5 kA/cm2 is achieved with the fabricated structures.

  15. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  16. Enhanced electrophoretic DNA separation in photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Kwok, Yien Chian

    2009-07-01

    Joule heating generated by the electrical current in capillary electrophoresis leads to a temperature gradient along the separation channel and consequently affects the separation quality. We describe a method of reducing the Joule heating effect by incorporating photonic crystal fiber into a micro capillary electrophoresis chip. The photonic crystal fiber consists of a bundle of extremely narrow hollow channels, which ideally work as separation columns. Electrophoretic separation of DNA fragments was simultaneously but independently carried out in 54 narrow capillaries with a diameter of 3.7 microm each. The capillary bundle offers more efficient heat dissipation owing to the high surface-to-volume ratio. Under the same electrical field strength, notable improvement in resolution was obtained in the capillary bundle chip.

  17. Photonic Crystal Hydrogel Enhanced Plasmonic Staining for Multiplexed Protein Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhongde; Zhao, Xiangwei; Huang, Yin; Lu, Meng; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-12-02

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are commonly used as optical transducers in sensing applications. The optical signals resulting from the interaction of analytes and plamsonic nanoparticles are influenced by surrounding physical structures where the nanoparticles are located. This paper proposes inverse opal photonic crystal hydrogel as 3D structure to improve Raman signals from plasmonic staining. By hybridization of the plasmonic nanoparticles and photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of multiplexed protein is realized. It benefits the Raman analysis by providing high-density "hot spots" in 3D and extra enhancement of local electromagnetic field at the band edge of PhC with periodic refractive index distribution. The strong interaction of light and the hybrid 3D nanostructure offers new insights into plasmonic nanoparticle applications and biosensor design.

  18. Electrically pumped photonic crystal laser constructed with organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Xiao; Li, Ning; Li, Chang-wei; Wang, Yi-quan

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the lasing action of electrically pumped octagonal quasi-crystal microcavities formed in a layer of conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy- 5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) sandwiched between two electrodes. Lasing from a point-defect microcavity is observed at a wavelength of 606 nm with a narrow linewidth of 0.5 nm, limited by the spectrometer resolution. Due to the properties of the photonic bandgap and localization in photonic crystals, the threshold current for lasing is low at 0.8 mA. The ion injection in the luminescent polymer layer by focused ion beam (FIB) etching technology also contributes to enhancement of the carrier density as well as the mobility, resulting in an increase of MEH-PPV conductivity and a decrease of turn-on voltage.

  19. Photonic crystal as a refractometric sensor operated in reflection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, Sofyan A.; Shaheen, Somaia A.; Alkanoo, Anas A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, one dimensional ternary photonic crystal is investigated as refractometric sensor. Using Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind, the transmission of an incident wave from a ternary photonic crystal is studied in details. The variation of the transmissivity with the angle of incidence and wavelength of incident light for different values of number of periods is investigated. Water and air are assumed to be analyte layers. It is found that for water as an analyte, the peak angular shift is Δθ = 1.6° and the peak wavelength shift is Δλ = 2.6 nm for a change in the index of refraction Δn = 0.02. Moreover, the peak angular shift can reach up to Δθ = 7.05° for specific values of the layer thicknesses.

  20. Tunable photonic crystal based on capillary attraction and repulsion.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia-Tsung; Yeh, J Andrew

    2010-09-27

    A tunable photonic crystal (PhC) based on the capillary action of liquid is demonstrated in this work. The porous silicon-based photonic crystal (PSiPhC) features periodic porosity and is fabricated by electrochemical etching on 6" silicon wafer followed by hydrophobic modification on the silicon surface. The capillary action is achieved by varying the mixture ratio of liquids with high and low surface tension, yielding either capillary attraction or capillary repulsion in the nanoscale voids of the PSiPhC. By delivering the liquid mixture into and out of the voids of the PSiPhC, the reflective color of the PSiPhC can be dynamically tuned.

  1. Photonic crystal biosensor based on angular spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Hallynck, Elewout; Bienstman, Peter

    2010-08-16

    The need for cost effective and reliable biosensors in e.g. medical applications is an ever growing and everlasting one. Not only do we strive to increase sensitivity and detection limit of such sensors; ease of fabrication or implementation are equally important. In this work, we propose a novel, photonic crystal based biosensor that is able to operate at a single frequency, contrary to resonance based sensors. In a certain frequency range, guided photonic crystal modes can couple to free space modes resulting in a Lorentzian shape in the angular spectrum. This Lorentzian can shift due to refractive index changes and simulations have shown sensitivities of 65 degrees per refractive index unit and more.

  2. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-15

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  3. Temperature sensitivity of photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu Van, Lanh; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Cao Long, Van; Klimczak, Mariusz; Le Van, Hieu; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study on the optimization of dispersion of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with water-ethanol mixtures. The advantage of such an approach stems from the fact that the dependence of the refractive index on temperature is larger in liquids than in solid materials. Here, we examine photonic crystal fibers with a regular, hexagonal lattice and with various geometrical and material parameters, such as different number of rings of holes, various lattice constants and the size of core and air-holes. Additionally, for the optimized structure with flat dispersion characteristics, we analyze the influence of temperature and concentration of the ethanol solution on the dispersion characteristic and the zero dispersion wavelength shift of the fundamental mode.

  4. Asymmetric light propagation in chirped photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kurt, H; Yilmaz, D; Akosman, A E; Ozbay, E

    2012-08-27

    We report numerical and experimental investigations of asymmetric light propagation in a newly designed photonic structure that is formed by creating a chirped photonic crystal (PC) waveguide. The use of a non-symmetric distribution of unit cells of PC ensures the obtaining of asymmetric light propagation. Properly designing the spatial modulation of a PC waveguide inherently modifies the band structure. That in turn induces asymmetry for the light's followed path. The investigation of the transmission characteristics of this structure reveals optical diode like transmission behavior. The amount of power collected at the output of the waveguide centerline is different for the forward and backward propagation directions in the designed configuration. The advantageous properties of the proposed approach are the linear optic concept, compact configuration and compatibility with the integrated photonics. These features are expected to hold great potential for implementing practical optical rectifier-type devices.

  5. Nonlinear light propagation in chalcogenide photonic crystal slow light waveguides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keijiro; Baba, Toshihiko

    2010-12-06

    Optical nonlinearity can be enhanced by the combination of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass and photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) providing strong optical confinement and slow-light effects. In a Ag-As(2)Se(3) chalcogenide PCW, the effective nonlinear parameter γeff reaches 6.3 × 10(4) W(-1)m(-1), which is 200 times larger than that in Si photonic wire waveguides. In this paper, we report the detailed design, fabrication process, and the linear and nonlinear characteristics of this waveguide at silica fiber communication wavelengths. We show that the waveguide exhibits negligible two-photon absorption, and also high-efficiency self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing, which are assisted by low-dispersion slow light.

  6. Dispersion properties of transverse anisotropic liquid crystal core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion properties of liquid crystal core photonic crystal fibers for different core diameters have been calculated by a full vectorial finite difference method. In calculations, air holes are assumed to be arranged in a regular hexagonal array in fused silica and a central hole is filled with liquid crystal to create a core. In this study, three types of transverse anisotropic configurations, where liquid crystal molecules are oriented in a transverse plane, and a planar configuration, where liquid crystal molecules are oriented in a propagation direction, are considered. The large changes of the dispersion properties are found when the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is changed from a planar configuration to a uniform configuration, where all molecules are oriented in the same direction in a transverse plane. Since the orientation of liquid crystal molecules may be controlled by applying an electric field, it could be utilized for various applications including the spectral control of supercontinuum generation.

  7. Multicolor filter all-garnet magneto-optical photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ansari, N; Khartsev, S I; Grishin, A M

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate a multicolor optical filter and isolator based on a double-cavity magneto-optical (MO) photonic crystal. Being grown as a heteroepitaxial all-garnet multilayer, it compromises a strong MO response and high optical transmittance. Low-loss, high Faraday rotation passbands as well as strong light rejection within the stop band were achieved by optimization of distance between cavities and repetition number of distributed Bragg reflectors.

  8. Engineering and Characterizing Light-Matter Interactions in Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    loss-less waveguides that are ultra- compact and can have bends with zero radius of curvature [9-13]. Inside of a photonic crystal with a complete band...ultra- compact waveguides [86,87] for telecommunications. These applications require the precise sub-micron 3D-patterning of high refractive index...gap, a zero-loss waveguide can be created by introducing a line defect into an otherwise perfect structure. Analogous to semiconductors, the defect

  9. Photonic crystal borax competitive binding carbohydrate sensing motif.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qingzhou; Ward Muscatello, Michelle M; Asher, Sanford A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a photonic crystal sensing method for diol containing species such as carbohydrates based on a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel containing an embedded crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The polymerized CCA (PCCA) diffracts visible light. We show that in the presence of borax the diffraction wavelength shifts as the concentration of glucose changes. The diffraction shifts result from the competitive binding of glucose to borate, which reduces the concentration of borate bound to the PVA diols.

  10. Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanth Kumar, V. V. Ravi; George, A. K.; Reeves, W. H.; Knight, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.; Omenetto, F. G.; Taylor, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    We report the fabrication and properties of soft glass photonic crystal fibers (PCF’s) for supercontinuum generation. The fibers have zero or anomalous group velocity dispersion at wavelengths around 1550 nm, and approximately an order of magnitude higher nonlinearity than attainable in comparable silica fibers. We demonstrate the generation of an ultrabroad supercontinuum spanning at least 350 nm to 2200 nm using a 1550 nm ultrafast pump source.

  11. Applications of photonic crystal in wavelength multiplex visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shi; Lei, Zhang

    2016-10-01

    The triple-channel photonic crystal filters are proposed designed. These devices have advantages of better filtering effect and high wavelength accuracy. In wavelength multiplex visualization, these filters can bring different wavelength of view entering into eyes so that stereo images are formed. we discuss the problem about minimization of the angle shift .The simulation shows that higher-index material and more high-index material in a basic period can decrease the angle shift.

  12. Spatial solitons in chi(2) planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Katia; Assanto, Gaetano

    2007-11-01

    We analyze light self-confinement induced by multiple nonlinear resonances in a two-dimensional chi(2) photonic crystal. With reference to second-harmonic generation in a hexagonal lattice, we show that the system can not only support two-color (1+1)D solitary waves with enhanced confinement and steering capabilities but also enable novel features such as wavelength-dependent soliton routing.

  13. Coherent and incoherent spectral broadening in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Best, Th; van Oosten, D; Bloch, I

    2007-07-01

    The coherence of the spectral broadening process is the key requisite for the application of supercontinua in frequency combs. We investigate the coherence of two subsequent supercontinuum pulses created in a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a femtosecond laser. We measure Young interference fringes from a Michelson-type interferometer at different wavelengths of the output spectrum and analyze their dependence on pump intensity and polarization. The visibility of these fringes is a direct measure of the coherence of the spectral broadening processes.

  14. Electromechanical tuning of vertically-coupled photonic crystal nanobeams.

    PubMed

    Midolo, L; Yoon, S N; Pagliano, F; Xia, T; van Otten, F W M; Lermer, M; Höfling, S; Fiore, A

    2012-08-13

    We present the design, the fabrication and the characterization of a tunable one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal cavity (PCC) etched on two vertically-coupled GaAs nanobeams. A novel fabrication method which prevents their adhesion under capillary forces is introduced. We discuss a design to increase the flexibility of the structure and we demonstrate a large reversible and controllable electromechanical wavelength tuning (> 15 nm) of the cavity modes.

  15. Optimized photonic crystal fibers supporting efficient capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcerrada, M.; García-Ruiz, C.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) in a conventional capillary electrophoresis system to separate and detect fluorescent species. PCFs show interesting advantages over conventional capillaries for this application, including larger surface-to-volume ratio and potential for higher resolution with comparable sensitivity. Our results illustrate some of these advantages, and we point out the need for stringent tolerances in the fabrication of specific PCFs for this application.

  16. Wafer-scale plasmonic and photonic crystal sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. C.; Liu, J.-N.; Farhang, A.; Williamson, B.; Black, M.; Wangensteen, T.; Fraser, J.; Petrova, R.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2015-08-01

    200 mm diameter wafer-scale fabrication, metrology, and optical modeling results are reviewed for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on 2-D metallic nano-dome and nano-hole arrays (NHA's) as well as 1-D photonic crystal sensors based on a leaky-waveguide mode resonance effect, with potential applications in label free sensing, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and surface-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SEFS). Potential markets include micro-arrays for medical diagnostics, forensic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety. 1-D and 2-D nanostructures were fabricated on glass, fused silica, and silicon wafers using optical lithography and semiconductor processing techniques. Wafer-scale optical metrology results are compared to FDTD modeling and presented along with application-based performance results, including label-free plasmonic and photonic crystal sensing of both surface binding kinetics and bulk refractive index changes. In addition, SEFS and SERS results are presented for 1-D photonic crystal and 2-D metallic nano-array structures. Normal incidence transmittance results for a 550 nm pitch NHA showed good bulk refractive index sensitivity, however an intensity-based design with 665 nm pitch was chosen for use as a compact, label-free sensor at both 650 and 632.8 nm wavelengths. The optimized NHA sensor gives an SPR shift of about 480 nm per refractive index unit when detecting a series of 0-40% glucose solutions, but according to modeling shows about 10 times greater surface sensitivity when operating at 532 nm. Narrow-band photonic crystal resonance sensors showed quality factors over 200, with reasonable wafer-uniformity in terms of both resonance position and peak height.

  17. GaInP on oxide nonlinear photonic crystal technology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aude; Sanchez, Dorian; Combrié, Sylvain; de Rossi, Alfredo; Raineri, Fabrice

    2017-02-01

    Heat dissipation is improved in nonlinear III-V photonic crystal waveguides owing to the hybrid III-V/Silicon integration platform, allowing efficient four-wave mixing in the continuous-wave regime. A conversion efficiency of -17.6  dB is demonstrated with a pump power level below 100 mW in a dispersion-engineered waveguide with a flat group index of 28 over a 10 nm bandwidth.

  18. Single particle detection in CMOS compatible photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qimin; Floyd, Daniel L; Burgess, Ian B; Deotare, Parag B; Frank, Ian W; Tang, Sindy K Y; Ilic, Rob; Loncar, Marko

    2013-12-30

    We report the label-free detection of single particles using photonic crystal nanobeam cavities fabricated in silicon-on-insulator platform, and embedded inside microfluidic channels fabricated in poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Our system operates in the telecommunication wavelength band, thus leveraging the widely available, robust and tunable telecom laser sources. Using this approach, we demonstrated the detection of polystyrene nanoparticles with dimensions down to 12.5nm in radius. Furthermore, binding events of a single streptavidin molecule have been observed.

  19. Luneburg lens composed of sunflower-type graded photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Yu-Long; Liu, Wei; Hao, Yu; Jiang, Liu-Di

    2014-03-01

    Sunflower-type graded photonic crystals (GPCs) are investigated and used to design the Luneburg lens for transverse electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizations. Our investigation suggests that these novel structures present better focusing characteristics as well as wider transmission bandwidth for TM polarization than that for TE polarization. It is envisaged that these sunflower-type GPCs can be potentially used in optical system where compact and powerful focusing elements are required such as the Luneburg lens.

  20. Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Cicero; Canning, John; Groothoff, Nathaniel; Lyytikainen, Katja

    2005-07-15

    A Bragg grating in a photonic crystal fiber was written and its dependence with temperature and strain analyzed. The two observed Bragg wavelengths correspond to a fundamental and a higher-order mode in the optical fiber. The temperature and strain calibration curves for both modes are measured and found to be distinct. The general properties of gratings in these fibers, and their implications, are enunciated.

  1. Cascaded photonic crystal fibers for three-stage soliton compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Cheng, Zihao

    2016-11-01

    Cascaded higher-order soliton compression in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is demonstrated, where both the hyperbolic secant and Gaussian input pulses are considered. Detailed fiber designs for three-stage higher-order soliton compression where soliton order is three or non-integer are presented. A highest compression factor of 221.32 has been achieved with only 49.48% pedestal energy.

  2. Photonic band gaps in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals with arbitrary magnetic declination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haifeng; Liu Shaobin; Kong Xiangkun

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps and dispersion relations of one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals composed of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers with arbitrary magnetic declination are theoretically investigated for TM polarized wave based on transfer matrix method. As TM wave propagates in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals, the electromagnetic wave can be divided into two modes due to the influence of Lorentz force. The equations for effective dielectric functions of such two modes are theoretically deduced, and the transfer matrix equation and dispersion relations for TM wave are calculated. The influences of relative dielectric constant, plasma collision frequency, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency on transmission, and dispersion relation are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that plasma collision frequency cannot change the locations of photonic band gaps for both modes, and also does not affect the reflection and transmission magnitudes. The characteristics of photonic band gaps for both modes can be obviously tuned by relative dielectric constant, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency, respectively. These results would provide theoretical instructions for designing filters, microcavities, and fibers, etc.

  3. Physics and applications of photonic crystal nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altug, Hatice

    The capability to confine and manipulate photons at nanometer scales opens up unprecedented opportunities in classical and quantum information processing technologies, and also in life sciences. There have been various demonstrations of sub-micron light confinement, but yet the most critical issue ahead is the development of new device concepts and technologies that will reliably operate at such length scales. In this thesis, I present my work along this direction. The large aggregated bandwidths of the optical interconnects require memory and delay components to launch, buffer, and collect optical signals at the nodes. To realize them, I propose two-dimensional coupled nanocavity array structures that have flat electromagnetic bands. With these structures, I experimentally demonstrate group velocity reduction below 0.008 c. I also show that by reducing their rotational symmetries they can be used to strongly control polarization of light. The performance of lasers such as their speed and efficiencies can be dramatically enhanced with the use of nanocavities due to the spontaneous emission rate enhancement via the modification of vacuum field density in a cavity. I present ultra-fast lasers with turn-on and turn-off times as short as 1-2 ps, which is enabled by up to 75-fold spontaneous emission enhancement. I demonstrate direct signal modulation speeds in excess of 100 GHz, which is far exceeding today's state of the art semiconductor lasers. To achieve nanocavity lasers with higher output powers and efficiencies, I introduce a new device composed of coherently coupled nanocavity laser arrays. This unique laser design combined with strong cavity quantum effects enable high differential quantum efficiencies, and orders of magnitude larger output powers while preserving low lasing threshold and high operation speeds. Nanocavities can also dramatically increase sensitivity of bio and chemical sensors. Furthermore, a network of such nanocavity detection centers can be

  4. Dynamically tunable graphene/dielectric photonic crystal transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Ian; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that graphene supports plasmonic modes with high field confinement and lower losses when compared to conventional metals. Additionally, graphene features a highly tunable conductivity through which the plasmon dispersion can be modulated. Over the years these qualities have inspired a wide range of applications for graphene in the THz and infrared regimes. In this presentation we theoretically demonstrate a graphene parallel plate waveguide (PPWG) that sandwiches a 2D photonic crystal slab. The marriage of these two geometries offers a large two dimensional band gap that can be dynamically tuned over a very broad bandwidth. Our device operates in the low-THz band where the graphene PPWG supports a quasi-TEM mode with a relatively flat attenuation. Unlike conventional photonic crystal slabs, the quasi-TEM nature of the graphene PPWG mode allows the slab thickness to be less than 1/10 of the photonic crystal lattice constant. These features offer up a wealth of opportunities, including tunable metamaterials with a possible platform for large band gaps in 3D structures through tiling and stacking. Additionally, the geometry provides a platform for tunable defect cavities without needing three dimensional periodicity.

  5. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yue; Cunningham, Brian T

    2015-08-28

    We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in "digital" diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM's development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity.

  6. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in “digital” diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM’s development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity. PMID:26343684

  7. Optimized photonic crystal design for quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, P.; Kalchmair, S.; Gansch, R.; Andrews, A. M.; Detz, H.; Zederbauer, T.; Ahn, S. I.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.

    2012-06-01

    The performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) can be significantly enhanced combining it with a photonic crystal slab (PCS) resonator. In such a system the chosen PCS mode is designed to coincide with the absorption maximum of the photodetector by adjusting the lattice parameters. However there is a multitude of parameter sets that exhibit the same resonance frequency of the chosen PCS mode. We have investigated how the choice of the PC design can be exploited for a further enhancement of QWIPs. Several sets of lattice parameters that exhibit the chosen PCS mode at the same resonance frequency have been obtained and the finite difference time domain method was used to simulate the absorption spectra of the different PCS. A photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector with three different photonic crystal lattice designs that exhibit the same resonance frequency of the chosen PCS mode were designed, fabricated and measured. This work shows that the quality factor of a PCS-QWIP and therefore the absorption enhancement can be increased by an optimized PCS design. The improvement is a combined effect of a changed lattice constant, PC normalized radius and normalized slab thickness. An enhancement of the measured photocurrent of more than a factor of two was measured.

  8. 2D Plasma Photonic Crystals in resonantly pumped Cesium Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, Fabio; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Plasma photonic crystals (PCs) afford the opportunity for dynamic reconfigurability. In this presentation we describe the conditions required for constructing an all-plasma PC that can interact with sub mm-wavelength radiation. Conditions required for this interaction are high plasma densities (>1014 cm-3) and small lattice constant (<1 mm). We describe the construction of a two-dimensional photonic crystal composed of several sub-millimeter plasma filaments in a 1 Torr heated cesium vapor cell. The cesium is ionized by 1 W continuous-wave laser excitation with the wavelength centered around the 852 nm resonance line. The filaments are produced by focusing the laser through a microlens array with a 500 µm pitch. Small departures from line center are found to produce a strong variation in the plasma filament structure and density. Stark broadening measurements of the cesium 9F-5D transition at 647.4 nm yield plasma density. We present preliminary terahertz transmission spectrum of the two-dimensional plasma photonic crystal structure. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations which predict the presence of bandgaps in regions of both negative and positive plasma dielectric constant.

  9. Laser generation in opal-like single-crystal and heterostructure photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchyanov, A. S.; Plekhanov, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the laser generation of a 6Zh rhodamine in artificial opals representing single-crystal and heterostructure films. The spectral and angular properties of emission and the threshold characteristics of generation are investigated. In the case where the 6Zh rhodamine was in a bulk opal, the so-called random laser generation was observed. In contrast to this, the laser generation caused by a distributed feedback inside the structure of the photonic bandgap was observed in photonic-crystal opal films.

  10. Design and fabrication of Si-based photonic crystal stamps with electron beam lithography (EBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannesary, Reyhaneh; Bergmair, Iris; Zamiri, Saeid; Hingerl, Kurt; Hubbard, Graham; Abbott, Steven; Chen, Qin; Allsopp, Duncan

    2009-05-01

    The quest for mass replication has established technologies like nanoimprinting via hard stamps or PDMS stamps, where the stamps are usually produced via Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) for applications in the microelectronic industry. On the other hand, nanopatterning with self ordered structures1 or via holographic patterns provide the basis for large area imprints for applications for example, antireflection coatings based on biomimetic motheyes2. In this work we report on a technology for enabling the mass replication of custom-designed and e-beam lithographically prepared structures via establishing novel roll to roll nanoimprint processes for pattern transfer into UV curable pre-polymers. The new nano-fabrication technology is based on the concept of Disposal Master Technology (DMT) capable of patterning areas up to 1 x 1 m2 and is suitable for mass volume manufacturing of large area arrays of sub-wavelength photonic elements. As an example to show the potential of the application of the new nanoimprint technologies, we choose the fabrication of a photonic crystal (PhC) structure with integrated light coupling devices for low loss interconnection between PhC lightwave circuits and optical fibre systems. We present two methods for fabrication of nanoimprint lithography stamps in Si substrate. In the first method optimized electron beam lithography (EBL) and lift-off patterning of a 15-nm thick Cr mask, and then the pattern transfer into Si using reacting ion etching (RIE) with SF6 as etch gas. In the first method, we use 200nm of positive resist PMMA 950K for EBL exposure. In this method, resist thickness, exposure dose, development time and parameter for etching have been optimized and a photonic crystal of Si-rods in air was fabricated. In the second method lift-off has not been performed and metal mask has been used as master. The subsequent steps for fabricating the master will be presented in detail.

  11. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kady, Ihab Fathy

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the authors have undertaken a theoretical approach to the complex problem of modeling the flow of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. The focus is to address the feasibility of using the exciting phenomena of photonic gaps (PBG) in actual applications. The authors start by providing analytical derivations of the computational electromagnetic methods used in their work. They also present a detailed explanation of the physics underlying each approach, as well as a comparative study of the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Plane Wave expansion, Transfer Matrix, and Finite Difference time Domain Methods are addressed. They also introduce a new theoretical approach, the Modal Expansion Method. They then shift the attention to actual applications. They begin with a discussion of 2D photonic crystal wave guides. The structure addressed consists of a 2D hexagonal structure of air cylinders in a layered dielectric background. Comparison with the performance of a conventional guide is made, as well as suggestions for enhancing it. The studies provide an upper theoretical limit on the performance of such guides, as they assumed no crystal imperfections and non-absorbing media. Next, they study 3D metallic PBG materials at near infrared and optical wavelengths. The main objective is to study the importance of absorption in the metal and the suitability of observing photonic band gaps in such structures. They study simple cubic structures where the metallic scatters are either cubes or interconnected metallic rods. Several metals are studied (aluminum, gold, copper, and silver). The effect of topology is addressed and isolated metallic cubes are found to be less lossy than the connected rod structures. The results reveal that the best performance is obtained by choosing metals with a large negative real part of the dielectric function, together with a relatively small imaginary part. Finally, they point out a new direction in photonic crystal

  12. Tunable diffraction-free array in nonlinear photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Dunzhao; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Zhenhua; Ni, Rui; Yang, Bo; Hu, Xiaopeng; Qin, Y. Q.; Zhu, S. N.; Xiao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Diffraction-free beams have attracted increasing research interests because of their unique performances and broad applications in various fields. Although many methods have been developed to produce such beams, it is still challenging to realize a tunable non-diffracting beam. Here, we report the generation of a tunable diffraction-free array through second-harmonic generation in a nonlinear photonic crystal, i.e., a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO3 crystal. In such a crystal, the second-harmonic wave is engineered by properly designing the domain structure based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The characteristics of the generated diffraction-free array including its period, propagation length, and wavelength can be tuned by simply changing the input wavelength. Our observation not only enriches the diffraction-free optics, but also has potential applications for photolithography and imaging.

  13. Tunable diffraction-free array in nonlinear photonic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Dunzhao; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Zhenhua; Ni, Rui; Yang, Bo; Hu, Xiaopeng; Qin, Y. Q.; Zhu, S. N.; Xiao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Diffraction-free beams have attracted increasing research interests because of their unique performances and broad applications in various fields. Although many methods have been developed to produce such beams, it is still challenging to realize a tunable non-diffracting beam. Here, we report the generation of a tunable diffraction-free array through second-harmonic generation in a nonlinear photonic crystal, i.e., a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO3 crystal. In such a crystal, the second-harmonic wave is engineered by properly designing the domain structure based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The characteristics of the generated diffraction-free array including its period, propagation length, and wavelength can be tuned by simply changing the input wavelength. Our observation not only enriches the diffraction-free optics, but also has potential applications for photolithography and imaging. PMID:28098213

  14. A naturally grown three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianxiang; Lu, Dazhi; Yu, Haohai Zhang, Huaijin Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion via three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase matching (QPM) process is experimentally realized based on a Ba{sub 0.77}Ca{sub 0.23}TiO{sub 3} (BCT) crystal. The ferroelectric domains in BCT crystal are observed, and the results reveal that the antiparallel domains distribute in three dimensions and can provide 3D reciprocal lattice vectors for QPM processes. Broadband petal-like second-harmonic patterns are achieved, which are well consistent with the theoretical quasi-cubic model of 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Our work not only promotes the development of QPM technique but also builds a platform for 3D nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  15. Criteria of backscattering in chiral one-way photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Optical isolators are important devices in photonic circuits. To reduce the unwanted reflection in a robust manner, several setups have been realized using nonreciprocal schemes. In this study, we show that the propagating modes in a strongly-guided chiral photonic crystal (no breaking of the reciprocity) are not backscattering-immune even though they are indeed insensitive to many types of scatters. Without the protection from the nonreciprocity, the backscattering occurs under certain circumstances. We present a perturbative method to calculate the backscattering of chiral photonic crystals in the presence of chiral/achiral scatters. The model is, essentially, a simplified analogy to the first-order Born approximation. Under reasonable assumptions based on the behaviors of chiral photonic modes, we obtained the expression of reflection coefficients which provides criteria for the prominent backscattering in such chiral structures. Numerical examinations using the finite-element method were also performed and the results agree well with the theoretical prediction. From both our theory and numerical calculations, we find that the amount of backscattering critically depends on the symmetry of scatter cross sections. Strong reflection takes place when the azimuthal Fourier components of scatter cross sections have an order l of 2. Chiral scatters without these Fourier components would not efficiently reflect the chiral photonic modes. In addition, for these chiral propagating modes, disturbances at the most significant parts of field profiles do not necessarily result in the most effective backscattering. The observation also reveals what types of scatters or defects should be avoided in one-way applications of chiral structures in order to minimize the backscattering.

  16. Manipulating full photonic band gaps in two dimensional birefringent photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Verma, Prabhat; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Shoji, Satoru; Kawata, Satoshi

    2008-09-15

    The probability to realize a full photonic band gap in two-dimensional birefringent photonic crystals can be readily manipulated by introducing symmetry reduction or air holes in the crystal elements. The results lie in either creation of new band gaps or enlargement of existing band gaps. In particular, a combination of the two processes produces an effect much stronger than a simple summation of their individual contributions. Materials with both relatively low refractive index (rutile) and high refractive index (tellurium) were considered. The combined effect of introduction of symmetry reduction and air holes resulted in a maximum enlargement of the band gaps by 8.4% and 20.2%, respectively, for the two materials.

  17. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits.

  18. Quantum frequency translation of single-photon states in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, H J; Raymer, M G; McKinstrie, C J; Radic, S

    2010-08-27

    We experimentally demonstrate frequency translation of a nonclassical optical field via four-wave mixing (Bragg-scattering process) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The high nonlinearity and the ability to control dispersion in PCF enable efficient translation between nearby photon channels within the visible to-near-infrared spectral range, useful in quantum networks. Heralded single photons at 683 nm were translated to 659 nm with an efficiency of 28.6±2.2 percent. Second-order correlation measurements on the 683- and 659-nm fields yielded g(683)(2) (0)=0.21±0.02 and g(659)(2) (0)=0.19±0.05, respectively, showing the nonclassical nature of both fields.

  19. Electrically tunable zero dispersion wavelengths in photonic crystal fibers filled with a dual frequency addressable liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wahle, Markus Kitzerow, Heinz-Siegfried

    2015-11-16

    We present a liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fiber, which enables the electrical tuning of the position of zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs). A dual frequency addressable liquid crystal is aligned perpendicular on the inclusion walls of a photonic crystal fiber, which results in an escaped radial director field. The orientation of the LC is controlled by applying an external electric field. Due to the high index of the liquid crystal the fiber guides light by the photonic band gap effect. Multiple ZDWs exist in the visible and near infrared. The positions of the ZDWs can be either blue or red shifted depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

  20. Hyperspectral optical near-field imaging: Looking graded photonic crystals and photonic metamaterials in color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Jean; Van Do, K.; Le Roux, Xavier; de Fornel, Frédérique; Cassan, Eric; Cluzel, Benoît

    2012-10-01

    Using a scanning near-field optical microscope operating with a hyperspectral detection scheme, we report the direct observation of the mirage effect within an on-chip integrated artificial material made of a two dimensional graded photonic crystal. The light rainbow due to the material dispersion is quantified experimentally and quantitatively compared to three dimensional plane wave assisted Hamiltonian optics predictions of light propagation.

  1. Modification of Thermal Emission via Metallic Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, David J.; Stein, Andreas; George, Steven M.

    2012-07-30

    Photonic crystals are materials that are periodically structured on an optical length scale. It was previously demonstrated that the glow, or thermal emission, of tungsten photonic crystals that have a specific structure - known as the 'woodpile structure' - could be modified to reduce the amount of infrared radiation from the material. This ability has implications for improving the efficiency of thermal emission sources and for thermophotovoltaic devices. The study of this effect had been limited because the fabrication of metallic woodpile structures had previously required a complex fabrication process. In this project we pursued several approaches to simplify the fabrication of metallic photonic crystals that are useful for modification of thermal emission. First, we used the self-assembly of micrometer-scale spheres into colloidal crystals known as synthetic opals. These opals can then be infiltrated with a metal and the spheres removed to obtain a structure, known as an inverse opal, in which a three-dimensional array of bubbles is embedded in a film. Second, we used direct laser writing, in which the focus of an infrared laser is moved through a thin film of photoresist to form lines by multiphoton polymerization. Proper layering of such lines can lead to a scaffold with the woodpile structure, which can be coated with a refractory metal. Third, we explored a completely new approach to modified thermal emission - thin metal foils that contain a simple periodic surface pattern, as shown in Fig. 1. When such a foil is heated, surface plasmons are excited that propagate along the metal interface. If these waves strike the pattern, they can be converted into thermal emission with specific properties.

  2. Tunable photonic band-gaps in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing linear graded index material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated control of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) in 1-D photonic crystals using linear graded index material. The analysis of PBG has been done in THz region by considering photonic crystals in the form of ten periods of second, third and fourth generation of the Fibonacci sequence as unit cell. The unit cells are constituted of two kinds of layers; one is taken of linear graded index material and other of normal dielectric material. For this investigation, we used a theoretical model based on transfer matrix method. We have obtained a large number of PBGs and their bandwidths can be tuned by changing the grading profile and thicknesses of linear graded index layers. The number of PBGs increases with increase in the thicknesses of layers and their bandwidths can be controlled by the contrast of initial and final refractive index of the graded layers. In this way, we provide more design freedom for photonic devices such as reflectors, filters, optical sensors, couplers, etc.

  3. Two-dimensional photonic crystals with large complete photonic band gaps in both TE and TM polarizations.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; David, Sylvain; Checoury, Xavier; El Kurdi, Moustafa; Boucaud, Philippe

    2008-08-04

    Photonic crystals exhibiting a photonic band gap in both TE and TM polarizations are particularly interesting for a better control of light confinement. The simultaneous achievement of large band gaps in both polarizations requires to reduce the symmetry properties of the photonic crystal lattice. In this letter, we propose two different designs of two-dimensional photonic crystals patterned in high refractive index thin silicon slabs. These slabs are known to limit the opening of photonic band gaps for both polarizations. The proposed designs exhibit large complete photonic band gaps: the first photonic crystal structure is based on the honey-comb lattice with two different hole radii and the second structure is based on a "tri-ellipse" pattern in a triangular lattice. Photonic band gap calculations show that these structures offer large complete photonic band gaps deltaomega/omega larger than 10% between first and second photonic bands. This figure of merit is obtained with single-mode slab waveguides and is not restricted to modes below light cone.

  4. Analytical approximation for photonic array modes in 1D photonic crystal superlattices.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elena; Shteeman, Vladislav; Hardy, Amos A

    2016-04-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical approximation for array modes (both the modal fields and their associated propagation constants) for 1D photonic crystal superlattices (i.e., large periodic arrays of repeated sequences of different coupled waveguides/lasers). In this class, a regular periodicity of a photonic lattice is supplemented with the additional periodicity of a larger scale. Our approximation is a vectorial approach, accounting for the TE and TM polarizations. It can be applied to both the low- and high-contrast photonic devices. We used the model of standing waves for analytical evaluation of envelopes of array modes in a photonic superlattice. Combination of the model of standing waves with the coupled-mode formalism for infinite photonic superlattices allows evaluation of propagation constants of the array modes. Both the evaluations require only a fraction of a second for computation. Still, the results, acquired with the analytical approximation, are very close to those of well-established approaches. Furthermore, for the first time, analytical expressions for the modal fields and propagation constants become available.

  5. Optically induced indirect photonic transitions in a slow light photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Castellanos Muñoz, Michel; Petrov, Alexander Yu; O'Faolain, Liam; Li, Juntao; Krauss, Thomas F; Eich, Manfred

    2014-02-07

    We demonstrate indirect photonic transitions in a silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguide. The transitions are driven by an optically generated refractive index front that moves along the waveguide and interacts with a signal pulse copropagating in the structure. We experimentally confirm a theoretical model which indicates that the ratio of the frequency and wave vector shifts associated with the indirect photonic transition is identical to the propagation velocity of the refractive index front. The physical origin of the transitions achieved here is fundamentally different than in previously proposed refractive index modulation concepts with fixed temporal and spatial modulation frequencies; as here, the interaction with the refractive index front results in a Doppler-like signal frequency and wave vector shift. Consequently, the bandwidth over which perfect mode frequency and wave vector matching is achieved is not intrinsically limited by the shape of the photonic bands, and tuning of the indirect photonic transitions is possible without any need for geometrical modifications of the structure. Our device is genuinely nonreciprocal, as it provides different frequency shifts for co- and counterpropagating signal and index fronts.

  6. A Spin Qubit Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Timothy; Carter, Samuel; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Solenov, Dmitry; Economou, Sophia; Reineke, Thomas; Yang, Lily; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The development of a scalable light-matter quantum interface is an important goal of quantum information research. Photonic crystal (PC) membranes provide an architecture in which the interaction of photons with an optically active matter qubit can be controlled through the introduction of optical cavities and waveguides. Charge neutral quantum dots are commonly integrated into PC architectures and are useful for sources and switches, but do not demonstrate long-lived coherences. A charged quantum dot in a PC environment could lead to a spin-photon quantum interface, where it is the long-lived spin of the electron, not the exciton that serves as a qubit. We demonstrate optical spin initialization and coherent control of an electron in a quantum dot that is embedded in and coupled to a 2D PC membrane cavity. The PC membrane is incorporated into an asymmetric NIP diode that allows for charging of an InAs quantum dot via an applied bias. Resonant laser spectroscopy performed in a transverse magnetic field enables the optical measurement and initialization of the electron spin. Furthermore, with the introduction of detuned control pulses, we perform coherent rotations of the electron spin state. These studies demonstrate several essential accomplishments toward a spin-photon interface.

  7. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  8. Dispersion-controlled slow light in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshihiko; Adachi, Jun; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hamachi, Yohei; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    Slow light with a markedly low group velocity is a promising solution for optical buffering and advanced time-domain optical signal processing. It is also anticipated to enhance linear and nonlinear effects and so miniaturize functional photonic devices because slow light compresses optical energy in space. Photonic crystal waveguide devices generate on-chip slow light at room temperature with a wide bandwidth and low dispersion suitable for short pulse transmission. This paper first explains the delay-bandwidth product, fractional delay, and tunability as crucial criteria for buffering capacity of slow light devices. Then the paper describes experimental observations of slow light pulse, exhibiting their record high values. It also demonstrates the nonlinear enhancement based on slow light pulse transmission.

  9. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, K; Stavenga, D G

    2008-01-06

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, analytical modelling and computer-generated TEM micrographs, we find that the three-dimensional cuticular structures can be modelled by gyroid structures with various filling fractions and lattice parameters. We give a brief discussion of the formation of cubic gyroid membranes from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the scale's cell, which dry and harden to leave the cuticular structure behind when the cell dies. The scales of C. rubi are a potentially attractive biotemplate for producing three-dimensional optical photonic crystals since for these scales the cuticle-filling fraction is nearly optimal for obtaining the largest photonic band gap in a gyroid structure.

  10. Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Carlos I; Reguera, Edilso; Stein, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based colloidal photonic crystals have an incomplete photonic band gap (PBG) and typically appear iridescent in the visible range. As powders, synthetic PMMA opals are white, but when infiltrated with carbon black nanoparticles, they exhibit a well-defined color that shows little dependence on the viewing angle. The quantity of black pigment determines the lightness of the color by controlling scattering. The combined effects of internal order within each particle and random orientation among the particles in the powder are responsible for this behavior. These pigments were employed as paints, using a mixture of polyvinyl acetate as a binder and deionized water as the solvent, and were applied to wood and paper surfaces for color analysis.

  11. Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets.

    PubMed

    Saba, M; Thiel, M; Turner, M D; Hyde, S T; Gu, M; Grosse-Brauckmann, K; Neshev, D N; Mecke, K; Schröder-Turk, G E

    2011-03-11

    Nature provides impressive examples of chiral photonic crystals, with the notable example of the cubic so-called srs network (the label for the chiral degree-three network modeled on SrSi2) or gyroid structure realized in wing scales of several butterfly species. By a circular polarization analysis of the band structure of such networks, we demonstrate strong circular dichroism effects: The butterfly srs microstructure, of cubic I4(1)32 symmetry, shows significant circular dichroism for blue to ultraviolet light, that warrants a search for biological receptors sensitive to circular polarization. A derived synthetic structure based on four like-handed silicon srs nets exhibits a large circular polarization stop band of a width exceeding 30%. These findings offer design principles for chiral photonic devices.

  12. Plasmonic gold nanodiscs fabricated into a photonic-crystal nanocavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sediq, Khalid N.; Coles, David; Fry, Paul W.; Lidzey, David G.

    2016-06-01

    We fabricate and characterise an optical structure consisting of a photonic crystal L3 nanocavity containing two gold nanodisks placed close to a field antinode. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling to show that the optical properties of the nanocavity are sensitive to the physical separation between the gold nanodisks, and that at reduced separation, the q-factor of a cavity mode polarised parallel to the dimer long-axis is reduced, indicating coupling between the cavity mode and a localised plasmon. Preliminary experimental measurements indeed indicate a damping of the cavity mode in the presence of the dimer; a result consistent with the FDTD modelling. Such a scheme may be used to integrate plasmonic systems into all-optical photonic circuits.

  13. Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam

    PubMed Central

    Leijssen, Rick; Verhagen, Ewold

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between mechanical and optical degrees of freedom is strongly enhanced by using subwavelength optical mode profiles. We realize an optomechanical system based on a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam, which combines such highly confined optical fields with a low-mass mechanical mode. Analyzing the transduction of motion and effects of radiation pressure we find the system exhibits a photon-phonon coupling rate g0 /2π ≈ 11.5 MHz, exceeding previously reported values by an order of magnitude. We show that the large optomechanical interaction enables detecting thermal motion with detection noise below that at the standard quantum limit, even in broad bandwidth devices, important for both sensor applications as well as measurement-based quantum control. PMID:26522751

  14. Waveguide-integrated photonic crystal spectrometer with camera readout

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Fan; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Li, Luozhou; Nie, Jing; Harris, Nicholas C.; Chen, Edward H.; Schröder, Tim; Englund, Dirk; Wan, Noel; Pervez, Nadia; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate an infrared spectrometer based on waveguide-coupled nanocavity filters in a planar photonic crystal structure. The input light is coupled into the waveguide, from which spectral components are dropped into the cavities and radiated off-chip for detection on a commercial InGaAs camera. The spectrometer has a footprint of only 60 μm by 8 μm. The spectral resolution is about 1 nm in the operation bandwidth of 1522–1545 nm. By substituting the membrane material and structure parameters, this design can be easily extended into the visible regime and developed for a variety of highly efficient, miniature photonic applications.

  15. One-dimensional photonic crystals as selective back reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondek, Ewa; Karasiński, Paweł

    2013-06-01

    Using the sol-gel technology and dip-coating method involving the deposition of silica layers and titania layers, we have fabricated symmetrical structures with one-dimensional photonic crystals on both sides of glass substrates. For the structure with five bilayers (SiO2/TiO2) we have obtained the maximum reflectance of 0.967 for the wavelength λr=493 nm and full width at half maximum of the main reflectance peak of FWHM=185 nm. The fabricated structures have been analyzed theoretically with the application of the transfer matrix 2×2 method, allowing for complex refraction indexes for the component layers. The paper presents the applied theoretical model and the discussion involving the calculated and experimental results. Good agreement between the calculation and experimental results has been obtained. The elaborated photonic structures can be applied in solar light concentrators for photovoltaic systems.

  16. Challenges and Solutions in Fabrication of Silica-Based Photonic Crystal Fibers: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouzad Mahdiraji, G.; Chow, Desmond M.; Sandoghchi, S. R.; Amirkhan, F.; Dermosesian, E.; Shien Yeo, Kwok; Kakaei, Z.; Ghomeishi, M.; Poh, Soo Yong; Gang, Shee Yu; Mahamd Adikan, F. R.

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication process of photonic crystal fibers based on a stack-and-draw method is presented in full detail in this article. In addition, improved techniques of photonic crystal fiber preform preparation and fabrication are highlighted. A new method of connecting a handle to a preform using only a fiber drawing tower is demonstrated, which eliminates the need for a high-temperature glass working lathe. Also, a new technique of modifying the photonic crystal fiber structural pattern by sealing air holes of the photonic crystal fiber cane is presented. Using the proposed methods, several types of photonic crystal fibers are fabricated, which suggests potential for rapid photonic crystal fibers fabrication in laboratories equipped with and limited to only a fiber drawing tower.

  17. Photonic Crystal Surfaces as a General Purpose Platform for Label-Free and Fluorescent Assays.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T

    2010-04-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces can be designed to provide a wide range of functions that are used to perform biochemical and cell-based assays. Detection of the optical resonant reflections from photonic crystal surfaces enables high sensitivity label-free biosensing, while the enhanced electromagnetic fields that occur at resonant wavelengths can be used to enhance the detection sensitivity of any surface-based fluorescence assay. Fabrication of photonic crystals from inexpensive plastic materials over large surface areas enables them to be incorporated into standard formats that include microplates, microarrays, and microfluidic channels. This report reviews the design of photonic crystal biosensors, their associated detection instrumentation, and biological applications. Applications including small molecule high throughput screening, cell membrane integrin activation, gene expression analysis, and protein biomarker detection are highlighted. Recent results in which photonic crystal surfaces are used for enhancing the detection of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and the development of high resolution photonic crystal-based laser biosensors are also described.

  18. One-dimensional photonic crystals with an amplitude-modulated dielectric constant in the unit cell.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Ulibarrena, Manuel; Blaya, Salvador; Fimia, Antonio

    2004-05-10

    Photonic band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals with an amplitude-modulated dielectric constant in the unit cell were studied. With this structure two bandgaps in the visible and one in the IR region were predicted. Experimental measurements of the two photonic bandgaps in the visible spectrum were made in a photonic crystal recorded in a holographic emulsion. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was obtained.

  19. Laser applications of self-organized organic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumi, Seiichi

    2008-08-01

    In this presentation, I report on the self-organized photonic crystals (PCs) of organic and polymer materials for laser applications. Here the self-organized PCs correspond to chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) and colloidal crystals (CCs). First, CLC molecules self-organize the supramolecular helical arrangement by the helical twisting power like as 1-D PC structure. When the fluorescent dye-doped CLC is optically excited with a linearly polarized beam, the laser emission appears at the photonic band gap (PBG) edge(s) of CLC hosts. The optically excited laser emission shows circularly polarized characteristic, even though the excitation beam is linearly polarized. Applying voltages to the optically excited CLC cells enables reversible switching of the laser action as a result of changes in the supramolecular helical structure of CLC host. Moreover, we succeed in the phototunable laser emission by using photoreactive CLCs. Second research topic is establishment of new potential utilities of CC structures of polymer micro-particles. Monodispersed micro-particles have an intrinsic capability to self-assemble the face-centered cubic lattice structures like as 3-D PCs on substrates from the suspension solutions. The highly ordered architectures of colloidal particles are called as the CCs. The laser cavity structure consists of an intermediate light-emitting layer of a fluorescent dye sandwiched between a pair of polymeric CC films. Optical excitation of the device gives rise to the laser oscillation within the photonic band-gap of the CC films. Interestingly, the laser action can be generated by optical excitation even though the CC laser device of all-polymer materials becomes bent shape by mechanical stress.

  20. Maximizing the Bandwidth from Supercontinuum Generation in Photonic Crystal Chalcogenide Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    1 Maximizing the Bandwidth from Supercontinuum Generation in Photonic Crystal Chalcogenide Fibers Curtis R. Menyuk based on the PhD dissertation of... Supercontinuum Generation in Photonic Crystal Chalcogenide Fibers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Maximizing the Bandwidth from Supercontinuum Generation in Photonic Crystal Chalcogenide

  1. Analysis of photonic crystal and multi-frequency terahertz microstrip patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lechen; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Kunfeng; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Baoshun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional photonic crystals working at terahertz (THz) frequency is analyzed, a multi-frequency terahertz microstrip patch antenna on photonic crystal substrate is presented and its electromagnetic wave propagation phenomenon is investigated. The proposed antenna can work at five frequency points' scope at terahertz frequency regions, and the radiation efficiency is as high as ~96%. The photonic crystal structure of the substrate is used to enhance the gain, directivity and radiation efficiency of the antenna.

  2. Packaging consideration of two-dimensional polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results were also reported.

  3. AFRL Nanotechnology Initiative: Hybrid Nanomaterials in Photonic Crystal Cavities for Multi-Spectral Infrared Detector Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    INITIATIVE) HYBRID NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITIES FOR MULTI -SPECTRAL INFRARED DETECTOR ARRAYS 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-06-1-0482 5c...IR) photodetector using hybrid nanornaterials in photonic crystal (PC) cavities for enhanced absorption at selected wavelengths. The simultaneous...infrared photodetection, quantum dots, photonic crystal cavities, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  4. Photonic crystal fiber amplifiers for high power ultrafast fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Laurila, Marko; Weirich, Johannes; Johansen, Mette M.; Olausson, Christina B.; Lumholt, Ole; Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, ultrafast laser systems using large-mode-area fiber amplifiers delivering several hundreds of watts of average power has attracted significant academic and industrial interest. These amplifiers can generate hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts of peak power using direct amplification and multi-gigawatts of peak power using pulse stretching techniques. These amplifiers are enabled by advancements in Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) design and manufacturing technology. In this paper, we will give a short overview of state-of-the-art PCF amplifiers and describe the performance in ultrafast ps laser systems.

  5. Array integration of thousands of photonic crystal nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takumi; Abe, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) nanolasers often consist of air-bridge PC slab, which enhances optical confinement while limiting its size to 30 × 30 μm2 due to the mechanical fragileness. This limit is broken by resin-mediated bonding of the PC slab on a host substrate. In this paper, we demonstrate a GaInAsP PC slab with a size of over 100 × 100 μm2 in which 1089, 2376, and 11 664 nanolasers showing high-yield laser operation are integrated.

  6. Photonic Crystal Enabled Thermophotovoltaics for a Portable Microgenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    This work presents the design and characterization of a first-of-a-kind millimeter- scale thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system using a metallic microburner, photonic crystal emitter, and low-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. In our TPV system, combustion heats the emitter to incandescence and the resulting thermal radiation is converted to electricity by the low bandgap PV cells. Our motivation is to harness the high specific energy of hydrocarbon fuels at the micro- and millimeter-scale in order to meet the increasing power demands of micro robotics and portable electronics. Our experimental demonstration lays the groundwork for developing a TPV microgenerator as a viable battery replacement.

  7. Widely tunable femtosecond solitonic radiation in photonic crystal fiber cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Jiahui; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Benabid, F.; Light, P. S.; Couny, F.; Biancalana, F.; Roberts, P. J.

    2010-03-15

    We report on a means to generate tunable ultrashort optical pulses. We demonstrate that dispersive waves generated by solitons within the small-core features of a photonic crystal fiber cladding can be used to obtain femtosecond pulses tunable over an octave-wide spectral range. The generation process is highly efficient and occurs at the relatively low laser powers available from a simple Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. The described phenomenon is general and will play an important role in other systems where solitons are known to exist.

  8. Photonic quasi-crystal fiber with high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongfei; Xiao, Wei; Cai, Weicheng; Liu, Exian; Feng, Bo; Wang, Ziming; Liang, Taiyuan; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-03-01

    A high-birefringence photonic quasi-crystal fiber (HB-PQF) based on SiO2 is proposed. The relationships between birefringence and structure parameters and between beat length and structure parameters are researched by finite difference beam propagation method. With the optimization of fiber structure parameters, the birefringence is 1.4207×10-2, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the normally used fiber when the wavelength is 1.55 μm. The radius of the fiber is 6.5 μm. The HB-PQF in a communication sensor will have important application prospects.

  9. High-visibility photonic crystal fiber interferometer as multifunctional sensor.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Sevilla, G A; Fávero, Fernando C; Villatoro, Joel

    2013-02-08

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer that exhibits record fringe contrast (~40 dB) is demonstrated along with its sensing applications. The device operates in reflection mode and consists of a centimeter-long segment of properly selected PCF fusion spliced to single mode optical fibers. Two identical collapsed zones in the PCF combined with its modal properties allow high-visibility interference patterns. The interferometer is suitable for refractometric and liquid level sensing. The measuring refractive index range goes from 1.33 to 1.43 and the maximum resolution is ~1.6 × 10(-5).

  10. Salinity sensor based on polyimide-coated photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2011-10-10

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a highly sensitive salinity sensor using a polyimide-coated Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer based on the coating swelling induced radial pressure. This is the first time to exploit fiber coating induced pressure effect for salinity sensing. The achieved salinity sensitivity is 0.742 nm/(mol/L), which is 45 times more sensitive than that of a polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating. A bare fiber Bragg grating is incorporated into the fiber loop for temperature compensation.

  11. Wavefront sensing using a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Valente, Denise; Rativa, Diego; Vohnsen, Brian

    2015-05-18

    A novel wavefront sensor based on a microstructural array of waveguides is proposed. The method is based on the sensitivity in light-coupling efficiency to the wavefront gradient present at the entrance aperture of each waveguide in an array, and hence the amount of incident light that couples is influenced by wavefront aberrations. The concept is illustrated with wavefront measurements that have been performed using a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber (LF-PCF) working as a coherent fiber bundle. The pros and cons of the LF-PCF based sensor are discussed.

  12. Optical properties of two-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mejía-Salazar, J. R.

    2013-12-14

    In the present work, we theoretically study a 2D photonic crystal (PC) comprised by double negative (DNG) metamaterial cylinders, showing that such a system presents a superior light-matter interaction when compared with their single negative (SNG) plasmonic PC counterparts, suggesting a route to enhance the performance of sensors and photovoltaic cells. On the other hand, we have observed that depending on the frequency, the mode symmetry resembles either the case of SNG electric (SNG-E) or SNG magnetic (SNG-M) PC, suggesting that either the electric or magnetic character of the DNG metamaterial dominates in each case.

  13. Liquid-filled simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Gao, Wei; Li, Hongwei; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Hongying

    2014-12-01

    We report on a novel type of liquid-filled simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs), and investigate their transmission properties with various filling liquids, including water, ethanol and FC-40. The loss and dispersion characterizations are calculated for different fiber parameters including strut thickness and core diameter. The results show that there are still low-loss windows existing for liquid-filled simplified HC-PCFs, and the low-loss windows and dispersions can be easily tailored by filling different liquids. Such liquid-filled simplified HC-PCFs open up many possibilities for nonlinear fiber optics, optical, biochemical and medical sensing.

  14. Fluorescence properties of photonic crystals doped with perylenediimide.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Aurel; Rusen, Edina; Mocanu, Alexandra; Hudhomme, Piétrick; Cincu, Corneliu

    2011-06-21

    This study aims to present the fabrication of colloidal photonic crystals (PC) with increased fluorescence properties. The use of a highly fluorescent perylenediimide derivate (PDI) during the soap-free emulsion polymerization of styrene-acrylic acid resulted in monodisperse core-shell particles which allowed the fabrication of PC films. The properties of the hybrid material were studied in comparison with hybrid materials obtained by impregnation of films with chromophore solutions. In both cases an increase of the fluorescence response was observed in addition to a blue shift for the PDI core particles, proving the incorporation of the dye inside the copolymer particles.

  15. Synchronization in air-slot photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjun; Wu, Jiagui; Flores, Jaime Gonzalo Flor; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wen, Guangjun; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this Letter, we report observations for the optomechanical oscillator (OMO) synchronization in an air-slot photonic crystal (PhC) cavity driven by a single laser source. Two very-close mechanical modes are found in the air-slot PhC OMO cavity and can be locked to each other at drive powers above the threshold with different detunings. The improvement in phase noise (-70 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset) for the synchronized OMO is reported as well. The stable frequency tones obtained open a path toward reconfigurable synchronized oscillator networks.

  16. Frequency control of photonic crystal membrane resonators by monolayer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauf, S.; Rakher, M. T.; Carmeli, I.; Hennessy, K.; Meier, C.; Badolato, A.; DeDood, M. J. A.; Petroff, P. M.; Hu, E. L.; Gwinn, E. G.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2006-01-01

    We study the response of GaAs photonic crystal membrane resonators to thin-film deposition. Slow spectral shifts of the cavity mode of several nanometers are observed at low temperatures, caused by cryo-gettering of background molecules. Heating the membrane resets the drift and shielding will prevent drift altogether. In order to explore the drift as a tool to detect surface layers, or to intentionally shift the cavity resonance frequency, we studied the effect of self-assembled monolayers of polypeptide molecules attached to the membranes. The 2-nm-thick monolayers lead to a discrete step in the resonance frequency and partially passivate the surface.

  17. Determination of glucose concentrations using photonic crystal LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Yang; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Chang, Cheng-Yu; Lan, Wen-Yi; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2016-09-01

    As internet of things (IOT) has become a popular topic in current consumer electronics, there is a demand for cost-effective sensors to monitor bio-signals. Traditional optical sensors employ low-dimensional gratings and high-resolution spectrometers to detect the refractive index changes of the solutions. In this work, we develop an alternative approach to correlate the concentration of molecules to the band diagrams of the photonic crystals. A relatively low-resolution spectrum analyzer can be employed, yet achieves higher sensitivity than traditional approaches.

  18. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, N.; Amin, M.; Naureen, S.; Anand, S.

    2013-03-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications.

  19. Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Deepak; Waks, Edo; Solomon, Glenn; Fourkas, John T.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate reversible tuning of a photonic crystal cavity resonance using a thin photochromic film composed of spiropyran and polymethylmethacrylate that serves as a photosensitive cladding layer. Exposure of spiropyran to ultraviolet light results in smooth redshift of the cavity resonance that can be reversed by exposure to visible wavelength light. We achieve a reversible resonance shift of up to 2.7 nm, which can be performed locally on individual cavities. The resonance shift over multiple successive UV and visible light exposures is studied to determine the repeatability of the photochromic film.

  20. Detection of endotoxin using a photonic crystal nanolaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Daichi; Hachuda, Shoji; Watanabe, Takumi; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    Fast and reliable detection of endotoxin (ET) in medical equipment and pharmaceutical products is an essential precursor to clinical treatment. In this study, we demonstrate the use of shifts in wavelength of photonic crystal nanolasers for sensing the Limulus amebocyte lysate reaction, which is a standard method for detecting ET. From working curves of wavelength shift vs ET concentration, whose correlation factors were as high as 98%, we detected a required concentration of 0.001 EU/ml within 33 min and detected a low concentration of 0.0001 EU/ml.

  1. Enhanced photodetection in graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Gan, Xuetao; Gao, Yuanda; Li, Luozhou; Yao, Xinwen; Szep, Attila; Walker, Dennis; Hone, James; Englund, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the controlled enhancement of photoresponsivity in a graphene photodetector by coupling to slow light modes in a long photonic crystal linear defect cavity. Near the Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary, spectral coupling of multiple cavity modes results in broad-band photocurrent enhancement from 1530 nm to 1540 nm. Away from the BZ boundary, individual cavity resonances enhance the photocurrent eight-fold in narrow resonant peaks. Optimization of the photocurrent via critical coupling of the incident field with the graphene-cavity system is discussed. The enhanced photocurrent demonstrates the feasibility of a wavelength-scale graphene photodetector for efficient photodetection with high spectral selectivity and broadband response.

  2. Array integration of thousands of photonic crystal nanolasers

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Takumi Abe, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    2014-03-24

    Photonic crystal (PC) nanolasers often consist of air-bridge PC slab, which enhances optical confinement while limiting its size to 30 × 30 μm{sup 2} due to the mechanical fragileness. This limit is broken by resin-mediated bonding of the PC slab on a host substrate. In this paper, we demonstrate a GaInAsP PC slab with a size of over 100 × 100 μm{sup 2} in which 1089, 2376, and 11 664 nanolasers showing high-yield laser operation are integrated.

  3. Detection of endotoxin using a photonic crystal nanolaser

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Daichi; Hachuda, Shoji; Watanabe, Takumi; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    2015-03-30

    Fast and reliable detection of endotoxin (ET) in medical equipment and pharmaceutical products is an essential precursor to clinical treatment. In this study, we demonstrate the use of shifts in wavelength of photonic crystal nanolasers for sensing the Limulus amebocyte lysate reaction, which is a standard method for detecting ET. From working curves of wavelength shift vs ET concentration, whose correlation factors were as high as 98%, we detected a required concentration of 0.001 EU/ml within 33 min and detected a low concentration of 0.0001 EU/ml.

  4. Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric; Combrié, Sylvain De Rossi, Alfredo

    2014-09-22

    Using Optical Coherence Tomography, we measure the attenuation of slow light modes in slotted photonic crystal waveguides. When the group index is close to 20, the attenuation is below 300 dB cm{sup −1}. Here, the optical confinement in the empty slot is very strong, corresponding to an ultra-small effective cross section of 0.02 μm{sup 2}. This is nearly 10 times below the diffraction limit at λ = 1.5 μm, and it enables an effective interaction with a very small volume of functionalized matter.

  5. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    PubMed Central

    Konopsky, Valery N.; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V.; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K.; Dietler, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS/PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately. PMID:23429517

  6. Dynamic characteristics of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Vahid

    2014-04-20

    In this paper, we analyze the dynamic characteristics of quantum dot (QD) photonic crystal lasers by solving Maxwell equations coupled to rate equations through linear susceptibility of QDs. Here, we study the effects of the quality factor of the microcavity and temperature on the delay, relaxation oscillation frequency, and output intensity of the lasers. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of the Purcell factor on temperature. We show that when the quality factor of the microcavity is so high that we can consider its linewidth as a delta function in comparison with QDs, the Purcell factor significantly drops with increasing temperature.

  7. Efficient low-temperature thermophotovoltaic emitters from metallic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Prashant; Han, Sang Eon; Stein, Andreas; Norris, David J

    2008-10-01

    We examine the use of metallic photonic crystals as thermophotovoltaic emitters. We coat silica woodpile structures, created using direct laser writing, with tungsten or molybdenum. Optical reflectivity and thermal emission measurements near 650 degrees C demonstrate that the resulting structures should provide efficient emitters at relatively low temperatures. When matched to InGaAsSb photocells, our structures should generate over ten times more power than solid emitters while having an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency above 32%. At such low temperatures, these emitters have promise not only in solar energy but also in harnessing geothermal and industrial waste heat.

  8. Photonic crystal fiber mapping using Brillouin echoes distributed sensing.

    PubMed

    Stiller, B; Foaleng, S M; Beugnot, J-C; Lee, M W; Delqué, M; Bouwmans, G; Kudlinski, A; Thévenaz, L; Maillotte, H; Sylvestre, T

    2010-09-13

    In this paper we investigate the effect of microstructure irregularities and applied strain on backward Brillouin scattering by comparing two photonic crystal fibers drawn with different parameters in order to minimize diameter and microstructure fluctuations. We fully characterize their Brillouin properties including the gain spectrum and the critical power. Using Brillouin echoes distributed sensing with a high spatial resolution of 30 cm we are able to map the Brillouin frequency shift along the fiber and get an accurate estimation of the microstructure longitudinal fluctuations. Our results reveal a clear-cut difference of longitudinal homogeneity between the two fibers.

  9. Photonic-crystal-fiber-enabled micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Joel; Finazzi, Vittoria; Coviello, Gianluca; Pruneri, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    We report on the fabrication of a monolithic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer whose cavity is a microscopic air bubble. The latter is formed when splicing together a conventional single-mode fiber and an index-guiding photonic crystal fiber with the standard arc-discharge technique. Spherical microcavities with diameters ranging from 20 to 58 microm were fabricated with such a technique. The interferometers exhibited low thermal sensitivity (less than 1.0 pm/ degrees C), high mechanical strength, broad operation wavelength range, and fringe contrast in the 8-12 dB range. The applications of the interferometers for strain sensing (up to 5000 micro(epsilon) is demonstrated.

  10. Experiment and simulation on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2014-10-15

    The transmission characteristics of microwaves passing through one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) have been investigated by experiment and simulation. The PPCs were formed by a series of discharge tubes filled with argon at 5 Torr that the plasma density in tubes can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The transmittance of X-band microwaves through the crystal structure was measured under different discharge currents and geometrical parameters. The finite-different time-domain method was employed to analyze the detailed properties of the microwaves propagation. The results show that there exist bandgaps when the plasma is turned on. The properties of bandgaps depend on the plasma density and the geometrical parameters of the PPCs structure. The PPCs can perform as dynamical band-stop filter to control the transmission of microwaves within a wide frequency range.

  11. Cotton-yarn/TiO {2} dispersed resin photonic crystals with straight and wavy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kirihara, S.; Miyamoto, Y.; Sakoda, K.

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals made using textile technology was investigated. Three different textures consisting of the cotton-yarn and TiO2 dispersed resin; a crossed linear-yarn laminated fabric, a multi layered woven fabric, and a 3-D woven fabric, were fabricated. The microwave attenuation of the transmission amplitude through these photonic crystals was measured. The straight cotton-yarn as well as the wavy cotton-yarn/TiO2 dispersed resin photonic crystals exhibited band gaps in the 6 to 15 GHz range. Thus, we could fabricate successfully 3-D photonic crystals using textile technology.

  12. Magnetic field sensor based on selectively magnetic fluid infiltrated dual-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vanita; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2016-02-01

    We reported the modeling result of selectively magnetic fluid infiltrated dual-core photonic crystal fiber based magnetic field sensor. Inside the cross-section of the designed photonic crystal fiber, the two fiber cores filled with magnetic fluid (Fe3O4) form two independent waveguides with mode coupling. The mode coupling under different magnetic field strengths is investigated theoretically. The sensitivity of the sensor as a function of the structural parameters of the photonic crystal fiber is calculated. The result shows that the proposed sensing device with 1 cm photonic crystal fiber length has a large sensitivity of 305.8 pm/Oe.

  13. Bending self-collimated one-way light by using gyromagnetic photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qing-Bo; Li, Zhen; Wu, Rui-xin

    2015-12-14

    We theoretically demonstrate that electromagnetic waves can self-collimate and propagate unidirectionally in photonic crystals fabricated using semicylindrical ferrite rods in magnetized states. The parity and time-reversal symmetries of such photonic crystals are broken, resulting in a self-collimated one-way body wave within the photonic crystals. By applying the bias magnetic field in a complex configuration, the self-collimated one-way wave beam can be bent into arbitrary trajectories within the photonic crystal, providing an avenue for controlling wave beams.

  14. Review on recent progress of three-dimensional optical photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Kuang, Ping; Bur, James A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; John, Sajeev

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two decades, the field of photonic-crystals has become one of the most influential realms of contemporary optics. In this paper, we will review two recent experimental progresses in three-dimensional photonic-crystal operating in optical wavelengths. The first is the observation of anomalous light-refraction, an acutely negative refraction, in a 3D photonic-crystal for light trapping, guiding and near-unity absorption. The second is the observation of quasi-coherent thermal emission from an all-metallic 3D photonic-crystal at elevated temperatures.

  15. Cross two photon absorption in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide fiber taper coupler with a physical junction

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkissian, Raymond O'Brien, John

    2015-01-21

    Cross two photon absorption in silicon is characterized using a tapered fiber photonic crystal silicon waveguide coupler. There is a physical junction between the tapered fiber and the waveguide constituting a stand-alone device. This device is used to obtain the spectrum for cross two photon absorption coefficient per unit volume of interaction between photons of nondegenerate energy. The corresponding Kerr coefficient per unit volume of interaction is also experimentally extracted. The thermal resistance of the device is also experimentally determined and the response time of the device is estimated for on-chip all-optical signal processing and data transfer between optical signals of different photon energies.

  16. Liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibers for electric field intensity measurements.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Sunish; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya

    2011-06-10

    The application of nematic liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fiber as a sensor for electric field intensity measurement is demonstrated. The device is based on an intrinsic sensing mechanism for electric fields. The sensor probe, which consists of a 1  cm infiltrated section of photonic crystal fiber with a lateral size of ∼125  μm, is very compact with small size and weight. A simple all-fiber design for the sensor is employed in an intensity based measurement scheme. The transmitted and reflected power of the infiltrated photonic crystal fiber is shown to have a linear response with the applied electric field. The sensor is operated in the telecommunication window at 1550  nm. The temperature dependence of the device at this operating wavelength is also experimentally studied and discussed. These structures can be used to accurately measure electric field intensity and can be used for the fabrication of all-fiber sensors for high electric field environments as both an in-line and reflective type point sensor.

  17. Photonic band gap structure for a ferroelectric photonic crystal at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    King, Tzu-Chyang; Chen, De-Xin; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2015-10-10

    In this work, the photonic band gap (PBG) structure in a one-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal (PC) is theoretically investigated. We consider a PC, air/(AB)N/air, in which layer A is a dielectric of MgO and layer B is taken to be a ferroelectric of Ba0.55Sr0.45TiO3 (BSTO). With an extremely high value in the dielectric constant in BSTO, the calculated photonic band structure at microwave frequencies exhibits some interesting features that are significantly different from those in a usual dielectric-dielectric PC. First, the photonic transmission band consists of multiple and nearly discrete transmission peaks. Second, the calculated bandwidth of the PBG is nearly unchanged as the angle of incidence varies in the TE wave. The bandwidth will slightly reduce for the TM mode. Thus, a wide omnidirectional PBG can be obtained. Additionally, the effect of the thickness of the ferroelectric layer on the PBG is much more pronounced compared to the dielectric layer thickness. That is, the increase of ferroelectric thickness can significantly decrease the PBG bandwidth.

  18. CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Yuta; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-06-18

    Progress on the fabrication of ultrahigh-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities (PhC-NCs) has revealed the prospect for new applications including silicon Raman lasers that require a strong confinement of light. Among various PhC-NCs, the highest Q has been recorded with silicon. On the other hand, microcavity is one of the basic building blocks in silicon photonics. However, the fusion between PhC-NCs and silicon photonics has yet to be exploited, since PhC-NCs are usually fabricated with electron-beam lithography and require an air-bridge structure. Here we show that a 2D-PhC-NC fabricated with deep-UV photolithography on a silica-clad silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure will exhibit a high-Q of 2.2 × 10(5) with a mode-volume of ~ 1.7(λ/n)(3). This is the highest Q demonstrated with photolithography. We also show that this device exhibits an efficient thermal diffusion and enables high-speed switching. The demonstration of the photolithographic fabrication of high-Q silica-clad PhC-NCs will open possibility for mass-manufacturing and boost the fusion between silicon photonics and CMOS devices.

  19. Photonic band gaps in quasiperiodic photonic crystals with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. S.; Mauriz, P. W.; de Medeiros, F. F.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the photonic band gaps in quasiperiodic photonic crystals made up of both positive (SiO2) and negative refractive index materials using a theoretical model based on a transfer matrix treatment. The quasiperiodic structures are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (Fibonacci sequences) or singular continuous (Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). These substitutional sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey peculiar recursion relations. We discussed the photonic band gap spectra for both the ideal cases, where the negative refractive index material can be approximated as a constant in the frequency range considered, as well as the more realistic case, taking into account the frequency-dependent electric permittivity γ and magnetic permeability μ . We also present a quantitative analysis of the results, pointing out the distribution of the allowed photonic bandwidths for high generations, which gives a good insight about their localization and power laws.

  20. Preparation of metallo-dielectric photonic crystals by multi-photon direct laser writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Stephen M.; Tal, Amir; Chen, Yun-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    Metallo-dielectric photonic crystals (MDPCs) can exhibit intriguing and potentially useful optical properties, including ultra-wide photonic bandgaps, engineered thermal emission, and negative refractive index. But access to such materials has been limited by the lack of suitable methods for their preparation. We have developed a route to three-dimensional (3D) MDPCs that involves fabricating a polymeric pre-form by multi-photon direct laser writing and then conformally depositing metal onto the pre-form by electroless metallization. We use the approach to prepare silver- and copper-plated "woodpile" PCs having face-centered tetragonal symmetry and unit-cell period of several micrometers. The resulting 3D metallized structures exhibit mid-infrared reflectance that is consistent with theory and experimental observations obtained for MDPCs prepared by other routes. These data indicate that multi-photon direct laser writing coupled with electroless metallization is a viable route to complex 3D MDPCs of many symmetries and basis sets and provides a path for integrating such structures with other micron-scale optical elements.

  1. A thermally tunable inverse opal photonic crystal for monitoring glass transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liguo; Xie, Zhuoying; Xu, Hua; Xu, Ming; Han, Guozhi; Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xuduo; Gu, ZhongZe

    2012-03-01

    An optical method was developed to monitor the glass transition of the polymer by taking advantage of reflection spectrum change of the thermally tunable inverse opal photonic crystal. The thermally tunable photonic bands of the polymer inverse opal photonic crystal were traceable to the segmental motion of macromolecules, and the segmental motion was temperature dependent. By observing the reflection spectrum change of the polystyrene inverse opal photonic crystal during thermal treatment, the glass transition temperature of polystyrene was gotten. Both changes of the position and intensity of the reflection peak were observed during the glass transition process of the polystyrene inverse opal photonic crystal. The optical change of inverse opal photonic crystal was so large that the glass transition temperature could even be estimated by naked eyes. The glass transition temperature derived from this method was consistent with the values measured by differential scanning calorimeter.

  2. Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber chaotic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Juan C.; Used, Javier; Sánchez-Martín, José A.; Berdejo, Víctor; Vallés, Juan A.; Álvarez, José M.; Rebolledo, Miguel A.

    2011-09-01

    An erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser has been designed, constructed and characterized in order to examine the feasibility of this kind of devices for secure communications applications based on two identical chaotic lasers. Inclusion of a tailored photonic crystal fiber as active medium improves considerably the security of the device because it allows customization of the mode transversal profile, very influential on the laser dynamics and virtually impossible to be cloned by undesired listeners. The laser design has been facilitated by the combination of characterization procedures and models developed by us, which allow prediction of the most suitable laser features (losses, length of active fiber, etc.) to a given purpose (in our case, a laser that emits chaotically for a wide assortment of pump modulation conditions). The chaotic signals obtained have been characterized by means of topological analysis techniques. The underlying chaotic attractors found present topological structures belonging to classes of which very scarce experimental results have been reported. This fact is interesting from the point of view of the study of nonlinear systems and, besides, it is promising for secure communications: the stranger the signals, the more difficult for an eavesdropper to synthesize another system with similar dynamics.

  3. Photonic crystals possessing single and double Weyl points (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Che Ting

    2016-09-01

    The concepts of topological states have captured much attention in condensed-matter physics and the importance of these systems is subsequently realized in other subfields, such as cold atom and classical waves. In the past few years, the attention was focused on "topological insulators" while very recently, the attention is shifting to "Weyl semi-metals" which have gapless bulk band structures with pairs of topological points (called Weyl points) and topologically-protected surface states. In this work, we designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized a Weyl photonic crystal with both single and double Weyl points. We used tight-binding Hamiltonian as a starting point to guide us to the structures that have the correct symmetry to support topological features including synthetic gauge flux and associated Weyl points. We fabricated for the first time a system that exhibits Weyl points of topological charge higher than 1. In our photonic crystal, the existence of the double Weyl point is made possible by the degeneracy between the two single Weyl points which is protected by C3 symmetry and time reversal. Once the C3 symmetry is broken, two Weyl points with charge of ±1 will separate and each forms a linear dispersion in all three directions. Nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for fixed kz and Weyl points were confirmed by angle-resolved transmission spectra. The robustness of the associated surface states against kz-preserved scattering was experimentally observed.

  4. A Nanofluidic Biosensor Based on Nanoreplica Molding Photonic Crystal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin

    2016-12-01

    A nanofluidic biosensor based on nanoreplica molding photonic crystal (PC) was proposed. UV epoxy PC was fabricated by nanoreplica molding on a master PC wafer. The nanochannels were sealed between the gratings on the PC surface and a taped layer. The resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic biosensor was used for testing the sealing effect. According to the peak wavelength value of the sensor, an initial label-free experiment was realized with R6g as the analyte. When the PC-based biosensor was illuminated by a monochromatic light source with a specific angle, the resonance wavelength of the sensor will match with the light source and amplified the electromagnetic field. The amplified electromagnetic field was used to enhance the fluorescence excitation result. The enhancement effect was used for enhancing fluorescence excitation and emission when matched with the resonance condition. Alexa Fluor 635 was used as the target dye excited by 637-nm laser source on a configured photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) setup, and an initial PCEF enhancement factor was obtained.

  5. A Nanofluidic Biosensor Based on Nanoreplica Molding Photonic Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin

    2016-09-01

    A nanofluidic biosensor based on nanoreplica molding photonic crystal (PC) was proposed. UV epoxy PC was fabricated by nanoreplica molding on a master PC wafer. The nanochannels were sealed between the gratings on the PC surface and a taped layer. The resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic biosensor was used for testing the sealing effect. According to the peak wavelength value of the sensor, an initial label-free experiment was realized with R6g as the analyte. When the PC-based biosensor was illuminated by a monochromatic light source with a specific angle, the resonance wavelength of the sensor will match with the light source and amplified the electromagnetic field. The amplified electromagnetic field was used to enhance the fluorescence excitation result. The enhancement effect was used for enhancing fluorescence excitation and emission when matched with the resonance condition. Alexa Fluor 635 was used as the target dye excited by 637-nm laser source on a configured photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) setup, and an initial PCEF enhancement factor was obtained.

  6. Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K.; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported. PMID:27113674

  7. Efficient coupling to slow light photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md Shofiqul Islam; Devarapu, Ganga Chinna Rao; O'Faolain, Liam

    2016-04-01

    Slow light photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) have been the subject of intensive study due to their potential for on-chip applications such as optical buffers and the enhancement of nonlinear phenomenon. However, due to high group velocity mismatch between the strip waveguide and the slow light waveguide efficient coupling of light is challenging. The coupling efficiency is also very sensitive to the truncation at the interface between the two waveguides. This sensitivity can be removed and light can efficiently be coupled from the strip waveguide to the slow light waveguide by adding an intermediate photonic crystal waveguide (or coupler) that operates at a group index of ˜ 5. Several designs have been proposed for couplers to obtain higher coupling efficiency within the desired group index range. We have studied uniaxial stretched couplers in which the lattice constant is stretched in the direction of propagation by 10-50 nm in the coupler region. Using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Simulation Method that allows the extraction of the group index, we have observed 8.5 dB improvement in the coupling efficiency at the group index of 30. Efficient coupling is dominantly determined by the band edge position of the coupler region and maximum transmission efficiency is limited by the maximum transmission of the coupler PCW. If the band edge of coupler PCW is sufficiently red shifted relative to the band edge of the slow light PCW then higher coupling efficiency can be achieved.

  8. Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-04-26

    Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported.

  9. A GaN photonic crystal membrane laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Hung; Wang, Jyh-Yang; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Shen, Kun-Ching; Yeh, Dong-Ming; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2011-01-14

    The implementation of a series of optically pumped GaN photonic crystal (PhC) membrane lasers is demonstrated at room temperature. The photonic crystal is composed of a scalene-triangular arrangement of circular holes in GaN. Three defect structures are fabricated for comparing their lasing characteristics with those of perfect PhC. It is observed that all the lasing defect modes have lasing wavelengths very close to the band-edge modes in the perfect PhC structure. Although those lasing modes, including band-edge and defect modes, have different optical pump thresholds, different lasing spectral widths, different quality factors (Q factors), and different polarization ratios, all their polarization distributions show maxima in the directions around one of the hole arrangement axes. The similar lasing characteristics between the band-edge and defect modes are attributed to the existence of extremely narrow partial band gaps for forming the defect modes. Also, the oriented polarization properties are due to the scalene-triangle PhC structure. In one of the defect lasing modes, the lasing threshold is as low as 0.82 mJ cm(-2), the cavity Q factor is as large as 1743, and the polarization ratio is as large as 25.4. Such output parameters represent generally superior lasing behaviors when compared with previously reported implementations of similar laser structures.

  10. What is the Brillouin zone of an anisotropic photonic crystal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajah, P.; Maznev, A. A.; Ofori-Okai, B. K.; Nelson, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest band gap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ—defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice—is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic two-dimensional PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigner-Seitz method to a stretched or compressed reciprocal lattice. We also show that in the presence of the dispersion in the underlying material or in a slab waveguide, the Bragg planes are generally represented by curved surfaces rather than planes. The concept of constructing a BZ with Bragg planes should prove useful in understanding the formation of dispersion bands in anisotropic PhCs and in selectively tailoring their optical properties.

  11. Etched distributed Bragg reflectors as three-dimensional photonic crystals: photonic bands and density of states.

    PubMed

    Pavarini, E; Andreani, L C

    2002-09-01

    The photonic band dispersion and density of states (DOS) are calculated for the three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal structure corresponding to a distributed Bragg reflector patterned with a 2D triangular lattice of circular holes. Results for the Si/SiO(2) and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As systems determine the optimal parameters for which a gap in the 2D plane occurs and overlaps the 1D gap of the multilayer. The DOS is considerably reduced in correspondence with the overlap of 2D and 1D gaps. Also, the local density of states (i.e., the DOS weighted with the squared electric field at a given point) has strong variations depending on the position. Both results imply substantial changes of spontaneous emission rates and patterns for a local emitter embedded in the structure and make this system attractive for the fabrication of a 3D photonic crystal with controlled radiative properties.

  12. Photonic nanojet focusing for hollow-core photonic crystal fiber probes.

    PubMed

    Ghenuche, Petru; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme

    2012-12-20

    Large-pitch kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) offer appealing optical properties for beam delivery and remote sensing. However, focusing their optical mode on a submicrometer spot can be challenging due to the large mode diameter and low numerical aperture of these fibers. Here, we demonstrate that a 30 μm latex microsphere directly set at the HC-PCF end-face provides an efficient means to focus the fiber mode down to a spot of 540 nm full width at half-maximum thanks to a photonic nanojet effect. The system is used for fluorescence imaging and direct laser writing on a thin absorbing layer. Potential applications include inspection of semiconductor wafers, photolithography, laser surgery, fluorescence sensing, or optical transfection.

  13. Coded output photonic A/D converter based on photonic crystal slow-light structures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sunkyu; Koo, Sukmo; Park, Namkyoo

    2008-09-01

    A photonic analog-to-digital converter (PADC) utilizing a slow-light photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed, to enable the optically coded output of a PADC with reduced device size and power consumption. Assuming an index modulation for the MZI on the Taylor's PADC structure, limiting factors in device size, speed, and effective number of bits are derived considering the signal transition time of the light and the slow light dispersion effects. Details of the device design and results of a time domain assessment of the device performance is described with discussions on the feasibility of sub-mm size, 20GS/s operation of the device having the ENOB (effective number of bits) > 5.

  14. Optical study of Sb-S-I glass photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starczewska, Anna; Kępińska, Mirosława; Nowak, Marian; Szperlich, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    This work is focused on optical investigations of Sb-S-I glass photonic crystals based on three-dimensional opal template with a closed-packed face centered cubic (fcc) lattice prepared from monodisperse silicon (SiO2) spheres by gravity sedimentation. Three types of photonic structures have been examined: SiO2-opals, opals filled with Sb-S-I glass (direct opals) and Sb-S-I inverted opals obtained after removing SiO2 templates. Optical properties have been investigated by reflectance spectroscopy for wavelengths from 250 nm to 1100 nm. These measurements exhibit Bragg's peaks connected with photonic band gap that is tunable in position and width by varying the diameter of spheres and medium filling the opal. Values of the real parts of refractive index of the Sb-S-I in the fabricated inverted opals nmed[λ ∈ (850-950) nm] = 2.42 ± 0.08 and nmed[λ ∈ (675-750) nm] = 2.39 ± 0.11 have been determined.

  15. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, H.

    2013-05-01

    I describe one-dimensional photonic crystals that support a guided mode suitable for atom trapping within a unit cell, as well as a second probe mode with strong atom-photon interactions. A new hybrid trap is analyzed that combines optical and Casimir-Polder forces to form stable traps for neutral atoms in dielectric nanostructures. By suitable design of the band structure, the atomic spontaneous emission rate into the probe mode can exceed the rate into all other modes by more than tenfold. The unprecedented single-atom reflectivity r0 ~= 0 . 9 for the guided probe field could create new scientific opportunities, including quantum many-body physics for 1 D atom chains with photon-mediated interactions and high-precision studies of vacuum forces. Towards these goals, my colleagues and I are pursuing numerical simulation, device fabrication, and cold-atom experiments with nanoscopic structures. Funding is provided by by the IQIM, an NSF PFC with support of the Moore Foundation, by the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, by the DoD NSSEFF program (HJK), and by NSF Grant PHY0652914 (HJK). DEC acknowledges funding from Fundacio Privada Cellex Barcelona.

  16. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. PMID:23539027

  17. Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-03-28

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

  18. Nanostructured surfaces and detection instrumentation for photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Lu, Meng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Cunningham, Brian T

    2013-04-26

    Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers.

  19. Experimental GVD engineering in slow light slot photonic crystal waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Samuel; Colman, Pierre; Zhang, Weiwei; Le Roux, Xavier; Caer, Charles; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The use in silicon photonics of the new optical materials developed in soft matter science (e.g. polymers, liquids) is delicate because their low refractive index weakens the confinement of light and prevents an efficient control of the dispersion properties through the geometry. We experimentally demonstrate that such materials can be incorporated in 700 μm long slot photonic crystal waveguides, and hence can benefit from both slow-light field enhancement effect and slot-induced ultra-small effective areas. Additionally, we show that their dispersion can be engineered from anomalous to normal regions, along with the presence of multiple zero group velocity dispersion (ZGVD) points exhibiting Normalized Delay Bandwidth Product as high as 0.156. The reported results provide experimental evidence for an accurate control of the dispersion properties of fillable periodical slotted structures in silicon photonics, which is of direct interest for on-chip all-optical data treatment using nonlinear optical effects in hybrid-on-silicon technologies. PMID:27243377

  20. Experimental GVD engineering in slow light slot photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Serna, Samuel; Colman, Pierre; Zhang, Weiwei; Le Roux, Xavier; Caer, Charles; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2016-05-31

    The use in silicon photonics of the new optical materials developed in soft matter science (e.g. polymers, liquids) is delicate because their low refractive index weakens the confinement of light and prevents an efficient control of the dispersion properties through the geometry. We experimentally demonstrate that such materials can be incorporated in 700 μm long slot photonic crystal waveguides, and hence can benefit from both slow-light field enhancement effect and slot-induced ultra-small effective areas. Additionally, we show that their dispersion can be engineered from anomalous to normal regions, along with the presence of multiple zero group velocity dispersion (ZGVD) points exhibiting Normalized Delay Bandwidth Product as high as 0.156. The reported results provide experimental evidence for an accurate control of the dispersion properties of fillable periodical slotted structures in silicon photonics, which is of direct interest for on-chip all-optical data treatment using nonlinear optical effects in hybrid-on-silicon technologies.

  1. 3-D rare earth-doped colloidal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clara Gonçalves, M.; Fortes, Luis M.; Almeida, Rui M.; Chiasera, Alessandro; Chiappini, Andrea; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional photonic bandgap structures have been synthesized by a colloidal/sol-gel route, starting with the self-organization of polystyrene microspheres into opal structures by vertical convective self-assembly, followed by sol-gel infiltration of the interstices with silica or titania doped with Er 3+ and Yb 3+ ions and the removal of the polymeric template by heat treatment. The structural and optical properties of the opals and inverse opals prepared by this method have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and near infra-red spectroscopy. The SEM images show that the photonic crystals contain ordered domains up to ˜600 μm 2. Variable incidence reflectivity spectra have been measured for the opals, infiltrated opals and inverse opals. The corresponding effective refractive indices ( neff) were calculated based on effective-medium approaches. Photoluminescence measurements of the emission of Er 3+ ions at ˜1.5 μm from titania inverse opal structures were performed and are compared with those characteristic of the same ions in bulk titania material in the absence of a photonic bandgap structure.

  2. Transverse strain response of in-fibre Fabry-Perot microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manders, Mark; Partridge, Matthew; Correia, Ricardo N.; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-05-01

    In-fibre microcavity Fabry-Perot interferometers were constructed by splicing single mode fibre to polarisation maintaining photonic crystal fibre (PCF), with the air in the PCF pressurised to 5.000±0.005bar. The response to transverse load was characterised, along with the influence of rotational orientation and the repeatability of the fabrication process. It was found that the features of the channelled reflected spectrum exhibited a blue wavelength shift with increasing applied transverse load.

  3. Extraordinary wavelength reduction in terahertz graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ian A D; Mousavi, S Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-04

    Photonic crystal slabs have been widely used in nanophotonics for light confinement, dispersion engineering, nonlinearity enhancement, and other unusual effects arising from their structural periodicity. Sub-micron device sizes and mode volumes are routine for silicon-based photonic crystal slabs, however spectrally they are limited to operate in the near infrared. Here, we show that two single-layer graphene sheets allow silicon photonic crystal slabs with submicron periodicity to operate in the terahertz regime, with an extreme 100× wavelength reduction from graphene's large kinetic inductance. The atomically thin graphene further leads to excellent out-of-plane confinement, and consequently photonic-crystal-slab band structures that closely resemble those of ideal two-dimensional photonic crystals, with broad band gaps even when the slab thickness approaches zero. The overall photonic band structure not only scales with the graphene Fermi level, but more importantly scales to lower frequencies with reduced slab thickness. Just like ideal 2D photonic crystals, graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs confine light along line defects, forming waveguides with the propagation lengths on the order of tens of lattice constants. The proposed structure opens up the possibility to dramatically reduce the size of terahertz photonic systems by orders of magnitude.

  4. Extraordinary wavelength reduction in terahertz graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ian A. D.; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been widely used in nanophotonics for light confinement, dispersion engineering, nonlinearity enhancement, and other unusual effects arising from their structural periodicity. Sub-micron device sizes and mode volumes are routine for silicon-based photonic crystal slabs, however spectrally they are limited to operate in the near infrared. Here, we show that two single-layer graphene sheets allow silicon photonic crystal slabs with submicron periodicity to operate in the terahertz regime, with an extreme 100× wavelength reduction from graphene’s large kinetic inductance. The atomically thin graphene further leads to excellent out-of-plane confinement, and consequently photonic-crystal-slab band structures that closely resemble those of ideal two-dimensional photonic crystals, with broad band gaps even when the slab thickness approaches zero. The overall photonic band structure not only scales with the graphene Fermi level, but more importantly scales to lower frequencies with reduced slab thickness. Just like ideal 2D photonic crystals, graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs confine light along line defects, forming waveguides with the propagation lengths on the order of tens of lattice constants. The proposed structure opens up the possibility to dramatically reduce the size of terahertz photonic systems by orders of magnitude. PMID:27143314

  5. Compensated Crystal Assemblies for Type-II Entangled Photon Generation in Quantum Cluster States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    multi-crystal sources, such as cluster states, entanglement swapping, and teleportation . 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum , entangled photons, joint...entanglement swapping, and teleportation . Key Words: quantum , entangled photons, joint spectral function, spontaneous parametric downconversion 2...DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2009 – SEP 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPENSATED CRYSTAL ASSEMBLIES FOR TYPE-II ENTANGLED PHOTO GENERATION IN QUANTUM

  6. Fabrication of flexible photonic crystal using alumina ball inserted Teflon tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Hotta, Takehiro; Sato, Hisashi

    2010-09-01

    In our previous paper, it was found that cotton yarn/TiO2-dispersed resin photonic crystals were fabricated successfully by applying textile technology. However, it is difficult to apply for practical use because these photonic crystals cannot change their shape flexibly. In this study, we fabricate the flexible photonic crystals using high-dielectric constant fibers. The high-dielectric constant fibers were made by inserting alumina balls into Teflon tubes. The crossed linear-fiber laminated fabric and multilayered woven fabric with an fcc lattice structure were structured by aligning high-dielectric constant fibers periodically. These photonic crystals consist of air and high-dielectric constant fibers. The attenuation of transmission amplitude through the photonic crystals was measured. The photonic crystal of crossed linear-fiber laminated fabric exhibits a forbidden gap in the range from 16 to 18 GHz range. On the other hand, the photonic crystal of multilayered woven fabric, which was fabricated by the same parameter with crossed linear-fiber laminated fabric, also exhibits a forbidden gap in the range from 13 to 16 GHz range. Thus, we can successfully fabricate flexible photonic crystals of woven fabric using high-dielectric constant fibers.

  7. Self-energy shift of the energy levels of atomic hydrogen in photonic crystal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, R. Kh; Khamadeev, M. A.; Steryakov, O. V.; Ziyatdinova, K. A.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2016-05-01

    Corrections to the average kinetic energy of atomic electrons caused by the change in electron mass in the photonic crystal medium are investigated. Corresponding shift of energy levels of atoms placed in a photonic crystal is shown to be of order of the ordinary Lamb shift.

  8. Parametric down-conversion with optimized spectral properties in nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Maria; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2007-10-15

    We study the joint spectral properties of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal in a collinear, degenerate, type-II geometry. We show that the photonic crystal properties may be exploited to compensate for material dispersion and obtain photon pairs that are nearly factorable, in principle, for arbitrary materials and spectral regions, limited by the ability to fabricate the nonlinear crystal with the required periodic variation in the refractive indices for the ordinary and extraordinary waves.

  9. Fabrication of inverted zinc oxide photonic crystal using sol-gel solution by spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Min; Ho, Chong-Lung; Chang, Heng-Jui; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2013-01-01

    Inverted zinc oxide photonic crystal structures were fabricated from polystyrene sphere (PSS) template using the sol-gel solution of ZnO by spin-coating method. It is easily able to control and fabricate the photonic crystal structures using the self-organized PSS with a size of 193 nm. The inverted ZnO photonic crystal structures observed show the (111) tendency of the hexagonal compact arrangement formation. The resulting structures possess the photonic band gaps in the near-ultraviolet range and exhibit an enhanced photoluminescence spectrum. The technology can effectively increase the light output intensity or efficiency for the applications of optoelectronic devices.

  10. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A.; Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ≃ 2 × 10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  11. Analysis of plasma-magnetic photonic crystal with a tunable band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, electromagnetic wave propagation through the one-dimensional plasma-magnetic photonic crystal in the presence of external magnetic field has been analyzed. The dispersion relation, transmission and reflection coefficients have been obtained by using the transfer matrix method. It is investigated how photonic band gap of photonic crystals will be tuned when both dielectric function {epsilon} and magnetic permeability {mu} of the constitutive materials, depend on applied magnetic field. This is shown by one dimensional photonic crystals consisting of plasma and ferrite material layers stacked alternately.

  12. Aluminum nitride piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavity with high quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linran; Sun, Xiankai; Xiong, Chi; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X.

    2013-04-01

    We develop a piezoelectrically actuated, one-dimensional acoustic and photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated from aluminum nitride (AlN). Through simultaneous band structure engineering in both photonic and acoustic domains, we obtain high-quality piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities with intrinsic optical Q of 1.2 × 105. The piezoelectric actuation of the confined mechanical mode at 3.18 GHz is demonstrated with mechanical Q exceeding 10 000. Such piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities will find important applications in cavity optomechanics that desire effective coupling to the electrical degree of freedom.

  13. Transition of lasing modes in polymeric opal photonic crystal resonating cavity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Jin, Feng; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-06-10

    We demonstrate the transition of lasing modes in the resonating cavity constructed by polystyrene opal photonic crystals and 7 wt. % tert-butyl Rhodamine B doped polymer film. Both single mode and multiple mode lasing emission are observed from the resonating cavity. The lasing threshold is determined to be 0.81  μJ/pulse for single mode lasing emission and 2.25  μJ/pulse for multiple mode lasing emission. The single mode lasing emission is attributed to photonic lasing resulting from the photonic bandgap effect of the opal photonic crystals, while the multiple mode lasing emission is assigned to random lasing due to the defects in the photonic crystals. The result would benefit the development of low threshold polymeric solid state photonic crystal lasers.

  14. PDMS-based photonic and quasi-photonic crystal for LED application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslik, Lubos; Pudis, Dusan; Goraus, Matej; Durisova, Jana; Hyll, Martin; Kovac, Jaroslav

    2016-12-01

    The photonic crystals (PhCs) and photonic quasi-crystals (PQCs) have the considerable effect on enhancement of extraction efficiency and radiation pattern of light emitting diodes (LEDs). We present thin polymer membranes based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with PhC and PQC patterned surface for direct application on the LED chip. The patterned PDMS surface was achieved by embossing of liquid PDMS (Sylgard 184) on structured photoresist surface prepared by interference lithography. The patterned PhC and PQC modify the Lambertian radiation diagram of conventional LEDs. Radiation properties of LEDs were documented from far-field emission by goniophotometer measurements. Structure quality and symmetry was examined by atomic force microscope and related to the measured diffraction pattern of the PhC and PQC LEDs. The emitting LEDs were also investigated in the near field using the near-field scanning optical microscope. Presented results favor patterned PDMS membranes for the employment in LED emission improvement and with considerable effect on light diffraction.

  15. Mesh-based Monte Carlo method for fibre-optic optogenetic neural stimulation with direct photon flux recording strategy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Younghoon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-03-21

    We propose a Monte Carlo (MC) method based on a direct photon flux recording strategy using inhomogeneous, meshed rodent brain atlas. This MC method was inspired by and dedicated to fibre-optics-based optogenetic neural stimulations, thus providing an accurate and direct solution for light intensity distributions in brain regions with different optical properties. Our model was used to estimate the 3D light intensity attenuation for close proximity between an implanted optical fibre source and neural target area for typical optogenetics applications. Interestingly, there are discrepancies with studies using a diffusion-based light intensity prediction model, perhaps due to use of improper light scattering models developed for far-field problems. Our solution was validated by comparison with the gold-standard MC model, and it enabled accurate calculations of internal intensity distributions in an inhomogeneous near light source domain. Thus our strategy can be applied to studying how illuminated light spreads through an inhomogeneous brain area, or for determining the amount of light required for optogenetic manipulation of a specific neural target area.

  16. Two-photon absorption in SiO{sub 2}- and (SiO{sub 2} + GeO{sub 2})-based fibres at a wavelength of 349 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Chunaev, D S; Karasik, A Ya

    2014-06-30

    The nonlinear two-photon light absorption coefficients have been measured in an optical fibre with a quartz glass (SiO{sub 2}) core and in a fibre with a germanosilicate glass (SiO{sub 2} + GeO{sub 2}) core. The two-photon absorption coefficient β measured at a wavelength of 349 nm in the (SiO{sub 2} + GeO{sub 2})-based fibre (13.7 cm TW{sup -1}) multiply exceeds that for the pure quartz glass optical fibre (0.54 cm TW{sup -1}). (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-09-08

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.

  18. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices. PMID:26346448

  19. CdTe-based Light-Controllable Frequency-Selective Photonic Crystal Switch for Millimeter Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    photoconductive layer in silicon (L=0.3mm) that allows one to completely turn off the transmission peak at f = 92.5 GHz by the light pulse of intensity I...Millimeterwave technology, photonic materials 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18, NUMBER OF PAGES 32 19a. NAME...19 10. Experimental Part 4: Silicon -based Photonic Crystal Switch 20 11. Experimental Part 5: CdTe-based Photonic Crystal Switch 22 12

  20. Porous silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal for biochemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jiaqing; Lv, Xiaoyi; Jia, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    Various porous silicon-based photonic device structures has attracted more attention for use as biochemical optical sensors. In this study, we have designed and characterized porous silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide structure as an optical biosensor. Field intensity distribution of two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide was simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. When the refractive index changes, the field strength changes greatly. This study lays the theoretical foundation for further work.