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Sample records for photosphere

  1. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  2. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N.R., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

  3. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  4. STOCHASTIC COUPLING OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AND CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Coyner, Aaron J.

    2013-05-20

    The observed solar activity is believed to be driven by the dissipation of nonpotential magnetic energy injected into the corona by dynamic processes in the photosphere. The enormous range of scales involved in the interaction makes it difficult to track down the photospheric origin of each coronal dissipation event, especially in the presence of complex magnetic topologies. In this paper, we propose an ensemble-based approach for testing the photosphere-corona coupling in a quiet solar region as represented by intermittent activity in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Imager image sets. For properly adjusted detection thresholds corresponding to the same degree of intermittency in the photosphere and corona, the dynamics of the two solar regions is described by the same occurrence probability distributions of energy release events but significantly different geometric properties. We derive a set of scaling relations reconciling the two groups of results and enabling statistical description of coronal dynamics based on photospheric observations. Our analysis suggests that multiscale intermittent dissipation in the corona at spatial scales >3 Mm is controlled by turbulent photospheric convection. Complex topology of the photospheric network makes this coupling essentially nonlocal and non-deterministic. Our results are in an agreement with the Parker's coupling scenario in which random photospheric shuffling generates marginally stable magnetic discontinuities at the coronal level, but they are also consistent with an impulsive wave heating involving multiscale Alfvenic wave packets and/or magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade. A back-reaction on the photosphere due to coronal magnetic reconfiguration can be a contributing factor.

  5. Deep photospheric flows in Tau Scorpii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A.; Karp, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    From analysis of weak, unblended, ultraviolet lines observed in Tau Scorpii by Copernicus, the same line widths and the same slightly blue-depressed wings as found in the upper photospheric lines of the visual region are found. In addition, a radial-velocity discrepancy of about 6 km/s between weak and strong lines in the 1000-1300-A region is found. These results are in quantitative agreement with one another and with the results of the visual region. They imply that a flow of material is present even in the deep photosphere of this star. However, one cannot yet specify the geometry of the flow (outward-radial versus temperature-weighted convection columns). At the least, this flow alters the expected radiation-driven flow solution close to the photosphere. At the most, it could provide the heating of a chromosphere or a corona just outside the photosphere, as required by the imperfect flow model.

  6. Pixel Dynamics Analysis of Photospheric Spectral Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-13

    Fe I 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å) from quiet- Sun regions and active regions on the solar photosphere, obtained by the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) of...the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO). 13-11-2014 Interim Naval Research Laboratory...from quiet- Sun regions and active regions on the solar photosphere, obtained by the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term

  7. Sub-photospheric Shocks in Relativistic Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the mechanism of internal shocks in opaque relativistic outflows, in particular in cosmological gamma-ray bursts. The shocks produce neutrino emission and affect the observed photospheric radiation from the explosion. They develop from internal compressive waves and can be of different types depending on the composition of the outflow. (1) Shocks in “photon gas,” with negligible plasma inertia, have a unique structure determined by the force-free condition—zero radiation flux in the plasma rest frame. Radiation dominance over plasma inertia suppresses the formation of collisionless shocks mediated by collective electromagnetic fields. (2) If the outflow is sufficiently magnetized, a strong collisionless subshock develops, which is embedded in a thicker radiation-mediated structure. (3) Waves in outflows with a free neutron component lead to dissipation through nuclear collisions. At large optical depths, shocks have a thickness comparable to the neutron free path, with embedded radiation-mediated and collisionless subshocks. The paper also presents first-principles simulations of magnetized flows filled with photons, demonstrating the formation of shocks and their structure. Simple estimates show that magnetized sub-photospheric shocks are efficient producers of photons and have a great impact on the observed photospheric radiation. The shock structure changes as the outflow expands toward its photosphere. The dissipation is accompanied by strong {e}+/- pair creation, and the {e}+/- -dressed shock carries the photosphere with it up to two decades in radius, emitting a strong pulse of nonthermal radiation.

  8. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF THE WEAKLY IONIZED SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Cameron, Robert H.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the importance of ambipolar diffusion and Hall currents for high-resolution comprehensive ({sup r}ealistic{sup )} photospheric simulations. To do so, we extended the radiative magnetohydrodynamics code MURaM to use the generalized Ohm's law under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We present test cases comparing analytical solutions with numerical simulations for validation of the code. Furthermore, we carried out a number of numerical experiments to investigate the impact of these neutral-ion effects in the photosphere. We find that, at the spatial resolutions currently used (5-20 km per grid point), the Hall currents and ambipolar diffusion begin to become significant-with flows of 100 m s{sup -1} in sunspot light bridges, and changes of a few percent in the thermodynamic structure of quiet-Sun magnetic features. The magnitude of the effects is expected to increase rapidly as smaller-scale variations are resolved by the simulations.

  9. The photospheric Poynting flux and coronal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    Some models of coronal heating suppose that convective motions at the photosphere shuffle the footpoints of coronal magnetic fields and thereby inject sufficient magnetic energy upward to account for observed coronal and chromospheric energy losses in active regions. Using high-resolution observations of plage magnetic fields made with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Hinode satellite, we investigate this idea by estimating the upward transport of magnetic energy-the vertical Poynting flux, Sz-across the photosphere in a plage region. To do so, we combine the following: (i) estimates of photospheric horizontal velocities, vh, determined by local correlation tracking applied to a sequence of line-of-sight magnetic field maps from the Narrowband Filter Imager, with (ii) a vector magnetic field measurement from the SpectroPolarimeter. Plage fields are ideal observational targets for estimating energy injection by convection, because they are (i) strong enough to be measured with relatively small uncertainties, (ii) not so strong that convection is heavily suppressed (as within umbrae), and (iii) unipolar, so Sz in plage is not influenced by mixed-polarity processes (e.g., flux emergence) unrelated to heating in stable, active-region fields. In this plage region, we found that the average Sz varied in space, but was positive (upward) and sufficient to explain coronal heating, with values near (5 ± 1) × 107 erg cm-2 s-1. We find the energy input per unit magnetic flux to be on the order of 105 erg s-1 Mx-1. A comparison of intensity in a Ca II image co-registered with one plage magnetogram shows stronger spatial correlations with both total field strength and unsigned vertical field, |Bz|, than either Sz or horizontal flux density, Bh. The observed Ca II brightness enhancement, however, probably contains a strong contribution from a near-photosphere hot-wall effect, which is unrelated to heating in the solar atmosphere.

  10. Photospheric Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, A. M.; Mészáros, P.

    2017-03-01

    We review the physics of GRB production by relativistic jets that start highly opaque near the central source and then expand to transparency. We discuss dissipative and radiative processes in the jet and how radiative transfer shapes the observed nonthermal spectrum released at the photosphere. A comparison of recent detailed models with observations gives estimates for important parameters of GRB jets, such as the Lorentz factor and magnetization. We also discuss predictions for GRB polarization and neutrino emission.

  11. Sub-photosphere to Solar Atmosphere Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; De Moortel, Ineke; Fan, Yuhong; Ilonidis, Stathis; Steiner, Oskar

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic fields extend from the solar interior through the atmosphere. The formation and evolution of active regions can be studied by measuring subsurface flows with local helioseismology. The emergence of magnetic flux from the solar convection zone is associated with acoustic perturbation signatures. In near-surface layers, the average dynamics can be determined for emerging regions. MHD simulations of the emergence of a twisted flux tube show how magnetic twist and free energy are transported from the interior into the corona and the dynamic signatures associated with such transport in the photospheric and sub-photospheric layers. The subsurface twisted flux tube does not emerge into the corona as a whole in emerging active regions. Shear flows at the polarity inversion line and coherent vortical motions in the subsurface flux tubes are the major means by which twist is transported into the corona, leading to the formation of sigmoid-shaped coronal magnetic fields capable of driving solar eruptions. The transport of twist can be followed from the interior by using the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows as a proxy of magnetic helicity; this quantity holds great promise for improving the understanding of eruptive phenomena. Waves are not only vital for studying the link between the solar interior and the surface but for linking the photosphere with the corona as well. Acoustic waves that propagate from the surface into the magnetically structured, dynamic atmosphere undergo mode conversion and refraction. These effects enable atmospheric seismology to determine the topography of magnetic canopies in the solar atmosphere. Inclined magnetic fields lower the cut-off frequency so that low frequency waves can leak into the outer atmosphere. Recent high resolution, high cadence observations of waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere, have lead to a renewed interest in the potential role of waves as a heating mechanism. In light of their potential contribution

  12. Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is presented in which full disk Doppler velocity measurements are analyzed using spherical harmonic functions to determine the characteristics of the spectrum of spherical harmonic modes and the nature of steady photospheric flows. Synthetic data are constructed in order to test the technique. In spite of the mode mixing due to the lack of information about the motions on the backside of the sun, solar rotation and differential rotation can be accurately measured and monitored for secular changes, and meridional circulations with small amplitudes can be measured. Furthermore, limb shift measurements can be accurately obtained, and supergranules can be fully resolved and separated from giant cells by their spatial characteristics.

  13. The source surface and photospheric magnetic field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, T.; Kozuka, Y.; Oki, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1991-01-01

    It is possible to reproduce the configuration of the neutral line on the solar source surface by the axial dipole at the center of the sun and a few fictitious dipoles on the photosphere. An attempt is made to identify the nature of such fictitious dipoles in the photospheric magnetic fields. It is shown that large-scale photospheric dipole fields can be identified clearly at the locations indicated by the fictitious dipoles when the photospheric field is very simple. They are found to be active regions.

  14. Magnetic balltracking: Tracking the photospheric magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attie, R.; Innes, D. E.

    2015-02-01

    Context. One aspect of understanding the dynamics of the quiet Sun is to quantify the evolution of the flux within small-scale magnetic features. These features are routinely observed in the quiet photosphere and were given various names, such as pores, knots, magnetic patches. Aims: This work presents a new algorithm for tracking the evolution of the broad variety of small-scale magnetic features in the photosphere, with a precision equal to the instrumental resolution. Methods: We have developed a new technique to track the evolution of the individual magnetic features from magnetograms, called "magnetic balltracking". It quantifies the flux of the tracked features, and it can track the footpoints of magnetic field lines inferred from magnetic field extrapolation. The algorithm can detect and quantify flux emergence, as well as flux cancellation. Results: The capabilities of magnetic balltracking are demonstrated with the detection and the tracking of two cases of magnetic flux emergence that lead to the brightening of X-ray loops. The maximum emerged flux ranges from 1018 Mx to 1019 Mx (unsigned flux) when the X-ray loops are observed. Movies associated to Figs. 6 and 18 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Reconnection brightenings in the quiet solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.; Vissers, Gregal J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new quiet-Sun phenomenon which we call quiet-Sun Ellerman-like brightenings (QSEB). QSEBs are similar to Ellerman bombs (EB) in some respects but differ significantly in others. EBs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Hα line that mark strong-field photospheric reconnection in complex active regions. QSEBs are similar but smaller and less intense Balmer-wing brightenings that occur in quiet areas away from active regions. In the Hα wing, we measure typical lengths of less than 0.5 arcsec, widths of 0.23 arcsec, and lifetimes of less than a minute. We discovered them using high-quality Hα imaging spectrometry from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and show that, in lesser-quality data, they cannot be distinguished from more ubiquitous facular brightenings, nor in the UV diagnostics currently available from space platforms. We add evidence from concurrent SST spectropolarimetry that QSEBs also mark photospheric reconnection events, but in quiet regions on the solar surface. The movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Photospheric flows around a quiescent filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondi, S.; Roudier, Th.; Molodij, G.; Bommier, V.; Keil, S.; Sütterlin, P.; Malherbe, J. M.; Meunier, N.; Schmieder, B.; Maloney, P.

    2007-06-01

    Context: The horizontal photospheric flows below and around a filament are one of the components in the formation and evolution of filaments. Few studies exist because they require multiwalength time sequences at high spatial resolution. Aims: Our objective is to measure the horizontal photospheric flows associated with the evolution and eruption of a filament. Methods: We present observations obtained in 2004 during the international JOP 178 campaign which involved eleven instruments both in space and at ground based observatories. We use TRACE WL, DOT and DST observation to derive flow maps which are then coaligned with intensity images and with the vector magnetic field map obtained with THEMIS/MTR. Results: Several supergranulation cells cross the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL) and can transport magnetic flux through the PIL, in particular parasitic polarities. We present a detailed example of the formation of a secondary magnetic dip at the location of a filament footpoint. Large-scale converging flows, which could exist along the filament channel and contribute to its formation, are not observed. Before the filament's eruptive phase, we observe both parasitic and normal polarities being swept by a continuously diverging horizontal flow located in the filament gap. The disappearance of the filament initiates in this gap. Such purely horizontal motions could lead to destabilization of the filament and could trigger the sudden filament disappearance.

  17. Photospheric Magnetic Flux Transport - Supergranules Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Rightmire-Upton, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's photosphere show that active region magnetic flux is carried far from its origin by a combination of flows. These flows have previously been identified and modeled as separate axisymmetric processes: differential rotation, meridional flow, and supergranule diffusion. Experiments with a surface convective flow model reveal that the true nature of this transport is advection by the non-axisymmetric cellular flows themselves - supergranules. Magnetic elements are transported to the boundaries of the cells and then follow the evolving boundaries. The convective flows in supergranules have peak velocities near 500 m/s. These flows completely overpower the superimposed 20 m/s meridional flow and 100 m/s differential rotation. The magnetic elements remain pinned at the supergranule boundaries. Experiments with and without the superimposed axisymmetric photospheric flows show that the axisymmetric transport of magnetic flux is controlled by the advection of the cellular pattern by underlying flows representative of deeper layers. The magnetic elements follow the differential rotation and meridional flow associated with the convection cells themselves -- supergranules rule!

  18. The quiet-Sun photosphere and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Robert J

    2012-07-13

    The overall structure and the fine structure of the solar photosphere outside active regions are largely understood, except possibly the important roles of a turbulent near-surface dynamo at its bottom, internal gravity waves at its top and small-scale vorticity. Classical one-dimensional static radiation-escape modelling has been replaced by three-dimensional time-dependent magento-hydrodynamic simulations that come closer to reality. The solar chromosphere, in contrast, remains little understood, although its pivotal role in coronal mass and energy loading makes it a principal research area. Its fine structure defines its overall structure, so that hard-to-observe and hard-to-model small-scale dynamical processes are key to understanding. However, both chromospheric observation and chromospheric simulation presently mature towards the required sophistication. Open-field features seem of greater interest than easier-to-see closed-field features.

  19. Relationships Between Photospheric Flows and Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) has been applied to the entire database of 96-minute cadence line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms from the SOHO/MDI mission, to derive photospheric transverse velocities (u_x,u_y). In a previous study, we applied FLCT to a few dozen active regions (ARs), and found that the "proxy Poynting flux" (PPF) --- the product u B^2, where u is the FLCT flow speed and B is the LOS field divided by the cosine of viewing angle, integrated over each AR --- was statistically related to flare activity. We will present preliminary results of our investigation of the relationship between PPF and flare activity from NOAA's GOES catalog for several hundred ARs identified in NOAA's daily Solar Region Summaries.

  20. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-04-01

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  1. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  2. A MAGNETIC CALIBRATION OF PHOTOSPHERIC DOPPLER VELOCITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, Brian T.; Fisher, George H.; Sun, Xudong

    2013-03-10

    The zero point of measured photospheric Doppler shifts is uncertain for at least two reasons: instrumental variations (from, e.g., thermal drifts); and the convective blueshift, a known correlation between intensity and upflows. Accurate knowledge of the zero point is, however, useful for (1) improving estimates of the Poynting flux of magnetic energy across the photosphere, and (2) constraining processes underlying flux cancellation, the mutual apparent loss of magnetic flux in closely spaced, opposite-polarity magnetogram features. We present a method to absolutely calibrate line-of-sight (LOS) velocities in solar active regions (ARs) near disk center using three successive vector magnetograms and one Dopplergram coincident with the central magnetogram. It exploits the fact that Doppler shifts measured along polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the LOS magnetic field determine one component of the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field, and optimizes consistency between changes in LOS flux near PILs and the transport of transverse magnetic flux by LOS velocities, assuming that ideal electric fields govern the magnetic evolution. Previous calibrations fitted the center-to-limb variation of Doppler velocities, but this approach cannot, by itself, account for residual convective shifts at the limb. We apply our method to vector magnetograms of AR 11158, observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and find clear evidence of offsets in the Doppler zero point in the range of 50-550 m s{sup -1}. In addition, we note that a simpler calibration can be determined from an LOS magnetogram and Dopplergram pair from the median Doppler velocity among all near-disk-center PIL pixels. We briefly discuss shortcomings in our initial implementation, and suggest ways to address these. In addition, as a step in our data reduction, we discuss the use of temporal continuity in the transverse magnetic field direction to correct apparently

  3. Measurements of Photospheric and Chromospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagg, Andreas; Lites, Bruce; Harvey, Jack; Gosain, Sanjay; Centeno, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    The Sun is replete with magnetic fields, with sunspots, pores and plage regions being their most prominent representatives on the solar surface. But even far away from these active regions, magnetic fields are ubiquitous. To a large extent, their importance for the thermodynamics in the solar photosphere is determined by the total magnetic flux. Whereas in low-flux quiet Sun regions, magnetic structures are shuffled around by the motion of granules, the high-flux areas like sunspots or pores effectively suppress convection, leading to a temperature decrease of up to 3000 K. The importance of magnetic fields to the conditions in higher atmospheric layers, the chromosphere and corona, is indisputable. Magnetic fields in both active and quiet regions are the main coupling agent between the outer layers of the solar atmosphere, and are therefore not only involved in the structuring of these layers, but also for the transport of energy from the solar surface through the corona to the interplanetary space. Consequently, inference of magnetic fields in the photosphere, and especially in the chromosphere, is crucial to deepen our understanding not only for solar phenomena such as chromospheric and coronal heating, flares or coronal mass ejections, but also for fundamental physical topics like dynamo theory or atomic physics. In this review, we present an overview of significant advances during the last decades in measurement techniques, analysis methods, and the availability of observatories, together with some selected results. We discuss the problems of determining magnetic fields at smallest spatial scales, connected with increasing demands on polarimetric sensitivity and temporal resolution, and highlight some promising future developments for their solution.

  4. Are the photospheric sunspots magnetically force-free in nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

    2011-08-01

    In a force-free magnetic field, there is no interaction of field and the plasma in the surrounding atmosphere i.e., electric currents are aligned with the magnetic field, giving rise to zero Lorentz force. The computation of many magnetic parameters like magnetic energy, gradient of twist of sunspot magnetic fields (computed from the force-free parameter α), including any kind of extrapolations heavily hinge on the force-free approximation of the photospheric magnetic fields. The force-free magnetic behaviour of the photospheric sunspot fields has been examined by Metcalf et al. (1995) and Moon et al. (2002) ending with inconsistent results. Metcalf et al. (1995) concluded that the photospheric magnetic fields are far from the force-free nature whereas Moon et al. (2002) found the that the photospheric magnetic fields are not so far from the force-free nature as conventionally regarded. The accurate photospheric vector field measurements with high resolution are needed to examine the force-free nature of sunspots. We use high resolution vector magnetograms obtained from the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter (SOT/SP) aboard Hinode to inspect the force-free behaviour of the photospheric sunspot magnetic fields. Both the necessary and sufficient conditions for force-freeness are examined by checking global as well as as local nature of sunspot magnetic fields. We find that the sunspot magnetic fields are very close to the force-free approximation, although they are not completely force-free on the photosphere.

  5. X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zavlin, V.E.; Pavlov, G.G. |; Shibanov, Yu.A.; Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.

    1996-01-17

    We present first results of modeling convective photospheres of neutron stars. We show that in photospheres composed of the light elements convection arises only at relatively low effective temperatures ({le}3 - 5 x 10{sup 4} K), whereas in the case of iron composition it arises at T{sub eff}{le} 3 x 10{sup 5}K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. Thus, it should be taken into account for the proper interpretation of EUV/soft-X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

  6. THE SUN’S PHOTOSPHERIC CONVECTION SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, David H.; Teil, Thibaud; Kitiashvili, Irina; Norton, Aimee A. E-mail: thibaud.teil@gmail.com E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu

    2015-10-01

    Spectra of the cellular photospheric flows are determined from full-disk Doppler velocity observations acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. Three different analysis methods are used to separately determine spectral coefficients representing the poloidal flows, the toroidal flows, and the radial flows. The amplitudes of these spectral coefficients are constrained by simulated data analyzed with the same procedures as the HMI data. We find that the total velocity spectrum rises smoothly to a peak at a wavenumber of about 120 (wavelength of about 35 Mm), which is typical of supergranules. The spectrum levels off out to wavenumbers of about 400, and then rises again to a peak at a wavenumber of about 3500 (wavelength of about 1200 km), which is typical of granules. The velocity spectrum is dominated by the poloidal flow component (horizontal flows with divergence but no curl) at wavenumbers above 30. The toroidal flow component (horizontal flows with curl but no divergence) dominates at wavenumbers less than 30. The radial flow velocity is only about 3% of the total flow velocity at the lowest wavenumbers, but increases in strength to become about 50% at wavenumbers near 4000. The spectrum compares well with the spectrum of giant cell flows at the lowest wavenumbers and with the spectrum of granulation from a 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulation at the highest wavenumbers.

  7. Photospheric composition and structure in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.

    1993-12-01

    One of the central mysteries of white dwarf studies has been the nature and abundance of trace elements in the atmospheres of these stars. It had been thought that the dominant trace element in otherwise pure hydrogen DA white dwarf atmospheres was helium. However, some spectroscopic and theoretical evidence suggested that, at least in some stars, heavier elements may be important. Prior to the launch of ROSAT the questions regarding the atmospheric composition of DA white dwarfs in general remained unresolved. The ROSAT mission has provided EUV and X-ray data for a large sample of DA white dwarfs with which we can study their photospheric composition and structure through the effect of trace opacity sources on the emergent fluxes. Contrary to expectations little (if any) helium is found and the main sources of opacity appear to be trace heavy elements. Support for these conclusions is found in recent EUV and far-UV spectra of several stars. However, photometric data do not allow us to determine the abundance of the individual elements and observations with the extreme ultraviolet explorer satellite (EUVE) spectrometers will be essential for detailed composition measurements.

  8. ALFVÉN WAVES IN SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC VORTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Shelyag, S.; Cally, P. S.; Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2013-10-10

    Using advanced numerical magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the magnetized solar photosphere, including non-gray radiative transport and a non-ideal equation of state, we analyze plasma motions in photospheric magnetic vortices. We demonstrate that apparent vortex-like motions in photospheric magnetic field concentrations do not exhibit 'tornado'-like behavior or a 'bath-tub' effect. While at each time instance the velocity field lines in the upper layers of the solar photosphere show swirls, the test particles moving with the time-dependent velocity field do not demonstrate such structures. Instead, they move in a wave-like fashion with rapidly changing and oscillating velocity field, determined mainly by magnetic tension in the magnetized intergranular downflows. Using time-distance diagrams, we identify horizontal motions in the magnetic flux tubes as torsional Alfvén perturbations propagating along the nearly vertical magnetic field lines with local Alfvén speed.

  9. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  10. The development of convective structures in the solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, O.; Stodilka, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the development of convective structures in the solar photosphere on the basis of the photospheric convection models obtained using data from VTT by the solving of the inverse nonequilibrium radiative transfer problem. Temporal changes of the variations of vertical velocity and temperature within granular cells are analyzed. Features of the appearance and the disappearance of granules according to their size, the formation of "trees" of fragmenting granules are investigated.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR THE PHOTOSPHERIC EXCITATION OF INCOMPRESSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R. J.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R.; Shelyag, S.

    2013-05-01

    Observing the excitation mechanisms of incompressible transverse waves is vital for determining how energy propagates through the lower solar atmosphere. We aim to show the connection between convectively driven photospheric flows and incompressible chromospheric waves. The observations presented here show the propagation of incompressible motion through the quiet lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the chromosphere. We determine photospheric flow vectors to search for signatures of vortex motion and compare results to photospheric flows present in convective simulations. Further, we search for the chromospheric response to vortex motions. Evidence is presented that suggests incompressible waves can be excited by the vortex motions of a strong magnetic flux concentration in the photosphere. A chromospheric counterpart to the photospheric vortex motion is also observed, presenting itself as a quasi-periodic torsional motion. Fine-scale, fibril structures that emanate from the chromospheric counterpart support transverse waves that are driven by the observed torsional motion. A new technique for obtaining details of transverse waves from time-distance diagrams is presented and the properties of transverse waves (e.g., amplitudes and periods) excited by the chromospheric torsional motion are measured.

  12. Decorrelation Times of Photospheric Fields and Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsch, B. T.; Kusano, K.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Muglach, K.

    2012-01-01

    We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.3 "), high-cadence (approx = 2 min) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite over 12 - 13 December 2006. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at several spatial binnings, to characterize the lifetimes of active region magnetic structures versus spatial scale. Autocorrelation of flow maps can be used to optimize tracking parameters, to understand tracking algorithms f susceptibility to noise, and to estimate flow lifetimes. Tracking parameters varied include: time interval Delta t between magnetogram pairs tracked, spatial binning applied to the magnetograms, and windowing parameter sigma used in FLCT. Flow structures vary over a range of spatial and temporal scales (including unresolved scales), so tracked flows represent a local average of the flow over a particular range of space and time. We define flow lifetime to be the flow decorrelation time, tau . For Delta t > tau, tracking results represent the average velocity over one or more flow lifetimes. We analyze lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls as functions of magnetic field strength and spatial scale. We find a significant trend of increasing lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls with field strength, consistent with Lorentz forces partially governing flows in the active photosphere, as well as strong trends of increasing flow lifetime and decreasing magnitudes with increases in both spatial scale and Delta t.

  13. Signatures of running penumbral waves in sunspot photospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Bello González, N.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The highly dynamic atmosphere above sunspots exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Recent studies suggest a coupled nature of the most prominent phenomena: umbral flashes and running penumbral waves (RPWs). Aims: From an observational point of view, we perform a height-dependent study of RPWs, compare their wave characteristics, and aim to track down these so far only chromospherically observed phenomena to photospheric layers to prove the upward propagating field-guided nature of RPWs. Methods: We analyze a time series (58 min) of multiwavelength observations of an isolated circular sunspot (NOAA11823) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution in spectroscopic mode with the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectro-polarimeter (IBIS/DST). By means of a multilayer intensity sampling, velocity comparisons, wavelet power analysis, and sectorial studies of time slices, we retrieve the power distribution, characteristic periodicities, and propagation characteristics of sunspot waves at photospheric and chromospheric levels. Results: Signatures of RPWs are found at photospheric layers. Those continuous oscillations occur preferably at periods between 4-6 min starting at the inner penumbral boundary. The photospheric oscillations all have a slightly delayed, more defined chromospheric counterpart with larger relative velocities, which are linked to preceding umbral flash events. In all of the layers, the power of RPWs follows a filamentary fine-structure and shows a typical ring-shaped power distribution increasing in radius for larger wave periods. The analysis of time slices reveals apparent horizontal velocities for RPWs at photospheric layers of ≈51 km s-1, which decrease to ≈37 km s-1 at chromospheric heights. Conclusions: The observations strongly support the scenario of RPWs being upward propagating slow-mode waves guided by the magnetic field lines. Clear evidence for RPWs at photospheric layers is given. The inverse proportionality of the

  14. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 1993 September 15-20 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on September 20. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0 sec .30) and an average value of 250 km (0 sec .35). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0 sec .17) and the largest is 600 km (O sec .69). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this

  15. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 15-20 Sept. 1993 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on 20 Sept. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured FWHM distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0.30 sec) and an average value of 250 km (0.35 sec). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0.17 sec) and the largest is 600 km (O.69 sec). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this area fraction measurement in the context of

  16. The Evershed Effect from the Photosphere to the Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Brian; Tritschler, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The Evershed effect is the observed Doppler shift of spectral lines within a sunspot due to flows of plasma. In the photosphere, the Evershed effect is interpreted as a horizontal outflow of plasma with a maximum speed of 1-2 km/s, while in the chromosphere, the inverse Evershed effect is interpreted as an inflow with a speed reaching 5-6 km/s. In this project, we study the Evershed effect from the photosphere to the chromosphere in order to determine line-of-sight flow velocity and inclination. We present line-of-sight velocity maps and their azimuthal dependence based on spectroscopic observations of four different spectral lines. From the azimuthal dependence of the velocity we find flow vectors at varying radial distances from the center of the sunspot. In the photosphere, the flow speed reaches a maximum of around 1.6 km/s within the penumbra, and the outflow maintains a nearly horizontal inclination. In the chromosphere, the inflow speed reaches 3.8 km/s in the superpenumbra as it acquires a descending vertical component that tilts the flow by as much as 20○ below the horizontal. Spectral observations of the boundary between the photosphere and chromosphere show slight indications of inflow at speeds less than 0.5 km/s. Our results contribute to the understanding of the inverse Evershed flow in the chromosphere, which is thought to have a different driving mechanism than the photospheric Evershed flow.

  17. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    DOE PAGES

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; ...

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF)more » to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.« less

  18. X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Shibanov, Yu. A.; Rogers, F. J.; Iglesias, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results from the simulation of convective photospheres of neutron stars are presented. It is shown that in photospheres composed of light elements, convection arises at relatively low effective temperatures of between 3 x 10(exp 4) and 5 x 10(exp 4) K, whereas, in the case of iron composition, it arises at temperatures of less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 5) K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. It is concluded that depth should be taken into account for the correct interpretation of extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

  19. 3D model atmospheres and the solar photospheric oxygen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2008-10-01

    In recent years the photospheric solar oxygen abundance experienced a significant downward revision. However, a low photospheric abundance is incompatible with the value in the solar interior inferred from helioseismology. For contributing to the dispute whether the solar oxygen abundance is “high” or “low”, we re-derived its photospheric abundance independently of previous analyses. We applied 3D (CO5BOLD) as well as 1D model atmospheres. We considered standard disc-centre and disc-integrated spectral atlases, as well as newly acquired solar intensity spectra at different heliocentric angles. We determined the oxygen abundances from equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of a number of atomic lines. As preliminary result, we find an oxygen abundance in the range 8.73 8.79, encompassing the value obtained by Holweger (2001), and somewhat higher than the value obtained by Asplund et al. (2005).

  20. Fe II lines in the presence of photospheric oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Viotti, R.; Vitton, A.; Friedjung, M.

    1988-01-01

    Line asymmetries and wavelength shifts can be produced by dynamical processes at work in the solar photosphere. Dravins, Nordlund and coworkers discussed the importance of the granulation in determining the C-shape of solar lines of Fe I and Fe II ions. Iron is a suitable atomic species to diagnose photospheric motions, since it has negligible asymmetries due to isotope composition and to pressure shifts and no hyperfine structure splitting. Marmolino, Roberti, Severino and coworkers studied the effects produced by photospheric oscillations (5-min and short-period acoustic waves) on the resonance line of KI at 7699 A. To extend this study to iron lines, in this paper we show the synthesis of the Fe II 6516 line in the presence of granulation and 65-min oscillation.

  1. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  2. Energetic electrons and photospheric electric currents during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musset, S.; Vilmer, N.; Bommier, V.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic events in the solar system. Magnetic energy previously stored in the coronal magnetic field is transferred to particle acceleration, plasma motion and plasma heating. Magnetic energy release is likely to occur in coronal currents sheets associated with regions of strong gradient of magnetic connectivity. Coronal current sheets can be traced by their footprints at the surface on the Sun, in e.g. photospheric current ribbons. We aim to study the relationship between the current ribbons observed at the photospheric level which trace coronal current sheets, and the flare energetic electrons traced by their X-ray emissions. The photospheric magnetic field and vertical current density are calculated from SDO/HMI spectropolarimetric data using the UNNOFIT inversion and Metcalf disambiguation codes, while the X-ray images and spectra are reconstructed from RHESSI data. In a first case (the GOES X2.2 flare of February 15, 2011), a spatial correlation is observed between the photospheric current ribbons and the coronal X-ray emissions from energetic electrons (Musset et al., 2015). Moreover, a conjoint evolution of both the photospheric currents and the X-ray emission is observed during the course of the flare. Both results are interpreted as consequences of the magnetic reconnection in coronal current sheets. Propagation of the reconnection sites to new structures during the flare results in new X-ray emission sites and local increase of the photospheric currents We will examine in this contribution whether similar results are obtained for other X-class flares.

  3. Energetic electrons and photospheric electric currents during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musset, Sophie; Vilmer, Nicole; Bommier, Veronique

    2016-07-01

    It is currently admitted that solar flares are powered by magnetic energy previously stored in the coronal magnetic field. During magnetic reconnection processes, this energy is transferred to particle acceleration, plasma motion and plasma heating. Magnetic energy release is likely to occur on coronal currents sheets along regions of strong gradient of magnetic connectivity. These coronal current sheets can be traced by their footprints at the surface on the Sun, i.e. by photospheric current ribbons. We aim to study the relation between these current ribbons observed at the photospheric level, tracing the coronal current sheets, and the flare energetic electrons traced by their X-ray emissions. The photospheric magnetic field and vertical current density have been calculated from SDO/HMI spectropolarimetric data with the UNNOFIT inversion and Metcalf disambiguation codes, while the X-ray images and spectra have been reconstructed from RHESSI data. In a first case, the GOES X2.2 flare of February 15, 2011, a spatial correlation is observed between the photospheric current ribbons and the coronal X-ray emissions from energetic electrons. Moreover, a conjoint evolution of both the photospheric currents and the X-ray emission is observed during the course of the flare. Both results are interpreted as consequences of the magnetic reconnection in coronal current sheets, and propagation of the reconnection sites to new structures during the flare, leading to new X-ray emission and local increase of the photospheric currents (Musset et al., 2015). We shall discuss here similar results obtained for other X-class flares.

  4. Reconnection in photospheric-chromospheric current sheet and coronal heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, N.; Uddin, W.

    2011-02-15

    It has been observed by various ground and space based solar missions that magnetic reconnection occurs frequently in the photosphere-chromosphere region as well as in the solar corona. The purpose of this article is to examine the process of reconnection in thin current sheet formed between two oppositely directed magnetic flux tubes in photospheric-chromospheric region. Using the data of different atmospheric models for the solar photosphere and chromosphere, we have estimated the rate of magnetic reconnection in terms of Alfvenic Mach number, growth rate of tearing mode, island length scales, and energy dissipation rate necessary to heat the chromospheric plasma. It is found that magnetic Reynolds number for the current sheet in the chromosphere varies from 1.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} to 7.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} which indicates that the field lines in the photosphere and chromosphere reconnect with speed, that is, 0.00034 to 0.0297 times the Alfven speed. Frequency of the MHD waves generated in the chromosphere reconnection region is of the order of 100 Hz, so these high-frequency waves may be the sources of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration.

  5. Solar Photosphere: The Limb Effect and Gravitational Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhl, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The `limb effect' is the observational finding that many spectral absorption lines formed in the photosphere (FRAUNHOFER LINES) show a REDSHIFT of their mean wavelength when comparing limb observations with observations from the solar disk center. The magnitude of this effect is different for each spectral line and equals some 100 m s-1 when explained as a DOPPLER EFFECT....

  6. Turbulent convective flows in the solar photospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, A.; Giannattasio, F.; Fanfoni, M.; Del Moro, D.; Consolini, G.; Berrilli, F.

    2015-10-01

    > The origin of the 22-year solar magnetic cycle lies below the photosphere where multiscale plasma motions, due to turbulent convection, produce magnetic fields. The most powerful intensity and velocity signals are associated with convection cells, called granules, with a scale of typically 1 Mm and a lifetime of a few minutes. Small-scale magnetic elements (SMEs), ubiquitous on the solar photosphere, are passively transported by associated plasma flows. This advection makes their traces very suitable for defining the convective regime of the photosphere. Therefore the solar photosphere offers an exceptional opportunity to investigate convective motions, associated with compressible, stratified, magnetic, rotating and large Rayleigh number stellar plasmas. The magnetograms used here come from a Hinode/SOT uninterrupted 25-hour sequence of spectropolarimetric images. The mean-square displacement of SMEs has been modelled with a power law with spectral index . We found for times up to and for times up to . An alternative way to investigate the advective-diffusive motion of SMEs is to look at the evolution of the two-dimensional probability distribution function (PDF) for the displacements. Although at very short time scales the PDFs are affected by pixel resolution, for times shorter than the PDFs seem to broaden symmetrically with time. In contrast, at longer times a multi-peaked feature of the PDFs emerges, which suggests the non-trivial nature of the diffusion-advection process of magnetic elements. A Voronoi distribution analysis shows that the observed small-scale distribution of SMEs involves the complex details of highly nonlinear small-scale interactions of turbulent convective flows detected in solar photospheric plasma.

  7. On the generation of Alfven waves in the solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Yuriy; Stepanov, Alexander; Kopylova, Yulia

    The influence of collisions between neutrals and ions on the energy flux of Alfven waves in the weakly ionized plasma based on the three-fluid equations is considered. As distinguished from Vranjes et al. (2008) and Soler et al. (2013) it has been shown that amplitudes of Alfven waves that are generated in the solar photosphere do not depend on the ionization ratio and the initial conditions for ions, if the wave frequency is much less that the effective frequency of collisions between ions and neutral atoms. This is explained by the strong coupling due to ion-neutral collisions and the magnetic field freezing-in effect. Alfven waves can be effectively excited in the photosphere of the Sun by the convective motions.

  8. Modelling the influence of photospheric turbulence on solar flare statistics.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Kaydul, A; de Arcangelis, L; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2014-09-23

    Solar flares stem from the reconnection of twisted magnetic field lines in the solar photosphere. The energy and waiting time distributions of these events follow complex patterns that have been carefully considered in the past and that bear some resemblance with earthquakes and stockmarkets. Here we explore in detail the tangling motion of interacting flux tubes anchored in the plasma and the energy ejections resulting when they recombine. The mechanism for energy accumulation and release in the flow is reminiscent of self-organized criticality. From this model, we suggest the origin for two important and widely studied properties of solar flare statistics, including the time-energy correlations. We first propose that the scale-free energy distribution of solar flares is largely due to the twist exerted by the vorticity of the turbulent photosphere. Second, the long-range temporal and time-energy correlations appear to arise from the tube-tube interactions. The agreement with satellite measurements is encouraging.

  9. Photospheric Origin of Three-minute Oscillations in a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Jongchul; Lee, Jeongwoo; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyungsuk; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2017-02-01

    The origin of the three-minute oscillations of intensity and velocity observed in the chromosphere of sunspot umbrae is still unclear. We investigated the spatio-spectral properties of the 3 minute oscillations of velocity in the photosphere of a sunspot umbra as well as those in the low chromosphere using the spectral data of the Ni i λ5436, Fe i λ5435, and Na i D2 λ5890 lines taken by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. As a result, we found a local enhancement of the 3 minute oscillation power in the vicinities of a light bridge (LB) and numerous umbral dots (UDs) in the photosphere. These 3 minute oscillations occurred independently of the 5 minute oscillations. Through wavelet analysis, we determined the amplitudes and phases of the 3 minute oscillations at the formation heights of the spectral lines, and they were found to be consistent with the upwardly propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere with energy flux large enough to explain the chromospheric oscillations. Our results suggest that the 3 minute chromospheric oscillations in this sunspot may have been generated by magnetoconvection occurring in the LB and UDs.

  10. Study of Magnetic Structure in the Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Robert W.; Avrett, Eugene; Nisenson, Peter; Uitenbroek, Han; vanBallegooijen, Adriaan

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded an observational and theoretical program to study the structure and dynamics of the solar photosphere and low chromosphere, and the spectral signatures that result. The overall goal is to learn about mechanisms that cause heating of the overlying atmosphere, and produce variability of solar emission in spectral regions important for astrophysics and space physics. The program exploited two new ground-based observational capabilities: one using the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma for very high angular resolution observations of the photospheric intensity field (granulation) and proxies of the magnetic field (G-band images); and the other using the Near Infrared Magnetograph at the McMath-Pierce Solar Facility to map the spatial variation and dynamic behavior of the solar temperature minimum region using infrared CO lines. We have interpreted these data using a variety of theoretical and modelling approaches, some developed especially for this project. Previous annual reports cover the work done up to 31 May 1997. This final report summarizes our work for the entire period, including the period of no-cost extension from 1 June 1997 through September 30 1997. In Section 2 we discuss observations and modelling of the photospheric flowfields and their consequences for heating of the overlying atmosphere, and in Section 3 we discuss imaging spectroscopy of the CO lines at 4.67 mu.

  11. Active Region Magnetic Structure Observed in the Photosphere and Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leka, K. D.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic flux above sunspots and plage in NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Active Region 8299 has been measured in the photosphere and the chromosphere. We investigate the vertical magnetic structure above the umbrae, penumbrae and plage regions using quantitative statistical comparisons of the photospheric and chromospheric vector magnetic flux data. The results include: (1) a decrease in flux with height, (2) the direct detection of the superpenumbral canopy in the chromosphere, (3) values for dB/dz which are consistent with earlier investigations when derived from a straight difference between the two datasets but quite low when derived from the delta x B = 0 condition, (4) a monolithic structure in the umbra which extends well into the upper chromosphere with a very complex and varied structure in the penumbra and plage, as evidenced by (5) a uniform magnetic scale height in the umbrae with an abrupt jump to widely varying scale heights in the penumbral and plage regions. Further, we find (6) evidence for a very large (delta z approximately equals 3Mm) height difference between the atmospheric layers sampled in the two magnetograms, almost a factor of three larger than that implied by atmospheric models. We additionally test the apropriateness of using photospheric magnetic flux as a boundary for field-line extrapolations, and find a better agreement with observed coronal structure when the chromospheric flux is used as a boundary.

  12. Pixel Analysis and Plasma Dynamics Characterized by Photospheric Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolutions show small dynamic features at the resolving limit during emerging flux events. However, line-of-sight (LOS) magnetogram pixels only contain the net uncanceled magnetic flux, which is expected to increase for fixed regions as resolution limits improve. A new pixel dynamics method uses spectrographic images to characterize photospheric absorption line profiles by variations in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness and is applied to quiet-sun regions, active regions with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from SOLIS/VSM on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe I 6301.5 Å are shown to have a strong spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare originating from NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as a flattening in the line profile as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity and was not present in area scans of a non-eruptive active region on 2011 April 14. These results are used to estimate dynamic plasma properties on sub-pixel scales and provide both spatial and temporal information of sub-pixel activity at the photosphere. The analysis can be extended to include the full Stokes parameters and study signatures of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  13. The Effects of Transients on Photospheric and Chromospheric Power Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, T.; Henriques, V. M. J.; Banerjee, D.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D.; Pant, V.

    2016-09-01

    We have observed a quiet-Sun region with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope equipped with the CRISP Imaging SpectroPolarimeter. High-resolution, high-cadence, Hα line scanning images were taken to observe different layers of the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to upper chromosphere. We study the distribution of power in different period bands at different heights. Power maps of the upper photosphere and the lower chromosphere show suppressed power surrounding the magnetic-network elements, known as “magnetic shadows.” These also show enhanced power close to the photosphere, traditionally referred to as “power halos.” The interaction between acoustic waves and inclined magnetic fields is generally believed to be responsible for these two effects. In this study we explore whether small-scale transients can influence the distribution of power at different heights. We show that the presence of transients, like mottles, Rapid Blueshifted Excursions (RBEs), and Rapid Redshifted Excursions (RREs), can strongly influence the power maps. The short and finite lifetime of these events strongly affects all power maps, potentially influencing the observed power distribution. We show that Doppler-shifted transients like RBEs and RREs that occur ubiquitously can have a dominant effect on the formation of the power halos in the quiet Sun. For magnetic shadows, transients like mottles do not seem to have a significant effect on the power suppression around 3 minutes, and wave interaction may play a key role here. Our high-cadence observations reveal that flows, waves, and shocks manifest in the presence of magnetic fields to form a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic system.

  14. Photospheric Current Spikes as Possible Predictors of Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael L.; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Flares involve generation of the largest current densities in the solar atmosphere. This suggests the hypothesis that prior to a large (M,X) flare there are related time dependent changes in the photospheric current distribution, and hence in the resistive heating rate in neutral line regions (NLRs). If this is true, these changes might be useful predictors of flares. Preliminary evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented. Results from a data driven, near photospheric, 3D magnetohydrodynamic type model suggest the model might be useful for predicting M and X flares several hours to several days in advance. The model takes as input the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. The model computes quantities in every active region (AR) pixel for 14 ARs, with spurious Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion filtered out of the time series of the magnetic field for each pixel. Spikes in the NLR resistive heating rate Q, appearing as increases by orders of magnitude above background values in the time series of Q are found to occur, and appear to be correlated with the occurrence of M or X flares a few hours to a few days later. The subset of spikes analyzed at the pixel level are found to occur on HMI and granulation scales of 1 arcsec and 12 minutes. Spikes are found in NLRs with and without M or X flares, and outside as well as inside NLRs, but the largest spikes are localized in the NLRs of ARs with M or X flares, and associated with horizontal magnetic field strengths approximately several hG, and vertical magnetic field strengths several orders of magnitude smaller. The spikes may be signatures of horizontal current sheets associated with emerging magnetic flux.

  15. Photospheric Current Spikes as Possible Predictors of Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael L.; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Flares involve generation of the largest current densities in the solar atmosphere. This suggests the hypothesis that prior to a large (M,X) flare there are related time dependent changes in the photospheric current distribution, and hence in the resistive heating rate in neutral line regions (NLRs). If this is true, these changes might be useful predictors of flares. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented. Results from a data driven, near photospheric, 3D magnetohydrodynamic type model suggest the model might be useful for predicting M and X flares several hours to several days in advance. The model takes as input the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. The model computes quantities in every active region (AR) pixel for 14 ARs, with spurious Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion filtered out of the time series of the magnetic field for each pixel. Spikes in the NLR resistive heating rate Q, appearing as increases by orders of magnitude above background values in the time series of Q are found to occur, and appear to be correlated with the occurrence of M or X flares a few hours to a few days later. The subset of spikes analyzed at the pixel level are found to occur on HMI and granulation scales of 1 arcsec and 12 minutes. Spikes are found in NLRs with and without M or X flares, and outside as well as inside NLRs, but the largest spikes are localized in the NLRs of ARs with M or X flares, and associated with horizontal magnetic field strengths several hG, and vertical magnetic field strengths several orders of magnitude smaller, suggesting that the spikes are associated with current sheets.

  16. North south asymmetry in the coronal and photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.

    2013-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). We study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since 1970s, bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g02 quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g02-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling towards higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles the g02-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. Magnetic flux is transported polewards by the meridional flow and it is most likely that besides the north-south asymmetric production of the magnetic flux, also the asymmetric transportation may significantly contribute to the observed asymmetry of polar field intensities. The overall activity during solar cycle is not significantly different in the northern and southern hemispheres, but hemispheres tend to develop in a different phase.

  17. Pixel Analysis of Photospheric Spectral Data. I. Plasma Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolution show small dynamic features at or below the current resolving limits. A new pixel dynamics method has been developed to analyze spectral profiles and quantify changes in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness of photospheric absorption lines. The algorithm evaluates variations of line profile properties in each pixel and determines the statistics of such fluctuations averaged over all pixels in a given region. The method has been used to derive statistical characteristics of pixel fluctuations in observed quiet-Sun regions, an active region with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe i 6301.5 Å are shown to have a distinct spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare in NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as stationary and contiguous patches of pixels adjacent to a sunspot exhibiting intense flattening in the line profile and line-center displacement as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity, which is not present in area scans of the non-eruptive active region. The analysis of pixel dynamics allows one to extract quantitative information on differences in plasma dynamics on sub-pixel scales in these photospheric regions. The analysis can be extended to include the Stokes parameters and study signatures of vector components of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  18. Helium at White Dwarf Photospheric Conditions: Preliminary Laboratory Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeuble, M.; Falcon, R. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Bailey, J. E.

    2017-03-01

    We present preliminary results of an experimental study exploring helium at photospheric conditions of white dwarf stars. These data were collected at Sandia National Laboratories' Z-machine, the largest x-ray source on earth. Our helium results could have many applications ranging from validating current DB white dwarf model atmospheres to providing accurate He pressure shifts at varying temperatures and densities. In a much broader context, these helium data can be used to guide theoretical developments in new continuum-lowering models for two-electron atoms. We also discuss future applications of our updated experimental design, which enables us to sample a greater range of densities, temperatures, and gas compositions.

  19. CHROMOSPHERIC POLARIZATION IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC SOLAR OXYGEN INFRARED TRIPLET

    SciTech Connect

    Del Pino Alemán, Tanausú; Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2015-07-20

    We present multilevel radiative transfer modeling of the scattering polarization observed in the solar O i infrared triplet around 777 nm. We demonstrate that the scattering polarization pattern observed on the solar disk forms in the chromosphere, far above the photospheric region where the bulk of the emergent intensity profiles originate. We investigate the sensitivity of the polarization pattern to the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere and to the presence of weak magnetic fields (10{sup −2}–100 G) through the Hanle effect, showing that the scattering polarization signals of the oxygen infrared triplet encode information on the magnetism of the solar chromosphere.

  20. Vertical magnetic field gradient in the photospheric layers of sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jayant; Lagg, Andreas; Hirzberger, Johann; Solanki, Sami K.; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the vertical gradient of the magnetic field of sunspots in the photospheric layer. Methods: Independent observations were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP) on board the Hinode spacecraft and with the Tenrife Infrared Polarimeter-2 (TIP-2) mounted at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). We apply state-of-the-art inversion techniques to both data sets to retrieve the magnetic field and the corresponding vertical gradient along with other atmospheric parameters in the solar photosphere. Results: In the sunspot penumbrae we detected patches of negative vertical gradients of the magnetic field strength, i.e., the magnetic field strength decreases with optical depth in the photosphere. The negative gradient patches are located in the inner and partly in the middle penumbrae in both data sets. From the SOT/SP observations we found that the negative gradient patches are restricted mainly to the deep photospheric layers and are concentrated near the edges of the penumbral filaments. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations also show negative gradients in the inner penumbrae, also at the locations of filaments. In the observations and the simulation negative gradients of the magnetic field vs. optical depth dominate at some radial distances in the penumbra. The negative gradient with respect to optical depth in the inner penumbrae persists even after averaging in the azimuthal direction in the observations and, to a lesser extent, in the MHD simulations. If the gradients in the MHD simulations are determined with respect to geometrical height, then the azimuthal averages are always positive within the sunspot (above log τ = 0), corresponding to magnetic field increasing with depth, as generally expected. Conclusions: We interpret the observed localized presence of negative vertical gradient of the magnetic field strength in the observations as a consequence of stronger field from spines expanding with height and

  1. THE BUILDUP OF A SCALE-FREE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, K.; Charbonneau, P.; Crouch, A. D. E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca-b

    2012-10-01

    We use a global Monte Carlo simulation of the formation of the solar photospheric magnetic network to investigate the origin of the scale invariance characterizing magnetic flux concentrations visible on high-resolution magnetograms. The simulations include spatially and temporally homogeneous injection of small-scale magnetic elements over the whole photosphere, as well as localized episodic injection associated with the emergence and decay of active regions. Network elements form in response to cumulative pairwise aggregation or cancellation of magnetic elements, undergoing a random walk on the sphere and advected on large spatial scales by differential rotation and a poleward meridional flow. The resulting size distribution of simulated network elements is in very good agreement with observational inferences. We find that the fractal index and size distribution of network elements are determined primarily by these post-emergence surface mechanisms, and carry little or no memory of the scales at which magnetic flux is injected in the simulation. Implications for models of dynamo action in the Sun are briefly discussed.

  2. Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the spherical harmonic functions to analyze the nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere is extended to situations in which B(0) the latitude at disk center, is nonzero and spurious velocities are present. The procedures for extracting the rotation profile and meridional circulation are altered to account for the seasonal tilt of the sun's rotation axis toward and away from the observer. A more robust and accurate method for separating the limb shift and meridional circulation signals is described. The analysis procedures include the ability to mask out areas containing spurious velocities (velocity-like signals that do not represent true flow velocities in the photosphere). The procedures are shown to work well in extracting the various flow components from realistic artificial data with a broad, continuous spectrum for the supergranulation. The presence of this supergranulation signal introduces errors of a few m/s in the measurements of the rotation profile, meridional circulation, and limb shift from a single Doppler image.

  3. Fine-scale Photospheric Connections of Ellerman Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Heesu; Chae, Jongchul; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Kwak, Hannah; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.; Kim, Yeon-Han

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the photospheric and magnetic field structures associated with Ellerman bombs (EBs) using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The nine observed EBs were accompanied by elongated granule-like features (EGFs) that showed transverse motions prior to the EBs with an average speed of about 3.8 km s-1. Each EGF consisted of a sub-arcsecond bright core encircled by a dark lane around its moving front. The bright core appeared in the TiO broadband filter images and in the far wings of the Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å lines. In four EBs, the bi-directional expanding motion of the EGFs was identified in the TiO images. In those cases, the EGFs were found to be accompanied by an emerging flux (EF). In four other EBs, the EGF developed at the edge of a penumbra and traveled in the sunspot’s radial direction. The EGFs in these cases were identified as a moving magnetic feature (MMF). Our results show a clear connection among the magnetic elements, photospheric features, and EBs. This result suggests that the EBs result from magnetic reconnection forced by EFs or MMFs that are frequently manifested by EGFs.

  4. Spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emission from stratified jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Jin; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Tolstov, Alexey; Mao, Jirong; Dainotti, Maria; Mizuta, Akira

    2014-07-10

    We explore the spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emissions from stratified jets in which multiple components, separated by sharp velocity shear regions, are distributed in lateral directions. Propagation of thermal photons injected at a high optical depth region are calculated until they escape from the photosphere. It is found that the presence of the lateral structure within the jet leads to the nonthermal feature of the spectra and significant polarization signal in the resulting emission. The deviation from thermal spectra, as well as the polarization degree, tends to be enhanced as the velocity gradient in the shear region increases. In particular, we show that emissions from multicomponent jet can reproduce the typical observed spectra of gamma-ray bursts irrespective of the position of the observer when a velocity shear region is closely spaced in various lateral (θ) positions. The degree of polarization associated with the emission is significant (>few percent) at a wide range of observer angles and can be higher than 30%.

  5. Pixel Analysis and Plasma Dynamics Characterized by Photospheric Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, A.; Chen, J.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continued advances in solar observations have led to higher-resolution magnetograms and surface (photospheric) images, revealing bipolar magnetic features operating near the resolution limit during emerging flux events and other phenomena used to predict solar eruptions responsible for geomagnetic plasma disturbances. However, line of sight (LOS) magnetogram pixels only contain the net uncanceled magnetic flux, which is expected to increase for fixed regions as resolution limits improve. A pixel dynamics model utilizing Stokes I spectral profiles was previously-used to quantify changes in the Doppler shift, width, asymmetry, and tail flatness of Fe I lines at 6301.5 and 6302.5 Å and used pixel-by-pixel line profile fluctuations to characterize quiet and active regions on the Sun. We use this pixel dynamics model with circularly polarized photospheric data (e.g., SOLIS data) to estimate plasma dynamic properties at a sub-pixel level. The analysis can be extended to include the full Stokes parameters and study signatures of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties on sub-pixel scales.

  6. Flare Activity and Magnetic Helicity Injection By Photospheric Horizontal Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y.-J.; Chae, J.; Choe, G.; Wang, H.; Park, Y. D.; Yun, H. S.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Goode, P. R.

    2002-05-01

    We present observational evidence that the occurrence of homologous flares in an active region is physically related to the injection of magnetic helicity by horizontal photospheric motions. We have analyzed a set of 1 minute cadence magnetograms of NOAA AR 8100 taken over a period of 6.5 hours by Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). During this observing time span, seven homologous flares took place in the active region. We have computed the magnetic helicity injection rate into the solar atmosphere by photospheric shearing motions, and found that a significant amount of magnetic helicity was injected during the observing period. In a strong M4.1 flare, the magnetic helicity injection rate impulsively increased and peaked at the same time as the X-ray flux did. The flare X-ray flux integrated over the X-ray emission time strongly correlates with the magnetic helicity injected during the flaring interval. The integrated X-ray flux is found to be a logarithmically increasing function of the injected magnetic helicity. Our results suggest that injection of helicity and abrupt increase of helicity magnitude play a significant role in flare triggering. This work has been supported by NASA grants NAG5-10894 and NAG5-7837, by MURI grant of AFOSR, by the US-Korea Cooperative Science Program (NSF INT-98-16267), by NRL M10104000059-01J000002500 of the Korean government, and by the BK 21 project of the Korean government.

  7. Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves Driven by Photospheric Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    This thesis investigates the properties of various modelled photospheric motions as generation mechanisms for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the low solar atmosphere. The solar atmosphere is heated to million-degree temperatures, yet there is no fully understood heating mechanism which can provide the ≈ 300 W/m^2) required to keep the quiet corona at its observed temperatures. MHD waves are one mechanism by which this energy could be provided to the upper solar atmosphere, however, these waves need to be excited. The excitation of these waves, in or below the photosphere is a complex interaction between the plasma and the magnetic field embedded within it. This thesis studies a model of a small-scale magnetic flux tube based upon a magnetic bright point (MBP). These features are very common in the photosphere and have been observed to be affected by the plasma motions. The modelled flux tube has a foot point magnetic field strength of 120 mT and a FWHM of 90 km, and is embedded in a realistic, stratified solar atmosphere based upon the VALIIIc model. To better understand the excitation of MHD waves in this type of magnetic structures, a selection of velocity profiles are implemented to excite waves. Initially a study of five different driving profiles was performed. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers which mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere, along with vertical and horizontal drivers to mimic different motions caused by convection in the photosphere. The results are then analysed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters to both the linear and non-linear cases. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated, to enable

  8. The Evolution of Open Magnetic Flux Driven by Photospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    The coronal magnetic field is of paramount importance in solar and heliospheric physics. Two profoundly different views of the coronal magnetic field have emerged. In quasi-steady models, the predominant source of open magnetic field is in coronal holes. In contrast, in the interchange model, the open magnetic flux is conserved, and the coronal magnetic field can only respond to the photospheric evolution via interchange reconnection. In this view the open magnetic flux diffuses through the closed, streamer belt fields, and substantial open flux is present in the streamer belt during solar minimum. However, Antiochos and co-workers, in the form of a conjecture, argued that truly isolated open flux cannot exist in a configuration with one heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - it will connect via narrow corridors to the polar coronal hole of the same polarity. This contradicts the requirements of the interchange model. We have performed an MHD simulation of the solar corona up to 20R solar to test both the interchange model and the Antiochos conjecture. We use a synoptic map for Carrington Rotation 1913 as the boundary condition for the model, with two small bipoles introduced into the region where a positive polarity extended coronal hole forms. We introduce flows at the photospheric boundary surface to see if open flux associated with the bipoles can be moved into the closed-field region. Interchange reconnection does occur in response to these motions. However, we find that the open magnetic flux cannot be simply injected into closed-field regions - the flux eventually closes down and disconnected flux is created. Flux either opens or closes, as required, to maintain topologically distinct open and closed field regions, with no indiscriminate mixing of the two. The early evolution conforms to the Antiochos conjecture in that a narrow corridor of open flux connects the portion of the coronal hole that is nearly detached by one of the bipoles. In the later evolution, a

  9. Influence of Photospheric Magnetic Conditions on the Catastrophic Behaviors of Flux Ropes in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jiajia

    2017-02-01

    Since only the magnetic conditions at the photosphere can be routinely observed in current observations, it is of great significance to determine the influences of photospheric magnetic conditions on solar eruptive activities. Previous studies about catastrophe indicated that the magnetic system consisting of a flux rope in a partially open bipolar field is subject to catastrophe, but not if the bipolar field is completely closed under the same specified photospheric conditions. In order to investigate the influence of the photospheric magnetic conditions on the catastrophic behavior of this system, we expand upon the 2.5-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model in Cartesian coordinates to simulate the evolution of the equilibrium states of the system under different photospheric flux distributions. Our simulation results reveal that a catastrophe occurs only when the photospheric flux is not concentrated too much toward the polarity inversion line and the source regions of the bipolar field are not too weak; otherwise no catastrophe occurs. As a result, under certain photospheric conditions, a catastrophe could take place in a completely closed configuration, whereas it ceases to exist in a partially open configuration. This indicates that whether the background field is completely closed or partially open is not the only necessary condition for the existence of catastrophe, and that the photospheric conditions also play a crucial role in the catastrophic behavior of the flux rope system.

  10. The Role of Scale and Model Bias in ADAPT's Photospheric Eatimation

    SciTech Connect

    Godinez Vazquez, Humberto C.; Hickmann, Kyle Scott; Arge, Charles Nicholas; Henney, Carl

    2015-05-20

    The Air Force Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport model (ADAPT), is a magnetic flux propagation based on Worden-Harvey (WH) model. ADAPT would be used to provide a global photospheric map of the Earth. A data assimilation method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), a method of Monte Carlo approximation tied with Kalman filtering, is used in calculating the ADAPT models.

  11. Distance determination to eight galaxies using expanding photosphere method

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh E-mail: bose@aries.res.in

    2014-02-20

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe) are recognized as independent extragalactic distance indicators; however, keeping in mind the diverse nature of their observed properties as well as the availability of good quality data, more and newer events need to be tested for their applicability as reliable distance indicators. We use early photometric and spectroscopic data of eight Type IIP SNe to derive distances to their host galaxies by using the expanding photosphere method (EPM). For five of these, the EPM is applied for the first time. In this work, we improved EPM application by using SYNOW estimated velocities and by semi-deconvolving the broadband filter responses while deriving color temperatures and blackbody angular radii. We find that the derived EPM distances are consistent with that derived using other redshift-independent methods.

  12. Disruption of a helmet streamer by photospheric shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    1995-01-01

    Helmet streamers on the Sun have been observed to be the site of coronal mass ejections, dynamic events that eject coronal plasma and magnetic fields into the solar wind. We develop a two-dimensional (azimuthally symmetric) helmet streamer configuration by computing solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, and we investigate the evolution of the configuration when photospheric shearing motions are imposed. We find that the configuration disrupts when a critical shear is exceeded, ejecting a plasmoid into the solar wind. The results are similar to the case of a sheared dipole magnetic field in a hydrostatic atmosphere (Mikic & Linker 1994). However, the presence of the outflowing solar wind makes the disruption significantly more energetic when a helmet streamer is sheared. Our resutls suggest that shearing of helmet streamers may initiate coronal mass ejections.

  13. The Telescope for Observation of the Photosphere of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, V.; Kaminsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    Visual observation of solar spots on Astronomical observatory began in 1923. Since 1951 photographic observation with use of photographic plates of AGFA and ORWO were conducted. Transition from photographic plates to CCD matrixes demands modernization or replacement of thetelescope. The made analysis taking into account the parameters a CCD matrixes of the receiver proves need of production of the new telescope.Calculations, modeling and production of the telescope were executed by opportunities of Astronomical observatory. Tests of the telescope withthe digital camera showed that quality of images satisfactory, resolution of the telescope answers settlement and the telescope with the digitalcamera can be used for receiving pictures of the photosphere of the Sun. The average error of definition of numbers of Wolf doesn't exceed 10 %.

  14. VERY HIGH EFFICIENCY PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION IN LONG-DURATION {gamma}-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2009-07-20

    We numerically analyze the evolution of a long-duration gamma-ray burst jet as it leaves the progenitor star and propagates to the photospheric radius, where radiation can be released. We find that the interaction of the relativistic material with the progenitor star has influences well beyond the stellar surface. Tangential collimation shocks are observed throughout the jet evolution, out to about 100 stellar radii, which is the whole range of our simulation. We find that the jet is internally hot at the photospheric radius and we compute the photospheric emission. The photosphere is a very efficient radiator, capable of converting more than half of the total energy of the jet into radiation. We show that bright photospheres are a common feature of jets born inside massive progenitor stars and that this effect can explain the high radiative efficiency observed in long-duration bursts.

  15. The evolution of a coronal streamer and the photospheric magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Macqueen, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A large equatorial coronal streamer observed in the outer corona grew in brightness and size during successive limb passages between October 6, 1973 and January 10, 1974 (solar rotations 1606-1611). Unlike previous studies of streamers and their photospheric associations, no definite surface feature could be identified in the present case. This suggests that the streamer is associated with the large scale photospheric magnetic field. Comparison of the streamer growth with observed underlying photospheric magnetic flux changes indicated that as the streamer increased in brightness, areal extent, and density, the photospheric magnetic flux decreased. Three possible explanations for the streamer's growth are presented, the conceptually simplest being that the decrease in photospheric field results in an opening of the flux tubes under the streamer, which permits an increase mass flux through the streamer.

  16. Solar photospheric network properties and their cycle variation

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, K.; Charbonneau, P.; Béland, M. E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca-b

    2014-11-20

    We present a numerical simulation of the formation and evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic network over a full solar cycle. The model exhibits realistic behavior as it produces large, unipolar concentrations of flux in the polar caps, a power-law flux distribution with index –1.69, a flux replacement timescale of 19.3 hr, and supergranule diameters of 20 Mm. The polar behavior is especially telling of model accuracy, as it results from lower-latitude activity, and accumulates the residues of any potential modeling inaccuracy and oversimplification. In this case, the main oversimplification is the absence of a polar sink for the flux, causing an amount of polar cap unsigned flux larger than expected by almost one order of magnitude. Nonetheless, our simulated polar caps carry the proper signed flux and dipole moment, and also show a spatial distribution of flux in good qualitative agreement with recent high-latitude magnetographic observations by Hinode. After the last cycle emergence, the simulation is extended until the network has recovered its quiet Sun initial condition. This permits an estimate of the network relaxation time toward the baseline state characterizing extended periods of suppressed activity, such as the Maunder Grand Minimum. Our simulation results indicate a network relaxation time of 2.9 yr, setting 2011 October as the soonest the time after which the last solar activity minimum could have qualified as a Maunder-type Minimum. This suggests that photospheric magnetism did not reach its baseline state during the recent extended minimum between cycles 23 and 24.

  17. Photospheric Emission from Collapsar Jets in 3D Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  18. PHOTOSPHERIC RADIUS EXPANSION IN SUPERBURST PRECURSORS FROM NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.

    2012-09-10

    Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data are of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the Proportional Counter Array instrument on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we perform the first detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the shortfall in energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our technique to study the superexpansion phase of the same superburst in greater detail.

  19. Generation of magnetic structures on the solar photosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gangadhara, R. T.; Krishan, V.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Chitre, S. M.

    2014-06-20

    The lower solar atmosphere is a partially ionized plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms. In this, which is essentially a three-fluid system, the Hall effect arises from the treatment of the electrons and ions as two separate fluids and the ambipolar diffusion arises from the inclusion of neutrals as the third fluid. The Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion have been shown to be operational in a region beginning from near the photosphere up to the chromosphere. In a partially ionized plasma, the magnetic induction is subjected to ambipolar diffusion and the Hall drift in addition to the usual resistive dissipation. These nonlinear effects create sharp magnetic structures which then submit themselves to various relaxation mechanisms. A first-principles derivation of these effects in a three-fluid system and an analytic solution to the magnetic induction equation in a stationary state are presented, which in the general case includes the Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion, and ohmic dissipation. The temporal evolution of the magnetic field is then investigated under the combined as well as the individual effects of the Hall drift and ambipolar diffusion to demonstrate the formation of steep magnetic structures and the resultant current sheet formation. These structures have just the right features for the release of magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere.

  20. Latitudinal variation of helicity of photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Canfield, Richard C.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Using a 1988-1994 data set of original photospheric vector magnetograms as well as published data, we have studied the average magnetic helicity of 69 diverse active regions, adopting the linear force-free field parameter alpha as a measure. This average value was determined by minimizing the differences between the computed constant-alpha force-free and observed horizontal magnetic fields. The average magnetic helicity shows a sign difference at the 2 sigma level in opposite hemispheres. In our data set, 76% of the active regions in the northern hemisphere have negative helicity, and 69% in the southern hemisphere, positive. Although the data show considerable variation from one active region to the next, the data set as a whole suggest that the magnitude of the average helicity increases with solar latitude, starting at zero near the equator, reaches a maximum near 15 deg - 25 deg in both hemispheres, and drops back toward smaller values avove 35 deg - 40 deg. Qualitative comparison with published models shows that such latitudinal variation of the average magnetic helicity may result from either turbulent convective motions or differential rotation, although our studies of rotating sunspots lead us to favor the former.

  1. Laboratory measurements of white dwarf photospheric spectral lines: Hβ

    DOE PAGES

    Falcon, Ross Edward; Rochau, Gregory A.; Bailey, James E.; ...

    2015-06-18

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. We also present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, ne, and n = 2 level population, n2. Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer amore » continuous range of electron densities increasing from ne ~ 4 to ~30 × 1016 cm-3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ~55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This also supports our electron-temperature determination of Te ~ 1.3 eV (~15,000 K) after this time. At ne≲ 1017 cm-3, we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ2) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. Lastly, this work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines.« less

  2. Photospheric flows around a quiescent filament and CALAS first results .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondi, S.; Roudier, Th.; Molodij, G.; Bommier, V.; Malherbe, J. M.; Schmieder, B.; Meunier, N.; Rieutord, M.; Beigbeder., F.

    The horizontal photospheric flows below and around a filament are one of the components in the formation and evolution of filaments. Few studies have been done so far because this requires multiwalength time sequences with high spatial resolution. We present observations obtained in 2004 during the international JOP 178 campaign in which eleven instruments were involved, from space and ground based observatories. Several supergranulation cells are crossing the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL) allowing the transport of magnetic flux through the PIL, in particular the parasitic polarities. Before the filament eruptive phase, parasitic and normal polarities are swept by a continuous diverging horizontal flow located in the filament gap where the disappearance of the filament starts. In the future, observations at high spatial resolution on a large field-of-view would be very useful to study filaments, as they are very large structures. We also present the first images obtained with the use of our new 14 MPixel camera CALAS (CAmera for the LArge Scales of the Solar Surface) (10 arcmin× 6.7 arcmin) . These are the first large-scale and high-resolution images of the solar surface ever made.

  3. Shocks in the Quiet Solar Photosphere: A Rather Common Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2005-02-01

    We present observations of the quiet solar photosphere in the Fe I lines at 6302 Å where at least four different spatial locations exhibit upward-directed supersonic flows. These upflows can only be detected in the circular polarization profiles as a double-peaked structure in the blue lobe of both Fe I lines. We have detected cases of either magnetic polarity in the data. The polarization signals associated with the upflows are very weak, which is probably why they had not been seen before in this type of observation. We propose that the observed flows are the signature of aborted convective collapse, similar to the case reported by Bellot Rubio et al. Our data indicate that this phenomenon occurs frequently in the quiet Sun, which means that many magnetic elements (although the fraction is still unknown) are destroyed even before they are formed completely. The spectral signatures of supersonic upflows reported here are probably present in most spectropolarimetric observations of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution.

  4. Laboratory Measurements of White Dwarf Photospheric Spectral Lines: Hβ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Nagayama, T.

    2015-06-01

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, ne, and n = 2 level population, n2. Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from ne ∼ 4 to ∼30 × 1016 cm-3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ∼55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This supports our electron-temperature determination of Te ∼ 1.3 eV (∼15,000 K) after this time. At ne ≳ 1017 cm-3, we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ2) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. This work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines.

  5. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM COLLAPSAR JETS IN 3D RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  6. Generation of Magnetic Structures on the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadhara, R. T.; Krishan, V.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Chitre, S. M.

    2014-06-01

    The lower solar atmosphere is a partially ionized plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms. In this, which is essentially a three-fluid system, the Hall effect arises from the treatment of the electrons and ions as two separate fluids and the ambipolar diffusion arises from the inclusion of neutrals as the third fluid. The Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion have been shown to be operational in a region beginning from near the photosphere up to the chromosphere. In a partially ionized plasma, the magnetic induction is subjected to ambipolar diffusion and the Hall drift in addition to the usual resistive dissipation. These nonlinear effects create sharp magnetic structures which then submit themselves to various relaxation mechanisms. A first-principles derivation of these effects in a three-fluid system and an analytic solution to the magnetic induction equation in a stationary state are presented, which in the general case includes the Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion, and ohmic dissipation. The temporal evolution of the magnetic field is then investigated under the combined as well as the individual effects of the Hall drift and ambipolar diffusion to demonstrate the formation of steep magnetic structures and the resultant current sheet formation. These structures have just the right features for the release of magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere.

  7. Study of magnetic notions in the solar photosphere and their implications for heating the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report covers the first year of NASA Grant NAGw-2545, a study of magnetic structure in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. We have made significant progress in three areas: (1) analysis of vorticity in photospheric convection, which probably affects solar atmospheric heating through the stresses it imposes on photospheric magnetic fields; (2) modelling of the horizontal motions of magnetic footpoints in the solar photosphere using an assumed relation between brightness and vertical motion as well as continuity of flow; and (3) observations and analysis of infrared CO lines formed near the solar temperature minimum, whose structure and dynamics also yield important clues to the nature of heating of the upper atmosphere. Each of these areas are summarized in this report, with copies of those papers prepared or published this year included.

  8. Alfvén Waves in Simulations of Solar Photospheric Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelyag, S.; Cally, P. S.; Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2013-10-01

    Using advanced numerical magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the magnetized solar photosphere, including non-gray radiative transport and a non-ideal equation of state, we analyze plasma motions in photospheric magnetic vortices. We demonstrate that apparent vortex-like motions in photospheric magnetic field concentrations do not exhibit "tornado"-like behavior or a "bath-tub" effect. While at each time instance the velocity field lines in the upper layers of the solar photosphere show swirls, the test particles moving with the time-dependent velocity field do not demonstrate such structures. Instead, they move in a wave-like fashion with rapidly changing and oscillating velocity field, determined mainly by magnetic tension in the magnetized intergranular downflows. Using time-distance diagrams, we identify horizontal motions in the magnetic flux tubes as torsional Alfvén perturbations propagating along the nearly vertical magnetic field lines with local Alfvén speed.

  9. Photosphere Emission from a Hybrid Relativistic Outflow with Arbitrary Dimensionless Entropy and Magnetization in GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    In view of the recent Fermi observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission spectra, we develop a theory of photosphere emission of a hybrid relativistic outflow with a hot fireball component (defined by dimensionless entropy η) and a cold Poynting-flux component (defined by magnetization σ0 at the central engine). We consider the scenarios both without and with sub-photospheric magnetic dissipations. Based on a simplified toy model of jet dynamics, we develop two approaches: a "bottom-up" approach to predict the temperature (for a non-dissipative photosphere) and luminosity of the photosphere emission and its relative brightness for a given pair of (η, σ0) and a "top-down" approach to diagnose central engine parameters (η and σ0) based on the observed quasi-thermal photosphere emission properties. We show that a variety of observed GRB prompt emission spectra with different degrees of photosphere thermal emission can be reproduced by varying η and σ0 within the non-dissipative photosphere scenario. In order to reproduce the observed spectra, the outflows of most GRBs need to have a significant σ, both at the central engine and at the photosphere. The σ value at 1015 cm from the central engine (a possible non-thermal emission site) is usually also greater than unity, so that internal-collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) may be the mechanism to power the non-thermal emission. We apply our top-down approach to GRB 110721A and find that the temporal evolution behavior of its blackbody component can be well interpreted with a time-varying (η, σ0) at the central engine, instead of invoking a varying engine base size r 0 as proposed by previous authors.

  10. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in photospheric flows - Effects of coronal heating and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Dahlburg, Russell B.; Spicer, Daniel S.

    1993-01-01

    A series of hydrodynamic numerical simulations has been used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of driven, subsonic velocity shears under a range of typical photospheric conditions. These calculations show that typical photospheric flows are susceptible to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), with rapid nonlinear growth times that are approximately half of a typical granule lifetime. The KHI produces vortical structures in intergranule lanes comparable to a typical fluxule radius; this is precisely the correct scale for maximum power transfer to the corona.

  11. PHOTOSPHERE EMISSION FROM A HYBRID RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW WITH ARBITRARY DIMENSIONLESS ENTROPY AND MAGNETIZATION IN GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2015-03-10

    In view of the recent Fermi observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission spectra, we develop a theory of photosphere emission of a hybrid relativistic outflow with a hot fireball component (defined by dimensionless entropy η) and a cold Poynting-flux component (defined by magnetization σ{sub 0} at the central engine). We consider the scenarios both without and with sub-photospheric magnetic dissipations. Based on a simplified toy model of jet dynamics, we develop two approaches: a 'bottom-up' approach to predict the temperature (for a non-dissipative photosphere) and luminosity of the photosphere emission and its relative brightness for a given pair of (η, σ{sub 0}); and a 'top-down' approach to diagnose central engine parameters (η and σ{sub 0}) based on the observed quasi-thermal photosphere emission properties. We show that a variety of observed GRB prompt emission spectra with different degrees of photosphere thermal emission can be reproduced by varying η and σ{sub 0} within the non-dissipative photosphere scenario. In order to reproduce the observed spectra, the outflows of most GRBs need to have a significant σ, both at the central engine and at the photosphere. The σ value at 10{sup 15} cm from the central engine (a possible non-thermal emission site) is usually also greater than unity, so that internal-collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) may be the mechanism to power the non-thermal emission. We apply our top-down approach to GRB 110721A and find that the temporal evolution behavior of its blackbody component can be well interpreted with a time-varying (η, σ{sub 0}) at the central engine, instead of invoking a varying engine base size r {sub 0} as proposed by previous authors.

  12. CONDITIONS FOR PHOTOSPHERICALLY DRIVEN ALFVENIC OSCILLATIONS TO HEAT THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE BY PEDERSEN CURRENT DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2011-07-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a complete electrical conductivity tensor is used to estimate conditions for photospherically driven, linear, non-plane Alfvenic oscillations extending from the photosphere to the lower corona to drive a chromospheric heating rate due to Pedersen current dissipation that is comparable to the observed net chromospheric radiative loss of {approx}10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The heating rates due to electron current dissipation in the photosphere and corona are also computed. The wave amplitudes are computed self-consistently as functions of an inhomogeneous background (BG) atmosphere. The effects of the conductivity tensor are resolved numerically using a resolution of 3.33 m. The oscillations drive a chromospheric heating flux F{sub Ch} {approx} 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at frequencies {nu} {approx} 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} mHz for BG magnetic field strengths B {approx}> 700 G and magnetic field perturbation amplitudes {approx}0.01-0.1 B. The total resistive heating flux increases with {nu}. Most heating occurs in the photosphere. Thermalization of Poynting flux in the photosphere due to electron current dissipation regulates the Poynting flux into the chromosphere, limiting F{sub Ch}. F{sub Ch} initially increases with {nu}, reaches a maximum, and then decreases with increasing {nu} due to increasing electron current dissipation in the photosphere. The resolution needed to resolve the oscillations increases from {approx}10 m in the photosphere to {approx}10 km in the upper chromosphere and is {proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1/2}. Estimates suggest that these oscillations are normal modes of photospheric flux tubes with diameters {approx}10-20 km, excited by magnetic reconnection in current sheets with thicknesses {approx}0.1 km.

  13. Horizontal Flows in the Photosphere and Subphotosphere of Two Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Junwei; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    We compare horizontal flow fields in the photosphere and in the subphotosphere (a layer 0.5 megameters below the photosphere) in two solar active regions: AR11084 and AR11158. AR11084 is a mature, simple active region without significant flaring activity, and AR11158 is a multipolar, complex active region with magnetic flux emerging during the period studied. Flows in the photosphere are derived by applying the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms (DAVE4VM) on HMI-observed vector magnetic fields, and the subphotospheric flows are inferred by time-distance helioseismology using HMI-observed Dopplergrams. Similar flow patterns are found for both layers for AR11084: inward flows in the sunspot umbra and outward flows surrounding the sunspot. The boundary between the inward and outward flows, which is slightly different in the photosphere and the subphotosphere, is within the sunspot penumbra. The area having inward flows in the subphotosphere is larger than that in the photosphere. For AR11158, flows in these two layers show great similarities in some areas and significant differences in other areas. Both layers exhibit consistent outward flows in the areas surrounding sunspots. On the other hand, most well-documented flux-emergence-related flow features seen in the photosphere do not have counterparts in the subphotosphere. This implies that the horizontal flows caused by flux emergence do not extend deeply into the subsurface.

  14. The Rotation of the Solar Photospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. C.; Gao, P. X.

    2016-12-01

    The rotational characteristics of the solar photospheric magnetic field at four flux ranges are investigated together with the total flux of active regions (MFar) and quiet regions (MFqr). The first four ranges (MF1-4) are (1.5-2.9) × 1018, (2.9-32.0) × 1018, (3.20-4.27) × 1019, and (4.27-38.01) × 1019, respectively (the unit is Mx per element). Daily values of the flux data are extracted from magnetograms of the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Lomb-Scargle periodograms show that only MF2, MF4, MFqr, and MFar exhibit rotational periods. The periods of the first three types of flux are very similar, i.e., 26.20, 26.23, and 26.24 days, respectively, while that of MFar is longer, 26.66 days. This indicates that active regions rotate more slowly than quiet regions on average, and strong magnetic fields tend to repress the surface rotation. Sinusoidal function fittings and cross-correlation analyses reveal that MFar leads MF2 and MF4 by 5 and 1 days, respectively. This is speculated to be related with the decaying of active regions. MF2 and MFar are negatively correlated, while both MF4 and MFqr are positively correlated with MFar. At the timescale of the solar activity cycle, MFar leads (negatively) MF2 by around one year (350 days), and leads MF4 by about 3 rotation periods (82 days). The relation between MF2 and MFar may be explained by the possibility that the former mainly comes from a higher latitude, or emerges from the subsurface shear layer. We conjecture that MF4 may partly come from the magnetic flux of active regions; this verifies previous results that were obtained with indirect solar magnetic indices.

  15. Distribution of electric currents in sunspots from photosphere to corona

    SciTech Connect

    Gosain, Sanjay; Démoulin, Pascal; López Fuentes, Marcelo

    2014-09-20

    We present a study of two regular sunspots that exhibit nearly uniform twist from the photosphere to the corona. We derive the twist parameter in the corona and in the chromosphere by minimizing the difference between the extrapolated linear force-free field model field lines and the observed intensity structures in the extreme-ultraviolet images of the Sun. The chromospheric structures appear more twisted than the coronal structures by a factor of two. Further, we derive the vertical component of electric current density, j{sub z} , using vector magnetograms from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The spatial distribution of j{sub z} has a zebra pattern of strong positive and negative values owing to the penumbral fibril structure resolved by Hinode/SOT. This zebra pattern is due to the derivative of the horizontal magnetic field across the thin fibrils; therefore, it is strong and masks weaker currents that might be present, for example, as a result of the twist of the sunspot. We decompose j{sub z} into the contribution due to the derivatives along and across the direction of the horizontal field, which follows the fibril orientation closely. The map of the tangential component has more distributed currents that are coherent with the chromospheric and coronal twisted structures. Moreover, it allows us to map and identify the direct and return currents in the sunspots. Finally, this decomposition of j{sub z} is general and can be applied to any vector magnetogram in order to better identify the weaker large-scale currents that are associated with coronal twisted/sheared structures.

  16. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF WHITE DWARF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRAL LINES: Hβ

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross E.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Nagayama, T. E-mail: dew@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: garocha@sandia.gov E-mail: gomezt@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2015-06-20

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, n{sub e}, and n = 2 level population, n{sub 2}. Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from n{sub e} ∼ 4 to ∼30 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n{sub 2} to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ∼55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This supports our electron-temperature determination of T{sub e} ∼ 1.3 eV (∼15,000 K) after this time. At n{sub e} ≳ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ{sup 2}) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. This work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines.

  17. Laboratory measurements of white dwarf photospheric spectral lines: Hβ

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross Edward; Rochau, Gregory A.; Bailey, James E.; Gomez, Thomas; Montgomery, Michael Houston; Winget, Donald E.; Nagayama, Taisuke

    2015-06-18

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. We also present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, ne, and n = 2 level population, n2. Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from ne ~ 4 to ~30 × 1016 cm-3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ~55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This also supports our electron-temperature determination of Te ~ 1.3 eV (~15,000 K) after this time. At ne≲ 1017 cm-3, we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ2) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. Lastly, this work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines.

  18. Empirical determination of the temperature stratification in the photosphere of the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert, M.; Ricort, G.; Aime, C.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Detailed realistic 3D simulations of the photosphere of the Sun are now available, but 1D models of the average quiet-Sun photosphere are still widely used, in particular for spectro-polarimetric inversions. Aims: Here we present an empirical determination of the average radiation temperature variations as a function of the geometrical height above the continuum formation level in the solar photosphere. Methods: We used high resolution spectroscopic scans in the 630 nm Fe i line pair at varying heliocentric angles along the north-south polar axis of the Sun, made with SOT onboard Hinode. Implementing a new method for image reconstruction, we obtained images of the photospheric granulation at constant continuum opacity levels, from the upper photosphere seen at line centers to the low photosphere. The Fourier cross-spectra of images at different opacity levels were computed, and we derived the formation depths of images without referring to any atmospheric model, by measuring the slope of the cross-spectrum phase. Results: A modified Milne-Eddington model for the line formation was tested by comparing it with the average line-intensity profiles observed at solar disk center. It yields consistent results for the FeI 630.2 nm line, whereas the FeI line at 630.1 nm is not well reproduced by the model. We ascribe this discrepancy to non-LTE effects in the line formation processes. The average image intensities at the different FeI 630.2 nm levels were used to determine the depth-variation of the temperature for an average 1D model of the quiet photosphere. We compared our empirical temperature model with the widely used FALC model. Both models agree well for the temperature variations with the continuum optical depth. But in the low photosphere, the temperature gradient we measure with respect to the geometrical height is significantly softer than in Model C. We argue that some of the assumptions used to solve the pseudohydrostatic equilibrium in semi

  19. Creating and measuring white dwarf photospheres in a terrestrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross Edward

    2014-08-01

    As the ultimate fate of nearly all stars, including our Sun, white dwarfs (WDs) hold rich and informative histories in their observable light. To determine a fundamental parameter of WDs, mass, we perform the first measurement of the average gravitational redshift of an ensemble of WDs. We find a larger mean mass than that determined from the primary and expansive technique known as the spectroscopic method. The potential inaccuracy of this method has broad astrophysical implications, including for our understanding of Type 1a supernova progenitors and for constraining the age of the Universe. This motivates us to investigate the WD atmosphere models used with the spectroscopic method, particularly the input theoretical line profiles, by developing a new experimental platform to create plasmas at WD photospheric conditions (Te~1 eV, ne~1017 cm-3). Instead of observing WD spectra to infer the plasma conditions at the surface of the star, we set the conditions and measure the emergent spectra in the laboratory. X-rays from a z-pinch dynamic hohlraum generated at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories irradiate a gas cell to initiate formation of a large (120x20x10 mm or 24 cm3) plasma. We observe multiple Balmer lines from our plasma in emission and in absorption simultaneously along relatively long (~120 mm) lines of sight perpendicular to the heating radiation. Using a large, radiation-driven plasma aides us to achieve homogeneity along our observed lines of sight. With time-resolved spectroscopy we measure lines at a range of electron densities that spans an order of magnitude, and we do this within one pulsed power shot experiment. Observing our plasma in absorption not only provides the signal-to-noise to measure relative line shapes, it allows us to measure relative line strengths because the lines share the same lower level population. This constrains the theoretical reduction factors used to describe ionization potential depression or the

  20. Inferring plasma flow velocities from photospheric vector magnetic field observations for the investigation of flare onsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. C.; Büchner, J.; Zhang, H.

    2008-09-01

    The amount of emergence and submergence of magnetized plasma and the horizontal motion of the footpoints of flux tubes might be crucial for the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Although the rate of flux emergence and submergence can be observationally determined near the polarity inversion line (Chae et al., 2004), the same is not true for regions away from the PIL. Also, the horizontal motions cannot be directly measured in the solar photosphere. In this sense, the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field provides valuable information which can be used to estimate photospheric plasma flows since magnetic field and plasma are closely associated (frozen-in-condition). We used three methods to estimate the photospheric plasma motion from magnetic field observations. The methods were applied to photospheric vector magnetic field data of active region NOAA 9077, observed by the Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) of the National Astronomical Observatories of China before and after the ‘Bastille Day’ flare on July 13th and 14th, 2000.

  1. Evidence for the equality of the solar photospheric and coronal abundance of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Pike, C. D.; Lang, J.; Zarro, D. M.; Fludra, A.; Watanabe, T.; Takahashi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Fe K-alpha and K-beta X-ray lines (wavelengths 1.94 and 1.76 A) in the solar X-ray spectrum are formed by fluoroescence of photospheric iron atoms, and the ratio of the intensity of either to the He-like iron (Fe XXV) resonance line at 1.85 A is a function of the photospheric-to-coronal abundance of iron. The temperature dependence of this ratio is weak as long as the flare temperature T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 x 10(exp 6)K. Comparison of the theoretical value of this intensity ratio with observations from crystal spectrometers on Yohkoh, Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and P78-1 are consistent with the photospheric abundance of Fe being equal to the coronal.

  2. Ultra-High-Resolution Observations of MHD Waves in Photospheric Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, D. B.; Verth, G.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter reviews the recent observations of waves and oscillations manifesting in fine-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere, which are often interpreted as the "building blocks' of the magnetic Sun. The authors found, through phase relationships between the various waveforms, that small-scale magnetic bright points (MBPs) in the photosphere demonstrated signatures of specific magnetoacoustic waves, in particular the sausage and kink modes. Modern magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the lower solar atmosphere clearly show how torsional motions can easily be induced in magnetic elements in the photosphere through the processes of vortical motions and/or buffeting by neighboring granules. The authors detected significant power associated with high-frequency horizontal motions, and suggested that these cases may be especially important in the creation of a turbulent environment that efficiently promotes Alfvén wave dissipation.

  3. Penumbral-like Structures in the Solar Photosphere: the Role of Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, Francesca; Romano, Paolo; Cristaldi, Alice; Falco, Mariachiara; Guglielmino, Salvo L.

    Observations of the solar photosphere rarely show the appearance of so-called orphan penumbrae, filamentary structures very similar to a bundle of sunspot penumbral filaments, but not connected to any umbra. We report on the plasma flows and on the magnetic properties of such structures observed in different active regions using the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We also benefit from continuous observations acquired by the SDO satellite and from some high-resolution data acquired by the DOT telescope. We find that these structures can form in different ways: one seems to break off the penumbra of a nearby sunspot, others are formed through the emergence of new flux. Our analysis suggests that, for these latter features, the horizontal component of the emerging field can be trapped in the photosphere by the overlying fields and form a structure resembling penumbral filaments due to the combination of photospheric flux emergence and magneto-convection in inclined fields.

  4. New measurements of photospheric magnetic fields in late-type stars and emerging trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields of late-type stars are measured using the method of Saar et al. (1986). The method includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for line blending; the photospheric magnetic field parameters are derived by comparing observed and theoretical line profiles using an LTE code that includes line saturation and full Zeeman pattern. The preliminary mean active region magnetic field strengths (B) and surface area coverages for 20 stars are discussed. It is observed that there is a trend of increasing B towards the cooler dwarfs stars, and the linear correlation between B and the equipartition value of the magnetic field strength suggests that the photospheric gas pressure determines the photospheric magnetic field strengths. A tendency toward larger filling factors at larger stellar angular velocities is also detected.

  5. Thermal bifurcation in the upper solar photosphere inferred from heterodyne spectroscopy of OH rotational lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Zipoy, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low noise high spectral resolution observations of two pure rotation transitions of OH from the solar photosphere were obtained. The observations were obtained using the technique of optically null-balanced infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, and consist of center-to-limb line profiles of a v=1 and a v=0 transition near 12 microns. These lines should be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and are diagnostics of the thermal structure of the upper photosphere. The v=0 R22 (24.5)e line strengthens at the solar limb, in contradiction to the predictions of current one dimensional photospheric models. Data for this line support a two dimensional model in which horizontal thermal fluctuations of order + or - 800K occur in the region Tau (sub 5000) approximately .001 to .01. This thermal bifurcation may be maintained by the presence of magnetic flux tubes, and may be related to the solar limb extensions observed in the 30 to 200 micron region.

  6. An Optical Transmission Spectrum of GJ 1214b Suggesting a Heterogeneous Stellar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackham, Benjamin; Espinoza, Néstor; Apai, Daniel; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Jordán, Andrés; Osip, David J.; Lewis, Nikole; Rodler, Florian; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the transmission spectrum of a transiting exoplanet require an understanding of the host star's photosphere. If the transit chord differs from the rest of the photosphere, as is the case when unocculted starspots are present, the difference between the two regions will be imprinted on the transmission spectrum we observe. This issue is particularly important for M-dwarf host stars, which provide the best opportunities to study smaller transiting planets, but also remain active for longer after formation than their higher-mass counterparts. Here, we present an optical transmission (4,500-9,260 Å) of the sub-Neptune GJ 1214b measured with Magellan/IMACS, which points to features potentially imprinted by its mid-M-dwarf host star. Our optical spectrum is generally offset below values found in the near-infrared for this target, and tends to decrease at shorter wavelengths. We find the ensemble of optical and near-infrared transit depths are best explained by the combination of a flat planetary transmission spectrum—owing to lofted, equilibrium condensate clouds or thick photochemical hazes—and another signal produced by heterogeneities in the stellar photosphere. We present the Composite Photosphere and Atmospheric Transmission (CPAT) model for jointly incorporating stellar and exoplanetary signals. Using the CPAT model, we show that unocculted stellar faculae with temperature contrasts and covering fractions similar to those found for solar limb faculae can explain the observed optical transmission spectrum. We show how the CPAT model can be used to correct transmission spectra for persistent heterogeneities in stellar photospheres, like limb faculae, and discuss the implications of stellar photospheric heterogeneities for transmission spectroscopy of exciting M-dwarf-hosted exoplanets that will be discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  7. Investigation of turbulence in the solar photosphere with allowance for influence of the instrumental contour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troyan, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    The solar photosphere turbulence was investigated, taking into account the effect of the instrumental profile. Ten Unno's pairs for the center of the solar disk were observed. The main results are as follows: (1) without taking into account the factors distorting a line, the turbulent velocity in solar photosphere would decrease with height. The values of xi sub t are similar to those of Unno; (2) taking into account the instrument profile, the value of turbulent velocity becomes less, but its dependence on height is the same. The maximum relative error of xi sub t is approximately equal to 13.6%.

  8. Fluorescent excitation of photospheric Fe K-alpha emission during solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, A. N.; Culhane, J. L.; Rapley, C. G.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Dennis, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    The Bent Crystal Spectrometer on the NASA Solar Maximum Mission satellite provides high spectral and temporal resolution observations of the Fe K-alpha lines. Analyses have been conducted of spectra from almost 50 solar flares that occurred during 1980. These data strongly support fluorescent excitation of photospheric iron by photons of E greater than 7.11 keV emitted by the hot coronal plasma produced during the flare. After comparison of the data with a model, the observed K-alpha line widths are discussed along with estimates of the size of the emitting region, the height of the coronal source and the photospheric iron abundance.

  9. FUSE Observation of Silicon in the Photosphere of the DBA White Dwarf GD 61

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesemael, F.; Petitclerc, N.; Chayer, P.; Kruk, J. W.; Pesant, S.; Tardif, B.

    2006-06-01

    FUSE observations of the cool (Teff˜ 17,000 K) DBA white dwarf reveal that the carbon features observed in several hotter DB stars are absent, but that photospheric transitions associated with the Si III ion are present. This may be the first indication that the mechanism which allows carbon to remain conspicuous in hotter objects, postulated to be a stellar wind, may well have turned off by the time a DB star cools down to 17,000 K. The photospheres of cooler DB stars are likely to be dominated instead by accretion from the ISM and, at even cooler temperatures, by convective dredge-up of carbon.

  10. CHEMI-IONIZATION IN SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE: INFLUENCE ON THE HYDROGEN ATOM EXCITED STATES POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mihajlov, Anatolij A.; Ignjatovic, Ljubinko M.; Sreckovic, Vladimir A.; Dimitrijevic, Milan S. E-mail: mihajlov@ipb.ac.rs

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, the influence of chemi-ionization processes in H*(n {>=} 2) + H(1s) collisions, as well as the influence of inverse chemi-recombination processes on hydrogen atom excited-state populations in solar photosphere, are compared with the influence of concurrent electron-atom and electron-ion ionization and recombination processes. It has been found that the considered chemi-ionization/recombination processes dominate over the relevant concurrent processes in almost the whole solar photosphere. Thus, it is shown that these processes and their importance for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of the solar atmosphere should be investigated further.

  11. Dependence of sunspot photospheric waves on the depth of the source of solar p-modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe, T.; Khomenko, E.

    2017-02-01

    Photospheric waves in sunspots moving radially outward at speeds faster than the characteristic wave velocities have been recently detected. It has been suggested that they are the visual pattern of p-modes excited around 5 Mm beneath the sunspot's surface. Using numerical simulations, we performed a parametric study of the waves observed at the photosphere and higher layers that were produced by sources located at different depths beneath the sunspot's surface. The observational measurements are consistent with waves driven between approximately 1 Mm and 5 Mm below the sunspot's surface.

  12. Tracing p-mode Waves from the Photosphere to the Corona in Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junwei; Felipe, Tobías; Chen, Ruizhu; Khomenko, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Atmosphere above sunspots is abundant with different types of waves. Among these waves are running penumbral waves in the chromosphere, quasi-periodic oscillations in the lower coronal loops, and recently reported running waves in sunspots’ photosphere, all of which were interpreted as magnetoacoustic waves by some authors. Are these waves in different atmospheric layers related to each other, what is the nature of these waves, and where are the ultimate sources of these waves? Applying a time-distance helioseismic analysis over a suite of multi-wavelength observations above a sunspot, we demonstrate that the helioseismic p-mode waves are able to channel up from the photosphere through the chromosphere and transition region into the corona, and that the magnetoacoustic waves observed in different atmospheric layers are a same wave originating from the photosphere but exhibiting differently under different physical conditions. We also show waves of different frequencies travel along different paths, which can be used to derive the physical properties of the atmosphere above sunspots. Our numerical simulation of traveling of waves from a subphotospheric source qualitatively resembles the observed properties of the waves and offers an interpretation of the shapes of the wavefronts above the photosphere.

  13. Observing Propagation of Magnetoacoustic Waves from the Photosphere to the Corona in Sunspot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Chen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Running penumbral waves in the chromosphere and slow magnetoacoustic waves in the lower coronal loops have been observed and studied for a long time. However, it is not clear whether these waves are connected, whether they have photospheric counterparts, and how they get excited. Recently, through cross-correlating oscillation signals in sunspots' umbrae with those in penumbrae and the sunspots' vicinity observed by SDO/HMI, we identified a fast-moving wave propagating from the sunspots to their outside. It is interesting to see whether this type of the photospheric wave is related to those waves observed above the photosphere in the chromopshere and corona. In this work, we analyze a well-observed sunspot region, using SDO/HMI data for the photosphere, AIA 1600Å and 1700Å data for the lower chromosphere, BBSO/NST Hα data for the chromosphere, AIA 304Å data for the transition region, and AIA 171Å data for the lower corona. Our results show that the wave phenomena observed at different atmospheric heights using different spectrum lines are actually a same slow magnetoacoustic wave propagating upward, likely with a wave source located a few megameters below the sunspots' surface.

  14. Observational Analysis of the Relation between Coronal Loop Heating and Photospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The solar corona and the photosphere are linked through magnetic field lines, and heating energy is supposed to be supplied from the footpoints of each coronal loop along magnetic field lines. Thus it is important to examine properties of photospheric magnetic fields at the footpoints of the coronal loops in order to understand heating of the coronal loops. We performed simultaneous observations of photospheric magnetic properties and coronal loop structures using the ground based telescopes and Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE). Footpoint locations were identified in the TRACE images, and the structure in the photosphere was examined by Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) or Dutch Open Telescope (DOT). Most of the coronal loops emanating from a sunspot had their footpoints around the boundary between the umbra and the penumbra. Furthermore, bright loops were revealed to have their footpoints at the locations where there was highly interlaced magnetic configuration. We observed fragmentation of an umbra and formation of a light bridge in decaying sunspots, and found possible association between such phenomena in the decaying spots and the coronal loops. These observational results suggest that spatial fluctuation of magnetic fields forms current sheets at the base of the corona, resulting in heating of the coronal loops.

  15. Variations in photospheric limb darkening as a diagnostic of changes in solar luminosity

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, W.A.; Foukal, P.V.; Kurucz, R.L.; Pierce, A.K.

    1982-02-15

    We report an photospheric limb-darkening measurements obtained at the McMath Solar Telescope in 1980 July, September, and October as part of a continuing program to study possible long-term variations in the photospheric emergent flux. A total of 243 usable full-diameter scans was recorded over 7 days in the clean continuum window at 4451.25 A. Individual scans were fitted to a fifth order polynomial in xi = ln..mu.., and a mean limb-darkening curve was derived for each day. The standard deviation of the daily mean of intensities ranged between 0.08% and 0.12% for all ..mu..>0.15. We note that the limb darkening decreased significantly between September 25 and 26. This change of the limb-darkening curve is not readily understandable in terms of variations in scattered light, seeing, or nonlinear photometric gain. We suggest that it is caused by a decrease of the temperature gradient in the upper photosphere, in the region above approximately tau/sub 5000/ = 0.5. The small increase in effective temperature that might accompany this limb-darkening variation is estimated using a standard radiative equilibrium photospheric model. We note that the increase of effective temperature corresponds in sign with an increase in the solar irradiance reported between September 25 and 26 from both the Nimbus 7 ERB and the SMM ACRIM radiometers.

  16. Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, Bart; Erdélyi, Robert; James, Stewart P

    2004-07-29

    Spicules are dynamic jets propelled upwards (at speeds of approximately 20 km s(-1)) from the solar 'surface' (photosphere) into the magnetized low atmosphere of the Sun. They carry a mass flux of 100 times that of the solar wind into the low solar corona. With diameters close to observational limits (< 500 km), spicules have been largely unexplained since their discovery in 1877: none of the existing models can account simultaneously for their ubiquity, evolution, energetics and recently discovered periodicity. Here we report a synthesis of modelling and high-spatial-resolution observations in which numerical simulations driven by observed photospheric velocities directly reproduce the observed occurrence and properties of individual spicules. Photospheric velocities are dominated by convective granulation (which has been considered before for spicule formation) and by p-modes (which are solar global resonant acoustic oscillations visible in the photosphere as quasi-sinusoidal velocity and intensity pulsations). We show that the previously ignored p-modes are crucial: on inclined magnetic flux tubes, the p-modes leak sufficient energy from the global resonant cavity into the chromosphere to power shocks that drive upward flows and form spicules.

  17. Study of the Photospheric Magnetic Field and Coronal Emission from Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Jordan Armando Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Solar explosive phenomena (flares and Coronal Mass Ejections, CMEs) are examples of how the most dynamical processes within the heliosphere are interconnected and powered by the Sun. Solar flares originate in active regions (AR) -- areas of strong magnetic field on the solar surface. The electromagnetic (EM) energy released during flares, along with the often-seen CMEs, propagate through the heliosphere. In the Earth's vicinity, EM radiation and charged particles have the potential to produce unfavorable conditions for humans and technology in space. From many points of view (scientific, operational, economical) it is thus important to understand and try to predict when solar flares and associated eruptive phenomena will occur. This dissertation explores how to best leverage the available observational data to provide predictive information about the future flaring activity. This dissertation consists of two main components: 1) investigation of the photosphere-corona coupling by analyzing photospheric magnetic field and coronal data in search for signals or behaviors that precede eruptions; and 2) the combination of existing flare prediction methods in order to develop a novel ensemble prediction. For the first part, the data employed correspond to line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and EUV intensity maps from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both instruments onboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Photospheric magnetic field and coronal EUV emissions were characterized by measuring the power-law decay of their spatio-temporal spectra and the data statistical associations (auto- and cross-correlations). These measures, calculated with high spatio-temporal resolution, appeared to characterize the AR evolution, provide information about the state of the photospheric plasma, reveal insights into the photospheric conditions for flares, and expose the potential of combining coronal and photospheric

  18. Hard X-ray emitting energetic electrons and photospheric electric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musset, S.; Vilmer, N.; Bommier, V.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The energy released during solar flares is believed to be stored in non-potential magnetic fields associated with electric currents flowing in the corona. While no measurements of coronal electric currents are presently available, maps of photospheric electric currents can now be derived from SDO/HMI observations. Photospheric electric currents have been shown to be the tracers of the coronal electric currents. Particle acceleration can result from electric fields associated with coronal electric currents. We revisit here some aspects of the relationship between particle acceleration in solar flares and electric currents in the active region. Aims: We study the relation between the energetic electron interaction sites in the solar atmosphere, and the magnitudes and changes of vertical electric current densities measured at the photospheric level, during the X2.2 flare on February 15, 2011, in AR NOAA 11158. Methods: X-ray images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) are overlaid on magnetic field and electric current density maps calculated from the spectropolarimetric measurements of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) using the UNNOFIT inversion and Metcalf disambiguation codes. X-ray images are also compared with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) to complement the flare analysis. Results: Part of the elongated X-ray emissions from both thermal and non-thermal electrons overlay the elongated narrow current ribbons observed at the photospheric level. A new X-ray source at 50-100 keV (produced by non-thermal electrons) is observed in the course of the flare and is cospatial with a region in which new vertical photospheric currents appeared during the same period (an increase of 15%). These observational results are discussed in the context of the scenarios in which magnetic reconnection (and subsequent plasma heating and particle

  19. Non-magnetic photospheric bright points in 3D simulations of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.; Steiner, O.; Freytag, B.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Small-scale bright features in the photosphere of the Sun, such as faculae or G-band bright points, appear in connection with small-scale magnetic flux concentrations. Aims: Here we report on a new class of photospheric bright points that are free of magnetic fields. So far, these are visible in numerical simulations only. We explore conditions required for their observational detection. Methods: Numerical radiation (magneto-)hydrodynamic simulations of the near-surface layers of the Sun were carried out. The magnetic field-free simulations show tiny bright points, reminiscent of magnetic bright points, only smaller. A simple toy model for these non-magnetic bright points (nMBPs) was established that serves as a base for the development of an algorithm for their automatic detection. Basic physical properties of 357 detected nMBPs were extracted and statistically evaluated. We produced synthetic intensity maps that mimic observations with various solar telescopes to obtain hints on their detectability. Results: The nMBPs of the simulations show a mean bolometric intensity contrast with respect to their intergranular surroundings of approximately 20%, a size of 60-80 km, and the isosurface of optical depth unity is at their location depressed by 80-100 km. They are caused by swirling downdrafts that provide, by means of the centripetal force, the necessary pressure gradient for the formation of a funnel of reduced mass density that reaches from the subsurface layers into the photosphere. Similar, frequently occurring funnels that do not reach into the photosphere, do not produce bright points. Conclusions: Non-magnetic bright points are the observable manifestation of vertically extending vortices (vortex tubes) in the photosphere. The resolving power of 4-m-class telescopes, such as the DKIST, is needed for an unambiguous detection of them. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  20. The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse. IV. VLTI/PIONIER interferometric monitoring of the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Aurière, M.; López Ariste, A.; Mathias, P.; Ridgway, S. T.; Lacour, S.; Haubois, X.; Berger, J.-P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The mass-loss mechanism of cool massive evolved stars is poorly understood. The proximity of Betelgeuse makes it an appealing target to study its atmosphere, map the shape of its envelope, and follow the structure of its wind from the photosphere out to the interstellar medium. Aims: A link is suspected between the powerful convective motions in Betelgeuse and its mass loss. We aim to constrain the spatial structure and temporal evolution of the convective pattern on the photosphere and to search for evidence of this link. Methods: We report new interferometric observations in the infrared H-band using the VLTI/PIONIER instrument. We monitored the photosphere of Betelgeuse between 2012 January and 2014 November to look for evolutions that may trigger the outflow. Results: Our interferometric observations at low spatial frequencies are compatible with the presence of a hot spot on the photosphere that has a characteristic width of one stellar radius. It appears to be superposed on the smaller scale convective pattern. In the higher spatial frequency domain, we observe a significant difference between the observations and the predictions of 3D hydrodynamical simulations. Conclusions: We bring new evidence for the presence of a convective pattern in the photosphere of red supergiants. The inferred hot spot is probably the top of a giant convection cell although an asymmetric extension of the star cannot be excluded by these interferometric observations alone. The properties of the observed surface features show a stronger contrast and inhomogeneity as predicted by 3D radiative hydrodynamical simulations. We propose that the large observed feature is modifying the signature of the convective pattern at the surface of the star in a way that simulations cannot reproduce. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory, under ESO programs 288.D-5035(A), 090.D-0548(A), 092.D-0366(A), 092.D-0366(B) and 094.D-0869 (A).

  1. Photospheric soft X-ray emission from hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesemael, F.; Raymond, J. C.; Kahn, S. M.; Liebert, J.; Steiner, J. E.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's imaging proportional counter has detected 150-eV soft X-ray radiation from the four hot DA white dwarfs EG 187, Gr 288 and 289, and LB 1663. The observed pulse height spectra suggest that the emission is generated by hot photospheres whose T(eff) lie in the 30,000-60,000 K range. The IUE spacecraft UV spectra and H-beta line profiles for the four stars have been fitted, along with the X-ray fluxes, with a grid of hot, high gravity, homogeneous model atmospheres of mixed H-He composition. In all cases, the data require the presence of some X-ray opacity in the photosphere. Attention is given to the implications of this result in the context of white dwarf surface layer diffusion theories. Also noted are the limits imposed on the hot white dwarf population by the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey.

  2. Microturbulence in the upper photosphere of Alpha Persei (F5 Ib) derived from ultraviolet spectral observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaan, F. H. P.; De Jager, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Kondo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the moderate supergiant Alpha Per (F5 Ib) were studied to determine the dynamic state of its upper photosphere. It was found that the line-of-sight microturbulent velocity component in the region of origin of the UV spectrum is about 5 km/s, and is slightly smaller than the value derived from the visual spectrum. This is ascribed to dissipation of mechanical energy between the higher and lower layers where, respectively, the ultraviolet and visual light lines originate. Between these two levels, which are one scale height apart, the mechanical energy flux decreases to about 0.3 of its photospheric value. The consequent value for the (outward directed) turbulent acceleration is 24 cm/sec-squared, more than one half the observationally determined effective acceleration of gravity.

  3. Investigation of photospheric temperature gradient variations using limb darkening measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, Serena; Foukal, Peter V.

    2016-05-01

    The temperature stratifications of magnetic elements and unmagnetized plasma are different, so that changes of the facular and network filling factor over the cycle modify the average temperature gradient in the photosphere.Such variations have been suggested to explain irradiance measurements obtained by the SIM spectrometers in he visible and infrared spectral ranges. On the other hand, limb darkening measurements show no dependence upon activity level. We investigate the sensitivity of limb darkening to changes in network area filling factor using a 3-D MHD model of the magnetized photosphere. We find that the expected limb darkening change due to the measured 11- yr variation in filling factor lies outside the formal 99% confidence limit of the limb darkening measurements. This poses important constraints for observational validation of 3D-MHD simulations.

  4. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION AS THE DOMINANT RADIATION MECHANISM IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Margutti, Raffaella; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets associated with massive, compact stellar progenitors. The simulations extend to large radii and allow us to locate the region in which the peak frequency of the advected radiation is set before the radiation is released at the photosphere. Light curves and spectra are calculated for different viewing angles as well as different progenitor structures and jet properties. We find that the radiation released at the photosphere of matter-dominated jets is able to reproduce the observed Amati and energy-Lorentz factor correlations. Our simulations also predict a correlation between the burst energy and the radiative efficiency of the prompt phase, consistent with observations.

  5. Regularities in the response of spectral lines to small perturbations in physical quantities in the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozharovskii, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to establish a number of dependencies between small perturbations in physical quantities in the photosphere and small variations in the Stokes profiles of spectral lines. A perturbation of any physical quantity in the model photosphere shifts every point in a line profile in the direction perpendicular to the tangent to the profile at that point. The actions on the wing of a spectral line of perturbations in the magnetic field and radial velocity are equivalent for a particular ratio of these perturbations (if the line is fully split in the magnetic field). If the response of part of a line wing is considered as a shift in wavelength, the area under the curve representing the response to perturbations in the magnetic field and radial velocity has a simple physical meaning.

  6. Temporal variations of solar-spectral-line profiles induced by the 5-minute photospheric oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.T.; Marmolino, C.; Roberti, G.; Severino, G.

    1987-01-01

    The variations induced by the 5-min photospheric oscillation are simulated on the line profiles. A phase lag of the order of 150/degree/ between temperature and velocity wave perturbations can explain the observed differences between the oscillations of the line flanks at residual intensity levels I/I/sub c/ < 0.7. Such a phase relation in the 5-min oscillation differs from that of the adiabatic case in which the temperature and pressure fluctuations are 90/degrees/ out of phase with respect to the velocity. A simple model of radiative damping in the solar photosphere can produce the required phase lag between temperature and velocity. The granulation can affect differentially the oscillations of the line flanks. This effect, however, does not fit the observed behavior of the flank oscillations.

  7. Recovering Photospheric Velocities from Vector Magnetograms by Using a Three-dimensional, Fully Magnetohydrodynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Liu, Yang; Hathaway, D.

    2008-02-01

    We use a numerical simulation method for recovering the photospheric velocity field from the vector magnetograms. The traditional method is local correlation tracking (LCT), which is based on measuring the relative displacements of features in blocks of pixels between successive white-light images or magnetograms. Within this method, there are a variety of implementations. One of recently developed implementations is induction local correlation tracking (ILCT) as described by Welsch and coworkers. They employ the normal component of magnetic induction equation as a constraint to assure consistent solutions. Our numerical method uses the fully three-dimensional MHD equations to recover the photospheric velocity field with individual vector magnetograms. We compare our method to the ILCT method using NOAA AR 8210 as an example. The differences and similarities are discussed in detail.

  8. Recovering Photospheric Velocities from Vector Magnetograms by using a Three-Dimensional, Fully Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Liu, Yang; Hathaway, D.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a numerical simulation method for recovering the photospheric velocity field from the vector magnetograms. The traditional method is local correlation tracking (LCT) which is based on measuring the relative displacements of features in blocks of pixels between successive white-light images or magnetograms. Within this method, there are a variety of implementations. One of recently developed implementations is induction local correlation tracking (ILCT) as described by Welsch et al. (2004). They employ the normal component of magnetic induction equation as a constraint to assure consistent solutions. Our numerical method uses the fully three-dimensional MHD equations to recover the photospheric velocity field with individual vector magnetograms. We compare our method to the ILCT method using NOAA AR8210 as an example. The differences and similarities are discussed in detail.

  9. Observation and Interpretation of Photospheric Line Asymmetry Changes Near Active Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    from Solar Stellar Granulation , ed. R.Ruffen & G Severino, Dec 88, by KluwerPr _c_, pp 27J221 17 COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Cortinue On reverse if...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP ’olar granulation ,’ Convection solar active regions,’ Magnetic ( ffields, ///rf...scale solar granulation produces the well-known convective blue-shift of photospheric lines, when the lines are observed with insufficient spatial

  10. Developing an Experimental Platform to Create White Dwarf Photospheres in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Ellis, J. L.; Carlson, A. L.; Gomez, T.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Gomez, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We continue to improve upon the laboratory astrophysics experiments to create macroscopic ( 9-38 cm3) hydrogen plasmas with white dwarf (WD) photospheric conditions (electron temperature and density). Falcon et al. (2010) demonstrate the ability to create the plasma and to observe time-resolved spectra throughout its 400 ns lifetime. We extend the observations from emission to absorption spectra, improve the design of the experimental platform, and discuss the astrophysical motivations, spearheaded by recent work in WD spectroscopy and atmosphere modeling.

  11. White Light Movies of the Solar Photosphere from the Soup Instrument on Space Lab 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    about 5 arc seconds. Movies temporally filtered to suppress the five minute oscillations show the motion moste clearly and allow an estimate of the...the motions from movies , we have utilized local correlation tracking to obtain quantitative information about the flow field perpendicular to the...AD-A280 884 June 16, 1994 Reprint WHITE-LIGHT MOVIES OF THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE FROM THE SOUP INSTRUMENT ON SPACE LAB 2 PE 61102F PR 2311 A.M.Title

  12. Characteristics of the photospheric magnetic field associated with solar flare initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Chen, P. F.; Hsieh, Min-Shiu; Wu, S. T.; He, Han; Tsai, Tsung-Che E-mail: chenpf@nju.edu.cn E-mail: wus@uah.edu E-mail: tctsai@narlabs.org.tw

    2014-05-01

    The physical environment governing the solar flare initiation is not fully understood, although there are significant efforts to address the relationship between magnetic non-potential parameters and early flare signatures. In this study, we attempt to characterize the flare initiation based on the processed Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager vector magnetograms, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 1600 Å, and RHESSI hard X-ray observations. Three flare events, the M6.6 flare on 2011 February 13, the X2.2 flare on 2011 February 15, and the X2.1 flare on 2011 September 6, in two active regions AR 11158 and AR 11283 are investigated. We analyze the source field strength in the photosphere, which is defined as the magnitude of the observed magnetic field deviation from the potential field. It is found that one of the strong source field regions above the magnetic polarity inversion line well connects the initial bright kernels of two conjugate ribbons. The results imply that the distribution of the photospheric source field strength can be used to locate the initiation site of flaring loops regardless of the configuration of pre-flare magnetic fields or the evolution of active regions. Moreover, the field configuration in the strong source field regions tends to become more inclined after flares, which is consistent with the coronal implosion scenario. We also employ a fast method to derive the total current density from the photospheric vector magnetogram in the framework of force-free field. This method can provide fast estimation of photospheric current density within a reasonable accuracy without appealing for the more accurate calculation from a model extrapolation.

  13. MAGNETIC AND DYNAMICAL PHOTOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES OBSERVED DURING AN M3.2 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Kuckein, C.; Collados, M.; Sainz, R. Manso

    2015-02-01

    This Letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å spectral region covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He i 10830 Å emission in the flare. The red component of the He i triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He i Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si i Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si i inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare, the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line of sight velocities show a regular granular up- and downflow pattern before the flare erupts. During the flare, upflows (blueshifts) dominate the area where the flare is produced. Evaporation rates of ∼10{sup −3} and ∼10{sup −4} g cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been derived in the deep and high photosphere, respectively, capable of increasing the chromospheric density by a factor of two in about 400 s.

  14. Generation of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Low Solar Atmospheric Flux Tubes by Photospheric Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, S. J.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions, small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated via the interaction of granulation motion and the background magnetic field. This paper studies the effects of these motions on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave excitation from broadband photospheric drivers. Numerical experiments of linear MHD wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the low choromosphere (above β = 1) are performed. Horizontal and vertical velocity field drivers mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere. The results are analyzed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular, and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters to both the linear and non-linear cases. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated to enable the quantification of the relative strengths of excited modes. The torsional drivers primarily excite Alfvén modes (≈60% of the total flux) with small contributions from the slow kink mode, and, for the logarithmic spiral driver, small amounts of slow sausage mode. The horizontal and vertical drivers primarily excite slow kink or fast sausage modes, respectively, with small variations dependent upon flux surface radius.

  15. 22 year cycle in the imbalance of the photospheric magnetic fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernova, Elena; Baranov, Dmitrii; Tyasto, Marta

    The manifestation of the 22 year solar magnetic cycle in the imbalance of positive and negative photospheric magnetic fluxes is studied. For the analysis we use synoptic maps of the photospheric magnetic field of Kitt Peak Observatory (1976 - 2003) and John Wilcox Observatory in Stanford (1976 - 2012). We consider strong magnetic fields for the heliolatitudes in the interval from +40° to -40°. It is shown that the sign of the imbalance between positive and negative fluxes remains constant during 11 years from one inversion of the Sun’s global magnetic field to the next one and always coincides with the sign of the polar field in the Northern hemisphere. Thus, the imbalance between the magnetic fluxes of different polarities changes according to the 22 year cycle. The sign of the imbalance is determined both by the phase of the solar cycle (before or after the inversion) and by the parity of the solar cycle. The imbalance of positive and negative magnetic fluxes can be observed not only for the strong fields in the sunspot zone. The mean magnetic field of the Sun (Sun as a star), which is determined by the net flux of the background fields, changes according to the same pattern as the imbalance of the strong fields. The regular changes of the imbalance of the photospheric magnetic fields are reflected also in the parameters of heliosphere. We show the connection of the imbalance with the quadrupole component of the photospheric magnetic field and with the imbalance of the interplanetary magnetic field (the difference between the numbers of the days with positive and negative polarities of the interplanetary magnetic field near Earth).

  16. Supernova Resonance-scattering Line Profiles in the Absence of a Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Brian; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Chen, Bin; Parrent, Jerod T.; Thomas, R. C.

    2012-11-01

    In supernova (SN) spectroscopy relatively little attention has been given to the properties of optically thick spectral lines in epochs following the photosphere's recession. Most treatments and analyses of post-photospheric optical spectra of SNe assume that forbidden-line emission comprises most if not all spectral features. However, evidence exists that suggests that some spectra exhibit line profiles formed via optically thick resonance-scattering even months or years after the SN explosion. To explore this possibility, we present a geometrical approach to SN spectrum formation based on the "Elementary Supernova" model, wherein we investigate the characteristics of resonance-scattering in optically thick lines while replacing the photosphere with a transparent central core emitting non-blackbody continuum radiation, akin to the optical continuum provided by decaying {}^{56}{\\protect {Co}} formed during the explosion. We develop the mathematical framework necessary for solving the radiative transfer equation under these conditions and calculate spectra for both isolated and blended lines. Our comparisons with analogous results from the Elementary Supernova code SYNOW reveal several marked differences in line formation. Most notably, resonance lines in these conditions form P Cygni-like profiles, but the emission peaks and absorption troughs shift redward and blueward, respectively, from the line's rest wavelength by a significant amount, despite the spherically symmetric distribution of the line optical depth in the ejecta. These properties and others that we find in this work could lead to misidentification of lines or misattribution of properties of line-forming material at post-photospheric times in SN optical spectra.

  17. The emergence of different polarity photospheric flux as the cause of CMEs and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Here we discuss the effect that the emergence of flux with a polarity opposed to that previously established in a certain photospheric region. can have on the magnetic structure of the solar atmosphere. We show that such a flux emergence may lead to the ejection of coronal material into the interplanetary medium (a CME) and also to a rapid change in the velocity of the solar wind from the region, which may eventually lead to the formation of an interplanetary shock.

  18. North south asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields observed by different instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2015-04-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the solar and heliospheric magnetic fields are north-south asymmetric. The southward shift of the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon) is a persistent pattern, which occurs typically for about three years during the late declining phase of solar cycle. We study here the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson, Kitt Peak, Solis, SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since the 1970s and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model.Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field has shown that the bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g20 quadrupole term, which is oppositely signed to the dipole moment. We find that, at least during the four recent solar cycles, the g20 reflects the larger magnitude of the southern polar field during a few years in the declining phase of the cycle. Although the overall magnetic activity during the full solar cycle is not very different in the two hemispheres, the temporal distribution of activity is different, contributing to the asymmetry. The used data sets are in general in a good agreement with each other, but there are some significant deviations, especially in WSO data. Also, the data from Kitt Peak 512 channel magnetograph is known to suffer from zero level errors.We also note that the lowest harmonic coefficients do not scale with the overall magnitude in photospheric synoptic magnetic maps. Scaling factors based on histogram techniques can be as large as 10 (from Wilcox to HMI), but the corresponding difference in dipole strength is typically less than two. This is because the polar field has a dominant contribution to the dipole and quadrupole components. This should be noted, e.g., when using synoptic maps as input for coronal models.

  19. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ∼1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  20. GENERATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN LOW SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC FLUX TUBES BY PHOTOSPHERIC MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, S. J.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-20

    Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions, small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated via the interaction of granulation motion and the background magnetic field. This paper studies the effects of these motions on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave excitation from broadband photospheric drivers. Numerical experiments of linear MHD wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the low choromosphere (above β = 1) are performed. Horizontal and vertical velocity field drivers mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere. The results are analyzed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular, and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters to both the linear and non-linear cases. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated to enable the quantification of the relative strengths of excited modes. The torsional drivers primarily excite Alfvén modes (≈60% of the total flux) with small contributions from the slow kink mode, and, for the logarithmic spiral driver, small amounts of slow sausage mode. The horizontal and vertical drivers primarily excite slow kink or fast sausage modes, respectively, with small variations dependent upon flux surface radius.

  1. Are Internetwork Magnetic Fields in the Solar Photosphere Horizontal or Vertical?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lites, B. W.; Rempel, M.; Borrero, J. M.; Danilovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    Using many observations obtained during 2007 with the Spectro-Polarimeter of the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope, we explore the angular distribution of magnetic fields in the quiet internetwork regions of the solar photosphere. Our work follows from the insight of Stenflo, who examined only linear polarization signals in photospheric lines, thereby avoiding complications of the analysis arising from the differing responses to linear and circular polarization. We identify and isolate regions of a strong polarization signal that occupy only a few percent of the observed quiet Sun area yet contribute most to the net linear polarization signal. The center-to-limb variation of the orientation of linear polarization in these strong signal regions indicates that the associated magnetic fields have a dominant vertical orientation. In contrast, the great majority of the solar disk is occupied by much weaker linear polarization signals. The orientation of the linear polarization in these regions demonstrates that the field orientation is dominantly horizontal throughout the photosphere. We also apply our analysis to Stokes profiles synthesized from the numerical MHD simulations of Rempel as viewed at various oblique angles. The analysis of the synthetic data closely follows that of the observations, lending confidence to using the simulations as a guide for understanding the physical origins of the center-to-limb variation of linear polarization in the quiet Sun area.

  2. THE PHOTOSPHERIC ENERGY AND HELICITY BUDGETS OF THE FLUX-INJECTION HYPOTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, P. W.

    2010-05-01

    The flux-injection hypothesis for driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) requires the transport of substantial magnetic energy and helicity flux through the photosphere concomitant with the eruption. Under the magnetohydrodynamics approximation, these fluxes are produced by twisting magnetic field and/or flux emergence in the photosphere. A CME trajectory, observed 2000 September 12 and fitted with a flux-rope model, constrains energy and helicity budgets for testing the flux-injection hypothesis. Optimal velocity profiles for several driving scenarios are estimated by minimizing the photospheric plasma velocities for a cylindrically symmetric flux-rope magnetic field subject to the flux budgets required by the flux-rope model. Ideal flux injection, involving only flux emergence, requires hypersonic upflows in excess of the solar escape velocity 617 km s{sup -1} over an area of 6 x 10{sup 8} km{sup 2} to satisfy the energy and helicity budgets of the flux-rope model. These estimates are compared with magnetic field and Doppler measurements from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager on 2000 September 12 at the footpoints of the CME. The observed Doppler signatures are insufficient to account for the required energy and helicity budgets of the flux-injection hypothesis.

  3. DETECTION OF FAST-MOVING WAVES PROPAGATING OUTWARD ALONG SUNSPOTS’ RADIAL DIRECTION IN THE PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Ruizhu; Hartlep, Thomas; Kosovichev, Alexander G.

    2015-08-10

    Helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic waves are abundant in and above sunspots. Through cross-correlating oscillation signals in the photosphere observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we reconstruct how waves propagate away from virtual wave sources located inside a sunspot. In addition to the usual helioseismic wave, a fast-moving wave is detected traveling along the sunspot’s radial direction from the umbra to about 15 Mm beyond the sunspot boundary. The wave has a frequency range of 2.5–4.0 mHz with a phase velocity of 45.3 km s{sup −1}, substantially faster than the typical speeds of Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere. The observed phenomenon is consistent with a scenario of that a magnetoacoustic wave is excited at approximately 5 Mm beneath the sunspot. Its wavefront travels to and sweeps across the photosphere with a speed higher than the local magnetoacoustic speed. The fast-moving wave, if truly excited beneath the sunspot’s surface, will help open a new window for studying the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.

  4. A Study of Solar Photospheric Temperature Gradient Variation Using Limb Darkening Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, Serena; Foukal, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The variation in area of quiet magnetic network measured over the sunspot cycle should modulate the spatially averaged photospheric temperature gradient, since temperature declines with optical depth more gradually in magnetic flux tube atmospheres. Yet, limb darkening measurements show no dependence upon activity level, even at an rms precision of 0.04%. We study the sensitivity of limb darkening to changes in area filling factor using a 3D MHD model of the magnetized photosphere. The limb darkening change expected from the measured 11-year area variation lies below the level of measured limb darkening variations, for a reasonable range of magnetic flux in quiet network and internetwork regions. So the remarkably constant limb darkening observed over the solar activity cycle is not inconsistent with the measured 11-year change in area of quiet magnetic network. Our findings offer an independent constraint on photospheric temperature gradient changes reported from measurements of the solar spectral irradiance from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor, and recently, from wavelength-differential spectrophotometry using the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the HINODE spacecraft.

  5. PENUMBRAL-LIKE FILAMENTS IN THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AS A MANIFESTATION OF FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Zuccarello, Francesca; Romano, Paolo

    2014-05-10

    Rare observations of the solar photosphere show the appearance of orphan penumbrae, filamentary structures very similar to a bundle of sunspot penumbral filaments not connected to any umbra. Lim et al. found an orphan penumbra in active region NOAA 11391 near a mature sunspot. We analyze a different data set to study the same structure using the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. Spectropolarimetric measurements along the Fe I 630.2 nm pair, complemented by G-band and Ca II H filtergrams, show the evolution of this penumbral-like structure and reveal that an emerging flux region is its ancestor. We find new evidence for the interaction between the emerging flux and the pre-existing field that leads to a brightening observed near the base of the chromosphere. Our analysis suggests that as a result of the combination of photospheric flux emergence and magneto-convection in inclined fields the horizontal component of the emerging field can be trapped in the photosphere by the overlying fields and form a structure resembling penumbral filaments.

  6. Photospheric and Coronal Observations of Abrupt Magnetic Restructuring in Two Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    For two major X-class flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft when they were close to quadrature, we compare major, abrupt changes in the photospheric magnetic vector field to changes in the observed coronal magnetic structure during the two flares. The Lorentz force changes in strong photospheric fields within active regions are estimated from time series of SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms. These show that the major changes occurred in each case near the main neutral line of the region and in two neighboring twisted opposite-polarity sunspots. In each case the horizontal parallel field strengthened significantly near the neutral line while the azimuthal field in the sunspots decreased, suggesting that a flux rope joining the two sunspots collapsed across the neutral line with reduced magnetic pressure because of a reduced field twist component. At the same time, the coronal extreme ultraviolet (EUV) loop structure was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard SDO and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) on STEREO-A to decrease significantly in height during each eruption, discontinuous changes signifying ejection of magnetized plasma, and outward-propagating continuous but abrupt changes consistent with loop contraction. An asymmetry in the observed EUV loop changes during one of the flares matches an asymmetry in the photospheric magnetic changes associated with that flare. The observations are discussed in terms of the well-known tether-cutting and breakout flare initiation models.

  7. Different Modes of Turbulence in the Active Regions of the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L. V.; Kostik, R. I.; Cheremnykh, O. K.

    In work the range of different methods for the analysis of characteristics of turbulent processes in the active regions of the solar photosphere has been used. The changes of fluctuations distribution function and its moments were analyzed, spectral analysis was carried out.It was found out from the observations of active region carried out with the 70-cm vacuum tower telescope VTT in Isanie (Tenerife Island, Spain) that the turbulent processes in the sun photosphere are characterized by two different spectra of turbulence. The first one of them is well known Kolmohorov spectrum, which describes the plasma with zero mean magnetic field. The second one is the Kraichnan spectrum with a different from zero mean magnetic field. Transition from one spectrum type to another one occurs at scale of 3 Mm.We have to note that the scale 3 Mm corresponds to one of mesogranulation and testifies about non-zero mean magnetic fields for the consideration of regions exceeding the granulation in active regions of the photosphere. Besides, this clears the possibility of appearance of selforganizing magnetic plasma structures such as spots, active regions and complexes of activity.

  8. PHOTOSPHERIC ABUNDANCES OF POLAR JETS ON THE SUN OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Imada, Shinsuke

    2015-08-20

    Many jets are detected at X-ray wavelengths in the Sun's polar regions, and the ejected plasma along the jets has been suggested to contribute mass to the fast solar wind. From in situ measurements in the magnetosphere, it has been found that the fast solar wind has photospheric abundances while the slow solar wind has coronal abundances. Therefore, we investigated the abundances of polar jets to determine whether they are the same as that of the fast solar wind. For this study, we selected 22 jets in the polar region observed by Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) simultaneously on 2007 November 1–3. We calculated the First Ionization Potential (FIP) bias factor from the ratio of the intensity between high (S) and low (Si, Fe) FIP elements using the EIS spectra. The values of the FIP bias factors for the polar jets are around 0.7–1.9, and 75% of the values are in the range of 0.7–1.5, which indicates that they have photospheric abundances similar to the fast solar wind. The results are consistent with the reconnection jet model where photospheric plasma emerges and is rapidly ejected into the fast wind.

  9. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields in 1974 - 2015: A comparison of six magnetographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I. I.; Mursula, K.

    2015-12-01

    Photospheric magnetic field has been measured since 1950s and digital synoptic data exists since 1970s. We study the long-term development of photospheric and coronal magnetic fields, using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson, Kitt Peak, Solis, SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric magnetic field and the the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. We pay particular attention to the occurrence of the hemispheric asymmetry of the coronal field. The solar and heliospheric magnetic fields are systematically north-south asymmetric. The southward shift of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) (the so-called Bashful ballerina phenomenon) is a persistent pattern, which occurs typically for about three years during the late declining phase of solar cycle. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field has shown that the Bashful ballerina is mainly due to the g02 quadrupole term, which is oppositely signed to the dipole moment and reflects the larger magnitude of the southern polar field. The six data sets are in general in a good agreement with each other, but the different spatial resolution causes difference some in results. Moreover, there are number of deviations in different individual data sets that are not related to resolution, e.g., in WSO data and in the current version of Kitt Peak 512 channel magnetograph data. We note that the two lowest harmonic coefficients do not scale with the overall magnitude of photospheric synoptic magnetic maps. Scaling factors based on histogram techniques can be as large as 10 (from Wilcox to HMI), but the corresponding factor in dipole strength is typically less than two. Scaling also depends on the harmonic coefficient. This should be noted, e.g., when using synoptic maps as input for coronal models. We find that, despite the differences between the six different data sets, especially in the measurements at the highest latitudes, they all support the southward shift of the HCS. At the moment

  10. Observations of photospheric magnetic fields and shear flows in flaring active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Frank, Z.; Title, A.; Topka, K.

    1988-01-01

    Horizontal flows in the photosphere and subsurface convection zone move the footpoints of coronal magnetic field lines. Magnetic energy to power flares can be stored in the corona if the flows drive the fields far from the potential configuration. Videodisk movies were shown with 0.5 to 1 arcsecond resolution of the following simultaneous observations: green continuum, longitudinal magnetogram, Fe I 5576 A line center (mid-photosphere), H alpha wings, and H alpha line center. The movies show a 90 x 90 arcsecond field of view of an active region at S29, W11. When viewed at speeds of a few thousand times real-time, the photospheric movies clearly show the active region fields being distorted by a remarkable combination of systematic flows and small eruptions of new flux. Magnetic bipoles are emerging over a large area, and the polarities are systematically flowing apart. The horizontal flows were mapped in detail from the continuum movies, and these may be used to predict the future evolution of the region. The horizontal flows are not discernable in H alpha. The H alpha movies strongly suggest reconnection processes in the fibrils joining opposite polarities. When viewed in combination with the magnetic movies, the cause for this evolution is apparent: opposite polarity fields collide and partially cancel, and the fibrils reconnect above the surface. This type of reconnection, driven by subphotospheric flows, complicates the chromospheric and coronal fields, causing visible braiding and twisting of the fibrils. Some of the transient emission events in the fibrils and adjacent plage may also be related.

  11. North-south asymmetric solar cycle evolution: Signatures in the photosphere and consequences in the corona

    SciTech Connect

    Virtanen, I. I.; Mursula, K.

    2014-02-01

    The heliospheric current sheet is the continuum of the coronal magnetic equator that divides the heliospheric magnetic field into two sectors (polarities). Several recent studies have shown that the heliospheric current sheet is southward shifted during approximately 3 years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). In this article we study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 as well as the potential field source surface model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since the 1970s, the 'bashful ballerina phenomenon' is a consequence of the g{sub 2}{sup 0} quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g{sub 2}{sup 0}-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production, this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling toward higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest, the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles, the g{sub 2}{sup 0}-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than the magnitude found in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. In the heliosphere this hemispheric asymmetry of the coronal fields is seen as a southward shift of the heliospheric current sheet by about 2°.

  12. ON THERMALIZATION IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS AND THE PEAK ENERGIES OF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Vurm, Indrek; Piran, Tsvi; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2013-02-20

    The low-energy spectral slopes of the prompt emission of most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are difficult to reconcile with radiatively efficient optically thin emission models irrespective of the radiation mechanism. An alternative is to ascribe the radiation around the spectral peak to a thermalization process occurring well inside the Thomson photosphere. This quasi-thermal spectrum can evolve into the observed non-thermal shape by additional energy release at moderate to small Thomson optical depths, which can readily give rise to the hard spectral tail. The position of the spectral peak is determined by the temperature and Lorentz factor of the flow in the thermalization zone, where the total number of photons carried by the jet is established. To reach thermalization, dissipation alone is not sufficient and photon generation requires an efficient emission/absorption process in addition to scattering. We perform a systematic study of all relevant photon production mechanisms searching for possible conditions in which thermalization can take place. We find that a significant fraction of the available energy should be dissipated at intermediate radii, {approx}10{sup 10} to a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm, and the flow there should be relatively slow: the bulk Lorentz factor could not exceed a few tens for all but the most luminous bursts with the highest E {sub pk} values. The least restrictive constraint for successful thermalization, {Gamma} {approx}< 20, is obtained if synchrotron emission acts as the photon source. This requires, however, a non-thermal acceleration deep below the Thomson photosphere transferring a significant fraction of the flow energy to relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors between 10 and 100. Other processes require bulk flow Lorentz factors of order of a few for typical bursts. We examine the implications of these results to different GRB photospheric emission models.

  13. North-South Asymmetric Solar Cycle Evolution: Signatures in the Photosphere and Consequences in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I. I.; Mursula, K.

    2014-02-01

    The heliospheric current sheet is the continuum of the coronal magnetic equator that divides the heliospheric magnetic field into two sectors (polarities). Several recent studies have shown that the heliospheric current sheet is southward shifted during approximately 3 years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). In this article we study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 as well as the potential field source surface model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since the 1970s, the "bashful ballerina phenomenon" is a consequence of the g^{0}_{2} quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g^{0}_{2}-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production, this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling toward higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest, the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles, the g^{0}_{2}-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than the magnitude found in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. In the heliosphere this hemispheric asymmetry of the coronal fields is seen as a southward shift of the heliospheric current sheet by about 2°.

  14. ACCESS I: An Optical Transmission Spectrum of GJ 1214b Reveals a Heterogeneous Stellar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackham, Benjamin; Espinoza, Néstor; Apai, Dániel; López-Morales, Mercedes; Jordán, Andrés; Osip, David J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Rodler, Florian; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    GJ 1214b is the most studied sub-Neptune exoplanet to date. Recent measurements have shown its near-infrared transmission spectrum to be flat, pointing to a high-altitude opacity source in the exoplanet's atmosphere, either equilibrium condensate clouds or photochemical hazes. Many photometric observations have been reported in the optical by different groups, though simultaneous measurements spanning the entire optical regime are lacking. We present an optical transmission spectrum (4500–9260 Å) of GJ 1214b in 14 bins, measured with Magellan/IMACS repeatedly over three transits. We measure a mean planet-to-star radius ratio of {R}p/{R}s=0.1146+/- 2× {10}-4 and mean uncertainty of σ ({R}p/{R}s)=8.7× {10}-4 in the spectral bins. The optical transit depths are shallower on average than observed in the near-infrared. We present a model for jointly incorporating the effects of a composite photosphere and atmospheric transmission through the exoplanet's limb (the CPAT model), and use it to examine the cases of absorber and temperature heterogeneities in the stellar photosphere. We find the optical and near-infrared measurements are best explained by the combination of (1) photochemical haze in the exoplanetary atmosphere with a mode particle size r = 0.1 μm and haze-forming efficiency {f}{haze}=10 % and (2) faculae in the unocculted stellar disk with a temperature contrast {{Δ }}T={354}-46+46 K, assuming 3.2% surface coverage. The CPAT model can be used to assess potential contributions of heterogeneous stellar photospheres to observations of exoplanet transmission spectra, which will be important for searches for spectral features in the optical.

  15. Expanding photospheres of type II supernovae and the extragalactic distance scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    1992-08-01

    The Expanding Photosphere Method is applied here to determine distances to 10 Type II SNe, exploring the effects of asymmetries, extinction, and flux dilution. It is shown that blackbody corrections caused by flux dilution are small for type II SNe in the infrared, and in the optical when their color temperatures are less than 6000 K. The distance measurements to the SNe span a wide range of 50 kpc to 120 Mpc, which is unique among the methods for establishing the extragalactic distance scale. A value of H(0) = 60 +/- 10 km/s/Mpc is derived.

  16. Variation of the temperature gradient in the solar photosphere with magnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert, M.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ricort, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The contribution of quiet-Sun regions to the solar irradiance variability is currently unclear. Some solar-cycle variations of the quiet-Sun physical structure, such as the temperature gradient or the photospheric radius, might affect the irradiance. Aims: We intend to investigate possible variations of the photospheric temperature gradient with magnetic activity. Methods: We used high-resolution center-to-limb observations of the FeI 630.15 nm line profile in the quiet Sun performed onboard the Hinode satellite on 2007, December 19, and on 2013, December 7, that is, close to a minimum and a maximum of magnetic activity, respectively. We analyzed samples of 10″ × 10″ internetwork regions. The wings of the FeI 630.15 nm line were used in a non-standard way to recover images at roughly constant continuum optical depths above the continuum formation level. The image formation height is derived from measuring its perspective shift with respect to the continuum image, both observed away from disk center. The measurement relies on a cross-spectral method that is not limited by the spatial resolution of the SOT telescope and does not rely on any radiative transfer computation. The radiation temperature measured in the images is related to the photospheric temperature at their respective formation height. Results: The method allows us to investigate the temperature gradient in the low photosphere at altitudes of between 0 and 60 km above the 500 nm continuum formation height. In this layer the internetwork temperature gradient appears steeper in our 2013 sample than in the sample of 2007 in the northern hemisphere, whereas we detect no significant change in the southern hemisphere. We argue that this might be related to some strong hemispheric asymmetry of the magnetic activity at the solar maximum of cycle 24. Conclusions: Structural changes have been observed in numerical simulations of the magneto-convection at the surface of the Sun where the increase of

  17. On the detectibility of HeH(+) in the solar photospheric spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, K.

    1994-06-01

    In a recent publication of the Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India, the possibility of detection of the (1-0) vibration-rotation lines of HeH(+) molecules in the solar photospheric spectrum has been suggested. Taking cue, the Photometric Atlas of the solar Spectrum from 1850 to 10,000 1 cm was scanned for the suggested lines in the present preliminary ivestigation. It is tentatively concluded that (1) it seems rather difficult to detect the HeH(+) lines and (2) observations from above the terrestrial atmosphere may be required for firm conclusions.

  18. The detection of photospheric X-ray pulsations from PG 1159-035 with EXOSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Grauer, A. D.; Winget, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of soft X-ray pulsations from the hot, helium-rich, degenerate object, PG 1159-035 is reported. These observations, obtained with the Low Energy experiment on EXOSAT, show the presence of large-amplitude soft X-ray (44-150 A) pulsations analogous to several of the low-amplitude, nonradial, g-mode pulsations which are observed in the optical. These soft X-ray pulsations, with periods of 516 s, 524 s, and 539 s, arise from the photosphere of PG 1159-035 and constitute the first observations of stellar atmospheric pulsational phenomena in the X-ray band.

  19. Polar Faculae Are Faculae Of Old Age, Ascending To Photosphere From The Suns Upper Magnetic Toroid Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith

    2003-10-01

    We present arguments that Sun's polar magnetic fields, near 1 gauss strength, ascend to photosphere in polar facular increment, in accord with Fig. 1, ^1 thru secular meridional circulation of both 3,600 +/- 25 gauss mag. toroids (as obs. at upper level) of each hemisphere, reversing polarities every 11 yr. Having been submerged to just below lower mag. toroid and traveling slightly faster there in circulatory mer. motions of Sun, which drive toroids, incipient polar faculae do not ascend with toroid at θc = 40^o,, but continue to higher latitudes >= 50^o, and now having aged by as much as one solar cycle plus ˜ 3 yr., they begin their appearance at photosphere. Ascent to photosphere requires greater travel time the greater is their lat. of vertical ascent, owing to reduced mer. circulation velocity with inc. in lat. above 40^o, (Confer sketch of fluid motions, Fig. 1. ^1) This polar faculae reaching photosphere at 63^o,, where surface density increases strongly and reaches an almost constant value at θc = 70^o,, and that possibly extends over whole polar cap when near polar facular max., would be expected to have been formed at 40^o, or at lesser lat. as faculae in previous sunspot cycle and would thus possess a significantly reduced observed lifetime compared to faculae in photosphere newly found below 40^o,.

  20. Photospheric electric current and transition region brightness within an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, A. C.; Hagyard, M. J.; Rabin, D.; Moore, R. L.; Smith, B. J., Jr.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Distributions of vertical electrical current density J(z) calculated from vector measurements of the photospheric magnetic field are compared with ultraviolet spectroheliograms to investigate whether resistive heating is an important source of enhanced emission in the transition region. The photospheric magnetic fields in Active Region 2372 were measured on April 6 and 7, 1980 with the Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph; ultraviolet wavelength spectroheliograms (L-alpha and N V 1239 A) were obtained with the UV Spectrometer and Polarimeter experiment aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Spatial registration of the J(z) (5 arcsec resolution) and UV (3 arcsec resolution) maps indicates that the maximum current density is cospatial with a minor but persistent UV enhancement, but there is little detected current associated with other nearby bright areas. It is concluded that, although resistive heating may be important in the transition region, the currents responsible for the heating are largely unresolved in the present measurements and have no simple correlation with the residual current measured on 5-arcsec scales.

  1. Non Grey Radiative Transfer in the Photospheric Convection: Validity of the Eddington Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Kiehunn

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the physical processes taking place in the solar photosphere. Based on 3D hydrodynamic simulations including a detailed radiation transfer scheme, we investigate thermodynamic structures and radiation fields in solar surface convection. As a starting model, the initial stratification in the outer envelope calculated using the solar calibrations in the context of the standard stellar theory. When the numerical fluid becomes thermally relaxed, the thermodynamic structure of the steady-state turbulent flow was explicitly collected. Particularly, a non-grey radiative transfer incorporating the opacity distribution function was considered in our calculations. In addition, we evaluate the classical approximations that are usually adopted in the one-dimensional stellar structure models. We numerically reconfirm that radiation fields are well represented by the asymptotic characteristics of the Eddington approximation (the diffusion limit and the streaming limit). However, this classical approximation underestimates radiation energy in the shallow layers near the surface, which implies that a reliable treatment of the non-grey line opacities is crucial for the accurate description of the photospheric convection phenomenon.

  2. A quantitative study relating observed shear in photospheric magnetic fields to repeated flaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a quantitative evaluation of the shear in the magnetic field along the neutral line in an active region during an epoch of flare activity is presented. Shear is defined as the angular difference in the photosphere between the potential magnetic field, which fits the boundary conditions imposed by the observed line-of-sight field, and the observed magnetic field. For the active region studied, this angular difference (shear) is non-uniform along the neutral line with maxima occurring at the locations of repeated flare onsets. It is suggested that continued magnetic evolution causes the field's maximum shear to exceed a critical value of shear, resulting in a flare around the site of maximum shear. Evidently, the field at the site of the flare must relax to a state of shear somewhat below the critical value (but still far from potential), with subsequent evolution returning the field to the critical threshold. This inference is drawn because several flares occured at sites of maximum photospheric shear which were persistent in location.

  3. IUE observations of a hot DAO white dwarf: Implications for diffusion theory and photospheric stratification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Sion, E. M.; Liebert, J.; Vauclair, Gerard

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the DAO white dwarf PG1210+533, including the first high dispersion spectrum of a hybrid H-He object of this nature were obtained by IUE. In contrast with hot DAs in the 50,000 K temperature range, PG1210+533 shows no narrow interstellar-like metal lines, in spite of an optically observed He/H abundance of 0.1. This lack of metal makes accretion from the ISM an unlikely source for the He in the PG1210+533 photosphere. A significant discovery in the high dispersion spectrum is the existence of a sharp, non-LTE like, core seen in the He II 1640 line. Such features are detected in DO white dwarfs. A small aperture SWP low dispersion observation reveals the Lyman alpha profile of PG1210+533 to be surprisingly weak and narrow. Fits of this profile using pure H models yielded a T(eff) = 56,000 K. Fits of the Balmer H gamma profile however, yield T(eff) = 42,300 K and log g = 8.5 + or - 0.5 for the same models. It is unlikely that homogeneously mixed H-He atmospheres can resolve the inconsistency between the Lyman alpha and H gamma features in this star. Stratified models involving thin H photospheres may be necessary to explain these results.

  4. Diagnostics of turbulent and fractal properties of photospheric plasma outside active regions of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenko, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Results of analysis of multi-scale and turbulent properties of observed photospheric granulation patterns in undisturbed solar photosphere are presented. Data were obtained with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar observatory. Different types of magnetic environment were explored: a coronal hole (CH) area, a quiet sun (QS) intranetwork area, a QS/network area, and an area with small pores. The property of multifractality was revealed for granulation patterns in all environments on scales below 600 km. The degree of multifractality tends to be stronger as the magnetic environment becomes weaker. Analysis of turbulent diffusion on scales less than 1000-2000 km revealed the regime of super-diffusivity for all data sets. Super-diffusion becomes stronger from the QS/network to the QS/intranetwork to the CH. Both multifractality and super-diffusivity on very small scales are associated with the fast turbulent dynamo action. The results show that the most favorable conditions for the fast turbulent dynamo are met outside the network, inside vast areas of weakest magnetic fields, which supports the idea of nonlocal, deep turbulent dynamo.

  5. Identifying and Tracking Solar Photospheric Bright Points Based on Three-dimensional Segmentation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-ping, Xiong; Ai-li, Zhang; Kai-fan, Ji; Song, Feng; Hui, Deng; Yun-fei, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Photospheric bright points (PBPs) are tiny short-lived brightening phenomena that can be seen within dark inter-granular lanes. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify and track a PBP in a 3D space-time cube. Different from the common-adopted strategy of "identifying-before-tracking", this algorithm is based on the strategy of "identifying-by-tracking". This method can identify a PBP when its intensity is still rather weak, and can avoid the discontinuous evolution of PBP caused by the algorithm of Laplacian morphological dilation (LMD) to recognize completely the evolutionary process of a PBP. The statistics on a group of G-band data observed by Hinode/SOT (Solar Optical Telescope) in quiet regions indicate that the average lifetime of isolated PBP is as long as 3 minutes, and the longest lifetime is up to 27 minutes, which means that the lifetime of PBPs is longer than that obtained by the previous LMD algorithm. Furthermore, it is also found that the mean intensity contrast of PBPs is 1.02 times of the mean photospheric intensity, which is weaker than that calculated by the LMD algorithm, and that the intensity of PBP exhibits a periodical oscillation of 2∼3 minute during the whole lifetime.

  6. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  7. Observations of the longitudinal magnetic field in the transition region and photosphere of a sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; West, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arcsec and 3 arcsec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are compared from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G/km occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of kink waves in photospheric, chromospheric, and X-ray solar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most enduring mysteries in solar physics is why the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, is millions of kelvins hotter than its surface. Among suggested theories for coronal heating are those that consider the role of various jets of plasma shooting up from just above the Sun's surface through the photosphere and chromosphere to corona. The energy carrying by the waves propagating along the jets can be dissipated and thus transferred to the medium via different mechanisms. Among the various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves which can propagate in the solar atmosphere the most promising for the heating process turns out to be the so cold kink waves. These waves actually are normal modes of the MHD waves running in spatially (or magnetically) bounded flux tubes. When plasma in a flux tube floats the kink mode can become unstable if the jet's speed exceeds some threshold/critical value. The instability which appears is of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type and it can trigger MHD turbulence, more specifically Alvfén waves' turbulence. Notably this kind of turbulence is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of coronal heating. Here, we consider the conditions under which kink waves traveling on three types of solar flowing plasmas, namely photospheric jets, spicules, and X-ray jets, can become unstable against the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  9. On the relationship between photospheric footpoint motions and coronal heating in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Asgari-Targhi, M.; Berger, M. A.

    2014-05-20

    Coronal heating theories can be classified as either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) mechanisms, depending on whether the coronal magnetic field responds quasi-statically or dynamically to the photospheric footpoint motions. In this paper we investigate whether photospheric footpoint motions with velocities of 1-2 km s{sup –1} can heat the corona in active regions, and whether the corona responds quasi-statically or dynamically to such motions (DC versus AC heating). We construct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models for the Alfvén waves and quasi-static perturbations generated within a coronal loop. We find that in models where the effects of the lower atmosphere are neglected, the corona responds quasi-statically to the footpoint motions (DC heating), but the energy flux into the corona is too low compared to observational requirements. In more realistic models that include the lower atmosphere, the corona responds more dynamically to the footpoint motions (AC heating) and the predicted heating rates due to Alfvén wave turbulence are sufficient to explain the observed hot loops. The higher heating rates are due to the amplification of Alfvén waves in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that magnetic braiding is a highly dynamic process.

  10. HIGH-EFFICIENCY PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION OF LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS: THE EFFECT OF THE VIEWING ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of the spectra and light curves of the emission from the photospheres of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets. We confirm that the photospheric emission has high efficiency and show that the efficiency increases slightly with the off-axis angle. We show that the peak frequency of the observed spectrum is proportional to the square root of the photosphere's luminosity, in agreement with the Amati relation. However, a quantitative comparison reveals that the thermal peak frequency is too small for the corresponding total luminosity. As a consequence, the radiation must be out of thermal equilibrium with the baryons in order to reproduce the observations. Finally, we show that the spectrum integrated over the emitting surface is virtually indistinguishable from a Planck law, and therefore an additional mechanism has to be identified to explain the non-thermal behavior of the observed spectra at both high and low frequencies.

  11. On the Doppler Shift and Asymmetry of Stokes Profiles of Photospheric FeI and Chromospheric MgI Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-15

    10/09 ON THE DOPPLER SHIFT AND ASYMMETRY OF STOKES PROFILES OF PHOTOSPHERIC Fe I AND CHROMOSPHERIC Mg I LINES NA DENG AND DEBI PRASAD CHOUDHARY...photospheric (Fe I 630.15 and 630.25 nm) and chromospheric (Mg I b2 517.27 nm) lines. The data were obtained with the HAO/NSO Advanced Stokes...among the three spectral lines, which helps us to better understand the chromospheric lines and the magnetic and flow fields in different magnetic

  12. Magnetic and Velocity Field of Sunspots in the Photosphere and Upper Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jayant

    2014-03-01

    Sunspots, the dark blemishes on the solar surface have been widely studied for the past 400 years. Sunspots are the most readily identifiable manifestation of magnetic field concentrations on the solar surface. Interaction of the sunspot magnetic field with the plasma makes them one of the most interesting objects for research in solar physics. This thesis presents a study of the photospheric and upper chromospheric velocity and magnetic field structure of sunspots by analyzing spectro-polarimetric observations. These observations comprise different spectral lines obtained with two ground based telescopes and a space borne telescope. The lower brightness of sunspots on the solar surface is due to the presence of strong magnetic fields (up to 4 kG in the umbra), which makes the overturning convection inefficient. Convection is the main heat transport mechanism in the quiet Sun. The Penumbra, the annular part around the umbra has a brightness of about 75% of that in the quiet Sun. At the same time it has an average magnetic field strength of around 1.5 kG. The brightness of penumbrae has been an enigma for solar physicists for a long time. Theoretical models like the gappy penumbra model and the convective roll model as well as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations suggest that the heat transport in penumbrae is based on the presence of overturning convection. Direct observational evidence for the presence of convective flows in penumbral filaments was missing so far. In Chapter 3 we present observations of a penumbra in the C i 5380 Å spectral line formed in the deep photosphere. These high spatial resolution observations (0. '' 14) are obtained with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST). Doppler map clearly shows the presence of several dark downflow lanes at the edges of the penumbral filaments which surround the bright upflows at the center of the filaments, supporting overturning convection as a mechanism of heat transport in penumbrae. Chapter 4 analyses the

  13. Peculiar CNO photospheric abundances in the central star of NGC 2392

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Roberto H.; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Prinja, Raman K.

    2012-08-01

    Using new, high signal-to-noise CFHT ESPaDOnS visual spectrograms, and archive IUE and FUSE UV spectrograms, together with state-of-the-art non-LTE hydrodynamical model atmospheres, we have obtained accurate He, C, N, O photospheric abundance determinations in the central stars of NGC 2392, IC 4593, and NGC 6826. We compare with the corresponding nebular abundances, taken from the literature. The central star of NGC 2392 shows high He, N, and very low C, O abundances. We propose that these peculiar abundances must have originated in a common-envelope phase of interaction with a close binary companion. If we assume that the companion is more evolved than the visible central star, this offers a way of solving the old mystery of the discrepant He II Zanstra temperature of NGC 2392.

  14. Mass and Radius of Neutron Stars Constrained by Photospheric Radius Expansion X-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Kim, Myungkuk; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    Simultaneous measurement of mass and radius of a neutron star is important because it provides strong constraint on the equation of state for nuclear matter inside a neutron star. Type I X-ray Bursts (XRBs) that have been observed in low-mass X-ray binaries sometimes show photospheric radius expansion (PRE). By combining observed fluxes, X-ray spectra, and distances of PRE XRBs and using a statistical analysis, it is possible to simultaneously constrain the mass and radius of a neutron star. However, the mass and radius of a neutron star estimated in this method depends on the opacity of accreted material. We investigate the effect of the opacity on the mass and radius estimation by taking into account the cases that the hydrogen mass fraction of accreted material has narrowly-distributed values. We present preliminary results that are investigated with three different values of hydrogen mass fraction and compare our results with previous studies.

  15. Contribution functions for Zeeman-split lines, and line formation in photospheric faculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanballegooijen, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of polarized light in an inhomogeneous stellar atmosphere, and the formation of magnetically sensitive spectral lines, are discussed. A new method for the solution of the transfer equations is proposed. The method gives a natural definition of the contribution functions for Stokes' parameters, i.e., functions describing the contributions from different parts along the line-of-sight (LOS). The formalism includes all magneto-optical effects, and allows for an arbitrary variation of magnetic field, velocity field, temperature, density, etc., along the LOS. The formation of FeI lambda 5250.2 in photospheric faculae is described. A potential-field model of a facular element is presented, and spectra profiles and contribution functions are computed for the Stokes parameters I, Q, and V.

  16. TRANSVERSE COMPONENT OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE OBSERVED BY SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect

    Danilovic, S.; Beeck, B.; Pietarila, A.; Schuessler, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We present the first observations of the transverse component of a photospheric magnetic field acquired by the imaging magnetograph SUNRISE/IMaX. Using an automated detection method, we obtain statistical properties of 4536 features with significant linear polarization signal. We obtain a rate of occurrence of 7 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} arcsec{sup -2}, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the values reported by previous studies. We show that these features have no characteristic size or lifetime. They appear preferentially at granule boundaries with most of them being caught in downflow lanes at some point. Only a small percentage are entirely and constantly embedded in upflows (16%) or downflows (8%).

  17. Photospheric magnitude diagrams for type II supernovat: A promising tool to compute distances

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Ósmar; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-12-01

    We develop an empirical color-based standardization for Type II supernovae (SNe II), equivalent to the classical surface brightness method given in Wesselink. We calibrate this standardization using SNe II with host galaxy distances measured using Cepheids, and a well-constrained shock breakout epoch and extinction due to the host galaxy. We estimate the reddening with an analysis of the B – V versus V – I color-color curves, similar to that of Natali et al. With four SNe II meeting the above requirements, we build a photospheric magnitude versus color diagram (similar to an H-R diagram) with a dispersion of 0.29 mag. We also show that when using time since shock breakout instead of color as the independent variable, the same standardization gives a dispersion of 0.09 mag. Moreover, we show that the above time-based standardization corresponds to the generalization of the standardized candle method of Hamuy and Pinto for various epochs throughout the photospheric phase. To test the new tool, we construct Hubble diagrams for different subsamples of 50 low-redshift (cz < 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1}) SNe II. For 13 SNe within the Hubble flow (cz {sub CMB} > 3000 km s{sup –1}) and with a well-constrained shock breakout epoch we obtain values of 68-69 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} for the Hubble constant and a mean intrinsic scatter of 0.12 mag or 6% in relative distances.

  18. Utilizing Nst Data To Look For Connection Between Photospheric Dynamics And Small-scale Chromospheric Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.

    2011-05-01

    The largest ground-based solar telescope, the new solar telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory now allows us to address many important issues of coupling between the photosphere and chromosphere by means of simultaneous observations of photospheric granulation with well resolved bright points (BPs) and associated dynamics in the low chromosphere, as seen in H-alpha spectral line. Excellent seeing conditions, augmented with an adaptive optics system and speckle-reconstruction applications produce diffraction limited images. We use these data to search for any possible connection between typical dynamics of bright points (collision, clustering and rapid motions) and chromospheric activity, such as jets that are visible on all scales down to the smallest resolved features. In this presentation we will highlight the most important findings, which include the following. 1) In mostly unipolar coronal holes, the majority of colliding/interacting BPs are not associated with any detectable chromospheric activity. This means that the component reconnection, presumably occurring when the same polarity BPs interact, may not be very effective in producing chromospheric flows. We speculate that interaction of opposite polarity BPs may be more effective in generating up-flows. 2) NST/TiO images further reveal the hidden structure of plasma vortex tubes, previously predicted by Steiner et al. Besides the bright granular lane, a vortex tube structure also includes rapidly developing bright grain co-spatial with the tube's axis. Finally, some vortex tube events, detected in a CH data set, are co-spatial with small-scale chromospheric jets, which suggests that they may be associated with new magnetic flux emerging within a granule.

  19. Magnetic Upflow Events in the Quiet-Sun Photosphere. I. Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-09-01

    Rapid magnetic upflows in the quiet-Sun photosphere were recently uncovered from both Sunrise/IMaX and Hinode/SOT observations. Here, we study magnetic upflow events (MUEs) from high-quality, high- (spatial, temporal, and spectral) resolution, and full Stokes observations in four photospheric magnetically sensitive Fe i lines centered at 5250.21, 6173.34, 6301.51, and 6302.50 Å acquired with the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST)/CRISP. We detect MUEs by subtracting in-line Stokes V signals from those in the far blue wing whose signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ≥slant 7. We find a larger number of MUEs at any given time (2.0× {10}-2 arcsec-2), larger by one to two orders of magnitude, than previously reported. The MUEs appear to fall into four classes presenting different shapes of Stokes V profiles with (I) asymmetric double lobes, (II) single lobes, (III) double-humped (two same-polarity lobes), and (IV) three lobes (an extra blueshifted bump in addition to double lobes), of which less than half are single-lobed. We also find that MUEs are almost equally distributed in network and internetwork areas and they appear in the interior or at the edge of granules in both regions. Distributions of physical properties, except for horizontal velocity, of the MUEs (namely, Stokes V signal, size, line-of-sight velocity, and lifetime) are almost identical for the different spectral lines in our data. A bisector analysis of our spectrally resolved observations shows that these events host modest upflows and do not show a direct indication of the presence of supersonic upflows reported earlier. Our findings reveal that the numbers, types (classes), and properties determined for MUEs can strongly depend on the detection techniques used and the properties of the employed data, namely, S/Ns, resolutions, and wavelengths.

  20. Relationship between the photospheric Poynting flux and the active region luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachenko, Maria D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Fisher, George H.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Welsch, Brian

    2014-06-01

    How does energy radiated by active regions compare with magnetic energy that propagates lower across the photosphere? This is a fundamental question for energy storage and release in active regions, yet it is presently poorly understood. In this work we quantify and compare both energy terms using SDO observations of the active region (AR) 11520. To quantify the magnetic energy crossing the photosphere, or the Poynting flux, we need to know both the magnetic field vector B and electric field vector E as well. Our current electric field inversion technique, PDFI, combines the Poloidal-Toroidal-Decomposition method with information from Doppler measurements, Fourier local correlation tracking (FLCT) results, and the ideal MHD constraint, to determine the electric field from vector magnetic field and Doppler data. We apply the PDFI method to a sequence of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI/SDO) vector magnetogram data, to find the electric-field and hence the Poynting-flux evolution in AR 11520. We find that most of the magnetic energy in this AR is injected in the range of $10^7$ to $10^8$ $ergs/{cm^2 s}$, with the largest fluxes reaching $10^{10}$ $ergs/{cm^2 s}$. Integrating over the active region this yields a total energy of order $10^{28}$ ergs/s. To quantify the active region luminosity, we use EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) spectrally resolved observations. We find the active region luminosity of order $10^{28}$ ergs/s. We compare derived magnetic and radiated energy fluxes on different temporal and spatial scales and estimate their uncertainties. We also discuss the roles that potential/non-potential and emerging/shearing terms play in the total magnetic energy budget.

  1. The Solar Photospheric Oxygen Abundance and the Role of 3D Model Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2008-09-01

    The solar oxygen abundance has undergone a major downward revision in the last decade, reputedly as a result of employing 3D hydrodynamical simulations to model the inhomogeneous structure of the solar photosphere. The very low oxygen abundance advocated by Asplund et al. 2004, A(O)=8.66, together with the downward revision of the abundances of other key elements, has created serious problems for solar models to explain the helioseismic measurements. In an effort to contribute to the dispute of whether the Sun has "solar" or "sub-solar" abundances, we have re-derived its photospheric abundance of oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements, independently of previous analyses. We applied a state-of-the art 3D (CO5BOLD) hydrodynamical simulation of the solar granulation as well as different 1D model atmospheres for the line by line spectroscopic abundance determinations. The analysis is based on both standard disk-center and full-disk spectral atlases; for oxygen we acquired in addition spectra at different heliocentric angles. The derived abundances are the result of equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of the available atomic lines. Our recommended oxygen abundance is A(O)=8.76+- 0.07, 0.1 dex higher than the value of Asplund et al. (2004). Our current estimate of the overall solar metallicity is 0.014< Z<0.016. Questions we discuss include: (i) Is the general downward revision of the solar abundances a 3D effect? (ii) How large are the abundance corrections due to horizontal inhomogeneities? (iii) What is the main reason for the differences between the abundances obtained in our study and those derived by Apslund and coworkers? (iv) How large are the uncertainties in the observed solar spectra? (v) What is the reason why the two forbidden oxygen lines, [OI] lambda 630 nm and [OI] lambda 636.3 nm, give significantly different answers for the solar oxygen abundance?

  2. Measurements of Solar Differential Rotation and Meridional Circulation from Tracking of Photospheric Magnetic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Derek A.

    2017-02-01

    Long-lived rotational and meridional flows are important ingredients of the solar cycle. Magnetic field images have typically been used to measure these flows on the solar surface by cross-correlating thin longitudinal strips or square patches across sufficiently long time gaps. Here, I use 1 month of SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetic field observations, combined with the Southwest Automatic Magnetic Identification Suite magnetic feature-tracking code to measure the motion of individual features in these magnetograms. By controlling for perturbations due to short-lived flows and due to false motions from feature interactions, I effectively isolate the long-lived flows traced by the magnetic features. This allows me to produce high-resolution (2° bins) differential rotation measurements with well-characterized variances and covariances of the fit parameters. I find a sidereal rotational profile of (14.296 ± 0.006) + (‑1.847 ± 0.056)sin2 b + (‑2.615 ± 0.093) sin4 b, with units of deg day‑1, and a large covariance σ BC 2 = ‑4.87 × 10‑3(deg day‑1)2. I also produce measurements of the much weaker meridional flow that are broadly consistent with previous results. These measurements exhibit a peak flow of 16.7 ± 0.6 m s‑1 at latitude b = 45° but are insufficiently characterized at higher latitudes to ascertain whether the chosen functional form 2\\cos b\\sin b is appropriate. This work demonstrates that measuring the motions of individual features in photospheric magnetograms can produce high-precision results in relatively short time spans, and suggests that high-resolution non-longitudinally averaged photospheric velocity residual measurements could be produced to compare with coronal results and to provide other diagnostics of the solar dynamo.

  3. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields in six magnetographs. I. Consistent evolution of the bashful ballerina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We study the long-term evolution of photospheric and coronal magnetic fields and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), especially its north-south asymmetry. Special attention is paid to the reliability of the six data sets used in this study and to the consistency of the results based on these data sets. Methods: We use synoptic maps constructed from Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO), Kitt Peak (KP), SOLIS, SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric field and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Results: The six data sets depict a fairly similar long-term evolution of magnetic fields and the heliospheric current sheet, including polarity reversals and hemispheric asymmetry. However, there are time intervals of several years long, when first KP measurements in the 1970s and 1980s, and later WSO measurements in the 1990s and early 2000s, significantly deviate from the other simultaneous data sets, reflecting likely errors at these times. All of the six magnetographs agree on the southward shift of the heliospheric current sheet (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon) in the declining to minimum phase of the solar cycle during a few years of the five included cycles. We show that during solar cycles 20-22, the southward shift of the HCS is mainly due to the axial quadrupole term, reflecting the stronger magnetic field intensity at the southern pole during these times. During cycle 23 the asymmetry is less persistent and mainly due to higher harmonics than the quadrupole term. Currently, in the early declining phase of cycle 24, the HCS is also shifted southward and is mainly due to the axial quadrupole as for most earlier cycles. This further emphasizes the special character of the global solar field during cycle 23.

  4. An optical spectroscopic study of T Tauri stars. I. Photospheric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2014-05-10

    Estimates of the mass and age of young stars from their location in the H-R diagram are limited by not only the typical observational uncertainties that apply to field stars, but also by large systematic uncertainties related to circumstellar phenomena. In this paper, we analyze flux-calibrated optical spectra to measure accurate spectral types and extinctions of 281 nearby T Tauri stars (TTSs). The primary advances in this paper are (1) the incorporation of a simplistic accretion continuum in optical spectral type and extinction measurements calculated over the full optical wavelength range and (2) the uniform analysis of a large sample of stars, many of which are well known and can serve as benchmarks. Comparisons between the non-accreting TTS photospheric templates and stellar photosphere models are used to derive conversions from spectral type to temperature. Differences between spectral types can be subtle and difficult to discern, especially when accounting for accretion and extinction. The spectral types measured here are mostly consistent with spectral types measured over the past decade. However, our new spectral types are one to two subclasses later than literature spectral types for the original members of the TW Hya Association (TWA) and are discrepant with literature values for some well-known members of the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Our extinction measurements are consistent with other optical extinction measurements but are typically 1 mag lower than near-IR measurements, likely the result of methodological differences and the presence of near-IR excesses in most CTTSs. As an illustration of the impact of accretion, spectral type, and extinction uncertainties on the H-R diagrams of young clusters, we find that the resulting luminosity spread of stars in the TWA is 15%-30%. The luminosity spread in the TWA and previously measured for binary stars in Taurus suggests that for a majority of stars, protostellar accretion rates are not large enough to

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE STELLAR PHOTOSPHERES AND NEAR-INFRARED EXCESSES IN ACCRETING T TAURI SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; Espaillat, C.; Hernandez, J.; Luhman, K. L.; D'Alessio, P.; Sargent, B. E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx

    2013-05-20

    Using NASA Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX data from 0.8 to 4.5 {mu}m, we determine self-consistently the stellar properties and excess emission above the photosphere for a sample of classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) in the Taurus molecular cloud with varying degrees of accretion. This process uses a combination of techniques from the recent literature as well as observations of weak-line T Tauri stars to account for the differences in surface gravity and chromospheric activity between the T Tauri stars and dwarfs, which are typically used as photospheric templates for CTTS. Our improved veiling and extinction estimates for our targets allow us to extract flux-calibrated spectra of the excess in the near-infrared. We find that we are able to produce an acceptable parametric fit to the near-infrared excesses using a combination of up to three blackbodies. In half of our sample, two blackbodies at temperatures of 8000 K and 1600 K suffice. These temperatures and the corresponding solid angles are consistent with emission from the accretion shock on the stellar surface and the inner dust sublimation rim of the disk, respectively. In contrast, the other half requires three blackbodies at 8000, 1800, and 800 K, to describe the excess. We interpret the combined two cooler blackbodies as the dust sublimation wall with either a contribution from the disk surface beyond the wall or curvature of the wall itself, neither of which should have single-temperature blackbody emission. In these fits, we find no evidence of a contribution from optically thick gas inside the inner dust rim.

  6. Deep probing of the photospheric sunspot penumbra: no evidence of field-free gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. M.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Balthasar, H.; Franz, M.; Rezaei, R.; Kiess, C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pastor, A.; Berkefeld, T.; von der Lühe, O.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Denker, C.; Hofmann, A.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Feller, A.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Sobotka, M.; Nicklas, H.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Some models for the topology of the magnetic field in sunspot penumbrae predict regions free of magnetic fields or with only dynamically weak fields in the deep photosphere. Aims: We aim to confirm or refute the existence of weak-field regions in the deepest photospheric layers of the penumbra. Methods: We investigated the magnetic field at log τ5 = 0 is by inverting spectropolarimetric data of two different sunspots located very close to disk center with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.4-0.45''. The data have been recorded using the GRIS instrument attached to the 1.5-m solar telescope GREGOR at the El Teide observatory. The data include three Fe i lines around 1565 nm, whose sensitivity to the magnetic field peaks half a pressure scale height deeper than the sensitivity of the widely used Fe i spectral line pair at 630 nm. Before the inversion, the data were corrected for the effects of scattered light using a deconvolution method with several point spread functions. Results: At log τ5 = 0 we find no evidence of regions with dynamically weak (B< 500 Gauss) magnetic fields in sunspot penumbrae. This result is much more reliable than previous investigations made on Fe i lines at 630 nm. Moreover, the result is independent of the number of nodes employed in the inversion, is independent of the point spread function used to deconvolve the data, and does not depend on the amount of stray light (i.e., wide-angle scattered light) considered.

  7. Study of nonstationarity of the atmosphere of κ Cas. I. Variability of profiles of photospheric and He I wind lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal variations of radial velocities and line profiles in the spectrum of the supergiant κ Cas were investigated. Variability of radial velocities and profiles of photospheric lines Si III, OII, He I, H10-Hδ and wind lines He I λ 5875, 6678 Å ismainly caused by non-radial pulsations. For photospheric lines quasisinusoidal variabilities of the radial velocity were found. Temporal variability of radial velocity of the wind lines He I λ 5875, 6678 A˚ differ from each other and from the photospheric lines. Gamma velocities and amplitudes of radial velocity variability were determined. The amplitude of variability and the velocity of expansion increase from lower to upper layers of the atmosphere. Emission components are superimposed on the line profiles at positions about -135 ± 10.0, -20 ± 20 and 135 ± 10.0 kms-1 respectively. They are more obvious in the wind line profiles, although, there are signs of emissions also in the photospheric lines. Such a character of variability of all the lines in the κ Cas spectrum confirms its Be nature.

  8. NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF ALFVEN WAVES DRIVEN BY OBSERVED PHOTOSPHERIC MOTIONS: APPLICATION TO THE CORONAL HEATING AND SPICULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takuma; Shibata, Kazunari

    2010-02-20

    We have performed MHD simulations of Alfven wave propagation along an open flux tube in the solar atmosphere. In our numerical model, Alfven waves are generated by the photospheric granular motion. As the wave generator, we used a derived temporal spectrum of the photospheric granular motion from G-band movies of Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. It is shown that the total energy flux at the corona becomes larger and the transition region's height becomes higher in the case when we use the observed spectrum rather than the white/pink noise spectrum as the wave generator. This difference can be explained by the Alfven wave resonance between the photosphere and the transition region. After performing Fourier analysis on our numerical results, we have found that the region between the photosphere and the transition region becomes an Alfven wave resonant cavity. We have confirmed that there are at least three resonant frequencies, 1, 3, and 5 mHz, in our numerical model. Alfven wave resonance is one of the most effective mechanisms to explain the dynamics of the spicules and the sufficient energy flux to heat the corona.

  9. Mass loss from evolved massive stars: self-consistent modeling of the wind and photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.

    2007-03-01

    This work analyzes the mass loss phenomenon in evolved massive stars through self-consistent modeling of the wind and photosphere of such stars, using the radiative transfer code CMFGEN. In the first part, fundamental physical parameters of Wolf-Rayet stars of spectral types WN3-w (WR 46 e WR 152) and WN6-s (WR 136) were obtained. The results clearly indicate that hydrogen is present on the surface of those stars in a considerable fraction, defying current evolutionary models. For both WN subtypes, significant difference between the physical parameters obtained here and in previous works were noticed. The 20-year evolution of the luminous blue variable (LBV) AG Carinae was analyzed in detail in the second part of this work. The results indicate unexpected changes in the current paradigm of massive star evolution during the S Dor cycle. In this work, the high rotational velocity obtained during the hot phases, and the transition between the bistability regimes of line-driven winds were detected for the first time in LBVs. Those results need to be considered in future analysis of such massive stars. This Thesis also presents a pioneering study about the impact of the time variability effects on the analysis of the winds of LBVs. The results achieved here are valid for the whole LBV class, and show that the mass-loss rates derived from Hα and radio free-free emission are affected by time-dependent effects. The mass-loss rate evolution during the S Dor cycle, derived using time-dependent models, implies that LBV eruptions begin well before the maximum in the visual lightcurve during this phase. The analysis of the full S Dor cycle of AG Car rule out that the S Dor variability is caused exclusively by an expanding pseudo-photosphere. The AG Car hydrostatic radius was found to vary by a factor of six between cool and hot phases, while the bolometric luminosity is 50% higher during the hot phase. Both results provide observational contraints for the physical mechanism

  10. Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between Sunrise observations and MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Schüssler, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.

    2014-08-01

    Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are thought to be the radiative signatures (small-scale brightness enhancements) of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes or sheets located in the darker intergranular lanes in the solar photosphere. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may play a role in influencing the Earth's climate. Here we aim to obtain a better insight into their properties by combining high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the Sunrise Observatory with 3D compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. To this end, full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. In a first step it is demonstrated that the selected MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. The simulated line width also displays the correct mean, but a scatter that is too small. In the second step, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. Again, these are found to match relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large BPs with strong polarization signals (most likely network elements) not found in the simulations, possibly due to the small size of the simulation box. The higher spatial resolution of the simulations has a significant effect, leading to smaller and more numerous BPs. The observation that most BPs are weakly polarized is explained mainly by the spatial degradation, the stray light contamination, and the temperature sensitivity of the Fe i line at 5250.2 Å. Finally, given that the MHD simulations are highly consistent with the observations, we used the simulations to explore the properties of BPs further. The Stokes V asymmetries increase with the distance to the

  11. Modelling the photosphere of active stars for planet detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Enrique; Ribas, Ignasi; Jordi, Carme; Morales, Juan Carlos; Perger, Manuel; Rosich, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Context. Stellar activity patterns are responsible for jitter effects that are observed at different timescales and amplitudes in the measurements obtained from photometric and spectroscopic time series observations. These effects are currently in the focus of many exoplanet search projects, since the lack of a well-defined characterization and correction strategy hampers the detection of the signals associated with small exoplanets. Aims: Accurate simulations of the stellar photosphere based on the most recent available models for main-sequence stars can provide synthetic photometric and spectroscopic time series data. These may help to investigate the relation between activity jitter and stellar parameters when considering different active region patterns. Moreover, jitters can be analysed at different wavelength scales (defined by the passbands of given instruments or space missions) to design strategies to remove or minimize them. Methods: We present the StarSim tool, which is based on a model for a spotted rotating photosphere built from the integration of the spectral contribution of a fine grid of surface elements. The model includes all significant effects affecting the flux intensities and the wavelength of spectral features produced by active regions and planets. The resulting synthetic time series data generated with this simulator were used to characterize the effects of activity jitter in extrasolar planet measurements from photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results: Several cases of synthetic data series for Sun-like stars are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the methodology. A specific application for characterizing and modelling the spectral signature of active regions is considered, showing that the chromatic effects of faculae are dominant for low-temperature contrasts of spots. Synthetic multi-band photometry and radial velocity time series are modelled for HD 189733 by adopting the known system parameters and fitting for the

  12. The Abundances of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Photospheres of Active B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary models for the structure and evolution of rapidly-rotating OB stars predict a photospheric enrichment of nitrogen due to the mixing of the CNO-processed material from the star's core with the original surface material. The predicted N-enhancement increases as the star approaches its critical rotational velocity. Alternatively the Algol primaries should have N-enriched photospheres if the material currently being transferred is from the mass loser's original core. To test these predictions, the C and N abundances in selected early Be stars and B-type mass gainers in Algol systems have been determined from spectroscopic data obtained with the IUE and FUSE spacecraft. The abundance analyses, carried through with the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE codes TLUSTY/SYNSPEC, were confronted with some challenges that are not encountered in abundance studies of sharp-lined, non-emission B stars including the treatment of shallow, blended rotationally-broadened lines, the appropriate value for the microturbulence parameter, correction for disk emission and possible shell absorption, and latitudinal variation of Teff and log g. The FUV offers an advantage over the optical region as there is far less influence from disk emission and the N lines are intrinsically stronger. Particularly useful are the features of C II 1324 Å, C III 1176 Å, 1247 Å, N I 1243 Å, and N III 1183,84 Å. Be stars with v sin i < 150 km s-1 were chosen to minimize the effect of latitudinal parameter variation. Given the errors it appears that the N abundance in the Be stars is normal. Expected mixing is apparently suppressed, and this study lends no support for Be star models based upon critical rotation. However, expected N-enhancement and a low C abundance are inferred for the B-type primaries in some interacting binaries. GJP is grateful for support from NASA Grants NNX07AH56G (ADP) and NNX07AF89G (FUSE), and the USC WiSE program.

  13. Using Beta Cen to Probe the Photosphere-wind Connection in B Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nathan A.

    2005-01-01

    In this project we began by identifying the large number of emission lines visible in the XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Beta Cen. A comprehensive analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas was carried out by simultaneously fitting the data from all the instruments on the spacecraft. This resulted in a measured temperature range of 0.1-0.6 keV. In more detailed analysis, three characteristic plasma temperatures were found: 0.1, 0.2, and 0.6 keV. The research carried out at UW-Eau Claire primarily focused on two aspects of the data: the analysis of the forbidden line to intercombination line ratio for He-like ions and the time variability of the overall X-ray flux as detected in the direct X-ray images of the star. The analysis of the lines from He-like ions indicate that the Ne IX lines are formed no farther than about 4 stellar radii from the star's photosphere, while the N VI lines are formed within 11 stellar radii of the photosphere. X-ray flux variability would be particularly interesting for this star because it is a known Beta Cep-type variable as seen in optical light: similar variation in the X-ray region would forge an interesting link between the two wavebands. Initial analysis of the X-ray flux was complicated by spikes in the count rates early in the observation. Detailed analysis of the spectral characteristics these count rate anomalies indicated that these flares were probably not intrinsic to the star, rather they were contaminations of the data due to the passage of the satellite through soft proton clouds in the Earth's magnetosphere. An analysis of the light curve of the uncontaminated portions of the light curve did not reveal any variation on the known optical period of variation for this star, and a general search for periodic variability also did not find any significant periods of variation.

  14. Spectroscopic Detection of a Stellar-like Photosphere in an Accreting Protostar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Lada, Charles J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present high-resolution (R is approximately equal to 18,000), high signal-to-noise 2 micron spectra of two luminous, X-ray flaring Class I protostars in the rho Ophiuchi cloud acquired with the NIRSPEC (near infrared spectrograph) of the Keck II telescope. We present the first spectrum of a highly veiled, strongly accreting protostar which shows photospheric absorption features and demonstrates the stellar nature of its central core. We find the spectrum of the luminous (L (sub bol) = 10 solar luminosity) protostellar source, YLW 15, to be stellar-like with numerous atomic and molecular absorption features, indicative of a K5 IV/V spectral type and a continuum veiling r(sub k) = 3.0. Its derived stellar luminosity (3 stellar luminosity) and stellar radius (3.1 solar radius) are consistent with those of a 0.5 solar mass pre-main-sequence star. However, 70% of its bolometric luminosity is due to mass accretion, whose rate we estimate to be 1.7 x 10(exp -6) solar masses yr(exp -1). We determine that excess infrared emission produced by the circumstellar accretion disk, the inner infalling envelope, and accretion shocks at the surface of the stellar core of YLW 15 all contribute significantly to its near-IR (infrared) continuum veiling. Its rotational velocity v sin i = 50 km s(exp -1) is comparable to those of flat-spectrum protostars but considerably higher than those of classical T Tauri stars in the rho Oph cloud. The protostar may be magnetically coupled to its circumstellar disk at a radius of 2 - 3 R(sub *). It is also plausible that this protostar can shed over half its angular momentum and evolve into a more slowly rotating classical T Tauri star by remaining coupled to its circumstellar disk (at increasing radius) as its accretion rate drops by an order of magnitude during the rapid transition between the Class I and Class II phases of evolution. The spectrum of WL 6 does not show any photospheric absorption features, and we estimate that its continuum

  15. Probing pulsation physics by resolving dynamical structure in the photosphere of V652 Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The extrem helium star V652 Herculis is pulsating in a fundamental radial model with a period of 0.1 d. Amongst many other unique properties, the radial motion of the surface can be cleanly divided into an intense acceleration phase followed by a near ballistic phase. The major question was whether the accelaration phase is shocked. In addition, the transparency of the hydrogen-deficient atmosphere means that layers of the atmosphere are observed which are deeper than is normal in hydrogen-rich stars. New observations have been able to resolve the vertical motion of the photosphere as a function of optical depth, and hence have mapped the outward passage of minimum radius. New hydrodynamic models for the pulsation are being developed, and these are coupled to a formal radiative transfer solution in order to model the dynamical spectrum directly. We will present the latest models for the pulsations in V652 Her, compare these with our Subaru high-resolution observations, and endeavour to extract new information about the overall and internal properties of V652 Her - the born-again rocket star.

  16. Markov Properties of the Magnetic Field in the Quiet Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorobets, A. Y.; Borrero, J. M.; Berdyugina, S.

    2016-07-01

    The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we study the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying on either the concept of magnetic feature or on the subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. The analysis is applied to observations of the magnetic field of the quiet solar photosphere carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) instrument on board the stratospheric balloon, Sunrise. We show that the joint probability distribution functions of the longitudinal ({B}\\parallel ) and transverse ({B}\\perp ) components of the magnetic field, as well as of the magnetic pressure ({B}2={B}\\perp 2+{B}\\parallel 2), verify the necessary and sufficient condition for the Markov chains. Therefore, we establish that the magnetic field as seen by IMaX with a resolution of 0.″15-0.″18 and 33 s cadence, which can be considered as a memoryless temporal fluctuating quantity.

  17. Evidence of asymmetries in the Aldebaran photosphere from multiwavelength lunar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richichi, A.; Dyachenko, V.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, S.; Tasuya, O.; Balega, Y.; Beskakotov, A.; Rastegaev, D.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    We have recorded three lunar occultations of Aldebaran (α Tau) at different telescopes and using various band-passes, from the ultraviolet to the far red. The data have been analysed using both model-dependent and model-independent methods. The derived uniform-disc angular diameter values have been converted to limb-darkened values using model atmosphere relations and are found in broad agreement among themselves and with previous literature values. The limb-darkened diameter is about 20.3 mas on average. However, we have found indications that the photospheric brightness profile of Aldebaran may have not been symmetric, a finding already reported by other authors for this and for similar late-type stars. At the sampling scale of our brightness profile, between 1 and 2 mas, the uniform and limb-darkened disc models may not be a good description for Aldebaran. The asymmetries appear to differ with wavelength and over the 137-d time span of our measurements. Surface spots appear as a likely explanation for the differences between observations and the models.

  18. The vorticity of Solar photospheric flows on the scale of granulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We employ time sequences of images observed with a G-band filter (λ4305Å) by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board of Hinode spacecraft at different latitude along solar central meridian to study vorticity of granular flows in quiet Sun areas during deep minimum of solar activity. Using a feature correlation tracking (FCT) technique, we calculate the vorticity of granular-scale flows. Assuming the known pattern of vertical flows (upward in granules and downward in intergranular lanes), we infer the sign of kinetic helicity of these flows. We show that the kinetic helicity of granular flows and intergranular vortices exhibits a weak hemispheric preference, which is in agreement with the action of the Coriolis force. This slight hemispheric sign asymmetry, however, is not statistically significant given large scatter in the average vorticity. The sign of the current helicity density of network magnetic fields computed using full disk vector magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) does not show any hemispheric preference. The combination of these two findings suggests that the photospheric dynamo operating on the scale of granular flows is non-helical in nature.

  19. Photospheric Current Spikes and Their Possible Association with Flares - Results from an HMI Data Driven Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    A data driven, near photospheric magnetohydrodynamic model predicts spikes in the horizontal current density, and associated resistive heating rate per unit volume Q. The spikes appear as increases by orders of magnitude above background values in neutral line regions (NLRs) of active regions (ARs). The largest spikes typically occur a few hours to a few days prior to M or X flares. The spikes correspond to large vertical derivatives of the horizontal magnetic field. The model takes as input the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. This 2.5 D field is used to determine an analytic expression for a 3 D magnetic field, from which the current density, vector potential, and electric field are computed in every AR pixel for 14 ARs. The field is not assumed to be force-free. The spurious 6, 12, and 24 hour Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion are filtered out of the time series of the HMI magnetic field for each pixel using a band pass filter. The subset of spikes analyzed at the pixel level are found to occur on HMI and granulation scales of 1 arcsec and 12 minutes. Spikes are found in ARs with and without M or X flares, and outside as well as inside NLRs, but the largest spikes are localized in the NLRs of ARs with M or X flares. The energy to drive the heating associated with the largest current spikes comes from bulk flow kinetic energy, not the electromagnetic field, and the current density is highly non-force free. The results suggest that, in combination with the model, HMI is revealing strong, convection driven, non-force free heating events on granulation scales, and that it is plausible these events are correlated with subsequent M or X flares. More and longer time series need to be analyzed to determine if such a correlation exists. Above an AR dependent threshold value of Q, the number of events N(Q) with heating rates greater than or equal to Q obeys a scale

  20. The pseudo-photosphere model for the continuum emission of gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R. G.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the continuum emission of viscous decretion discs around Be stars in this paper. The results obtained from non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiative transfer models show two regimes in the disc surface brightness profile: an inner optically thick region, which behaves as a pseudo-photosphere with a wavelength-dependent size, and an optically thin tenuous outer part, which contributes with about a third of the total flux. The isophotal shape of the surface brightness is well described by elliptical contours with an axial ratio b/a = cos i for inclinations i < 75°. Based on these properties, a semi-analytical model was developed to describe the continuum emission of gaseous discs. It provides fluxes and spectral slopes at the infrared within an accuracy of 10 and 5 per cent, respectively, when compared to the numerical results. The model indicates that the infrared spectral slope is mainly determined by both the density radial slope and the disc flaring exponent, being practically independent of disc inclination and base density. As a first application, the density structure of 15 Be stars was investigated, based on the infrared flux excess, and the results compared to previous determinations in the literature. Our results indicate that the decretion rates are in the range of 10-12-10-9 M⊙ yr-1, which is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous outflowing disc model predictions.

  1. Polarity Reversal of the Solar Photospheric Magnetic Field During Activity Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xudong; Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Junwei

    2014-06-01

    The large-scale solar magnetic field reverses its polarity during the maximum phase of each activity cycle. As observed on the photosphere, active region (AR) magnetic flux migrates poleward in narrow, sheared streams resulted from large-scale flows and diffusion. A small net flux of the trailing sunspot polarity eventually aggregates at high latitudes, manifesting the poloidal field of the next cycle. We characterize this process for the ongoing cycle 24 based on four years' line-of-sight magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). The axial dipole component reversed sign in early 2012, but the poleward flux migration was grossly out of phase in the two hemispheres. As a proxy, the northern polar field (taken as mean above 70 degrees latitude) switched from negative to positive in late 2012, whereas the southern remained positive as of March 2014. Three factors that are in line with the surface flux transport model may have contributed. First, AR emergence started and peaked earlier in the north. Second, several ARs with small or inverse tilt angles (w.r.t. the Joy's law) emerged in the south in late 2010. Third, meridional flow speed inferred from helioseismology varied greatly prior to 2013; slower streams (compared to a three-year mean at the same latitude) appeared earlier in the north. We correlate HMI with the long-running Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) dataset, and compare the current cycle with the previous three.

  2. Large-scale horizontal flows in the solar photosphere. III. Effects on filament destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudier, T.; Švanda, M.; Meunier, N.; Keil, S.; Rieutord, M.; Malherbe, J. M.; Rondi, S.; Molodij, G.; Bommier, V.; Schmieder, B.

    2008-03-01

    Aims:We study the influence of large-scale photospheric motions on the destabilization of an eruptive filament, observed on October 6, 7, and 8, 2004, as part of an international observing campaign (JOP 178). Methods: Large-scale horizontal flows were investigated from a series of MDI full-disc Dopplergrams and magnetograms. From the Dopplergrams, we tracked supergranular flow patterns using the local correlation tracking (LCT) technique. We used both LCT and manual tracking of isolated magnetic elements to obtain horizontal velocities from magnetograms. Results: We find that the measured flow fields obtained by the different methods are well-correlated on large scales. The topology of the flow field changed significantly during the filament eruptive phase, suggesting a possible coupling between the surface flow field and the coronal magnetic field. We measured an increase in the shear below the point where the eruption starts and a decrease in shear after the eruption. We find a pattern in the large-scale horizontal flows at the solar surface that interact with differential rotation. Conclusions: We conclude that there is probably a link between changes in surface flow and the disappearance of the eruptive filament.

  3. Using Beta Cen to Probe the Photosphere-Wind Connection to B Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the project was to probe the connection between the photospheric pulsations and the X-ray production in the stellar winds of B stars. The B1 III star Beta Centauri is a Beta Cephei variable with a high X-ray count rate, and was observed by XMM. Analysis of XMM X-ray spectra showed characteristic plasma temperatures of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.6 keV. Analysis of He-like forbidden-to-intercombination lines was performed to determine the dominant locations of the X-ray emission. At Prism, work focused on developing and upgrading spectral models to calculate forbidden-to-intercombination line ratios using more detailed atomic models than the simple models typically used in the analysis of X-ray spectral lines, thereby allowing us to assess the effects of a broader variety of populating and depopulating channels for energy levels contributing to the observed X-ray line emission. Based on Ne IX lines, the source location was determined to be no farther than 4 stellar radii. Examination of the time variability of the XMM data for Beta Cen showed no significant correlation with the known optical pulsation period for the star, and also did not find any significant periods of variation at X-ray wavelengths.

  4. Chromospheric and photospheric evolution of an extremely active solar region in solar cycle 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.

    1981-01-01

    a comprehensive investigation was made of phenomena attending the disk passage, July 7 to 21, 1959, of active solar center HAO-59Q. At the photospheric level that comprised an aggregate of groups of sunspots of which one group, Mt. Wilson 14284, showed all the attributes deemed typical of solar regions associated with the production of major flares. A special characteristic of 59Q was its capability to eject dark material. Part of this material remained trapped in the strong magnetic fields above group 14284 where it formed a system of interrelated arches, the legs of which passed through components of the bright chromospheric network of the plage and were rooted in various underlying umbrae. Two apparently diffeent kinds of flare were identified in 59Q; namely, prominence flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the suspended dark prominence) and plage flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the chromospheric network). Prominence flares were of three varieties described as 'impact', 'stationary' and 'moving' prominence flares. Plage flares were accompanied in 3 percent of cases by Type III bursts. These latter radio events indicate the associated passage through the corona of energetic electrons in the approximate energy range 10 to 100 keV. At least 87.5 percent, and probably all, impulsive brightenings in 59Q began directly above minor spots, many of which satellites to major umbrae. Stationary and moving prominence flares were individually triggered at sites beneath which magnetic changes occurred within intervals which included each flare's flash phase.

  5. Dynamics of the photosphere along the solar cycle from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudier, Th.; Malherbe, J. M.; Mirouh, G. M.

    2017-02-01

    Context. As the global magnetic field of the Sun has an activity cycle, one expects to observe some variation of the dynamical properties of the flows visible in the photosphere. Aims: We investigate the flow field during the solar cycle by analysing SDO/HMI observations of continuum intensity, Doppler velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Methods: We first picked data at disk center during 6 yr along the solar cycle with a 48-h time step in order to study the overall evolution of the continuum intensity and magnetic field. Then we focused on thirty 6-h sequences of quiet regions without any remnant of magnetic activity separated by 6 months, in summer and winter, when disk center latitude B0 is close to zero. The horizontal velocity was derived from the local correlation tracking technique over a field of view of 216.4 Mm × 216.4 Mm located at disk center. Results: Our measurements at disk center show the stability of the flow properties between meso- and supergranular scales along the solar cycle. Conclusions: The network magnetic field, produced locally at disk center independently from large scale dynamo, together with continuum contrast, vertical and horizontal flows, seem to remain constant during the solar cycle.

  6. X-ray flares in GRBs: general considerations and photospheric origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    Observations of X-ray flares from Gamma Ray Bursts imply strong constraints on possible physical models. We provide a general discussion of these. In particular, we show that in order to account for the relatively flat and weak optical flux during the X-ray flares, the size of the emitting region should be ≲3 × 1014cm. The bolometric luminosity of flares also strongly constrain the energy budget, and are inconsistent with late time activity of a central engine powered by the spin-down of a magnetar. We provide a simple toy model according to which flares are produced by an outflow of modest Lorentz factor (a few tens instead of hundreds) that is launched more or less simultaneously with the highly relativistic jet which produced the prompt gamma-ray emission. The `slower moving outflow produces the flare as it reaches its photosphere. If the X-ray flare jets are structured, the existence of such a component may naturally resolve the observational challenges imposed by flares, outlined in this work.

  7. MAGNETIC NONPOTENTIALITY IN PHOTOSPHERIC ACTIVE REGIONS AS A PREDICTOR OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiao; Lin Ganghua; Zhang Hongqi; Mao Xinjie

    2013-09-10

    Based on several magnetic nonpotentiality parameters obtained from the vector photospheric active region magnetograms obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at the Huairou Solar Observing Station over two solar cycles, a machine learning model has been constructed to predict the occurrence of flares in the corresponding active region within a certain time window. The Support Vector Classifier, a widely used general classifier, is applied to build and test the prediction models. Several classical verification measures are adopted to assess the quality of the predictions. We investigate different flare levels within various time windows, and thus it is possible to estimate the rough classes and erupting times of flares for particular active regions. Several combinations of predictors have been tested in the experiments. The True Skill Statistics are higher than 0.36 in 97% of cases and the Heidke Skill Scores range from 0.23 to 0.48. The predictors derived from longitudinal magnetic fields do perform well, however, they are less sensitive in predicting large flares. Employing the nonpotentiality predictors from vector fields improves the performance of predicting large flares of magnitude {>=}M5.0 and {>=}X1.0.

  8. Dynamic Power Spectral Analysis of Solar Measurements from Photospheric, Chromospheric, and Coronal Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouwer, S. D.; Pap, J.; Donnelly, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    An important aspect in the power spectral analysis of solar variability is the quasistationary and quasiperiodic nature of solar periodicities. In other words, the frequency, phase, and amplitude of solar periodicities vary on time scales ranging from active region lifetimes to solar cycle time scales. Here, researchers employ a dynamic, or running, power spectral density analysis to determine many periodicities and their time-varying nature in the projected area of active sunspot groups (S sub act). The Solar Maximum Mission/Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (SMM/ACRIM) total solar irradiance (S), the Nimbus-7 MgII center-to-wing ratio (R (MgII sub c/w)), the Ottawa 10.7 cm flux (F sub 10.7), and the GOES background x ray flux (X sub b) for the maximum, descending, and minimum portions of solar cycle 21 (i.e., 1980 to 1986) are used. The technique dramatically illustrates several previously unrecognized periodicities. For example, a relatively stable period at about 51 days has been found in those indices which are related to emerging magnetic fields. The majority of solar periodicities, particularly around 27, 150 and 300 days, are quasiperiodic because they vary in amplitude and frequency throughout the solar cycle. Finally, it is shown that there are clear differences between the power spectral densities of solar measurements from photospheric, chromospheric, and coronal sources.

  9. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow ({<=}2 km s{sup -1}) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

  10. Prompt high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts in photospheric and synchrotron self-Compton scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta

    2008-11-15

    We investigate neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) under alternative scenarios for prompt emission (the photospheric and synchrotron self-Compton scenarios) rather than the classical optically thin synchrotron scenario. In the former scenario, we find that neutrinos from the pp reaction can be very important at energies < or approx. (10-100) TeV. They may be detected by IceCube/KM3Net and useful as a probe of baryon acceleration around/below the photosphere. In the latter scenario, we may expect {approx}EeV p{gamma} neutrinos produced by soft photons. Predicted spectra are different from that in the classical scenario, and neutrinos would be useful as one of the clues to the nature of GRBs (the jet composition, emission radius, magnetic field, and so on)

  11. On Photospheric Fluorescence and the Nature of the 17.62 Angstrom Feature in Solar X-ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Greg; Kahn, S.

    1999-01-01

    The identification of the emission line feature at 17.62 Angstroms in solar x-ray spectra is re-examined. Using a Monte Carlo technique, we compute a realistic theoretical upper limit to the observed Fe L-alpha photospheric fluorescent line strength caused by irradiation from an overlying corona. These calculations demonstrate that the photospheric Fe L-alpha characteristic line is much too weak to account for the observed 17.62 Angstrom line flux. Instead, we identify this line with the configuration interaction 2s2p3p2P-2s2p6 2S transition in Fe XVIII seen in Electron Beam Ion Trap spectra and predicted in earlier theoretical work on the Fe XVIII x-ray spectrum.

  12. Interpretation of the veiling of the photospheric spectrum for T Tauri stars in terms of an accretion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, A. V.; Lamzin, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The problem on heating the atmospheres of T Tauri stars by radiation from an accretion shock has been solved. The structure and radiation spectrum of the emerging so-called hot spot have been calculated in the LTE approximation. The emission not only in continuum but also in lines has been taken into account for the first time when calculating the spot spectrum. Comparison with observations has shown that the strongest of these lines manifest themselves as narrow components of helium and metal emission lines, while the weaker ones decrease significantly the depth of photospheric absorption lines, although until now, this effect has been thought to be due to the emission continuum alone. The veiling by lines changes the depth of different photospheric lines to a very different degree even within a narrow spectral range. Therefore, the nonmonotonic wavelength dependence of the degree of veiling r found for some CTTS does not suggest a nontrivial spectral energy distribution of the veiling continuum. In general, it makes sense to specify the degree of veiling r only by providing the set of photospheric lines from which this quantity was determined. We show that taking into account the contribution of lines to the veiling of the photospheric spectrum can cause the existing estimates of the accretion rate onto T Tauri stars to decrease by several times, with this being also true for stars with a comparatively weakly veiled spectrum. Neglecting the contribution of lines to the veiling can also lead to appreciable errors in determining the effective temperature, interstellar extinction, radial velocity, and v sin i.

  13. Abrupt Changes of the Photospheric Magnetic Field in Active Regions and the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-09

    PHASE OF SOLAR FLARES (PREPRINT) E. W. Cliver, et al. 9 August 2012 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares (Preprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. Abrupt Changes of the Photospheric Magnetic Field in Active Regions and the Impulsive Phase of Solar

  14. ABRUPT CHANGES OF THE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD IN ACTIVE REGIONS AND THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Cliver, E. W.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Ling, A. G.

    2012-09-10

    We compared time profiles of changes of the unsigned photospheric magnetic flux in active regions with those of their associated soft X-ray (SXR) bursts for a sample of 75 {>=} M5 flares well observed by Global Oscillation Network Group longitudinal magnetographs. Sixty-six of these events had stepwise changes in the spatially integrated unsigned flux during the SXR flares. In superposed epoch plots for these 66 events, there is a sharp increase in the unsigned magnetic flux coincident with the onset of the flare impulsive phase while the end of the stepwise change corresponds to the time of peak SXR emission. We substantiated this result with a histogram-based comparison of the timing of flux steps (onset, midpoint of step, and end) for representative points in the flaring regions with their associated SXR event time markers (flare onset, onset of impulsive phase, time of peak logarithmic derivative, maximum). On an individual event basis, the principal part of the stepwise magnetic flux change occurred during the main rise phase of the SXR burst (impulsive phase onset to SXR peak) for {approx}60% of the 66 cases. We find a close timing agreement between magnetic flux steps and >100 keV emission for the three largest hard X-ray (>100 keV) bursts in our sample. These results identify the abrupt changes in photospheric magnetic fields as an impulsive phase phenomenon and indicate that the coronal magnetic field changes that drive flares are rapidly transmitted to the photosphere.

  15. SUDDEN PHOTOSPHERIC MOTION AND SUNSPOT ROTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE X2.2 FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuo; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Wang, Haimin

    2014-02-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager provides 45 s cadence intensity images and 720 s cadence vector magnetograms. These unprecedented high-cadence and high-resolution data give us a unique opportunity to study the change of photospheric flows and sunspot rotations associated with flares. By using the differential affine velocity estimator method and the Fourier local correlation tracking method separately, we calculate velocity and vorticity of photospheric flows in the flaring NOAA AR 11158, and investigate their temporal evolution around the X2.2 flare on 2011 February 15. It is found that the shear flow around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line exhibits a sudden decrease, and both of the two main sunspots undergo a sudden change in rotational motion during the impulsive phase of the flare. These results are discussed in the context of the Lorentz-force change that was proposed by Hudson et al. and Fisher et al. This mechanism can explain the connections between the rapid and irreversible photospheric vector magnetic field change and the observed short-term motions associated with the flare. In particular, the torque provided by the horizontal Lorentz force change agrees with what is required for the measured angular acceleration.

  16. Supergranulation and multiscale flows in the solar photosphere. Global observations vs. a theory of anisotropic turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, F.; Roudier, T.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Rieutord, M.

    2017-03-01

    The Sun provides us with the only spatially well-resolved astrophysical example of turbulent thermal convection. While various aspects of solar photospheric turbulence, such as granulation (one-Megameter horizontal scale), are well understood, the questions of the physical origin and dynamical organization of larger-scale flows, such as the 30-Megameters supergranulation and flows deep in the solar convection zone, remain largely open in spite of their importance for solar dynamics and magnetism. Here, we present a new critical global observational characterization of multiscale photospheric flows and subsequently formulate an anisotropic extension of the Bolgiano-Obukhov theory of hydrodynamic stratified turbulence that may explain several of their distinctive dynamical properties. Our combined analysis suggests that photospheric flows in the horizontal range of scales between supergranulation and granulation have a typical vertical correlation scale of 2.5 to 4 Megameters and operate in a strongly anisotropic, self-similar, nonlinear, buoyant dynamical regime. While the theory remains speculative at this stage, it lends itself to quantitative comparisons with future high-resolution acoustic tomography of subsurface layers and advanced numerical models. Such a validation exercise may also lead to new insights into the asymptotic dynamical regimes in which other, unresolved turbulent anisotropic astrophysical fluid systems supporting waves or instabilities operate.

  17. Abrupt Changes of the Photospheric Magnetic Field in Active Regions and the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Ling, A. G.

    2012-09-01

    We compared time profiles of changes of the unsigned photospheric magnetic flux in active regions with those of their associated soft X-ray (SXR) bursts for a sample of 75 >= M5 flares well observed by Global Oscillation Network Group longitudinal magnetographs. Sixty-six of these events had stepwise changes in the spatially integrated unsigned flux during the SXR flares. In superposed epoch plots for these 66 events, there is a sharp increase in the unsigned magnetic flux coincident with the onset of the flare impulsive phase while the end of the stepwise change corresponds to the time of peak SXR emission. We substantiated this result with a histogram-based comparison of the timing of flux steps (onset, midpoint of step, and end) for representative points in the flaring regions with their associated SXR event time markers (flare onset, onset of impulsive phase, time of peak logarithmic derivative, maximum). On an individual event basis, the principal part of the stepwise magnetic flux change occurred during the main rise phase of the SXR burst (impulsive phase onset to SXR peak) for ~60% of the 66 cases. We find a close timing agreement between magnetic flux steps and >100 keV emission for the three largest hard X-ray (>100 keV) bursts in our sample. These results identify the abrupt changes in photospheric magnetic fields as an impulsive phase phenomenon and indicate that the coronal magnetic field changes that drive flares are rapidly transmitted to the photosphere.

  18. Understanding Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI Measuring Photospheric Flows, Testing Models, and Steps Towards Forecasting Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, M.; Muglach, K.; Hoeksema, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is carrying the first full-disk imaging vector magnetograph, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), into an inclined geosynchronous orbit. This magnetograph will provide nearly continuous measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields at cadences of 90 seconds to 12 minutes with 1" resolution, precise pointing, and unfettered by atmospheric seeing. The enormous data stream of 1.5 Terabytes per day from SAO will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the mysteries of solar eruptions. These ground-breaking observations will permit the application of a new technique, the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM), to measure photospheric plasma flows in active regions. These measurements will permit, for the first time, accurate assessments of the coronal free energy available for driving CMEs and flares. The details of photospheric plasma flows, particularly along magnetic neutral-lines, are critical to testing models for initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Assimilating flows and fields into state-of-the art 3D MHD simulations that model the highly stratified solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona represents the next step towards achieving NASA's Living with a Star forecasting goals of predicting "when a solar eruption leading to a CME will occur." Our presentation will describe these major science and predictive advances that will be delivered by SDO/HMI.

  19. PHOTOSPHERIC FLOW FIELD RELATED TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE SUN'S POLAR MAGNETIC PATCHES OBSERVED BY HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kaithakkal, Anjali John; Suematsu, Y.; Kubo, M.; Iida, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Shiota, D.

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the role of photospheric plasma motions in the formation and evolution of polar magnetic patches using time-sequence observations with high spatial resolution. The observations were obtained with the spectropolarimeter on board the Hinode satellite. From the statistical analysis using 75 magnetic patches, we found that they are surrounded by strong converging, supergranulation associated flows during their apparent lifetime and that the converging flow around the patch boundary is better observed in the Doppler velocity profile in the deeper photosphere. Based on our analysis, we suggest that the like-polarity magnetic fragments in the polar region are advected and clustered by photospheric converging flows, thereby resulting in the formation of polar magnetic patches. Our observations show that, in addition to direct cancellation, magnetic patches decay by fragmentation followed by unipolar disappearance or unipolar disappearance without fragmentation. It is possible that the magnetic patches of existing polarity fragment or diffuse away into smaller elements and eventually cancel out with opposite polarity fragments that reach the polar region around the solar cycle maximum. This could be one of the possible mechanisms by which the existing polarity decays during the reversal of the polar magnetic field.

  20. Understanding Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI Measuring Photospheric Flows, Testing Models, and Steps Towards Forecasting Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Muglach, Karin; Welsch, Brian; Hageman, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The imminent launch of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will carry the first full-disk imaging vector magnetograph, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), into an inclined geosynchronous orbit. This magnetograph will provide nearly continuous measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields at cadences of 90 seconds to 12 minutes with I" resolution, precise pointing, and unfettered by atmospheric seeing. The enormous data stream of 1.5 Terabytes per day from SDO will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the mysteries of solar eruptions. These ground-breaking observations will permit the application of a new technique, the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM), to measure photospheric plasma flows in active regions. These measurements will permit, for the first time, accurate assessments of the coronal free energy available for driving CMEs and flares. The details of photospheric plasma flows, particularly along magnetic neutral-lines, are critical to testing models for initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Assimilating flows and fields into state-of-the art 3D MHD simulations that model the highly stratified solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona represents the next step towards achieving NASA's Living with a Star forecasting goals of predicting "when a solar eruption leading to a CME will occur." This talk will describe these major science and predictive advances that will be delivered by SDO /HMI.

  1. Height-dependent Velocity Structure of Photospheric Convection in Granules and Intergranular Lanes with Hinode/SOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, T.; Iida, Y.; Shimizu, T.

    2017-02-01

    The solar photosphere is the visible surface of the Sun, where many bright granules, surrounded by narrow dark intergranular lanes, are observed everywhere. The granular pattern is a manifestation of convective motion at the photospheric level, but its velocity structure in the height direction is poorly understood observationally. Applying bisector analysis to a photospheric spectral line recorded by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope, we derived the velocity structure of the convective motion in granular regions and intergranular lanes separately. The amplitude of motion of the convective material decreases from 0.65 to 0.40 km s‑1 as the material rises in granules, whereas the amplitude of motion increases from 0.30 to 0.50 km s‑1 as it descends in intergranular lanes. These values are significantly larger than those obtained in previous studies using bisector analysis. The acceleration of descending materials with depth is not predicted from the convectively stable condition in a stratified atmosphere. Such convective instability can be developed more efficiently by radiative cooling and/or a gas pressure gradient, which can control the dynamical behavior of convective material in intergranular lanes. Our analysis demonstrated that bisector analysis is a useful method for investigating the long-term dynamic behavior of convective material when a large number of pixels is available. In addition, one example is the temporal evolution of granular fragmentation, in which downflowing material develops gradually from a higher layer downward.

  2. What is the Relationship Between the Properties of Photospheric Flows and Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian; Li, Y.; Schuck, P. W.; Fisher, G. H.

    2009-05-01

    We estimated photospheric velocities by separately applying the Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) and Differential Affine Velocity Estimator (DAVE) methods to 2708 co-registered pairs of SOHO/MDI magnetograms, with nominal 96-minute cadence, from 46 active regions (ARs) from 1996-1998 over the time interval κ45 when each AR was within 45° of disk center. For each magnetogram pair, we computed the average estimated radial magnetic field, BR and each tracking method produced an independently estimated flow field, u. We then quantitatively characterized these magnetic and flow fields by computing several extrinsic and intrinsic properties of each; extrinsic properties scale with AR size, while intrinsic properties do not depend directly on AR size. Intrinsic flow properties included moments of speeds, horizontal divergences, and radial curls; extrinsic flow properties included included sums of these properties, and a crude proxy for the ideal Poynting flux, ∑ |u| BR2. Several quantities derived from BR were also computed, including: total unsigned flux, Φ a measure of the amount of unsigned flux near strong-field polarity inversion lines (SPILs), R and ∑ BR2. Next, using correlation and discriminant analysis, we investigated the associations between derived properties and average flare flux determined from the GOES flare catalog, when averaged over both κ45 and shorter time windows, of 6 and 24 hours. Our AR sample included both flaring and flare-quiet ARs; the latter did not flare above GOES C1.0 level during κ45. Among magnetic properties, we found R to be most strongly associated with flare flux. Among extrinsic flow properties, the proxy Poynting flux, ∑ |u| BR2, was most strongly associated with flux, at a level comparable to that of R. All intrinsic flow properties studied were more poorly associated with flare flux than these magnetic properties.

  3. Ellerman Bombs at High Resolution. I. Morphological Evidence for Photospheric Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Vissers, Gregal; Kitai, Reizaburo; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Rutten, Robert J.

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution imaging-spectroscopy movies of solar active region NOAA 10998 obtained with the Crisp Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope show very bright, rapidly flickering, flame-like features that appear intermittently in the wings of the Balmer Hα line in a region with moat flows and likely some flux emergence. They show up at regular Hα blue-wing bright points that outline the magnetic network, but flare upward with much larger brightness and distinct "jet" morphology seen from aside in the limbward view of these movies. We classify these features as Ellerman bombs and present a morphological study of their appearance at the unprecedented spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution of these observations. The bombs appear along the magnetic network with footpoint extents up to 900 km. They show apparent travel away from the spot along the pre-existing network at speeds of about 1 km s-1. The bombs flare repetitively with much rapid variation at timescales of seconds only, in the form of upward jet-shaped brightness features. These reach heights of 600-1200 km and tend to show blueshifts; some show bi-directional Doppler signature and some seem accompanied with an Hα surge. They are not seen in the core of Hα due to shielding by overlying chromospheric fibrils. The network where they originate has normal properties. The morphology of these jets strongly supports deep-seated photospheric reconnection of emergent or moat-driven magnetic flux with pre-existing strong vertical network fields as the mechanism underlying the Ellerman bomb phenomenon.

  4. HARD X-RAY EMISSION DURING FLARES AND PHOTOSPHERIC FIELD CHANGES

    SciTech Connect

    Burtseva, O.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Martínez-Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-06-20

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the Global Oscillation Network Group and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the strongest peak in the HXR signal when the footpoints start moving away from the PIL, i.e., the field changes follow the same trajectory as the HXR footpoint, but at an earlier time. Thus, the field changes and HXR emission are spatio-temporally related but not co-spatial nor simultaneous. We also find that in the strongest X-class flares the amplitudes of the field changes peak a few minutes earlier than the peak of the HXR signal. We briefly discuss this observed time delay in terms of the formation of current sheets during eruptions.

  5. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  6. SN 2012ec: mass of the progenitor from PESSTO follow-up of the photospheric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarino, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Della Valle, M.; Zampieri, L.; Maund, J. R.; Pumo, M. L.; Jerkstrand, A.; Benetti, S.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hamuy, M.; Inserra, C.; Knapic, C.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Molinaro, M.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Pignata, G.; Reichart, D. E.; Ries, C.; Riffeser, A.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, M.; Smareglia, R.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K.; Sollerman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Young, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L = 0.9 × 1042 erg s-1 and duration ˜90 d, which is somewhat shorter than standard Type II-P supernovae (SNe). We estimate the nickel mass M(56Ni) = 0.040 ± 0.015 M⊙ from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and the observed temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predictions from hydrodynamical models. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 M⊙, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 × 1013 cm and an explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M = 14-22 M⊙ was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other Type II-P SNe (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of the progenitors obtained from pre-explosion images and masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate the distance to SN 2012ec with the standardized candle method (SCM) and compare it with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for the SCM for the use of Type II-P SNe as distance indicators.

  7. Evolution and Dynamics of Orphan Penumbrae in the Solar Photosphere: Analysis from Multi-instrument Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, Francesca; Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Romano, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics and magnetic properties of orphan penumbrae observed in the solar photosphere to understand the formation process of such structures. We observed two orphan penumbrae in active region NOAA 11089 during a coordinated observing campaign carried out in 2010 July, involving the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), benefiting also from continuous observations acquired by the SDO satellite. We follow their evolution during about three days. The two structures form in different ways: one seems to break off the penumbra of a nearby sunspot, the other is formed through the emergence of new flux. Then they fragment while evolving. The SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager measurements indicate the presence of strong line-of-sight motions in the regions occupied by these orphan penumbrae, lasting for several hours and decreasing with time. This is confirmed by SOT spectro-polarimetric measurements of the Fe I 630.2 nm pair. The latter also show that Stokes parameters exhibit significant asymmetries in the orphan penumbral regions, typical of an uncombed filamentary structure. The orphan penumbrae lie above polarity inversion lines, where peculiar plasma motions take place with velocities larger than ±3 km s-1. The vector magnetic field in these regions is highly inclined, with the average magnetic field strength decreasing with time. The DOT observations in the Hα line and SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements in the He II 30.4 nm line indicate that there is no counterpart for the orphan penumbrae at midchromospheric heights or above. Our findings suggest that in at least one of the features investigated the emerging flux may be trapped in the low atmospheric layers by the overlying pre-existing fields, forming these filamentary structures.

  8. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. I. MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PHOTOSPHERIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Kitai, Reizaburo; Vissers, Gregal; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Rutten, Robert J.

    2011-07-20

    High-resolution imaging-spectroscopy movies of solar active region NOAA 10998 obtained with the Crisp Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope show very bright, rapidly flickering, flame-like features that appear intermittently in the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in a region with moat flows and likely some flux emergence. They show up at regular H{alpha} blue-wing bright points that outline the magnetic network, but flare upward with much larger brightness and distinct 'jet' morphology seen from aside in the limbward view of these movies. We classify these features as Ellerman bombs and present a morphological study of their appearance at the unprecedented spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution of these observations. The bombs appear along the magnetic network with footpoint extents up to 900 km. They show apparent travel away from the spot along the pre-existing network at speeds of about 1 km s{sup -1}. The bombs flare repetitively with much rapid variation at timescales of seconds only, in the form of upward jet-shaped brightness features. These reach heights of 600-1200 km and tend to show blueshifts; some show bi-directional Doppler signature and some seem accompanied with an H{alpha} surge. They are not seen in the core of H{alpha} due to shielding by overlying chromospheric fibrils. The network where they originate has normal properties. The morphology of these jets strongly supports deep-seated photospheric reconnection of emergent or moat-driven magnetic flux with pre-existing strong vertical network fields as the mechanism underlying the Ellerman bomb phenomenon.

  9. Probing deep photospheric layers of the quiet Sun with high magnetic sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Doerr, H.-P.; Martínez González, M. J.; Riethmüller, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Franz, M.; Feller, A.; Kuckein, C.; Schmidt, W.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Pastor Yabar, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Volkmer, R.; Staude, J.; Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K.; Kneer, F.; Waldmann, T.; Borrero, J. M.; Sobotka, M.; Verma, M.; Louis, R. E.; Rezaei, R.; Soltau, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Sigwarth, M.; Schmidt, D.; Kiess, C.; Nicklas, H.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Investigations of the magnetism of the quiet Sun are hindered by extremely weak polarization signals in Fraunhofer spectral lines. Photon noise, straylight, and the systematically different sensitivity of the Zeeman effect to longitudinal and transversal magnetic fields result in controversial results in terms of the strength and angular distribution of the magnetic field vector. Aims: The information content of Stokes measurements close to the diffraction limit of the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope is analyzed. We took the effects of spatial straylight and photon noise into account. Methods: Highly sensitive full Stokes measurements of a quiet-Sun region at disk center in the deep photospheric Fe i lines in the 1.56 μm region were obtained with the infrared spectropolarimeter GRIS at the GREGOR telescope. Noise statistics and Stokes V asymmetries were analyzed and compared to a similar data set of the Hinode spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP). Simple diagnostics based directly on the shape and strength of the profiles were applied to the GRIS data. We made use of the magnetic line ratio technique, which was tested against realistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations (MURaM). Results: About 80% of the GRIS spectra of a very quiet solar region show polarimetric signals above a 3σ level. Area and amplitude asymmetries agree well with small-scale surface dynamo-magneto hydrodynamic simulations. The magnetic line ratio analysis reveals ubiquitous magnetic regions in the ten to hundred Gauss range with some concentrations of kilo-Gauss fields. Conclusions: The GRIS spectropolarimetric data at a spatial resolution of ≈0.̋4 are so far unique in the combination of high spatial resolution scans and high magnetic field sensitivity. Nevertheless, the unavoidable effect of spatial straylight and the resulting dilution of the weak Stokes profiles means that inversion techniques still bear a high risk of misinterpretating the data.

  10. Predictions of Heating Rates in Localized Magnetic Structures From The Photosphere To The Upper Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, M. L.

    2003-05-01

    The heating rates due to resistive dissipation of magnetic field aligned currents and of Pedersen currents are computed as functions of height and horizontal radius in a specified 2.5 D magnetic field from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere. The model uses the VAL C height dependent profiles of temperature, and electron, proton, hydrogen, helium, and heavy ion densities together with the magnetic field to compute the anisotropic electrical conductivity tensor for each charged particle species. The magnetic field is parameterized by its maximum magnitude B0, scale height L, characteristic diameter D0, and twist τ which is the ratio of the azimuthal field component to the radial field component. The objective is to determine the ranges of values of these parameters that yield heating rates that are within observational constraints for values of D0 that are above and below the resolution limit of ˜ 150 km. This provides a test of the proposition that Pedersen current dissipation is a major source of chromopsheric heating in magnetic structures throughout the chromosphere, and that it is the rapid increase of charged particle magnetization with height in the lower chromosphere that causes the chromospheric temperature inversion and the rapid increase of the heating rate per unit mass with height in this region. It is found that the heating rate is a monotonically increasing function of B0, L, and τ , and a monotonically decreasing function of D0. For values of D0 below the resolution limit, values of τ >> 1 correspond to strongly heated magnetic structures. This work was supported by NSF grant ATM 9816335.

  11. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT AS EXTRAPOLATED FROM PHOTOSPHERIC AND CHROMOSPHERIC OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yelles Chaouche, L.; Kuckein, C.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2012-03-20

    The three-dimensional structure of an active region filament is studied using nonlinear force-free field extrapolations based on simultaneous observations at a photospheric and a chromospheric height. To that end, we used the Si I 10827 A line and the He I 10830 A triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (Tenerife). The two extrapolations have been carried out independently from each other and their respective spatial domains overlap in a considerable height range. This opens up new possibilities for diagnostics in addition to the usual ones obtained through a single extrapolation from, typically, a photospheric layer. Among those possibilities, this method allows the determination of an average formation height of the He I 10830 A signal of Almost-Equal-To 2 Mm above the surface of the Sun. It allows, as well, a cross-check of the obtained three-dimensional magnetic structures to verify a possible deviation from the force-free condition, especially at the photosphere. The extrapolations yield a filament formed by a twisted flux rope whose axis is located at about 1.4 Mm above the solar surface. The twisted field lines make slightly more than one turn along the filament within our field of view, which results in 0.055 turns Mm{sup -1}. The convex part of the field lines (as seen from the solar surface) constitutes dips where the plasma can naturally be supported. The obtained three-dimensional magnetic structure of the filament depends on the choice of the observed horizontal magnetic field as determined from the 180 Degree-Sign solution of the azimuth. We derive a method to check for the correctness of the selected 180 Degree-Sign ambiguity solution.

  12. THE ABRUPT CHANGES IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC AND LORENTZ FORCE VECTORS DURING SIX MAJOR NEUTRAL-LINE FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abrupt photospheric magnetic changes associated with six major flares using 12 minute, 0.''5 pixel{sup -1} vector magnetograms from NASA's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The six major flares occurred near the main magnetic neutral lines of four active regions, NOAA 11158, 11166, 11283, and 11429. During all six flares the neutral-line field vectors became stronger and more horizontal, in each case almost entirely due to strengthening of the horizontal field components parallel to the neutral line. In all six cases the neutral-line pre-flare fields were more vertical than the reference potential fields, and collapsed abruptly and permanently closer to potential-field tilt angles during every flare, implying that the relaxation of magnetic stress associated with non-potential tilt angles plays a major role during major flares. The shear angle with respect to the reference potential field did not show such a pattern, demonstrating that flare processes do not generally relieve magnetic stresses associated with photospheric magnetic shear. The horizontal fields became significantly and permanently more aligned with the neutral line during the four largest flares, suggesting that the collapsing field is on average more aligned with the neutral line than the pre-flare neutral-line field. The vertical Lorentz force had a large, abrupt, permanent downward change during each of the flares, consistent with loop collapse. The horizontal Lorentz force changes acted mostly parallel to the neutral line in opposite directions on each side, a signature of the fields contracting during the flare, pulling the two sides of the neutral line toward each other. The greater effect of the flares on field tilt than on shear may be explained by photospheric line-tying.

  13. Hinode and IRIS Observations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Waves Propagating from the Photosphere to the Chromosphere in a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoh, Ryuichi; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Imada, Shinsuke

    2016-11-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves have been considered as energy sources for heating the solar chromosphere and the corona. Although MHD waves have been observed in the solar atmosphere, there are a lack of quantitative estimates on the energy transfer and dissipation in the atmosphere. We performed simultaneous Hinode and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations of a sunspot umbra to derive the upward energy fluxes at two different atmospheric layers (photosphere and lower transition region) and estimate the energy dissipation. The observations revealed some properties of the observed periodic oscillations in physical quantities, such as their phase relations, temporal behaviors, and power spectra, making a conclusion that standing slow-mode waves are dominant at the photosphere with their high-frequency leakage, which is observed as upward waves at the chromosphere and the lower transition region. Our estimates of upward energy fluxes are 2.0× {10}7 erg cm-2 s-1 at the photospheric level and 8.3× {10}4 erg cm-2 s-1 at the lower transition region level. The difference between the energy fluxes is larger than the energy required to maintain the chromosphere in the sunspot umbrae, suggesting that the observed waves can make a crucial contribution to the heating of the chromosphere in the sunspot umbrae. In contrast, the upward energy flux derived at the lower transition region level is smaller than the energy flux required for heating the corona, implying that we may need another heating mechanism. We should, however, note a possibility that the energy dissipated at the chromosphere might be overestimated because of the opacity effect.

  14. The photospheric spectrum of the pre-FUor V1331 CYG: Is it a star or a disk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P. P.; Babina, E. V.

    2014-06-01

    The T Tauri variable V1331 Cyg is characterized by an intensive emission spectrum, by signatures of a high rate of mass loss, and also by presence of a circular reflection nebula. According to these characteristics, the star can be considered as a possible pre-FUor star. Up to the present the photospheric spectrum of the star has not been recorded. In this work we analyze the high-resolution spectra of V1331 Cyg that were obtained by G.H. Herbig with the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck-1 telescope in 2004 and 2007. For the first time the numerous photospheric lines of the star have been detected and the spectral class has been estimated, viz., G7-K0 IV. It is revealed that the projection of the rotation velocity is lower than the width of instrumental profile ( vsin i < 6 km/s); this means that the angle between the stellar axis of rotation and the line of sight is small. The radial velocity of the star derived from the photospheric lines is RV = -15.0 ± 0.3 km/s. The difference in radial velocities for 2004 and 2007 is lower than the measurement error. The photospheric spectrum is veiled considerably, but the amount of veiling is not the same in different lines. This depends on the line strength in the template spectrum of the G7 IV star: in the weakest lines (EW = 5-10 mÅ in the template spectrum) VF ≈ 1 and it increases up to 4-5 in stronger lines. The Hα and Hβ lines demonstrate classical P Cyg profiles, which testifies to an intensive wind with a maximal velocity of about 400 km/s. In addition, the emission lines of Fe II, Mg I and K I and of several other elements are accompanied by a narrow blue-shifted absorption at -150...-250 km/s. The emission spectrum of V1331 Cyg is rich in the narrow (FWHM = 30-50 km/s) lines of neutral and ionized metals showing the excitation temperature T exc = 3800 ± 300 K. The stellar mass M* ≈ 2.8 M ⊙ and radius R* ≈ 5 R ⊙ are estimated.

  15. Real-Time Frame Selector and its Application to Observations of the Horizontal Velocity Field in the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Reizaburo; Funakoshi, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Shusaku Sano Kiyoshi

    1997-08-01

    A real-time frame selector (RTFS), a new observational system, was developed at the Domeless Solar Telescope of Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. Our RTFS allows us to automatically select out a video frame with the highest spatial resolution in a series of live video images during a prescribed time span, and stores the selected one in digital format to a hard disk file. We applied the RTFS to observations of solar granulation in the G-band wavelength (lambda 4308 { Angstroms}, passband 20 { Angstroms}) and obtained a time series of data with a step of 15 seconds. By the method of local-correlation tracking, we derived the horizontal velocity field with the granulation pattern as tracers. In a quiet photosphere, we found the so-called mesogranulation flow field, clearly. Supergranular flow patterns were also detected and identified from a comparison with an Hα wing image. On the other hand, in a sunspot area, we found new evidence of horizontal inflow from penumbral areas to umbral areas as well as the presence of another circumferential inflow from the surrounding photosphere to the penumbral outer edge.

  16. The type IIP supernova 2012aw in M95: Hydrodynamical modeling of the photospheric phase from accurate spectrophotometric monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Ora, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Della Valle, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Pignata, G.; Bufano, F.; Bayless, A. J.; Pritchard, T. A.; Taubenberger, S.; Benitez, S.; Kotak, R.; Inserra, C.; Fraser, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Haislip, J. B.; Harutyunyan, A.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The data set densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion through the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the {sup 56}Ni mass. Also included in our analysis is the previously published Swift UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our data set, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass M {sub env} ∼ 20 M {sub ☉}, progenitor radius R ∼ 3 × 10{sup 13} cm (∼430 R {sub ☉}), explosion energy E ∼ 1.5 foe, and initial {sup 56}Ni mass ∼0.06 M {sub ☉}. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of 16.5 ± 1.5 M {sub ☉} of the Type IIP events.

  17. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. III - Polarization, directivity, and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the spectrum, directivity, and state of polarization of the bremsstrahlung radiation expected from a beam of high-energy electrons spiraling along radial magnetic field lines toward the photosphere. A Monte Carlo method is then described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. The accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. The calculated characteristics of the incident X-rays are used to evaluate the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of the reflected and total X-ray fluxes. The results are compared with observations.

  18. A comparison of photospheric electric current and ultraviolet and X-ray emission in a solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Bruner, M. E.; Hagyard, M. J.; Bonnet, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive set of coordinated observations of a solar active region, taking into account spectroheliograms obtained with the aid of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument, SMM soft X-ray polychromator (XRP) raster maps, and high spatial resolution ultraviolet images of the sun in Lyman-alpha and in the 1600 A continuum. These data span together the upper solar atmosphere from the temperature minimum to the corona. The data are compared to maps of the inferred photospheric electric current derived from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph observations. Some empirical correlation is found between regions of inferred electric current density and the brightest features in the ultraviolet continuum and to a lesser extent those seen in Lyman-alpha within an active region.

  19. Reproducing the Photospheric Magnetic Field Evolution During the Rise of Cycle 24 with Flux Transport by Supergranules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun s photosphere by an evolving pattern of cellular horizontal flows (supergranules). Characteristics of the simulated flow pattern match observed characteristics including the velocity power spectrum, cell lifetimes, and cell pattern motion in longitude and latitude. Simulations using an average, and north-south symmetric, meridional motion of the cellular pattern produce polar magnetic fields that are too weak in the North and too strong in the South. Simulations using cellular patterns with meridional motions that evolve with the observed changes in strength and north-south asymmetry will be analyzed to see if they reproduce the polar field evolution observed during the rise of Cycle 24.

  20. Reproducing the Photospheric Magnetic Field Evolution during the Rise of Cycle 24 with Flux Transport by Supergranules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David; Upton, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun s photosphere by an evolving pattern of cellular horizontal flows (supergranules). Characteristics of the simulated flow pattern can match observed characteristics including the velocity power spectrum, cell lifetimes, and cell motions in longitude and latitude. Simulations using an average, and north-south symmetric, meridional motion of the cellular pattern produce polar magnetic fields that are too weak in the North and too strong in the South. Simulations using cellular patterns with meridional motions that evolve with the observed changes in strength and north-south asymmetry will be analyzed to see if they reproduce the polar field evolution observed during the rise of Cycle 24.

  1. Photospheric flows around a quiescent filament at Large and small scale and their ffects on filament destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudier, Th.; Malherbe, J. M.; Švanda, M.; Molodij, G.; Keil, S.; Sütterlin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Bommier, V.; Aulanier, G.; Meunier, N.; Rieutord, M.; Rondi, S.

    2008-11-01

    We study the influence of large and small scales photospheric motions on the destabilization of an eruptive filament, observed on October 6, 7, and 8, 2004 as part of an international observing campaign (JOP 178). Large-scale horizontal flows are invetigated from a series of MDI/SOHO full-disc Dopplergrams and magnetograms from THEMIS. Small-scale horizontal flows were derived using local correlation tracking on TRACE satellite, Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and The Dunn Solar telescope (DST) data. The topology of the flow field changed significantly during the filament eruptive phase, suggesting a possible coupling between the surface flow field and the coronal magnetic field. We measured an increase of the shear below the point where the eruption starts and a decrease in shear after the eruption. We conclude that there is probably a link between changes in surface flow and the disappearance of the eruptive filament.

  2. Detection of a Fine-scale Discontinuity of Photospheric Magnetic Fields Associated with Solar Coronal Loop Brightenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Park, Soyoung; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda

    2015-09-01

    We present the transient brightening of a coronal loop and an associated fine-scale magnetic discontinuity detected in the photosphere. Utilizing the high-resolution data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we detect a narrow lane of intense horizontal magnetic field representing a magnetic discontinuity. It was visible as a dark lane partially encircling a pore in the continuum image, and was located near one of the footpoints of a small coronal loop that experienced transient brightenings. The horizontal field strength gradually increased before the loop brightening, and then rapidly decreased in the impulsive phase of the brightening, suggesting the increase of the magnetic non-potentiality at the loop footpoint and the sudden release of magnetic energy via magnetic reconnection. Our results support the nanoflare theory that coronal heating events are caused by magnetic reconnection events at fine-scale magnetic discontinuities.

  3. DETECTION OF A FINE-SCALE DISCONTINUITY OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELDS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLAR CORONAL LOOP BRIGHTENINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Park, Soyoung; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda

    2015-09-10

    We present the transient brightening of a coronal loop and an associated fine-scale magnetic discontinuity detected in the photosphere. Utilizing the high-resolution data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we detect a narrow lane of intense horizontal magnetic field representing a magnetic discontinuity. It was visible as a dark lane partially encircling a pore in the continuum image, and was located near one of the footpoints of a small coronal loop that experienced transient brightenings. The horizontal field strength gradually increased before the loop brightening, and then rapidly decreased in the impulsive phase of the brightening, suggesting the increase of the magnetic non-potentiality at the loop footpoint and the sudden release of magnetic energy via magnetic reconnection. Our results support the nanoflare theory that coronal heating events are caused by magnetic reconnection events at fine-scale magnetic discontinuities.

  4. Obtaining Photospheric Electric Field Maps and Poynting Fluxes from vector magnetograms and Doppler data: Tests and Data Driving Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachenko, Maria; Fisher, George; Welsch, Brian

    Quantitative studies of the flow of magnetic energy through the solar photosphere require a knowledge of the magnetic field vector B - and knowledge of the electric field E as well. We have modified and improved the technique Fisher et al. developed in 2012, which combines a poloidal-toroidal decomposition (PTD) to determine contributions to E from Faraday's law, with additional non-inductive contributions arising from flux emergence near polarity inversion lines, determined from Doppler measurements. The new technique, which we call the ``PTD Doppler FLCT Ideal'' (or PDFI) technique, incorporates Doppler information from non-normal viewing angles, and adopts the faster and more robust FISHPACK software for solutions of the two-dimensional Poisson equations. We demonstrate the performance using synthetic data from the anelastic pseudo-spectral ANMHD simulations that were used in the recent comparison of velocity inversion techniques (Welsch et al. 2007) and the PTD inversion (Fisher et al. 2012). We find that the PDFI method has roughly 10% reconstruction errors (it predicts roughly 100% of the photospheric Poynting flux and 110% of the helicity flux rate at normal viewing angles, consistent with Fisher et al. (2012) results, and 90% of Poynting flux and 110% helicity flux at theta=30 degrees). We conclude that the PDFI method can be routinely applied to observed magnetic field data and, as an example, apply it to the 6-day HMI/SDO vector magnetogram sequence centered at AR11158, where an X2.2 flare occurred. We discuss how our electric field maps are used to drive coronal magnetic field with a global evolutionary model, or CGEM, a collaborative effort from the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), Stanford University, and Lockheed-Martin.

  5. CONTINUUM INTENSITY AND [O i] SPECTRAL LINE PROFILES IN SOLAR 3D PHOTOSPHERIC MODELS: THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbian, D.; Moreno-Insertis, F. E-mail: fmi@iac.es

    2015-04-01

    The importance of magnetic fields in three-dimensional (3D) magnetoconvection models of the Sun’s photosphere is investigated in terms of their influence on the continuum intensity at different viewing inclination angles and on the intensity profile of two [O i] spectral lines. We use the RH numerical radiative transfer code to perform a posteriori spectral synthesis on the same time series of magnetoconvection models used in our publications on the effect of magnetic fields on abundance determination. We obtain a good match of the synthetic disk-center continuum intensity to the absolute continuum values from the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observational spectrum; the match of the center-to-limb variation synthetic data to observations is also good, thanks, in part, to the 3D radiation transfer capabilities of the RH code. The different levels of magnetic flux in the numerical time series do not modify the quality of the match. Concerning the targeted [O i] spectral lines, we find, instead, that magnetic fields lead to nonnegligible changes in the synthetic spectrum, with larger average magnetic flux causing both of the lines to become noticeably weaker. The photospheric oxygen abundance that one would derive if instead using nonmagnetic numerical models would thus be lower by a few to several centidex. The inclusion of magnetic fields is confirmed to be important for improving the current modeling of the Sun, here in particular in terms of spectral line formation and of deriving consistent chemical abundances. These results may shed further light on the still controversial issue regarding the precise value of the solar oxygen abundance.

  6. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. 3: Polarization and directivity of bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum, directivity and state of polarization is presented of the bremsstrahlung radiation expected from a beam of high energy electrons spiraling along radial magnetic field lines toward the photosphere. The results are used for calculation of the characteristics of the reflected plus direct flux.

  7. The magnetic field of active region 11158 during the 2011 February 12-17 flares: Differences between photospheric extrapolation and coronal forward-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Sun, Xudong; Liu, Yang E-mail: xudongs@stanford.edu

    2014-04-10

    We developed a coronal nonlinear force-free field (COR-NLFFF) forward-fitting code that fits an approximate nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) solution to the observed geometry of automatically traced coronal loops. In contrast to photospheric NLFFF codes, which calculate a magnetic field solution from the constraints of the transverse photospheric field, this new code uses coronal constraints instead, and this way provides important information on systematic errors of each magnetic field calculation method, as well as on the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. In this study we applied the COR-NLFFF code to NOAA Active Region 11158, during the time interval of 2011 February 12-17, which includes an X2.2 GOES-class flare plus 35 M- and C-class flares. We calculated the free magnetic energy with a 6 minute cadence over 5 days. We find good agreement between the two types of codes for the total nonpotential E{sub N} and potential energy E{sub P} but find up to a factor of 4 discrepancy in the free energy E {sub free} = E{sub N} – E{sub P} and up to a factor of 10 discrepancy in the decrease of the free energy ΔE {sub free} during flares. The coronal NLFFF code exhibits a larger time variability and yields a decrease of free energy during the flare that is sufficient to satisfy the flare energy budget, while the photospheric NLFFF code shows much less time variability and an order of magnitude less free-energy decrease during flares. The discrepancy may partly be due to the preprocessing of photospheric vector data but more likely is due to the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. We conclude that the coronal field cannot be correctly calculated on the basis of photospheric data alone and requires additional information on coronal loop geometries.

  8. Three-dimensional surface convection simulations of metal-poor stars. The effect of scattering on the photospheric temperature stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, R.; Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Nordlund, Å.; Trampedach, R.; Gudiksen, B.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic model atmospheres of metal-poor late-type stars are characterized by cooler upper photospheric layers than their one-dimensional counterparts. This property of 3D model atmospheres can dramatically affect the determination of elemental abundances from temperature-sensitive spectral features, with profound consequences on galactic chemical evolution studies. Aims: We investigate whether the cool surface temperatures predicted by 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars can be ascribed to approximations in the treatment of scattering during the modelling phase. Methods: We use the Bifrost code to construct 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars and test three different ways to handle scattering in the radiative transfer equation. As a first approach, we solve iteratively the radiative transfer equation for the general case of a source function with a coherent scattering term, treating scattering in a correct and consistent way. As a second approach, we solve the radiative transfer equation in local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation, neglecting altogether the contribution of continuum scattering to extinction in the optically thin layers; this has been the default mode in our previous 3D modelling as well as in present Stagger-Code models. As our third and final approach, we treat continuum scattering as pure absorption everywhere, which is the standard case in the 3D modelling by the CO5BOLD collaboration. Results: For all simulations, we find that the second approach produces temperature structures with cool upper photospheric layers very similar to the case in which scattering is treated correctly. In contrast, treating scattering as pure absorption leads instead to significantly hotter and shallower temperature stratifications. The main differences in temperature structure between our published models computed with the Stagger- and Bifrost codes and those generated with the CO5BOLD code can be traced

  9. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring vs. Flare-Quiet Active Regions I: Data, General Approach, and Statistical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.

    2003-05-01

    Photospheric vector magnetic field data from the U. Hawai`i Imaging Vector Magnetograph are examined for pre-event signatures unique to solar energetic phenomena. Parameters are constructed from B(x,y) to describe (for example) the distributions of the field, spatial gradients of the field, vertical current, current helicity, ''twist'' parameter α and magnetic shear angles. A quantitative statistical approach employing discriminant analysis and Hotelling's T2-test is applied to the magnitude and temporal evolution of parameters from 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs from seven active regions. We demonstrate that (1) when requiring a flare-unique signature, numerous candidate parameters are nullified by considering flare-quiet epochs, (2) a more robust method exists for estimating error rates than conventional ''truth tables'', (3) flaring and flare-quiet populations do not necessarily have low error rates for classification even when statistically distinguishable, and that (4) simultaneous consideration of a large number of variables is required to produce acceptable error rates. That is, when the parameters are considered individually, they show little ability to differentiate between the two populations; multi-variable combinations can discriminate the populations and/or result in perfect classification tables. In lieu of constructing a single all-variable discriminant function to quantify the flare-predictive power of the parameters considered, we devise a method whereby all permutations of the four-variable discriminant functions are ranked by Hotelling's T2. We present those parameters (e.g. the temporal increase of the kurtosis of the spatial distribution of the vertical current density) which consistently appear in the best combinations, indicating that they may play an important role in defining a pre-event photospheric state. While no single combination is clearly the best discriminator, we demonstrate here the requisite approach: include flare

  10. EFFECTS OF THE NON-RADIAL MAGNETIC FIELD ON MEASURING MAGNETIC HELICITY TRANSPORT ACROSS THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y. L.; Zhang, M.

    2015-05-10

    It is generally believed that the evolution of magnetic helicity has a close relationship with solar activity. Before the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), earlier studies had mostly used Michelson Doppler Imager/SOHO line of sight (LOS) magnetograms and assumed that magnetic fields are radial when calculating the magnetic helicity injection rate from photospheric magnetograms. However, this assumption is not necessarily true. Here we use the vector magnetograms and LOS magnetograms, both taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on SDO, to estimate the effects of the non-radial magnetic field on measuring the magnetic helicity injection rate. We find that: (1) the effect of the non-radial magnetic field on estimating tangential velocity is relatively small; (2) when estimating the magnetic helicity injection rate, the effect of the non-radial magnetic field is strong when active regions are observed near the limb and is relatively weak when active regions are close to disk center; and (3) the effect of the non-radial magnetic field becomes minor if the amount of accumulated magnetic helicity is the only concern.

  11. SMM observations of K-alpha radiation from fluorescence of photospheric iron by solar flare X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, A. N.; Culhane, J. L.; Rapley, C. G.; Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution Fe K-alpha spectra near 1.94 A observed during solar flares with the Bent Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission are presented. The evidence for two possible excitation mechanisms, electron impact and fluorescence, is examined. It is found that the fluorescence mechanism satisfactorily describes the results, while the observations do not support electron collisional excitation of the Fe K-alpha transitions in low ionization stages (II-XII) of iron. Using Bai's model of the fluorescent excitation process, the photospheric iron abundance relative to that of hydrogen is estimated to be 5-6 x 10 to the -5th. The mean height of the soft X-ray source producing the K-alpha fluorescence is calculated on the basis of this model for about 40 large flares. The solar K-alpha lines are found to be about 25 percent wider than those measured in the laboratory. Weak line features observed at wavelengths shorter than that of the K-alpha lines are discussed.

  12. Signature of Temporary Burning Front Stalling from a Non-Photospheric Radius Expansion Double-Peaked Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2006-01-01

    Non-photospheric-radius-expansion(non-PRE) double-peaked bursts may be explained in terms of spreading (and temporary stalling) of thermonuclear flames on the neutron star surface, as we argued in a previous study of a burst assuming polar ignition. Here we analyze Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of such a burst (but with a considerably different intensity profile from the previous one) from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system 4U 1636-536, and show that this model can qualitatively explain the observed burst profile and spectral evolution, if we assume an off-polar, but high-latitude ignition, and burning front stalling at a higher latitude compared to that for the previous burst. The off-polar ignition can account for the millisecond period brightness oscillations detected from this burst. This is the first time oscillations have been seen from such a burst. Our model can qualitatively explain the oscillation amplitude measured during the first (weaker) peak, and the absence of oscillations during the second peak. The higher latitude front stalling facilitates the first clear detection of a signature of this stalling, which is the primary result of this work, and may be useful for understanding thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars.

  13. UNRESOLVED MIXED POLARITY MAGNETIC FIELDS AT FLUX CANCELLATION SITE IN SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AT 0.''3 SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Masahito; Low, Boon Chye; Lites, Bruce W

    2014-09-20

    This is a follow-up investigation of a magnetic flux cancellation event at a polarity inversion line (PIL) on the Sun observed with the spectropolarimeter on board Hinode. Anomalous circular polarization (Stokes V) profiles are observed in the photosphere along the PIL at the cancellation sites. Kubo et al. previously reported that the theoretically expected horizontal fields between the canceling opposite-polarity magnetic elements in this event are not detected at granular scales. We show that the observed anomalous Stokes V profiles are reproduced successfully by adding the nearly symmetric Stokes V profiles observed at pixels immediately adjacent to the PIL. This result suggests that these observed anomalous Stokes V profiles are not indications of a flux removal process, but are the result of either a mixture of unresolved, opposite-polarity magnetic elements or the unresolved width of the PIL, at an estimated resolution element of about 0.''3. The hitherto undetected flux removal process accounting for the larger-scale disappearance of magnetic flux during the observing period is likely to also fall below resolution.

  14. Predicting the near-Sun and Interplanetary Magnetic Field of CMEs using photospheric magnetograms and coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Georgoulis, Manolis

    2016-04-01

    Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) containing a strong southward magnetic-field component upon arrival at 1 AU statistically account for the most powerful geomagnetic storms. Unfortunately, though, we currently lack routine diagnostics of the magnetic field of CMEs and its evolution in the inner heliosphere and the interplanetary (IP) medium. We hereby present a simple, yet powerful and easy-to-implement, method to deduce the near-Sun and IP magnetic field entrained in CMEs, by using photospheric magnetograms of the solar source regions and multi-viewpoint coronagraph images of the corresponding CMEs. The method relies on the principle of magnetic-helicity conservation in low plasma-beta, flux-rope CMEs and a power-law prescription of the radial evolution of the CME magnetic field in the IP medium. We outline a parametric study based on the observed statistics of input parameters to calculate a matrix of magnetic-field solutions for 10000 synthetic CMEs. The robustness and possible limitations / ramifications of the method are deduced by a comparison with the distributions of the predicted CME-ICME magnetic fields at 0.3 and 1 AU using actual Messenger and ACE published observations.

  15. Simultaneous soft and hard X-ray spectroscopy of AM Herculis with EXOSAT: Discovery of photospheric absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerels, Frits; Heise, John; Teeseling, Andre Van

    1994-01-01

    We present 0.1-10 keV spectroscopic observations of AM Herculis obtained with the Transmission Grating Spectrometers and Medium Energy experiments on EXOSAT, taken when the object was in its 'reversed X-ray mode.' The observation covers over six binary orbits without interruption, enabling us to analyze the phase and intensity dependence of both the hard and the soft spectrum simultaneously. We resolve the optically thick soft X-ray spectrum, and find definite evidence for time- and phase-dependent photospheric absorption structure arising in the white dwarf atmosphere. We present a simple empirical analysis of the combined soft and hard X-ray spectra, to examine whether the effect of a better determination of the column density of neutral absorbing material, afforded by our data, would solve the problem of the large relative soft X-ray overluminosity previously observed in AM Her. We find that a single absorbing column fits the entire spectrum, and that the column densities implied are indeed substantially lower than previously estimated. However, during half the binary orbit we still determine a strong lower limit to the soft-to-hard luminosity ratio of L(sub soft)/L(sub hard) is greater than or approximately equal to 10, in conflict with the simple radiative shock models for the accretion region. We argue that this indicates the need to reexamine the luminosity problem using explicit models for the emission spectrum based on a full solution of the atmospheric radiative transfer problem.

  16. The Effects of Magnetic Field Morphology on the Determination of Oxygen and Iron Abundances in the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Uitenbroek, Han; Rempel, Matthias; Criscuoli, Serena; Rast, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The solar chemical abundance (or a scaled version of it) is implemented in numerous astrophysical analyses. Thus, an accurate and precise estimation of the solar elemental abundance is crucial in astrophysics.We have explored the impact of magnetic fields on the determination of the solar photospheric oxygen andiron abundances using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of convection. Specifically, weexamined differences in abundance deduced from three classes of atmospheres simulated with the MURaM code: apure hydrodynamic (HD) simulation, an MHD simulation with a local dynamo magnetic field that has saturated withan unsigned vertical field strength of 80 G at the optical depth unity surface, and an MHD simulation with an initially imposed vertical mean field of 80 G. We use differential equivalent width analysis for diagnosing abundances derived from five oxygen and four iron spectral lines of differing wavelength, oscillator strength, excitation potential, and Lande g-factor, and find that the morphology of the magnetic field is important to the outcome of abundance determinations. The largest deduced abundance differences are found in the vertical mean field simulations and small scale unresolved field resulting from the local dynamo has a smaller impact on abundance determinations.

  17. Photospheric, circumstellar, and interstellar features of HE, C, N. O, and Si in the HST spectra of four hot white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott W.; Barstow, Martin; Bond, Howard; Bruhweiler, Fred; Finley, David; Fontaine, Gilles; Holberg, Jay; Nousek, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the observations of four hot white dwarf stars with the spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The higher resolving power and higher signal/noise, in comparison with IUE, reveals a very rich phenomomenology, including photospheric features from heavy elements, circumstellar features, and the first direct detection of accretion onto the white dwarf component of a binary system. Specific results include the following: Our observations of the ultrahot degenerate H1504+65 confirm that it has a photosphere which is depleted in both H and He, and reveals features of C IV and O VI. The spectrum fits previously published models extremely well. The intermediate-temperature DO star PG 1034+001 has an ultraviolet spectrum showing complex profiles of the well-known resonance doublets of C IV, N v, and Si IV. The O V 1371 line shows a clear separation into a photospheric and a circumstellar component, and it is likely that the same two components can explain the other lines as well. The cooler DA star GD 394 has an extensive system of heavy-element features, but their radial velocity is such that it is highly unlikely that they are formed in the stellar photosphere. Time-resolved spectra of the accreting white dwarf in the V 471 Tau binary system are briefly presented here; they do show the presence of C IV, Si IV, and He II. However, the C IV and He II lines are in emission, rather than in aborption as had been expected.

  18. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. 4: Polarization, directivity and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1976-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method is described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. the accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. Using the characteristics of the incident X-rays of the model for solar X-ray flares, the spectrum, directivity and polarization of the reflected and the total X-ray fluxes are evaluated. The results are compared with observations.

  19. Towards understanding magnetic field generation in relativistic shocks with GRB afterglow observations and the GRB radiation mechanism with photospheric simulations and the X-ray flare radiation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Rodolfo

    2015-12-01

    In this thesis, we present three projects on open questions in the Gammaray Burst (GRB) field. In the first project, we used X-ray and optical observations to determine the amount of amplification of the ISM magnetic field needed to explain the GRB afterglow observations. We determined that mild amplification is required, at a level stronger than shock-compression but weaker than predicted by the Weibel mechanism. In the second project, we present a Monte Carlo code we wrote from scratch to perform realistic simulations of the photospheric process, one of the mechanisms considered to explain the GRB gamma-ray emission. We determined that photospheric emission can explain the GRB gamma-ray spectrum above the peak-energy if the photons are taken to have a temperature much smaller than the electron temperature and if the interactions between photons and electrons take place at a large optical depth. In the third project, we used multi-wavelength observations to constrain the X-ray flare radiation mechanism. We determined that synchrotron from a Poynting jet and the Photospheric process are the best candidates to explain the X-ray flare observations.

  20. Study of the inner dust envelope and stellar photosphere of the AGB star R Doradus using SPHERE/ZIMPOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouri, T.; Maercker, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Kervella, P.; de Koter, A.; Ginski, C.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; O'Gorman, E.; Schmid, H.-M.; Lombaert, R.; Lagadec, E.

    2016-06-01

    Context. On the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) low- and intermediate-mass stars eject a large fraction of their envelope, but the mechanism driving these outflows is still poorly understood. For oxygen-rich AGB stars, the wind is thought to be driven by radiation pressure caused by scattering of radiation off dust grains. Aims: We study the photosphere, the warm molecular layer, and the inner wind of the close-by oxygen-rich AGB star R Doradus. We focus on investigating the spatial distribution of the dust grains that scatter light and whether these grains can be responsible for driving the outflow of this star. Methods: We use high-angular-resolution images obtained with SPHERE/ZIMPOL to study R Dor and its inner envelope in a novel way. We present observations in filters V, cntHα, and cnt820 and investigate the surface brightness distribution of the star and of the polarised light produced in the inner envelope. Thanks to second-epoch observations in cntHα, we are able to see variability on the stellar photosphere. We study the polarised-light data using a continuum-radiative-transfer code that accounts for direction-dependent scattering of photons off dust grains. Results: We find that in the first epoch the surface brightness of R Dor is asymmetric in V and cntHα, the filters where molecular opacity is stronger, while in cnt820 the surface brightness is closer to being axisymmetric. The second-epoch observations in cntHα show that the morphology of R Dor has changed completely in a timespan of 48 days to a more axisymmetric and compact configuration. This variable morphology is probably linked to changes in the opacity provided by TiO molecules in the extended atmosphere. The observations show polarised light coming from a region around the central star. The inner radius of the region from where polarised light is seen varies only by a small amount with azimuth. The value of the polarised intensity, however, varies by between a factor of 2.3 and 3.7 with

  1. MODELING THE ROSSITER–MCLAUGHLIN EFFECT: IMPACT OF THE CONVECTIVE CENTER-TO-LIMB VARIATIONS IN THE STELLAR PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Cegla, H. M.; Watson, C. A.; Oshagh, M.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of the Rossiter–McLaughlin (RM) effect provide information on star–planet alignments, which can inform planetary migration and evolution theories. Here, we go beyond the classical RM modeling and explore the impact of a convective blueshift that varies across the stellar disk and non-Gaussian stellar photospheric profiles. We simulated an aligned hot Jupiter with a four-day orbit about a Sun-like star and injected center-to-limb velocity (and profile shape) variations based on radiative 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar surface convection. The residuals between our modeling and classical RM modeling were dependent on the intrinsic profile width and v sin i; the amplitude of the residuals increased with increasing v sin i and with decreasing intrinsic profile width. For slowly rotating stars the center-to-limb convective variation dominated the residuals (with amplitudes of 10 s of cm s{sup −1} to ∼1 m s{sup −1}); however, for faster rotating stars the dominant residual signature was due a non-Gaussian intrinsic profile (with amplitudes from 0.5 to 9 m s{sup −1}). When the impact factor was 0, neglecting to account for the convective center-to-limb variation led to an uncertainty in the obliquity of ∼10°–20°, even though the true v sin i was known. Additionally, neglecting to properly model an asymmetric intrinsic profile had a greater impact for more rapidly rotating stars (e.g., v sin i = 6 km s{sup −1}) and caused systematic errors on the order of ∼20° in the measured obliquities. Hence, neglecting the impact of stellar surface convection may bias star–planet alignment measurements and consequently theories on planetary migration and evolution.

  2. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    SciTech Connect

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-02-20

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f{sub min}=27{sub −7}{sup +11}% over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  3. Photosphere emission in the X-ray flares of swift gamma-ray bursts and implications for the fireball properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Hou, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Jin E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-11-10

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ∼ 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor Γ{sub ph} of the outflow. The derived Γ{sub ph} range from 50 to 150 and a relation of Γ{sub ph} to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the Γ{sub 0} – L {sub iso} relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  4. Modeling the Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect: Impact of the Convective Center-to-limb Variations in the Stellar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegla, H. M.; Oshagh, M.; Watson, C. A.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect provide information on star-planet alignments, which can inform planetary migration and evolution theories. Here, we go beyond the classical RM modeling and explore the impact of a convective blueshift that varies across the stellar disk and non-Gaussian stellar photospheric profiles. We simulated an aligned hot Jupiter with a four-day orbit about a Sun-like star and injected center-to-limb velocity (and profile shape) variations based on radiative 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar surface convection. The residuals between our modeling and classical RM modeling were dependent on the intrinsic profile width and v sin i; the amplitude of the residuals increased with increasing v sin i and with decreasing intrinsic profile width. For slowly rotating stars the center-to-limb convective variation dominated the residuals (with amplitudes of 10 s of cm s-1 to ˜1 m s-1) however, for faster rotating stars the dominant residual signature was due a non-Gaussian intrinsic profile (with amplitudes from 0.5 to 9 m s-1). When the impact factor was 0, neglecting to account for the convective center-to-limb variation led to an uncertainty in the obliquity of ˜10°-20°, even though the true v sin i was known. Additionally, neglecting to properly model an asymmetric intrinsic profile had a greater impact for more rapidly rotating stars (e.g., v sin i = 6 km s-1) and caused systematic errors on the order of ˜20° in the measured obliquities. Hence, neglecting the impact of stellar surface convection may bias star-planet alignment measurements and consequently theories on planetary migration and evolution.

  5. Hinode Observation of Photospheric Magnetic Activities Triggering X-ray Microflares Around a Well-developed Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Tarbell, T. D.

    2010-09-01

    Microflares, which are small energetic events in the solar corona, are an example of dynamical phenomena suitable for understanding energy release processes in the solar corona. We identified 55 microflares around a well-developed sunspot surrounded by a moat with high-cadence X-ray images from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, and searched for their photospheric counterparts in line-of-sight magnetograms taken with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. We found opposite magnetic polarities encountering each other around the footpoints of 28 microflares, while we could not find such encounters around the footpoints of the other 27 microflares. Emerging magnetic fluxes in the moat were the dominant origin causing the encounters of opposite polarities (21 of 28 events). Unipolar moving magnetic features (MMFs) with negative polarities the same as the sunspot definitely caused the encounters of opposite polarities for five microflares. The decrease of magnetic flux, i.e., magnetic flux cancellation, was confirmed at the encountering site in typical examples of microflares. Microflares were not isotropically distributed around the spot; the microflares with emerging magnetic fluxes (EMFs) were observed in the direction where magnetic islands with the same polarity as the spot were located at the outer boundary of the moat, while the microflares with negative MMFs were observed in the direction where magnetic islands with polarity opposite to the spot were located at the outer boundary of the moat. We also found that EMFs in the moat had a unique orientation in which those with the same polarity as the spot is closer to the spot than the other one that had the opposite polarity to the spot. These observational results lead to two magnetic configurations including magnetic reconnection for triggering energy release at least in half of the microflares around the spot, and suggest that the global magnetic structures around the spot strongly affect what kinds of polarity encounters

  6. The photospheric abundances of active binaries. II. Atmospheric parameters and abundance patterns for 6 single-lined RS CVn systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, T.; Micela, G.; Favata, F.; Katz, D.; Pillitteri, I.

    2003-12-01

    Photospheric parameters and abundances are presented for a sample of single-lined chromospherically active binaries from a differential LTE analysis of high-resolution spectra. Abundances have been derived for 13 chemical species, including several key elements such as Li, Mg, and Ca. Two methods have been used. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities were first derived from a fully self-consistent analysis of the spectra, whereby the temperature is determined from the excitation equilibrium of the Fe I lines. The second approach relies on temperatures derived from the (B-V) colour index. These two methods give broadly consistent results for the stars in our sample, suggesting that the neutral iron lines are formed under conditions close to LTE. We discuss the reliability in the context of chromospherically active stars of various colour indices used as temperature indicators, and conclude that the (V-R) and (V-I) colours are likely to be significantly affected by activity processes. Irrespective of the method used, our results indicate that the X-ray active binaries studied are not as metal poor as previously claimed, but are at most mildly iron-depleted relative to the Sun (-0.41protect <~ [Fe/H]protect la +0.11). A significant overabundance of several chemical species is observed (e.g., the alpha -synthezised elements). These abundance patterns are discussed in relation to stellar activity. Based on observations collected at ESO (La Silla, Chile). Table A.1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/495

  7. THE EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD MORPHOLOGY ON THE DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN AND IRON ABUNDANCES IN THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Christopher S.; Uitenbroek, Han; Criscuoli, Serena; Rempel, Matthias; Rast, Mark P.

    2015-02-01

    We have explored the impact of magnetic fields on the determination of the solar photospheric oxygen and iron abundances using three-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of convection. Specifically, we examined differences in abundance deduced from three classes of atmospheres simulated with the MURaM code: a pure hydrodynamic (HD) simulation, an MHD simulation with a local dynamo magnetic field that has saturated with an unsigned vertical field strength of 80 G at τ = 1, and an MHD simulation with an initially imposed vertical mean field of 80 G. We use differential equivalent width analysis for diagnosing abundances derived from five oxygen and four iron lines of differing wavelength, oscillator strength, excitation potential, and Landé g-factor, and find that the morphology of the magnetic field is important to the outcome of abundance determinations. The largest deduced abundance differences are found in the vertical mean field simulations, where the O I and Fe I abundance corrections compared to the pure HD case are ∼+0.011 dex and +0.065 dex respectively. Small scale unresolved field resulting from the local dynamo has a smaller impact on abundance determinations, with corrections of –0.0001 dex and +0.0044 dex in the magnetized compared to the pure HD simulations. While the overall influence of magnetic field on abundance estimates is found to be small, we stress that such estimates are sensitive not only to the magnitude of magnetic field but also to its morphology.

  8. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  9. Solar winds driven by nonlinear low-frequency Alfvén waves from the photosphere: Parametric study for fast/slow winds and disappearance of solar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    We investigate how properties of the corona and solar wind in open coronal holes depend on properties of magnetic fields and their footpoint motions at the surface. We perform one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations for the heating and the acceleration in coronal holes by low-frequency Alfvén waves from the photosphere to 0.3 or 0.1 AU. We impose low-frequency (≲0.05 Hz) transverse fluctuations of the field lines at the photosphere with various amplitude, spectrum, and polarization in the open flux tubes with different photospheric field strength, Br,0, and superradial expansion of the cross section, fmax. We find that transonic solar winds are universal consequences. The atmosphere is also stably heated up to ≳106 K by the dissipation of the Alfvén waves through compressive-wave generation and wave reflection in the cases of the sufficient wave input with photospheric amplitude, ≳ 0.7 km s-1. The density, and accordingly the mass flux, of solar winds show a quite sensitive dependence on because of an unstable aspect of the heating by the nonlinear Alfvén waves. A case with = 0.4 km s-1 gives ≃50 times smaller mass flux than the fiducial case for the fast wind with = 0.7 km s-1; solar wind virtually disappears only if becomes ≃1/2. We also find that the solar wind speed has a positive correlation with Br,0/fmax, which is consistent with recent observations by Kojima et al. On the basis of these findings, we show that both fast and slow solar winds can be explained by the single process, the dissipation of the low-frequency Alfvén waves, with different sets of and Br,0/fmax. Our simulations naturally explain the observed (1) anticorrelation of the solar wind speed and the coronal temperature and (2) larger amplitude of Alfvénic fluctuations in the fast wind. In Appendix A, we also explain our implementation of the outgoing boundary condition of the MHD waves with some

  10. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring vs. Flare-Quiet Active Regions II: A Magnetic Charge Topology Model and Statistical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Longcope, D. W.

    2003-05-01

    The complexity of the coronal magnetic field extrapolated from a Magnetic Charge Topology (MCT) model, is examined for pre-event signatures unique to solar energetic phenomena. Although extensive use has been made of quantities measured at the photosphere, it is important to consider the magnetic field in the corona, where (for example) the hard X-ray signatures of energy release in solar flares are observed. By quantifying the inferred coronal magnetic topology we are no longer limited to considering solely the magnetic state of the photosphere. MCT is applied to temporally sampled photospheric magnetic data from the U. Hawai`i Imaging Vector Magnetograph, for 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs from seven active regions. We outline the methodology employed for automating the application of MCT to large data sets of complex active regions: partitioning the observed Bz at the photosphere, assigning a charge to each partition, and using this charge distribution to extrapolate the field in the corona. From the resulting field we compute the connectivity matrix ψ ij, the location of null points and the intersection of separatrix surfaces, i.e. separator field lines. Parameters are constructed to describe, for example, the magnetic connectivities, the magnetic flux in those connections, and the number of separators. Examining particular events results in no obvious trends in the magnitude and temporal evolution of the parameters just prior to flare events. Thus, we employ the same quantitative statistical approach outlined in Leka and Barnes [this session], i.e. applying discriminant analysis and Hotelling's T2-test, and ranking all four-variable discriminant functions as a proxy for a single all-variable discriminant function. We present those parameters which consistently appear in the best combinations, indicating that they may play an important role in defining a pre-event coronal state. This work was performed under Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  11. NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF A CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE SUPPORTING A LARGE-SCALE SOLAR FILAMENT FROM A PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang; Feng, Xueshang E-mail: wus@uah.edu E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn

    2014-05-10

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ≲ 100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  12. How Dusty Is Alpha Centauri? Excess or Non-excess over the Infrared Photospheres of Main-sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegert, J.; Liseau, R.; Thebault, P.; Olofsson, G.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J. C.; Aran, A. Bayo; Danchi, W. C.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Hajigholi, M.; Krivov, A. V.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Debris discs around main-sequence stars indicate the presence of larger rocky bodies. The components of the nearby, solar-type binary Centauri have metallicities that are higher than solar, which is thought to promote giant planet formation. Aims. We aim to determine the level of emission from debris around the stars in the Cen system. This requires knowledge of their photospheres.Having already detected the temperature minimum, Tmin, of CenA at far-infrared wavelengths, we here attempt to do the same for the moreactive companion Cen B. Using the Cen stars as templates, we study the possible eects that Tmin may have on the detectability of unresolveddust discs around other stars. Methods.We used Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry to determine the stellar spectral energy distributions in thefar infrared and submillimetre. In addition, we used APEX-SHeFI observations for spectral line mapping to study the complex background around Cen seen in the photometric images. Models of stellar atmospheres and of particulate discs, based on particle simulations and in conjunctionwith radiative transfer calculations, were used to estimate the amount of debris around these stars. Results. For solar-type stars more distant than Cen, a fractional dust luminosity fd LdustLstar 2 107 could account for SEDs that do not exhibit the Tmin eect. This is comparable to estimates of fd for the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt of the solar system. In contrast to the far infrared,slight excesses at the 2:5 level are observed at 24 m for both CenA and B, which, if interpreted as due to zodiacal-type dust emission, wouldcorrespond to fd (13) 105, i.e. some 102 times that of the local zodiacal cloud. Assuming simple power-law size distributions of the dustgrains, dynamical disc modelling leads to rough mass estimates of the putative Zodi belts around the Cen stars, viz.4106 M$ of 4 to 1000 msize grains, distributed according to n(a) a3:5. Similarly, for filled-in Tmin

  13. How dusty is α Centauri?. Excess or non-excess over the infrared photospheres of main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, J.; Liseau, R.; Thébault, P.; Olofsson, G.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J. C.; Bayo Aran, A.; Danchi, W. C.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Hajigholi, M.; Krivov, A. V.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Debris discs around main-sequence stars indicate the presence of larger rocky bodies. The components of the nearby, solar-type binary α Centauri have metallicities that are higher than solar, which is thought to promote giant planet formation. Aims: We aim to determine the level of emission from debris around the stars in the α Cen system. This requires knowledge of their photospheres. Having already detected the temperature minimum, Tmin, of α Cen A at far-infrared wavelengths, we here attempt to do the same for the more active companion α Cen B. Using the α Cen stars as templates, we study the possible effects that Tmin may have on the detectability of unresolved dust discs around other stars. Methods: We used Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry to determine the stellar spectral energy distributions in the far infrared and submillimetre. In addition, we used APEX-SHeFI observations for spectral line mapping to study the complex background around α Cen seen in the photometric images. Models of stellar atmospheres and of particulate discs, based on particle simulations and in conjunction with radiative transfer calculations, were used to estimate the amount of debris around these stars. Results: For solar-type stars more distant than α Cen, a fractional dust luminosity fd ≡ Ldust/Lstar 2 × 10-7 could account for SEDs that do not exhibit the Tmin effect. This is comparable to estimates of fd for the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt of the solar system. In contrast to the far infrared, slight excesses at the 2.5σ level are observed at 24 μm for both α Cen A and B, which, if interpreted as due to zodiacal-type dust emission, would correspond to fd (1-3) × 10-5, i.e. some 102 times that of the local zodiacal cloud. Assuming simple power-law size distributions of the dust grains, dynamical disc modelling leads to rough mass estimates of the putative Zodi belts around the α Cen stars, viz. ≲4 × 10-6 M≤ftmoon of 4 to 1000 μm size

  14. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph - Evidence for photospheric microturbulence in early O stars - Are surface gravities systematically underestimated?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubeny, I.; Heap, S. R.; Altner, B.

    1991-01-01

    GHRS spectra of two very hot stars provide evidence for the presence of microturbulence in their photospheres. In attempting to reproduce the observed spectra, theoretical models have been built in which the microturbulence is allowed to modify not only the Doppler line widths (classical 'spectroscopic' microturbulence), but also the turbulent pressure (thus mimicking a 'physical' turbulence). It is found that a corresponding modification of the temperature-pressure stratification influences the hydrogen and helium line profiles to the extent that the surface gravities of early O stars determined without considering microturbulence are too low by 0.1-0.15 dex. Thus, including microturbulence would reduce, or resolve completely, a long-standing discrepancy between evolutionary and spectroscopic stellar masses.

  15. Coupling of the Photosphere to the Solar Corona: A laboratory and observational study of Alfvén wave interaction with a neutral gas

    SciTech Connect

    watts, Christopher

    2010-01-31

    The grant funded a three year project to investigate the role of Alfvén waves as a possible mechanism heating plasmas, with relevance to solar coronal heating. Evidence suggests that there is strong coupling between the solar photosphere, corona and solar wind through Alfvén wave interaction with the neutral gas particles. A laboratory experimental and solar observational plan was designed to investigate in detail this interaction. Although many of the original research goals were met, difficulties in detecting the Alfvén wave signature meant that much of the research was stymied. This report summaries the work during the grant period, the challenges encountered and overcome, and the future research directions.

  16. Photospheric and chromospheric magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs. Observational inputs on the solar-stellar connection from Kepler and Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Beck, P. G.; Egeland, R.; Pallé, P. L.; Mathur, S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; Ceillier, T.; Andersen, M. F.; Triviño Hage, A.

    2016-11-01

    We identify a set of 18 solar analogs among the seismic sample of solar-like stars observed by the Kepler satellite rotating between 10 and 40 days. This set is constructed using the asteroseismic stellar properties derived using either the global oscillation properties or the individual acoustic frequencies. We measure the magnetic activity properties of these stars using observations collected by the photometric Kepler satellite and by the ground-based, high-resolution Hermes spectrograph mounted on the Mercator telescope. The photospheric (Sph) and chromospheric (S index) magnetic activity levels of these seismic solar analogs are estimated and compared in relation to the solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs, within the maximum-to-minimum temporal variations of the 11-yr solar activity cycle 23. In agreement with previous studies, the youngest stars and fastest rotators in our sample are actually the most active. The activity of stars older than the Sun seems to not evolve much with age. Furthermore, the comparison of the photospheric, Sph, with the well-established chromospheric, S index, indicates that the Sph index can be used to provide a suitable magnetic activity proxy which can be easily estimated for a large number of stars from space photometric observations. Based on observations collected by the NASA Kepler space telescope and the Hermes spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Mercator telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  17. The photospheric solar oxygen project. III. Investigation of the centre-to-limb variation of the 630 nm [O I]-Ni I blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Livingston, W.; Bonifacio, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Doerr, H.-P.; Schmidt, W.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The solar photospheric abundance of oxygen is still a matter of debate. For about ten years some determinations have favoured a low oxygen abundance which is at variance with the value inferred by helioseismology. Among the oxygen abundance indicators, the forbidden line at 630 nm has often been considered the most reliable even though it is blended with a Ni i line. In Papers I and II of this series we reported a discrepancy in the oxygen abundance derived from the 630 nm and the subordinate [O I] line at 636 nm in dwarf stars, including the Sun. Aims: Here we analyse several, in part new, solar observations of the centre-to-limb variation of the spectral region including the blend at 630 nm in order to separate the individual contributions of oxygen and nickel. Methods: We analyse intensity spectra observed at different limb angles in comparison with line formation computations performed on a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the solar atmosphere. Results: The oxygen abundances obtained from the forbidden line at different limb angles are inconsistent if the commonly adopted nickel abundance of 6.25 is assumed in our local thermodynamic equilibrium computations. With a slightly lower nickel abundance, A(Ni) ≈ 6.1, we obtain consistent fits indicating an oxygen abundance of A(O) = 8.73 ± 0.05. At this value the discrepancy with the subordinate oxygen line remains. Conclusions: The derived value of the oxygen abundance supports the notion of a rather low oxygen abundance in the solar photosphere. However, it is disconcerting that the forbidden oxygen lines at 630 and 636 nm give noticeably different results, and that the nickel abundance derived here from the 630 nm blend is lower than expected from other nickel lines.

  18. First Synoptic Maps of Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field from SOLIS/VSM: Non-radial Magnetic Fields and Hemispheric Pattern of Helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosain, S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of the observed radial field with the radial field estimate from line-of-sight magnetograms. Furthermore, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc , during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e., Hc is predominantly negative in the north and positive in the south. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears to be no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of the cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Furthermore, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30° <= θ <= 30°) separately for weak (100 G < |Br | < 500 G) and strong (|Br | > 1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., θ · Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., θ · Hc > 0), albeit with large statistical scatter. We discuss two plausible scenarios to explain the opposite hemispheric trend of helicity in weak and strong field regions.

  19. IMPROVED Co i log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2015-09-15

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 898 lines of the first spectrum of cobalt (Co i) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, AZ and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. Published radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements are combined with the branching fractions to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 898 lines. Hyperfine structure (hfs) constants for levels of neutral Co in the literature are surveyed and selected values are used to generate complete hfs component patterns for 195 transitions of Co i. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Co abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ϵ(Co) = 4.955 ± 0.007 (σ = 0.059) based on 82 Co i lines and log ϵ(Co) = 2.785 ± 0.008 (σ = 0.065) based on 66 Co i lines, respectively. A Saha or ionization balance test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is performed using 16 UV lines of Co ii, and good agreement is found with the Co i result in this metal-poor ([Fe i/H] = −2.32, [Fe ii/H] = −2.32) dwarf star. The resulting value of [Co/Fe] = +0.14 supports a rise of Co/Fe at low metallicity that has been suggested in other studies.

  20. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  1. Photospheric Acne at The Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Doppler Images of M4.5 - M9V Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, John R.; Haswell, Carole A.; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Lohr, Marcus E.; Jenkins, James S.

    2016-07-01

    Starspots are an important manifestation of stellar activity and yet their distribution patterns on the lowest mass stars is notwell known. Time series spectra of fullyconvective M dwarfs taken in the red-optical with UVES reveal numerous line profiledistortions which are interpreted as starspots. New Doppler images of HU Del (GJ 791.2A; M4.5V), BL Ceti (GJ 65A; M5.5V)and UV Ceti (GJ 65B; M6V) attwoepochs separated by three nights are presented. We find that contrastratioscorrespondingto photosphere-spot temperature differences of only 100-400 Kare sufficient to model the time series spectra of M4.5V - M9Vstars. Starspotsare reconstructed at a range of phases and latitudes with mean spot filling factors of only a few per cent.The distribution and low-contrast of the spots/spot-groups that we recover are likely to be responsible for the low amplitudephotometric variability seen in late-M dwarfs. The stability of the spot patterns in the two sets of timeseries observationsenables us to measure the latitude dependent differential rotation, which we find to be consistent with zero.

  2. The Photospheric Properties of the Underlying White Dwarf in the Nova-like Variable TT ARIETIS during its 1983 Low State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, D.; Nguyen, Q.; Belle, K.; Haung, M.; Sion, E. M.

    1995-12-01

    During 1983, TT Arietis entered a low state of visual magnitude 16 during which accretion declined to an extremely low level and the underlying white dwarf accreter was exposed both in the optical (e.g. the Stark-broadened wings of He II 4686dot {A}) and in the far ultraviolet (Shafter et al. 1985, ApJ, 290, 707). We have analyzed the low resolution IUE SWP spectra of TT Ari obtained during this low state with a grid of high gravity, solar composition model atmospheres convolved with IUE resolution, constructed with TLUSTY and SYNSPEC (Hubeny 1988, Comput.Phys.Comm. 52, 103; Hubeny 1995, TLUSTY and SYNSPEC USERS MANUAL, in press). We present the resulting photospheric parameters of the hot white dwarf, preliminary abundances of its accreted atmosphere, and a quantitative constraint on its global rotational velocity. This work has been supported by NASA LTSA grant NAGW-3726 and by a summer research grant from the NASA Delaware Space Grant Colleges Consortium.

  3. First Synoptic Maps of Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field from SOLIS/VSM: Non-radial Magnetic Fields and Hemispheric Pattern of Helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusain, Sanjay; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ≤ θ ≤ 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., θ.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., θ.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24

  4. Improved Cr II log(gf) Values and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Nave, G.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Emrahoğlu, N.; Cowan, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    New emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr ii) and new radiative lifetime measurements from laser-induced fluorescence for 8 levels of Cr+ are reported. The goals of this study are to improve transition probability measurements in Cr ii and reconcile solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr i and Cr ii lines. Eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high-resolution echelle spectrometer are used in the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from this study and earlier publications are used to convert the BFs into absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log ε in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is < {log}\\varepsilon ({Cr} {{II}})> = 5.624 ± 0.009 compared to < {log}\\varepsilon ({Cr} {{I}})> = 5.644 ± 0.006 on a scale with the hydrogen abundance log ε(H) = 12 and with the uncertainty representing only line-to-line scatter. A Saha (ionization balance) test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is also performed, yielding < {log}\\varepsilon ({Cr} {{II}})> = 3.417 ± 0.006 and 0 eV)> = 3.374 ± 0.011 for this dwarf star. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V, and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history—other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr.

  5. 3-D MHD Model of the Solar Wind-Interplanetary Space Combining System 1:Variation of Solar Wind Speed Associated with the Photospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamizo, A.; Tanaka, T.

    2006-12-01

    Existing global models of the solar-wind/IMF expanding to the Earth's orbit are basically grounded in the idea of "source surface." It is widely accepted that the sector structure and the solar wind speed are primarily controlled by the magnetic field at the source surface and the so-called "expansion factor." On the other hand, 3-D MHD model is still off from practical use because both of scientific and technical problems. One of the former problems is the reproduction of supersonic solar-wind. From the viewpoint of the physics of the solar wind, coronal heating and outward acceleration mechanisms are invoked to explain the supersonic evolution of the solar wind. Since the mechanism responsible for the heating/acceleration is still one of the primary subjects of the physics of the solar wind, many MHD models have taken into account their effects by incorporating additional source terms corresponding to promising candidates such as thermal conductions, radiation losses and wave pressures. However there are few MHD models considering the effect of the expansion factor, which determines the solar-wind speed in the series of source surface models. In this study we newly incorporate the flux tube expansion rate into the MHD equation system including heat source function in the energy equation. Appling the unstructured grid system, we achieved the dense grid spacing at the inner boundary, which enable us to adopt realistic solar magnetic fields, and a size of simulation space of 1AU. Photospheric magnetic field data is used as the inner boundary condition.The simulation results are summarized as: (1) The variation of solar wind speed is well controlled by the structure of magnetic fields at and little above the solar surface and (2) Far above the solar surface, the interface between high and low speed flows evolves to a structure suggestive of CIRs. Comparing the data from simulation with the actual solar wind data obtained by spacecrafts, we will discuss the future

  6. Magnetic activity in the photosphere of CoRoT-Exo-2a. Active longitudes and short-term spot cycle in a young Sun-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, A. F.; Pagano, I.; Leto, G.; Messina, S.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Boumier, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Comparato, M.; Cutispoto, G.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Foing, B.; Kaiser, A.; Moutou, C.; Parihar, P. S.; Silva-Valio, A.; Weiss, W. W.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The space experiment CoRoT has recently detected transits by a hot Jupiter across the disc of an active G7V star (CoRoT-Exo-2a) that can be considered as a good proxy for the Sun at an age of approximately 0.5 Gyr. Aims: We present a spot modelling of the optical variability of the star during 142 days of uninterrupted observations performed by CoRoT with unprecedented photometric precision. Methods: We apply spot modelling approaches previously tested in the case of the Sun by modelling total solar irradiance variations, a good proxy for the optical flux variations of the Sun as a star. The best results in terms of mapping of the surface brightness inhomogeneities are obtained by means of maximum entropy regularized models. To model the light curve of CoRoT-Exo-2a, we take into account the photometric effects of both cool spots and solar-like faculae, adopting solar analogy. Results: Two active longitudes initially on opposite hemispheres are found on the photosphere of CoRoT-Exo-2a with a rotation period of 4.522 ± 0.024 days. Their separation changes by ≈80° during the time span of the observations. From this variation, a relative amplitude of the surface differential rotation lower than ~1 percent is estimated. Individual spots form within the active longitudes and show an angular velocity ~1 percent lower than that of the longitude pattern. The total spotted area shows a cyclic oscillation with a period of 28.9 ± 4.3 days, which is close to 10 times the synodic period of the planet as seen by the rotating active longitudes. We discuss the effects of solar-like faculae on our models, finding indications of a facular contribution to the optical flux variations of CoRoT-Exo-2a being significantly smaller than in the present Sun. Conclusions: The implications of such results for the internal rotation of CoRoT-Exo-2a are discussed, based on solar analogy. A possible magnetic star-planet interaction is suggested by the cyclic variation of the spotted

  7. Improved Cr II log(gf)s and Cr Abundances in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-Poor Star HD 84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Chris; Nave, Gillian; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Emrahoglu, Nuri; Cowan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    New laser induced fluorescence (LIF) data for eight levels of singly ionized chromium (Cr) and emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr II) are reported. A goal of this study is to reconcile Solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr I and Cr II lines. Analyses of eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high resolution echelle spectrometer yield the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from LIF measurements are used to convert the BFs to absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log eps in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is = 5.624 ± 0.009 compared to = 5.644 ± 0.006 on a scale with the H abundance log eps(H) = 12. Similarily the photosphere of HD 84937 is found to be in Saha balance with = 3.417 ± 0.006 and 0 eV) > = 3.374 ± 0.011 for this dwarf star. The resonance (E.P. = 0 eV) lines of Cr I reveal overionization of the ground level of neutral Cr. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated or related nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history - other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr.This work is supported in part by NASA grant NNX16AE96G (J.E.L.), by NSF grant AST-1516182 (J.E.L. & E.D.H.), by NASA interagency agreement NNH10AN381 (G.N.), and NSF grant AST-1211585 (C.S.). Postdoctoral research support for N. E. is from the Technological and Scientific Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).

  8. Polar Faculae Are Faculae Of Old Age, Ascending To Photosphere From Sun's Upper Magnetic Toroid Levels, And Then Descending Near Equator by 105 Km, In Their Circulatory Motion, To Depths Slightly Below That of Lower Magnetic Toroid, And Then Ascending Again To Photosphere At Lat. 0c ¡A~50¢ª, N. And S.KEITH L. MCDONALD, P. O. Box 2433, Salt Lake City, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. L.

    2004-11-01

    We present arguments that Sun's polar magnetic fields, near 1 gauss strength, ascend to photosphere in polar facular increments, in accord with Fig. 1, 1 thru secular meridional circulation of both 3,600 + 25 gauss mag. toroids (as obs. at upper level) of each hemisphere, reversing polarities every 11 yr. Having been submerged to just below lower mag. toroid and traveling slightly faster there in circulatory mer. motions of Sun, which drive toroids, incipient polar faculae do not ascend with toroid at 0c = 40¢ª, but continue to higher latitudes ¡A~ 50¢ª, and now having aged by as much as one solar cycle plus ¢« 3 yr., they begin their appearance at photosphere. Ascent to photosphere requires greater travel time the greater is their lat. of vertical ascent, owing to reduced mer. circulation velocity with inc. in lat. above 40¢ª (Confer sketch of fluid motions, Fig. 1.1) Thus, polar faculae reaching photosphere at 63¢ª, where surface density increases strongly and reaches an almost constant value at 0c = 70¢ª, and that possibly extends over whole polar cap when near polar facular max., would be expected to have been formed at 40¢ª or at lesser lat. as faculae in previous sunspot cycle and would thus possess a significantly reduced observed lifetime compared to faculae in photosphere newly found below 40¢ª. Sheeley2 has counted numbers of n., s. polar faculae for period 1935-1963, 1964-1975. He finds a min. value corresponding to sunspot max. years, and conversely, so that their numbers are approx. 180¢ª out of phase with time variation of sunspot numbers for whole disk. Faculae and plages have property of being any bright regions of Sun¡¯s photosphere, seen most easily near Sun¡¯s limb and occurring most often in neighborhood of sunspots, their incandescence resulting from slow collapse of their individual engulfing mag. fields; violent turbulent eddies excise portions of toroids, including their mag. fields and transport them laterally into

  9. Improved Log(gf) Values for Lines of Ti I and Abundance Determinations in the Photospheres of the Sun and Metal-Poor Star HD 84937 (Accurate Transition Probabilities for Ti I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2013-04-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The new Ti I data are applied to re-determine the Ti abundance in the photospheres of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 using many lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential to explore possible non-local thermal equilibrium effects. The variation of relative Ti/Fe abundance with metallicity in metal-poor stars observed in earlier studies is supported in this study.

  10. IMPROVED log(gf) VALUES FOR LINES OF Ti I AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937 (ACCURATE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR Ti I)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: adrianaguzman2014@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2013-04-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The new Ti I data are applied to re-determine the Ti abundance in the photospheres of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 using many lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential to explore possible non-local thermal equilibrium effects. The variation of relative Ti/Fe abundance with metallicity in metal-poor stars observed in earlier studies is supported in this study.

  11. Determination of solar flare accelerated ion angular distributions from SMM gamma ray and neutron measurements and determination of the He-3/H ratio in the solar photosphere from SMM gamma ray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations of gamma-ray line and neutron emission with theoretical calculation of their expected production by flare accelerated ion interactions in the solar atmosphere have led to significant advances in the understanding of solar flare particle acceleration and interaction, as well as the flare process itself. These comparisons have enabled the determination of, not only the total number and energy spectrum of accelerated ions trapped at the sun, but also the ion angular distribution as they interact in the solar atmosphere. The Monte Carlo program was modified to include in the calculations of ion trajectories the effects of both mirroring in converging magnetic fields and of pitch angle scattering. Comparing the results of these calculations with the SMM observations, not only the angular distribution of the interacting ions can be determined, but also the initial angular distribution of the ions at acceleration. The reliable determination of the solar photospheric He-3 abundance is of great importance for understanding nucleosynthesis in the early universe and its implications for cosmology, as well as for the study of the evolution of the sun. It is also essential for the determinations of the spectrum and total number of flare accelerated ions from the SMM/GRS gamma-ray line measurements. Systematic Monte Carlo calculations of the time dependence were made as a function of the He-3 abundance and other variables. A new series of calculations were compared for the time-dependent flux of 2.223 MeV neutron capture line emission and the ratio of the time-integrated flux in the 2.223 MeV line to that in the 4.1 to 6.4 MeV nuclear deexcitation band.

  12. THE FRONTIER BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE BIPOLES AND EPHEMERAL REGIONS IN THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE: EMERGENCE AND DECAY OF AN INTERMEDIATE-SCALE BIPOLE OBSERVED WITH SUNRISE/IMaX

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmino, S. L.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. Carlos; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Solanki, S. K.; Gandorfer, A.; Barthol, P.; Schmidt, W.; Knoelker, M.

    2012-02-01

    We report on the photospheric evolution of an intermediate-scale ( Almost-Equal-To 4 Mm footpoint separation) magnetic bipole, from emergence to decay, observed in the quiet Sun at high spatial (0.''3) and temporal (33 s) resolution. The observations were acquired by the Imaging Magnetograph Experiment imaging magnetograph during the first science flight of the SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory. The bipole flux content is 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} Mx, representing a structure bridging the gap between granular scale bipoles and the smaller ephemeral regions. Footpoints separate at a speed of 3.5 km s{sup -1} and reach a maximum distance of 4.5 Mm before the field dissolves. The evolution of the bipole is revealed to be very dynamic: we found a proper motion of the bipole axis and detected a change of the azimuth angle of 90 Degree-Sign in 300 s, which may indicate the presence of some writhe in the emerging structure. The overall morphology and behavior are in agreement with previous analyses of bipolar structures emerging at the granular scale, but we also found several similarities with emerging flux structures at larger scales. The flux growth rate is 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} Mx s{sup -1}, while the mean decay rate is one order of magnitude smaller. We describe in some detail the decay phase of the bipole footpoints that includes break up into smaller structures, and interaction with preexisting fields leading to cancellation, but it appears to be dominated by an as-yet unidentified diffusive process that removes most of the flux with an exponential flux decay curve. The diffusion constant (8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} km{sup 2} s{sup -1}) associated with this decay is similar to the values used to describe the large-scale diffusion in flux transport models.

  13. Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  14. Dynamics of photospheric bright points in G-band derived from two fully automated algorithms. (Slovak Title: Dynamika fotosférických jasných bodov v G-páse odvodená použitím dvoch plne automatických algoritmov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnárová, M.; Rybák, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Utz, D.

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of small-scale magnetic field in the solar photosphere can be identified in the G-band of the solar spectrum as bright points. Studying the dynamics of the bright points in the G-band (BPGBs) can also help in addressing many issues related to the problem of the solar corona heating. In this work, we have used a set of 142 specled images in the G-band taken by the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 19 October 2005 to make a comparison of two fully automated algorithms identifying BPGBs: an algorithm developed by Utz et al. (2009, 2010), and an algorithm developed following the work of Berger et al. (1995, 1998). We then followed in time and space motion of the BPGBs identified by both algorithms and constructed the distributions of their lifetimes, sizes and speeds. The results show that both algorithms give very similar results for the BPGB lifetimes and speeds, but their results vary significantly for the sizes of the identified BPGBs. This difference is due to the fact that in the case of the Berger et al. identification algorithm no additional criteria were applied to constrain the allowed BPGB sizes. As a result in further studies of the BPGB dynamics we will prefer to use the Utz algorithm to identify and track BPGBs.

  15. Dynamical behaviour of photospheric bright points during merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, S.; Stangalini, M.; Ermolli, I.; Zuccarello, F.; Cristaldi, A.; Falco, M.; Guglielmino, S.; Giorgi, F.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the merging of bright points observed at high spatial and temporal resolution with CRISP/SST in a quiet region region. We analyze the MHD perturbations excited during the merging, their role in the energy budget of the magnetic structure and the potential role that they can play in heating the upper layers of the Sun's atmosphere.

  16. Analysis of Photospheric Convection Cells with SDO/HMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peter E.; Pesnell, William Dean

    2010-01-01

    Supergranulation is a component of solar convection that assists in the outward transportation of internal energy. Supergranule cells are approximately 35 Mm across, have lifetimes on the order of a day and have divergent horizontal velocities of around 300 m/s, a factor of 10 higher than their central radial components. While they have been observed using Doppler methods for around half a century, their existence is also observed in other datasets such as magnetograms and Ca II K images. These datasets clearly show the influence of supergranulation on solar magnetism and how the local field is organized by the flows of supergranule cells. The Heliospheric and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard SDO is making fresh observations of convection phenomena at a higher cadence and a higher resolution that should make granular features visible. Granulation and supergranulation characteristics can now be compared within the same datasets, which may lead to further understanding of any mutual influences. The temporal and spatial enhancements of HMI will also reduce the noise level within studies of convection so that more detailed studies of their characteristics may be made. We present analyses of SDO/HMI Dopplergrams that provide new estimates of convection cell sizes, lifetimes, and velocity flows, as well as the rotation rates of the convection patterns across the solar disk. We make comparisons with previous data produced by MDI, as well as from data simulations.

  17. Infrared Imaging of Faculae at the Deepest Photospheric Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    heliostat of the National Solar Observatory McMath telescope at Kitt Peak. In place of the usual image-forming mirror, a 20 cm objective lens of 9 m focal...faculae put forward by Schatten et al. (1986). In that model, the faculae are interpreted as the sites of increased advection of heat from below by...systematic upflows. This increased local heat input is considered to cause heating of the facular subphotospheric layers and to increase their pressure

  18. Study of environment and photosphere of 51 Oph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamialahmadi, N.; Berio, Ph.; Lopez, B.; Meilland, A.; Stee, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to improve our understanding of young fast-rotating stars evolving from the Herbig Ae/Be class to the Vega-like one. We observed with the VEGA instrument on CHARA one object so-called 51 Oph that is probably in such an evolutionary phase, allowing us to measure a mean stellar radius for the first time for this star and to show that the Hα emission was produced in a Keplerian rotating disc. However, additional observations are needed to improve our (u,v) plan coverage in order to measure the flattening of this close-to-critically rotating star and to probe the inner region of its circumstellar gaseous disc. These studies will help to disentangle the gas and dust emission around this late young star and will finally improve our understanding of the planet formation conditions in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs.

  19. Magnetic modulation of solar luminosity by photospheric activity

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, P.; Lean, J.

    1988-05-01

    The behavior of slow changes in solar irradiance S is studied using measurements obtained with radiometers on the SMM and Nimbus 7 spacecraft. The general downtrend in the radiometer readings is examined by removing the influence of sunspot blocking and comparing the residual irradiance variations with changes in facular and network radiation as indicated by the He I 10830 and CaK indices. The time-integrated sunspot and facular contributions to irradiance variation and its implications for active region energetics are considered. The magnetic activity modulation of S over solar cycle 21 from daily data on sunspot blocking and the He I index are simulated, and this simulated irradiance variation is compared to radiometry since 1978. Other recent evidence for an irradiance modulation by magnetic activity is discussed. 38 references.

  20. Photospheric and Subphotospheric Dynamics of Emerging Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.

    Magnetic fields emerging from the Sun's interior carry information about physical processes of magnetic field generation and transport in the convection zone. Soon after appearance on the solar surface the magnetic flux gets concentrated in sunspot regions and causes numerous active phenomena on the Sun. This paper discusses some properties of the emerging magnetic flux observed on the solar surface and in the interior. A statistical analysis of variations of the tilt angle of bipolar magnetic regions during the emergence shows that the systematic tilt with respect to the equator (the Joy's law) is most likely established below the surface. However, no evidence of the dependence of the tilt angle on the amount of emerging magnetic flux, predicted by the rising magnetic flux rope theories, is found. Analysis of surface plasma flows in a large emerging active region reveals strong localized upflows and downflows at the initial phase of emergence but finds no evidence for large-scale flows indicating future appearance a large-scale magnetic structure. Local helioseismology provides important tools for mapping perturbations of the wave speed and mass flows below the surface. Initial results from SOHO/MDI and GONG reveal strong diverging flows during the flux emergence, and also localized converging flows around stable sunspots. The wave speed images obtained during the process of formation of a large active region, NOAA 10488, indicate that the magnetic flux gets concentrated in strong field structures just below the surface. Further studies of magnetic flux emergence require systematic helioseismic observations from the ground and space, and realistic MHD simulations of the subsurface dynamics.

  1. Photospheric and Subphotospheric Dynamics of Emerging Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic fields emerging from the Sun’s interior carry information about physical processes of magnetic field generation and transport in the convection zone. Soon after appearance on the solar surface the magnetic flux gets concentrated in sunspot regions and causes numerous active phenomena on the Sun. This paper discusses some properties of the emerging magnetic flux observed on the solar surface and in the interior. A statistical analysis of variations of the tilt angle of bipolar magnetic regions during the emergence shows that the systematic tilt with respect to the equator (the Joy’s law) is most likely established below the surface. However, no evidence of the dependence of the tilt angle on the amount of emerging magnetic flux, predicted by the rising magnetic flux rope theories, is found. Analysis of surface plasma flows in a large emerging active region reveals strong localized upflows and downflows at the initial phase of emergence but finds no evidence for large-scale flows indicating future appearance a large-scale magnetic structure. Local helioseismology provides important tools for mapping perturbations of the wave speed and mass flows below the surface. Initial results from SOHO/MDI and GONG reveal strong diverging flows during the flux emergence, and also localized converging flows around stable sunspots. The wave speed images obtained during the process of formation of a large active region, NOAA 10488, indicate that the magnetic flux gets concentrated in strong field structures just below the surface. Further studies of magnetic flux emergence require systematic helioseismic observations from the ground and space, and realistic MHD simulations of the subsurface dynamics.

  2. Photospheric emission throughout GRB 100507 detected by Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Pescalli, A.; Ghisellini, G.

    2013-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts with blackbody spectra are only a few and in most cases this spectral component is accompanied by a dominating non-thermal one. Only four bursts detected by Burst And Transient Source Experiment have a pure blackbody spectrum throughout their duration. We present the new case of GRB 100507 detected by the Gamma Burst Monitor on board the Fermi satellite. GRB 100507 has a blackbody spectrum for the entire duration (˜30 s) of the prompt emission. The blackbody temperature varies between 25 and 40 keV. The flux varies between 10-7 and 4 × 10-7 erg cm-2 s. There is no clear evidence of a correlation between the temperature and the blackbody flux. If the thermal emission in GRB 100507 is due to the fireballs becoming transparent, we can estimate the radius RT and bulk Lorentz factor ΓT corresponding to this transition and the radius R0 where the fireballs are created. We compare these parameters with those derived for the other four bursts with a pure blackbody spectrum. In all but one burst, for fiducial assumptions on the radiative efficiency and distance of the sources, R0 ˜ 109-1010 cm, i.e. much larger than the gravitational radius of a few solar mass black hole. Possible solutions of this apparent inconsistency are tentatively discussed considering the dependence of R0 on the unknown parameters. Alternatively, such a large R0 could be where the fireball, still opaque, converts most of its kinetic energy into internal energy (due to the impact with some material left over by the progenitor star) and starts to re-accelerate.

  3. The nature of microturbulence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. M.; Guidry, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the increase in apparent Doppler width as the limb is approached is a natural consequence of the fact that the solar atmosphere is not homogeneous. The work on the sodium D line cores which assumes the solar atmosphere to be homogeneous is reviewed. It appears that the cores of the sodium D lines have been distorted by fluctuations in the solar atmosphere in a systematic manner. It is concluded that the increase in apparent Doppler width observed in the sodium D line is a natural consequence of the temperature fluctuations in the solar atmosphere. The presence of a velocity field is not required to produce this effect.

  4. Connecting Photospheric Magnetic Fields and Transition Temperature Plasma Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The connectivity of quiet sun magnetic fields is not well understood. One observational obstacle to probe this question has been the sparse spectral observations spanning the transition temperatures (3×104 K< T < 1×105K) between the chromosphere and corona. The Si IV lines observed by IRIS provide a rich dataset to address the structure of the cool quiet sun. We use over 900 deep exposures from IRIS to map the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations. Ultimately, our aim is to discern the topology and energetic equilibrium of the magnetic structures that span the quiet sun. We use both a potential field model and a snapshot of the Bifrost 3D MHD simulation to interpret our emission data. In a broad sense, we find there is a clear correlation between magnetic fields and strong Si IV emission. However, more pointed statistics suggest that the relationship is quite complex. We do not find evidence for cool loops longer than 3 Mm in length, but we see ubiquitous, smooth emission nearly everywhere in the quiet sun. Emission voids on scales larger than 8 Mm cannot be well explained by their proximity to magnetic fields. This evidence suggests that weak-field transition-temperature loops contribute significantly to quiet sun transition-temperature emission measure, and evolutionary effects likely play a role in structuring the magnetic atmosphere.

  5. Location of energy source for coronal heating on the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhen-Xiang; Yang, Xu; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai-Fan; Ji, Hai-Sheng; Cao, Wen-Da

    2017-02-01

    It is reported that ultra-fine dynamic ejections along magnetic loops of an active region originate from intergranular lanes and they are associated with subsequent heating in the corona. As continuing work, we analyze the same set of data but focus on a quiet region and the overlying EUV/UV emission as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We find that there appear to be dark patches scattered across the quiet region and the dark patches always stay along intergranular lanes. Over the dark patches, the average UV/EUV emission at 131, 171, 304 and 1600 Å (middle temperature) is more intense than that of other regions and EUV brightness is negatively correlated with 10830 Å intensity, though, such a trend does not exist for high temperature lines at 94, 193, 211 and 335 Å. For the same quiet region, where both TiO 7057 Å broad band images and 10830 Å filtergrams are available, contours for the darkest lane areas on TiO images and dark patches on 10830 Å filtergrams frequently differ in space. The results suggest that the dark patches do not simply reflect the areas with the darkest lanes but are associated with a kind of enhanced absorption (EA) at 10830 Å. A strict definition for EA with narrow band 10830 Å filtergrams is found to be difficult. In this paper, we define enhanced absorption patches (EAPs) of a quiet region as the areas where emission is less than ∼90% of the mean intensity of the region. The value is equivalent to the average intensity along thin dark loops connecting two moss regions of the active region. A more strict definition for EAPs, say 88%, gives even more intense UV/EUV emission over those in the middle temperature range. The results provide further observational evidence that energy for heating the upper solar atmosphere comes from the intergranular lane area where the magnetic field is constantly brought in by convection motion in granules.

  6. Magnetic modulation of solar luminosity by photospheric activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, P.; Lean, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of slow changes in solar irradiance S is studied using measurements obtained with radiometers on the SMM and Nimbus 7 spacecraft. The general downtrend in the radiometer readings is examined by removing the influence of sunspot blocking and comparing the residual irradiance variations with changes in facular and network radiation as indicated by the He I 10830 and CaK indices. The time-integrated sunspot and facular contributions to irradiance variation and its implications for active region energetics are considered. The magnetic activity modulation of S over solar cycle 21 from daily data on sunspot blocking and the He I index are simulated, and this simulated irradiance variation is compared to radiometry since 1978. Other recent evidence for an irradiance modulation by magnetic activity is discussed.

  7. Kinematics of Magnetic Bright Features in the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Cameron, R. H.; Barthol, P.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Knölker, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Schmidt, W.; van Noort, M.

    2017-03-01

    Convective flows are known as the prime means of transporting magnetic fields on the solar surface. Thus, small magnetic structures are good tracers of turbulent flows. We study the migration and dispersal of magnetic bright features (MBFs) in intergranular areas observed at high spatial resolution with Sunrise/IMaX. We describe the flux dispersal of individual MBFs as a diffusion process whose parameters are computed for various areas in the quiet-Sun and the vicinity of active regions from seeing-free data. We find that magnetic concentrations are best described as random walkers close to network areas (diffusion index, γ =1.0), travelers with constant speeds over a supergranule (γ =1.9{--}2.0), and decelerating movers in the vicinity of flux emergence and/or within active regions (γ =1.4{--}1.5). The three types of regions host MBFs with mean diffusion coefficients of 130 km2 s‑1, 80–90 km2 s‑1, and 25–70 km2 s‑1, respectively. The MBFs in these three types of regions are found to display a distinct kinematic behavior at a confidence level in excess of 95%.

  8. Multi-wavelength Observations of Photospheric Vortex Flows in the Photosphere Using Ground-based and Space-borne Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we follow a series of papers on high-resolution observations of small-scale structures in the solar atmosphere (Balmaceda et al. 2009, 2010; Vargas Domínguez et al. 2011; Palacios et al. 2012; Domingo et al. 2012; Vargas Domínguez et al. 2015, Cabello et al., in prep), combining several multi-wavelength data series. These were acquired by both ground-based (SST) and space-borne (Hinode) instruments during the joint campaign of the Hinode Operation Program 14, in September 2007. Diffraction-limited SST data were taken in the G-band and G-cont, and were restored by the MFBD technique. Hinode instruments, on the other hand, provided multispectral data from SOT-FG in the CN band, and Mg I and Ca II lines, as well as from SOT-SP in the Fe I line. In this series of works we have thoroughly studied vortex flows and their statistical occurrences, horizontal velocity fields by means of Local Correlation Tracking (LCT), divergence and vorticity. Taking advantage of the high-cadence and high spatial resolution data, we have also studied bright point statistics and magnetic field intensification, highlighting the importance of the smallest-scale magnetic element observations.

  9. Generation of coronal electric currents due to convective motions on the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.; Levine, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Generation of electric currents in a magnetized plasma overlying a dense convective layer is studied, assuming that the magnetic field perturbation is small and satisfies the force-free equation. Currents are produced by rotational motions on the boundary in the case of a uniform equilibrium field. In a simple two-dimensional bipolar configuration, however, both irrotational and incompressible motions give rise to currents, and the current density has a peak at the magnetic neutral line. Scaling laws for the current density as well as for the stored magnetic energy are derived, and the possibility of heating the solar corona through the dissipation of coronal currents generated in this way is discussed.

  10. Thermohaline mixing: a physical mechanism governing the photospheric composition of low-mass giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, C.; Zahn, J.-P.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:Numerous spectroscopic observations provide compelling evidence for a non-canonical mixing process that modifies the surface abundances of Li, C and N of low-mass red giants when they reach the bump in the luminosity function. Eggleton and collaborators have proposed that a molecular weight inversion created by the ^3He(^3He, 2p)^4He reaction may be at the origin of this mixing, and relate it to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We argue that one is actually dealing with a double diffusive instability referred to as thermohaline convection and we discuss its influence on the red giant branch. Methods: We compute stellar models of various initial metallicities that include thermohaline mixing, which is treated as a diffusive process based on the prescription given originally by Ulrich for the turbulent diffusivity produced by the thermohaline instability in stellar radiation zones. Results: Thermohaline mixing simultaneously accounts for the observed behaviour of the carbon isotopic ratio and of the abundances of Li, C and N in the upper part of the red giant branch. It significantly reduces the ^3He production with respect to canonical evolution models as required by measurements of ^3He/H in galactic HII regions. Conclusions: Thermohaline mixing is a fundamental physical process that must be included in stellar evolution modeling.

  11. Photospheric Activity in Selected Be STARS: lambda Eri and gamma Cas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations of rapid variations in optical He I lines, X-rays, and FUV wavelengths in the prototypical classical Be stars lambda Eri and star gamma Cas hint that the violent processes occur on the surfaces of these stars almost all the time. We suggest that of these phenomena show greater similarities with magnetic flaring than any other process through to occur on stars.

  12. JP3D compression of solar data-cubes: Photospheric imaging and spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, Dario; Giovannelli, Luca; Pietropaolo, Ermanno; Berrilli, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is an ubiquitous technique in solar physics observations and the recent advances in solar instrumentation enabled us to acquire and record data at an unprecedented rate. The huge amount of data which will be archived in the upcoming solar observatories press us to compress the data in order to reduce the storage space and transfer times. The correlation present over all dimensions, spatial, temporal and spectral, of solar data-sets suggests the use of a 3D base wavelet decomposition, to achieve higher compression rates. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the recent JPEG2000 Part 10 standard, known as JP3D, for the lossless compression of several types of solar data-cubes. We explore the differences in: a) The compressibility of broad-band or narrow-band time-sequence; I or V Stokes profiles in spectropolarimetric data-sets; b) Compressing data in [x,y, λ] packages at different times or data in [x,y,t] packages of different wavelength; c) Compressing a single large data-cube or several smaller data-cubes; d) Compressing data which is under-sampled or super-sampled with respect to the diffraction cut-off.

  13. Do Quasi-Regular Structures Really Exist in the Solar Photosphere? I. Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getling, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Two series of solar-granulation images - the La Palma series of 5 June 1993 and the SOHO MDI series of 17 - 18 January 1997 - are analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. New evidence is presented for the existence of long-lived, quasi-regular structures (first reported by Getling and Brandt, Astron. Astrophys. 382, L5 (paper I), 2002), which no longer appear unusual in images averaged over 1 - 2-hour time intervals. Such structures appear as families of light and dark concentric rings or families of light and dark parallel strips (“ridges” and “trenches” in the brightness distributions). In some cases, rings are combined with radial “spokes” and can thus form “web” patterns. The characteristic width of a ridge or trench is somewhat larger than the typical size of granules. Running-average movies constructed from the series of images are used to seek such structures. An algorithm is developed to obtain, for automatically selected centres, the radial distributions of the azimuthally averaged intensity, which highlight the concentric-ring patterns. We also present a time-averaged granulation image processed with a software package intended for the detection of geological structures in aerospace images. A technique of running-average-based correlations between the brightness variations at various points of the granular field is developed and indications are found for a dynamical link between the emergence and sinking of hot and cool parcels of the solar plasma. In particular, such a correlation analysis confirms our suggestion that granules - overheated blobs - may repeatedly emerge on the solar surface. Based on our study, the critical remarks by Rast ( Astron. Astrophys. 392, L13, 2002) on the original paper by Getling and Brandt (paper I) can be dismissed.

  14. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  15. On the temperature and velocity through the photosphere of a sunspot penumbra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Tarbell, T. D.; Cobo, B. Ruiz

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the structure in depth of a sunspot penumbra by means of the inversion code of the radiative transfer equation proposed by Ruiz Cobo & del Toro Iniesta (1992), applied to a set of filtergrams of a sunspot, scanning the Fe I line at 5576.1 A, with a sampling interval of 30 mA, from -120 to 120 mA from line center (data previously analyzed by Title et al. 1993). The temperature structure of this penumbra is obtained for each of the 801 pixels selected (0.32 sec x 0.32 sec). On the average, the temperatures seem to decrease as we move inward, but the differences are of the order of the rms values (approximately equal 100-200 K) at a given distance to sunspot center. The outer parts of the penumbra have also a bigger curvature in the T versus log tau(sub 5) relation than the inner parts. We realize, however, that these differences might be influenced by possible stray light effects. Compared to the quiet Sun, penumbral temperatures are cooler at deep layers and hotter at high layers. A mean penumbral model atmosphere is presented. The asymmetries observed in the intensity profile (the line is magnetically insensitive) are deduced to be produced by strong gradients of the line-of-sight velocity that sharply vary spatially along slices of almost constant distance to sunspot center. These variations suggest that such gradients are not only needed to explain the broadband circular polarization observed in sunspots (see Sanchez Almeida & Lites 1992) but are a main characteristic of the fine-scale penumbra. The results are compatible with an Evershed flow present everywhere, but its gradient with depth turns out to vary so that the flow seems to be mainly concentrated in some penumbral fibrils when studied through Dopplergrams. Finally, as by-products of this study, we put constraints to the practical usefulness of the Eddington-Barbier relation, and we explain the values of the Fourier Dopplergrams to be carrying information of layers around the centroid of the generalized response function of Dopplergrams to velocity fluctuations.

  16. Identification of photospheric activity features from SOHO/MDI data using the ASAP tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashamari, Omar; Qahwaji, Rami; Ipson, Stan; Schöll, Micha; Nibouche, Omar; Haberreiter, Margit

    2015-06-01

    The variation of solar irradiance is one of the natural forcing mechanisms of the terrestrial climate. Hence, the time-dependent solar irradiance is an important input parameter for climate modelling. The solar surface magnetic field is a powerful proxy for solar irradiance reconstruction. The analyses of data obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the SOHO mission are therefore useful for the identification of solar surface magnetic features to be used in solar irradiance reconstruction models. However, there is still a need for automated technologies that would enable the identification of solar activity features from large databases. To achieve this we present a series of enhanced segmentation algorithms developed to detect and calculate the area coverages of specific magnetic features from MDI intensitygrams and magnetograms. These algorithms are part of the Automated Solar Activity Prediction (ASAP) tool. The segmentation algorithms allow us to identify the areas on the solar disk covered by magnetic elements inside and outside boundaries of active regions. Depending on their contrast properties, magnetic features within an active region boundary are classified as sunspot umbra and penumbra, or faculae. Outside an active region boundary magnetic elements are identified as network. We present the detailed steps involved in the segmentation process and provide the area coverages of the segmented MDI intensitygrams and magnetograms. The feature segmentation was carried out on daily intensitygrams and magnetograms from April 21, 1996 to April 11, 2011. This offers an exciting opportunity to undertake further investigations that benefit from solar features segmentations, such as solar irradiance reconstruction, which we plan to investigate in the future.

  17. ON THE PROPERTIES OF SLOW MHD SAUSAGE WAVES WITHIN SMALL-SCALE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Freij, N.; Ruderman, M. S.; Erdélyi, R.; Dorotovič, I.; Morton, R. J.; Karlovský, V. E-mail: ivan.dorotovic@suh.sk E-mail: m.s.ruderman@sheffield.ac.uk E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk

    2016-01-20

    The presence of magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere is well-documented. Applying the technique of solar magneto-seismology (SMS) allows us to infer the background properties of these structures. Here, we aim to identify properties of the observed magnetoacoustic waves and study the background properties of magnetic structures within the lower solar atmosphere. Using the Dutch Open Telescope and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments, we captured two series of high-resolution intensity images with short cadences of two isolated magnetic pores. Combining wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), we determined characteristic periods within the cross-sectional (i.e., area) and intensity time series. Then, by applying the theory of linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we identified the mode of these oscillations within the MHD framework. Several oscillations have been detected within these two magnetic pores. Their periods range from 3 to 20 minutes. Combining wavelet analysis and EMD enables us to confidently find the phase difference between the area and intensity oscillations. From these observed features, we concluded that the detected oscillations can be classified as slow sausage MHD waves. Furthermore, we determined several key properties of these oscillations such as the radial velocity perturbation, the magnetic field perturbation, and the vertical wavenumber using SMS. The estimated range of the related wavenumbers reveals that these oscillations are trapped within these magnetic structures. Our results suggest that the detected oscillations are standing harmonics, and this allows us to estimate the expansion factor of the waveguides by employing SMS. The calculated expansion factor ranges from 4 to 12.

  18. Solar photospheric and coronal abundances from solar energetic particle measurements. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of solar energetic particles (SEP) from 22 solar flares in the 1977 to 1982 time period are reported. SEP abundances were obtained for all elements with 3 approximately less than Z approximately less than 30 except Li, Be, B, F, Sc, v, Co and Cu for which upper limits were obtained. Statistically meaningful abundances of several rare elements (P, Cl, K, Ti, and Mn) were determined for the first time, and the average abundance of the more abundant elements were determined with improved precision.

  19. Acoustic and Slow Sausage Oscillations in the Stratified Solar Photosphere: Hinode Observations and Phase Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Y. T.; Stepanov, A. V.; Kopylova, Y. G.

    2016-11-01

    Based on the linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations within the framework of the thin flux tube approximation, the phase relationships between the disturbed quantities of evanescent acoustic and slow sausage MHD modes excited in the adiabatically stratified solar atmosphere are considered. It has been shown that the sign of the phase differences (equal to ±π/2) between the velocity and other disturbed quantities such as pressure, density, magnetic field, and temperature, depends on the wave frequency ω. The obtained phase relationships agree well with SOT/ Hinode observations obtained by Fujimura and Tsuneta ( Astrophys. J. 702, 1443, 2009) when ω≈ωc, where ωc is the cutoff frequency. The role of various modes excited in the solar atmosphere in the light of the chromospheric and coronal heating problems are discussed.

  20. Trend of photospheric helicity flux in active regions generating halo CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrli, Aimilia; Zuccarello, Francesco; Zuccarello, Francesca; Romano, Paolo; Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi; Spadaro, Daniele; Hood, Alan; Mackay, Duncan

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are very energetic events initiated in the solar atmosphere, re-sulting in the expulsion of magnetized plasma clouds that propagate into interplanetary space. It has been proposed that CMEs can play an important role in shedding magnetic helicity, avoiding its endless accumulation in the corona. We therefore investigated the behavior of magnetic helicity accumulation in sites where the initiation of CMEs occurred, in order to de-termine whether and how changes in magnetic helicity accumulation are temporally correlated with CME occurrence. After identifying the active regions (AR) where the CMEs were ini-tiated by means of a double cross-check based on the flaring-eruptive activity and the use of SOHO/EIT difference images, we used MDI magnetograms to calculate magnetic flux evolu-tion, magnetic helicity injection rate and magnetic helicity injection in 10 active regions that gave rise to 12 halo CMEs observed during the period February 2000 -June 2003. No unique behavior in magnetic helicity injection accompanying halo CME occurrence is found. In fact, in some cases there is an abrupt change in helicity injection timely correlated with the CME event, while in some others no significant variation is recorded. However, our analysis show that the most significant changes in magnetic flux and magnetic helicity injection are associated with impulsive CMEs rather than gradual CMEs. Moreover, the most significant changes in mag-netic helicity are observed when X-class flares or eruptive filaments occur, while the occurrence of flares of class C or M seems not to affect significantly the magnetic helicity accumulation.

  1. Photospheric carbon and oxygen abundances of F-G type stars in the Pleiades cluster*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the carbon-to-oxygen ratio of the young open cluster M 45 (Pleiades), the C and O abundances of 32 selected F-G type dwarfs (in the effective temperature range of Teff ˜ 5800-7600 K and projected rotational velocity range of vesin i ˜ 10-110 km s-1) belonging to this cluster were determined by applying the synthetic spectrum-fitting technique to C I 5380 and O I 6156-8 lines. The non-local thermodynamical equilibrium corrections for these C I and O I lines were found to be practically negligible (less than a few hundredths dex).The resulting C and O abundances (along with the Fe abundance) turned out nearly uniform without any systematic dependence upon Teff or vesin i. We found, however, in spite of almost solar Fe abundance ([Fe/H] ˜ 0), carbon turned out to be slightly subsolar ([C/H] ˜ -0.1) while that of oxygen was slightly supersolar ([O/H] ˜ +0.1). This leads to a conclusion that the [C/O] ratio was moderately subsolar (˜ -0.2) in the primordial gas from which these Pleiades stars were formed ˜ 120-130 Myr ago. Interestingly, similarly young B-type stars are reported to show just the same result ([C/O] ˜ -0.2), while rather aged (˜ 1-10 Gyr) field F-G stars of near-solar metallicity yield almost the solar value ([C/O] ˜ 0) on average. Such a difference in the C/O ratio between two star groups of distinctly different ages may be explained as a consequence of the orbit migration mechanism which Galactic stars may undergo over a long time.

  2. On the Properties of Slow MHD Sausage Waves within Small-scale Photospheric Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freij, N.; Dorotovič, I.; Morton, R. J.; Ruderman, M. S.; Karlovský, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere is well-documented. Applying the technique of solar magneto-seismology (SMS) allows us to infer the background properties of these structures. Here, we aim to identify properties of the observed magnetoacoustic waves and study the background properties of magnetic structures within the lower solar atmosphere. Using the Dutch Open Telescope and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments, we captured two series of high-resolution intensity images with short cadences of two isolated magnetic pores. Combining wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), we determined characteristic periods within the cross-sectional (i.e., area) and intensity time series. Then, by applying the theory of linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we identified the mode of these oscillations within the MHD framework. Several oscillations have been detected within these two magnetic pores. Their periods range from 3 to 20 minutes. Combining wavelet analysis and EMD enables us to confidently find the phase difference between the area and intensity oscillations. From these observed features, we concluded that the detected oscillations can be classified as slow sausage MHD waves. Furthermore, we determined several key properties of these oscillations such as the radial velocity perturbation, the magnetic field perturbation, and the vertical wavenumber using SMS. The estimated range of the related wavenumbers reveals that these oscillations are trapped within these magnetic structures. Our results suggest that the detected oscillations are standing harmonics, and this allows us to estimate the expansion factor of the waveguides by employing SMS. The calculated expansion factor ranges from 4 to 12.

  3. The dark side of solar photospheric G-band bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Bright, small-scale magnetic elements found mainly in intergranular lanes at the solar surface are named bright points (BPs). They show high contrasts in Fraunhofer G-band observations and are described by nearly vertical slender flux tubes or sheets. A recent comparison between BP observations in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral range recorded with the balloon-borne observatory Sunrise and state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations revealed a kilogauss magnetic field for 98% of the synthetic BPs. Here we address the opposite question, namely which fraction of pixels hosting kilogauss fields coincides with an enhanced G-band brightness. We carried out 3D radiation MHD simulations for three magnetic activity levels (corresponding to the quiet Sun, weak and strong plage) and performed a full spectral line synthesis in the G-band. Only 7% of the kilogauss pixels in our quiet-Sun simulation coincide with a brightness lower than the mean quiet-Sun intensity, while 23% of the pixels in the weak-plage simulation and even 49% in the strong-plage simulation are associated with a local darkening. Dark strong-field regions are preferentially found in the cores of larger flux patches that are rare in the quiet Sun, but more common in plage regions, often in the vertices of granulation cells. The significant brightness shortfall in the core of larger flux patches coincides with a slight magnetic field weakening. Kilogauss elements in the quiet Sun are, on average, brighter than similar features in plage regions. Almost all strong-field pixels display a more or less vertical magnetic field orientation. Hence, in the quiet Sun, G-band BPs correspond almost one-to-one with kilogauss elements. In weak plage, the correspondence is still very good, but not perfect.

  4. Center-to-limb variations in the two-dimensional contrast of photospheric faculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Gingell, T. W.

    1984-04-01

    The center-to-limb appearance of a facular flux tube is presently sought by means of the semiempirical model of Osherovich et al. (1983), which is in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium and includes tension forces. The results of this model's application are presented as contour maps, cross sections of the contrast on axis, and integrated contrast as a function of viewing angle. It is noted that these results are in keeping with those of Caccin and Severino (1979), but not with the observations of Chapman and Klabunde (1982).

  5. GRB110721A: An Extreme Peak Energy and Signatures of the Photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guiriec, S.; McEnery, J. E.; Fishman, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2012-01-01

    GRB110721A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope using its two instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The burst consisted of one major emission episode which lasted for approximately 24.5 s (in the GBM) and had a peak flux of (5.7 +/- 0.2) 10(exp -5) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). The time-resolved emission spectrum is best modeled with a combination of a Band function and a blackbody spectrum. The peak energy of the Band component was initially 15 +/- 2 MeV, which is the highest value ever detected in a GRB. This measurement was made possible by combining GBM/BGO data with LAT Low Energy events to achieve continuous 10-100 MeV coverage. The peak energy later decreased as a power law in time with an index of -1.89 +/- 0.10. The temperature of the blackbody component also decreased, starting from approximately 80 keV, and the decay showed a significant break after approximately 2s. The spectrum provides strong constraints on the standard synchrotron model, indicating that alternative mechanisms may give rise to the emission at these energies.

  6. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRIES OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETISM: RADIATIVE, PARTICULATE, AND HELIOSPHERIC IMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Burkepile, Joan; Miesch, Mark; Markel, Robert S.; Sitongia, Leonard; Leamon, Robert J.; Gurman, Joseph B.; Olive, Jean-Philippe; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Hathaway, David H.

    2013-03-10

    Among many other measurable quantities, the summer of 2009 saw a considerable low in the radiative output of the Sun that was temporally coincident with the largest cosmic-ray flux ever measured at 1 AU. Combining measurements and observations made by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft we begin to explore the complexities of the descending phase of solar cycle 23, through the 2009 minimum into the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. A hemispheric asymmetry in magnetic activity is clearly observed and its evolution monitored and the resulting (prolonged) magnetic imbalance must have had a considerable impact on the structure and energetics of the heliosphere. While we cannot uniquely tie the variance and scale of the surface magnetism to the dwindling radiative and particulate output of the star, or the increased cosmic-ray flux through the 2009 minimum, the timing of the decline and rapid recovery in early 2010 would appear to inextricably link them. These observations support a picture where the Sun's hemispheres are significantly out of phase with each other. Studying historical sunspot records with this picture in mind shows that the northern hemisphere has been leading since the middle of the last century and that the hemispheric ''dominance'' has changed twice in the past 130 years. The observations presented give clear cause for concern, especially with respect to our present understanding of the processes that produce the surface magnetism in the (hidden) solar interior-hemispheric asymmetry is the normal state-the strong symmetry shown in 1996 was abnormal. Further, these observations show that the mechanism(s) which create and transport the magnetic flux are slowly changing with time and, it appears, with only loose coupling across the equator such that those asymmetries can persist for a considerable time. As the current asymmetry persists and the basal energetics of the system continue to dwindle we anticipate new radiative and particulate lows coupled with increased cosmic-ray fluxes heading into the next solar minimum.

  7. Evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and coronal null points before solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshina, I. V.; Somov, B. V.

    2009-03-01

    Based on a topological model for the magnetic field of a solar active region (AR), we suggest a criterion for the existence of magnetic null points on the separators in the corona. With the problem of predicting solar flares in mind, we have revealed a model parameter whose decrease means that the AR evolves toward a major eruptive flare. We analyze the magnetic field evolution for AR 9077 within two days before the Bastille Day flare on July 14, 2000. The coronal conditions are shown to have become more favorable for magnetic reconnection, which led to a 3B/X5.7 eruptive flare.

  8. Analysis of time dependent phenomena observed with the LPSP OSO-8 instrument. [solar chromosphere and photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibacher, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data obtained by the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire's ultraviolet spectrometer onboard the OSO-8 spacecraft were analyzed in an effort to dynamically model the solar chromosphere as an aid in enhancing knowledge of the dynamical processes themselves and of spectral line formation in the dynamic chromosphere. Repeated spectral scans of strong, optically thick resonance lines formed in the solar chromosphere were examined for indications of oscillatory velocities and intensities among other indications of velocity which were studied, the blue peak is reasonably well defined, and the position of a parabolic filter fitted by the least squares method was used to define it. Observed chromospheric oscillation periods are discussed as well as the variations in altitude of the emitting region which result primarily from the motion up and down during the oscillation.

  9. GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRA AND SPECTRAL CORRELATIONS FROM SUB-PHOTOSPHERIC COMPTONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chhotray, Atul; Lazzati, Davide

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues in gamma-ray burst (GRB) physics is the origin of the prompt gamma-ray spectrum. Its general non-thermal character and the softness in the X-ray band remain unexplained. We tackle these issues by performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation–matter interactions in a scattering dominated photon–lepton plasma. The plasma—initially in equilibrium—is driven to non-equilibrium conditions by a sudden energy injection in the lepton population, mimicking the effect of a shock wave or the dissipation of magnetic energy. Equilibrium restoration occurs due to an energy exchange between the photons and leptons. While the initial and final equilibrium spectra are thermal, the transitional photon spectra are characterized by non-thermal features such as power-law tails, high energy bumps, and multiple components. Such non-thermal features are observed at infinity if the dissipation occurs at small to moderate optical depths, and the spectrum is released before thermalization is complete. We model the synthetic spectra with a Band function and show that the resulting spectral parameters are similar to observations for a frequency range of 2–3 orders of magnitude around the peak. In addition, our model predicts correlations between the low-frequency photon index and the peak frequency as well as between the low- and high-frequency indices. We explore baryon and pair-dominated fireballs and reach the conclusion that baryonic fireballs are a better model for explaining the observed features of GRB spectra.

  10. Reaching Higher Densities for Laboratory White Dwarf Photospheres to Measure Spectroscopic Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, R. E.; Bailey, J. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Schaeuble, M.; Nagayama, T.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Rochau, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    As part of our laboratory investigation of the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf atmosphere models, we extend the electron-density (ne) range measured by our experiments to higher densities (up to ne ˜80×1016 cm-3). Whereas inferred parameters using the hydrogen-β spectral line agree among different line-shape models for ne≲ 30×1016 cm–3, we now see divergence between models. These are densities beyond the range previously benchmarked in the laboratory, meaning theoretical profiles in this regime have not been fully validated. Experimentally exploring these higher densities enables us to test and constrain different line-profile models, as the differences in their relative H-Balmer line shapes are more pronounced at such conditions. These experiments also aid in our study of occupation probabilities because we can measure these from relative line strengths.

  11. Exploration of solar photospheric magnetic field data sets using the UCSD tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Nishimura, N.; Nozaki, N.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the use of two different types of National Solar Observatory magnetograms and two different coronal field modeling techniques over 10 years. Both the "open-field" Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) and a "closed-field" technique using CSSS modeling are compared. The University of California, San Diego, tomographic modeling, using interplanetary scintillation data from Japan, provides the global velocities to extrapolate these fields outward, which are then compared with fields measured in situ near Earth. Although the open-field technique generally gives a better result for radial and tangential fields, we find that a portion of the closed extrapolated fields measured in situ near Earth comes from the direct outward mapping of these fields in the low solar corona. All three closed-field components are nonzero at 1 AU and are compared with the appropriate magnetometer values. A significant positive correlation exists between these closed-field components and the in situ measurements over the last 10 years. We determine that a small fraction of the static low-coronal component flux, which includes the Bn (north-south) component, regularly escapes from closed-field regions. The closed-field flux fraction varies by about a factor of 3 from a mean value during this period, relative to the magnitude of the field components measured in situ near Earth, and maximizes in 2014. This implies that a relatively more efficient process for closed-flux escape occurs near solar maximum. We also compare and find that the popular Potential Field Source Surface and CSSS model closed fields are nearly identical in sign and strength.

  12. Abundances of r-PROCESS Elements in the Photosphere of Red Supergiant Star PMMR23 in Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Eva, S. V.; Gopka, V. F.; Yushchenko, A. V.; Andryevsky, S. M.

    Detailed analysis of chemical abundances determined from high-resolution CCD-spectrogram of supergiant star PMMR23 (K5 I) in SMC is presented. The observation were obtained at 3.6 meter ESO La Silla telescope by Hill (1997). Spectral resolving power is near R=30.000. The wavelength coverage is 5050-7200 A. The abundances of iron and 15 r-, s-processes elements are found. The abundances of Cu, Zr, Mo, Ru, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er are found for the first time. The abundances of elements with atomic numbers less than 55 are deficient with respect to the Sun. The mean underabundance is near 0.7 dex. The abundances of barium and lanthanides are near solar values. The overabundances of these elements with respect to iron are in the range from 0.4 tp 0.9 dex. The abundances of heavy lanthanides are higher than the abundances of light lanthanides. The abundance pattern of PMMR23 can be fitted by scaled solar r-process distribution. The atmosphere of PMMR23 is enriched by r-process elements.

  13. Detection and Characterization of the Photospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields of Sunspot Groups: Implications for Flare Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-25

    20112012) data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The algorithm automatically selects separate regions of a given AR (such as umbrae...be implemented there. This was also used to analyze a large archival dataset to study the evolution of ARs and the connection to solar flares. 15...SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, solar flares, sunspots, solar active region 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18, NUMBER OF

  14. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab. [Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  15. Doing Away with Occupation Probability: A New Way to Model Continuum Lowering at White Dwarf Photosphere Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Thomas A.; Winget, Donald E.; Montgomery, Michael H.; Kilcrease, Dave; Nagayama, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are interesting for a number of applications including studying equations of state, stellar pulsations, and determining the age of the universe.These interesting applications require accurate determination of surface conditions: temperatures and surface gravity (or mass).The most common technique to estimate the temperature and gravity is to find the model spectrun that best fits the observed spectra of a star (known as the spectroscopic method); however, this model rests on our ability to accurately model the hydrogen spectrum at high densities.There are currently disagreements between the spectroscopic method and other techniques to determine mass.We seek to resolve this issue by exploring the continuum lowering (or disappearance of states) of the hydrogen atom.The current formalism, called "occupation probability," defines some criteria for the isolated atom's bound state to be ionized, then extrapolates the continuous spectrum to the same energy threshold.The two are then combined to create the final cross-section.I introduce a new way of calculating the atomic spectrum by doing some averaging of the plasma interaction potential energy (previously used in the physics community) and directly integrating the Schrodinger equation.This technique is a major improvement over the Taylor expansion used to describe the ion-emitter interaction and removes the need of the occupation probability and treats continuum states and discrete states on the same footing in the spectrum calculation.The resulting energy spectrum is in fact many discrete states that when averaged over the electric field distribution in the plasma appears to be a continuum.In the low density limit, the two methods are in agreement, but show some differences at high densities (above 10$^{17} e/cc$) including line shifts near the ``continuum'' edge.

  16. Shocks produced by impulsively driven reconnection. [during solar flares or emergence of magnetic flux from photosphere into corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    Shock waves produced by impulsively driven reconnection are investigated by carrying out numerical experiments using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. The results of the numerical experiments imply that there are three different categories of shocks associated with impulsively driven reconnection: (1) fast-mode, blast waves which rapidly propagate away from the reconnection site; (2) slow-mode, Petschek shocks which are attached to the reconnection site; and (3) fast-mode, termination shocks which terminate the plasma jets flowing out from the reconnection site.

  17. A Minimum Energy Fit Method to Reconstruct Photospheric Velocity and Magnetic Diffusivity in Active Regions from Observed Magnetograms and Dopplergrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Benoit; Vincent, Alain

    2015-02-01

    We introduce MEF-R, a generalization of the minimum energy fit (MEF; Longcope, Astrophys. J. 612, 1181, 2004) to a non-ideal (resistive) gas. The new technique requires both vector magnetograms and Doppler velocities as input fields. However, in the case of active regions observed only with the Michelson-Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) such as AR 9077, we have only access to line-of-sight magnetograms. We reconstruct two-dimensional maps of the magnetic diffusivity η( x, y) together with velocity components v x ( x, y), v y ( x, y), and v z ( x, y) under the linear force-free magnetic field approximation. Computed maps for v z ( x, y) very well match the Doppler velocities v r ( x, y). We find the average value < η>≈108 m2 s-1 with a standard deviation of ≈ 1010 m2 s-1. Such high values of η( x, y) are to be expected at some places since our magnetic diffusivity is actually eddy-diffusivity. Inside AR 9077, the maps of η( x, y) do not resemble closely the maps from classical models of the magnetic diffusivity, but they are closer to η as a function of temperature than to η as a function of electric current density.

  18. Abrupt Changes of the Photospheric Magnetic Field in Active Regions and the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-23

    RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) E. W. Cliver, G. J. D. Petrie , and A. G. Ling 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2301 5e... Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFRL-RV-PS-TP-2014-0002 9

  19. Is There Evidence for X-Ray Emitting Plasma Very Close to the Photospheres of O Stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We reexamine the implications of the recent HESS observations of the blazar 1ES0229+200 for constraining the extragalactic mid-infrared background radiation. Methods. We examine the effect of gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic infrared radiation on predicted intrinsic spectra for this blazar and compare our results with the observational data. Results. We find agreement with our previous results on the shape of the infrared spectral energy distribution, contrary to the recent assertion of the HESS group. Our analysis indicates that 1ES0229+200 has a very hard intrinsic spectrum with a spectral index between 1.1 +/- 0.3 and 1.5 +/- 0.3 in the energy range between approx.0.5 TeV and approx.15 TeV. Conclusions. Under the assumptions that (1) the models of Stecker et al. (2006, ApJ, 648, 774) as derived from numerous detailed infrared observations are reasonable, and (2) spectral indexes in the range 1 < gamma < 1.5 are obtainable from relativistic shock acceleration under the astrophysical conditions extant in blazar flares (Stecker et al. 2007, ApJ, 667, L29), the fits to the observations of 1ES0229+200 using our previous infrared spectral energy distributions are consistent with both the infrared and gamma-ray observations. Our analysis presents evidence indicating that the energy spectrum of relativistic particles in 1ES0229+200 is produced by relativistic shock acceleration, producing an intrinsic -ray spectrum with index 1 < gamma < 1.5 and with no evidence of a peak in the spectral energy distribution up to energies approx.15 TeV.

  20. Numerical experiments on the evolution in coronal magnetic configurations including a filament in response to the change in the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Liu, Si-Qing; Gong, Jian-Cun; Lin, Jun

    2015-03-01

    We investigate equilibrium height of a flux rope, and its internal equilibrium in a realistic plasma environment by carrying out numerical simulations of the evolution of systems including a current-carrying flux rope. We find that the equilibrium height of a flux rope is approximately described by a power-law function of the relative strength of the background field. Our simulations indicate that the flux rope can escape more easily from a weaker background field. This further confirms that a catastrophe in the magnetic configuration of interest can be triggered by a decrease in strength of the background field. Our results show that it takes some time to reach internal equilibrium depending on the initial state of the flux rope. The plasma flow inside the flux rope due to the adjustment for the internal equilibrium of the flux rope remains small and does not last very long when the initial state of the flux rope commences from the stable branch of the theoretical equilibrium curve. This work also confirms the influence of the initial radius of the flux rope in its evolution; the results indicate that a flux rope with a larger initial radius erupts more easily. In addition, by using a realistic plasma environment and a much higher resolution in our simulations, we notice some different characteristics compared to previous studies in Forbes. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  1. Comparison of physical properties of quiet and active regions through the analysis of magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar photosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Criscuoli, S.

    2013-11-20

    Recent observations have shown that the photometric and dynamic properties of granulation and small-scale magnetic features depend on the amount of magnetic flux of the region they are embedded in. We analyze results from numerical hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations characterized by different amounts of average magnetic flux and find qualitatively the same differences as those reported from observations. We show that these different physical properties result from the inhibition of convection induced by the presence of the magnetic field, which changes the temperature stratification of both quiet and magnetic regions. Our results are relevant for solar irradiance variations studies, as such differences are still not properly taken into account in irradiance reconstruction models.

  2. Do Long-Lived Features Really Exist in the Solar Photosphere? II. Contrast of Time-Averaged Granulation Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. N.; Getling, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    The decrease in the rms contrast of time-averaged images with the averaging time is compared between four data sets: (1) a series of solar granulation images recorded at La Palma in 1993, (2) a series of artificial granulation images obtained in numerical simulations by Rieutord et al. ( Nuovo Cimento 25, 523, 2002), (3) a similar series computed by Steffen and his colleagues (see Wedemeyer et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 44, 1121, 2004), (4) a random field with some parameters typical of the granulation, constructed by Rast ( Astron. Astrophys. 392, L13, 2002). In addition, (5) a sequence of images was obtained from real granulation images by using a temporal and spatial shuffling procedure, and the contrast of the average of n images from this sequence as a function of n is analysed. The series (1) of real granulation images exhibits a considerably slower contrast decrease than do both the series (3) of simulated granulation images and the series (4) of random fields. Starting from some relatively short averaging times t, the behaviour of the contrast in series (3) and (4) resembles the t -1/2 statistical law, whereas the shuffled series (5) obeys the n -1/2 law from n=2 on. Series (2) demonstrates a peculiarly slow decline of contrast, which could be attributed to particular properties of the boundary conditions used in the simulations. Comparisons between the analysed contrast-variation laws indicate quite definitely that the brightness field of solar granulation contains a long-lived component, which could be associated with locally persistent dark intergranular holes and/or with the presence of quasi-regular structures. The suggestion that the random field (4) successfully reproduces the contrast-variation law for the real granulation (Rast in Astron. Astrophys. 392, L13, 2002) can be dismissed.

  3. Development of a Data Driven Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Model With Radiation Effects to Study Photosphere-Coronal Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-09

    accomplished not only the goals stated in the proposal but also beyond. There are three major achievements: ( i ) a sufficient condition for solar eruption...Investigators: S. T. Wu, P.I. and: AiHua Wang, Co- I , Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, and Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering...22:10 22:20 22:30 22:40 22:50 23:00 23:10 23:20 23:30 23:40 23:50 Time (UT) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lss flux I alfa FIGURE 1. The simulated non

  4. Comparison of Physical Properties of Quiet and Active Regions Through the Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations have shown that the photometric and dynamic properties of granulation and small-scale magnetic features depend on the amount of magnetic flux of the region they are embedded in. We analyze results from numerical hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations characterized by different amounts of average magnetic flux and find qualitatively the same differences as those reported from observations. We show that these different physical properties result from the inhibition of convection induced by the presence of the magnetic field, which changes the temperature stratification of both quiet and magnetic regions. Our results are relevant for solar irradiance variations studies, as such differences are still not properly taken into account in irradiance reconstruction models.

  5. Photospheric Response to an Ellerman Bomb-like Event—An Analogy of Sunrise/IMaX Observations and MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; van Noort, M.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-03-01

    Ellerman Bombs are signatures of magnetic reconnection, which is an important physical process in the solar atmosphere. How and where they occur is a subject of debate. In this paper, we analyze Sunrise/IMaX data, along with 3D MHD simulations that aim to reproduce the exact scenario proposed for the formation of these features. Although the observed event seems to be more dynamic and violent than the simulated one, simulations clearly confirm the basic scenario for the production of EBs. The simulations also reveal the full complexity of the underlying process. The simulated observations show that the Fe i 525.02 nm line gives no information on the height where reconnection takes place. It can only give clues about the heating in the aftermath of the reconnection. However, the information on the magnetic field vector and velocity at this spatial resolution is extremely valuable because it shows what numerical models miss and how they can be improved.

  6. Semi-empirical Modeling of the Photosphere, Chromosphere, Transition Region, and Corona of the M-dwarf Host Star GJ 832

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Witbrod, Jesse; France, Kevin; Buccino, A.; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2016-10-01

    Stellar radiation from X-rays to the visible provides the energy that controls the photochemistry and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. The important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region (10-91.2 nm) is inaccessible and should be computed from a reliable stellar model. It is essential to understand the formation regions and physical processes responsible for the various stellar emission features to predict how the spectral energy distribution varies with age and activity levels. We compute a state-of-the-art semi-empirical atmospheric model and the emergent high-resolution synthetic spectrum of the moderately active M2 V star GJ 832 as the first of a series of models for stars with different activity levels. We construct a one-dimensional simple model for the physical structure of the star’s chromosphere, chromosphere-corona transition region, and corona using non-LTE radiative transfer techniques and many molecular lines. The synthesized spectrum for this model fits the continuum and lines across the UV-to-optical spectrum. Particular emphasis is given to the emission lines at wavelengths that are shorter than 300 nm observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, which have important effects on the photochemistry of the exoplanet atmospheres. The FUV line ratios indicate that the transition region of GJ 832 is more biased to hotter material than that of the quiet Sun. The excellent agreement of our computed EUV luminosity with that obtained by two other techniques indicates that our model predicts reliable EUV emission from GJ 832. We find that the unobserved EUV flux of GJ 832, which heats the outer atmospheres of exoplanets and drives their mass loss, is comparable to the active Sun. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS AR-09525.01A. These observations are associated with programs #12034, 12035, 12464.

  7. Variations over time in latitudinal distribution of the large-scale magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere at heights from the photosphere to the source surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtemov, Z. S.; Andreyeva, O. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Stepanian, N. N.; Fainshtein, V. G.

    2015-02-01

    Calculations of magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and the "potential field-source surface" model have been used to study time variations in several parameters of the large-scale magnetic field at various heights during the last four solar cycles. At ten heights from the solar surface (R = Ro) to the source surface (R = 2.5Ro), we have constructed synoptic charts (SC) of the radial component Br of the estimated magnetic field. For these SC, we have identified 10-degree latitudinal zones. Within these zones, we found values of Sp (positive Br values averaged within the latitudinal zone over latitude and longitude), Sm (averaged modulus of negative Br values) and S + fields (a part of the latitudinal zone area (in %) occupied by positive Br values). At lower latitudes, cyclic variations in the Sp + Sm parameter are demonstrated to be similar (but not in detail) to time variations in Wolf numbers. Latitudes of 55° and higher exhibited virtually no cyclic peculiarities of time variations in this parameter. The authors believe that this indicates the diverse nature of the large-scale magnetic field in the near-equatorial and polar regions of the solar atmosphere. At R = 2.5Ro, Sp + Sm cyclic variations are almost invisible at all latitudes and only slightly apparent near the equator. The analysis of S + fields variations revealed that at low latitudes at R = 2.5Ro during solar cycles 21, 22 and ascending phase of cycle 23 there were almost no mixed-polarity periods. However, beginning from the maximum of cycle 23, in the near-equatorial region the mixed polarity was observed until the end of the long solar activity minimum. An assumption has been made that this might have been one of the forerunners and manifestations of the prolonged minimum between cycles 23 and 24. It has been found that during solar activity minima poleward there appears motion of magnetic fields with polarity opposite to that of the field at the pole. We have estimated the velocity of such a latitudinal movement of fields. The magnetic field at R = R⊙ during the maximum of cycle 24 is shown to be significantly less than that during the maximum of cycle 23; in a range 55°-75° this difference is as much as one order of magnitude. We have verified the conclusion drawn in our previous studies that in solar cycles 21-23 the polar-field reversal started and ended earlier at large heights than on the solar surface. Peculiarities of the magnetic-field reversal in solar cycle 24 have been revealed.

  8. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  9. Effect of deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium on the Goldberg-Unno method. [turbulence effects on optical density in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troyan, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of turbulent velocity on optical depth was studied by use of the Goldberg-Unno method, with allowance made for the influence of deviation from the local thermodynamic equilibrium. It was found that allowance for deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium displaces the curve of dependence of turbulent velocity on optical depth along two axes.

  10. IS THE SUN LIGHTER THAN THE EARTH? ISOTOPIC CO IN THE PHOTOSPHERE, VIEWED THROUGH THE LENS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRUM SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Lyons, J. R.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Wedemeyer-Boehm, S.

    2013-03-01

    We consider the formation of solar infrared (2-6 {mu}m) rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) in CO5BOLD 3D convection models, with the aim of refining abundances of the heavy isotopes of carbon ({sup 13}C) and oxygen ({sup 18}O, {sup 17}O), to compare with direct capture measurements of solar wind light ions by the Genesis Discovery Mission. We find that previous, mainly 1D, analyses were systematically biased toward lower isotopic ratios (e.g., R {sub 23} {identical_to} {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C), suggesting an isotopically 'heavy' Sun contrary to accepted fractionation processes that were thought to have operated in the primitive solar nebula. The new 3D ratios for {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O are R {sub 23} = 91.4 {+-} 1.3 (R {sub Circled-Plus} = 89.2) and R {sub 68} = 511 {+-} 10 (R {sub Circled-Plus} = 499), where the uncertainties are 1{sigma} and 'optimistic'. We also obtained R {sub 67} = 2738 {+-} 118 (R {sub Circled-Plus} = 2632), but we caution that the observed {sup 12}C{sup 17}O features are extremely weak. The new solar ratios for the oxygen isotopes fall between the terrestrial values and those reported by Genesis (R {sub 68} = 530, R {sub 67} = 2798), although including both within 2{sigma} error flags, and go in the direction favoring recent theories for the oxygen isotope composition of Ca-Al inclusions in primitive meteorites. While not a major focus of this work, we derive an oxygen abundance, {epsilon}{sub O} {approx} 603 {+-} 9 ppm (relative to hydrogen; log {epsilon} {approx} 8.78 on the H = 12 scale). The fact that the Sun is likely lighter than the Earth, isotopically speaking, removes the necessity of invoking exotic fractionation processes during the early construction of the inner solar system.

  11. Observational requirements for measurements of solar rotation inward to the base of the convection zone. [measuring the solar power spectra in the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the rate of rotation at various depths in the solar interior and of temporal changes in the rotation are discussed. A technique to measure the absolute rate of the Sun's rotation (in meters per second) below its visible surface over the outer 3% of its radius using ground based equipment is described. The theory of the technique, developed to the base of the solar convection zone is analyzed. It is stressed that such deeper rotational measurements, extending from 3% inward to 25 to 30% of the Sun's radius can only be obtained from a spaceborne instrument which is not subject to the normal Earth based day-night observing cycle.

  12. IMPROVED Ti II log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-10-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/Fe abundance ratio versus metallicity seen in previous studies.

  13. IMPROVED Ni I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2014-04-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  14. The Mira Variable S Orionis: Relationships Between the Photosphere, Molecular Layer, Dust Shell, and SiO Maser Shell at 4 Epochs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    the stellar minimum, and the later epochs shortly after the following stellar maximum. 2. Lightcurve and characteristics of S Ori S Ori is a Mira...453 190 days. Figure 1 shows the visual lightcurve of S Ori as a function of Julian Date and stellar phase based on these values. Also indicated are...phase MIDI observations VLBA observations Epoch A B C D AAVSO AFOEV b. Fig. 1. Visual lightcurve of S Ori as a function of Julian Date and stel- lar cycle

  15. On the presence of electric currents in the solar atmosphere. I - A theoretical framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M.; Low, B. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1981-01-01

    The general magnetic field above the solar photosphere is divided by an elementary analysis based on Ampere's law into two parts: a potential field due to electric currents below the photosphere and a field produced by electric currents above the photosphere combined with the induced mirror currents. The latter, by symmetry, has a set of field lines lying in the plane taken to be the photosphere which may be constructed from given vector magnetograph measurements. These field lines also represent all the information on the electric currents above the photosphere that a magnetograph can provide. Theoretical illustrations are given, and implications for data analysis are discussed.

  16. The Convection of Close Red Supergiant Stars Observed With Near-Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Aurière, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our team has obtained observations of the photosphere of the two closest red supergiant stars Betelgeuse (α Ori) and Antares (α Sco) using near infrared interferometry. We have been monitoring the photosphere of Betelgeuse with the VLTI/PIONIER instrument for three years. On Antares, we obtained an unprecedented sampling of the visibility function. These data allow us to probe the convective photosphere of massive evolved stars.

  17. IRIS Launch, Deploy and Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Understanding the interface between the photosphere and corona remains a fundamental challenge in solar and heliospheric science. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission opens a wi...

  18. The Effect of Scattering on the Temperature Stratification of 3D Model Atmospheres of Metal-Poor Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Remo; Hayek, Wolfgang; Asplund, Martin

    2011-08-01

    We study the effects of different approximations of scattering in 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations on the photospheric temperature stratification of metal-poor red giant stars. We find that assuming a Planckian source function and neglecting the contribution of scattering to extinction in optically thin layers provides a good approximation of the effects of coherent scattering on the photospheric temperature balance.

  19. Recent contributions to solar activity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuessler, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current status of the theory of photospheric magnetic fields and the solar cycle theory is reviewed. Some new observations concerning the photospheric magnetic fields, the bright X-ray spots, and the ratio of the umbra radius to the penumbra radius are discussed, and their importance for these theories and their further development is examined.

  20. The Role of Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    The central challenge in solar/heliospheric physics is to understand how the emergence and transport of magnetic flux at the photosphere drives the structure and dynamics that we observe in the corona and heliosphere. This presentation focuses on the role of magnetic reconnection in determining solar/heliospheric activity. We demonstrate that two generic properties of the photospheric magnetic and velocity fields are responsible for the ubiquitous reconnection in the corona. First, the photospheric velocities are complex, which leads to the injection of energy and helicity into the coronal magnetic fields and to the efficient, formation of small-scale structure. Second, the flux distribution at the photosphere is multi-polar, which implies that topological discontinuities and, consequently, current sheets, must be present in the coronal magnetic field. We: present numerical simulations showing that photospherically-driven reconnection is responsible for the heating and dynamics of coronal plasma, and for the topology of the coronal/heliospheric magnetic field.

  1. The high-resolution spectrum of the pulsating, pre-white dwarf star PG 1159-035 (GW VIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.; Husfeld, D.; Wehrse, R.; Starrfield, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution and low-resolution UV spectra and a high-resolution optical spectrum were obtained for PG 1159-035, revealing apparent photospheric absorption features with defined cores from N V 1240 A, N IV 1270 A, O V 1371 A, and C IV 1550 A. The photospheric velocity derived using all of these lines except for C IV is about +35 km/s. Equivalent-width measurements determined for all of the features may provide a tighter constraint on the photospheric temperature in a detailed model atmosphere analysis treating the CNO ions.

  2. The Relation Between the Radial Temperature Profile in the Chromosphere and the Solar Spectrum at Centimeter, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Luz, V.; Chavez, M.; Bertone, E.; Gimenez de Castro, G.

    2014-08-01

    Solar observations from millimeter to ultraviolet wavelengths show that there is a temperature minimum between photosphere and chromosphere. Analyses based on semi-empirical models locate this point at about 500 km above the photosphere. The consistency of these models has been tested by means of millimeter to infrared observations. We show that variations of the theoretical radial temperature profile near the temperature minimum impact the brightness temperature at centimeter, submillimeter, and infrared wavelengths, but the millimeter wavelength emission remains unchanged. We found a region between 500 and 1000 km above the photosphere that remains hidden to observations at the frequencies that we studied here.

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE AXIAL MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR FILAMENT CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2010-09-01

    Formation of solar filament channels by photospheric magnetic reconnection is considered. A magnetohydrodynamic model for magnetic merging, driven by converging convective motions in the photosphere, is presented. Evolution of the axial magnetic field in a channel is analyzed. An exact time-dependent analytical solution for the field profile in a steady stagnation-point flow is derived. The maximum magnetic field in the channel is determined, and its dependence on the reconnection inflow speed is discussed. The quantitative results show that the maximum axial magnetic field in a forming channel is an indicator of the photospheric reconnection rate, in agreement with recent solar observations and laboratory experiments.

  4. Quasi-thermal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delareza, Ramiro

    1987-01-01

    Non-local thermodynamics equilibrium (LTE) effects in the photosphere; recent research on the chromosphere of the M and C stars; and elementary shock-waves and pulsation theories and their applications to Mira long-period variables are discussed.

  5. ANATOMY OF A SOLAR FLARE: MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2006 DECEMBER 14 X-CLASS FLARE WITH GONG, HINODE, AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S. A.; Zharkov, S.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    Some of the most challenging observations to explain in the context of existing flare models are those related to the lower atmosphere and below the solar surface. Such observations, including changes in the photospheric magnetic field and seismic emission, indicate the poorly understood connections between energy release in the corona and its impact in the photosphere and the solar interior. Using data from Hinode, TRACE, RHESSI, and GONG we study the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2006 December 14 X-class flare in the chromosphere, photosphere, and the solar interior. We investigate the connections between the emission at various atmospheric depths, including acoustic signatures obtained by time-distance and holography methods from the GONG data. We report the horizontal displacements observed in the photosphere linked to the timing and locations of the acoustic signatures we believe to be associated with this flare, their vertical and horizontal displacement velocities, and their potential implications for current models of flare dynamics.

  6. Solar Wind Fractionation — Isotopic and Elemental — and Implications for Solar Compositions and Future Genesis Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Heber, V. S.; Burnett, D. S.

    2010-03-01

    Fractionation between solar wind and the solar photosphere is substantial, both for elements and isotopes. GENESIS measurements are key to understanding these fractionations, which will in turn provide more accurate solar compositions.

  7. Simulation of the magnetic structure of the inner heliosphere by means of non-spherical source surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, R. H.; Schulz, M.; Frazier, E. N.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for mapping the Sun's magnetic field B from the photosphere through the corona and interplanetary space is presented. The method entails the derivation of B from a scalar potential within a current-free annular volume bounded inside by photosphere and outside by a prescribed nonspherical source surface to which B is made (as nearly as possible) perpendicular. As usual we obtain the potential for the part of B that arises from currents inside the Sun by fitting an expansion to the observed line-of-sight component of B at the photosphere. A second least-squares fit is introduced to obtain the part of B that arises from currents outside the source surface. Comparisons are made between this model and observed coronal and interplanetary structures. There is evidence that observation data underestimate the strength of photospheric polar magnetic fields.

  8. Gravitational Wave Observations can Constrain Gamma-Ray Busrt Models: The Case of GW 150914 - GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, P.; Preece, R. D.; Goldstein, A.; Meszaros, P.; Burns, E.; Connaughton, V.

    2016-10-01

    Assuming a common origin for the GW150914 gravitational wave and the GW150914-GBM event, we present the implications of joint observations on leading gamma-ray burst models (photospheric, internal- and external shocks).

  9. Extremely narrow spectrum of GRB110920A: further evidence for localized, subphotospheric dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyyani, S.; Ryde, F.; Ahlgren, B.; Burgess, J. M.; Larsson, J.; Pe'er, A.; Lundman, C.; Axelsson, M.; McGlynn, S.

    2015-06-01

    Much evidence points towards that the photosphere in the relativistic outflow in GRBs plays an important role in shaping the observed MeV spectrum. However, it is unclear whether the spectrum is fully produced by the photosphere or whether a substantial part of the spectrum is added by processes far above the photosphere. Here we make a detailed study of the γ-ray emission from single pulse GRB110920A which has a spectrum that becomes extremely narrow towards the end of the burst. We show that the emission can be interpreted as Comptonization of thermal photons by cold electrons in an unmagnetized outflow at an optical depth of τ ˜ 20. The electrons receive their energy by a local dissipation occurring close to the saturation radius. The main spectral component of GRB110920A and its evolution is thus, in this interpretation, fully explained by the emission from the photosphere including localized dissipation at high optical depths.

  10. Explorations of electric current system in solar active regions. I - Empirical inferences of the current flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.; Liu, X. P.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques to identify sources of electric current systems and their channels of flow in solar active regions are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high-resolution white-light and H-alpha filtergrams provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere. As an example, the techniques are then applied to infer current systems in AR 2372 in early April 1980.

  11. Predicting Flare Properties Using the Minimum Current Corona Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    null at approximately (0,265) in the image. To investigate the location, timing, and dynamics of chromospheric and photospheric emis- sion associated...lines). Right: An MCCD image of the thermal response in the chromosphere from HQ line-center images of the the hare ribbons which developed roughly 10...that of the IVM, making a powerful data set of photospheric magnetic field evolution and chromospheric thermal response and dynamics during solar

  12. Comparison of Heliospheric Current Sheet Structure Obtained from Potential Magnetic Field Computations and from Observed Polarization Coronal Brightness,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    the current sheet computed with the potential field approximation appears to be distorted by a large photospheric region of unbalanced magnetic flux...1982) attributed the northward bulge in the PF current sheet to an unusually large photospheric region of unbalanced "towari" polarity that was observed...currents would not be very good observed at the earth iSvalgaard and Wilcox. 19751. Occa- for the strong localized fields of an active region , but for the

  13. Physics of Solar Flares and Development of Statistical and Data Driven Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    monitor rapid changes in characteristics of the solar chromosphere (1-minute cadence), photosphere (5-minute cadence) and corona (10-minute cadence...relationships between solar flares and measured physical parameters at the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona , at high cadence, and to...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2013-0150 TR-2013-0150 PHYSICS OF SOLAR FLARES AND DEVELOPMENT OF STATISTICAL AND DATA DRIVEN MODELS K

  14. Multiwavelength spectropolarimetric observations of an Ellerman bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, R.; Beck, C.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are enhanced emission in the wings of the Hα line in the solar spectrum. Aims: We study the structure of an EB in the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods: We analyze simultaneous observations of four chromospheric lines (Hα, Ca ii H, Ca ii IR 854 nm, and He i 1083 nm) as well as two photospheric lines (Fe i 630 and Si i 1082.7 nm) along with high-cadence 160 and 170 nm ultraviolet (UV) continuum filtergrams. Full Stokes data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) are used to trace the temporal evolution of the magnetic structure. Results: We identify the EB by excess emission in the wings of the Hα line, a brightening in the UV continuum, and large emission peaks in the core of the two Ca ii lines. The EB shows a blueshift in all chromospheric lines, while no shifts are observed in the photospheric lines. The blueshift in the chromospheric layer causes very asymmetric emission peaks in the Ca ii H line. The photospheric Si i spectral line shows a shallower line depth at the location of the EB. The UV continuum maps show that the EB was substantially brighter than its surroundings for about 30 min. The continuum contrast of the EB from 170 nm to 1080 nm shows a power-law dependency on the wavelength. The temperature enhancement amounts to 130 K in the low photosphere and 400 K at the temperature minimum level. This temperature excess is also seen in an LTE inversion of the Ca ii spectra. The total thermal and radiative energy content of the EB is about 1020 J and 1018 J in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. The HMI data hints at a photospheric magnetic flux cancellation as the driver of the EB. Conclusions: Ellerman bombs release the energy in a height range of several pressure scale heights around the temperature minimum such that they affect both the photosphere and the lower chromosphere.

  15. Inferring Lower Boundary Driving Conditions Using Vector Magnetic Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Leake, James; MacNeice, Peter; Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Low-beta coronal MHD simulations of realistic CME events require the detailed specification of the magnetic fields, velocities, densities, temperatures, etc., in the low corona. Presently, the most accurate estimates of solar vector magnetic fields are made in the high-beta photosphere. Several techniques have been developed that provide accurate estimates of the associated photospheric plasma velocities such as the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms and the Poloidal/Toroidal Decomposition. Nominally, these velocities are consistent with the evolution of the radial magnetic field. To evolve the tangential magnetic field radial gradients must be specified. In addition to estimating the photospheric vector magnetic and velocity fields, a further challenge involves incorporating these fields into an MHD simulation. The simulation boundary must be driven, consistent with the numerical boundary equations, with the goal of accurately reproducing the observed magnetic fields and estimated velocities at some height within the simulation. Even if this goal is achieved, many unanswered questions remain. How can the photospheric magnetic fields and velocities be propagated to the low corona through the transition region? At what cadence must we observe the photosphere to realistically simulate the corona? How do we model the magnetic fields and plasma velocities in the quiet Sun? How sensitive are the solutions to other unknowns that must be specified, such as the global solar magnetic field, and the photospheric temperature and density?

  16. On SH Molecules in Umbral Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, K.

    2015-11-01

    Following our predictions on detectability, very weak lines of the SH molecules have been reported as identified in the photospheric spectrum of the Sun. This could be the first detection of a mercapto radical in the solar spectrum, thus placing confidence in the solar abundance of sulfur. The observation additionally tested the theoretical band oscillator strength that was used. Because sunspots are cooler than the photosphere, they host a large number of molecular species. However, owing to photospheric radiation scattered into the observed umbra, no lines of SH were detected in the sunspot spectrum, where they are expected to show equivalent widths larger than those in the photosphere. Detection of weak lines in the photosphere coupled with a non-detection of the relatively strong same lines in the sunspot spectrum might raise doubts about the detection itself. We investigated the choice of photospheric and sunspot models and the microturbulence values that indicate that the predicted sunspot lines are about half as intense as reported before, and the lines remain detectable.

  17. Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries.We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  18. Estimating the Global Solar Magnetic Field Distribution Using ADAPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.; Toussaint, W. A.; Godinez, H. C.; Hickmann, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of the global solar photospheric magnetic field distribution is currently difficult, since only approximately half of the solar surface is magnetically observed at any given time. With the solar rotational period relative to Earth at approximately 27 days, these global maps include observed data that are more than 13 days old. Data assimilation between old and new observations can result in spatial polarity discontinuities that result in significant monopole signals. To help minimize these large discontinuities and to specify the global state of the photospheric magnetic flux distribution as accurately as possible, we have developed the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model, which is comprised of a photospheric magnetic flux transport model that makes use of data assimilation methods. The ADAPT transport model evolves the solar magnetic flux for an ensemble of realizations using different model parameter values, e.g., for rotational, meridional, and super-granular diffusive transport processes. In this presentation, the ADAPT model and the data assimilative methods used within it will be reviewed. Coronal, solar wind, F10.7, and EUV model predictions based on ADAPT global photospheric magnetic field maps as input will be discussed.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-01-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos (2013) to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the system. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of, for example, a bipolar active region. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, coronal loops having opposite helicity do not reconnect, whereas loops having the same sense of helicity do reconnect. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  20. Amorphous alumina in the extended atmosphere of α Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoelst, T.; Decin, L.; van Malderen, R.; Hony, S.; Cami, J.; Eriksson, K.; Perrin, G.; Deroo, P.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we study the extended atmosphere of the late-type supergiant α Orionis. Infrared spectroscopy of red supergiants reveals strong molecular bands, some of which do not originate in the photosphere but in a cooler layer of molecular material above it. Lately, these layers have been spatially resolved by near and mid-IR interferometry. In this paper, we try to reconcile the IR interferometric and ISO-SWS spectroscopic results on α Orionis with a thorough modelling of the photosphere, molecular layer(s) and dust shell. From the ISO and near-IR interferometric observations, we find that α Orionis has only a very low density water layer close above the photosphere. However, mid-IR interferometric observations and a narrow-slit N-band spectrum suggest much larger extra-photospheric opacity close to the photosphere at those wavelengths, even when taking into account the detached dust shell. We argue that this cannot be due to the water layer, and that another source of mid-IR opacity must be present. We show that this opacity source is probably neither molecular nor chromospheric. Rather, we present amorphous alumina (Al2O3) as the best candidate and discuss this hypothesis in the framework of dust-condensation scenarios.

  1. A multiwavelength campaign of active stars with intermediate rotation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Neff, James E.; ONeal, Douglas; Olah, Katalin

    1995-01-01

    Near-to-simultaneous ultraviolet and visual spectroscopy of two moderate nu(sin i) RS CVn systems, V815 Herculis (nu(sin i) = 27 km s(exp -1)) and LM Pegasi (nu(sin i) = 24 km s(exp -1)), are presented along with contemporaneous UBV (RI)(sub c) - band photometry. These data were used to probe inhomogeneities in the chromospheres and photospheres, and the possible relationship between them. Both systems show evidence for rotationally modulated chromospheric emission, generally varying in antiphase to the photospheric brightness. A weak flare was observed at Mg II for V815 Her. In the case of IM Peg, we use photometry and spectra to estimate temperatures, sizes, and locations of photospheric spots. Further constraints on the spot temperature is provided by TiO observations. For IM Peg, the anticorrelation between chromospheric emission and brightness is discussed in the context of a possible solar-like spot cycle.

  2. MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.

    2015-01-20

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  3. Amplitudes of MHD Waves in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Cally, Paul; Baldner, Charles; Kleint, Lucia; Tarbell, Theodore D.; De Pontieu, Bart; Scherrer, Philip H.; Rajaguru, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The conversion of p-modes into MHD waves by strong magnetic fields occurs mainly in the sub-photospheric layers. The photospheric signatures of MHD waves are weak due to low amplitudes at the beta=1 equipartion level where mode-conversion occurs. We report on small amplitude oscillations observed in the photosphere with Hinode SOT/SP in which we analyze time series for sunspots ARs 12186 (11.10.2014) and 12434 (17.10.2015). No significant magnetic field oscillations are recovered in the umbra or penumbra in the ME inversion. However, periodicities in the inclination angle are found at the umbral/penumbral boundary with 5 minute periods. Upward propagating waves are indicated in the intensity signals correlated between HMI and AIA at different heights. We compare SP results with the oscillations observed in HMI data. Simultaneous IRIS data shows transition region brightening above the umbral core.

  4. Stellar UV classification: Some critical remarks and examples taken from A5 to B5 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praderie, F.

    1982-10-01

    Parameters needed to classify normal stars, parameters which govern parts of the UV spectrum, and ways of distinguishing abnormal stars are reviewed. The use of photospheric spectral features for UV classification is advocated because the major part of the energy radiating from the star originates from the photosphere. Temperature can be obtained by observing longwave flux in the black body curve. Observational criteria can be derived from continua by connecting the UV to the visible spectrum, and by producing pure UV indices. The first method is well suited to A5 to B5 stars. Classification from UV lines should select local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric lines such that (line center absorption coefficient)/(continuum opacity at the line (Kc)) is small, and Kc not much continuum opacity at 5000 A. Analysis of AP to BP stars shows that temperature and opacity effects are mixed in the UV, prohibiting the use of pure UV indices as temperature indicators.

  5. HIGHEST RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIETEST SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, Philip R.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cao, Wenda; Abramenko, Valentyna; Andic, Aleksandra; Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-05-01

    Highest resolution observations made with the new 1.6 m aperture solar telescope in Big Bear Solar Observatory during this time of historic inactivity on the Sun reveal new insights into the small-scale dynamics of the Sun's photosphere. The telescope's unprecedented resolution enabled us to observe that the smallest scale photospheric magnetic field seems to come in isolated points in the dark intergranular lanes, rather than the predicted continuous sheets confined to the lanes, and the unexpected longevity of the bright points implies a deeper anchoring than predicted. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that the photospheric plasma motion and magnetic fields are in equipartition over a wide dynamic range, and both cascade energy to ever-smaller scales according to classical Kolmogorov turbulence theory. Finally, we discovered tiny jet-like features originating in the dark lanes that surround the ubiquitous granules that characterize the solar surface.

  6. UV Spectra, Bombs, and the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-08-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reports plasma “bombs” with temperatures near 8 × 104 K within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, first because most bomb plasma pressures p (the largest reported case exceeds 103 dyn cm-2) fall well below photospheric pressures (\\gt 7× {10}3), and second, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the IRIS data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between ≤ 80 and 800 dyne cm-2 before explosion, i.e., between ≥ 850 and 550 km above {τ }500=1. This places the phenomenon’s origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfvénic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  7. Beginning stages of local magnetic field formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumba, V.

    Based on a study of the initial stages of local magnetic field formation, the appearance of a new magnetic flux in the photosphere is studied. This magnetic flux is found to occur both under the influence of different modes of convective motion as well as under the action of Paleomagnetic fields. Waldmeier's Heliographic Maps of the Photosphere and Mt. Wilson Observatory daily magnetic maps were used in the analysis. Observed regularities could not be explained by a model of magnetic flux tubes emerging on the photospheric surface. This model can not account for the practically simultaneous development of separate active regions, belonging to different solar hemispheres and different cycles of solar activity in one, relatively narrow, 'unipolar' sector of the background field. It is also difficult to explain the different roles and velocities of negative and positive polarities during the formation of new magnetic fields. The importance of velocity measurements and maps for solving the observed phenomenon is stressed.

  8. Transverse oscillations and stability of prominences in a magnetic field dip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We developed an analytical model of the global transverse oscillations and mechanical stability of a quiescent prominence in the magnetised environment with a magnetic field dip that accounts for the mirror current effect. Methods: The model is based on the interaction of line currents through the Lorentz force. Within this concept the prominence is treated as a straight current-carrying wire, and the magnetic dip is provided by two photospheric current sources. Results: Properties of both vertical and horizontal oscillations are determined by the value of the prominence current, its density and height above the photosphere, and the parameters of the magnetic dip. The prominence can be stable in both horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously when the prominence current dominates in the system and its height is less than the half-distance between the photospheric sources.

  9. The magnetic field of the BY Draconis flare star EQ Virginis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, . H.; Linsky, J. L.; Beckers, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution, high S/N-ratio line profiles of the BY Draconis-type flare star EQ Vir obtained with the MMT are presently subjected to a novel Zeeman analysis procedure which includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for blends. A mean field of 2500 + or - 300 G covering 80 + or 15 percent of EQ Vir is determined. This constitutes the first positive detection of a magnetic field in a BY Draconis-type flare star, confirming that magnetic fields are present on these stars. The value of 2500 G obtained for the photospheric field strength is similar to the value derived by assuming equipartition of magnetic and thermal energy densities in the photosphere and scaling from the solar network fields, suggesting that equipartition may determine the mean field strength in the nonspotted portion of the flare star photosphere.

  10. Highest Resolution Observations of the Quietest Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cao, Wenda; Abramenko, Valentyna; Andic, Aleksandra; Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-05-01

    Highest resolution observations made with the new 1.6 m aperture solar telescope in Big Bear Solar Observatory during this time of historic inactivity on the Sun reveal new insights into the small-scale dynamics of the Sun's photosphere. The telescope's unprecedented resolution enabled us to observe that the smallest scale photospheric magnetic field seems to come in isolated points in the dark intergranular lanes, rather than the predicted continuous sheets confined to the lanes, and the unexpected longevity of the bright points implies a deeper anchoring than predicted. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that the photospheric plasma motion and magnetic fields are in equipartition over a wide dynamic range, and both cascade energy to ever-smaller scales according to classical Kolmogorov turbulence theory. Finally, we discovered tiny jet-like features originating in the dark lanes that surround the ubiquitous granules that characterize the solar surface.

  11. Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.

  12. Chromospheric activity in sunspot light bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    High-resolution filtergrams from Hinode were used to analyse the nature of chromospheric activity over a set of five sunspot light bridges. The broad-band Ca II H filtergrams depict a variety of phenomena which include large arc-shaped brightenings, bright patches, and small-scale jets. These strong brightenings are recurrent over a duration of several hours and appear to be a common attribute of a sunspot light bridge, independent of its photospheric morphology and horizontal flow pattern. Hinode spectro-polarimetric observations were used to construct far wing magnetograms from the Fe I line at 630.25 nm, which reveal the presence of small-scale magnetic and velocity inhomogeneities in the photosphere of the light bridges. Although there is strong evidence for a causal relation between the photospheric anomalies and the observed chromospheric activity, the physical mechanism responsible for the latter remains speculative.

  13. Heating of the corona by magnetic singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models of current-sheet formation and magnetic heating in the solar corona are examined analytically. The role of photospheric connectivity in determining the topology of the coronal magnetic field and its equilibrium properties is explored; nonequilibrium models of current-sheet formation (assuming an initially well connected field) are described; and particular attention is given to models with discontinuous connectivity, where magnetic singularities arise from smooth footpoint motions. It is shown that current sheets arise from connectivities in which the photospheric flux structure is complex, with three or more polarity regions and a magnetic null point within the corona.

  14. On the effects of magnetic field line topology on the energy propagation in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaresi, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Using the MHD approximation, we study the propagation of energy from photospheric footpoint motions into the corona. Our model consists of a magnetic carpet with closed and open magnetic field lines. Magnetic null points are present close at the surface. The applied photospheric driver twists the field into a topologically non-trivial configuration which leads to reconnection and a change in field line topology. Prior to this event, the energy propagation into the corona is largely inhibited due to closed field lines. After such events the energy is free to propagate into the corona.

  15. Development of a complex of activity in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Svestka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Using Skylab observations of soft solar X-rays, the development of a complex of activity in the solar corona during its whole lifetime of seven solar rotations is studied. The basic components of the activity complex were determined to be permanently interconnected through sets of magnetic field lines, which suggests similar connections also below the photosphere. The visibility of individual loops in these connections, however, was greatly variable and typically shorter than one day. Each brightening of a coronal loop in X-rays seems to be related to a variation in the photospheric magnetic field near its footprint.

  16. Reexamination of the Coronal Index of Solar Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-25

    characterizes photospheric activity. At present, four coronal 0148-0227/05/2005JA011146$09.00 stations (Lomnický’ Stit (Slovakia), Norikura (Japan...de la couronne solaire en dehors des 6clipses, 1965) data at Lomnický’ Stit tracks the standard measures of Z Astrophys., 5, 73. photospheric activity...Astrophys., 35, 213. Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-3010, USA. (edward.cliver@hanscom.af.mil) d’Azambuja, H. L. (1947), Donn6es Nouvelles sur I’Activit6 Solaire , L

  17. Elemental composition of solar energetic particles in 1977 and 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.; Trainor, J. H.; Webber, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The elemental composition of energetic nuclei from seven major solar flare events were measured wit the cosmic ray detector systems aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The energetic nuclei abundances differ significantly from those of photospheric material. They are enhanced relative to the photonsphere by a factor which is the ratio of abundance of an energetic nuclei species (relative to oxygen) over the corresponding abundance of photospheric material. This factor is common to all events and has a nonmonochromatic characteristic dependence on nuclear charge. This factor is roughly ordered by first ionization potential into two groups of elements, metallics and volatiles.

  18. Magnetic Fields and Atmospheric Motions in Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, Merieme

    New series of high-precision longitudinal magnetic field measurements of RR Lyrae has been reported here, obtained with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter over a period of 4 years. These data provide no evidence whatsoever for a strong magnetic field in the photosphere of RR Lyrae, a result consistent with Preston’s (1967) results, but inconsistent with apparent magnetic field detections by Babcock (1958) and Romanov et al. (1987, 1994). Following discussion of these disparate results, we conclude that RR Lyrae is a bona fide non-magnetic star, a conclusion which leads to the general falsification of models of the Blazkho effect requiring strong photospheric magnetic fields.

  19. Magnetic models can not explain the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, M.; Wade, G. A.; Shorlin, S. L. S.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2004-05-01

    We report a new series of high-precision Stokes V profiles and longitudinal magnetic field measurements of RR Lyrae, obtained with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter over a period of four years. These data provide no evidence whatsoever for a strong magnetic field in the photosphere of RR Lyrae, whish is consistent with Preston's (1967) results, but inconsistent with apparent magnetic field detections by Babcock (1958) and Romanov et a. (1987, 1994). Following discussion of these disparate results, we conclude that RR Lyrae is a bona fide non-magnetic star, a conclusion which leads to the general falsification of models of the Blazkho effect requiring strong photospheric magnetic fields.

  20. Backscatter of hard X-rays in the solar atmosphere. [Calculating the reflectance of solar x ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    The solar photosphere backscatters a substantial fraction of the hard X rays from solar flares incident upon it. This reflection was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation which takes into account Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption. Both isotropic and anisotropic X ray sources are considered. The bremsstrahlung from an anisotropic distribution of electrons are evaluated. By taking the reflection into account, the inconsistency is removed between recent observational data regarding the center-to-limb variation of solar X ray emission and the predictions of models in which accelerated electrons are moving down toward the photosphere.

  1. The origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    1980-03-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet in early 1976 was calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field using a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity in early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere at Helios 1, Helios 2, Pioneer 11 and Earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field, and that "ballerina skirt" effects may add small scale ripples.

  2. Origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-08-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet for early 1976 is calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field by a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity for early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere by Helios 1, Helios 2, Pioneer 11, and at the earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large-scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field and that 'ballerina skirt' effects may add small scale ripples.

  3. Comments on Magnetic Reconnection Models of Canceling Magnetic Features on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2015-06-01

    Data analysis and theoretical arguments support magnetic reconnection in a chromospheric current sheet as the mechanism of the observed photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun. Flux pile-up reconnection in a Sweet-Parker current sheet can explain the observed properties of canceling mag-netic features, including the speeds of canceling magnetic fragments, the magnetic uxes in the fragments, and the flux cancellation rates, inferred from the data. It is discussed how more realistic chromospheric reconnection models can be developed by relaxing the assumptions of a negligible current sheet curvature and a constant height of the reconnection site above the photosphere.

  4. Space-weather Parameters for 1,000 Active Regions Observed by SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobra, M.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present statistical studies of several space-weather parameters, derived from observations of the photospheric vector magnetic field by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, for a thousand active regions. Each active region has been observed every twelve minutes during the entirety of its disk passage. Some of these parameters, such as energy density and shear angle, indicate the deviation of the photospheric magnetic field from that of a potential field. Other parameters include flux, helicity, field gradients, polarity inversion line properties, and measures of complexity. We show that some of these parameters are useful for event prediction.

  5. ON THE PROPAGATION OF p-MODES INTO THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    De Wijn, A. G.; McIntosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.

    2009-09-10

    We employ tomographic observations of a small region of plage to study the propagation of waves from the solar photosphere to the chromosphere using a Fourier phase-difference analysis. Our results show the expected vertical propagation for waves with periods of 3 minutes. Waves with 5 minute periods, i.e., above the acoustic cutoff period, are found to propagate only at the periphery of the plage, and only in the direction in which the field can be reasonably expected to expand. We conclude that field inclination is critically important in the leakage of p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the chromosphere.

  6. Conjectures regarding the structure of a sunspot penumbra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cram, L. E.; Nye, A. H.; Thomas, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of simple radiative transfer models for some of the dark filaments on the outer edge of penumbras, which observations suggest may lie several hundred km above the base of the quiet photosphere, has determined that elevated dark filaments probably have higher temperatures and densities than the surrounding atmosphere. The possibility of a connection between the dark filaments, the photospheric Evershed flow, and umbral dots, is discussed. An important observational test of the present model would involve an attempt to separate temperature and optical depth effects in the dark filaments. This could be accomplished by either continuum photometry at a few, widely separated wavelengths, or by spectroscopic studies.

  7. Magnetic probing of the solar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic field patterns in the region beneath the solar photosphere is determined. An approximate method for downward extrapolation of line of sight magnetic field measurements taken at the solar photosphere was developed. It utilizes the mean field theory of electromagnetism in a form thought to be appropriate for the solar convection zone. A way to test that theory is proposed. The straightforward application of the lowest order theory with the complete model fit to these data does not indicate the existence of any reasonable depth at which flux conservation is achieved.

  8. Spectral analysis of A and F dwarf members of the open cluster M6: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first abundance analysis of CD-32 13109 (NGC 6405 47), member of the M6 open cluster. The photospheric abundances of 14 chemical elements were determined by comparing synthetic spectra and observed spectra of the star. Findings show that this star should be an Am star.

  9. Abundances from solar-flare gamma-ray line spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Ramaty, R.; Forrest, D. J.; Kozlovsky, B.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental abundances of the ambient gas at the site of gamma ray line production inthe solar atmosphere are deduced using gamma ray line observations from a solar flare. The resultant abundances are different from local galactic abundances which are thought to be similar to photospheric abundances.

  10. A new class of exact, nonlinear solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roumeliotis, George

    1993-01-01

    We have constructed a new class of exact, nonlinear solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation, representing force-free magnetic fields with translational symmetry. These exact solutions are pertinent to the study of magnetic structures in the solar corona that are subjected to photospheric shearing motions.

  11. Helium emission features in the D3 line in the lower and middle solar chromosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, L. A.; Belkina, I. L.; Dyatel, N. P.

    The height distribution of the surface brightness of the chromosphere obtained from cinematographic eclipse observations is analyzed. It is shown that the two-peak character of the distribution with a maximum near the photosphere is real for the active chromosphere. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is proposed.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: T Tauri star population in Lupus (Galli+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Bertout, C.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.

    2015-11-01

    The newly derived individual parallaxes from our previous kinematic study of the Lupus association have been used in this paper to determine the photospheric luminosities and refine the masses and ages of the TTS population in this SFR. We investigated the mass and age distributions of CTTSs and WTTSs in the Lupus association. (1 data file).

  13. Measurement Of Starspot Properties By Forward Modeling Igrins Spectra Of LkCa4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael; Herczeg, Gregory; Czekala, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Cool star light curves often show periodic variability indicative of rotational modulation from starspots entering and exiting the visible stellar disk. T-Tauri stars exhibit some of the greatest modulations. We computed the interquartile range of K2 cycle 2 light curves for 1658 young stellar objects or candidate young stellar objects towards Ophiuchus and Upper Scorpius. The typical interquartile range is 1-15%. The modulation amplitude only indicates the presence of longitudinally asymmetric starspots and therefore cannot uniquely constrain the starspot properties (Neff et al. 1995, Harrison et al. 2011). Spectroscopy offers a way to constrain the the longitudinally symmetric component of starspots, through the spectral signature of multiple photospheric components. We extended the modular likelihood framework, Starfish (Czekala et al. 2015), to include a two-component photosphere parameterized by an areal filling factor f of starspots with a temperature contrast delta T_eff. We applied the spectroscopic forward modeling framework to 40 unique echelle orders of IGRINS spectroscopy of LkCa4 with R 45,000 in H- and K- bands. A fit to each order with one photospheric component yields derived effective Temperatures in the range 4100-3300 K, with lower temperatures derived in K-band than H-band. The two-component photospheric models yield measurements for delta T_{eff} 1000 K and fill factors of cool spots >50%. The importance of starspots needs to be empirically evaluated to assess systematic biases of pre-main sequence stellar evolutionary models.

  14. Formación de estrellas deficientes en hidrógeno mediante flashes tardíos del helio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    This manuscript briefly describes the PhD thesis of the author. The aim of this thesis is the study of the formation and evolution of hydrogen deficient stars as a consequence of late helium flashes. These flashes lead either to the dilution or burning of the remaining hydrogen in the star, thus leading to stars with photospheric hydrogen deficiencies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Magnetic field reconstruction based on sunspot oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Bello González, N.; Schmidt, W.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic field of a sunspot guides magnetohydrodynamic waves toward higher atmospheric layers. In the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere, wave modes with periods longer than the acoustic cut-off period become evanescent. The cut-off period essentially changes due to the atmospheric properties, e.g., increases for larger zenith inclinations of the magnetic field. In this work, we aim at introducing a novel technique of reconstructing the magnetic field inclination on the basis of the dominating wave periods in the sunspot chromosphere and upper photosphere. On 2013 August 21, we observed an isolated, circular sunspot (NOAA11823) for 58 min in a purely spectroscopic multi-wavelength mode with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectro-polarimeter (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. By means of a wavelet power analysis, we retrieved the dominating wave periods and reconstructed the zenith inclinations in the chromosphere and upper photosphere. The results are in good agreement with the lower photospheric HMI magnetograms. The sunspot's magnetic field in the chromosphere inclines from almost vertical (0°) in the umbra to around 60° in the outer penumbra. With increasing altitude in the sunspot atmosphere, the magnetic field of the penumbra becomes less inclined. We conclude that the reconstruction of the magnetic field topology on the basis of sunspot oscillations yields consistent and conclusive results. The technique opens up a new possibility to infer the magnetic field inclination in the solar chromosphere.

  16. Elemental composition of solar energetic particles. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R., III

    1981-01-01

    The Low Energy Telescopes on the Voyager spacecraft are used to measure the elemental composition (2 or = Z or = 28) and energy spectra (5 to 15 MeV/nucleon) of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in seven large flare events. Four flare events are selected which have SEP abundance ratios approximately independent of energy/nucleon. The abundances for these events are compared from flare to flare and are compared to solar abundances from other sources: spectroscopy of the photosphere and corona, and solar wind measurements. The four flare average SEP composition is significantly different from the solar composition determined by photospheric spectroscopy. The average SEP composition is in agreement with solar wind abundance results and with a number of recent coronal abundance measurements. The evidence for a common depletion of oxygen in SEPs, the corona and the solar wind relative to the photosphere suggest that the SEPs originate in the corona and that both the SEPs and solar wind sample a coronal composition which is significantly and persistently different from that of the photosphere.

  17. Extreme-infrared brightness profile of the solar chromosphere obtained during the total eclipse of 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, C.; Jefferies, J. T.; Clark, T. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Carter, M. K.; Watt, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Roellig, T. L.; Braun, D. C.; Naylor, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A temperature profile in 1.3 mm radiation with about 300 km resolution at the sun was obtained during the total eclipse of 1991. The observations indicate that spicules reach a temperature of 8000 K at 3000-4000 km above the photosphere. This temperature is lower than those of many spicule models.

  18. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES AND ULTRAVIOLET EMISSIONS ACCOMPANYING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, B. M.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2012-11-20

    We have used Transition Region and Coronal Explorer 1600 A images and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) magnetograms to compare ultraviolet (UV) emissions from the chromosphere to longitudinal magnetic field changes in the photosphere during four X-class solar flares. An abrupt, significant, and persistent change in the magnetic field occurred across more than 10 pixels in the GONG magnetograms for each flare. These magnetic changes lagged the GOES flare start times in all cases, showing that they were consequences and not causes of the flares. Ultraviolet emissions were spatially coincident with the field changes. The UV emissions tended to lag the GOES start times for the flares and led the changes in the magnetic field in all pixels except one. The UV emissions led the photospheric field changes by 4 minutes on average with the longest lead being 9 minutes; however, the UV emissions continued for tens of minutes, and more than an hour in some cases, after the field changes were complete. The observations are consistent with the picture in which an Alfven wave from the field reconnection site in the corona propagates field changes outward in all directions near the onset of the impulsive phase, including downward through the chromosphere and into the photosphere, causing the photospheric field changes, whereas the chromosphere emits in the UV in the form of flare kernels, ribbons, and sequential chromospheric brightenings during all phases of the flare.

  19. TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, B.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) is a NASA Small-Explorer (SMEX) satellite developed to study the impact of magnetic fields on the solar outer atmosphere. The instrument observes the solar surface (SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE) and the hotter overlying domains (TRANSITION REGION and CORONA) with an angular resolution of 1 arcsec, equivalent to 725 km on the Sun, an average cadence of about...

  20. Keck Telescope Observations of Externally-Polluted White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, Ben M.; NASA, Research was Supported in Part by

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s the Keck telescope and HIRES echelle spectrometer have contributed mightily to investigations of white dwarf photospheres that contain elements heavier than helium that have been accreted from surrounding planetary systems. Today we report new Keck measurements of helium atmosphere (DB and DZ) white dwarfs, of Hyades white dwarfs, and of white dwarfs in binary systems.

  1. The nature of chromospheric active regions on V410 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkaden, M. V.; Pukalenthi, S.; Muneer, S.; Bastian, Anju Barbara

    2005-12-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the region of H alpha and Li I lines of the weak emission T Tauri star V410 Tau obtained over 1999/2000, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 seasons. The emission strength showed rotational modulation during the 1999/2000 season in such a way that the emis- sion strength is maximum at light minimum and vice versa. This indicates that the photospheric and chromospheric active regions overlap over shorter dura- tions of time and the lifetimes of chromospheric active regions are far shorter than the photospheric active regions. But the observations obtained during the 2003/2004 season do not follow the trend observed at earlier seasons. This can be due to the change in the location of chromospheric active regions. Another possibility is the occurrence of a major change in the photospheric active re- gions that have caused a redistribution of photospheric as well as chromospheric active regions. The Li I EW does not show any appreciable change over the four-year period.

  2. EFFECT OF SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC NEUTRALS ON EQUILIBRIUM FIELD STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, T. D.; Botha, G. J. J.; Brady, C. S. E-mail: G.J.J.Botha@warwick.ac.u

    2009-11-10

    Solar coronal equilibrium fields are often constructed by nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation from photospheric magnetograms. It is well known that the photospheric field is not force-free and the correct lower boundary for NLFFF construction ought to be the top of the chromosphere. To compensate for this, pre-filtering algorithms are often applied to the photospheric data to remove the non-force-free components. Such pre-filtering models, while physically constrained, do not address the mechanisms that may be responsible for the field becoming force-free. The chromospheric field can change through, for example, field expansion due to gravitational stratification, reconnection, or flux emergence. In this paper, we study and quantify the effect of the chromospheric neutrals on equilibrium field structures. It is shown that, depending on the degree to which the photospheric field is not force-free, the chromosphere will change the structure of the equilibrium field. This is quantified to give an estimate of the change in alpha profiles one might expect due to neutrals in the chromosphere. Simple scaling of the decay time of non-force-free components of the magnetic field due to chromospheric neutrals is also derived. This is used to quantify the rate at which, or equivalent at which height, the chromosphere is expected to become force-free.

  3. Nonlinear force-free field modeling of the solar magnetic carpet and comparison with SDO/HMI and Sunrise/IMAX observations

    SciTech Connect

    Chitta, L. P.; Kariyappa, R.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In the quiet solar photosphere, the mixed polarity fields form a magnetic carpet that continuously evolves due to dynamical interaction between the convective motions and magnetic field. This interplay is a viable source to heat the solar atmosphere. In this work, we used the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory, as time-dependent lower boundary conditions, to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. We use a magneto-frictional relaxation method, including hyperdiffusion, to produce a time series of three-dimensional nonlinear force-free fields from a sequence of photospheric LOS magnetograms. Vertical flows are added up to a height of 0.7 Mm in the modeling to simulate the non-force-freeness at the photosphere-chromosphere layers. Among the derived quantities, we study the spatial and temporal variations of the energy dissipation rate and energy flux. Our results show that the energy deposited in the solar atmosphere is concentrated within 2 Mm of the photosphere and there is not sufficient energy flux at the base of the corona to cover radiative and conductive losses. Possible reasons and implications are discussed. Better observational constraints of the magnetic field in the chromosphere are crucial to understand the role of the magnetic carpet in coronal heating.

  4. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  5. The abundance of silicon in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, A. M. K.; Beheary, M. M.; Bakry, A.; Ichimoto, K.

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution solar spectra were used to determine the silicon abundance (εSi) content by comparison with Si line synthesis relying on realistic hydrodynamical simulations of the solar surface convection, as 3D inhomogeneous model of the solar photosphere. Based on a set of 19 Si I and 2 Si II lines, with accurate transition probabilities as well as accurate observational data available, the solar photospheric Si abundance has been determined to be log εSi(3D) = 7.53 ± 0.07. Here we derive the photospheric silicon abundance taking into account non-LTE effects based on 1D solar model, the non-LTE abundance value we find is log εSi (1D) = 7.52 ± 0.08. The photospheric Si abundance agrees well with the results of Asplund and more recently published by Asplund et al. relative to previous 3D-based abundances, the consistency given that the quoted errors here are (±0.07 dex).

  6. Million Degree Plasmas in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Astrophysics. White Paper in Response to Astro2010 Science Call

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    photometry , timing measurements of suitable cadence, and advanced theory are the keys to understanding the physics of million degree plasmas in...photosphere? How do stellar coronae influence planetary atmospheres? Discovery Area: As observations are pushed to cosmological distances (z>5) the spectral...generally available in NSs. Models with scaled parameters reinforced by spectral and timing measurements allow fruitful comparisons of analogous

  7. The quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    An up-to-date textbook of solar physics is presented. The solar structure and processes, and the interior are described along with the photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona. The strongest Fraunhofer lines, visible coronal lines, and coronal UV, XUV, and X-ray lines are listed.

  8. Multi-Satellite Attitude Prediction program/Orbiting Solar Observatory-8 (MSAP/OSO-8) operating guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, V. H.; Wyckoff, D. C.; Decicco, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The sun's lower corona and chromosphere and their interaction in the X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions were investigated to better understand the transport of energy from the photosphere to the corona. The interaction between the solar electromagnetic and particle radiation and the earth's environment was studied and the background component of cosmic X-rays was discussed.

  9. An Improved Optical Spectrum and New Model Fits of the Likely Brown Dwarf GD 165B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.; Allard, F.; Bida, T.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E.; Chabrier, G.; Baraffe, I.

    1999-01-01

    Long thought by some researchers to be an oddity, GD 165B has instead proven to be the first example of a class of very cool objects (the L dwarfs) which, due to dust formation in their photosphere, lack the dominant bands of TiO seen in warmer M dwarfs.

  10. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  11. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  12. Observations of sunspot umbral velocity oscillations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Livingston, W. C.; Harvey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Review of sunspot umbral velocity measurements obtained free from any cross talk introduced by photospheric and penumbral scattered light by using lines formed only in the sunspot umbrae and showing no Zeeman effect. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of the umbral oscillatory velocity component is found to be of the order of 0.5 km per sec.

  13. Next space solar observatory SOLAR-C: mission instruments and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Kubo, M.; Kusano, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

    2012-12-01

    SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.

  14. THE ORIGIN OF NET ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmasse, K.; Kliem, B.; Török, T.

    2015-09-01

    There is a recurring question in solar physics regarding whether or not electric currents are neutralized in active regions (ARs). This question was recently revisited using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence into the solar atmosphere. Such simulations showed that flux emergence can generate a substantial net current in ARs. Other sources of AR currents are photospheric horizontal flows. Our aim is to determine the conditions for the occurrence of net versus neutralized currents with this second mechanism. Using 3D MHD simulations, we systematically impose line-tied, quasi-static, photospheric twisting and shearing motions to a bipolar potential magnetic field. We find that such flows: (1) produce both direct and return currents, (2) induce very weak compression currents—not observed in 2.5D—in the ambient field present in the close vicinity of the current-carrying field, and (3) can generate force-free magnetic fields with a net current. We demonstrate that neutralized currents are in general produced only in the absence of magnetic shear at the photospheric polarity inversion line—a special condition that is rarely observed. We conclude that  photospheric flows, as magnetic flux emergence, can build up net currents in the solar atmosphere, in agreement with recent observations. These results thus provide support for eruption models based on pre-eruption magnetic fields that possess a net coronal current.

  15. Solar-system abundances of the elements - A new table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevesse, Nicolas; Anders, Edward

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an abridged version of a new abundance compilation (Anders and Grevesse, 1988), representing an update of Anders and Ebihara (1982) and Grevesse (1984). It includes revised meteoritic abundances as well as photospheric and coronal abundances, based on literature through mid-1988.

  16. Successive injection of opposite magnetic helicity in solar active region NOAA 11928

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Démoulin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Understanding the nature and evolution of the photospheric helicity flux transfer is crucial to revealing the role of magnetic helicity in coronal dynamics of solar active regions. Methods: We computed the boundary-driven helicity flux with a 12-min cadence during the emergence of the AR 11928 using SDO/HMI photospheric vector magnetograms and the derived flow velocity field. Accounting for the footpoint connectivity defined by nonlinear, force-free magnetic extrapolations, we derived and analyzed the corrected distribution of helicity flux maps. Results: The photospheric helicity flux injection is found to change sign during the steady emergence of the AR. This reversal is confirmed with the evolution of the photospheric electric currents and with the coronal connectivity as observed in EUV wavelengths with SDO/AIA. During approximately the three first days of emergence, the AR coronal helicity is positive while later on the field configuration is close to a potential field. As theoretically expected, the magnetic helicity cancellation is associated with enhanced coronal activity. Conclusions: The study suggests a boundary driven transformation of the chirality in the global AR magnetic structure. This may be the result of the emergence of a flux rope with positive twist around its apex while it has negative twist in its legs. The origin of such mixed helicity flux rope in the convective zone is challenging for models.

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT DURING THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  18. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. The gas below the cloud base has constant mixing ratio. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. Below this ocean surface, the mixing ratio of water will be constant. A cloud base occurs when the photospheric temperature is high. For a family of ice giants with different photospheric temperatures, the cooler ice giants will have warmer cloud bases. For an ice giant with a cool enough photospheric temperature, the cloud base will exist at the critical temperature. For still cooler ice giants, ocean surfaces will result. A high mixing ratio of water in the deep interior favors a liquid ocean. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune s deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be approx. equal to 0.8 g/cu cm. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager

  19. Solar Magnetic Tracking. IV. The Death of Magnetic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Parnell, C. E.; Welsch, B. T.

    2013-09-01

    The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-Sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux, either by cancellation (submerging or rising loops, or reconnection in the photosphere) or by dispersal of flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 2 × 104 magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of the quiet Sun. Of the feature deaths that remove visible magnetic flux from the photosphere, the vast majority do so by a process that merely disperses the previously detected flux so that it is too small and too weak to be detected, rather than completely eliminating it. The behavior of the ensemble average of these dispersals is not consistent with a model of simple planar diffusion, suggesting that the dispersal is constrained by the evolving photospheric velocity field. We introduce the concept of the partial lifetime of magnetic features, and show that the partial lifetime due to Cancellation of magnetic flux, 22 hr, is three times slower than previous measurements of the flux turnover time. This indicates that prior feature-based estimates of the flux replacement time may be too short, in contrast with the tendency for this quantity to decrease as resolution and instrumentation have improved. This suggests that dispersal of flux to smaller scales is more important for the replacement of magnetic fields in the quiet Sun than observed bipolar cancellation. We conclude that processes on spatial scales smaller than those visible to Hinode dominate the processes of flux emergence and cancellation, and therefore also the quantity of magnetic flux that threads the photosphere.

  20. Testing the Accuracy of Data-driven MHD Simulations of Active Region Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Schuck, Peter W.

    2017-04-01

    Models for the evolution of the solar coronal magnetic field are vital for understanding solar activity, yet the best measurements of the magnetic field lie at the photosphere, necessitating the development of coronal models which are “data-driven” at the photosphere. We present an investigation to determine the feasibility and accuracy of such methods. Our validation framework uses a simulation of active region (AR) formation, modeling the emergence of magnetic flux from the convection zone to the corona, as a ground-truth data set, to supply both the photospheric information and to perform the validation of the data-driven method. We focus our investigation on how the accuracy of the data-driven model depends on the temporal frequency of the driving data. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory produces full-disk vector magnetic field measurements at a 12-minute cadence. Using our framework we show that ARs that emerge over 25 hr can be modeled by the data-driving method with only ∼1% error in the free magnetic energy, assuming the photospheric information is specified every 12 minutes. However, for rapidly evolving features, under-sampling of the dynamics at this cadence leads to a strobe effect, generating large electric currents and incorrect coronal morphology and energies. We derive a sampling condition for the driving cadence based on the evolution of these small-scale features, and show that higher-cadence driving can lead to acceptable errors. Future work will investigate the source of errors associated with deriving plasma variables from the photospheric magnetograms as well as other sources of errors, such as reduced resolution, instrument bias, and noise.

  1. MAGNETIC FIELDS OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT FROM FULL STOKES ANALYSIS OF Si I 1082.7 nm AND He I 1083.0 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-20

    Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament in the photosphere and upper chromosphere are obtained from spectro-polarimetric observations recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We apply Milne-Eddington inversions on full Stokes vectors of the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the upper chromospheric He I triplet at 1083.0 nm to obtain the magnetic field vector and velocity maps in two atmosphere layers. We find that (1) a complete filament was already present in H{alpha} at the beginning of the TIP II data acquisition. Only a partially formed one, composed of multiple small threads, was present in He I. (2) The AR filament comprises two sections. One shows strong magnetic field intensities, about 600-800 G in the upper chromosphere and 800-1000 G in the photosphere. The other exhibits only comparatively weak magnetic field strengths in both layers. (3) The Stokes V signal is indicative of a dip in the magnetic field strength close to the chromospheric PIL. (4) In the chromosphere, consistent upflows are found along the PIL flanked by downflows. (5) The transversal magnetic field is nearly parallel to the PIL in the photosphere and inclined by 20 Degree-Sign -30 Degree-Sign in the chromosphere. (6) The chromospheric magnetic field around the filament is found to be in normal configuration, while the photospheric field presents a concave magnetic topology. The observations are consistent with the emergence of a flux rope with a subsequent formation of a filament.

  2. SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. IV. THE DEATH OF MAGNETIC FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Parnell, C. E.; Welsch, B. T.

    2013-09-10

    The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-Sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux, either by cancellation (submerging or rising loops, or reconnection in the photosphere) or by dispersal of flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of the quiet Sun. Of the feature deaths that remove visible magnetic flux from the photosphere, the vast majority do so by a process that merely disperses the previously detected flux so that it is too small and too weak to be detected, rather than completely eliminating it. The behavior of the ensemble average of these dispersals is not consistent with a model of simple planar diffusion, suggesting that the dispersal is constrained by the evolving photospheric velocity field. We introduce the concept of the partial lifetime of magnetic features, and show that the partial lifetime due to Cancellation of magnetic flux, 22 hr, is three times slower than previous measurements of the flux turnover time. This indicates that prior feature-based estimates of the flux replacement time may be too short, in contrast with the tendency for this quantity to decrease as resolution and instrumentation have improved. This suggests that dispersal of flux to smaller scales is more important for the replacement of magnetic fields in the quiet Sun than observed bipolar cancellation. We conclude that processes on spatial scales smaller than those visible to Hinode dominate the processes of flux emergence and cancellation, and therefore also the quantity of magnetic flux that threads the photosphere.

  3. Analysis of the flux and polarization spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2001el: Exploring the geometry of the high-velocity Ejecta

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Wang, Lifan; Howell, D.A.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Hoeflich, Peter; Baade, Dietrich; Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P.H.

    2003-01-15

    SN 2001el is the first normal Type Ia supernova to show a strong, intrinsic polarization signal. In addition, during the epochs prior to maximum light, the CaII IR triplet absorption is seen distinctly and separately at both normal photospheric velocities and at very high velocities. The unusual, high-velocity triplet absorption is highly polarized, with a different polarization angle than the rest of the spectrum. The unique observation allows us to construct a relatively detailed picture of the layered geometrical structure of the supernova ejecta: in our interpretation, the ejecta layers near the photosphere (v approximately 10,000 km/s) obey a near axial symmetry, while a detached, high-velocity structure (v approximately 18,000-25,000 $ km/s) of CaII line opacity deviates from the photospheric axisymmetry. By partially obscuring the underlying photosphere, the high-velocity structure causes a more incomplete cancellation of the polarization of the photospheric light, and so gives rise to the polarization peak of the high-velocity IR triplet feature. In an effort to constrain the ejecta geometry, we develop a technique for calculating 3-D synthetic polarization spectra and use it to generate polarization profiles for several parameterized configurations. In particular, we examine the case where the inner ejecta layers are ellipsoidal and the outer, high-velocity structure is one of four possibilities: a spherical shell, an ellipsoidal shell, a clumped shell, or a toroid. The synthetic spectra rule out the clearly discriminated if observations are obtained from several different lines of sight. Thus, assuming the high velocity structure observed for SN 2001el is a consistent feature of at least known subset of type Ia supernovae, future observations and analyses such as these may allow one to put strong constraints on the ejecta geometry and hence on supernova progenitors and explosion mechanisms.

  4. Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K-Giants: Alpha Boo and Alpha Tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Carbon, Duane F.; Welch, William J.; Lim, Tanya; Forster, James R.; Goorvitch, David; Thigpen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have imaged two normal, non-coronal, infrared-bright K-giants, alpha Boo and alpha Tau, in the 1.4-millimeter and 2.8-millimeter continuum using BIMA. These stars have been used as important absolute calibrators for several infrared satellites. Our goals are: (1) to probe the structure of their upper photospheres; (2) to establish whether these stars radiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheres; and (3) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we also present ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) measurements of both these K-giants. The far-infrared and millimeter continuum radiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum in a Boo and a Tau, offering a direct test of the model photospheres and chromospheres for these two cool giants. We find that current photospheric models predict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed for those wavelengths which sample the upper photosphere, namely less than or equal to 170 micrometers in alpha Tau and less than or equal to 125 micrometers in alpha Boo. It is possible that alpha Tau is still radiative as far as 0.9 - 1.4 millimeters. We detect chromospheric radiation from both stars by 2.8 millimeters (by 1.4 millimeters in alpha Boo), and are able to establish useful bounds on the location of the temperature minimum. An attempt to interpret the chromospheric fluxes using the two-component "bifurcation model" proposed by Wiedemann et al. (1994) appears to lead to a significant contradiction.

  5. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  6. First Detection of Chromospheric Magnetic Field Changes during an X1-Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleint, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Stepwise changes of the photospheric magnetic field, which often becomes more horizontal, have been observed during many flares. Previous interpretations include coronal loops that contract, and it has been speculated that such jerks could be responsible for sunquakes. Here we report the detection of stepwise chromospheric line-of-sight magnetic field (B{}{LOS}) changes obtained through spectropolarimetry of Ca ii 8542 Å with DST/IBIS during the X1-flare SOL20140329T17:48. These changes are stronger (<640 Mx cm‑2) and appear in larger areas than their photospheric counterparts (<320 Mx cm‑2). The absolute value of {B}{LOS} more often decreases than increases. Photospheric changes are predominantly located near a polarity inversion line, and chromospheric changes near the footpoints of loops. The locations of changes are near, but not exactly co-spatial to hard X-ray emission and neither to enhanced continuum emission nor to a small sunquake. Enhanced chromospheric and coronal emission is observed in nearly all locations that exhibit changes of {B}{LOS}, but the emission also occurs in many locations without any {B}{LOS} changes. Photospheric and chromospheric changes of {B}{LOS} show differences in timing, sign, and size and seem independent of each other. A simple model of contracting loops yields changes of the opposite sign to those observed. An explanation for this discrepancy could be increasing loop sizes or loops that untwist in a certain direction during the flare. It is yet unclear which processes are responsible for the observed changes and their timing, size, and location, especially considering the incoherence between the photosphere and the chromosphere.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF HELICITY CONDENSATION IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2015-05-20

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences are observed to form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the corona. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of a bipolar active region, for example. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, opposite helicity twists do not lead to significant reconnection in such a coronal system, whereas twists with the same sense of helicity do produce substantial reconnection. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  8. Molecules in the atmosphere and circumstellar shell of proto-planetary nebula IRAS22272+5435

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacs, L.; Laure, A.; Sperauskas, J.

    2011-05-01

    IRAS22272+5435 is a typical proto-planetary nebula (PPN) associated in the optical with a carbon-rich star HD235858 which shows a significant s-process enhancement. The star is surrounded by the detached circumstellar envelope (CSE), a result of an earlier mass loss. The best-fit model for the dust shell of IRAS22272+5435 consists of the central star surrounded by two separate sets of dust shells representing a PPN shell and a post-AGB wind shell located in the inner cavity of the PPN shell. A presence of hot dust grains in the inner cavity of the PPN shell and occasional mass ejections driven possibly by pulsations with the period of around 131 days was suspected for this object. The spectrum of IRAS22272+5435 originates at various depths throughout different layers in the atmosphere of HD235858 significantly affected by pulsations and in the CSE. A large number of narrow molecular lines originated in the CSE are present in the optical spectrum of IRAS22272+5435, blueshifted relative to the photospheric lines. The CSE lines of C_2 (1,0), (2,0), (3,0), (4,0) Phillips system and CN (1,0), (2,0), (3,0), (4,0) Red System were identified. Time series of high resolution spectra shows significant changes in the intensity of C_2 and CN photospheric features. The molecular photospheric features are stronger than should be for standard photosphere of G5 supergiant applicable for HD235858, therefore, the temperature of environment where formed the most of molecules is much lower than the effective temperature of 5500 K. The maximal expansion velocity and the maximal C_2 abundance was observed for HD235858 on October 2006 when the photosphere of HD235858 passed the maximal expansion velocity according to the CORAVEL measurements. The lines of CN Red system in general varies in step with C_2, however, the Doppler shift relative to the systemic velocity is lower. Thus, the photospheric molecular features are formed apparently in the cool outflow at different high scale. The

  9. VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometric imaging of VX Sagittarii's inhomogenous outer atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, A.; Lacour, S.; Millour, F.; Driebe, T.; Wittkowski, M.; Plez, B.; Thiébaut, E.; Josselin, E.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Haubois, X.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the photosphere of the very cool late-type star VX Sgr and in particular the characterization of molecular layers above the continuum forming photosphere. Methods: We obtained interferometric observations with the VLTI/AMBER interferometer using the fringe tracker FINITO in the spectral domain 1.45-2.50 μm with a spectral resolution of ≈35 and baselines ranging from 15 to 88 m. We performed independent image reconstruction for different wavelength bins and fit the interferometric data with a geometrical toy model. We also compared the data to 1D dynamical models of Miras atmosphere and to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Results: Reconstructed images and visibilities show a strong wavelength dependence. The H-band images display two bright spots whose positions are confirmed by the geometrical toy model. The inhomogeneities are qualitatively predicted by 3D simulations. At ≈2.00 μm and in the region 2.35-2.50 μm, the photosphere appears extended and the radius is larger than in the H band. In this spectral region, the geometrical toy model locates a third bright spot outside the photosphere that can be a feature of the molecular layers. The wavelength dependence of the visibility can be qualitatively explained by 1D dynamical models of Mira atmospheres. The best-fitting photospheric models show a good match with the observed visibilities and give a photospheric diameter of Theta=8.82 ± 0.50 mas. The H2O molecule seems to be the dominant absorber in the molecular layers. Conclusions: We show that the atmosphere of VX Sgr seems to resemble Mira/AGB star model atmospheres more closely than do RSG model atmospheres. In particular, we see molecular (water) layers that are typical of Mira stars. Based on the observations made with VLTI-ESO Paranal, Chile under the programs IDs 081.D-0005(A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H).

  10. On the Generation of Hydrodynamic Shocks by Mixed Beams and Occurrence of Sunquakes in Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Zharkov, Sergei

    2015-11-01

    Observations of solar flares with sunquakes by space- and ground-based instruments reveal essentially different dynamics of seismic events in different flares. Some sunquakes are found to be closely associated with the locations of hard X-ray (HXR) and white-light (WL) emission, while others are located outside either of them. In this article we investigate possible sources causing a seismic response in a form of hydrodynamic shocks produced by the injection of mixed (electron plus proton) beams, discuss the velocities of these shocks, and the depths where they deposit the bulk of their energy and momentum. The simulation of hydrodynamic shocks in flaring atmospheres induced by electron-rich and proton-rich beams reveals that the linear depth of the shock termination is shifted beneath the level of the quiet solar photosphere on a distance from 200 to 5000 km. The parameters of these atmospheric hydrodynamic shocks are used as initial condition for another hydrodynamic model developed for acoustic-wave propagation in the solar interior (Zharkov, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 431, 3414, 2013). The model reveals that the depth of energy and momentum deposition by the atmospheric shocks strongly affects the propagation velocity of the acoustic-wave packet in the interior. The locations of the first bounces from the photosphere of acoustic waves generated in the vicinity of a flare are seen as ripples on the solar surface, or sunquakes. Mixed proton-dominated beams are found to produce a strong supersonic shock at depths 200 - 300 km under the level of the quiet-Sun photosphere and in this way produce well-observable acoustic waves, while electron-dominated beams create a slightly supersonic shock propagating down to 5000 km under the photosphere. This shock can only generate acoustic waves at the top layers beneath the photosphere since the shock velocity very quickly drops below the local sound speed. The distance Δ of the first bounce of the generated acoustic waves

  11. NEON AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES AND ABUNDANCE RATIO IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Testa, P.

    2015-02-20

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017; this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundance ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A {sub o} = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A {sub Ne} = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.

  12. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  13. LOCAL HELIOSEISMIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ACOUSTIC WAVES AND A SUNSPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaguru, S. P.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Sankarasubramanian, K.

    2010-10-01

    Using a high-cadence imaging spectropolarimetric observation of a sunspot and its surroundings in magnetically sensitive (Fe I 6173 A) and insensitive (Fe I 7090 A) upper photospheric absorption lines, we map the instantaneous wave phases and helioseismic travel times as a function of observation height and inclination of magnetic field to the vertical. We confirm the magnetic inclination-angle-dependent transmission of incident acoustic waves into upward propagating waves and derive (1) proof that helioseismic travel times receive direction-dependent contributions from such waves and hence cause errors in conventional flow inferences, (2) evidences for acoustic wave sources beneath the umbral photosphere, and (3) significant differences in travel times measured from the chosen magnetically sensitive and insensitive spectral lines.

  14. A New Generation of Cool White Dwarf Atmosphere Models Using Ab Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, S.; Dufour, P.; Kowalski, P. M.

    2017-03-01

    Due to their high photospheric density, cool helium-rich white dwarfs (particularly DZ, DQpec and ultracool) are often poorly described by current atmosphere models. As part of our ongoing efforts to design atmosphere models suitable for all cool white dwarfs, we investigate how the ionization ratio of heavy elements and the H2-He collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectrum are altered under fluid-like densities. For the conditions encountered at the photosphere of cool helium-rich white dwarfs, our ab initio calculations show that the ionization of most metals is inhibited and that the H2-He CIA spectrum is significantly distorted for densities higher than 0.1 g/cm3.

  15. Electric currents and coronal heating in NOAA active region 6952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, T. R.; Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Wulser, J. -P.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tsuneta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal relationship between coronal structures observed with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft and the vertical electric current density derived from photospheric vector magnetograms obtained using the Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory. We focus on a single active region: AR 6952 which we observed on 7 days during 1991 December. For 11 independent maps of the vertical electric current density co-aligned with non-flaring X-ray images, we search for a morphological relationship between sites of high vertical current density in the photosphere and enhanced X-ray emission in the overlying corona. We find no compelling spatial or temporal correlation between the sites of vertical current and the bright X-ray structures in this active region.

  16. Short and long term variations in the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1981-01-01

    Short and long term variations in the solar constant are examined theoretically. The variations observed by the Solar Maximum Mission, lasting several days and associated with the passage of sunspot groups, strikingly demonstrates the well known lack of a bright ring effect around sunspots. This suggests that sunspot magnetic fields do not simply block the heat flowing upward into the photosphere. Rather, it is suggested that gravitational draining occurs; this cools sunspots and transports downward the heat that would otherwise flow into the photosphere. A model of sunspot temperature with depth shows modest support when compared with the empirical model of Van't Veer. Secular trends in the solar constant may occur and be associated with the influence of the convection zone magnetic field upon convective heat transport. As a start to understanding this problem, the Schwarzschild criterion has been modified to include the effects of magnetic field.

  17. Joint solar dynamics project data summary (2nd): solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 11 June 1983 solar eclipse. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.; Fisher, R.R.; Garcia, C.J.; Najita, J.R.; Rock, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    A comprehensive set of observations of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona is presented for one week on either side of the 11 June 1983 total solar eclipse. These observations, made at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and at the University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, include H images of the disk and the limb, off-band H sunspot and Ca-II K-line images, together with observations of the white light corona. Also included are photospheric longitudinal magnetic field estimates made from the Fe line at 6302.5, by the Mees observatory Stokes photo-polarimeter. The data are presented as daily observations. In the case of the k-coronal observations and the magnetic field data, synoptic maps have been constructed for this interval.

  18. Modeling Active Region Evolution - A New LWS TR and T Strategic Capability Model Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the LWS TR&T Program funded us to develop a strategic capability model of slowly evolving coronal active regions. In this poster we report on the overall design, and status of our new modeling suite. Our design features two coronal field models, a non-linear force free field model and a global 3D MHD code. The suite includes supporting tools and a user friendly GUI which will enable users to query the web for relevant magnetograms, download them, process them to synthesize a sequence of photospheric magnetograms and associated photospheric flow field which can then be applied to drive the coronal model innner boundary, run the coronal models and finally visualize the results.

  19. A spectroscopic and photometric study of FK Comae in 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Buzasi, Derek L.; Nations, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an observational campaign, coordinated between visual photometry, optical spectroscopy, and UV spectroscopy, to elucidate the characteristics of FK Comae are presented. The photometry showed complicated but systematic behavior. Photospheric absorption lines were distorted by a Doppler-shifted bump caused by dark starspots resulting in small apparent radial velocity variations. No radial velocity variations characteristic of orbital motion were seen to a level of 3 km/s. Broad emission in H-alpha was modulated at the photospheric rotational amplitude, implying an origin no farther from the rotational axis than 1 stellar radius. The strengths of Ca II lines are modulated in phase with H-alpha but do not have velocity-modulated wings like H-alpha.

  20. Velocities in Magnetoconvective Structures inside Sunspot Umbrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, A.; Rubio, L. B.; van der Voort, L. R.

    2012-08-01

    We study the velocity field of umbral dots at a resolution of 0.″14. Our analysis is based on full Stokes spectropolarimetric measurements of a pore taken with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We determine the flow velocity at different heights in the photosphere from a bisector analysis of the Fe I 630 nm lines. We find that most umbral dots are associated with strong upflows in deep photospheric layers. Some of them also show concentrated patches of downflows at their edges with velocities of up to 1000 m s-1 and enhanced net circular polarization signals. These results appear to validate numerical models of magnetoconvection in the presence of strong magnetic fields.

  1. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  2. High Resolution Observations and Modeling of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    This research contract investigating the radiative transfer and dynamic physics of the smallest observable magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Due to the lack of a high-resolution visible light satellite instrument for solar studies, all data were acquired using ground-based instrumentation. The primary goal of the investigation was to understand the formation and evolution of "G-band bright points" in relation to the associated magnetic elements. G-band bright points are small (on the order of 100 kin or less in diameter) bright signatures associated with magnetic flux elements in the photosphere. They are seen in the A2A-X2 4308 A molecular bandhead of the CH radical ill the solar spectrum and offer the highest spatial resolution and highest contrast "tracers" of small magnetic structure on the Sun.

  3. Spectrum line intensity as a surrogate for solar irradiance variations.

    PubMed

    Livingston, W C; Wallace, L; White, O R

    1988-06-24

    Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) solar constant measurements from 1980 to 1986 are compared with ground-based, irradiance spectrophotometry of selected Fraunhofer lines. Both data sets were identically sampled and smoothed with an 85-day running mean, and the ACRIM total solar irradiance (S) values were corrected for sunspot blocking (S(c)). The strength of the mid-photospheric manganese 539.4-nanometer line tracks almost perfectly with ACRIM S(e), Other spectral features formed high in the photosphere and chromosphere also track well. These comparisons independently confirm the variability in the ACRIM S(e), signal, indicate that the source of irradiance is faculae, and indicate that ACRIM S(e), follows the 11-year activity cycle.

  4. Hot explosions in the cool atmosphere of the Sun.

    PubMed

    Peter, H; Tian, H; Curdt, W; Schmit, D; Innes, D; De Pontieu, B; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Kleint, L; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V

    2014-10-17

    The solar atmosphere was traditionally represented with a simple one-dimensional model. Over the past few decades, this paradigm shifted for the chromosphere and corona that constitute the outer atmosphere, which is now considered a dynamic structured envelope. Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal that it is difficult to determine what is up and down, even in the cool 6000-kelvin photosphere just above the solar surface: This region hosts pockets of hot plasma transiently heated to almost 100,000 kelvin. The energy to heat and accelerate the plasma requires a considerable fraction of the energy from flares, the largest solar disruptions. These IRIS observations not only confirm that the photosphere is more complex than conventionally thought, but also provide insight into the energy conversion in the process of magnetic reconnection.

  5. Chromospheres, transition regions, and coronas.

    PubMed

    Böhm-Vitense, E

    1984-02-24

    The increase in temperature outward from the surface of a stellar photosphere can be understood by looking at the local energy balance. The relatively high-density stellar photosphere is cooled effectively by radiative energy loss penetrating the optically thin corona. For the low-density chromosphere and corona, if the energy input cannot be balanced by radiative energy losses, the temperature will rise steeply, possibly up to 1 million degrees or more. Coronal heating and emission appear to be strongly influenced by magnetic fields, leading to large differences in x-ray emission for otherwise similar stars. Comparatively small variations are seen in the overall chromospheric emission of stars. Chromospheres are probably mainly heated by shock-wave energy dissipation, modified by magnetic fields.

  6. Stellar Dynamo Models with Prominent Surface Toroidal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2016-12-01

    Recent spectro-polarimetric observations of solar-type stars have shown the presence of photospheric magnetic fields with a predominant toroidal component. If the external field is assumed to be current-free it is impossible to explain these observations within the framework of standard mean-field dynamo theory. In this work, it will be shown that if the coronal field of these stars is assumed to be harmonic, the underlying stellar dynamo mechanism can support photospheric magnetic fields with a prominent toroidal component even in the presence of axisymmetric magnetic topologies. In particular, it is argued that the observed increase in the toroidal energy in low-mass fast-rotating stars can be naturally explained with an underlying αΩ mechanism.

  7. OBSERVATION OF A NON-RADIAL PENUMBRA IN A FLUX EMERGING REGION UNDER CHROMOSPHERIC CANOPY FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-05-20

    The presence of a penumbra is one of the main properties of a mature sunspot, but its formation mechanism has been elusive due to a lack of observations that fully cover the formation process. Utilizing the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we observed the formation of a partial penumbra for about 7 hr simultaneously at the photospheric (TiO; 7057 A) and the chromospheric (H{alpha} - 1 A) spectral lines with high spatial and temporal resolution. From this uninterrupted, long observing sequence, we found that the formation of the observed penumbra was closely associated with flux emergence under the pre-existing chromospheric canopy fields. Based on this finding, we suggest a possible scenario for penumbra formation in which a penumbra forms when the emerging flux is constrained from continuing to emerge, but rather is trapped at the photospheric level by the overlying chromospheric canopy fields.

  8. Spectrophotometry of emission-line stars in the magellanic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The strong emission lines in the most luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds indicate that these stars have such strong stellar winds that their photospheres are so masked that optical absorption lines do not provide an accurate measure of photospheric conditions. In the research funded by this grant, temperatures and gravities of emission-line stars both in the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) have been measured by fitting of continuum ultraviolet-optical fluxes observed with IUE with theoretical model atmospheres. Preliminary results from this work formed a major part of an invited review 'The Distribution of Types of Luminous Blue Variables'. Interpretation of the IUE observations obtained in this grant and archive data were also included in a talk at the First Boulder-Munich Hot Stars Workshop. Final results of these studies are now being completed for publication in refereed journals.

  9. Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlgren, Björn; Larsson, Josefin; Nymark, Tanja; Ryde, Felix; Pe'er, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. Here, we fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data, we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM (Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model), a table model for XSPEC. We show that this model can describe different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipation site.

  10. Near-infrared line identification in type Ia supernovae during the transitional phase

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Brian; Baron, E.; Wisniewski, John P.; Miller, Timothy R.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Thomas, R. C.; Marion, G. H.

    2014-09-10

    We present near-infrared synthetic spectra of a delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model and compare them to observed spectra of four normal Type Ia supernovae ranging from day +56.5 to day +85. This is the epoch during which supernovae are believed to be undergoing the transition from the photospheric phase, where spectra are characterized by line scattering above an optically thick photosphere, to the nebular phase, where spectra consist of optically thin emission from forbidden lines. We find that most spectral features in the near-infrared can be accounted for by permitted lines of Fe II and Co II. In addition, we find that [Ni II] fits the emission feature near 1.98 μm, suggesting that a substantial mass of {sup 58}Ni exists near the center of the ejecta in these objects, arising from nuclear burning at high density.

  11. A NON-PRE DOUBLE-PEAKED BURST FROM 4U 1636-536: EVIDENCE FOR BURNING FRONT PROPAGATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of a double-peaked burst from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1636-536 that shows no evidence for photospheric radius expansion (PRE). We find that the X-ray emitting area on the star increases with time as the burst progresses, even though the photosphere does not expand. We argue that this is a strong indication of thermonuclear flame spreading on the stellar surface during such bursts. We propose a model for such double-peaked bursts, based on thermonuclear flame spreading, that can qualitatively explain their essential features, as well as the rarity of these bursts.

  12. High-resolution solar spectroscopy with TESOS - Upgrade from a double to a triple system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritschler, A.; Schmidt, W.; Langhans, K.; Kentischer, T.

    2002-12-01

    We present the characteristics and demonstrate the performance of the Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) operated at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife. The Fabry-Pérot interferometer TESOS is ideally suited for precise measurements of photospheric and chromospheric motion. Installed in 1997 and equipped with two etalons, TESOS has recently been completed with a third etalon and upgraded with two high-speed, backside-illuminated CCD cameras. The image scale of 0.089 arc sec pixel-1 is adapted to the resolution of the telescope. The improved system enables frame rates up to 5 frames per second. The spectral resolution of 300000 allows for spectral diagnostics of weak photospheric lines, including individual CH-lines within the G-band at 430.6 nm.

  13. Long-term spectropolarimetric monitoring of the cool supergiant betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedecarrax, I.; Petit, P.; Aurière, M.; Grunhut, J.; Wade, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Donati, J.-F.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Perrin, G.

    2013-05-01

    We report on a long-term monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse, using the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters, respectively installed at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii). The data set, constituted of circularly polarized (Stokes V) and intensity (Stokes I) spectra, was collected between 2010 and 2012. We investigate here the temporal evolution of magnetic field, convection and temperature at photospheric level, using simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field component, the core emission of the Ca II infrared triplet, the line-depth ratio of selected photospheric lines and the radial velocity of the star.

  14. The IUE MEGA Campaign: The Rotationally Modulated Wind of zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, Ian D.; Prinja, Raman K.; Massa, Derck

    1995-01-01

    We discuss 16 days of intensive International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of the Si iv doublet (lambda1400) in the spectrum of the O4 I(n) f star zeta Pup. The data show continuous variability throughout the greater part of the blueshifted absorption. Time series analysis of these data reveals significant power at periods of 19.2 hr and 5.2 days, which we identify with the mean recurrence time of Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) and the photospheric rotation period, respectively. These results indicate that the wind has a global longitudinal asymmetry (approaching a factor 2 in optical depth), possibly associated with large-scale magnetic structures, but suggest that the DACs are not directly associated with specific stellar longitudes in this star. There is no significant power in the lines at the 8.5 hr period identified in photospheric absorption-line variability, nor at the 16.7 hr period reported in X-ray observations.

  15. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN MACROTURBULENT BROADENING AND LINE-PROFILE VARIATIONS IN OB SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon-Diaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Castro, N.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Puls, J.

    2010-09-10

    The spectra of O and B supergiants (Sgs) are known to be affected by a significant form of extra line broadening (usually referred to as macroturbulence) in addition to that produced by stellar rotation. Recent analyses of high-resolution spectra have shown that the interpretation of this line broadening as a consequence of large-scale turbulent motions would imply highly supersonic velocity fields in photospheric regions, making this scenario quite improbable. Stellar oscillations have been proposed as a likely alternative explanation. As part of a long-term observational project, we are investigating the macroturbulent broadening in O and B Sgs and its possible connection with spectroscopic variability phenomena and stellar oscillations. In this Letter, we present the first encouraging results of our project, namely, firm observational evidence for a strong correlation between the extra broadening and photospheric line-profile variations in a sample of 13 Sgs with spectral types ranging from O9.5 to B8.

  16. Weighted current sheets supported in normal and inverse configurations - A model for prominence observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, P.; Forbes, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    A technique which incorporates both photospheric and prominence magnetic field observations is used to analyze the magnetic support of solar prominences in two dimensions. The prominence is modeled by a mass-loaded current sheet which is supported against gravity by magnetic fields from a bipolar source in the photosphere and a massless line current in the corona. It is found that prominence support can be achieved in three different kinds of configurations: an arcade topology with a normal polarity; a helical topology with a normal polarity; and a helical topology with an inverse polarity. In all cases the important parameter is the variation of the horizontal component of the prominence field with height. Adding a line current external to the prominence eliminates the nonsupport problem which plagues virtually all previous prominence models with inverse polarity.

  17. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

  18. Evolution of the magnetic field inclination in a forming penumbra

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, P.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Cristaldi, A.; Falco, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Ermolli, I.

    2014-03-20

    We describe the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fields in the annular zone around a pore a few hours before the formation of its penumbra. We detected the presence of several patches at the edge of the annular zone, with a typical size of about 1''. These patches are characterized by a rather vertical magnetic field with polarity opposite to that of the pore. They correspond to regions of plasma upflow up to 2.5 km s{sup –1} and are characterized by radially outward displacements with horizontal velocities up to 2 km s{sup –1}. We interpret these features as portions of the pore magnetic field lines returning beneath the photosphere being progressively stretched and pushed down by the overlying magnetic fields. Our results confirm that the penumbra formation results from changes in the inclination of the field lines in the magnetic canopy overlying the pore, until they reach the photosphere.

  19. SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF THE SOLAR LIMB: ABSORPTION-EMISSION Fe I 6301.5 Å AND 6302.5 Å LINE PROFILES AND TORSIONAL FLOWS IN THE INTERGRANULAR MAGNETIC FLUX CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shelyag, S.

    2015-03-01

    Using radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the magnetized solar photosphere and detailed spectro-polarimetric diagnostics with the Fe I 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å photospheric lines in the local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation, we model active solar granulation as if it was observed at the solar limb. We analyze general properties of the radiation across the solar limb, such as the continuum and the line core limb darkening and the granulation contrast. We demonstrate the presence of profiles with both emission and absorption features at the simulated solar limb, and pure emission profiles above the limb. These profiles are associated with the regions of strong linear polarization of the emergent radiation, indicating the influence of the intergranular magnetic fields on the line formation. We analyze physical origins of the emission wings in the Stokes profiles at the limb, and demonstrate that these features are produced by localized heating and torsional motions in the intergranular magnetic flux concentrations.

  20. Detecting faint echoes in stellar-flare light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.

    1992-01-01

    Observational considerations are discussed for detecting echoes from flare-star photospheres and from stellar or planetary companions. Synthetic spectra are used to determine optimal conditions for the recovery of echoes in flare light curves. The most detectable echoes are expected to appear in broadband observations of the UV continuum. Short-lived flares are ideal for resolving echoes from the flare-star photosphere and may provide constraints for stellar-flare models. Strong outbursts may be used to detect stellar or planetary companions of a flare star. However, the possible planetary configurations that may be probed by this method are limited to Jupiter-size objects in tight orbits about the parent star.

  1. SOLAR MAGNETIZED 'TORNADOES': RELATION TO FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Wang Tongjiang; Gan Weiqun

    2012-09-10

    Solar magnetized 'tornadoes', a phenomenon discovered in the solar atmosphere, appear as tornado-like structures in the corona but are rooted in the photosphere. Like other solar phenomena, solar tornadoes are a feature of magnetized plasma and therefore differ distinctly from terrestrial tornadoes. Here we report the first analysis of solar 'tornadoes' (two papers which focused on different aspects of solar tornadoes were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters and Nature, respectively, during the revision of this Letter). A detailed case study of two events indicates that they are rotating vertical magnetic structures probably driven by underlying vortex flows in the photosphere. They usually exist as a group and are related to filaments/prominences, another important solar phenomenon whose formation and eruption are still mysteries. Solar tornadoes may play a distinct role in the supply of mass and twists to filaments. These findings could lead to a new explanation of filament formation and eruption.

  2. A Correlation Between Changes in Solar Luminosity and Differential Radius Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, R. J.; Hill, H. A.; Beardsley, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar luminosity variations occurring during solar cycle 21 can be attributed in large part to the presence of sunspots and faculae. Nevertheless, there remains a residual portion of the luminosity variation distinctly unaccounted for by these phenomena of solar activity. At the Santa Catalina Laboratory for Experimental Relativity by Astrometry (SCLERA), observations of the solar limb are capable of detecting changes in the solar limb darkening function by monitoring a quantity known as the differential radius. These observations are utilized in such a way that the effects of solar activity are minimized in order to reveal the more fundamental structure of the photosphere. The results of observations made during solar cycle 21 at various solar latitudes indicate that a measurable change did occur in the global photospheric limb darkening function. It is proposed that the residual luminosity change is associated in part with this change in limb darkening.

  3. Mass loss from alpha Cyg /A2Ia/ derived from the profiles of low excitation Fe II lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensberge, H.; De Loore, C.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Bruhweiler, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    The low-excitation Fe II lines in the spectral region 2000-3000 A are studied in the spectrum of alpha-Cyg. The profiles of the resonance lines are described by four representative parameters, and a preliminary model is derived from the dependence of these parameters on theoretical line strength, taking into account the influence of blending photospheric lines in an overall and qualitative way. At least 11% of all iron in the wind is once ionized, unless a non-thermal heating source enhances the fraction Fe(++) without destroying much Al(+). It is shown that the contribution of blending photospheric absorption lines to weaker P Cygni profiles has been previously largely underestimated. The mass loss rate corresponding to the model is derived, and is smaller by a factor of 500 than the one derived from the infrared excess by Barlow and Cohen (1977).

  4. Wave energy in white dwarf atmospheres. I - Magnetohydrodynamic energy spectra for homogeneous DB and layered DA stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiative damping of acoustic and MHD waves that propagate through white dwarf photospheric layers is studied, and other damping processes that may be important for the propagation of the MHD waves are calculated. The amount of energy remaining after the damping processes have occurred in different types of waves is estimated. The results show that lower acoustic fluxes should be expected in layered DA and homogeneous DB white dwarfs than had previously been estimated. Acoustic emission manifests itself in an enhancement of the quadrupole term, but this term may become comparable to or even lower than the dipole term for cool white dwarfs. Energy carried by the acoustic waves is significantly dissipated in deep photospheric layers, mainly because of radiative damping. Acoustically heated corona cannot exist around DA and DB white dwarfs in a range T(eff) = 10,000-30,000 K and for log g = 7 and 8. However, relatively hot and massive white dwarfs could be exceptions.

  5. Coronal Rotation at Solar Minimum from UV Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancuso, S.

    2008-01-01

    UVCS/SOHO observations have been analyzed to reconstruct intensity time series of the O VI 1032 A and H 11216 A spectral lines at different coronal heliolatitudes from 1.5 to 3.0 solar radii from Sun center. Evidence was found for coronal differential rotation that differs significantly from that of the photospheric plasma. The study of the latitudinal variation shows that the UV corona decelerates toward the photospheric rates from the equator up to the poleward boundary 2 of the midlatitude streamers, reaching a peak of 28.16+/-0.20 days around +30 from the equator at 1.5 solar radii, while a less evident peak is observed in the northern hemisphere. This result suggests a real north-south rotational asymmetry as a consequence of different activity and weak coupling between the magnetic fields of the two hemispheres. The study of the radial rotation profiles shows that the corona is rotating almost rigidly with height.

  6. The solar silicon abundance based on 3D non-LTE calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Asplund, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present 3D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer calculations for silicon in the solar photosphere, using an extensive model atom that includes recent, realistic neutral hydrogen collisional cross-sections. We find that photon losses in the Si I lines give rise to slightly negative non-LTE abundance corrections of the order of -0.01 dex. We infer a 3D non-LTE-based solar silicon abundance of lg ɛ_{Si{⊙}}=7.51 dex. With silicon commonly chosen to be the anchor between the photospheric and meteoritic abundances, we find that the meteoritic abundance scale remains unchanged compared with the Asplund et al. and Lodders et al. results.

  7. IUE observations of Si and C lines and comparison with non-LTE models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamp, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Classical model atmosphere techniques are applied to analyze IUE spectra, and to determine abundances, effective temperatures and gravities. Measurements of the equivalent widths and other properties of the line profiles of 24 photospheric lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, C III and C IV are presented in the range of 1175-1725 A for seven B and two O stars. Observed line profiles are compared with theoretical profiles computed using non-LTE theory and models, and using line-blanketed model atmospheres. Agreement is reasonably good, although strong lines are calculated to be systematically stronger than those observed, while the reverse occurs for weak lines, and empirical profiles have smaller wings than theoretical profiles. It is concluded that the present theory of line formation when used with solar abundances, represents fairly well observed UV photospheric lines of silicon and carbon ions in the atmospheres of main sequence stars of types B5-O9.

  8. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  9. Rotation of the sun measured from Mount Wilson white-light images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Gilman, P. I.; Gilman, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumentation, data and data reduction procedures used in white light observations of sunspot rotation rates are described. The study covered 62 yr of rotation observations. The data were all gathered using the same Mt. Wilson telescope, which has had three different main lenses in the interval 1981-82. Details of the exposure calibration and lens operation procedures are provided. The data were treated in terms of eight evenly space determinations of the solar limb and account was taken of all sunspots within 60 deg of the central meridian. Spot movements were traced in terms of groups of contiguous individual spots. Large spots rotated slower than small spots, a condition attributed to greater viscous drag in the larger flux tubes in the photosphere. The data tend to confirm theories that the photospheric gas revolves at a different rate than the sunspots.

  10. Sunspot dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes recent results of our theoretical and observational work on dynamical phenomena in sunspots. The overall goal of this research has been a better understanding of the various oscillatory, transient, and steady motions in a sunspot and their relation to the basic structure of the sunspot. The principal topics of the research reported here are the following: (1) sunspot seismology, i.e., the study of the interaction of solar p-modes with a sunspot as a probe of the subsurface structure of a sunspot; (2) local sources of acoustic waves in the solar photosphere; and (3) siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes and their relation to the photospheric Evershed flow and to intense magnetic elements outside of sunspots.

  11. The outer layers of cool, non-Mira carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    The outer layers and near circumstellar envelope (CSE) of a typical carbon star have been studied using available data from theoretical and empirical models. An attempt is made to match the density-velocity structure of the photosphere-chromosphere region to values from the radio CO observations, which arise from the outer CSE. It is concluded that the stellar atmosphere includes a relatively thin high-temperature region close to hydrostatic equilibrium and a much more extended cooler region of outflowing gas and dust. To extend the outer photosphere and chromosphere to match the mass loss density appears to require an injection of energy and momentum by some mechanism rather close to the stellar surface.

  12. Supersolar metallicity in G0-G3 main-sequence stars with V < 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Valdivia, R.; Bertone, E.; Chávez, M.; Tapia-Schiavon, C.; Hernández-Águila, J. B.; Valdés, J. R.; Chavushyan, V.

    2014-11-01

    The basic stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and global metallicity) were determined simultaneously for a sample of 233 stars, limited in magnitude (V < 15), with spectral types between G0 and G3 and luminosity class V (main sequence). The analysis was based on spectroscopic observations collected at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro and using a set of Lick-like indices defined in the spectral range 3800-4800 Å. An extensive set of indices computed in a grid of theoretical spectra was used as a comparison tool in order to determine the photospheric parameters. The method was validated by matching the results from spectra of the asteroids Vesta and Ceres with the Sun parameters. The main results were as follows: (i) the photospheric parameters were determined for the first time for 213 objects in our sample and (ii) a sample of 20 new super-metal-rich star candidates was found.

  13. 2nd Joint Solar Dynamics Project data summary: Solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 11 June 1983 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, D. G.; Fisher, R. R.; Garcia, C.; Najita, J. R.; Rock, K. A.; Seagraves, P. H.; Yasukawa, E.; McCabe, M. K.; Mickey, D. L.

    1983-07-01

    A comprehensive set of observations of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona is presented for one week on either side of the 11 June 1983 total solar eclipse. These observations, made at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and at the University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, include H images of the disk and the limb, off-band H sunspot and Ca-II K-line images, together with observations of the white light corona. Photospheric longitudinal magnetic field estimates made from the Fe line at 6302.5 by the Mees observatory Stokes photopolarimeter are included. The data are presented as daily observations. In the case of the k-coronal observations and the magnetic field data, synoptic maps were constructed for this interval.

  14. Energy Transport Below Sunspots and Faculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.; Mayr, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    Sunspots and faculae were modeled using a modified stellar envelope code. Downflow velocities of 50 m/sec can achieve a 1,000 K drop in the surface temperature of the photosphere and reduce the surface irradiance to half its value. Concurrently, a 600 km Wilson depression forms that is associated with the enhanced density of the cooler gases. Similar upflow velocities provide for slightly enhanced temperatures and 150 km uplifted surfaces for faculae. The calculations show that, to first approximation, sunspot and facular structures (in density, temperature and pressure) can be obtained by simply vertically shifting the undisturbed photospheric materials to form wells and hillock geometries, respectively. However, the chromospheric manifestations of these features can be quite different owing to the influence of the magnetic field and flow.

  15. Comparative Analyses of the CSSS Calculation in the UCSD Tomographic Solar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, T.; Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Zhao, X. P.

    2005-04-01

    We describe a new method to derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) out to 1 AU from photospheric magnetic field measurements. The method uses photospheric magnetograms to calculate a source surface magnetic field at 15R⊙. Specifically, we use Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) magnetograms as input for the Stanford Current-Sheet Source-Surface (CSSS) model. Beyond the source surface the magnetic field is convected along velocity flow lines derived by a tomographic technique developed at UCSD and applied to interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. We compare the results with in situ data smoothed by an 18-h running mean. Radial and tangential magnetic field amplitudes fit well for the 20 Carrington rotations studied, which are largely from the active phase of the solar cycle. We show exemplary results for Carrington rotation 1965, which includes the Bastille Day event.

  16. Dynamics of circumstellar disks. III. The case of GG Tau A

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, Francesco

    2016-08-11

    Here, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from amore » measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere.« less

  17. Illuminating the Origins of Planets with Solar Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, Megan

    2017-01-01

    It is now well established that stellar photospheric compositions can act as a fossil record of the protostellar environments in which planets form. Stellar spectroscopy of planet-hosting stars is therefore a valuable source of information about chemical conditions for planet formation. However, the difficulty of resolving planet-scale abundance differences in the photospheres of stars requires a unique approach. I will present recent results from a five-year-long radial velocity planet survey and complementary stellar spectroscopy focusing on solar twins. By restricting our sample to a set of "twin" stars, we demonstrate that we can resolve changes in stellar compositions on the scale of only a few Earth masses, potentially offering a new observational window into planet formation signatures. The techniques developed through our solar twin program will become increasingly valuable as we enter the TESS era of bright, spectroscopy-friendly planet host stars.

  18. The Hanle Effect in Atomic and Molecular Lines: A New Look at the Sun's Hidden Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Shchukina, N.

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the most recent advances in the application of the Hanle effect to solar physics, and how these developments are allowing us to explore the magnetism of the photospheric regions that look ``empty'' in solar magnetograms--that is, the Sun's ``hidden'' magnetism. In particular, we show how a joint analysis of the Hanle effect in atomic and molecular lines indicates that there is a vast amount of hidden magnetic energy and unsigned magnetic flux localized in the (intergranular) downflowing regions of the quiet solar photosphere, carried mainly by tangled fields at sub-resolution scales with strengths between the equipartition field values and ˜1 kG. This article combines in one contribution Trujillo Bueno's invited keynote paper and the contributed papers by Asensio Ramos & Trujillo Bueno and by Shchukina & Trujillo Bueno.

  19. Dynamics of circumstellar disks. III. The case of GG Tau A

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, Francesco

    2016-08-11

    Here, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from a measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere.

  20. Multi-wavelength analysis from tomography study on solar chromosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpuni, Emanuel Sungging; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamal, Mitra

    2015-04-16

    The Sun as the most important star for scientific laboratory in astrophysics as well as encompassing all living aspect on Earth, still holds scientific mystery. As the established model that the Sun’s energy fueled by the nuclear reaction, along with transport process to the typical Solar surface on around 6000-K temperature, many aspects still left as an open questions, such as how the chromosphere responded to the photospheric dynamics. In this preliminary work, we try to analyze the Solar chromosphere respond to the Photospheric dynamics using tomography study implementing multi-wavelength analysis observation obtained from Dutch Open Telescope. Using the Hydrogen-alpha Doppler signal as the primary diagnostic tool, we try to investigate the inter-relation between the magnetic and gas pressure dynamics that occur in the chromosphere.