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Sample records for photothermal deflection technique

  1. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, W. B.; Amer, Nabil M.; Boccara, A. C.; Fournier, D.

    1981-04-15

    The theory for a sensitive spectroscopy based on the photothermal deflection of a laser beam is developed. We consider cw and pulsed cases of both transverse and collinear photothermal deflection spectroscopy for solids, liquids, gases, and thin films. The predictions of the theory are experimentally verified, its implications for imaging and microscopy are given, and the sources of noise are analyzed. The sensitivity and versatility of photothermal deflection spectroscopy are compared with thermal lensing and photoacoustic spectroscopy.

  2. Investigation of thermal and optical properties of thin WO3 films by the photothermal Deflection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaied, I.; Dabbous, S.; Ben Nasrallah, T.; Yacoubi, N.

    2010-03-01

    Owing to its novel physical properties, as well as its technological implication in many fields, the thermal and optical properties of WO3 thin films are studied here. These thin films are prepared from Ammonium Tungstate and deposited on a glass substrate at 400°C by the Spray Pyrolysis Technique. The thermal properties (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) were studied by the Photothermal Deflection method in its uniform heating case instead of traditionally a non uniform heating one by comparing the experimental amplitude and phase variations versus square root modulation frequency to the corresponding theoretical ones. The best coincidence between theory and experience is obtained for well-defined values of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The optical properties (optical absorption spectrum and gap energy) were measured using the Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) by drawing the amplitude and phase variation versus wavelength in experimental way and versus absorption coefficient in theoretical one at a fixed modulation frequency. By comparing point by point the normalised experimental and corresponding theoretical amplitude variation, one can deduce the optical absorption spectrum. Using the Tauc law for energies above the gap we can deduce the gap energy. We notice that these films show low thermal conductivity and high transparency in the visible range.

  3. Photothermal laser deflection, an innovative technique to measure particles in exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Cecil F.

    1993-10-01

    Photothermal Laser Deflection (PLD) is an analytical technique to measure in real-time the mass concentration of particles and gaseous exhaust pollutants in a variety of combustion devices (e.g., gas turbine engines and rockets). PLD uses a pump laser to locally heat the particle or gaseous species, thus changing the refractive index of the surrounding gas to form a thermal lens. A probe laser beam travelling through the thermal lens is temporarily deflected, and the amount of deflection is proportional to the species mass concentration. The experiments and analyses conducted during phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of PLD in measuring the mass concentration of both soot particles and NO2 at a repetition rate of 25 HZ. PLD response was linear at soot concentrations from 0.3 to 10 mg/cubic meters at NO2 concentrations from approximately 6 to 208 ppm. Strategies to measure lower concentrations have been defined and include focusing the probe beam onto the face of the bi-cell detector. The large dynamic range, fast acquisition rate, and ability to measure particulate and gaseous pollutants makes PLD superior to other available methods.

  4. Non-destructive Evaluation of Compound Semiconductor Thin-Film Solar Cells by Photothermal Beam Deflection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anita R.; Sebastian, Tina; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the photothermal beam deflection technique can be used for measuring the series resistance, optimum load resistance, and conversion efficiency of thin-film solar cells. This technique is also used for determining the carrier transport properties of an absorber and window layer of -based solar cells during different stages of cell fabrication. Transport properties such as the carrier mobility, lifetime, and surface recombination velocity of the individual absorber and window layer are shown to influence the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the final photovoltaic device. The cell parameters measured using the photothermal technique agree well with the electrical measurements. The principle of the technique is explained on the basis of the "mirage effect" and maximum power transfer theorem.

  5. Enthalpy changes during photosynthetic water oxidation tracked by time-resolved calorimetry using a photothermal beam deflection technique.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, Roland; Dau, Holger; Haumann, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The energetics of the individual reaction steps in the catalytic cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation at the Mn(4)Ca complex of photosystem II (PSII) are of prime interest. We studied the electron transfer reactions in oxygen-evolving PSII membrane particles from spinach by a photothermal beam deflection technique, allowing for time-resolved calorimetry in the micro- to millisecond domain. For an ideal quantum yield of 100%, the enthalpy change, DeltaH, coupled to the formation of the radical pair Y(Z)(.+)Q(A)(-) (where Y(Z) is Tyr-161 of the D1 subunit of PSII) is estimated as -820 +/- 250 meV. For a lower quantum yield of 70%, the enthalpy change is estimated to be -400 +/- 250 meV. The observed nonthermal signal possibly is due to a contraction of the PSII protein volume (apparent DeltaV of about -13 A(3)). For the first time, the enthalpy change of the O(2)-evolving transition of the S-state cycle was monitored directly. Surprisingly, the reaction is only slightly exergonic. A value of DeltaH(S(3)-->S(0)) of -210 meV is estimated, but also an enthalpy change of zero is within the error range. A prominent nonthermal photothermal beam deflection signal (apparent DeltaV of about +42 A(3)) may reflect O(2) and proton release from the manganese complex, but also reorganization of the protein matrix.

  6. Trace Explosive Detection using Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Adam R; Van Neste, Charles W; Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George; Finot, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Satisfying the conditions of high sensitivity and high selectivity using portable sensors that are also reversible is a challenge. Miniature sensors such as microcantilevers offer high sensitivity but suffer from poor selectivity due to the lack of sufficiently selective receptors. Although many of the mass deployable spectroscopic techniques provide high selectivity, they do not have high sensitivity. Here, we show that this challenge can be overcome by combining photothermal spectroscopy on a bimaterial microcantilever with the mass induced change in the cantilever's resonance frequency. Detection using adsorption-induced resonant frequency shift together with photothermal deflection spectroscopy shows extremely high selectivity with a subnanogram limit of detection for vapor phase adsorbed explosives, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  7. Transverse photothermal beam deflection within a solid

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, J.D.; Russo, R.E. )

    1991-07-15

    The mirage effect within a transparent solid substrate was used for monitoring optical absorption of a thin film. Refractive index gradients, which accompany thermal gradients below the film-coated surface, cause a probe laser beam to be deflected. The spectrum of copper, deposited onto a piece of clear acrylic, was recorded by this method of photothermal deflection. The influence of thermally induced mechanical stresses can alter the effective value of the thermo-optic coefficient of the solid, {ital dn}/{ital dT}.

  8. Nonlinear effects in photothermal-optical-beam-deflection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetsel, G. C., Jr.; Spicer, J. B.

    1986-09-01

    Nonlinear phenomena have been observed during photothermal-optical-beam-deflection imaging experiments on samples of both high-purity aluminum and aluminum alloys. Evidence for nonlinear optical and thermal effects have been measured. Theoretical models have been developed as aids in understanding the different contrast mechanisms observed in linear and nonlinear photothermal images.

  9. Optimized frequency dependent photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, D.; Cabrera, H.; Toro, J.; Grima, P.; Leal, C.; Villabona, A.; Franko, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the letter the optimization of the experimental setup for photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy is performed by analyzing the influence of its geometrical parameters (detector and sample position, probe beam radius and its waist position etc) on the detected signal. Furthermore, the effects of the fluid’s thermo-optical properties, for optimized geometrical configuration, on the measurement sensitivity and uncertainty determination of sample thermal properties is also studied. The examined sample is a recently developed CuFeInTe3 material. It is seen from the obtained results, that it is a complex problem to choose the proper geometrical configuration as well as sensing fluid to enhance the sensitivity of the method. A signal enhancement is observed at low modulation frequencies by placing the sample in acetonitrile (ACN), while at high modulation frequencies the sensitivity is higher for measurements made in air. For both, detection in air and acetonitrile the determination of CuFeInTe3 thermal properties is performed. The determined values of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are (0.048  ±  0.002)  ×  10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.6  ±  0.2 W m-1 K-1 and (0.056  ±  0.005)  ×  10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.8  ±  0.4 W m-1 K-1 for ACN and air, respectively. It is seen, that the determined values agree well within the range of their measurement uncertainties for both cases, although the measurement uncertainty is two times lower for the measurements in ACN providing more accurate results. The analysis is performed by the use of recently developed theoretical description based on the complex geometrical optics. It is also shown, how the presented work fits into the current status of photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy.

  10. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A secondary gradient technique'' is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  11. Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, James D.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1992-03-01

    This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A ``secondary gradient technique`` is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

  12. Subsurface-structure determination using photothermal laser-beam deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetsel, Grover C., Jr.; McDonald, F. Alan

    1982-11-01

    Photothermal imaging using laser-beam deflection is shown to be a successful means of detecting subsurface structure in solids. Experimental data for known and unknown subsurface structures are reported. The existing theory agrees well with data on broad subsurface structures, but small subsurface structures produce signal variations which are better represented by a subsurface thermal contact resistance. The first photothermal-image characterization of a microscopic, unknown subsurface defect is presented.

  13. Photothermal cantilever deflection spectroscopy of a photosensitive polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Minhyuk; Lee, Dongkyu; Jung, Namchul; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Seonghwan; Chae, Inseok; Thundat, Thomas

    2012-05-14

    The mechanical and chemical information of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film on a microcantilever were simultaneously acquired by photothermal cantilever deflection spectroscopy as a function of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation time. Nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectra from the PMMA-coated microcantilever agreed well with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of PMMA on gold-coated silicon wafer. The decreasing intensities of nanomechanical IR peaks represent chemical as well as mechanical information of UV radiation-induced photodegradation processes in the PMMA which cannot be obtained by a conventional FTIR technique. The observed decrease in the resonance frequency of the microcantilever is related to the change in the Young's modulus of the PMMA under UV exposure.

  14. Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment.

    PubMed

    Gallais, Laurent; Commandré, Mireille

    2005-09-01

    A model of the photothermal deflection signal in multilayer coatings is presented that takes into account optical interference effects and heat flow within the stack. Measurements are then taken of high-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors made by plasma ion assisted deposition and compared to calculations. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and the model. Using this model for the calibration and the setup described, one can measure absorption in multilayer coatings accurately down to 10(-7) of the incident power.

  15. Finite element analysis modeling of pulse-laser excited photothermal deflection (mirage effect) from aerosols.

    PubMed

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Bialkowski, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    A finite element analysis method for numerical modeling of the photothermal deflection spectroscopy of aerosols is presented. The models simulate pulse-laser excited photothermal deflection from aerosols collected on a plane surface substrate in air medium. The influence of the aerosol and substrate properties on the transient photothermal deflection signal is examined. We have previously obtained experimental results for photothermal deflection spectrometry of aerosols deposited onto a plate from an impactor system (O. O. Dada and S. E. Bialkowski, Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 1336 (2008)). This paper supports the validity of the experimental results presented in that paper and helps in answering some of the questions raised. The modeling results presented here demonstrate that the (peak) normalized transient temperature change profile and (peak) normalized transient photothermal deflection profile are a good approximation and invariant with number of particles, inter-particle distance, and particulate shape, which suggests that the photothermal deflection signal amplitude may be calibrated linearly with total mass of aerosols and the method could be applied to analysis of complex aerosols.

  16. A real-time, nonintrusive trace gas detector based on laser photothermal deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, H. S. M.; Dam, N.; van Lieshout, M. R.; Sikkens, C.; Harren, F. J. M.; Reuss, J.

    1995-09-01

    We present the layout and technical details of a trace gas monitor based on photothermal deflection. The operating principle of this instrument, i.e., the deflection of a (weak) probe laser beam by the thermal refractive index gradient induced by trace gas absorption of an intense pump laser beam, allows nonintrusive measurements with good space and time resolution. An intra-cavity CO2 laser is used as the pump beam and a red HeNe laser as the probe. The latter runs perpendicular to the pump beam to optimize spatial resolution. To increase sensitivity, the probe laser is incorporated in a multipass setup. The instrument is demonstrated by the localization of ethylene emission sites on a cherry tomato and by monitoring ammonia production due to nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. Both C2H4 and NH3 can be detected at the 1-3 ppb level, at a spatial resolution of 2 mm (along the pump laser)×0.6 mm (perpendicular to it), and a response time of 0.1 s (without background correction) or 15 s (including background correction). Sensitivity can be increased at the expense of spatial resolution, and vice versa. In principle, this instrument is applicable to all those gases possessing a characteristic (``fingerprint'') spectrum in the CO2 laser range. The great advantage of the photothermal deflection technique with respect to other trace gas detection schemes lies in the nonintrusive character of the measurements. There is no need to enclose the sample in a vessel or to suck large volumes of air into the detector; measurements can be performed in open air and in real time. This should prove especially useful where sticky (polar) gases, like H2O, NH3, CH3OH, etc., are to be detected quantitatively. Main applications include air quality monitoring, especially concerning dry deposition rate measurements using the eddy correlation technique, and the study of volatile metabolite emission of biological samples.

  17. Three-dimensional thermal-conductivity-tensor measurement of a polymer crystal by photothermal probe-beam deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelin, Xavier; Perrin, Bernard; Louis, Gérard; Peretti, Pierre

    1993-08-01

    Using Fourier transforms we have calculated the solutions of the three-dimensional (3D) thermal-conduction equation in an anisotropic medium. The temperature distribution at the surface of the sample and a 3D thermal-conductivity tensor is measured by the photothermal-probe-beam-deflection technique. We show that the expression for the deflection angle can be the same as in an isotropic medium, provided that an effective thermal conductivity relative to the polymeric-chain axis and a rescaled sample thickness are considered. This theoretical model is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for an orthorhombic polydiacetylene sample (4BCMU).

  18. Investigation of the role of trap states in solar cell reliability using photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezryadina, Anna Sergeyevna

    Stability and reliability of solar cells are crucial for utilizing them for solar energy technology. In this dissertation work photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) technique was used to detect small absorption changes and to investigate trap density changes in three different types of solar cells in the process of light, air, and temperature induced degradation. The light-induced metastable changes in the properties of amorphous silicon and crystallinity effect in microcrystalline silicon were quantified by PDS. The effect of ligands and nanoparticle (NP) size on mid-gap trap states in NP thin films (CdTe and PbS) as it impacts on the performance during degradation were examined. Finally, several most common polymers (P3HT, MEH-PPV, and Polyfluorene Red) films absorption were compared and effect of photo-degradation and photo-oxidation on their trap states were analyzed. The PDS measurement technique is independent of scattering and permits the full band gap of the solar cells to be measured as well as the Urbach energy and the density of mid-gap trap states through analysis of the band gap and the band tail absorption. This work demonstrated that the higher amount of trap states in the material do not necessary limit the efficiency of a solar cell, since material structure, crystallinity, a particle deformation, and a polymer's decomposition may have much higher effect on the solar cells' stability and performance.

  19. Influence of the triethanolamine concentration on the optical properties of tin sulphide thin films by the Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaied, I.; Akkari, A.; Yacoubi, N.; Kamoun, N.

    2010-03-01

    The optical properties of Tin sulphide thin films grown on a glass substrate by chemical bath deposition were investigated by the Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy. The experimental normalised amplitude curves of the photothermal signal versus wavelength are compared to the corresponding theoretical ones versus optical absorption coefficient in order to determine the optical absorption spectrum. Then using the Tauc law, one can deduce the energy gap. The influence of the triethanolamine concentration (TEA) in the solution bath on the optical properties was successfully studied.

  20. Clustering mechanism of ethanol-water mixtures investigated with photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoraishi, M. S.; Hawk, J. E.; Phani, Arindam; Khan, M. F.; Thundat, T.

    2016-04-01

    The infrared-active (IR) vibrational mode of ethanol (EtOH) associated with the asymmetrical stretching of the C-C-O bond in pico-liter volumes of EtOH-water binary mixtures is calorimetrically measured using photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy (PMCDS). IR absorption by the confined liquid results in wavelength dependent cantilever deflections, thus providing a complementary response to IR absorption revealing a complex dipole moment dependence on mixture concentration. Solvent-induced blue shifts of the C-C-O asymmetric vibrational stretch for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH were precisely monitored for EtOH concentrations ranging from 20–100% w/w. Variations in IR absorption peak maxima show an inverse dependence on induced EtOH dipole moment (μ) and is attributed to the complex clustering mechanism of EtOH-water mixtures.

  1. Clustering mechanism of ethanol-water mixtures investigated with photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraishi, M. S.; Hawk, J. E.; Phani, Arindam; Khan, M. F.; Thundat, T.

    2016-01-01

    The infrared-active (IR) vibrational mode of ethanol (EtOH) associated with the asymmetrical stretching of the C-C-O bond in pico-liter volumes of EtOH-water binary mixtures is calorimetrically measured using photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy (PMCDS). IR absorption by the confined liquid results in wavelength dependent cantilever deflections, thus providing a complementary response to IR absorption revealing a complex dipole moment dependence on mixture concentration. Solvent-induced blue shifts of the C-C-O asymmetric vibrational stretch for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH were precisely monitored for EtOH concentrations ranging from 20–100% w/w. Variations in IR absorption peak maxima show an inverse dependence on induced EtOH dipole moment (μ) and is attributed to the complex clustering mechanism of EtOH-water mixtures. PMID:27046089

  2. Sensitive and absolute absorption measurements in optical materials and coatings by laser-induced deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Christian; Bublitz, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The laser-induced deflection (LID) technique, a photo-thermal deflection setup with transversal pump-probe-beam arrangement, is applied for sensitive and absolute absorption measurements of optical materials and coatings. Different LID concepts for bulk and transparent coating absorption measurements, respectively, are explained, focusing on providing accurate absorption data with only one measurement and one sample. Furthermore, a new sandwich concept is introduced that allows transferring the LID technique to very small sample geometries and to significantly increase the sensitivity for materials with weak photo-thermal responses. For each of the different concepts, a representative application example is given. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of the calibration procedure for providing absolute absorption data. The validity of an electrical calibration procedure for the LID setup is proven using specially engineered surface absorbing samples. The electrical calibration procedure is then applied to evaluate two other approaches that use either doped samples or highly absorptive reference samples.

  3. Solutions of the heat conduction equation in multilayers for photothermal deflection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgahan, William A.; Cole, K. D.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical expressions for temperature and laser beam deflection in multilayer medium is derived using Green function techniques. The approach is based on calculation of the normal component of heat fluxes across the boundaries, from which either the beam deflections or the temperature anywhere in space can be found. A general expression for the measured signals for the case of four-quadrant detection is also presented and compared with previous calculations of detector response for finite probe beams.

  4. Photothermal technique in cell microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry; Chebot'ko, Igor; Kutchinsky, Georgy; Cherenkevitch, Sergey

    1995-01-01

    Photothermal (PT) method is applied for a cell imaging and quantitative studies. The techniques for cell monitoring, imaging and cell viability test are developed. The method and experimental set up for optical and PT-image acquisition and analysis is described. Dual- pulsed laser set up combined with phase contrast illumination of a sample provides visualization of temperature field or absorption structure of a sample with spatial resolution 0.5 micrometers . The experimental optics, hardware and software are designed using the modular principle, so the whole set up can be adjusted for various experiments: PT-response monitoring or photothermal spectroscopy studies. Sensitivity of PT-method provides the imaging of the structural elements of live (non-stained) white blood cells. The results of experiments with normal and subnormal blood cells (red blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophyles and lymphoblasts) are reported. Obtained PT-images are different from optical analogs and deliver additional information about cell structure. The quantitative analysis of images was used for cell population comparative diagnostic. The viability test for red blood cell differentiation is described. During the study of neutrophyles in norma and sarcoidosis disease the differences in PT-images of cells were found.

  5. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cell electrodes by photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Werner, Daniel; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Contactless and temperature-dependent evaluation of thermal diffusivities of Li-ion cell electrodes based on photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) measurements is introduced and applied to electrodes from three prismatic hardcase Li-ion cells. The accuracy of the method is validated using reference materials, which cover a wide range of thermal diffusivity. The effective thermal diffusivities of the three anode and cathode coatings and of the current collectors are determined in the temperature range of 5-45 °C. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent specific heat capacity of the electrodes is evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the same temperature range. Based on the experimental results the through-plane and in-plane thermal conductivity of the electrodes is calculated and compared to previously reported values. The results indicate significant influence of the porosity and manufacturing process on the effective thermal conductivity of the electrodes. The three mayor impact factors on thermal conductivity of electrodes are (i) composition, (ii) morphology of the coating and (iii) the thickness ratio of coating to current collector.

  6. Sandwich concept: enhancement for direct absorption measurements by laser-induced deflection (LID) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Ch.; Bublitz, S.; Paa, W.

    2012-11-01

    The new sandwich concept for absolute photo-thermal absorption measurements using the laser induced deflection (LID) technique is introduced and tested in comparison to the standard LID concept. The sandwich concept's idea is the decoupling of the optical materials for the pump and probe beams by placing a sample of investigation in between two optical (sandwich) plates. The pump beam is guided through the sample whereas the probe beams are deflected within the sandwich plates by the thermal lens that is generated by heat transfer from the irradiated sample. Electrical simulation and laser experiments reveal that using appropriate optical materials for the sandwich plates, the absorption detection limit for photo-thermally insensitive materials can be lowered by up to two orders of magnitude. Another advantage of the sandwich concept, the shrinking of the currently required minimum sample size, was used to investigate the laser induced absorption change in a Nd:YVO4 crystal at 1030nm. It was found that the absorption in Nd:YVO4 lowers due to the laser irradiation but partially recovers during irradiation breaks. Furthermore, absorption spectroscopy has been performed at two LBO crystals in the wavelength range 410...600nm to study the absorption structure around the SHG wavelengths of common high power lasers based on Neodymium doped laser crystals.

  7. Development of infrared photothermal deflection spectroscopy (mirage effect) for analysis of condensed-phase aerosols collected in a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor.

    PubMed

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Bialkowski, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    The potential of mid-infrared photothermal deflection spectrometry for aerosol analysis is demonstrated. Ammonium nitrate aerosols are deposited on a flat substrate using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). Photothermal spectroscopy with optical beam deflection (mirage effect) is used to detect deposited aerosols. Photothermal deflection from aerosols is measured by using pulsed infrared laser light to heat up aerosols collected on the substrate. The deflection signal is obtained by measuring the position of a spot from a beam of light as it passes near the heated surface. The results indicate non-rotating impaction as the preferred MOUDI impaction method. Energy-dependent photothermal measurement shows a linear relationship between signal and laser intensity, and no loss of signal with time is observed. The detection limit from the signal-mass curve is 7.31 ng. For 30 minutes collection time and 30 L/min flow rate of the impactor, the limit of detection in terms of aerosol mass concentration is 0.65 microg m(-3).

  8. Signal processing applied to photothermal techniques for materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need to make noncontact measurements of material characteristics in the microgravity environment. Photothermal and photoacoustics techniques offer one approach for attaining this capability since lasers can be used to generate the required thermal or acoustic signals. The perturbations in the materials that can be used for characterization can be detected by optical reflectance, infrared detection or laser detection of photoacoustics. However, some of these laser techniques have disadvantages of either high energy pulsed excitation or low signal-to-noise ratio. Alternative signal processing techniques that have been developed can be applied to photothermal or photoacoustic instrumentation. One fully coherent spread spectrum signal processing technique is called time delay spectrometry (TDS). With TDS the system is excited using a combined frequency-time domain by employing a linear frequency sweep excitation function. The processed received signal can provide either frequency, phase or improved time resolution. This signal processing technique was shown to outperform other time selective techniques with respect to noise rejection and was recently applied to photothermal instrumentation. The technique yields the mathematical equivalent of pulses yet the input irradiances are orders of magnitude less than pulses with the concomitant reduction in perturbation of the sample and can increase the capability of photothermal methods for materials characterization.

  9. Bandedge optical properties of MBE grown GaAsBi films measured by photoluminescence and photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, M.; Lewis, R. B.; Andrews, J. J.; Bahrami-Yekta, V.; Masnadi-Shirazi, M.; O'Leary, S. K.; Tiedje, T.

    2015-09-01

    The bandedge optical properties of GaAsBi films, as thick as 470 nm, with Bi content varying from 0.7% Bi to 2.8% Bi grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates are measured by photoluminescence (PL) and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS). The PDS spectra were fit with a modified Fernelius model which takes into account multiple reflections within the GaAsBi layer and GaAs substrate. Three undoped samples and two samples that are degenerately doped with silicon are studied. The undoped samples show a clear Urbach absorption edge with a composition dependent bandgap that decreases by 56 meV/% Bi and a composition independent Urbach slope parameter of 25 meV due to absorption by Bi cluster states near the valence band. The doped samples show a long absorption tail possibly due to absorption by gap states and free carriers in addition to a Burstein-Moss bandgap shift. PL of the undoped samples shows a lower energy emission peak due to defects not observed in the usually available thin samples (50 nm or less) grown under similar conditions.

  10. Heterodyne technique in photoinduced force microscopy with photothermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanishi, J.; Naitoh, Y.; Li, Y. J.; Sugawara, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The heterodyne technique is used to detect short-range forces. Using the heterodyne technique, we demonstrate photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM) imaging and z-spectroscopy without the artifact of photothermal vibration. The rejection ratio was at least 99.975% under a high-scattering condition. In addition, the heterodyne technique employs the optimal amplitude at the first resonance frequency of the cantilever to detect the photoinduced force sensitively. According to our calculation, the optimal ratio of the amplitude to the distance between the dipole of the tip and that of the sample is 0.4448. The heterodyne technique can be employed to perform PiFM without the artifact by using the optimal amplitude.

  11. Highly sensitive detection of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface using total internal reflection-optical beam deflection based on photothermal spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinami, Masanori; Murakawa, Hiromi; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive and versatile method based on photothermal spectroscopy has been developed to monitor the molecular density at a liquid/liquid interface. The excitation under the total internal reflection (TIR) condition results in a formation of a thin thermal lens elongated along the interface. In order to measure the thermal lens effects effectively and to reduce the background, the probe beam is irradiated parallel to the interface and its deflection is detected, which is called an TIR-optical beam deflection (TIR-OBD). As a result, the detection limit in TIR-OBD is about 2 orders lower than that of TIR-thermal lens spectroscopy, in which the irradiation of the probe beam is perpendicular to the interface.

  12. Absorption measurement of thin films by using photothermal techniques: The influence of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.; Thomas, R.L.; Fan, Z.X.

    1995-12-31

    Photothermal techniques are widely used for measuring optical absorption of thin film coatings. In these applications the calibration of photothermal signal is typically based on the assumption that the thermal properties of the thin film make very little contribution. In this paper we take mirage technique as an example and present a detailed analysis of the influence of thin film thermal properties on absorption measurements. The results show that the traditional calibration method is not valid on surprisingly many situations.

  13. Direct measurement of Urbach tail and gap state absorption in CuGaSe2 thin films by photothermal deflection spectroscopy and the constant photocurrent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeder, A.; Marron, D. Fuertes; Rumberg, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2002-09-01

    The applicability of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and the constant photocurrent method (CPM) to chemical vapor deposited and physical vapor deposited CuGaSe2 (CGSe) thin films is investigated. Process dependent variations in direct band-gap energies, Urbach tail widths, bulk and surface defect densities of the films are given as a function of composition. Differences in the PDS and CPM absorption spectra of more than one order of magnitude are found. Using the standard a-Si theory of PDS and CPM analysis, a two-layer system consisting of a defect-rich near-surface layer and a less defective bulk layer is found in device-quality films. Optical improvements due to the Ga+Se annealing step as a second stage of the growth process result in a reduced bulk defect density while the near-surface defect density remains unchanged.

  14. Analysis of the Thermo-Reflectivity Coefficient Influence Using Photothermal Pump-Probe Techniques.

    PubMed

    Zanuto, Vitor S; Capeloto, Otávio A; Sandrini, Marcelo; Malacarne, Luis C; Astrath, Nelson G C; Bialkowski, Stephen E

    2016-11-18

    Recent improvements in the modeling of photo-induced thermo-optical-mechanical effects have broadened the application of photothermal techniques to a large class of solids and fluids. During laser excitation, changes in optical reflectivity due to temperature variation may affect the photothermal signal. In this study, the influence of the reflectivity change due to heating is analyzed for two pump-probe photothermal techniques, thermal lens and thermal mirror. A linear equation for the temperature dependence of the reflectivity is derived, and the solution is tested using optical properties of semi-transparent and opaque materials. For semi-transparent materials, the influence of the reflectivity change in photothermal signals is less than 0.01%, while for opaque materials it is lower than 3%.

  15. On the use of photothermal techniques for monitoring constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatts, C. E. N.; Faria, R. T.; Vargas, H.; Lannes, L. S.; Aragon, G. T.; Ovalle, A. R. C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands are a valued part of landscapes throughout the world. The steady increase of industrial facilities and disorganized urbanization processes, especially in developing countries, became a serious menace to these systems. The capability of wetlands to serve as a sink for nonpoint pollutants, particularly nutrients, is remarkable, but not limitless. For this reason, efforts to preserve them are considered a strategic issue for several countries. In addition, due to the exploding costs for sewage treatment, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment (reed-bed systems) have been widely used under a variety of different conditions. Wetlands present unique characteristics related to biogeochemical cycles, the transport and transformation of chemicals due to interrelated physical, and chemical, and biological processes. Particularly, vegetated wetlands can act as a source for greenhouse gases through the emission of sediment-produced methane (CH4) to atmosphere. From studies concerning the behavior of Salvinia auriculata Aublet., we intend to demonstrate the potential use of photothermal techniques for monitoring gaseous emissions in wetlands.

  16. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe

    2011-03-20

    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  17. Photothermal Techniques Used to Evaluate Quality in Dairy Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Romero, E.; Balderas-López, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Photothermal systems were used to quantify thermal and optical properties of commercial and natural dairy products. Thermal diffusivity and light absorption coefficient were analyzed. It was found that water content easily alters thermal properties in samples of milk. In addition, all samples showed strong light absorptions at 405 nm, 980 nm and 488 nm, evidencing presence of proteins, fat and vitamins (riboflavin), respectively. Therefore, it was shown that thermo-physical properties measured in this work could be used as complementary parameters for quality evaluation of dairy products.

  18. Photothermal Deflection Experiments: Comparison of Existing Theoretical Models and Their Applications to Characterization of -Based Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen

    2014-12-01

    A method for determination of thermooptical, transport, and structural parameters of -based thin films is presented. The measurements were conducted using beam deflection spectroscopy (BDS) and supporting theoretical analysis performed in the framework of complex geometrical optics providing a novel method of BDS data modeling. It was observed that the material's thermal parameters strongly depend on sample properties determining its photocatalytic activity such as the energy bandgap, carrier lifetime, surface structure, or porosity. Because of that, the fitting procedure of the theoretical dependence into experimental data was developed to determine the sample's thermal parameters, on the basis of which the information about its structure was further found. The obtained results were compared to those based on geometrical and wave optics approaches that are currently widely used for that purpose. It was demonstrated that the choice of the proper model for data modeling is a crucial point when performing such a type of analysis.

  19. Selected applications of photothermal and photoluminescence heterodyne techniques for process control in silicon wafer manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Andreas; Kerstan, Michael; Lundt, Holger; Huber, Anton; Helmreich, Dieter; Geiler, Hans-Dieter; Karge, Harald; Wagner, Matthias

    1997-02-01

    Two noncontact laser-based heterodyne techniques, photothermal heterodyne (PTH) and photoluminescence heterodyne (PLH), are introduced and applied to processing and quality control in silicon wafer manufacturing. The crystallographic characteristics of process-induced defects in silicon wafers are suitable for the application of PTH and PLH techniques, which are demonstrated on selected examples from different steps of silicon wafer production. Both PLH and PTH techniques meet the demand for nondestructive and on-line-suitable measurement in the semiconductor industry.

  20. Thermal Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes by Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahu, G.; Li Voti, R.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Nefedov, I.; Anoshkin, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are multifunctional materials commonly used in a large number of applications in electronics, sensors, nanocomposites, thermal management, actuators, energy storage and conversion, and drug delivery. Despite recent important advances in the development of CNT purity assessment tools and atomic resolution imaging of individual nanotubes by scanning tunnelling microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, the macroscale assessment of the overall surface qualities of commercial CNT materials remains a great challenge. The lack of quantitative measurement technology to characterize and compare the surface qualities of bulk manufactured and engineered CNT materials has negative impacts on the reliable and consistent nanomanufacturing of CNT products. In this paper it is shown how photoacoustic spectroscopy and photothermal radiometry represent useful non-destructive tools to study the optothermal properties of carbon nanotube thin films.

  1. Application of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques for heat conduction measurements in a free-standing chemical vapor-deposited diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Glorieux, C.; De Groote, J.; Lauriks, W.; Thoen, J. ); Fivez, J. EHSAL, Brussel Universitaire Faculteiten St. Ignatius, Antwerpen )

    1993-11-01

    Heat conduction in a free-standing chemical vapor-deposited polycrystalline diamond film has been investigated by means of combined front and rear photoacoustic signal detection techniques and also by means of a mirage' photothermal beam deflection technique. The results obtained with the different techniques are consistent with a value of [alpha] = (5.5 [+-] 0.4) [times] 10[sup [minus]4]m[sup 2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1] for thermal diffusivity, resulting in a value of k -(9.8 [+-] 0.7) [times] 10[sup 2]W m[sup [minus]1]. K[sup [minus]1] for thermal conductivity when literature values for the density and heat capacity for natural diamond are used. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Seven steps of alternating electron and proton transfer in photosystem II water oxidation traced by time-resolved photothermal beam deflection at improved sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Klauss, André; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2015-02-12

    The intricate orchestration of electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT) at the Mn4CaOn-cluster of photosystem II (PSII) is mechanistically pivotal but clearly insufficiently understood. Preparations of PSII membrane particles were investigated using a kinetically competent and sensitive method, photothermal beam deflection (PBD), to monitor apparent volume changes of the PSII protein. Driven by nanosecond laser flashes, the PSII was synchronously stepped through its water-oxidation cycle involving four (semi)stable states (S0, S1, S2, and S3) and minimally three additional transiently formed intermediates. The PBD approach was optimized as compared to our previous experiments, resulting in superior signal quality and resolution of more reaction steps. Now seven transitions were detected and attributed, according to the H/D-exchange, temperature, and pH effects on their time constants, to ET or PT events. The ET steps oxidizing the Mn4CaOn cluster in the S2 → S3 and S0 → S1 transitions, a biphasic PT prior to the O2-evolving reaction, as well as the reoxidation of the primary quinone acceptor (QA(-)) at the PSII acceptor side were detected for the first time by PBD. The associated volume changes involve (i) initial formation of charged groups resulting in contraction assignable to electrostriction, (ii) volume contraction explainable by reduced metal-ligand distances upon manganese oxidation, and (iii) charge-compensating proton removal resulting in volume expansion due to electrostriction reversal. These results support a reaction cycle of water oxidation exhibiting alternate ET and PT steps. An extended kinetic scheme for the O2-evolving S3 ⇒ S0 transition is proposed, which includes crucial structural and protonic events.

  3. Low-level optical absorption phenomena in organic thin films for solar cell applications investigated by highly sensitive photocurrent and photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, Ludwig J.; Haenen, Ken; Nesladek, Milos; Poruba, A.; Vanecek, M.; Wagner, P.; Lutsen, Laurence J.; Manca, Jean; Vanderzande, Dirk; De Schepper, Luc

    2004-09-01

    Optical absorption phenomena and in particular sub band gap absorption features are of great importance in the understanding of processes of charge generation and transport in organic pure and composite semiconductor films. To come towards this objective, an alternative and high sensitive spectroscopic approach is introduced to examine the absorption of light in pure and compound organic semiconductors. Because sub band gap absorption features are typically characterized by very low absorption coefficients, it is not possible to resolve them using common transmission and reflection measurements and high sensitive alternatives are needed. Therefore, a combination of photocurrent (Constant Photocurrent Method CPM/Fourier Transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy FT-PS) and photothermal techniques (Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy PDS) has been used, increasing sensitivity by a factor of thousand, reaching detectable absorption coefficients ((E) down to 0.1 cm-1. In this way, the dynamic range of measurable absorption coefficients is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to transmission/reflection measurements. These techniques have been used here to characterize ground state absorption of thin films of MDMO-PPV, PCBM and a mixture of both materials in a 1:4 ratio, as typically used in a standard active layer in a fully organic solar cell. The spectra reveal defect related absorption phenomena and significant indication of existing interaction in the ground state between both materials, contrary to the widely spread conviction that this is not the case. Experimental details of the techniques and measurement procedures are explained.

  4. Surface Profiling Using the Photothermal Displacement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Norihiro; Itoh, Ken-ichi

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a surface profile measurement by the photothermal displacement method. This technique is based on the thermal expansion of a sample absorbing a pumping beam and on the change in the deflection of a reflected probe beam due to the slope of displacement. A vertical resolution of about 0.1 μm is experimentally obtained. The surface profile measurement of a Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic head is demonstrated.

  5. Deflection of polarised radiation - Relative phase delay technique. [photon geodesic motion variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B.; Melnick, G.; Harwit, M.; Sato, T.; Stelzried, C. T.; Jauncey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the geodesic motion of photons, considering particularly whether oppositely polarized photons fall at the same rate. It is assumed that orthogonally polarized photons would be equally deflected by the gravitational field of a nonrotating mass. Upon the introduction of rotation, the angular momentum of the deflecting source couples to the photon spin through gravitational field action. Thus there arise separate trajectories for orthogonal polarizations. Searching for changes in polarization in a deflected beam is accomplished by a relative phase delay technique. If the beam is split into orthogonal linear polarization, final polarization is elliptical. Experiments have been performed on searching for ellipticity developments in the linearly polarized carrier waves from Helios 1 and 2, and the results are presented.

  6. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, G.S.; Studenmund, W.R.; Fishman, I.M.

    1996-12-31

    A photothermal technique has been used to measure diffusion and critical temperature in high temperature superconductors. The technique is particularly suitable for determining material quality and inhomogeneity.

  7. Spatially localized measurement of thermal conductivity using a hybrid photothermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    David H Hurley; Marat Khafizov; Zilong Hua; Rory Kennedy; Heng Ban

    2012-05-01

    A photothermal technique capable of measuring thermal conductivity with micrometer lateral resolution is presented. This technique involves measuring separately the thermal diffusivity, D, and thermal effusivity, e, to extract the thermal conductivity, k=(e2/D)1/2. To generalize this approach, sensitivity analysis was conducted for materials having a range of thermal conductivities. Experimental validation was sought using two substrate materials, SiO2 and CaF2, both coated with thin titanium films. The measured conductivities compare favorably with literature values.

  8. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1-10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He-Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm-2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  9. Characterization of laser damage performance of fused silica using photothermal absorption technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wen; Shi, Feng; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang

    2017-06-01

    The subsurface damage and metal impurities have been the main laser damage precursors of fused silica while subjected to high power laser irradiation. Light field enhancement and thermal absorption were used to explain the appearance of damage pits while the laser energy is far smaller than the energy that can reach the intrinsic threshold of fused silica. For fused silica optics manufactured by magnetorheological finishing or advanced mitigation process, no scratch-related damage site occurs can be found on the surface. In this work, we implemented a photothermal absorption technique based on thermal lens method to characterize the subsurface defects of fused silica optics. The pump beam is CW 532 nm wavelength laser. The probe beam is a He-Ne laser. They are collinear and focused through the same objective. When pump beam pass through the sample, optical absorption induces the local temperature rise. The lowest absorptance that we can detect is about the order of magnitude of 0.01 ppm. When pump beam pass through the sample, optical absorption induces the local temperature rise. The photothermal absorption value of fused silica samples range from 0.5 to 10 ppm. The damage densities of the samples were plotted. The damage threshold of samples at 8J/cm2 were gived to show laser damage performance of fused silica.The results show that there is a strong correlation between the thermal absorption and laser damage density. The photothermal absorption technique can be used to predict and evaluate the laser damage performance of fused silica optics.

  10. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  11. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    DOE PAGES

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which havemore » a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.« less

  12. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which have a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.

  13. Optical Deflection Technique for Investigation of Laser-Induced Oscillating Bubble on Metal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong-Qing; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2004-08-01

    The oscillation of a laser-generated single cavitation bubble on a metal surface is investigated by a fiber-optic diagnostic technique based on an optical beam deflection (OBD). The sequence of waveforms induced by the bubble pulsation is obtained with respect to detection distance. The maximum and minimum bubble radii for each oscillation cycle are determined from the experimental results. Furthermore, by tracking the arrival time of a bubble wall during its expanding and collapsing stages, the temporal development of a cavitation bubble on the metal surface is obtained.

  14. Single-molecule detection of dihydroazulene photo-thermal reaction using break junction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cancan; Jevric, Martyn; Borges, Anders; Olsen, Stine T.; Hamill, Joseph M.; Zheng, Jue-Ting; Yang, Yang; Rudnev, Alexander; Baghernejad, Masoud; Broekmann, Peter; Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Wandlowski, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Solomon, Gemma C.; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Hong, Wenjing

    2017-05-01

    Charge transport by tunnelling is one of the most ubiquitous elementary processes in nature. Small structural changes in a molecular junction can lead to significant difference in the single-molecule electronic properties, offering a tremendous opportunity to examine a reaction on the single-molecule scale by monitoring the conductance changes. Here, we explore the potential of the single-molecule break junction technique in the detection of photo-thermal reaction processes of a photochromic dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene system. Statistical analysis of the break junction experiments provides a quantitative approach for probing the reaction kinetics and reversibility, including the occurrence of isomerization during the reaction. The product ratios observed when switching the system in the junction does not follow those observed in solution studies (both experiment and theory), suggesting that the junction environment was perturbing the process significantly. This study opens the possibility of using nano-structured environments like molecular junctions to tailor product ratios in chemical reactions.

  15. Thermal properties of carbon nanowall layers measured by a pulsed photothermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    Achour, A.; Belkerk, B. E.; Ait Aissa, K.; Gautron, E.; Carette, M.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Brizoual, L. Le; Scudeller, Y.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Vizireanu, S.; Dinescu, G.

    2013-02-11

    We report the thermal properties of carbon nanowall layers produced by expanding beam radio-frequency plasma. The thermal properties of carbon nanowalls, grown at 600 Degree-Sign C on aluminium nitride thin-film sputtered on fused silica, were measured with a pulsed photo-thermal technique. The apparent thermal conductivity of the carbon at room temperature was found to increase from 20 to 80 Wm{sup -1} K{sup -1} while the thickness varied from 700 to 4300 nm, respectively. The intrinsic thermal conductivity of the carbon nanowalls attained 300 Wm{sup -1} K{sup -1} while the boundary thermal resistance with the aluminium nitride was 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} Km{sup 2} W{sup -1}. These results identify carbon nanowalls as promising material for thermal management applications.

  16. Photothermal measurements using a localized excitation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamodt, L. C.; Murphy, J. C.

    1981-08-01

    Optical-beam deflection (OBD) photothermal imaging uses spatially localized excitation to observe spatial variations in the sample surface temperature. This paper analyzes OBD signals produced by localized excitation in terms of three-dimensional thermal diffusion in the sample and in the fluid region in contact with the sample. The dependence of the signals on the local optical absorption coefficient, on gas/sample thermal properties, on modulation frequency, and on the probe/excitation beam radii are discussed with special attention being given to determining the spatial resolution possible for OBD imaging. A criterion for photothermal ''saturation'' appropriate to localized optical absorption is developed. Finally, a new variant of the OBD technique is introduced, which is especially adapted to studying optical and thermal boundaries in the plane of the sample. Some comparisons between theory and experiment are provided which illustrate transverse thermal diffusion.

  17. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Photothermal self-phase-modulation technique for absorption measurements on high-reflective coatings.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Jessica; Jensen, Lars; Krüger, Christoph; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-03-10

    We propose and demonstrate a new measurement technique for the optical absorption of high-reflection coatings. Our technique is based on photothermal self-phase modulation and exploits the deformation of cavity Airy peaks that occurs due to coating absorption of intracavity light. The mirror whose coating is under investigation needs to be the input mirror of a high-finesse cavity. Our example measurements were performed on a high-reflection SiO2-Ta2O5 coating in a three-mirror ring-cavity setup at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The optical absorption of the coating was determined to be α=(23.9±2.0)·10(-6) per coating. Our result is in excellent agreement with an independently performed laser calorimetry measurement that gave a value of α=(24.4±3.2)·10(-6) per coating. Since the self-phase modulation in our coating-absorption measurement affects mainly the propagation through the cavity input mirror, our measurement result is practically uninfluenced by the optical absorption of the other cavity mirrors.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of as-implanted and annealed ultra shallow junctions by photothermal and photoluminescence heterodyne techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiler, H. D.; Karge, H.; Wagner, M.; Lerch, W.; Paul, S.

    2005-08-01

    The control of implantation dose, ion energy and the junction depth after annealing are key points of the on-line metrology for ultra shallow junction fabrication. Nondestructive and non-contact optical methods are examined with respect to their applicability for related tasks. High sensitive low noise photothermal heterodyne (PTH) and photoluminescence heterodyne (PLH) techniques are applied to control implant parameters of 0.5 keV B+ - implants both immediately after implantation and after spike annealing. The photothermal response shows that beside dose and energy dependencies monitored after implantation the spike annealing results in a layer with reduced carrier lifetime and mobility. By photoluminescence response the existence of an impurity band and the correlation with the p-n-junction depth is demonstrated by measuring the response of carrier dynamics.

  20. Influence of immediate dentin sealing techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Mota, E G; Borges, G A; Burnett, L H; Spohr, A M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This research evaluated the influence of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Forty-eight maxillary premolars were divided into four groups: G1, sound teeth (control); G2, without IDS; G3, IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); and G4, IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F. The teeth from groups 2, 3, and 4 received mesio-distal-occlusal preparations. The impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane, followed by provisional restoration and storage in water for seven days. The impressions were poured using type IV die stone, and inlays with Filtek Z250 composite resin were built over each cast. The inlays were luted with Panavia F. After storage in water for 72 hours, a 200-N load was applied on the occlusal surface using a metal sphere connected to a universal testing machine, and the cuspal deflection was measured with a micrometer. The specimens were then submitted to an axial load until failure. The following mean cuspal deflection (μm) and mean fracture resistance (N) followed by the same lowercase letter represent no statistical difference by analysis of variance and Tukey (p<0.05): cuspal deflection: G1, 3.1 ± 1.5(a); G2, 10.3 ± 4.6(b); G3, 5.5 ± 1.8(ac); and G4, 7.7 ± 5.1(bc); fracture resistance: G1, 1974 ± 708(a); G2, 1162 ± 474(b); G3, 700 ± 280(b); and G4, 810 ± 343(b). IDS with CSE allowed cuspal deflection comparable with that associated with sound teeth. The application of Protect Liner F did not contribute to a decrease in cuspal deflection. The IDS techniques did not influence the fracture resistance of teeth.

  1. Vapor concentration measurement with photothermal deflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banish, R. Michael; Xiao, Rong-Fu; Rosenberger, Franz

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results for using the photothermal deflection technique to measure vapor species concentration, while minimizing the disturbance of the transport (material) parameters due to vapor heating, are developed and described. In contrast to common practice, the above constraints require using a pump-beam duty cycle of less than 50 percent. The theoretical description of the shortened heating time is based on a step-function formulation of the pumping cycle. The results are obtained as closed-form solutions of the energy equation for many chopping cycles until steady state is reached, by use of a Green's-function method. The Euler formulation of the Fermat principle is used to calculate the deflection angle. The equations are expanded to include the effects of vapor velocity on both the temperature and temperature gradient profiles. The effects of finite (unfocused) pump and probe beams and thermal (Soret) diffusion are also accounted for. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  2. The Deflection Plate Analyzer: A Technique for Space Plasma Measurements Under Highly Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Dutton, Ken; Martinez, Nelson; Smith, Dennis; Stone, Nobie H.

    2004-01-01

    A technique has been developed to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The present method is an extension of the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a mass measurement that does not include either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This reduces the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware as compared to classical mass analyzers. The new instrument design is called the Deflection Plate Analyzer (DPA) and can deconvolve multiple ion streams and analyze each stream for ion flux intensity (density), velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). The basic functionality of the DPA is discussed. The performance characteristics of a flight instrument as built for an electrodynamic tether mission, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), and the instrument s role in measuring key experimental conditions are also discussed.

  3. Simulation and Prototype Design of Variable Step Angle Techniques Based Asteroid Deflection for Future Planetary Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyavel, C.

    2016-07-01

    Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The most desirable asteroids for cross the geo-synchronous orbit are the carbonaceous C-type asteroids that are deemed by the astronomy community to have a planetary protection categorization of unrestricted Earth return. The mass of near earth Asteroids (assuming spherical asteroid) as a function of its diameter varies from 2 m to 10m, the corresponding densities from 1.9/cm3 to 3.8 g/cm3. For example, a 6.5-m diameter asteroid with a density of 2.8 g/cm3 has a mass of order 4,00,000 kg. If this Asteroid falls on earth then the earth will be destroyed at when the equally of inclination angle both of earth and Asteroid. My proposed work is how we can avert this great danger for near feature the above mass of Asteroid. The present work is Simulation and Prototype Design of a Variable Step Angle Techniques Based Asteroid Deflection for future planetary Mission. Proposed method is comparing with previous method that will be very useful to achieving hit the ion velocity to asteroid surface in several direction at static position of Asteroid deviate mission[ADM].The deviate angle α1 to α2 with help of Variable step angle techniques, it is containing Stepper Motor with attach of Ion propulsion module system.VASAT module is locating the top edge on the three axis stabilized Method in ADM.The three axis stabilized method is including the devices are like Gyroscope sensor ,Arduino Microcontroller system and ion propulsion techniques. Arduino Microcontroller system determines the orientation from gyroscope sensor. Then it uses ion Propulsion techniques modules to control the required motion like pitch, yaw and roll attitude of the ADM. The exhaust thrust value is 1500 mN and velocity is 10,000 m/s [from simulation results but experimental output results is small because low quality of Components is used in research lab] .The propulsion techniques also used as a static position of ADM Mission [both

  4. From detection to deflection: Mitigation techniques for hidden global threats of natural space objects with short warning time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Alaa; Rozenheck, Oshri; Entrena Utrilla, Carlos Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Throughout recorded history, hundreds of Earth impacts have been reported, with some catastrophic localized consequences. Based on the International Space University (ISU) Planetary Defense project named READI, we address the impact event problem by giving recommendations for the development of a planetary defense program. This paper reviews the current detection and tracking techniques and gives a set of recommendations for a better preparation to shield Earth from asteroid and cometary impacts. We also extend the use of current deflection techniques and propose a new compilation of those to deflect medium-sized potentially hazardous objects (PHOs). Using an array of techniques from high-energy lasers to defensive missiles, we present a set of protective layers to defend our planet. The paper focused on threats with a short warning period from discovery to impact with Earth, within few years.

  5. Across-plane thermal characterization of films based on amplitude-frequency profile in photothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-10-01

    This work develops an amplitude method for the photothermal (PT) technique to analyze the amplitude of the thermal radiation signal from the surface of a multilayered film sample. The thermal conductivity of any individual layer in the sample can be thereby determined. Chemical vapor deposited SiC film samples (sample 1 to 3: 2.5 to 3.5 μm thickness) with different ratios of Si to C and thermally oxidized SiO2 film (500 nm thickness) on silicon substrates are studied using the amplitude method. The determined thermal conductivity based on the amplitude method is 3.58, 3.59, and 2.59 W/mṡK for sample 1 to 3 with ±10% uncertainty. These results are verified by the phase shift method, and sound agreement is obtained. The measured thermal conductivity (k) of SiC is much lower than the value of bulk SiC. The large k reduction is caused by the structure difference revealed by Raman spectroscopy. For the SiO2 film, the thermal conductivity is measured to be 1.68 ± 0.17 W/mṡK, a little higher than that obtained by the phase shift method: 1.31 ± 0.06 W/mṡK. Sensitivity analysis of thermal conductivity and interfacial resistance is conducted for the amplitude method. Its weak-sensitivity to the thermal contact resistance, enables the amplitude method to determine the thermal conductivity of a film sample with little effect from the interface thermal resistance between the film and substrate. The normalized amplitude ratio at a high frequency to that at a low frequency provides a reliable way to evaluate the effusivity ratio of the film to that of the substrate.

  6. Across-plane thermal characterization of films based on amplitude-frequency profile in photothermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-10-15

    This work develops an amplitude method for the photothermal (PT) technique to analyze the amplitude of the thermal radiation signal from the surface of a multilayered film sample. The thermal conductivity of any individual layer in the sample can be thereby determined. Chemical vapor deposited SiC film samples (sample 1 to 3: 2.5 to 3.5 μm thickness) with different ratios of Si to C and thermally oxidized SiO{sub 2} film (500 nm thickness) on silicon substrates are studied using the amplitude method. The determined thermal conductivity based on the amplitude method is 3.58, 3.59, and 2.59 W/m⋅K for sample 1 to 3 with ±10% uncertainty. These results are verified by the phase shift method, and sound agreement is obtained. The measured thermal conductivity (k) of SiC is much lower than the value of bulk SiC. The large k reduction is caused by the structure difference revealed by Raman spectroscopy. For the SiO{sub 2} film, the thermal conductivity is measured to be 1.68 ± 0.17 W/m⋅K, a little higher than that obtained by the phase shift method: 1.31 ± 0.06 W/m⋅K. Sensitivity analysis of thermal conductivity and interfacial resistance is conducted for the amplitude method. Its weak-sensitivity to the thermal contact resistance, enables the amplitude method to determine the thermal conductivity of a film sample with little effect from the interface thermal resistance between the film and substrate. The normalized amplitude ratio at a high frequency to that at a low frequency provides a reliable way to evaluate the effusivity ratio of the film to that of the substrate.

  7. Adaptive Photothermal Emission Analysis Techniques for Robust Thermal Property Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Raymond

    The characterization of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems is increasingly important because they enable gas turbine engines to operate at high temperatures and efficiency. Phase of photothermal emission analysis (PopTea) has been developed to analyze the thermal behavior of the ceramic top-coat of TBCs, as a nondestructive and noncontact method for measuring thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Most TBC allocations are on actively-cooled high temperature turbine blades, which makes it difficult to precisely model heat transfer in the metallic subsystem. This reduces the ability of rote thermal modeling to reflect the actual physical conditions of the system and can lead to higher uncertainty in measured thermal properties. This dissertation investigates fundamental issues underpinning robust thermal property measurements that are adaptive to non-specific, complex, and evolving system characteristics using the PopTea method. A generic and adaptive subsystem PopTea thermal model was developed to account for complex geometry beyond a well-defined coating and substrate system. Without a priori knowledge of the subsystem characteristics, two different measurement techniques were implemented using the subsystem model. In the first technique, the properties of the subsystem were resolved as part of the PopTea parameter estimation algorithm; and, the second technique independently resolved the subsystem properties using a differential "bare" subsystem. The confidence in thermal properties measured using the generic subsystem model is similar to that from a standard PopTea measurement on a "well-defined" TBC system. Non-systematic bias-error on experimental observations in PopTea measurements due to generic thermal model discrepancies was also mitigated using a regression-based sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis reported measurement uncertainty and was developed into a data reduction method to filter out these "erroneous" observations. It was found

  8. Thermal diffusivity measurement by lock-in photothermal shadowgraph method

    SciTech Connect

    Cifuentes, A.; Cabrera, H.; Calderón, A.; Marín, E.

    2016-04-28

    Here, we present a novel application of the shadowgraph technique for obtaining the thermal diffusivity of an opaque solid sample, inspired by the orthogonal skimming photothermal beam deflection technique. This new variant utilizes the shadow projected by the sample when put against a collimated light source. The sample is then heated periodically by another light beam, giving rise to thermal waves, which propagate across it and through its surroundings. Changes in the refractive index of the surrounding media due to the heating distort the shadow. This phenomenon is recorded and lock-in amplified in order to determine the sample's thermal diffusivity.

  9. A study of the photothermal signal produced by a series of subsurface cylinders in opaque materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Salazar, A.; Terrón, J. M.; Ocáriz, A.

    1998-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the photothermal signal produced by a series of buried cylinders in an optically opaque sample. The models are valid for any value of the thermal properties of the cylinder and sample (the extreme cases treated are isolating and conducting cylinders), and the modulated excitation can be extended (plane wave generation) or punctual (spherical wave generation). The model results are compared with measurements performed on calibrated samples using two photothermal techniques: "mirage" deflection and infrared radiometry. Semiquantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found showing that this methodology can be used as a tool for the nondestructive evaluation of close subsurface cylinders, which represents a further step to the photothermal study of some materials of interest as the fiber-reinforced composites.

  10. A surface work function measurement technique utilizing constant deflected grazing electron trajectories: oxygen uptake on Cu(001).

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A V; Ciftlikli, E Z; Syssoev, S E; Shuttleworth, I G; Hinch, B J

    2010-10-01

    We report on the application of a novel nondestructive in-vacuum technique for relative work function measurements, employing a grazing incidence electron deflection above a sample with a planar surface. Two deflected electron beam detectors are used as a position sensitive detector to control feedback to the sample potential as the sample work function changes. With feedback the sample potential exactly follows the surface sample-size averaged work function variation, so that the deflected beam trajectory remains stable. We also discuss methods to optimize the initial electron trajectories for this method, so as to minimize unwanted effects such as from uncontrolled external magnetic fields. As the electron beam does not impinge on the surface in this new technique electron induced desorption, ionization, dissociation, and/or decomposition is not induced at the interface. Importantly also the technique allows for free access to the surfaces enabling simultaneous deposition/evaporation and/or application of other surface characterization methods. We demonstrate its application in concurrent measurements of helium atom reflectivity and work function changes taking place during molecular oxygen exposure of a Cu(001) surface. A work function measurement sensitivity and stability is demonstrated at ∼10 mV at a sampling rate of 1 Hz and after application of an ∼7 s smoothing routine. In comparison to the helium atom reflectivity measurements, the work function measurements are more sensitive to the initial O uptake, and less so to the final coverage variations and possible surface reordering at higher O coverages.

  11. In-situ stress analysis of the Zr/ZrO2 system as studied by Raman spectroscopy and deflection test in monofacial oxidation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpaska, L.; Favergeon, J.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.-L.; Lahoche, L.; Moulin, G.

    2016-11-01

    A comparison of measurements performed in in-situ conditions using Raman spectroscopy and Deflection Test in Monofacial Oxidation techniques were employed to study stress states developed in zirconia films grown at 500 °C is presented. The results show a good correlation between recorded Raman peak displacement and sample deflection angle. Considering analyzed volume of the material, Raman analysis represents a local measurement while the deflection test is a global response of the material. Reported stress components: (i) hydrostatic - resulted from Raman spectroscopy and (ii) in-plane - resulted from deflection test technique have been analyzed in comparison to each of the described techniques and aim to explain the behavior of zirconia at high temperatures.

  12. The numerical mirage method for photothermal characterization of materials.

    PubMed

    Demko, Michael T; Hostler, Stephen R; Abramson, Alexis R

    2008-04-01

    Noncontact thermal measurement techniques offer rapid thermal characterization without modification or destruction of the sample being studied. A simple and versatile method has been developed, termed the "numerical mirage method," that utilizes the transient photothermal deflection of a laser beam traversing a modulated temperature gradient. This method expands the range and simplifies the experimental procedure of traditional mirage methods. A numerical solver is used to create accurate deflection profile models and a linear curve fitting routine is developed, from which the thermal diffusivity of a material may be determined. This method allows for rapid modification of sample and heating configurations. Verification of the method is performed on bismuth and fused quartz reference samples, and good agreement with literature is obtained.

  13. Photothermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry; Antonishina, Elena

    1995-02-01

    An automated image analysis system with two imaging regimes is described. Photothermal (PT) effect is used for imaging of a temperature field or absorption structure of the sample (the cell) with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. In a cell study PT-technique enables imaging of live non-stained cells, and the monitoring of the cell shape/structure. The system includes a dual laser illumination unit coupled to a conventional optical microscope. A sample chamber provides automated or manual loading of up to 3 samples and cell positioning. For image detection a 256 X 256 10-bit CCD-camera is used. The lasers, scanning stage, and camera are controlled by PC. The system provides optical (transmitted light) image, probe laser optical image, and PT-image acquisition. Operation rate is 1 - 1.5 sec per cell for a cycle: cell positioning -- 3 images acquisition -- image parameters calculation. A special database provides image/parameters storage, presentation, and cell diagnostic according to quantitative image parameters. The described system has been tested during live and stained blood cell studies. PT-images of the cells have been used for cell differentiation. In experiments with the red blood cells (RBC) that originate from normal and anaemia blood parameters for disease differentiation have been found. For white blood cells in PT-images the details of cell structure have found that absent in their optical images.

  14. Measurement of initial absorption of fused silica at 193nm using laser induced deflection technique (LID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönfeld, Dörte; Klett, Ursula; Mühlig, Christian; Thomas, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing development in microlithography towards further miniaturization of structures creates a strong demand for lens material with nearly ideal optical properties. Beside the highly demanding requirements on homogeneity and stress induced birefringence (SIB), low absorption is a key factor. Even a small absorption is associated with a temperature increase and results in thermally induced local variations of refractive index and SIB. This could affect the achievable resolution of the lithographic process. The total absorption of the material is composed of initial absorption and of absorption induced during irradiation. Thus, the optimization of both improves the lifetime of the material. In principal, it is possible to measure transmission and scattering with a suitable spectrometer assembly and calculate absorption from them. However, owing to the influence of sample surfaces and errors of measurement, these methods usually do not provide satisfactory results for highly light-transmissive fused silica. Therefore, it is most desirable to find a technique that is capable of directly measuring absorption coefficients in the range of (1...10)•10 -4 cm -1 (base 10) directly. We report our first results for fused silica achieved with the LID technique. Besides a fused silica grade designed for 193 nm applications, grades with higher absorption at 193 nm were measured to test the LID technique. A special focus was set on the possibility of measuring initial absorption without the influence of degradation effects.

  15. Q-adjusting technique applied to vertical deflections estimation in a single-axis rotation INS/GPS integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xingshu; Wang, Jun; Dai, Dongkai; Xiong, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Former studies have proved that the attitude error in a single-axis rotation INS/GPS integrated system tracks the high frequency component of the deflections of the vertical (DOV) with a fixed delay and tracking error. This paper analyses the influence of the nominal process noise covariance matrix Q on the tracking error as well as the response delay, and proposed a Q-adjusting technique to obtain the attitude error which can track the DOV better. Simulation results show that different settings of Q lead to different response delay and tracking error; there exists optimal Q which leads to a minimum tracking error and a comparatively short response delay; for systems with different accuracy, different Q-adjusting strategy should be adopted. In this way, the DOV estimation accuracy of using the attitude error as the observation can be improved. According to the simulation results, the DOV estimation accuracy after using the Q-adjusting technique is improved by approximate 23% and 33% respectively compared to that of the Earth Model EGM2008 and the direct attitude difference method.

  16. Surface thermal lensing technique: a novel tool for studying contamination effects on optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, Rene; Wu, Zhouling

    1996-11-01

    Contamination-induced degradation of optics often leads to enhanced absorption, which presents a serious limit for many important applications, especially those associated with high power laser systems and/or large aperture components. For this reason many different techniques were developed during the last decade for weak absorption studies, which include laser calorimetry, photoacoustic spectroscopy, as well as various photothermal techniques. In this paper recent progress is presented for the surface thermal lensing (STL) technique, a novel photothermal method which is demonstrated to be an ultra-sensitive tool for monitoring contamination effects on optical components. Compared with the various conventional photothermal methods, such as the photothermal deflection technique, STL drastically reduces the experimental complexity but retains the advantages of being sensitive, accurate and non-contact, and capable of in-situ monitoring of optical absorption down to the sub-ppm level. Experimental data with emphasis on absorption measurements and contamination studies of optical thin films are presented.

  17. Quantitative photothermal phase imaging of red blood cells using digital holographic photothermal microscope.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C K; Lin, Zhiping; Ng, Beng Koon

    2015-05-10

    Photothermal microscopy (PTM), a noninvasive pump-probe high-resolution microscopy, has been applied as a bioimaging tool in many biomedical studies. PTM utilizes a conventional phase contrast microscope to obtain highly resolved photothermal images. However, phase information cannot be extracted from these photothermal images, as they are not quantitative. Moreover, the problem of halos inherent in conventional phase contrast microscopy needs to be tackled. Hence, a digital holographic photothermal microscopy technique is proposed as a solution to obtain quantitative phase images. The proposed technique is demonstrated by extracting phase values of red blood cells from their photothermal images. These phase values can potentially be used to determine the temperature distribution of the photothermal images, which is an important study in live cell monitoring applications.

  18. Combined laser calorimetry and photothermal technique for absorption measurement of optical coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bincheng; Blaschke, Holger; Ristau, Detlev

    2006-08-10

    To the best of our knowledge, a combined sensitive technique employing both laser calorimetry and a surface thermal lens scheme for measuring absorption values of optical coatings is presented for the first time. Laser calorimetric and pulsed surface thermal lens signals are simultaneously obtained with a highly reflecting UV coating sample irradiated at 193 nm. The advantages and potential applications of the combined technique and the experimental factors limiting the measurement sensitivity are discussed.

  19. Combined laser calorimetry and photothermal technique for absorption measurement of optical coatings.

    PubMed

    Li, Bincheng; Blaschke, Holger; Ristau, Detlev

    2006-08-10

    To the best of our knowledge, a combined sensitive technique employing both laser calorimetry and a surface thermal lens scheme for measuring absorption values of optical coatings is presented for the first time. Laser calorimetric and pulsed surface thermal lens signals are simultaneously obtained with a highly reflecting UV coating sample irradiated at 193 nm. The advantages and potential applications of the combined technique and the experimental factors limiting the measurement sensitivity are discussed.

  20. A travelling photothermal technique employing pyroelectric detection to measure thermal diffusivity of films and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, J.; Manjusha, M. V.; Soumya, H.

    2011-10-01

    A travelling thermal wave technique employing optical excitation and pyroelectric detection of thermal waves propagating along a material film/coating on a substrate is described. The method enables direct measurement of thermal diffusivity. The technique involves measurement of the phase lag undergone by an optically excited thermal wave as it propagates along the coating. The set up has been automated for convenient and fast data acquisition and analysis. The technique has been adapted to measurement of thermal diffusivity of a commercial paint sample coated on glass and copper substrates. It is found that thermal diffusivity of the coating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the substrate. Dependence of thermal diffusivity on coating thickness shows exponential increase, with value reaching a constant at a characteristic high thickness. Measurements have been carried out on a few other samples with wide variations in thermal diffusivity, and the results compared with available reports or results obtained following other techniques. Analyses of the results show that the technique allows measurement of thermal diffusivity of coatings and films with uncertainties better than ±2.5%.

  1. A travelling photothermal technique employing pyroelectric detection to measure thermal diffusivity of films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Manjusha, M V; Soumya, H

    2011-10-01

    A travelling thermal wave technique employing optical excitation and pyroelectric detection of thermal waves propagating along a material film/coating on a substrate is described. The method enables direct measurement of thermal diffusivity. The technique involves measurement of the phase lag undergone by an optically excited thermal wave as it propagates along the coating. The set up has been automated for convenient and fast data acquisition and analysis. The technique has been adapted to measurement of thermal diffusivity of a commercial paint sample coated on glass and copper substrates. It is found that thermal diffusivity of the coating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the substrate. Dependence of thermal diffusivity on coating thickness shows exponential increase, with value reaching a constant at a characteristic high thickness. Measurements have been carried out on a few other samples with wide variations in thermal diffusivity, and the results compared with available reports or results obtained following other techniques. Analyses of the results show that the technique allows measurement of thermal diffusivity of coatings and films with uncertainties better than ±2.5%.

  2. Application of laser photothermal spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A; Maksimov, E M

    2010-09-10

    Laser photothermal methods of standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces are considered. The analysis is restricted to the most promising methods: photoacoustic spectroscopy, deflection spectroscopy, and IR photothermal imaging of objects under resonant irradiation. Particular attention is paid to the choice of radiation sources and detectors. Comparative analysis of the existing standoff detection methods for explosive particles on the object surface is performed. Prospects of laser photothermal spectroscopy in this field are discussed. (review)

  3. Thermal characterization of a liquid resin for 3D printing using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, José L.; Pincel, Pavel Vieyra; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Correa-Pacheco, Zormy N.

    2016-05-01

    Thermal properties of a liquid resin were studied by thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) and open photoacoustic cell (OPC), respectively. In the case of the TLS technique, the two mismatched mode experimental configuration was used with a He-Ne laser, as a probe beam and an Argon laser was used as the excitation source. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity ( α) of the resin. On the other hand, the sample thermal effusivity ( e) was obtained by using the OPC technique. In this technique, an Argon laser was used as the excitation source and was operated at 514 nm with an output power of 30 mW. From the obtained thermal diffusivity ( α) and thermal effusivity ( e) values, the thermal conductivity ( k) and specific heat capacity per unit volume ( ρc) of resin were calculated through the relationships k = e( α)1/2 and ρc = e/( α)1/2. The obtained thermal parameters were compared with the thermal parameters of the literature. To our knowledge, the thermal characterization of resin has not been reported until now. The present study has applications in laser stereo-lithography to manufacture 3D printing pieces.

  4. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  5. Laser-induced photothermal technique used for detection of caries in human tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal monitoring during laser-irradiated hard tissues is fundamental to enable real time feedback control and automated adjustment of laser power to maintain a constant, predetermined tissue temperature. We present an experimental technique to produce thermal wave generated in human tooth by irradiation of a high power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, with variable pulse energy in the range of 50-250 mJ/pulse providing laser fluences of 0.4-2 J/cm2 for the laser beam with diameter of less than 1 mm, and short pulse duration down to 100 μsec (or 0.1 ms) at FWHM. A comparison of the measured time-dependent thermal wave for normal and carious human tooth using infrared thermal detector is investigated, simultaneously we have measure the photoacoustic response of the sample using piezoelectric transducer. Calculations of the results demonstrate that the faster temperature decay is for caries one with higher thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity than the normal one. So the normal tooth has the largest absorption coefficient causing a purely surface heating effect, but for the carious one, the heat source resulting from the relatively low absorption coefficient does not resemble surface heating, but describes a heating effect extending some distance into the irradiated material. These results are in good agreement with the simultaneous measured photoacoustic response, so we can differentiate between the normal and carious ones.

  6. Measurement of diffusion and thermal diffusion in ternary fluid mixtures using a two-color optical beam deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Königer, A.; Wunderlich, H.; Köhler, W.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive two-color beam deflection setup to measure diffusion and thermal diffusion in ternary fluid mixtures following a suggestion of Haugen and Firoozabadi [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 17678 (2006)]. Simultaneous detection of two laser beams with different wavelengths makes it possible to determine the time dependent concentration profiles of all three components. By comparing the measured beam deflection signals to a numerical solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations, the diffusion matrix, the thermal diffusion, and the Soret coefficients are obtained by a numerical model combined with a nonlinear least-squares fitting routine. The results can be improved by additional thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering experiments, which yield a contrast-weighted average thermal diffusion coefficient. The three Soret coefficients can be obtained independently from the stationary beam deflection amplitudes. Measurements have been performed on the symmetric (equal weight fractions) ternary mixtures dodecane/isobutylbenzene/1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene/octane/decane. There is only partial agreement between our results and literature data.

  7. Development of a photothermal double beam laser scanning system in biopharmaceutical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, W.; Gotter, B.; Heißler, St.; Schlegel, M.; Neubert, R. H. H.

    2010-03-01

    Photothermal beam deflection (PDS) has been applied to obtain information regarding the penetration of methylorange (MO) and ditranol (DI) into artificial membranes. The measurable depth range is 56 μm. Photothermal beam deflection allows on the one hand depth resolved investigations by the use of a frequency modulation of the excitation beam to reach deeper regions even in opaque sample, and on the other hand lateral imaging. To explore the potential use of a novel photothermal double beam laser scanning system, measurements in drug delivery analysis have been used for depth profiling and imaging into an artificial membrane, which represents stratum corneum or bovine hoof, appropriately.

  8. Atomic oxygen damage characterization by photothermal scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. W.; Wood, N. J.; Zakaria, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we use a photothermal imaging technique to characterize the damage caused to an imperfectly coated gold-coated Kapton sample exposed to successively increased fluences of atomic oxygen in a laboratory atomic source.

  9. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  10. Photothermal deflection technique investigation of annealing temperature and time effects on optical and thermal conductivity of V/V2O5 alternating layers structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfaoui, A.; Ilahi, S.; Abdel-Rahman, M.; Zia, M. F.; Alduraibi, M.; Ilahi, B.; Yacoubi, N.

    2017-10-01

    The VxOy material is fabricated by alternating multilayer of V/V2O5. Two sets of VxOy are presented annealed at 300 °C and 400 °C for 20, 30 and 40 min. We have determined optical absorption spectra of the two sets by comparison between experimental and theoretical PDS amplitude signal. In fact, a variation of the bandgap energy from 2.34eV to 2.49 eV has found for both set annealed at 300 °C and 400 °C for various annealing time. The variation of bandgap energy is discussed testifying a structural and compositional change. Moreover, thermal conductivity of the set annealed at 400 °C showed a variation from 1.96 W/m K to 6.2 W/m K noting a decrease up to 2.89 W/m K for that annealed for 30 min.

  11. Imaging highly absorbing nanoparticles using photothermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, Simon-Alexandre; Moradi, Hamid; Price, Alain; Murugkar, Sangeeta

    2015-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have tremendous potential in biomedicine. They can be used as absorbing labels inside living cells for the purpose of biomedical imaging, biosensing as well as for photothermal therapy. We demonstrate photothermal imaging of highly-absorbing particles using a pump-probe setup. The photothermal signal is recovered by heterodyne detection, where the excitation pump laser is at 532 nm and the probe laser is at 638 nm. The sample is moved by a scanning stage. Proof of concept images of red polystyrene microspheres and gold nanoparticles are obtained with this home-built multimodal microscope. The increase in temperature at the surface of the gold NPs, due to the pump laser beam, can be directly measured by means of this photothermal microscope and then compared with the results from theoretical predictions. This technique will be useful for characterization of nanoparticles of different shapes, sizes and materials that are used in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Noncontact measurement of angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.

  13. Photothermal and photoacoustic methods for mapping surface absorbance: Adaptation for screening chemical and biomolecular libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    Photoacoustic and photothermal methods are useful tools for the analysis of solid state samples and thin films. Both techniques may be used to study surface absorber distributions on surfaces. In the photoacoustic experiment, light absorption at a solid/air interface launches a pressure wave which propagates through the air. The acoustic wave is detected by deflection of a probe laser beam. For non-parallel orientation of the probe beam with respect to the sample surface, acoustic waves launched from individual absorber features travel different distances before they intersect with the probe beam. This allows temporal encoding of the spatial distribution of surface absorbers. An experimental demonstration of this novel photoacoustic of detection scheme is presented. In the photothermal experiment, detection is based on production of a temperature change at the sample surface following light absorption. Thermal diffusion generates temperature gradients in the solid sample and the adjacent fluid layer. The resulting refractive index gradient in the adjacent fluid medium is measured by deflection of a probe laser beam. Using the transverse photothermal deflection spectroscopy (t-PDS) method, two dimensional absorber distribution maps of a flat sample surface can be recorded. A number of colored thin polymer film are used to characterize the sensitivity in air and a value of 7.5 · 10-6 W is found. Gold nanoparticles are excellent optical absorber labels for biological and biochemical binding assays. The synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles of different sizes and surface chemical functionalities is presented. A novel readout method for protein microarrays based on photothermal detection of nanoparticle labeled proteins is described. Protein microarrays are developed with functionalized gold nanoparticles and analyzed using t-PDS. The observed coloration intensity performance depends on the intrinsic nature of the target protein. Neutravidin produces the

  14. Resolution and definition in photothermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetsel, Grover C., Jr.; McDonald, F. Alan

    1984-12-01

    The influences of pump and probe beam sizes, as well as chopping frequency, on resolution and definition in photothermal laser-beam-deflection imaging of subsurface structure are investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the resolution of nearby subsurface structures is improved by decreasing pump and probe beam sizes to dimensions less than, but not necessarily much less than, the characteristic dimension of the subsurface structures. It is also shown that the photothermal image width (full width at half maximum) may be different from the structure size, and that the width may vary with frequency, for certain structure geometry. A theoretical model of thermal-wave scattering gives results consistent with the present experimental data and with previous, apparently contradictory, results in the appropriate geometric limits.

  15. Quantitation of IgE and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement of dot-immunobinding assay patterns visualized by an ELISA technique.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, S; Kimura, H; Tu, C Y; Kitamori, T; Sawada, T

    1993-05-05

    Dot-immunobinding assays of IgE and CEA were performed by a conventional dot-ELISA technique with diaminobenzidine staining, and the quantitative results were compared by densitometry and a new, spectroscopic, optical beam deflection (OBD) method using the same membrane. It was possible with the OBD method to detect quantities of these substances at least ten times smaller than with densitometry. Better intra-assay reproducibility for IgE and CEA measurements was obtained by the OBD method. The measurable ranges of the OBD method was broader than that of densitometry, because dark bands caused OBD in proportion to their color densities. When the dot-immunobinding assay with OBD measurement for CEA was also compared with a microtube ELISA using biotin-avidin conjugates, the sensitivities and reproducibilities of the two methods were found to be similar, with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  16. Performance of a photothermal detector with turbid liquids.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Jane; Johnson, Mark; Dakin, John P

    2005-07-10

    A closed-cell photothermal detector for aqueous analytes has been evaluated at 254 and 678 nm. We used a detector with a water meniscus as a pressure sensor, whose periodic deflection was measured using a low-finesse optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer. Performance was compared with a commercial diode array spectrometer and found to be similar for absorption measurements in nonturbid samples, but the results were affected up to 60 times less by scattered light. Finally the photothermal cell was converted into an integrating cavity using ceramic inserts, showing freedom from scattering-related errors at 678 nm but a degradation in performance at 254 nm.

  17. Dental Photothermal Radiometry: Theoretical Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, Anna; Jeon, Raymond; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Dental enamel demineralization in its early stages is very difficult to detect with conventional x-rays or visual examination. High-resolution techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, usually require destruction of the tooth. Photothermal Radiomety (PTR) was recently applied as a safe, non-destructive, and highly sensitive tool for the detection of early dental demineralization, artificially created on the enamel surface. The experiments showed very high sensitivity of the measured signal to incipient changes in the surface structure, emphasizing the clinical capabilities of the method. In order to analyze the biothermophotonic phenomena in a tooth sample during the photothermal excitation, a theoretical model featuring coupled diffuse-photon-density-wave and thermal-wave fields was developed. Numerical simulations identified the effects on the PTR signal of changes in optical and thermal properties of enamel and dentin as a result of demineralization. The model predictions and experimental results will be compared and discussed.

  18. Photothermal strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-07-01

    Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of cardiovascular disease, but they are difficult to detect with conventional intravascular imaging techniques. Techniques are needed to identify plaque vulnerability based on the presence of lipids in plaque. Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed, which varies with the medium temperature. In TSI, the strain that occurs during tissue temperature change can be used for lipid detection because it has a different tendency depending on the type of tissue. Here, we demonstrate photothermal strain imaging (pTSI) using an intravascular ultrasound catheter. pTSI is performed by slightly and selectively heating lipid using a relatively inexpensive continuous laser source. We applied a speckle-tracking algorithm to US B-mode images for strain calculations. As a result, the strain produced in porcine fat was different from the strain produced in water-bearing gelatin phantom, which made it possible to distinguish the two. This suggests that pTSI could potentially be a way of differentiating lipids in coronary artery.

  19. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:26927221

  20. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection.

    PubMed

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.

  1. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.

  2. Microwave Deflection Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, Paul; Kobayashi, Herb; Ngo, Phong; Lichtenberg, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Doppler-radar instrument measures small deflections or vibrations of reflecting surface. Acting as interferometric micrometer, instrument includes combination of analog and digital circuits measuring change in phase of radar return due to movement of reflecting surface along signal-propagation path. Includes homodyne Doppler-radar transceiver and digital signal-processing circuitry to measure change in phase shift as target deflects.

  3. Nanoparticles for photothermal therapies.

    PubMed

    Jaque, D; Martínez Maestro, L; del Rosal, B; Haro-Gonzalez, P; Benayas, A; Plaza, J L; Martín Rodríguez, E; García Solé, J

    2014-08-21

    The current status of the use of nanoparticles for photothermal treatments is reviewed in detail. The different families of heating nanoparticles are described paying special attention to the physical mechanisms at the root of the light-to-heat conversion processes. The heating efficiencies and spectral working ranges are listed and compared. The most important results obtained in both in vivo and in vitro nanoparticle assisted photothermal treatments are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the different heating nanoparticles are discussed.

  4. Optical fiber photoacoustic-photothermal probe.

    PubMed

    Beard, P C; Pérennès, F; Draguioti, E; Mills, T N

    1998-08-01

    We describe the operation of an all-optical probe that provides an alternative means of implementing photoacoustic and photothermal investigative techniques, particularly those used in biomedical applications. The probe is based on a transparent, acoustically and thermally sensitive Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor mounted at the end of an optical fiber. We demonstrate the ability of the system to make photoacoustic and photothermal measurements simultaneously and evaluate its photothermal response, using a nonscattering liquid target of known and adjustable absorption coefficient. The acoustic and thermal noise floors were 2 kPa and 6 x 10(-3) degrees C , respectively, obtained over a 25-MHz measurement bandwidth and 30 signal averages.

  5. Combined photothermal lens and photothermal mirror characterization of polymers.

    PubMed

    Aréstegui, Odon S; Poma, Patricia Y N; Herculano, Leandro S; Lukasievicz, Gustavo V B; Guimarães, Francine B; Malacarne, Luis C; Baesso, Mauro L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Astrath, Nelson G C

    2014-01-01

    We propose a combined thermal lens and thermal mirror method as concurrent photothermal techniques for the physical characterization of polymers. This combined method is used to investigate polymers as a function of temperature from room temperature up to 170 °C. The method permits a direct determination of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Additional measurements of specific heat, linear thermal expansion, and temperature-dependent optical path change are also performed. A complete set of thermal, optical, and mechanical properties of polycarbonate and poly (methyl methacrylate) samples are obtained. Methods presented here can be useful for in situ characterization of semitransparent materials, where fast and non-contacting measurements are required.

  6. All-optical beam deflection method for simultaneous thermal conductivity and thermo-optic coefficient ( d n / d T ) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Shawn A.; Fairchild, Steven B.; Arends, Armando A.; Urbas, Augustine M.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes an all-optical beam deflection method to simultaneously measure the thermal conductivity ( Λ) and thermo-optic coefficient ( d n / d T ) of materials that are absorbing at λ = 10.6 μm and are transparent to semi-transparent at λ = 632.8 nm. The technique is based on the principle of measuring the beam deflection of a probe beam (632.8 nm) in the frequency-domain due to a spatially and temporally varying index gradient that is thermally induced by 50:50 split pump beam from a CO2 laser (10.6 μm). The technique and analysis methods are validated with measurements of 10 different optical materials having Λ and d n / d T properties ranging between 0.7 W/m K ≲ Λ ≲ 33.5 W/m K and -12 × 10-6 K-1 ≲ d n / d T ≲ 14 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The described beam deflection technique is highly related to other well-established, all-optical materials characterization methods, namely, thermal lensing and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. Likewise, due to its all-optical, pump-probe nature, it is applicable to materials characterization in extreme environments with minimal errors due to black-body radiation. In addition, the measurement principle can be extended over a broad range of electromagnetic wavelengths (e.g., ultraviolet to THz) provided the required sources, detectors, and focusing elements are available.

  7. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy.

  8. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy. PMID:27446642

  9. Predicting photothermal field performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Photothermal field performance in flat plate solar collectors was predicted. An analytical model which incorporates the measured dependency between transmittance loss and UV and temperature exposure levels was developed. The model uses SOLMET weather data extrapolated to 30 years for various sites and module mounting configurations. It is concluded that the temperature is the key to photothermally induced transmittance loss. The sensitivity of transmittance loss to UV level is nonlinear with minimum in curve near one sun. The ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) results are consistent with 30 year life allocation.

  10. Optical measurement of propeller blade deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1988-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measurement of propeller blade deflections is described and evaluated. It does not depend on the reflectivity of the blade surface but only on its opaqueness. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained using a single light beam generated by a low-power helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured deflections from a static and a high-speed test are compared with available predicted deflections which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  11. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1988-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitiative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  12. Atomic beam deflection in a quantum field

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, L.A.; Bharucha, C.; Moore, F.L.

    1993-05-01

    Atomic beam deflection in a quantum field is studied theoretically for the case of an atom passing through the mode of a resonant optical cavity. Deflection probability is calculated for a coupling rate g of order g/2{pi}=1 MHz, which is experimentally feasible in a short optical cavity. Atomic velocities are taken in the range of 1-10 m/s, which can be reached with current cooling and trapping techniques. We calculate deflection for a coherent state with mean photon number , and for a number state. For the parameters studied, the predicted scattering is in an intermediate regime between Raman-Nath and Bragg, but is closer to the former. We find significant deflection probability even for =1, indicating potential for a high level of sensitivity. We report on our progress in the experimental realization of this system with laser cooled sodium atoms as the atomic medium, and directions for future work are indicated.

  13. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1990-10-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  14. Nonlinear photothermal mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totachawattana, Atcha; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Sander, Michelle Y.

    2016-10-01

    Mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy is a pump-probe technique for label-free and non-destructive sample characterization by targeting intrinsic vibrational modes. In this method, the mid-infrared pump beam excites a temperature-induced change in the refractive index of the sample. This laser-induced change in the refractive index is measured by a near-infrared probe laser using lock-in detection. At increased pump powers, emerging nonlinear phenomena not previously demonstrated in other mid-infrared techniques are observed. Nonlinear study of a 6 μm-thick 4-Octyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (8CB) liquid crystal sample is conducted by targeting the C=C stretching band at 1606 cm-1. At high pump powers, nonlinear signal enhancement and multiple pitchfork bifurcations of the spectral features are observed. An explanation of the nonlinear peak splitting is provided by the formation of bubbles in the sample at high pump powers. The discontinuous refractive index across the bubble interface results in a decrease in the forward scatter of the probe beam. This effect can be recorded as a bifurcation of the absorption peak in the photothermal spectrum. These nonlinear effects are not present in direct measurements of the mid-infrared beam. Evolution of the nonlinear photothermal spectrum of 8CB liquid crystal with increasing pump power shows enhancement of the absorption peak at 1606 cm-1. Multiple pitchfork bifurcations and spectral narrowing of the photothermal spectrum are demonstrated. This novel nonlinear regime presents potential for improved spectral resolution as well as a new regime for sample characterization in mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy.

  15. Photothermal methods in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John C.

    2000-10-01

    Photothermal imaging and spectroscopy are being applied to a variety of medical problems for diagnosis and therapy. This paper reviews some aspects of this field including the opportunities presented by non-optical sources and by use of detection methods targeted to the application.

  16. Cleaning procedure for improved photothermal background of toroidal optical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Erik H.; Knapper, Kassandra A.; Heylman, Kevin D.; Goldsmith, Randall H.

    2016-09-01

    High Q-factors and small mode volumes have made toroidal optical microresonators exquisite sensors to small shifts in the effective refractive index of the WGM modes. Eliminating contaminants and improving quality factors is key for many different sensing techniques, and is particularly important for photothermal imaging as contaminants add photothermal background obscuring objects of interest. Several different cleaning procedures including wet- and dry-chemical procedures are tested for their effect on Q-factors and photothermal background. RCA cleaning was shown to be successful in contrast to previously described acid cleaning procedures, most likely due to the different surface reactivity of the acid reagents used. UV-ozone cleaning was shown to be vastly superior to O2 plasma cleaning procedures, significantly reducing the photothermal background of the resonator.

  17. Long Range Nanoparticle Surface Energy Transfer Ruler for Monitoring Photothermal Therapy Response

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anant K.; Lu, Wentong; Senapati, Dulal; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Fan, Zhen; Senapati, Tapas; Demeritte, Teresa; Beqa, Lule; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanotechnology driven recent approach opens up a new possibility for the destruction of cancer cells through photothermal therapy. Ultimately, photothermal therapy may enter into clinical therapy and as a result, there is an urgent need for techniques to monitor on time tumor response to therapy. Driven by the need, in this article we report nanoparticle surface energy transfer (NSET) approach to monitor photothermal therapy process by measuring the simple fluorescence intensity change. Florescence intensity change is due to the light-controlled photothermal release of ssDNA/RNA via dehybridization during therapy process. Our time dependent results show that just by monitoring fluorescence intensity change, one can monitor photothermal therapy response during therapy process. Possible mechanism and operating principle of our NSET assay have been discussed. Ultimately, this NSET assay could have enormous potential applications in rapid, on-site monitoring of photothermal therapy process, which is critical to providing effective treatment of cancer and MDRB infections. PMID:21744496

  18. Photothermal nano-cavities for ultra-sensitive chem-bio detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Juejun; Musgrave, J. David; Carlie, Nathan; Agarwal, Anu; Richardson, Kathleen; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2011-05-01

    Nano-cavity photothermal spectroscopy is a novel technique for ultra-sensitive chem-bio detection. We illustrate that through simultaneous localization of optical and thermal interactions in a planar nano-cavity, detection sensitivity can be improved by > 104 compared to state-of-the-art. Key to nano-cavity photothermal sensing is the use of novel infraredtransparent chalcogenide glasses for resonant cavity fabrication, as these glasses feature a photothermal figure-of-merit over two orders of magnitude higher than conventional materials. We demonstrate planar optical resonant cavity devices in these glasses with record cavity quality factors up to 5 × 105, leading to high photothermal detection sensitivity.

  19. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew; Michel, Patrick; Ulamec, Stephan; Reed, Cheryl; Galvez, Andres; Carnelli, Ian

    On Feb. 15, 2013, an exceptionally close approach to Earth by the small asteroid 2012 DA14 was eagerly awaited by observers, but another small asteroid impacted Earth over Chelyabinsk, Russia the same day without warning, releasing several hundred kilotons TNT of energy and injuring over 1500 people. These dramatic events remind us of the needs to discover hazardous asteroids and to learn how to mitigate them. The AIDA mission is the first demonstration of a mitigation technique to protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, by performing a spacecraft kinetic impact on an asteroid to deflect it from its trajectory. We will provide an update on the status of parallel AIDA mission studies supported by ESA and NASA. AIDA is an international collaboration consisting of two independent but mutually supporting missions, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor, and the other is the characterization spacecraft which will orbit the asteroid system to monitor the deflection experiment and measure the results. These two missions are the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), which is the kinetic impactor, and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which is the characterization spacecraft. The target of the AIDA mission will be a binary asteroid, in which DART will target the secondary, smaller member in order to deflect the binary orbit. The resulting period change can be measured to within 10% by ground-based observations. The asteroid deflection will be measured to higher accuracy, and additional results of the DART impact, like the impact crater, will be studied in great detail by the AIM mission. AIDA will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable, but when combined they provide a greatly increased knowledge return. The AIDA mission will combine

  20. Deflection Sensors Utilizing Optical Multi-Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadeh, Shadi H.; Cada, Michael; Qasymeh, Montasir; Ma, Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Deflection sensors have attracted significant attention due to their wide application in pressure and temperature measurements in practical systems. Several techniques have been proposed, studied, and tested to realize optical deflection sensor elements, including Mach-Zehnder (MZI), and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In this work, a novel optical deflection sensor that is comprised of two cascaded optical resonators is proposed and analyzed. The proposed structure is designed to operate in the multi-stable (input to output) regime. As the first resonator is equipped with a movable mirror, which is connected to a diaphragm in order to sense changes in deflection, the second resonator is filled with non-linear material. It is demonstrated that such a structure has a novel memory property, aside from having the ability to yield instant deflection measurements. This novel property is attributed to the non-linear refractive index of the medium of the second resonator. Furthermore, the sensor sensitivity (which is the ratio of the change in the output light intensity to the change in the induced deflection) is enhanced due to the input-output multi-stable behavior of the proposed structure. This device possesses a promising potential for applications in future smart sensors.

  1. Analysis of dental materials by photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Contreras, M.; Tiessler, V.; Cucina, A.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan J.

    2005-02-01

    The analysis of teeth is an interesting field, given the importance of these pieces for the individual or for humanity in the case of remains recovered from an archeologically site; therefore, the development of non-destructive techniques is important to study these materials. Photothermal techniques are ones of the most interesting possibilities; they are based in the generation of a train of thermal waves inside of a material due to the illumination with modulated light. Among these techniques photothermal radiometry has an outstanding role, since it is a non-contact technique, based in the detection of infrared emission of the samples heated with the laser. The experimental configuration consists of an Ar laser beam that impinges on the surface of the teeth and the infrared radiation generated is measured using a HgCdTe IR detector. Results for the analysis of cracks on teeth and the low frequency profiles are presented. A strong influence of the signal due to the microstructure of teeth is observed. Furthermore, surface effects are analyzed changing the color of teeth when whitening products are applied. The process of whitening is monitored in real time by optical spectroscopy in the visible and by photothermal radiometry.

  2. The Deflection Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  3. Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jignesh; Park, Suhyun; Aglyamov, Salavat; Larson, Timothy; Ma, Li; Sokolov, Konstantin; Johnston, Keith; Milner, Thomas; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2009-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is a noninvasive, targeted, laser-based technique for cancer treatment. During photothermal therapy, light energy is converted to heat by tumor-specific photoabsorbers. The corresponding temperature rise causes localized cancer destruction. For effective treatment, however, the presence of photoabsorbers in the tumor must be ascertained before therapy and thermal imaging must be performed during therapy. This study investigates the feasibility of guiding photothermal therapy by using photoacoustic imaging to detect photoabsorbers and to monitor temperature elevation. Photothermal therapy is carried out by utilizing a continuous wave laser and metal nanocomposites broadly absorbing in the near-infrared optical range. A linear array-based ultrasound imaging system is interfaced with a nanosecond pulsed laser to image tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex-vivo animal tissue before and during photothermal therapy. Before commencing therapy, photoacoustic imaging identifies the presence and spatial location of nanoparticles. Thermal maps are computed by monitoring temperature-induced changes in the photoacoustic signal during the therapeutic procedure and are compared with temperature estimates obtained from ultrasound imaging. The results of our study suggest that photoacoustic imaging, augmented by ultrasound imaging, is a viable candidate to guide photoabsorber-enhanced photothermal therapy. PMID:18601569

  4. Photothermal Multi-Pixel Imaging Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Chinn, D J; Huber, R D; Weinzapfel, C L; Wu, Z

    2003-12-01

    Photothermal microscopy is a useful nondestructive tool for the identification of fluence-limiting defects in optical coatings. Traditional photothermal microscopes are single-pixel detection devices. Samples are scanned under the microscope to generate a defect map. For high-resolution images, scan times can be quite long (1 mm{sup 2} per hour). Single-pixel detection has been used traditionally because of the ease in separating the laser-induced topographical change due to defect absorption from the defect surface topography. This is accomplished by using standard chopper and lock-in amplifier techniques to remove the DC signal. Multi-pixel photothermal microscopy is now possible by utilizing an optical lock-in technique. This eliminates the lock-in amplifier and enables the use of a CCD camera with an optical lock in for each pixel. With this technique, the data acquisition speed can be increased by orders of magnitude depending on laser power, beam size, and pixel density.

  5. Photothermal heating of nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Davis, E. James; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale optical materials are of great interest for building future optoelectronic devices for information processing and sensing applications. Although heat transfer ultimately limits the maximum power at which nanoscale devices may operate, gaining a quantitative experimental measurement of photothermal heating within single nanostructures remains a challenge. Here, we measure the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of optically trapped cadmium-sulfide nanoribbons at the level of single nanostructures through observations of their Brownian dynamics during single-beam laser trapping experiments. A general solution to the heat transfer partial differential equation is derived for nanostructures having rectilinear morphology including nanocubes and nanoribbons. Numerical electromagnetic calculations using the discrete-dipole approximation enable the simulation of the photothermal heating source function and the extraction of nonlinear optical absorption coefficients from experimental observations of single nanoribbon dynamics.

  6. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices.

    PubMed

    Pilan, N; Antoni, V; De Lorenzi, A; Chitarin, G; Veltri, P; Sartori, E

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  7. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pilan, N. Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-15

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF{sub 6} instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  8. OTV bearing deflection investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimer, B. L.; Diepenbrock, R. T.; Millis, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Bearing Deflectometer Investigation was to gain experience in the use of fiber optic displacement probe technology for bearing health monitoring in a liquid hydrogen turbo pump. The work specified in this Task Order was conducted in conjunction with Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Contract F04611-86-C-0010. APD conducted the analysis and design coordination to provide a displacement probe design compatible with the XLR-134 liquid hydrogen turbo pump assembly (TPA). Specifications and requirements of the bearing deflectometer were established working with Mechanical Technology Instruments, Inc. (MTI). The TPA design accommodated positioning of the probe to measure outer race cyclic deflections of the pump inlet bearing. The fiber optic sensor was installed as required in the TPA and sensor output was recorded during the TPA testing. Data review indicated that no bearing deflection signature could be differentiated from the inherent system noise. Alternate sensor installations were not investigated, but might yield different results.

  9. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.

  10. Application of photoacoustic, photothermal and fluorescence spectroscopies in signal enhancement and the kinetics, chemistry and photophysics of several dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Isak, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Modified photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies are applied in analytical studies of liquid and solid systems. Quenching of benzophenone by potassium iodide is used to demonstrate application of time resolved photothermal spectroscopies in study of fast (submicrosecond) deexcitation processes. Inherently weak X-ray photoacoustic signals at a synchrotron are enhanced by the introduction of a volatile liquid into a gas-microphone photoacoustic cell. Traditionally, photoacoustic signals have been detected either by gas coupling with a microphone or with a piezoelectric detector. However, optically detected photoacoustic signals have been used in the determination of physical properties of a liquid sample system and are successfully applied to the study of deexcitation processes of a number of dye molecules. Photothermal beam deflection photoacoustic (PBDPA), fluorescence and absorbance measurements are utilized to study the chemistry and photophysics of cresyl violet in aqueous, aqueous micellar and methanolic solutions. A concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of cresyl violet is investigated. Aspects of chemistry and photophysics relating to potential use of several diazo dyes as photothermal sensitizing dyes in photodynamic therapy are explored experimentally and discussed. Photothermal beam deflection, fluorescence and absorbance measurements are again utilized. The dyes are found to have a number of interesting chemical and photophysical properties. They are also determined to be ideal photothermal sensitizing dye candidates.

  11. Evaluation of micromechanical properties of buckled SiO xN y-loaded membranes by combining the Twyman-Green interferometry with nanoindentation and point-wise deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józwik, Michal; Gorecki, Christophe; Sabac, Andrei; Delobelle, Patrick; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2004-05-01

    In view of applications in MOEMS technology, an interferometric technique has been developed for determination of micromechanical properties of PECVD-deposited SiO xN y thin films. By combining the Twyman-Green interferometry with nanoindentation technique, an original "point-wise" deflection method is proposed, particularly appropriated to measure the residual stress in the case of silicon membranes compressively prestressed by SiO xN y deposition. For such SiO xN y membranes, operating at the first mode of buckling, the nonindentation permits the extraction of Young's modulus and interferometry measures the out-of-plan displacements, respectively. The proposed point-wise deflection technique combines both the interferometric and Young's modulus data, giving the access to the distribution of residual stress versus the optical quality of SiO xN y films. The residual stress is monitored as a function of the refractive index of SiO xN y, establishing the relationship between the optical and micromechanical properties of deposited thin films. High measuring accuracy and resolution have been demonstrated, allowing measurements to be used to enhance PECVD process control

  12. Photothermal degradation studies of encapsulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability physics program at JPL is outlined. The overall objectives and approaches are given in the program. The objectives, approaches and conclusions are given for two specific parts of the programs. These two parts are mechanistic studies of photothermal degradation and performance characteristics of materials with respect to photothermal stresses.

  13. Photothermal inactivation of bacteria on plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Greggy M.; Ibañez de Santi Ferrara, Felipe; Zhao, Fusheng; Rodrigues, Debora F.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Hospital-acquired bacterial infections are frequently associated with the pathogenic biofilms on surfaces of devices and instruments used in medical procedures. The utilization of thermal plasmonic agents is an innovative approach for sterilizing hospital equipment and for in vivo therapeutic treatment of bacterial infection. A photothermal inactivation technique via array of nanoporous gold disks (NPGDs) has been developed by irradiating near infrared (NIR) light onto deposited bacterial cells (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Exiguobacterium AT1B) on the surface of metal nanostructure. The physical and photothermal properties of the NPGD substrate were investigated using topographical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermographic infrared imaging. Bacterial viability studies on NPGD substrates irradiated with and without NIR light were evaluated using a fluorescence-based two-component stain assay. The results show that the heat generated from the NPGD substrate promotes high cell death counts (~100%) at short exposure durations (<25 s) even for thermally-resistant bacterial strains. The photothermal effects on NPGD substrate can lead to point-of-care applications.

  14. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  15. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 ..mu..m were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO/sub 2/ laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m/sup 2//g at 1087 cm/sup -1/. The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -1/. The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations.

  16. A novel modeling and simulation technique of photo--thermal interactions between lasers and living biological tissues undergoing multiple changes in phase.

    PubMed

    Dua, Rajan; Chakraborty, Suman

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of heat transfer in biological bodies has many therapeutic applications involving either raising or lowering of temperature, and often requires precise monitoring of the spatial distribution of thermal histories that are produced during a treatment protocol. Extremes of temperature into the freezing and burning ranges are useful in surgical procedures for selective killing and/or removal of target tissues. For example, the primary objective of hyperthermia is to raise the temperature of the diseased tissue to a therapeutic value, typically 41- 44 degrees C, and then thermally destroy it. The present paper therefore aims to develop a mathematical model for effective simulation of photo--thermal interactions between laser rays and biological tissues. In particular, damage of biological tissues when subjected to single point laser diathermy is numerically investigated using a unique enthalpy-based approach for modeling multiple phase change, (namely, melting of fat and vaporization of water content of the tissues) and the associated release/absorption of latent heat in conjunction with unsteady state heat conduction mechanisms. The governing equations of bio-heat transfer coupled with initial and boundary conditions are solved using a finite volume approach in conjunction with line by a line tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) solver. Temperature responses of tissues subject to laser heating are quantitatively investigated in detail using the present model, and the resultant solutions are expected to be immensely useful in a variety of Bio-thermal practices in medicine and surgery.

  17. A cryostatic setup for the low-temperature measurement of thermal diffusivity with the photothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolotti, M. ||; Liakhou, G.; Li Voti, R.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C. ||; Sparvieri, N.

    1995-12-01

    A cryostatic setup is described to perform photothermal deflection measurements from room temperature to 77 K. The setup uses gaseous nitrogen as a medium where the photodeflection is produced. The ability of the system to work is demonstrated presenting some measurements of thermal diffusivity of high-temperature superconductor samples and of yttrium-iron garnets with variable aluminum content. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  18. Advances in photo-thermal infrared imaging microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Chris; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing need for chemical imaging techniques in many fields of science and technology: forensics, materials science, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, just to name a few. While FTIR micro-spectroscopy is commonly used, its practical resolution limit of about 20 microns or more is often insufficient. Raman micro-spectroscopy provides better spatial resolution (~1 micron), but is not always practical because of samples exhibiting fluorescence or low Raman scattering efficiency. We are developing a non-contact and non-destructive technique we call photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). It involves photo-thermal heating of the sample with a tunable quantum cascade laser and measuring the resulting increase in thermal emission with an infrared detector. Photo-thermal emission spectra resemble FTIR absorbance spectra and can be acquired in both stand-off and microscopy configurations. Furthermore, PT-IRIS allows the acquisition of absorbance-like photo-thermal spectra in a reflected geometry, suitable for field applications and for in-situ study of samples on optically IR-opaque substrates (metals, fabrics, paint, glass etc.). Conventional FTIR microscopes in reflection mode measure the reflectance spectra which are different from absorbance spectra and are usually not catalogued in FTIR spectral libraries. In this paper, we continue developing this new technique. We perform a series of numerical simulations of the laser heating of samples during photo-thermal microscopy. We develop parameterized formulas to help the user pick the appropriate laser illumination power. We also examine the influence of sample geometry on spectral signatures. Finally, we measure and compare photo-thermal and reflectance spectra for two test samples.

  19. Enhanced photothermal cooling of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, G.; Hosseini, M.; Mirzaei, A.; Slatyer, H. J.; Buchler, B. C.; Lam, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the optomechanical interaction between light and metallic nanowires through the action of bolometric forces. We show that the response time of the photothermal forces induced on the nanowire is fast and the strength of the interaction can overcome the radiation pressure force. Furthermore, we suggest the photothermal forces can be enhanced by surface plasmon excitation to cool the sub-megahertz vibrational modes of the nanowires close to its quantum limit.

  20. Coating urchinlike gold nanoparticles with polypyrrole thin shells to produce photothermal agents with high stability and photothermal transduction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Han, Jishu; Xu, Tianshu; Guo, Changrun; Bu, Xinyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Liping; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2013-06-11

    Photothermal therapy using inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is a promising technique for the selective treatment of tumor cells because of their capability to convert the absorbed radiation into heat energy. Although anisotropic gold (Au) NPs present an excellent photothermal effect, the poor structural stability during storage and/or upon laser irradiation still limits their practical application as efficient photothermal agents. With the aim of improving the stability, in this work we adopted biocompatible polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell material for coating urchinlike Au NPs. The experimental results indicate that a several nanometer PPy shell is enough to maintain the structural stability of NPs. In comparison to the bare NPs, PPy-coated NPs exhibit improved structural stability toward storage, heat, pH, and laser irradiation. In addition, the thin shell of PPy also enhances the photothermal transduction efficiency (η) of PPy-coated Au NPs, resulting from the absorption of PPy in the red and near-infrared (NIR) regions. For example, the PPy-coated Au NPs with an Au core diameter of 120 nm and a PPy shell of 6.0 nm exhibit an η of 24.0% at 808 nm, which is much higher than that of bare Au NPs (η = 11.0%). As a primary attempt at photothermal therapy, the PPy-coated Au NPs with a 6.0 nm PPy shell exhibit an 80% death rate of Hela cells under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation.

  1. Photothermal imaging of moving cells in lymph and blood flow in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-07-01

    The in vivo capabilities of a new, integrated optical system for studying lymph and blood flow were explored, including imaging of moving red and white blood cells. This system combined transmission microscopy with different dual-beam photothermal (PT) techniques, such as PT imaging, PT thermolens method, and PT deflection velocimetry. All of these PT techniques are based on irradiation of rat mesenteric microvessels with a short laser pulse and on detection of temperature-dependent variations of the refractive index with a second, probe laser beam. In general, the concept of in vivo PT flow cytometry was developed, with a focus on real-time monitoring of moving blood cells in their natural states without labeling (e.g., fluorescent), including obtaining PT images of the cells and determining their flow velocity and response to different interventions. Preliminary experiments revealed many potential applications of this integrated system: (1) quantitation of lymph and blood flow without probes; (2) imaging of moving red and white blood cells; (3) visualization and tracking of PT nanoprobes and sensitizers; (4) comparison of laser-tissue interactions in vivo and in vitro, especially optimization of laser treatment of vascular lesions (port-wine stains, lymphatic malformations, etc.); and (5) determination of the link between in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity studies.

  2. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  3. Large beam deflection using cascaded prism array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi-Leung

    2012-04-01

    Endoscopes have been utilize in the medical field to observe the internals of the human body to assist the diagnosis of diseases, such as breathing disorders, internal bleeding, stomach ulcers, and urinary tract infections. Endoscopy is also utilized in the procedure of biopsy for the diagnosis of cancer. Conventional endoscopes suffer from the compromise between overall size and image quality due to the required size of the sensor for acceptable image quality. To overcome the size constraint while maintaining the capture image quality, we propose an electro-optic beam steering device based on thermal-plastic polymer, which has a small foot-print (~5mmx5mm), and can be easily fabricated using conventional hot-embossing and micro-fabrication techniques. The proposed device can be implemented as an imaging device inside endoscopes to allow reduction in the overall system size. In our previous work, a single prism design has been used to amplify the deflection generated by the index change of the thermal-plastic polymer when a voltage is applied; it yields a result of 5.6° deflection. To further amplify the deflection, a new design utilizing a cascading three-prism array has been implemented and a deflection angle to 29.2° is observed. The new design amplifies the beam deflection, while keeping the advantage of simple fabrication made possible by thermal-plastic polymer. Also, a photo-resist based collimator lens array has been added to reduce and provide collimation of the beam for high quality imaging purposes. The collimator is able to collimate the exiting beam at 4 μm diameter for up to 25mm, which potentially allows high resolution image capturing.

  4. Mid-infrared photothermal heterodyne spectroscopy in a liquid crystal using a quantum cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    Mërtiri, Alket; Jeys, Thomas; Liberman, Vladimir; Hong, M. K.; Mertz, Jerome; Altug, Hatice; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2012-01-01

    We report a technique to measure the mid-infrared photothermal response induced by a tunable quantum cascade laser in the neat liquid crystal 4-octyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl (8CB), without any intercalated dye. Heterodyne detection using a Ti:sapphire laser of the response in the solid, smectic, nematic and isotropic liquid crystal phases allows direct detection of a weak mid-infrared normal mode absorption using an inexpensive photodetector. At high pump power in the nematic phase, we observe an interesting peak splitting in the photothermal response. Tunable lasers that can access still stronger modes will facilitate photothermal heterodyne mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:22912508

  5. [Monitoring interfacial dynamics by pulsed laser techniques]. [Annual report, August 1, 1988--July 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, G.

    1989-12-31

    Goal is the development and application of new optical methods to the study of dynamic processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The technique which was primarily focused on was second harmonic generation (SHG) because of its suitability for probing buried interfaces. A photothermal deflection spectroscopy station was also built for broad band study of the absorptivity of the interface. Dynamic processes initiated by either a fast potential step or a fast photoexcitation pulse was investigated. In the first case, metal/aqueous electrode systems were studied by time-resolved SHG. In the second, several photoactive materials of interest for solar energy devices were studied.

  6. Ultrasensitive Beam Deflection Measurement via Interferometric Weak Value Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Starling, David J.; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the use of an interferometric weak value technique to amplify very small transverse deflections of an optical beam. By entangling the beam's transverse degrees of freedom with the which-path states of a Sagnac interferometer, it is possible to realize an optical amplifier for polarization independent deflections. The theory for the interferometric weak value amplification method is presented along with the experimental results, which are in good agreement. Of particular interest, we measured the angular deflection of a mirror down to 400{+-}200 frad and the linear travel of a piezo actuator down to 14{+-}7 fm.

  7. Biopolymer-Drug Conjugate Nanotheranostics for Multimodal Imaging-Guided Synergistic Cancer Photothermal-Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Du, Chang; Qian, Jiwen; Zhou, Linzhu; Su, Yue; Zhang, Rong; Dong, Chang-Ming

    2017-09-20

    Some of the biomedical polymer-drug conjugates are being translated into clinical trials; however, they intrinsically lack photothermal and multi-imaging capabilities, hindering them from imaging-guided precision cancer therapy and complete tumor regression. We introduce a new concept of all-in-one biopolymer-drug conjugate nanotheranostics and prepare a kind of intracellular pH-sensitive polydopamine-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugate nanoparticles (PDCNs) under mild conditions. Significantly, this strategy integrates polymeric prodrug-induced chemotherapy (CT), near-infrared (NIR) light-mediated photothermal therapy (PT), and triple modalities including DOX self-fluorescence, photothermal, and photoacoustic (PA) imaging into one conjugate nanoparticle. The PDCNs present excellent photothermal property, dual stimuli-triggered drug release behavior, and about 12.4-fold blood circulation time compared to free DOX. Small animal fluorescent imaging technique confirms that PDCNs have preferential tumor accumulation effect in vivo, giving a 12.8-fold DOX higher than the control at 12 h postinjection. Upon NIR laser irradiation (5 min, 808 nm, and 2 W·cm(-2)), the PDCN-mediated photothermal effect can quickly elevate the tumor over 50 °C, exhibiting good photothermal and PA imaging functions, of which the PA amplitude is 3.6-fold greater than the control. In vitro and in vivo assays persuasively verify that intravenous photothermal-CT of PDCNs produces synergistic antitumor activity compared to single PT or CT, achieving complete tumor ablation during the evaluation period.

  8. Theory of optical beam deflection for single microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Kitamori, Takehiko; Sawada, Tsuguo

    1991-05-01

    A theory was developed for the optical beam deflection (OBD) signal generated from a single microparticle. From the thermal-diffusion equations, the temperature fields inside and outside the microparticle, which has a two-layer structure, was deduced. A three-dimensional theoretical treatment was established for the deflection signal of the probe beam passing through the temperature field formed by photothermal conversion of the excitation beam energy absorbed by the sample. The proprieties of the theoretical model and its results were confirmed by comparing the theoretical values of the frequency characteristics, probe beam offset dependencies, and particle size dependencies of the OBD signal with the experimental ones for 25-300-μm-radius microparticles. From the theory, the unique particle size dependencies and frequency characteristics of the OBD method for the single microparticle, i.e., higher sensitivity for smaller particles and at high frequencies, were identified as due to the microparticle surface curvature. The optimal experimental conditions in the OBD measurement of the single microparticle were also obtained using theoretical analysis.

  9. Controlled temperature photothermal tissue welding.

    PubMed

    C Ilesiz, I

    1999-07-01

    Photothermal tissue welding has been investigated as an alternative surgical tool to improve bonding of a variety of severed tissues. Yet, after almost two decades of research, inconsistencies in interpretation of experimental reports and, consequently, mechanism of this photothermal process as well as control of dosimetry remain an enigma. Widespread clinical use may greatly depend on full automation of light dosimetry to perform durable and reproducible welds with minimal thermal damage to surrounding and/or underlying tissues. Recognizing photothermal damage as a rate process, radiometrically measured tissue surface temperature has been studied as an indirect marker of tissue status during laser irradiation. Dosimetry control systems and surgical devices were developed to perform controlled temperature tissue welding using surface temperature feedback from the site of laser impact. Nevertheless, end points that mark the completion of a durable and stable weld have not been precisely identified, and subsequently, not incorporated into dosimetry control algorithms. This manuscript reviews thermal dosimetry control systems of the 1990s in an attempt to systematically indicate the difficulties encountered so far and to elaborate on major issues for photothermal tissue welding to become a clinical reality in the new millennium. © 1999 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  10. Collagen remodeling in photo-thermal damaged skin with optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shu-lian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-man; Yu, Lili

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous photo-thermal damage is the common damages in clinical medicine; it is a complex and dynamic process that follows an orderly sequence of events. The sequence can be roughly divided into three distinct, yet sequentially overlapping phases-inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. Characteristic structural changes associated with each phase could provide a basis for photo-thermal damage assessment with imaging technologies. Monitoring the skin tissue response during the skin after irradiated by laser and tracing the process of skin remodeling would help to understand the mechanism of photo-thermal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging were used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in mouse dermis photo-thermal injured which after irradiated by intense pulsed light source (IPLs) in this paper. Our finding showed that the OCT and MPM techniques can image the process of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis.

  11. Recent improvements in PDS technique for low-absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montecchi, Marco; Masetti, Enrico; Emiliani, Gabriele

    1990-08-01

    Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is a recently developed technique that is finding a useful application in the measurement of low optical absorptance of thin films. Among the noise sources affecting the PDS measurement, probe beam pointing instability and mechanical vibration play a considerable role. In this work an optoelectronic system for the reduction of their influence is described. Moreover, PDS measurements are typically performed keeping the sample immersed in a deflecting liquid; thus measured values of absorptance must be corrected when other surrounding media, as air, are considered. This correction is an easy task for single film coatings. Here the general case of an unknown multiplayer coating is analysed; a range of values containing the true absorptance in air is obtained by theoretical analysis and a practical method to evaluate the absorptance in air is discussed. Finally, deflecting liquids alternative to the commonly used CCI4 have been examined. Useful optical range, thermal diffusivity and "relative deflecting power" of CCI4, CS2, Iso-octane and Aceton are reported.

  12. Benchmarking Asteroid-Deflection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Tane; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, John Michael; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-10-01

    An asteroid impacting Earth could have devastating consequences. In preparation to deflect or disrupt one before it reaches Earth, it is imperative to have modeling capabilities that adequately simulate the deflection actions. Code validation is key to ensuring full confidence in simulation results used in an asteroid-mitigation plan. We are benchmarking well-known impact experiments using Spheral, an adaptive smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code, to validate our modeling of asteroid deflection. We describe our simulation results, compare them with experimental data, and discuss what we have learned from our work. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-695540

  13. Localized photothermal infrared spectroscopy using a proximal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozec, L.; Hammiche, A.; Pollock, H. M.; Conroy, M.; Chalmers, J. M.; Everall, N. J.; Turin, L.

    2001-11-01

    A near-field thermal probe, as used in scanning thermal microscopy, is used to obtain photothermal Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of polymers, as a first step toward developing FT-IR microscopy at a spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit. The signal from the probe after amplification provides an interferogram, and the resultant spectra are consistent with those obtained by means of the established technique of attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy. We have extended this technique to the analysis of "real-world" industrial samples, both solid (a fungicide in a fine powder form) and liquid (a concentrated surfactant solution). The overall shapes of the main peaks or bands reflect the fact that the spectrum is a convolution of different contributions from both optical and thermal properties. To confirm the feasibility of subsurface detection of polymers, we demonstrate the ability of the technique to perform spectroscopic detection of a model polymeric bilayer system, polyisobutylene on top of polystyrene. A quantitative analysis of the variation of peak height with coating thickness allows values of thermal diffusion length to be derived. This investigation provides a preliminary result for the understanding of the depth sensitivity of the current setup. Relative intensity distortions are seen, and are attributed to photothermal saturation. A complementary technique has been developed that uses tunable monochromatic radiation, using an optical parametric generator as the infrared source. Spectra have successfully been obtained using the same localized photothermal detection principle.

  14. Calibration of a thin metal foil for infrared imaging video bolometer to estimate the spatial variation of thermal diffusivity using a photo-thermal technique.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Shwetang N; Peterson, Byron J; Sano, Ryuichi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Drapiko, Evgeny A; Alekseyev, Andrey G; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Itomi, Muneji; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5-3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.

  15. Calibration of a thin metal foil for infrared imaging video bolometer to estimate the spatial variation of thermal diffusivity using a photo-thermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Shwetang N. Sano, Ryuichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Drapiko, Evgeny A.; Alekseyev, Andrey G.; Itomi, Muneji

    2014-05-15

    A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5–3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.

  16. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo "programmed cell death," or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  17. Highly Selective Photothermal Therapy by a Phenoxylated-Dextran-Functionalized Smart Carbon Nanotube Platform.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungmin; Kwon, Taeyun; Um, Jo-Eun; Haam, Seungjoo; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy using biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is advantageous because as-produced SWNTs, without additional size control, both efficiently absorb NIR light and demonstrate high photothermal conversion efficiency. In addition, covalent attachment of receptor molecules to SWNTs can be used to specifically target infected cells. However, this technique interrupts SWNT optical properties and inevitably lowers photothermal conversion efficiency and thus remains major hurdle for SWNT applications. This paper presents a smart-targeting photothermal therapy platform for inflammatory disease using newly developed phenoxylated-dextran-functionalized SWNTs. Phenoxylated dextran is biocompatible and efficiently suspends SWNTs by noncovalent π-π stacking, thereby minimizing SWNT bundle formations and maintaining original SWNT optical properties. Furthermore, it selectively targets inflammatory macrophages by scavenger-receptor binding without any additional receptor molecules; therefore, its preparation is a simple one-step process. Herein, it is experimentally demonstrated that phenoxylated dextran-SWNTs (pD-SWNTs) are also biocompatible, selectively penetrate inflammatory macrophages over normal cells, and exhibit high photothermal conversion efficiency. Consequently, NIR laser-triggered macrophage treatment can be achieved with high accuracy by pD-SWNT without damaging receptor-free cells. These smart targeting materials can be a novel photothermal agent candidate for inflammatory disease.

  18. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  19. Highly depth-resolved chirped pulse photothermal radar for bone diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    A novel chirped pulse photothermal (PT) radiometric radar with improved sensitivity over the conventional harmonically modulated thermal-wave radar technique and alternative pulsed laser photothermal radiometry is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant-width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ~2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat-bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution <1 mm in turbid biological media.

  20. Ultra-sensitive chemical vapor detection using micro-cavity photothermal spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juejun

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, I systematically investigated Micro-Cavity PhotoThermal Spectroscopy (MC-PTS), a novel technique for ultra-sensitive detection of chemical molecular species. I first derive the photothermal enhancement factor and noise characteristics of the technique using a generic theoretical model, followed by numerical analysis of a design example using chalcogenide glass micro-disk cavities. Guidelines for sensor material selection and device design are formulated based on the theoretical insight. The numerical analysis shows that this technique features a record photothermal enhancement factor of 10(4) with respect to conventional cavity-enhanced (multi-pass) infrared absorption spectroscopy, and is capable of detecting non-preconcentrated chemical vapor molecules down to the ppt level with a moderate cavity quality factor of 10(5) and a pump laser power of 0.1 W. Such performance qualifies this technique as one of the most sensitive methods for chemical vapor spectroscopic analysis.

  1. Photothermal Analysis of Thin Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-10

    81-C-0418 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK International Business Machines Corp. AREA & wORK UNIT NUMBERS...different from Report) ____ __DTIC Is. SUPPLEMENTARY rES L 1a To be published in Chemical Physics 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it neceesa...and identify by mock number) Photothermal Analysis, Depth Profiling Q 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an revere side It necessary and Identify by block number

  2. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  3. Simulation of morphologically structured photo-thermal neural stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissler, Y.; Farah, N.; Shoham, S.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Rational design of next-generation techniques for photo-thermal excitation requires the development of tools capable of modeling the effects of spatially- and temporally-dependent temperature distribution on cellular neuronal structures. Approach. We present a new computer simulation tool for predicting the effects of arbitrary spatiotemporally-structured photo-thermal stimulation on 3D, morphologically realistic neurons. The new simulation tool is based on interfacing two generic platforms, NEURON and MATLAB and is therefore suited for capturing different kinds of stimuli and neural models. Main results. Simulation results are validated using photo-absorber induced neuro-thermal stimulation (PAINTS) empirical results, and advanced features are explored. Significance. The new simulation tool could have an important role in understanding and investigating complex optical stimulation at the single-cell and network levels.

  4. The Seven Habits of Highly Deflective Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michelle; Chaddock, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The authors define deflection as a strategy to bounce action or responsibility away from oneself and toward another person, time, or place. Although they contend that deflection occurs in all areas of personal and professional life, the authors limit their focus to the deflective colleague ("collega deflectivus") in academe. In this article, the…

  5. Optical Measurement Of Propfan Deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.; Meyn, Erwin H.; Mehmed, Oral; Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1994-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures deflections of rotating propfan. In addition to 0.5-mW HeNe lasers, system includes Schottky-barrier photodetectors, neutral-density filters, signal amplifiers, output-signal-recording device, and digitizer. Laser beam passes through plane of rotation of propfan blades. Beam is one of three that measure displacements at different blade sections. Additional laser beam at bottom generates shaft-rotation timing signal.

  6. Porous Pt Nanoparticles with High Near-Infrared Photothermal Conversion Efficiencies for Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Hong-Ye; Jia, Henglei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Jianfang

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures are of potential in acting as a type of optical agents for cancer photothermal therapy. To effectively function as photothermal therapy agents, plasmonic nanostructures are strongly desired to have good biocompatibility and high photothermal conversion efficiencies. In this study, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated porous Pt nanoparticles are synthesized for photothermal therapy. The Pt nanoparticles possess broadband near-infrared light absorption in the range from 650 to 1200 nm, therefore allowing for selecting different laser wavelengths for photothermal therapy. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles exhibit remarkable photothermal conversion efficiencies under 809 and 980 nm laser irradiation. In vitro studies indicate that the Pt nanoparticles display good biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiencies through an endocytosis pathway. Photothermal heating using 808 nm laser irradiation (>7.0 W cm(-2) , 3 min) leads to notable cytotoxic effect, and more than 70% of cells are photothermally ablated after 3 min irradiation at 8.4 W cm(-2) . Furthermore, simultaneous application of photothermal therapy synergistically enhances the cytotoxicity of an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin. Therefore, the porous Pt nanoparticles have great potential as an attractive photothermal agent for cancer therapy.

  7. High reflector absorptance measurements by the surface thermal lensing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Krupka, R.; Yang, T.

    1996-11-01

    Surface thermal lensing is an alternate configuration of a photothermal deflection system that was used to measure low levels of optical absorption. The thermal lensing configuration facilitated the alignment of the pump and probe laser beams by using a larger diameter probe beam. This technique was applied to high performance optical coatings, specifically high reflectors at 511 nm, zero degrees angle of incidence. The absorptance of these coatings was previously measured using a high power copper vapor laser system. A high power copper laser beam is focused onto a -2 mm diameter spot. A thermal camera senses the temperature rise with respect to the rest of the coating. The temperature change, power density and beam diameter were used with an empirical formula that yields optical absorption. The surface thermal lensing technique was able to resolve absorption levels lower than that achieved with the copper laser method.

  8. Optimum vibrating beams with stress and deflection constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental frequency of vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli or a Timoshenko beam of a specified constant volume is maximized subject to the constraint that under a prescribed loading the maximum stress or maximum deflection at any point along the beam axis will not exceed a specified value. In contrast with the inequality constraint which controls the minimum cross-section, the present inequality constraints lead to more meaningful designs. The inequality constraint on stresses is as easily implemented as the minimum cross-section constraint but the inequality constraint on deflection uses a treatment which is an extension of the matrix partitioning technique of prescribing displacements in finite element analysis.

  9. Alignment of gold nanorods by angular photothermal depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Adam B.; Chow, Timothy T. Y.; Chon, James W. M.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a high degree of alignment can be imposed upon randomly oriented gold nanorod films by angular photothermal depletion with linearly polarized laser irradiation. The photothermal reshaping of gold nanorods is observed to follow quadratic melting model rather than the threshold melting model, which distorts the angular and spectral hole created on 2D distribution map of nanorods to be an open crater shape. We have accounted these observations to the alignment procedures and demonstrated good agreement between experiment and simulations. The use of multiple laser depletion wavelengths allowed alignment criteria over a large range of aspect ratios, achieving 80% of the rods in the target angular range. We extend the technique to demonstrate post-alignment in a multilayer of randomly oriented gold nanorod films, with arbitrary control of alignment shown across the layers. Photothermal angular depletion alignment of gold nanorods is a simple, promising post-alignment method for creating future 3D or multilayer plasmonic nanorod based devices and structures.

  10. Alignment of gold nanorods by angular photothermal depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Adam B.; Chow, Timothy T. Y.; Chon, James W. M.

    2014-02-24

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a high degree of alignment can be imposed upon randomly oriented gold nanorod films by angular photothermal depletion with linearly polarized laser irradiation. The photothermal reshaping of gold nanorods is observed to follow quadratic melting model rather than the threshold melting model, which distorts the angular and spectral hole created on 2D distribution map of nanorods to be an open crater shape. We have accounted these observations to the alignment procedures and demonstrated good agreement between experiment and simulations. The use of multiple laser depletion wavelengths allowed alignment criteria over a large range of aspect ratios, achieving 80% of the rods in the target angular range. We extend the technique to demonstrate post-alignment in a multilayer of randomly oriented gold nanorod films, with arbitrary control of alignment shown across the layers. Photothermal angular depletion alignment of gold nanorods is a simple, promising post-alignment method for creating future 3D or multilayer plasmonic nanorod based devices and structures.

  11. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Rivkin, A.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Reed, C.

    2012-10-01

    Near Earth objects are small bodies orbiting the Sun near Earth’s orbit, some of which impact the Earth. The impact of an object as large as 30 m in diameter occurs every few centuries. The impact of such an object would already release an energy of at least a megaton of TNT, and the impact of a larger object, which would occur less often, would be even more hazardous. To protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is such an asteroid mitigation mission concept. This mission would be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid’s strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART study is coordinated with an ESA study of an Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which would rendezvous with the same target. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, with ground-based observations to measure the deflection as well as additional spacecraft observations from AIM. Low cost mission approaches will be presented.

  12. Infrared Photothermal Radiometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-10

    changes whenever the transmitted thermal wave crosses a void. This provides a means of nondestructive subsurface imaging of defects, and Busse found that...15 In the flash excitation, the excitation beam is modulated by a broad spectrum of Fourier modulation frequencies. In all cases of subsurface imaging , the...technique of Nordal and Kanstad 2 1t 23 is not only good for spectroscopic detection, but also for subsurface imaging applications as well. 2.4 Pulsed

  13. Thermal diffusivity measurements in porous ceramics by photothermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Salazar, A.; Ocariz, A.; Pottier, L.; Gomez, E.; Villar, L. M.; Macho, E.

    We present a study of the use of photothermal methods to measure the thermal diffusivity of porous ceramic materials as an alternative to other conventional methods. Specifically, we discuss the use of three modulated techniques - thermoreflectance, IR radiometry, and the mirage effect - as complementary tools. Measurements of `local' and `global' thermal diffusivity are presented for a set of SiC samples of various porosities. In particular, the thermal diffusivity of three samples of SiC of different porosities is measured (by the mirage technique) as a function of temperature in the range from ambient to 1000 K.

  14. Photothermal analysis of polymeric dye laser materials excited at different pump rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchowic, Ricardo; Scaffardi, Lucía B.; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Sastre, Roberto; Acun~A, Alberto Ulises

    2003-02-01

    The photothermal properties and heat diffusion of polymeric lasers, made up from solutions of Rhodamine 6G in solid matrices of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with different amounts of the cross-linking monomer ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate have been studied through photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The heat load that is due to the pumping process was quantified as a function of the pump excitation repetition frequency (0.25-10 Hz), determining the time-dependent temperature changes at different locations within the laser matrix. A theoretical model, which reproduces these changes with high accuracy, was developed on the basis of the heat-diffusion equation of optically dense fluids. The observed thermal effects became important for impairing the laser stability at pump repetition frequencies higher than 1 Hz. In addition, the irreversible optical changes produced in the laser matrices at high pump fluence values (>1 J/cm2) were also analyzed. These effects originate, most likely, from a two-step photothermal mechanism.

  15. Photothermal degradation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Key reaction intermediates of photooxidation identified and characterized by laser flash Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were discussed. Effects of temperature and ultraviolet intensity were studied in order to develop meaningful accelerated testing procedures for encapsulant evaluation. In a program to study the failure of Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/stainless steel modules, failure modes similar to those observed outdoors in real-time conditions were simulated in accelerated testing. An experimental technique was developed to quantitatively assess the extent of degradation.

  16. Middle Infrared Spectral Studies of Geologic Materials in Their Natural State Using Photothermal Beam Deflection Spectroscopy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Kimberlite So. Africa M. Kingston Altered igneous Cuprite Mining Dist., NEV M. Kingston Goldfield Mining Dist, NFV Alunite Nevada K~. Kingston Lichen...band centered between 9 and 10 microns; a band near 6 microns is due to water. The upper spectrum in Fig. 6 is that of a kimberlite sample from South

  17. Photo-thermal deflection and electrical switching studies on Ge Te I chalcohalide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Pulok; Manikandan, N.; Paulraj, M.; Asokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements on thermal diffusivity (α) and electrical switching studies have been undertaken on bulk, melt-quenched Ge22Te78-xIx (3<=x<=10) chalcohalide glasses. The thermal diffusivity values of Ge22Te78-xIx glasses lie in the range 0.09-0.02 cm2 s-1, and are found to decrease with increase in iodine content. The variation of α with composition has been understood on the basis of fragmentation of the Ge-Te network with the addition of iodine. The composition x = 5 (\\overline {r_{\\mathrm {c}} }=2.39 ), at which a cusp is seen in the composition dependence of thermal diffusivity, has been identified to be the inverse rigidity percolation threshold of the Ge22Te78-xIx system at which the network connectivity is completely lost. Further, Ge22Te78-xIx glasses are found to exhibit memory-type electrical switching. At lower iodine concentrations, a decrease is seen in switching voltages with an increase in iodine content, in comparison with the switching voltage of the Ge22Te78 base glass. The observed initial decrease in the switching voltages with the addition of iodine is due to the decrease in network connectivity. An increase is seen in switching voltages of Ge22Te78-xIx glasses at higher iodine contents, which suggests the domination of the metallicity factor of the additive atoms on the switching voltages at higher iodine proportions. It is also interesting to note that the composition dependence of the threshold voltages shows a slope change at x = 5, the inverse rigidity percolation threshold of the Ge22Te78-xIx system.

  18. Apparatus to measure adsorption of condensable solvents on technical surfaces by photothermal deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimmer, M. D.; du Colombier, D.; Iraqi Houssaini, N.; Silvestri, Z.; Pinot, P.; Hannachi, R.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes an instrument for the measurement of the mirage effect as a tool to determine the molar adsorption per unit surface area Y1 of condensable solvents in the presence of a non-condensable carrier gas. The present apparatus is a much improved version of previous prototypes developed in our laboratory and elsewhere with a higher surface bake-out temperature (150 °C rather than 40 °C), lower residual vacuum (3 Pa versus 100 Pa), greater sample surface (40 mm diameter instead of 10 mm), more powerful optical pump beam (150 W cf. 50 W), and larger saturated vapour preparation volume (4 L instead of 1 L). The new set-up also includes the in situ monitoring of the surface via a reflected HeNe laser beam for the real-time detection of the onset of condensation. Here, we give a detailed description of the various components, outline the experimental procedure, show typical results, and suggest some straightforward improvements.

  19. Apparatus to measure adsorption of condensable solvents on technical surfaces by photothermal deflection.

    PubMed

    Plimmer, M D; du Colombier, D; Iraqi Houssaini, N; Silvestri, Z; Pinot, P; Hannachi, R

    2012-11-01

    This article describes an instrument for the measurement of the mirage effect as a tool to determine the molar adsorption per unit surface area Y(1) of condensable solvents in the presence of a non-condensable carrier gas. The present apparatus is a much improved version of previous prototypes developed in our laboratory and elsewhere with a higher surface bake-out temperature (150 °C rather than 40 °C), lower residual vacuum (3 Pa versus 100 Pa), greater sample surface (40 mm diameter instead of 10 mm), more powerful optical pump beam (150 W cf. 50 W), and larger saturated vapour preparation volume (4 L instead of 1 L). The new set-up also includes the in situ monitoring of the surface via a reflected HeNe laser beam for the real-time detection of the onset of condensation. Here, we give a detailed description of the various components, outline the experimental procedure, show typical results, and suggest some straightforward improvements.

  20. Laser induced absorption at 355nm in silica studied by calorimetry and photothermal deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Dijon, J.; Van Oost, E.; Pelle, C.; Lyan, P.

    1996-12-31

    Laser calorimetry is used to measure low losses of optical samples on the third harmonic of a YAG laser. During the experiments, degradation of bare SiO2 substrate was observed. This degradation consists of an absorption increasing with the laser pulse number. The observed evolution depends on the kind of silica tested and particularly on the OH content of the material. The observed evolution required both changes in the electron content of the existing traps and the creation of new traps or color centers. Using an Argon laser at 351 nm, relaxation of YAG induced absorption was observed. This point enables an evolution mechanism to be proposed related to charge modification of the existing traps and to a multiphoton absorption process during the YAG irradiation.

  1. Mechanistic interpretation of nondestructive pavement testing deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. S.

    1980-06-01

    A method is proposed for the backcalculation of material properties in flexible pavements based on the interpretation of surface deflection measurements. ILLI-PAVE, a stress dependent finite element pavement model, was used to generate data for developing algorithms and nomographs for deflection basin interpretation. Over 11,000 deflection measurements for 24 different flexible pavement sections were collected and analyzed. Deflections were measured using the Benkelman Beam, the IDOT Road Rater, the Falling Weight Deflectometer, and an accelerometer to measure deflections under moving trucks. Loading mode effects on pavement response were investigated using dynamic and viscous pavement models. The factors controlling the pavement response to different loading modes were explained and identified. Correlations between different devices were developed. The proposed evaluation procedure is illustrated for three different flexible pavements using deflection data collected on several testing dates.

  2. Photothermal characterization of encapsulant materials for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Gupta, A.; Distefano, S.

    1982-01-01

    A photothermal test matrix and a low cost testing apparatus for encapsulant materials of photovoltaic modules were defined. Photothermal studies were conducted to screen and rank existing as well as future encapsulant candidate materials and/or material formulations in terms of their long term physiochemical stability under accelerated photothermal aging conditions. Photothermal characterization of six candidate pottant materials and six candidate outer cover materials were carried out. Principal products of photothermal degradation are identified. Certain critical properties are also monitored as a function of photothermal aging.

  3. Measurement of Deflection Line on Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Rudolf; Štroner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Prestressed concrete bridges are very sensitive to the increase in long-term deflections. Reliable forecasts of deflections of bridge structures during construction and durability are crucial for achieving good durability. The main results of measurements are the changes of the deflection line of the bridge structures, which places special demands on the measurement procedure. Results from measurements are very useful for the improvement of mathematical prediction methods of behaviour of long span prestressed concrete structures.

  4. Photothermal speckle modulation for noncontact materials characterization.

    PubMed

    Stolyarov, Alexander M; Sullenberger, Ryan M; Crompton, David R; Jeys, Thomas H; Saar, Brian G; Herzog, William D

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a noncontact, photothermal materials characterization method based on visible-light speckle imaging. This technique is applied to remotely measure the infrared absorption spectra of materials and to discriminate materials based on their thermal conductivities. A wavelength-tunable (7.5-8.7 μm), intensity-modulated, quantum cascade pump laser and a continuous-wave 532 nm probe laser illuminate a sample surface such that the two laser spots overlap. Surface absorption of the intensity-modulated pump laser induces a time-varying thermoelastic surface deformation, resulting in a time-varying 532 nm scattering speckle field from the surface. The speckle modulation amplitude, derived from a series of visible camera images, is found to correlate with the amplitude of the surface motion. By tuning the pump laser's wavelength over a molecular absorption feature, the amplitude spectrum of the speckle modulation is found to correlate to the IR absorption spectrum. As an example, we demonstrate this technique for spectroscopic identification of thin polymeric films. Furthermore, by adjusting the rate of modulation of the pump beam and measuring the associated modulation transfer to the visible speckle pattern, information about the thermal time constants of surface and sub-surface features can be revealed. Using this approach, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish between different materials (including metals, semiconductors, and insulators) based on differences in their thermal conductivities.

  5. Photothermal imaging of skeletal muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Tomimatsu, Toru; Miyazaki, Jun; Kano, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and topology of mitochondria provide useful information about the physiological function of skeletal muscle. Previous studies of skeletal muscle mitochondria are based on observation with transmission, scanning electron microscopy or fluorescence microscopy. In contrast, photothermal (PT) microscopy has advantages over the above commonly used microscopic techniques because of no requirement for complex sample preparation by fixation or fluorescent-dye staining. Here, we employed the PT technique using a simple diode laser to visualize skeletal muscle mitochondria in unstained and stained tissues. The fine mitochondrial network structures in muscle fibers could be imaged with the PT imaging system, even in unstained tissues. PT imaging of tissues stained with toluidine blue revealed the structures of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria and the swelling behavior of mitochondria in damaged muscle fibers with sufficient image quality. PT image analyses based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were performed to derive the characteristic size of mitochondria and to discriminate the image patterns of normal and damaged fibers. PMID:28663919

  6. Copper Selenide Nanocrystals for Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Colin M.; Pattani, Varun; Rasch, Michael; Panthani, Matthew G.; Koo, Bonil; Tunnell, James W.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Ligand-stabilized copper selenide (Cu2−xSe) nanocrystals, approximately 16 nm in diameter, were synthesized by a colloidal hot injection method and coated with amphiphilic polymer. The nanocrystals readily disperse in water and exhibit strong near infrared (NIR) optical absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient of 7.7 × 107 cm−1 M−1 at 980 nm. When excited with 800 nm light, the Cu2−xSe nanocrystals produce significant photothermal heating with a photothermal transduction efficiency of 22%, comparable to nanorods and nanoshells of gold (Au). In vitro photothermal heating of Cu2−xSe nanocrystals in the presence of human colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) led to cell destruction after 5 minutes of laser irradiation at 33 W/cm2, demonstrating the viabilitiy of Cu2−xSe nanocrystals for photothermal therapy applications. PMID:21553924

  7. Copper selenide nanocrystals for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Colin M; Pattani, Varun P; Rasch, Michael; Panthani, Matthew G; Koo, Bonil; Tunnell, James W; Korgel, Brian A

    2011-06-08

    Ligand-stabilized copper selenide (Cu(2-x)Se) nanocrystals, approximately 16 nm in diameter, were synthesized by a colloidal hot injection method and coated with amphiphilic polymer. The nanocrystals readily disperse in water and exhibit strong near-infrared (NIR) optical absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient of 7.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) M(-1) at 980 nm. When excited with 800 nm light, the Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals produce significant photothermal heating with a photothermal transduction efficiency of 22%, comparable to nanorods and nanoshells of gold (Au). In vitro photothermal heating of Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals in the presence of human colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) led to cell destruction after 5 min of laser irradiation at 33 W/cm(2), demonstrating the viabilitiy of Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals for photothermal therapy applications.

  8. Liposomal Indocyanine Green for Enhanced Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hwan-Jun; Lee, Hye-Seong; Lim, Ji-Young; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-02-22

    In this study, we engineered liposomal indocyanine green (ICG) to maximize its photothermal effects while maintaining the fluorescence intensity. Various liposomal formulations of ICG were prepared by varying the lipid composition and the molar ratio between total lipid and ICG, and their photothermal characteristics were evaluated under near-infrared irradiation. We showed that the ICG dispersity in the liposomal membrane and its physical interaction with phospholipids were the main factors determining the photothermal conversion efficiency. In phototherapeutic studies, the optimized formulation of liposomal ICG showed greater anticancer effects in a mouse tumor model compared with other liposomal formulations and the free form of ICG. Furthermore, we utilized liposomal ICG to visualize the metastatic lymph node around the primary tumor under fluorescence imaging guidance and ablate the lymph node with the enhanced photothermal effect, indicating the potential for selective treatment of metastatic lymph node.

  9. Thermohydrogel Containing Melanin for Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Min Ah; Ryu, Hyanghwa; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Moon

    2016-12-01

    Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The tumor growth of mice bearing CT26 tumors treated with Pol-Mel injection and laser irradiation is suppressed completely without recurrence postirradiation. All these results indicate that Pol-Mel can become an attractive PTA for photothermal cancer therapy.

  10. The effect of asteroid topography on surface ablation deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Ablation techniques for deflecting hazardous asteroids deposit energy into the asteroid's surface, causing an effective thrust on the asteroid as the ablating material leaves normal to the surface. Although it has long been recognized that surface topography plays an important role in determining the deflection capabilities, most studies to date have ignored this aspect of the model. This paper focuses on understanding the topography for real asteroid shapes, and how this topography can change the deflection performance of an ablation technique. The near Earth asteroids Golevka, Bennu, and Itokawa are used as the basis for this study, as all three have high-resolution shape models available. This paper shows that naive targeting of an ablation method without accounting for the surface topography can lower the deflection performance by up to 20% in the cases studied in terms of the amount of acceleration applied in the desired direction. If the ablation thrust level is assumed to be 100 N, as used elsewhere in the literature, this misapplication of thrust translates to tens of kilometers per year in decreased semimajor axis change. However, if the ablation method can freely target any visible point on the surface of the asteroid, almost all of this performance can be recovered.

  11. Photothermal image cytometry of human neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry

    2001-07-01

    Photothermal imaging, when being applied to the study of living cells, provides morpho-functional information about the cell populations. In technical terms, the method is complementary to optical microscopy. The photothermal method was used for cell imaging and quantitative studies. Preliminary results of the studies on living human neutrophils are presented. Differences between normal and pathological neutrophil populations from blood of healthy donors and patients with saracoidosis and pleuritis are demonstrated.

  12. Analysis of Photothermal Characterization of Layered Materials: Design of Optimal Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper numerical calculations are presented for the steady-periodic temperature in layered materials and functionally-graded materials to simulate photothermal methods for the measurement of thermal properties. No laboratory experiments were performed. The temperature is found from a new Green s function formulation which is particularly well-suited to machine calculation. The simulation method is verified by comparison with literature data for a layered material. The method is applied to a class of two-component functionally-graded materials and results for temperature and sensitivity coefficients are presented. An optimality criterion, based on the sensitivity coefficients, is used for choosing what experimental conditions will be needed for photothermal measurements to determine the spatial distribution of thermal properties. This method for optimal experiment design is completely general and may be applied to any photothermal technique and to any functionally-graded material.

  13. A dual-beam photothermal reflection based system for thermal diffusivity measurement of optically dense liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Blanca; Pulgar, Dervin; Ranaudo, María Antonieta; Chirinos, José; Caetano, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    A dual-beam photothermal reflection based system capable to measure thermal diffusivities of optically dense liquids has been designed and implemented. The large optical absorption coefficient of these liquids inhibits the possibility to use conventional transmission instruments for direct thermal diffusivity measurements. To overcome this problem, a front heating front detection photothermal reflection system has been proposed. This method expands the range of application and simplifies the experimental procedure of traditional photothermal methods, allowing precise measurement of thermal diffusivity of a variety of liquids. Measurements of the change in thermal diffusivity with the concentration of asphaltene in toluene solutions are described to test the applicability of this technique for reliable measurements of thermal diffusivities of optically dense liquids.

  14. A dual-beam photothermal reflection based system for thermal diffusivity measurement of optically dense liquids.

    PubMed

    Jaimes, Blanca; Pulgar, Dervin; Ranaudo, María Antonieta; Chirinos, José; Caetano, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    A dual-beam photothermal reflection based system capable to measure thermal diffusivities of optically dense liquids has been designed and implemented. The large optical absorption coefficient of these liquids inhibits the possibility to use conventional transmission instruments for direct thermal diffusivity measurements. To overcome this problem, a front heating front detection photothermal reflection system has been proposed. This method expands the range of application and simplifies the experimental procedure of traditional photothermal methods, allowing precise measurement of thermal diffusivity of a variety of liquids. Measurements of the change in thermal diffusivity with the concentration of asphaltene in toluene solutions are described to test the applicability of this technique for reliable measurements of thermal diffusivities of optically dense liquids.

  15. Photothermal Investigation of Micro-Uniformity Problems Caused by Different Scan Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Geiler, Hans; Brand, Klaus; Selle, Hans-Joachim

    2008-11-03

    To study beam scanning and beam profiling effects low energy implants of Boron (25 keV) and high energy implants of Helium (5.4 MeV) were carried out by use of different scanning systems including mechanical, electrostatic and hybrid scanning. The sensitivity of photothermal measurement by use of the excess carrier wave in the depth up to 50 {mu}m is proved for buried damage detection and compared with the effect in shallow damage profiles. The micro-mapping capability of the photothermal techniques allows the detection of dose variations in a sub-mm-scale without Moire effects from mapping steps. Conclusion for advanced dose monitoring by multi-frequency photothermal methods will be derived.

  16. Deflection Control in Rigid Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varunkrishna, Nulu; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The need for modern transportation systems together with the high demand for perpetual pavements under the drastically increasing applied loads has led to a great deal of research on concrete as a pavement material worldwide. This research indeed instigated many modifications in concrete aiming for improving the concrete properties. Pavement Quality Concrete requires higher flexural strength and fewer deflections in hardened state. Fiber reinforcement and latex modification are two reliable approaches serving the required purposes. The concrete made with these two modifications is called Polymer-modified Fiber-reinforced concrete. The present study deals with the usage of polypropylene as fiber and SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) Latex as polymer. M30 grade concrete was modified by replacing cement with two different percentages of fiber (0.5%, 1.0% of weight of cement) and with three different percentages of SBR latex (10%, 15% & 20% of weight of cement).

  17. Development of a sensitive detection system based on the photothermal effect for biomolecular interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelhelm, Karin; Haupt, K.; Saluz, H. P.; Walther, Heinz-Guenter

    1996-01-01

    THe use of a photothermal detection system for the study of interacting biomolecules is described. Two different setups are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system by measurements of DNA/intercalator-samples immobilized on membrane supports used in molecular biological techniques.

  18. Highly Efficient Photothermal Semiconductor Nanocomposites for Photothermal Imaging of Latent Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiabin; Xu, Suying; Guo, Chang; Jiang, Rui; James, Tony D; Wang, Leyu

    2015-11-17

    Optical imaging of latent fingerprints (LFPs) has been widely used in forensic science and for antiterrorist applications, but it suffers from interference from autofluorescence and the substrates background color. Cu7S4 nanoparticles (NPs), with excellent photothermal properties, were synthesized using a new strategy and then fabricated into amphiphilic nanocomposites (NCs) via polymerization of allyl mercaptan coated on Cu7S4 NPs to offer good affinities toward LFPs. Here, we develop a facile and versatile photothermal LFP imaging method based on the high photothermal conversion efficiency (52.92%, 808 nm) of Cu7S4 NCs, indicating its effectiveness for imaging LFPs left on different substrates (with various background colors), which will be extremely useful for crime scene investigations. Furthermore, by fabricating Cu7S4-CdSe@ZnS NCs, a fluorescent-photothermal dual-mode imaging strategy was used to detect trinitrotoluene (TNT) in LFPs while still maintaining a complete photothermal image of LFP.

  19. Photothermal and mechanical stimulation of cells via dualfunctional nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechetka, Svetlana A.; Doi, Motomichi; Pichon, Benoit P.; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Miyako, Eijiro

    2016-11-01

    Stimulating cells by light is an attractive technology to investigate cellular function and deliver innovative cell-based therapy. However, current techniques generally use poorly biopermeable light, which prevents broad applicability. Here, we show that a new type of composite nanomaterial, synthesized from multi-walled carbon nanotubes, magnetic iron nanoparticles, and polyglycerol, enables photothermal and mechanical control of Ca2+ influx into cells overexpressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2. The nanohybrid is simply operated by application of highly biotransparent near-infrared light and a magnetic field. The technology may revolutionize remote control of cellular function.

  20. Laser deflection of space objects -- An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    Lasers provide the two major attributes required for effective deflection of space objects: agility and efficiency. Lasers act instantaneously over long distances with little losses, but deliver energy at modest power levels. Material interceptors provide large impulses, but deliver only a fraction of the mass launched into space at low speeds. The two deflection concepts are compared, as are some important additional applications.

  1. Four-dimensional visualization of a small-scale flame based on deflection tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhigang; Zhao, Minmin

    2016-11-01

    Optical computed tomography is an important technique in the visualization and diagnosis of various flow fields. A small-scale diffusion flame was visualized using deflection tomography. A projection sampling system was proposed for deflection tomography to obtain deflectograms with a pair of gratings. Wave-front retrieval was employed for processing the deflectograms to obtain the deflection angles of the rays. This two-dimensional data extraction method expanded the application of deflection tomography and was suitable for the projection extraction of small-scale combustion. Deflection angle revision reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct the temperature distributions in 10 cross sections for each deflectogram in different instants. The flow structure was reconstructed using a visualization toolkit equipped with the marching cube and ray casting algorithms. The performed experiments demonstrated the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of temperature distributions and the flame structures of small-scale diffusion combustion.

  2. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Phillip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Griswold, Janelle; Kangas, Miikka; Johansson, Isbella; Alnawakhtha, Yusuf; Prater, Kenyon; Lang, Alex; Madajian, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DESTAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR [1][5][6] and DE-STARLITE [2][5][6] are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid [1][2][3][4][5][6]. In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.

  3. Photothermal gold nanoparticle mediated stimulation of cardiomyocyte beating (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalies, Stefan; Gentemann, Lara; Coffee, Michelle; Zweigerdt, Robert; Heinemann, Dag; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Photothermal manipulation of cells via heating of gold nanoparticles has proven to be an efficient tool for molecular delivery into cells via cell perforation with short laser pulses. We investigated a potential extension of this technique for cell stimulation of cardiomyocytes using a 532 nm and 850 ps laser system and a surface concentration of 0.5 μg/cm2 of 200 nm gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were unspecifically attached to the cardiomyocytes after an incubation period of three hours. The laser irradiation leads to a temperature rise directly at the particles of several hundred degrees K which evokes bubble formation and membrane perforation. We examined the effect of laser based photothermal manipulation at different laser powers, with different calcium concentrations, and for a cardiomyocyte-like cell line (HL1 cells), neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. Fast calcium oscillations in HL1 cells were observed in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium and most pronounced in the area next to the laser spot after irradiation. Within the laser spot, in particular high laser powers led to a single rise in calcium over a time period of several seconds. These results were confirmed in stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. In the presence of normal and high calcium concentrations, the spontaneous contraction frequency increased after laser irradiation in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Consequently, gold nanoparticle mediated photothermal cell manipulation via pulsed lasers may serve as a potential pacemaker-technique in regenerative approaches, next to optogenetics.

  4. Deflection angle in the strong deflection limit in a general asymptotically flat, static, spherically symmetric spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki

    2017-03-01

    Gravitational lensing by the light sphere of compact objects like black holes and wormholes will give us information on the compact objects. In this paper, we provide an improved strong deflection limit analysis in a general asymptotically flat, static, spherically symmetric spacetime. The strong deflection limit analysis also works in ultrastatic spacetimes. As an example of an ultrastatic spacetime, we reexamine the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit in an Ellis wormhole spacetime. Using the strong deflection limit, we obtain the deflection angle analytically for the Reissner-Nordström spacetime. The point of the improvement is the definition of a standard variable in the strong deflection limit analysis. We show that the choice of the variable is as important as the choice of the coordinates and we conclude that one should choose a proper variable for a given spacetime.

  5. Photothermal energy conversion by plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Joseph Raymond

    Photothermal energy conversion is important when designing optically active devices based on plasmonic nanoparticles. Many early applications of these nanoparticles, like photothermal tumor ablation, drug delivery, and microfluidic devices, depend on the conversion of light to heat. In this dissertation, we compare three nanoparticle species' theoretical absorption efficiency from electromagnetic calculations with their photothermal transduction efficiency from measurements of temperature in an illuminated system. Several mechanisms that may account for differences between the two efficiencies are suggested. With a view specifically toward clinical applications, our analysis assumes a random orientation of nanorods, as would occur naturally in the tumor vasculature. For the samples studied here, photothermal transduction efficiencies differed only by a factor of two or three, regardless of particle type and concentration. Both experiment and theory show that particle size plays a dominant role in determining transduction efficiency, with smaller particles more efficient for heating and larger particles for combined heating and imaging. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of mixtures of plasmonic nanoparticles for CO 2 scrubbing substrates that could be used in space applications. These measurements indicate possible dynamic nanoscale effects that need to be accounted for when modeling photothermal transduction.

  6. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  7. 30 CFR 7.47 - Deflection temperature test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.47 Deflection...) Use a deflection measuring device with an accuracy of ±.001 inches to measure the deflection of...

  8. Phase signal of optical beam deflection from single microparticles: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Masaaki; Kitamori, Takehiko; Sawada, Tsuguo

    1993-03-01

    The optical beam deflection (OBD) signal from a single microparticulate sample was theoretically derived for the photothermal response to an intensity-modulated excitation in the transverse experimental configuration. The dependencies of phase signal on the normal and transverse offsets of the probe beam were calculated and then experimentally verified. The OBD phase signal was chosen as a means of inspecting the particle interior, since it contains information about the heat source depth. The results showed that the phase signal was independent of the excitation beam power and that the surface absorbing layer thickness could be estimated from the phase variation using the modulation frequency. The possibility of correcting beam offsets by the phase signal was also considered.

  9. Novel Biomarker Assays Based on Photothermal Effects and Nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunfei

    The early diagnosis of some chronic and severe diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, etc. has been a long-sought goal of the medicine community. Traditional diagnostic tools such as X-ray and fecal blood tests cannot detect the disease before the focus or tumor have grown to an appreciable size or before the number of pathogens or tumor cells has reached a considerable amount in body fluids. These drawbacks could significantly delay the diagnosis. To detect and diagnose such diseases at an early stage, people have sought to detect the biomarkers related to certain physical conditions so that the anomalies caused by the diseases can be detected before a significant tumor has developed or the onset of symptoms. Driven by the needs to detect and quantify biomarkers, immunoassays have been developed. Two representative formats of immunoassays are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lateral flow assay. They have been widely used for medical and research purposes, yet they still have drawbacks such as costly instruments and lack of sensitivity. To improve their performance, I have developed photoacoustic-based detection schemes that can be easily integrated with commercial immunoassay formats and can increase the sensitivity as well as lower the costs. For both assay formats, limit of detection has been lowered by two orders of magnitude with low-cost and portable instruments. As a follow up of the photoacoustic detection schemes, a technique based on photothermal lens is also developed. In this work, one-dimensional photonic crystal substrates have also been exploited to enhance the photoacoustic and photothermal signals. Due to the guided-mode resonance, the photonic crystal substrate can enhance the photoacoustic or photothermal signals by 10 to 40 times, making it a promising tool for biomarker detection.

  10. Transient photothermal spectra of plasmonic nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y; Sassaroli, Elisabetta; Jones, Alicia; Lapotko, Dmitri O

    2012-03-13

    The photothermal efficacy of near-infrared gold nanoparticles (NP), nanoshells, and nanorods was studied under pulsed high-energy optical excitation in plasmonic nanobubble (PNB) mode as a function of the wavelength and duration of the excitation laser pulse. PNBs, transient vapor nanobubbles, were generated around individual and clustered overheated NPs in water and living cells. Transient PNBs showed two photothermal features not previously observed for NPs: the narrowing of the spectral peaks to 1 nm and the strong dependence of the photothermal efficacy upon the duration of the laser pulse. Narrow red-shifted (relative to those of NPs) near-infrared spectral peaks were observed for 70 ps excitation laser pulses, while longer sub- and nanosecond pulses completely suppressed near-infrared peaks and blue shifted the PNB generation to the visual range. Thus, PNBs can provide superior spectral selectivity over gold NPs under specific optical excitation conditions.

  11. Nanoshells for photothermal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jennifer G; Day, Emily S; Halas, Naomi J; West, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States and contributes to yearly rising health care costs. Current methods of treating cancer involve surgical removal of easily accessible tumors, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. These methods do not always result in full treatment of the cancer and can in many cases damage healthy cells both surrounding the tissue area and systemically. Nanoshells are optically tunable core/shell nanoparticles that can be fabricated to strongly absorb in the near-infrared (NIR) region where light transmits deeply into tissue. When injected systemically, these particles have been shown to accumulate in the tumor due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and induce photothermal ablation of the tumor when irradiated with an NIR laser. Tumor specificity can be increased via functionalizing the nanoshell surface with tumor-targeting moieties. Nanoshells can also be made to strongly scatter light and therefore can be used in various imaging modalities such as dark-field microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

  12. Noncontacting method for measuring angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is described for indicating the instantaneous angular deflection of an object about a selected axis without mechanical contact with the object. Light from a light source is transmitted through a flat refractor to a converging lens which focuses the light through another flat refractor onto a differential photocell. The first flat refractor is attached to the object such that when the object is deflected about the selected axis the refractor is also deflected about that axis. The two flat refractors are identical and they are placed an equal distance from the converging lens as are the light source and the photocell. The output of the photocell which is a function of image displacement is fed to a high gain amplifier that drives a galvanometer which rotates the second flat refractor. The second refractor is rotated so that the image displacement is very nearly zero making the galvanometer current a measure of the deflection of the object about the selected axis.

  13. Photothermal generation of microbubbles on plasmonic nanostructures inside microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingting; Li, Ming; Santos, Greggy M.; Zhao, Fusheng; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Microbubbles have been utilized as micro-pumps, micro-mixers, micro-valves, micro-robots and surface cleaners. Various generation techniques can be found in the literature, including resistive heating, hydrodynamic methods, illuminating patterned metal films and noble metal nanoparticles of Au or Ag. We present photothermal microbubble generation by irradiating nanoporous gold disk covered microfluidic channels. The size of the microbubble can be controlled by adjusting the laser power. The dynamics of both bubble growth and shrinkage are studied. The advantages of this technique are flexible bubble generation locations, long bubble lifetimes, no need for light-adsorbing dyes, high controllability over bubble size, low power consumption, etc. This technique has the potential to provide new flow control functions in microfluidic devices.

  14. In vivo near-infrared photothermal therapy and computed tomography imaging of cancer cells using novel tungsten-based theranostic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianhua; Han, Jianguo; Kang, Zhichen; Golamaully, Reza; Xu, Nannan; Li, Hongpeng; Han, Xueli

    2014-05-01

    Photothermal therapy, as a physical therapeutic technique to kill cancer, has generated a great deal of interest. Photothermal agents hence play a critical role in this modern therapy. We report the use of transition metal oxides as photothermal agents based on PEGylated WO3-x nanoparticles. The well-prepared nanoparticles presented effective results during photothermal therapy both in vitro and in vivo by using near-IR laser irradiation (980 nm, 0.5 W cm-2). The tumor cells were effectively damaged using low power density during a short irradiation time without destroying healthy tissues. In vitro results of photothermal therapy with PEGylated WO3-x nanoparticles proved to be effective on 4T1 murine breast cancer cells via a confocal microscopy method and MTT assay. In vivo results were further confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) histological staining. Additionally, PEGylated WO3-x nanoparticles were shown to be effective as a CT imaging contrast agent on a tumor-bearing mouse model. Our results suggest that this generation of PEGylated WO3-x nanoparticles can potentially be used in oncological CT imaging and photothermal therapy.Photothermal therapy, as a physical therapeutic technique to kill cancer, has generated a great deal of interest. Photothermal agents hence play a critical role in this modern therapy. We report the use of transition metal oxides as photothermal agents based on PEGylated WO3-x nanoparticles. The well-prepared nanoparticles presented effective results during photothermal therapy both in vitro and in vivo by using near-IR laser irradiation (980 nm, 0.5 W cm-2). The tumor cells were effectively damaged using low power density during a short irradiation time without destroying healthy tissues. In vitro results of photothermal therapy with PEGylated WO3-x nanoparticles proved to be effective on 4T1 murine breast cancer cells via a confocal microscopy method and MTT assay. In vivo results were further confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin

  15. Miniaturization of flight deflection measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodale, Robert (Inventor); Hampton, Herbert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A flight deflection measurement system is disclosed including a hybrid microchip of a receiver/decoder. The hybrid microchip decoder is mounted piggy back on the miniaturized receiver and forms an integral unit therewith. The flight deflection measurement system employing the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be used in a wind tunnel. In particular, the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be employed in a spin measurement system due to its small size and can retain already established control surface actuation functions.

  16. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, C.L.; Spector, J.

    1994-12-27

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure is disclosed having a serpentine signal conductor within a channel groove. The channel groove is formed by a serpentine channel in a trough plate and a ground plane. The serpentine signal conductor is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors. A beam interaction trough intersects the channel groove to form a plurality of beam interaction regions wherein an electron beam may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor. 4 figures.

  17. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.L.; Spector, J.

    1994-12-27

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure is disclosed having a serpentine signal conductor within a channel groove. The channel groove is formed by a serpentine channel in a trough plate and a ground plane. The serpentine signal conductor is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors. A beam interaction trough intersects the channel groove to form a plurality of beam interaction regions wherein an electron beam may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor. 4 figures.

  18. Thin transparent film characterization by photothermal reflectance (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Voti, R.; Wright, O. B.; Matsuda, O.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2003-01-01

    Photothermal reflectance methods have been intensively applied to the nondestructive testing of opaque thin films [D. P. Almond and P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman and Hall, London, 1996); C. Bento and D. P. Almond, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1022 (1995); J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, and D. Willenborg, Appl. Opt. 22, 3169 (1983)]. The basic principle is based on thermal wave interferometry: the opaque specimen is illuminated by a laser beam, periodically chopped at the frequency f, so as to generate a plane thermal wave in the surface region. This wave propagates in the film, approaches the rear interface (film-bulk), is partially reflected back, reaches the front surface, is again partially reflected back and so on, giving rise to thermal wave interference. A consequence of this interference is that the surface temperature may be enhanced (constructive interference) or reduced (destructive interference) by simply scanning the frequency f (that is, the thermal diffusion length μ=√D/πf ), so as to observe damped oscillations as a function of f; in practice only the first oscillation may be clearly resolved and used to measure either the film thickness d or the film thermal diffusivity D, and this situation occurs when μ≈d. In general, photothermal reflectance does not measure directly the surface temperature variation, but rather a directly related signal determined by the thermo-optic coefficients and the sample geometry; for detection it is common to monitor the optical reflectivity variation of a probe beam normally incident on the sample. If the thin film is partially transparent to the probe, the theory becomes more difficult [O. Matsuda and O. B. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (in press)] and one should consider the probe beam multiple reflections in the thin film. The probe modulation is optically inhomogeneous due to the temperature-induced changes in refractive index. Although in the past the complexity of the analysis has impeded

  19. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  20. Mechanical radiation detection via sub-Brownian lever deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammig, Mark David

    2005-07-01

    A micromechanical lever that deflects in response to the impacts of charged particles is proposed as a means of improving upon the capabilities of existing radiation detection technology. When a particle strikes an object, momentum is transferred to the impacted body. The resulting body motion can be correlated to the energy of the incident particle. The momentum detector offers promise as a highly discriminating, high-resolution tool for ion sensing. Advances required to successfully realize a spectroscopic capability have been completed; specifically, techniques for reproducibly fabricating micromechanical structures have been optimized, and an instrument that measures miniscule deflections has been developed. Even absent substantial refinement efforts, the novel coupled-cavity optical detector can resolve lever motions on the order of 1--10 picometers. A method by which the Brownian motion of the lever can be stilled has been proven which elicits reductions sufficient to measure heavy-ion impact, the deflections from which may be several orders of magnitude below the thermal vibration amplitude. Using active forcing techniques, the Brownian vibration of the microlevers has been reduced from room temperature (288 K) to sub-Kelvin temperatures, for levers vibrating in air. The mechanical factors that limit the noise reduction magnitude are discussed and methods of surmounting those limitations are identified.

  1. Fan Blade Deflection Measurement and Analyses Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehmed, Oral; Janetzke, David C.

    1997-01-01

    Steady deflection measurements were taken of two identical NASA/Pratt & Whitney-designed fan blades while they were rotating in a vacuum in NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Facility. The one-fifth-scale fan blades, which have a tip diameter of 22 in. and a pinroot retention, are of sparshell construction and were unducted for this test. The purpose of the test was to measure the change of the radial deflection of the blade tip and blade angle at selected radial stations along the blade span with respect to rotational speed. The procedure for radial deflection measurement had no precedent and was newly developed for this test. Radial deflection measurements were made to assure adequate tip clearance existed between the fan blades and the duct for a follow-on wind tunnel test. Also, blade angle deflection measurements were desired before pitchsetting parts for the wind tunnel test were finish machined. During the test, laser beams were aimed across the blade path into photodiodes to give signals that were used to determine blade angle change or tip radial deflection. These laser beams were set parallel to the spin axis at selected radial stations.

  2. Dimensional analysis considerations in the engine rotor fragment containment/deflection problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, J. W.; Witmer, E. A.; Yeghiayan, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Dimensional analysis techniques are described and applied to the containment/deflection problem of bursting high-rpm rotating parts of turbojet engines. The use of dimensional analysis to select a feasible set of experiments and to determine the important parameters to be varied is presented. The determination of a containment coefficient based on the nondimensionalized parameters is developed for the reduction of experimental data and as an assist to designers of containment/deflection devices.

  3. Small deflection of a class of clamped thin plates using collocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Equations are given for the optimization of a class of two-and three-dimensional structures. The application of existing analytical techniques to the response of thin clamped plates is described. The ratios of deflections to plate thickness are given for uniform transverse loads as well as for uniform plus linearly varying transverse loads. Deflections are presented at angular increments of 5 degrees and at radial increments of 0.1 of the radius.

  4. Solvent Effects on the Photothermal Regeneration of CO2 in Monoethanolamine Nanofluids

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Du; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Esser-Kahn, Aaron

    2015-11-02

    We present that a potential approach to reduce energy costs associated with carbon capture is to use external and renewable energy sources. The photothermal release of CO2 from monoethanolamine mediated by nanoparticles is a unique solution to this problem. When combined with light-absorbing nanoparticles, vapor bubbles form inside the capture solution and release the CO2 without heating the bulk solvent. The mechanism by which CO2 is released remained unclear, and understanding this process would improve the efficiency of photothermal CO2 release. Here we report the use of different cosolvents to improve or reduce the photothermal regeneration of CO2 captured bymore » monoethanolamine. We found that properties that reduce the residence time of the gas bubbles (viscosity, boiling point, and convection direction) can enhance the regeneration efficiencies. The reduction of bubble residence times minimizes the reabsorption of CO2 back into the capture solvent where bulk temperatures remain lower than the localized area surrounding the nanoparticle. These properties shed light on the mechanism of release and indicated methods for improving the efficiency of the process. We used this knowledge to develop an improved photothermal CO2 regeneration system in a continuously flowing setup. Finally, using techniques to reduce residence time in the continuously flowing setup, such as alternative cosolvents and smaller fluid volumes, resulted in regeneration efficiency enhancements of over 200%.« less

  5. Solvent Effects on the Photothermal Regeneration of CO2 in Monoethanolamine Nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Du; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Esser-Kahn, Aaron

    2015-11-25

    A potential approach to reduce energy costs associated with carbon capture is to use external and renewable energy sources. The photothermal release of CO2 from monoethanolamine mediated by nanoparticles is a unique solution to this problem. When combined with light-absorbing nanoparticles, vapor bubbles form inside the capture solution and release the CO2 without heating the bulk solvent. The mechanism by which CO2 is released remained unclear, and understanding this process would improve the efficiency of photothermal CO2 release. Here we report the use of different cosolvents to improve or reduce the photothermal regeneration of CO2 captured by monoethanolamine. We found that properties that reduce the residence time of the gas bubbles (viscosity, boiling point, and convection direction) can enhance the regeneration efficiencies. The reduction of bubble residence times minimizes the reabsorption of CO2 back into the capture solvent where bulk temperatures remain lower than the localized area surrounding the nanoparticle. These properties shed light on the mechanism of release and indicated methods for improving the efficiency of the process. We used this knowledge to develop an improved photothermal CO2 regeneration system in a continuously flowing setup. Using techniques to reduce residence time in the continuously flowing setup, such as alternative cosolvents and smaller fluid volumes, resulted in regeneration efficiency enhancements of over 200%.

  6. Solvent Effects on the Photothermal Regeneration of CO2 in Monoethanolamine Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Du; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Esser-Kahn, Aaron

    2015-11-02

    We present that a potential approach to reduce energy costs associated with carbon capture is to use external and renewable energy sources. The photothermal release of CO2 from monoethanolamine mediated by nanoparticles is a unique solution to this problem. When combined with light-absorbing nanoparticles, vapor bubbles form inside the capture solution and release the CO2 without heating the bulk solvent. The mechanism by which CO2 is released remained unclear, and understanding this process would improve the efficiency of photothermal CO2 release. Here we report the use of different cosolvents to improve or reduce the photothermal regeneration of CO2 captured by monoethanolamine. We found that properties that reduce the residence time of the gas bubbles (viscosity, boiling point, and convection direction) can enhance the regeneration efficiencies. The reduction of bubble residence times minimizes the reabsorption of CO2 back into the capture solvent where bulk temperatures remain lower than the localized area surrounding the nanoparticle. These properties shed light on the mechanism of release and indicated methods for improving the efficiency of the process. We used this knowledge to develop an improved photothermal CO2 regeneration system in a continuously flowing setup. Finally, using techniques to reduce residence time in the continuously flowing setup, such as alternative cosolvents and smaller fluid volumes, resulted in regeneration efficiency enhancements of over 200%.

  7. Deflection-Based Structural Loads Estimation From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. This technique was examined using a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.

  8. Deflection-Based Aircraft Structural Loads Estimation with Comparison to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. With a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system this technique was examined. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.

  9. Needle deflection estimation: prostate brachytherapy phantom experiments.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-11-01

    The performance of a fusion-based needle deflection estimation method was experimentally evaluated using prostate brachytherapy phantoms. The accuracy of the needle deflection estimation was determined. The robustness of the approach with variations in needle insertion speed and soft tissue biomechanical properties was investigated. A needle deflection estimation method was developed to determine the amount of needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue by combining a kinematic deflection model with measurements taken from two electromagnetic trackers placed at the tip and the base of the needle. Experimental verification of this method for use in prostate brachytherapy needle insertion procedures was performed. A total of 21 beveled tip, 18 ga, 200 mm needles were manually inserted at various speeds through a template and toward different targets distributed within 3 soft tissue mimicking polyvinyl chloride prostate phantoms of varying stiffness. The tracked positions of both the needle tip and base were recorded, and Kalman filters were applied to fuse the sensory information. The estimation results were validated using ground truth obtained from fluoroscopy images. The manual insertion speed ranged from 8 to 34 mm/s, needle deflection ranged from 5 to 8 mm at an insertion depth of 76 mm, and the elastic modulus of the soft tissue ranged from 50 to 150 kPa. The accuracy and robustness of the estimation method were verified within these ranges. When compared to purely model-based estimation, we observed a reduction in needle tip position estimation error by [Formula: see text] % (mean [Formula: see text] SD) and the cumulative deflection error by [Formula: see text] %. Fusion of electromagnetic sensors demonstrated significant improvement in estimating needle deflection compared to model-based methods. The method has potential clinical applicability in the guidance of needle placement medical interventions, particularly prostate brachytherapy.

  10. Laser-induced photo-thermal magnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, David A.; Lin, Yuting; Luk, Alex; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2012-08-01

    Due to the strong scattering nature of biological tissue, optical imaging beyond the diffusion limit suffers from low spatial resolution. In this letter, we present an imaging technique, laser-induced photo-thermal magnetic imaging (PMI), which uses laser illumination to induce temperature increase in a medium and magnetic resonance imaging to map the spatially varying temperature, which is proportional to absorbed energy. This technique can provide high-resolution images of optical absorption and can potentially be used for small animal as well as breast cancer and lymph node imaging. First, we describe the theory of PMI, including the modeling of light propagation and heat transfer in tissue. We also present experimental data with corresponding predictions from theoretical models, which show excellent agreement.

  11. Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneau, F.; Combis, P.; Rullier, J. L.; Commandre, M.; During, A.; Natoli, J. Y.; Pellin, M. J.; Savina, M. R.; Cottancin, E.; Pellarin, M.

    2003-11-10

    In order to understand laser-induced damage in glass, we subjected engineered SiO{sub 2} thin films containing sub-micron gold inclusions to high fluences, and observed the results using several means of analysis. We found decoupling in time between the emission of gold and that of silicon with samples containing gold spheres of diameter 3 nm. We have analyzed the changes in the silica optical absorption at 1064 nm, using photothermal deflection microscopy. We find, upon exceeding a sharp fluence threshold, a thousand-fold increase in absorption of the silica matrix around the inclusion. We conclude that ions from the inclusion permeate the surrounding silica, and form a highly absorbent mixture.

  12. Impurities detection by optical techniques in KH 2PO 4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommiès, M.; Damiani, D.; Le Borgne, X.; Dujardin, C.; Surmin, A.; Birolleau, J. C.; Pilon, F.; Bertussi, B.; Piombini, H.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we examine how optical techniques can be used for impurities (or defects) detection and identification in KH2PO4 (KDP) components. This is important in so far as some of these defects are responsible for a much weaker than expected Laser-Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) in these materials, i.e. for a weaker resistance to a laser shot. KDP materials are investigated by photothermal deflection, fluorescence and photoexcitation with the aim of localizing and identifying the laser-induced damage precursors. The rapidly grown KDP crystals are shown to be heterogeneous from the absorption, fluorescence and composition point of view. Impurities concentrations are measured directly by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and tentatively correlated to some optical characteristics and to the LIDT of KDP materials.

  13. Mission analysis for the ion beam deflection of fictitious asteroid 2015 PDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Amato, Davide; Cano, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical asteroid impact scenario proposed during the 2015 IAA Planetary Defense Conference (PDC), we study the deflection of fictitious asteroid 2015 PDC starting from ephemeris data provided by the conference organizers. A realistic mission scenario is investigated that makes use of an ion beam shepherd spacecraft as a primary deflection technique. The article deals with the design of a low-thrust rendezvous trajectory to the asteroid, the estimation of the propagated covariance ellipsoid and the outcome of an ion beam slow-push deflection starting from three worst case scenarios (impacts in New Delhi, Dhaka and Tehran). Displacing the impact point towards an extremely low-populated, easy-to-evacuate region, as opposed to full deflection, is found to be a more effective mitigation approach. Mission design, technical and political aspects are discussed.

  14. Photothermal nanoparticles as molecular specificity agents in interferometric phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.

    2017-02-01

    I review our latest advances in wide-field interferometric imaging of biological cells with molecular specificity, obtained by time-modulated photothermal excitation of gold nanoparticles. Heat emitted from the nanoparticles affects the measured phase signal via both the nanoparticle surrounding refractive-index and thickness changes. These nanoparticles can be bio-functionalized to bind certain biological cell components; thus, they can be used for biomedical imaging with molecular specificity, as new nanoscopy labels, and for photothermal therapy. Predicting the ideal nanoparticle parameters requires a model that computes the thermal and phase distributions around the particle, enabling more efficient phase imaging of plasmonic nanoparticles, and sparing trial and error experiments of using unsuitable nanoparticles. We thus developed a new model for predicting phase signatures from photothermal nanoparticles with arbitrary parameters. We also present a dual-modality technique based on wide-field photothermal interferometric phase imaging and simultaneous ablation to selectively deplete specific cell populations labelled by plasmonic nanoparticles. We experimentally demonstrated our ability to detect and specifically ablate in vitro cancer cells over-expressing epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), labelled with plasmonic nanoparticles, in the presence of either EGFR under-expressing cancer cells or white blood cells. This demonstration established an initial model for depletion of circulating tumour cells in blood. The proposed system is able to image in wide field the label-free quantitative phase profile together with the photothermal phase profile of the sample, and provides the ability of both detection and ablation of chosen cells after their selective imaging.

  15. Synergistic nanomedicine by combined gene and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhwan; Kim, Jihoon; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-03-01

    To date, various nanomaterials with the ability for gene delivery or photothermal effect have been developed in the field of biomedicine. The therapeutic potential of these nanomaterials has raised considerable interests in their use in potential next-generation strategies for effective anticancer therapy. In particular, the advancement of novel nanomedicines utilizing both therapeutic strategies of gene delivery and photothermal effect has generated much optimism regarding the imminent development of effective and successful cancer treatments. In this review, we discuss current research progress with regard to combined gene and photothermal therapy. This review focuses on synergistic therapeutic systems combining gene regulation and photothermal ablation as well as logically designed nano-carriers aimed at enhancing the delivery efficiency of therapeutic genes using the photothermal effect. The examples detailed in this review provide insight to further our understanding of combinatorial gene and photothermal therapy, thus paving the way for the design of promising nanomedicines.

  16. Bending of rectangular plates with large deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Samuel

    1942-01-01

    The solution of Von Karman's fundamental equations for large deflections of plates is presented for the case of a simply supported rectangular plate under combined edge compression and lateral loading. Numerical solutions are given for square plates and for rectangular plates with a width-span ratio of 3:1. The effective widths under edge compression are compared with effective widths according to Von Karman, Bengston, Marguerre, and Cox and with experimental results by Ramberg, Mcpherson, and Levy. The deflections of a square plate under lateral pressure are compared with experimental and theoretical results by Kaiser. It is found that the effective widths agree closely with Marguerre's formula and with the experimentally observed values and that the deflections agree with the experimental results and with Kaiser's work.

  17. Base deflection and microleakage of composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Paulillo, L A; de Goes, M F; Consani, S

    1994-06-01

    The flexural deflections of human dentin, Herculite XR, Dycal, Vidrion F, zinc phosphate base, and combinations of composite-base were determined. The influence of the flexural deflections in the marginal microleakage was also determined for the composite-base combinations. The flexural deflection test for dentin showed no statistically significant differences between the two floor cavity depths studied. There were significant differences among cements when the thickness of the base was 1 mm whereas no differences occurred at 2 mm. The composite-base combinations did not present statistical differences. There were no statistically significant differences in the microleakage levels among loaded and non-loaded specimens; however, dye penetration was visually greater in loaded samples.

  18. Cu7.2S4 nanocrystals: a novel photothermal agent with a 56.7% photothermal conversion efficiency for photothermal therapy of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Qian; Zou, Rujia; Liu, Xijian; Xu, Kaibing; Li, Wenyao; Hu, Junqing

    2014-03-21

    Copper sulphides, as a novel kind of photothermal agent for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells, have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to good photostability, synthetic simplicity, low toxicity and low cost. However, the unsatisfactory photothermal conversion efficiency of copper sulphides limits their bioapplication as PTT agents. Herein, Cu7.2S4 NCs with a mean size of ∼20 nm as a novel photothermal agent have been prepared by a simple thermal decomposition route. Moreover, these NCs exhibit strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, good photostability and significant photothermal conversion efficiency up to 56.7% due to strong NIR absorption, good dispersity and suitable size. Importantly, these NCs can be very compatibly used as a 980 nm laser-driven PTT agent for the efficient PTT of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-02-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction.

  20. Compliant Robot Wrist Senses Deflections And Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.; Strempek, Franklin; Premack, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Precise parts assembled without damage. Goddard Space Flight Center developed compliant wrist that moves in any direction and rotates about any axis in response to applied forces. Deflection calibrated and instrumented so control computer measures degree of deflection and derives magnitude and direction of applied forces and torques. Compliant wrist brings to robots important capabilities humans use in manipulating objects. Helps prevent damage to precise, delicate parts during assembly by robot. Rod lengths, spring stiffnesses, and type of displacement sensor changed to suit different applications.

  1. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, Charles L.; Spector, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure (10) having a serpene signal conductor (12) within a channel groove (46). The channel groove (46) is formed by a serpentine channel (20) in a trough plate (18) and a ground plane (14). The serpentine signal conductor (12) is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors 28. A beam interaction trough (22) intersects the channel groove (46) to form a plurality of beam interaction regions (56) wherein an electron beam (54) may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor (12).

  2. Deflection of large near-earth objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1999-01-11

    The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

  3. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Test Kinetic Impact for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    There are currently over 8,000 known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. More than 1,200 of these are classified as Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) because their Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) with Earth's orbit is <= 0.05 AU and their estimated diameters are >= 150 m. To date, 178 Earth impact structures have been discovered, indicating that our planet has previously been struck with devastating force by NEAs and will be struck again. Such collisions are aperiodic events and can occur at any time. A variety of techniques have been proposed to defend our planet from NEA impacts by deflecting the incoming asteroid. However, none of these techniques have been tested. Unless rigorous testing is conducted to produce reliable asteroid deflection systems, we will be forced to deploy completely untested -- and therefore unreliable -- deflection missions when a sizable asteroid on a collision course with Earth is discovered. Such missions will have a high probability of failure. We propose to address this problem with a campaign of deflection technology test missions deployed to harmless NEAs. The objective of these missions is to safely evaluate and refine the mission concepts and asteroid deflection system designs. Our current research focuses on the kinetic impactor, one of the simplest proposed asteroid deflection techniques in which a spacecraft is sent to collide with an asteroid at high relative velocity. By deploying test missions in the near future, we can characterize the performance of this deflection technique and resolve any problems inherent to its execution before needing to rely upon it during a true emergency. In this paper we present the methodology and results of our survey, including lists of NEAs for which safe and effective kinetic impactor test missions may be conducted within the next decade. Full mission designs are also presented for the NEAs which offer the best mission opportunities.

  4. Cu7.2S4 nanocrystals: a novel photothermal agent with a 56.7% photothermal conversion efficiency for photothermal therapy of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Qian; Zou, Rujia; Liu, Xijian; Xu, Kaibing; Li, Wenyao; Hu, Junqing

    2014-02-01

    Copper sulphides, as a novel kind of photothermal agent for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells, have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to good photostability, synthetic simplicity, low toxicity and low cost. However, the unsatisfactory photothermal conversion efficiency of copper sulphides limits their bioapplication as PTT agents. Herein, Cu7.2S4 NCs with a mean size of ~20 nm as a novel photothermal agent have been prepared by a simple thermal decomposition route. Moreover, these NCs exhibit strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, good photostability and significant photothermal conversion efficiency up to 56.7% due to strong NIR absorption, good dispersity and suitable size. Importantly, these NCs can be very compatibly used as a 980 nm laser-driven PTT agent for the efficient PTT of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.Copper sulphides, as a novel kind of photothermal agent for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells, have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to good photostability, synthetic simplicity, low toxicity and low cost. However, the unsatisfactory photothermal conversion efficiency of copper sulphides limits their bioapplication as PTT agents. Herein, Cu7.2S4 NCs with a mean size of ~20 nm as a novel photothermal agent have been prepared by a simple thermal decomposition route. Moreover, these NCs exhibit strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, good photostability and significant photothermal conversion efficiency up to 56.7% due to strong NIR absorption, good dispersity and suitable size. Importantly, these NCs can be very compatibly used as a 980 nm laser-driven PTT agent for the efficient PTT of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06242b

  5. Prussian blue nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy combined with checkpoint inhibition for photothermal immunotherapy of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Burga, Rachel A; Sweeney, Elizabeth E; Fisher, John P; Bollard, Catherine M; Sandler, Anthony D; Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Fernandes, Rohan

    2017-02-01

    We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model. We observe 55.5% survival in photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice at 100days compared to 12.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0% survival in mice receiving: anti-CTLA-4 alone, PBNPs alone, PTT alone, and no treatment, respectively. Additionally, long-term surviving, photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice exhibit protection against neuroblastoma rechallenge, suggesting the development of immunity against these tumors. Our findings suggest the potential of photothermal immunotherapy in improving treatments for neuroblastoma.

  6. Photothermal Spectroscopy of Weakly Absorbing Samples Using a Thermal Wave Phase Shifter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-05

    Code 413 June 5. 1984 800 N. Quincy Street 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Arlington, VA 22217 i MONITORING AGENCY NAME & AORESS(II different from Controlling...be 90% throughout the entire visible spectrum. .. NI In photothermalI or photoacoustic 2 techniques the sample under study is excited with a modulated...imaging are numerous. The fact that besides optical also thermal and in the case of photoacoustics even acoustic properties are involved in the

  7. Self-referenced prism deflection measurement schemes with microradian precision

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Rebecca; Paul, Justin; Bergeson, Scott; Durfee, Dallin S

    2005-08-01

    We have demonstrated several inexpensive methods that can be used to measure the deflection angles of prisms with microradian precision. The methods are self-referenced, where various reversals are used to achieve absolute measurements without the need of a reference prism or any expensive precision components other than the prisms under test. These techniques are based on laser interferometry and have been used in our laboratory to characterize parallel-plate beam splitters, penta prisms, right-angle prisms, and corner cube reflectors using only components typically available in an optics laboratory.

  8. Photothermal Characterization of Thermochromic Materials for Tunable Thermal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Voti, R.; Leahu, G. L.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2015-06-01

    A detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide film deposited on a silicon wafer is presented. The phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behavior of the emissivity during the SMT puts into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in which has been explained by applying the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices. Photothermal radiometry has been applied in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by a laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide-based structures.

  9. Multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents for imaging guided photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Caixin; Jin, Yushen; Dai, Zhifei

    2014-05-21

    Among all the imaging techniques, ultrasound imaging has a unique advantage due to its features of real-time, low cost, high safety, and portability. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have been widely used to enhance ultrasonic signals. One of the most exciting features of UCAs for use in biomedicine is the possibility of easily putting new combinations of functional molecules into microbubbles (MBs), which are the most routinely used UCAs. Various therapeutic agents and medical nanoparticles (quantum dots, gold, Fe3O4, etc.) can be loaded into ultrasound-responsive MBs. Hence, UCAs can be developed as multifunctional agents that integrate capabilities for early detection and diagnosis and for imaging guided therapy of various diseases. The current review will focus on such state-of-the-art UCA platforms that have been exploited for multimodal imaging and for imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  10. Noncontacting measuring device to indicate deflection of turbopump internal rotating parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Ensminger, D.; Saccacio, E. J.; Kissel, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive techniques to measure vibrations and deflections of parts in future LOX and LH2 multistage turbopump prototypes are reported. The measurements include shaft vibration, vibration of turbine wheel and blades, blade clearance, vibration of impellers, value component flutter, and vibration of face seal components. Three techniques were selected for development: ultrasonic Doppler devices, flash X-ray, and light-pipe reflectance.

  11. Simplified deflection-coil linearity testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    Mask placed over face of image-dissecting photomultiplier tube has precision array of pinholes that permit light to impinge on tube at known points. Signals are fed to deflection coil which sweeps beam across each point without complex operator procedures.

  12. Simplified deflection-coil linearity testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    Mask placed over face of image-dissecting photomultiplier tube has precision array of pinholes that permit light to impinge on tube at known points. Signals are fed to deflection coil which sweeps beam across each point without complex operator procedures.

  13. Rural Youth and Anticipatory Goal Deflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Evans W.; And Others

    Race, sex, community size, occupation of major wage earner, father's education, mother's education, and certainty of expectations were the variables used in this study to determine the "anticipatory occupational goal deflection" (AOGD) of urban and rural youth (blacks and whites) in Louisiana. Least squares analysis of variance and other…

  14. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  15. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOEpatents

    Delayen, Jean [Yorktown, VA

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  16. Super-resolution imaging with mid-IR photothermal microscopy on the single particle level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongming; Kuno, Masaru; Hartland, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Photothermal microscopy has achieved single molecule sensitivity. However, the analytes are usually restricted to be natural absorbers in the visible light region. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging, on the other hand, provides a wealth of information, but encounters difficulties of diffraction-limited spatial resolution and scarcity of ideal detectors. Here we present Mid-IR photothermal heterodyne imaging (MIR-PHI) microscopy as a high sensitivity, super-resolution mid-IR imaging technique. In MIR-PHI, a tunable Mid- IR pulsed laser at 150 kHz is used to excite a micron sized particle. Energy relaxation creates a temperature gradient around the particle, changing the refractive index of the surrounding solvent and creating a thermal lens. A collinear, counter propagating probe beam (a 532 nm CW laser) is modified by the thermal lens and generates a super-resolution photothermal image. We studied 1.1 μm polystyrene beads at the single particle level using this technique. Various solvents with different heat capacities and refractive indices are tested for the best image contrast. The wide applicability and potentially high sensitivity of this technique make it promising for biological imaging and identification.

  17. Polyaniline-coated upconversion nanoparticles with upconverting luminescent and photothermal conversion properties for photothermal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yadong; Li, Luoyuan; Ai, Xicheng; Fu, Limin

    In this study, we developed a nanosystem based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) coated with a layer of polyaniline nanoparticles (PANPs). The UCNP induces upconversion luminescence for imaging and photothermal conversion properties are due to PANPs. In vitro experiments showed that the UCNPs-PANPs were nontoxic to cells even at a high concentration (800 µg mL(-1)). Blood analysis and histological experiments demonstrated that the UCNPs-PANPs exhibited no apparent toxicity in mice in vivo. Besides their efficacy in photothermal cancer cell ablation, the UCNP-PANP nanosystem was found to achieve an effective in vivo tumor ablation effect after irradiation using an 808 nm laser. These results demonstrate the potential of the hybrid nanocomposites for use in imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

  18. Gold nanorods as photothermal agents and autofluorescence enhancer to track cell death during plasmonic photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannadorai, Ravi Kumar; Chiew, Geraldine Giap Ying; Luo, Kathy Qian; Liu, Quan

    2015-07-01

    The transverse and longitudinal plasmon resonance in gold nanorods can be exploited to localize the photothermal therapy and influence the fluorescence to monitor the treatment outcome at the same time. While the longitudinal plasmon peak contributes to the photothermal effect, the transverse peak can enhance fluorescence. After cells take in PEGylated nanorods through endocytosis, autofluorescence from endogenous fluorophores such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the mitochondria is enhanced two times, which is a good indicator of the respiratory status of the cell. When cells are illuminated continuously with near infrared laser, the temperature reaches the hyperthermic region within the first four minutes, which demonstrates the efficiency of gold nanorods in photothermal therapy. The cell viability test and autofluorescence intensity show good correlation indicating the progress of cell death over time.

  19. Polyaniline-coated upconversion nanoparticles with upconverting luminescent and photothermal conversion properties for photothermal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yadong; Li, Luoyuan; Ai, Xicheng; Fu, Limin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a nanosystem based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) coated with a layer of polyaniline nanoparticles (PANPs). The UCNP induces upconversion luminescence for imaging and photothermal conversion properties are due to PANPs. In vitro experiments showed that the UCNPs-PANPs were nontoxic to cells even at a high concentration (800 µg mL−1). Blood analysis and histological experiments demonstrated that the UCNPs-PANPs exhibited no apparent toxicity in mice in vivo. Besides their efficacy in photothermal cancer cell ablation, the UCNP-PANP nanosystem was found to achieve an effective in vivo tumor ablation effect after irradiation using an 808 nm laser. These results demonstrate the potential of the hybrid nanocomposites for use in imaging-guided photothermal therapy. PMID:27621625

  20. Accelerated Testing Of Photothermal Degradation Of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Liang, Ranty Hing; Tsay, Fun-Dow

    1989-01-01

    Electron-spin-resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Arrhenius plots used to determine maximum safe temperature for accelerated testing of photothermal degradation of polymers. Aging accelerated by increasing illumination, temperature, or both. Results of aging tests at temperatures higher than those encountered in normal use valid as long as mechanism of degradation same throughout range of temperatures. Transition between different mechanisms at some temperature identified via transition between activation energies, manifesting itself as change in slope of Arrhenius plot at that temperature.

  1. Deflection of uncooperative targets using laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Nicolas; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    Owing to their ability to move a target in space without requiring propellant, laser-based deflection methods have gained attention among the research community in the recent years. With laser ablation, the vaporized material is used to push the target itself allowing for a significant reduction in the mass requirement for a space mission. Specifically, this paper addresses two important issues which are thought to limit seriously the potential efficiency of a laser-deflection method: the impact of the tumbling motion of the target as well as the impact of the finite thickness of the material ablated in the case of a space debris. In this paper, we developed a steady-state analytical model based on energetic considerations in order to predict the efficiency range theoretically allowed by a laser deflection system in absence of the two aforementioned issues. A numerical model was then implemented to solve the transient heat equation in presence of vaporization and melting and account for the tumbling rate of the target. This model was also translated to the case where the target is a space debris by considering material properties of an aluminium 6061-T6 alloy and adapting at every time-step the size of the computational domain along with the recession speed of the interface in order to account for the finite thickness of the debris component. The comparison between the numerical results and the analytical predictions allow us to draw interesting conclusions regarding the momentum coupling achievable by a given laser deflection system both for asteroids and space debris in function of the flux, the rotation rate of the target and its material properties. In the last section of this paper, we show how a reasonably small spacecraft could deflect a 56m asteroid with a laser system requiring less than 5kW of input power.

  2. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.; AIDA team

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at 7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  3. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Test Kinetic Impact for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Hernandez, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Earth has previously been struck with devastating force by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and will be struck again. Telescopic search programs aim to provide advance warning of such an impact, but no techniques or systems have yet been tested for deflecting an incoming NEA. To begin addressing this problem, we have analyzed the more than 8000 currently known NEAs to identify those that offer opportunities for safe and meaningful near-term tests of the proposed kinetic impact asteroid deflection technique. In this paper we present our methodology and results, including complete mission designs for the best kinetic impactor test mission opportunities.

  4. Ultrasharp nonlinear photothermal and photoacoustic resonances and holes beyond the spectral limit.

    PubMed

    Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution nonlinear laser spectroscopy based on absorption saturation, Lamb-dip and spectral hole-burning phenomena have contributed much to basic and applied photonics. Here, a laser spectroscopy based on nonlinear photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena is presented. It shows ultrasharp resonances and dips up to a few nanometres wide in broad plasmonic spectra of nanoparticles. It also demonstrates narrowing of absorption spectra of dyes and chromophores, as well as an increase in the sensitivity and resolution of the spectral hole-burning technique. This approach can permit the study of laser-nanoparticle interactions at a level of resolution beyond the spectral limits, identification of weakly absorbing spectral holes, spectral optimization of photothermal nanotherapy, measurements of tiny red and blue plasmon resonance shifts, multispectral imaging and multicolour cytometry.

  5. Ultrasharp nonlinear photothermal and photoacoustic resonances and holes beyond the spectral limit

    PubMed Central

    Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution nonlinear laser spectroscopy based on absorption saturation, Lamb-dip and spectral hole-burning phenomena have contributed much to basic and applied photonics. Here, a laser spectroscopy based on nonlinear photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena is presented. It shows ultrasharp resonances and dips up to a few nanometres wide in broad plasmonic spectra of nanoparticles. It also demonstrates narrowing of absorption spectra of dyes and chromophores, as well as an increase in the sensitivity and resolution of the spectral hole-burning technique. This approach can permit the study of laser-nanoparticle interactions at a level of resolution beyond the spectral limits, identification of weakly absorbing spectral holes, spectral optimization of photothermal nanotherapy, measurements of tiny red and blue plasmon resonance shifts, multispectral imaging and multicolour cytometry. PMID:25558274

  6. Photothermal tomography for the functional and structural evaluation, and early mineral loss monitoring in bones

    PubMed Central

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas; Wang, Xueding; Feng, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Salient features of a new non-ionizing bone diagnostics technique, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT), exhibiting optical-grade contrast and capable of resolving the trabecular network in three dimensions through the cortical region with and without a soft-tissue overlayer are presented. The absolute nature and early demineralization-detection capability of a marker called thermal wave occupation index, estimated using the proposed modality, have been established. Selective imaging of regions of a specific mineral density range has been demonstrated in a mouse femur. The method is maximum-permissible-exposure compatible. In a matrix of bone and soft-tissue a depth range of ~3.8 mm has been achieved, which can be increased through instrumental and modulation waveform optimization. Furthermore, photoacoustic microscopy, a comparable modality with TC-PCT, has been used to resolve the trabecular structure and for comparison with the photothermal tomography. PMID:25136480

  7. Suppression of photothermal convection of microparticles in two dimensional nanoplasmonic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chung; Yossifon, Gilad; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal convection has been a major obstacle for stable particle trapping in plasmonic optical tweezer at high optical power. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to suppress the plasmonic photothermal convection by using vanishingly small thermal expansion coefficient of water at low temperature. A simple square nanoplasmonic array is illuminated with a loosely Gaussian beam to produce a two dimensional optical lattice for trapping of micro particles. We observe stable particle trapping due to near-field optical gradient forces at elevated optical power at low temperature. In contrast, for the same optical power at room temperature, the particles are convected away from the center of the optical lattice without their accumulation. This technique will greatly increase usable optical power and enhance the trapping capability of plasmonic optical tweezer.

  8. Photothermal tomography for the functional and structural evaluation, and early mineral loss monitoring in bones.

    PubMed

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas; Wang, Xueding; Feng, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Salient features of a new non-ionizing bone diagnostics technique, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT), exhibiting optical-grade contrast and capable of resolving the trabecular network in three dimensions through the cortical region with and without a soft-tissue overlayer are presented. The absolute nature and early demineralization-detection capability of a marker called thermal wave occupation index, estimated using the proposed modality, have been established. Selective imaging of regions of a specific mineral density range has been demonstrated in a mouse femur. The method is maximum-permissible-exposure compatible. In a matrix of bone and soft-tissue a depth range of ~3.8 mm has been achieved, which can be increased through instrumental and modulation waveform optimization. Furthermore, photoacoustic microscopy, a comparable modality with TC-PCT, has been used to resolve the trabecular structure and for comparison with the photothermal tomography.

  9. Memory-dependent derivatives for photothermal semiconducting medium in generalized thermoelasticity with two-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, K.; Sarkar, N.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a novel generalized model of photothermal theory with two-temperature thermoelasticity theory based on memory-dependent derivative (MDD) theory is performed. A one-dimensional problem for an elastic semiconductor material with isotropic and homogeneous properties has been considered. The problem is solved with a new model (MDD) under the influence of a mechanical force with a photothermal excitation. The Laplace transform technique is used to remove the time-dependent terms in the governing equations. Moreover, the general solutions of some physical fields are obtained. The surface taken into consideration is free of traction and subjected to a time-dependent thermal shock. The numerical Laplace inversion is used to obtain the numerical results of the physical quantities of the problem. Finally, the obtained results are presented and discussed graphically.

  10. Photothermal and infrared thermography characterizations of thermal diffusion in hydroxyapatite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Conde-Contreras, M.; Trujillo, S.; Martinez-Torres, P.; Cruz-Jimenez, B.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2009-02-01

    Non destructive analysis of hydroxyapatite materials is an active research area mainly in the study of dental pieces and bones due to the importance these pieces have in medicine, archeology, dentistry, forensics and anthropology. Infrared thermography and photothermal techniques constitute highly valuable tools in those cases. In this work the quantitative analysis of thermal diffusion in bones is presented. The results obtained using thermographic images are compared with the ones obtained from the photothermal radiometry. Special emphasis is done in the analysis of samples with previous thermal damage. Our results show that the treatments induce changes in the physical properties of the samples. These results could be useful in the identification of the agents that induced modifications of unknown origin in hydroxyapatite structures.

  11. Deflection Angle and R-Charged Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider R-charged black holes with three electrical charges and study deflection angle. We confirmed result of previous study that the black hole charges increased the deflection angle.

  12. Dark matter prospects in deflected mirage mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D. E-mail: b.nelson@neu.edu

    2009-07-01

    The recently introduced deflected mirage mediation (DMM) model is a string-motivated paradigm in which all three of the major supersymmetry-breaking transmission mechanisms are operative. We begin a systematic exploration of the parameter space of this rich model context, paying special attention to the pattern of gaugino masses which arise. In this work we focus on the dark matter phenomenology of the DMM model as such signals are the least influenced by the model-dependent scalar masses. We find that a large portion of the parameter space in which the three mediation mechanisms have a similar effective mass scale of 1 TeV or less will be probed by future direct and indirect detection experiments. Distinguishing deflected mirage mediation from the mirage model without gauge mediation will prove difficult without collider input, though we indicate how gamma ray signals may provide an opportunity for distinguishing between the two paradigms.

  13. Large-deflection theory of curved sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Samuel

    1943-01-01

    Equations are given for the elastic behavior of initially curved sheets in which the deflections are not small in comparison with the thickness, but at the same time small enough to justify the use of simplified formulas for curvature. These equations are solved for the case of a sheet with circular cylindrical shape simply supported along two edges parallel to the axis of the generating cylinder. Numerical results are given for three values of the curvature and for three ratios of buckle length to buckle width. The computations are carried to buckle deflections of about twice the sheet thickness. It was concluded that initial curvature may cause an appreciable increase in the buckling load but that, for edge strains which are several times the buckling strain, the initial curvature causes a negligibly small change in the effective width.

  14. Simplified method for calculating shear deflections of beams.

    Treesearch

    I. Orosz

    1970-01-01

    When one designs with wood, shear deflections can become substantial compared to deflections due to moments, because the modulus of elasticity in bending differs from that in shear by a large amount. This report presents a simplified energy method to calculate shear deflections in bending members. This simplified approach should help designers decide whether or not...

  15. Efficiency improvement in the cantilever photothermal excitation method using a photothermal conversion layer.

    PubMed

    Inada, Natsumi; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Taiki; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Photothermal excitation is a cantilever excitation method that enables stable and accurate operation for dynamic-mode AFM measurements. However, the low excitation efficiency of the method has often limited its application in practical studies. In this study, we propose a method for improving the photothermal excitation efficiency by coating cantilever backside surface near its fixed end with colloidal graphite as a photothermal conversion (PTC) layer. The excitation efficiency for a standard cantilever of PPP-NCHAuD with a spring constant of ≈40 N/m and a relatively stiff cantilever of AC55 with a spring constant of ≈140 N/m were improved by 6.1 times and 2.5 times, respectively, by coating with a PTC layer. We experimentally demonstrate high stability of the PTC layer in liquid by AFM imaging of a mica surface with atomic resolution in phosphate buffer saline solution for more than 2 h without any indication of possible contamination from the coating. The proposed method, using a PTC layer made of colloidal graphite, greatly enhances photothermal excitation efficiency even for a relatively stiff cantilever in liquid.

  16. Efficiency improvement in the cantilever photothermal excitation method using a photothermal conversion layer

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Taiki; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Photothermal excitation is a cantilever excitation method that enables stable and accurate operation for dynamic-mode AFM measurements. However, the low excitation efficiency of the method has often limited its application in practical studies. In this study, we propose a method for improving the photothermal excitation efficiency by coating cantilever backside surface near its fixed end with colloidal graphite as a photothermal conversion (PTC) layer. The excitation efficiency for a standard cantilever of PPP-NCHAuD with a spring constant of ≈40 N/m and a relatively stiff cantilever of AC55 with a spring constant of ≈140 N/m were improved by 6.1 times and 2.5 times, respectively, by coating with a PTC layer. We experimentally demonstrate high stability of the PTC layer in liquid by AFM imaging of a mica surface with atomic resolution in phosphate buffer saline solution for more than 2 h without any indication of possible contamination from the coating. The proposed method, using a PTC layer made of colloidal graphite, greatly enhances photothermal excitation efficiency even for a relatively stiff cantilever in liquid. PMID:27335733

  17. Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika

    2012-09-01

    Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

  18. Deflection And Stress In Preloaded Square Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermida, Alfonso

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analysis yields equations for transverse deflection of, and stresses in, square membrane subject to both uniform transverse load and tension preloads applied uniformly along the edges. Follows energy/virtual-displacement approach. Basic equation expresses strain energy in membrane as double integral, over x and y coordinates of square, of function of longitudinal strains, shear strain, thickness of membrane, and Young's modulus and Poissons's ratio of membrane material.

  19. [Pliability and deflection of diagnostic catheters].

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Liza; Bognár, Eszter

    2014-09-28

    The cardiac catheter is an intravascular catheter, which is introduced or implanted into the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The catheters may break or king during their introduction and/or removal. The aim of the authors was to study the pliability of two catheters with the same material but different diameters according to the Food and Drug Administration's recommendation. The bending points, diameter decrease, deflection, and their correlation and dependence on the distance from the tip, as well as the influence of the initial diameter of the catheters were determined. The bending of catheters was performed on 9 bending points (120-280 mm from the tip by 20 mm) on 16 gauges with different radius (10-2.5 mm by 0.5 mm). A linear dependency between the diameter decrease and deflection was observed, which was independent from the placement of the measurement in both catheters examined. The larger initial diameter had significant (p = 0.05) greater diameter decrease than the smaller, but the curves characteristic of the diameter decrease and deflection were similar. The applied method seems to be useful for the examination of weak points of cardiac catheters.

  20. Polyhedron tracking and gravity tractor asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummen, N.; Lappas, V.

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the defense against hazardous asteroids is becoming a topic of high interest. This work improves the gravity tractor asteroid deflection approach by tracking realistic small body shapes with tilted ion engines. An algorithm for polyhedron tracking was evaluated in a fictitious impact scenario. The simulations suggest a capability increase up to 38.2% with such improved tilting strategies. The long- and short-term effects within polyhedron tracking are illustrated. In particular, the orbital reorientation effect is influential when realistic asteroid shapes and rotations are accounted for. Also analyzed is the subject of altitude profiles, a way to tailor the gravity tractor performance, and to achieve a steering ability within the B-plane. A novel analytical solution for the classic gravity tractor is derived. It removes the simulation need for classic tractor designs to obtain comparable two body model Δv figures. This paper corroborates that the asteroid shape can be exploited for maximum performance. Even a single engine tilt adjustment at the beginning of deflection operations yields more deflection than a fixed preset tilt.

  1. Optical forces through guided light deflections.

    PubMed

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Kelemen, Lóránd; Aabo, Thomas; Ormos, Pál; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Optical trapping and manipulation typically relies on shaping focused light to control the optical force, usually on spherical objects. However, one can also shape the object to control the light deflection arising from the light-matter interaction and, hence, achieve desired optomechanical effects. In this work we look into the object shaping aspect and its potential for controlled optical manipulation. Using a simple bent waveguide as example, our numerical simulations show that the guided deflection of light efficiently converts incident light momentum into optical force with one order-of-magnitude improvement in the efficiency factor relative to a microbead, which is comparable to the improvement expected from orthogonal deflection with a perfect mirror. This improvement is illustrated in proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating the optical manipulation of two-photon polymerized waveguides. Results show that the force on the waveguide exceeds the combined forces on spherical trapping handles. Furthermore, it shows that static illumination can exert a constant force on a moving structure, unlike the position-dependent forces from harmonic potentials in conventional trapping.

  2. Modelling the deflection of rowing oar shafts.

    PubMed

    Laschowski, Brock; Hopkins, Cameron C; de Bruyn, John R; Nolte, Volker

    2017-03-01

    The deflection of rowing oar shafts subjected to a static load was investigated. Two sets of sculling oars of different design stiffness were tested at three different lengths from 2.66 to 2.70 m. Loads up to 201 N were applied to the blade end of the oar shafts, and deflections were measured at six positions along the length of the shafts. The experimental results were compared with theoretical predictions obtained by modelling the oar shafts as homogenous end-loaded cantilever beams. The results show that the oar shafts are not uniform, in contradiction to the assumed model, but rather are most compliant near the sleeves and up to 80% stiffer towards the blades. The effect of oar shaft stiffness and length on the deflection angle at the blade end of the oar shaft was at most 1.18 ± 0.01°. The measured variation of stiffness along the shaft has implications for boat propulsion and rowing performance.

  3. Fabrication and Testing of Deflecting Cavities for APS

    SciTech Connect

    Mammosser, John; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert; Jim, Henry; Katherine, Wilson; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ali, Nassiri; Jim, Kerby; Jeremiah, Holzbauer; Genfa, Wu; Joel, Fuerst; Yawei, Yang; Zenghai, Li

    2013-09-01

    Jefferson Lab (Newport News, Virginia) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has fabricated and tested four first article, 2.8 GHz, deflecting SRF cavities, for Argonne's Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) project. These cavities are unique in many ways including the fabrication techniques in which the cavity cell and waveguides were fabricated. These cavity subcomponents were milled from bulk large grain niobium ingot material directly from 3D CAD files. No forming of sub components was used with the exception of the beam-pipes. The challenging cavity and helium vessel design and fabrication results from the stringent RF performance requirements required by the project and operation in the APS ring. Production challenges and fabrication techniques as well as testing results will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Accurate analytical approximation of asteroid deflection with constant tangential thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Baù, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We present analytical formulas to estimate the variation of achieved deflection for an Earth-impacting asteroid following a continuous tangential low-thrust deflection strategy. Relatively simple analytical expressions are obtained with the aid of asymptotic theory and the use of Peláez orbital elements set, an approach that is particularly suitable to the asteroid deflection problem and is not limited to small eccentricities. The accuracy of the proposed formulas is evaluated numerically showing negligible error for both early and late deflection campaigns. The results will be of aid in planning future low-thrust asteroid deflection missions.

  5. Biomimetic tissue platform for photothermal cancer therapy using gold nanorods (GNRs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Bae, Ji Yong; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Gunhee; Lee, Kye-Sung; Chang, Ki-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Photothermal therapy (PT) provides a strong potential in treatment of tumors, selective cell death, through the ability of gold nanoparticles to target destructive heat preferentially to tumor regions. And yet, clinical application of the thermal therapies has not accomplished due to insufficient processes of the heating methods and temperature measuring techniques leading to low reproducibility of such treatment. In this study, we created a 3 dimensional tissue platform to characterize the heating method and to control the generated heat in the tissue used for a superficial cancer model using gold nanorods (GNRs) and near-infrared (NIR, 808 nm) laser. The 3D tissue platform involved a 2 mm wide hemisphere to confine the GNRs covered with20 μm thick polymer film designed to mimic localized nanoparticles in tumor. Moreover, this platform provides an easy way to measure heat distribution and temperature created in tumor cross section. To investigate the photothermal effect of GNRs on heat generation, the amount of GNRs and laser power density were controlled. The GNRs were shown to be the large absorption cross sections generating localized photothermal effects and hyperthermic effects on destructive consequences in the cell dynamics causing a partial tumor regression.

  6. Fast wide-field photothermal and quantitative phase cell imaging with optical lock-in detection

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Will J.; Meiri, Amihai; Sheinfeld, Adi; Rinehart, Matthew T.; Wax, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We present a fast, wide-field holography system for detecting photothermally excited gold nanospheres with combined quantitative phase imaging. An interferometric photothermal optical lock-in approach (POLI) is shown to improve SNR for detecting nanoparticles (NPs) on multiple substrates, including a monolayer of NPs on a silanized coverslip, and NPs bound to live cells. Furthermore, the set up allowed for co-registered quantitative phase imaging (QPI) to be acquired in an off-axis holographic set-up. An SNR of 103 was obtained for NP-tagging of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in live cells with a 3 second acquisition, while an SNR of 47 was seen for 20 ms acquisition. An analysis of improvements in SNR due to averaging multiple frames is presented, which suggest that residual photothermal signal can be a limiting factor. The combination of techniques allows for high resolution imaging of cell structure via QPI with the ability to identify receptor expression via POLI. PMID:25136482

  7. Manganese doped iron oxide theranostic nanoparticles for combined T1 magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengxin; Cao, Yuhua; Wang, Lina; Ma, Yufei; Tu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-03-04

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a noninvasive and convenient way to ablate tumor tissues. Integrating PTT with imaging technique could precisely identify the location and the size of tumor regions, thereby significantly improving the therapeutic efficacy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in clinical diagnosis due to its superb spatial resolution and real-time monitoring feature. In our work, we developed a theranostic nanoplatform based on manganese doped iron oxide (MnIO) nanoparticles modified with denatured bovine serum albumin (MnIO-dBSA). The in vitro experiment revealed that the MnIO nanoparticles exhibited T1-weighted MRI capability (r1 = 8.24 mM(-1) s(-1), r2/r1 = 2.18) and good photothermal effect under near-infrared laser irradiation (808 nm). Using 4T1 tumor-bearing mice as an animal model, we further demonstrated that the MnIO-dBSA composites could significantly increase T1 MRI signal intensity at the tumor site (about two times) and effectively ablate tumor tissues with photoirradiation. Taken together, this work demonstrates the great potential of the MnIO nanoparticles as an ideal theranostic platform for efficient tumor MR imaging and photothermal therapy.

  8. Photothermal detection of the contrast properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Au, Kin Man; Lu, Zenghai; Childs, David; Armes, Steven P.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2013-02-01

    We report on a photothermal modulation detection scheme developed using a swept source-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centred at 1300nm. Photothermal detection is an improved technique for studying the contrast properties of exogenous contrast agents such as highly absorbing polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles used for OCT imaging. The swept source based OCT system has a wavelength sweep rate of 10 kHz which is used for the phase modulation detection of various concentrations of PPy nanoparticles. PPy nanoparticles have been recently reported to be a promising candidate for OCT imaging owing to their strong NIR absorption from 700-1300nm. Phase-sensitive detection of the photothermal modulation signal is achieved using a pumped 975 nm laser beam at 80Hz and 160Hz for varying concentrations of PPy nanoparticles dispersed in 2% Intralipid phantom. A phase-sensitive detection system is realised by carrying out the phase calibration using the back reflections obtained from the coverslip used with the sample. This study provides quantitative support for the use of PPy nanoparticles as a potential biocompatible contrast agent in OCT imaging.

  9. Photothermal nanoblade for patterned cell membrane cutting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teslaa, Tara; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    We report a photothermal nanoblade that utilizes a metallic nanostructure to harvest short laser pulse energy and convert it into a highly localized and specifically shaped explosive vapor bubble. Rapid bubble expansion and collapse punctures a lightly-contacting cell membrane via high-speed fluidic flows and induced transient shear stress. The membrane cutting pattern is controlled by the metallic nanostructure configuration, laser pulse polarization, and energy. Highly controllable, sub-micron sized circular hole pairs to half moon-like, or cat-door shaped, membrane cuts were realized in glutaraldehyde treated HeLa cells. PMID:21164656

  10. Trace Chemical Vapor Detection by Photothermal Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    external cavity diode laser ( ECDL ) SDL- TC10-1393 operating in the 910-950 nm region for type II phase matching in AgGaS2 were overlapped using a...dichroic beamcombiner. The beams were focused using two cylindrical lenses and an aspheric lens for the ECDL and DRB lasers respectively. The 20-cm long...optical chopper. ECDL DBR L M HgCdTe BC CL L RS GP OC NC 6 RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION PHOTOTHERMAL Initial trials were conducted

  11. Recyclable Photo-Thermal Nano-Aggregates of Magnetic Nanoparticle Conjugated Gold Nanorods for Effective Pathogenic Bacteria Lysis.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Kim, Sanghyo; Lee, Su Seong; Yi, Dong Kee

    2016-01-01

    We describe the nucleophilic hybridization technique for fabricating magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) around gold nanorod (AuNR) for desired photo-thermal lysis on pathogenic bacteria. From the electromagnetic energy conversion into heat to the surrounding medium, a significant and quicker temperature rise was noted after light absorption on nanohybrids, at a controlled laser light output and optimum nanoparticle concentration. We observed a similar photo-thermal pattern for more than three times for the same material up on repeated magnetic separation. Regardless of the cell wall nature, superior pathogenic cell lysis has been observed for the bacteria suspensions of individual and mixed samples of Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) by the photo-heated nanoparticles. The synthesis of short gold nanorod, conjugation with magnetic nanoparticle and its subsequent laser exposure provides a rapid and reiterated photo-thermal effect with enhanced magnetic separation for efficient bactericidal application in water samples. Resultant novel properties of the nano-aggregates makes them a candidate to be used for a rapid, effective, and re-iterated photo-thermal agent against a wide variety of pathogens to attain microbe free water.

  12. One-pot solventless preparation of PEGylated black phosphorus nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caixia; Wen, Ling; Zeng, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Sun, Qiao; Deng, Lijuan; Zhao, Chongjun; Li, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) nanostructures such as nanosheets and nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their unique properties and great potential in various physical, chemical, and biological fields. In this article, water-soluble and biocompatible PEGylated BP nanoparticles with a high yield were prepared by one-pot solventless high energy mechanical milling technique. The resultant BP nanoparticles can efficiently convert near infrared (NIR) light into heat, and exhibit excellent photostability, which makes them suitable as a novel nanotheranostic agent for photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer. The in-vitro results demonstrate the excellent biocompatibility of PEGylated BP nanoparticles, which can be used for photothermal ablation of cancer cells under irradiation with NIR light. The in-vivo PA images demonstrate that these BP nanoparticles can be efficiently accumulated in tumors through the enhanced permeability retention effect. The resultant BP nanoparticles can be further utilized for photothermal ablation of tumors by irradiation with NIR light. The tumor-bearing mice were completely recovered after photothermal treatment with BP nanoparticles, in comparison with mice from control groups. Our research highlights the great potential of PEGylated BP nanoparticles in detection and treatment of cancer.

  13. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the limitation of this study, the electric spot welding process performed on stainless steel and chromium-cobalt wires increased their load deflection rates. PMID:26604957

  14. Gravitational lensing from compact bodies: Analytical results for strong and weak deflection limits

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; De Pace, Arturo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2007-04-15

    We develop a nonperturbative method that yields analytical expressions for the deflection angle of light in a general static and spherically symmetric metric. The method works by introducing into the problem an artificial parameter, called {delta}, and by performing an expansion in this parameter to a given order. The results obtained are analytical and nonperturbative because they do not correspond to a polynomial expression in the physical parameters. Already to first order in {delta} the analytical formulas obtained using our method provide at the same time accurate approximations both at large distances (weak deflection limit) and at distances close to the photon sphere (strong deflection limit). We have applied our technique to different metrics and verified that the error is at most 0.5% for all regimes. We have also proposed an alternative approach which provides simpler formulas, although with larger errors.

  15. Photothermal measurement of absorption and scattering losses in thin films excited by surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Domené, Esteban A; Balzarotti, Francisco; Bragas, Andrea V; Martínez, Oscar E

    2009-12-15

    We present a novel noncontact, photothermal technique, based on the focus error signal of a commercial CD pickup head that allows direct determination of absorption in thin films. Combined with extinction methods, this technique yields the scattering contribution to the losses. Surface plasmon polaritons are excited using the Kretschmann configuration in thin Au films of varying thickness. By measuring the extinction and absorption simultaneously, it is shown that dielectric constants and thickness retrieval leads to inconsistencies if the model does not account for scattering.

  16. Designs of Superconducting Parallel-Bar Deflecting Cavities for Deflecting/Crabbing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J. R.; De Silva, S. U.

    2011-07-01

    The superconducting parallel-bar cavity is a deflecting/crabbing cavity with attractive properties, compared to other conventional designs, that is currently being considered for a number of applications. The new parallel-bar design with curved loading elements and circular or elliptical outer conductors have improved properties compared to the designs with rectangular outer conductors. We present the designs proposed as deflecting cavities for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade and for Project-X and as crabbing cavities for the proposed LHC luminosity upgrade and electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab.

  17. Dark matter signals in deflected mirage mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Michael

    2010-02-10

    We investigate the parameter space of a specific class of model within the deflected mirage mediation (DMM) scenario. We look at neutralino properties and compute the thermal relic density as well as interaction rates with xenon direct detection experiments. We find that there are portions of the parameter space which are in line with the current WMAP constraints. Further we find that none of the investigated parameter space is in conflict with current bounds from the Xenon10 experiment and that future large-scale liquid xenon experiments will probe a large portion of the model space.

  18. Electroweak naturalness and deflected mirage mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Vernon; Everett, Lisa L.; Garon, Todd S.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the question of electroweak naturalness within the deflected mirage mediation (DMM) framework for supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The class of DMM models considered are nine-parameter theories that fall within the general classification of the 19-parameter phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model. Our results show that these DMM models have regions of parameter space with very low electroweak fine-tuning, at levels comparable to the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model. These parameter regions should be probed extensively in the current LHC run.

  19. Deflection of Propeller Blades While Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzmayr, R

    1922-01-01

    The forces acting on the blades of a propeller proceed from the mass of the propeller and the resistance of the surrounding medium. The magnitude, direction and point of application of the resultant to the propeller blade is of prime importance for the strength calculation. Since it was obviously impracticable to bring any kind of testing device near the revolving propeller, not so much on account of the element of danger as on account of the resulting considerable disturbance of the air flow, the deflection in both cases was photographically recorded and subsequently measured at leisure.

  20. Deflection Missions for Asteroid 2011 AG5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel; Landau, Damon; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chodas, Paul; Chesley, Steven; Yeomans, Don; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Sims, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered asteroid 2011 AG5 currently has a 1-in-500 chance of impacting Earth in 2040. In this paper, we discuss the potential of future observations of the asteroid and their effects on the asteroid's orbital uncertainty. Various kinetic impactor mission scenarios, relying on both conventional chemical as well as solar-electric propulsion, are presented for deflecting the course of the asteroid safely away from Earth. The times for the missions range from pre-keyhole passage (pre-2023), and up to five years prior to the 2040 Earth close approach. We also include a brief discussion on terminal guidance, and contingency options for mission planning.

  1. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  2. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  3. Study of drug diffusion rate by laser beam deflection technique.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Mohanachandran Nair S; Anitha, Madhu J; Sankararaman, Sankaranarayana Iyer

    2017-06-01

    Drug administration is an unavoidable part of treatment. When a drug is administered orally or intravenously, it gets absorbed into the blood stream. The rate and efficiency of absorption depend on the route of administration. When a drug is administered through the oral route, it penetrates the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. The diffusion of the drug into the blood stream depends on various parameters, such as concentration, temperature, and the nature of the mucous membrane. The passive diffusion of drugs is found to obey Fick’s law. Water soluble drugs penetrate the cell membrane through aqueous channel or pores. Hence, the study of diffusion of drugs into the water and finally into the blood stream is important. An attempt has been made to study the diffusion of the drug in water as 60% to 80% of human body is water. For the study of drug diffusion in water, a commonly used cough syrup of specific gravity 1.263 is used. It is found that the diffusion rate increases with the concentration of the drug.

  4. Study of drug diffusion rate by laser beam deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swapna, Mohanachandran Nair. S.; Anitha, Madhu J.; Sankararaman, Sankaranarayana Iyer

    2017-06-01

    Drug administration is an unavoidable part of treatment. When a drug is administered orally or intravenously, it gets absorbed into the blood stream. The rate and efficiency of absorption depend on the route of administration. When a drug is administered through the oral route, it penetrates the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. The diffusion of the drug into the blood stream depends on various parameters, such as concentration, temperature, and the nature of the mucous membrane. The passive diffusion of drugs is found to obey Fick's law. Water soluble drugs penetrate the cell membrane through aqueous channel or pores. Hence, the study of diffusion of drugs into the water and finally into the blood stream is important. An attempt has been made to study the diffusion of the drug in water as 60% to 80% of human body is water. For the study of drug diffusion in water, a commonly used cough syrup of specific gravity 1.263 is used. It is found that the diffusion rate increases with the concentration of the drug.

  5. Three-dimensional diamagnetic particle deflection in ferrofluid microchannel flows.

    PubMed

    Liang, Litao; Zhu, Junjie; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic field-induced particle manipulation is a promising technique for biomicrofluidics applications. It is simple, cheap, and also free of fluid heating issues that accompany other common electric, acoustic, and optical methods. This work presents a fundamental study of diamagnetic particle motion in ferrofluid flows through a rectangular microchannel with a nearby permanent magnet. Due to their negligible magnetization relative to the ferrofluid, diamagnetic particles experience negative magnetophoresis and are repelled away from the magnet. The result is a three-dimensionally focused particle stream flowing near the bottom outer corner of the microchannel that is the farthest to the center of the magnet and hence has the smallest magnetic field. The effects of the particle's relative position to the magnet, particle size, ferrofluid flow rate, and concentration on this three-dimensional diamagnetic particle deflection are systematically studied. The obtained experimental results agree quantitatively with the predictions of a three-dimensional analytical model.

  6. Novel pyrometer using photothermal effect and fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothon, Alain; Denayrolles, Yves; Kleitz, Alain

    1990-03-01

    A novel pyrometric technique is being developed in Electricite de France (EDF) for measuring the surface temperature of the moving blades of partial load steam turbines. This technique uses the photothermal effect to slightly (temporarily) modify the superficial temperature of the object. Theoretical considerations show that the measurement is proportionnal to successive derivatives of Planck's function. The point is that the measurement is thus made. insensitive to background radiation partially reflected to the detection system by the object itself. Moreover, the short duration of the operation (several microseconds) allows quick moving targets to be measured. We here use the method for monitoring the temperature of the moving blades of partial load steam turbines in EDF nuclear power plants. A rod-shaped probe using fiber optics is being built to take measurements in real conditions. Some laboratory preliminary results show effectiveness and good accuracy of the method. Further studies will permit the extension of this new method to many industrial problems where non-contact temperature measurements in adverse radiative conditions are required.

  7. Photothermally activated motion and ignition using aluminum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Jacques E.; Chong, Xinyuan; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Zhili; Jiang, Naibo; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) are demonstrated to serve as active photothermal media, to enhance and control local photothermal energy deposition via the photothermal effect activated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and amplified by Al NPs oxidation. The activation source is a 2-AA-battery-powered xenon flash lamp. The extent of the photothermally activated movement of Al NPs can be ˜6 mm. Ignition delay can be ˜0.1 ms. Both scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of motion-only and after-ignition products confirm significant Al oxidation occurs through sintering and bursting after the flash exposure. Simulations suggest local heat generation is enhanced by LSPR. The positive-feedback effects from the local heat generation amplified by Al oxidation produce a large increase in local temperature and pressure, which enhances movement and accelerates ignition.

  8. Advances in biodegradable nanomaterials for photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Chao-Feng; Wang, Shun-Hao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Shen, He-Yun; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Hui-Ling; Wang, Hai; Li, Lin-Lin; Liu, Hui-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Photothermal cancer therapy is an alternative to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. With the development of nanophotothermal agents, this therapy holds immense potential in clinical translation. However, the toxicity issues derived from the fact that nanomaterials are trapped and retained in the reticuloendothelial systems limit their biomedical application. Developing biodegradable photothermal agents is the most practical route to address these concerns. In addition to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, various internal and external stimuli play key roles on nanomaterials uptake, transport, and clearance. In this review, we summarized novel nanoplatforms for photothermal therapy; these nanoplatforms can elicit stimuli-triggered degradation. We focused on the recent innovative designs endowed with biodegradable photothermal agents under different stimuli, including enzyme, pH, and near-infrared (NIR) laser.

  9. Porous Iron oxide nanorods and their photothermal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, George; Huang, Weijie; Zhao, Yiping; Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxide is a unique semiconductor material, either as a single nanoparticle, or as a component of multifunctional nanoparticles. Its desirable properties, abundance, non-toxicity, and excellent magnetic properties make it a valuable for many applications. Porous iron oxide nanorods are able to transduce light into heat through the photothermal effect. Photothermal heating arises from the energy dissipated during light absorption leading to rapid temperature rise in close proximity to the surface of the nanoparticle. The heating effect can be efficiently harnessed to drive/promote different physical phenomena. In this report, we describe the synthesis and properties of porous Fe3O4 for photothermal applications. We then demonstrate their use as photothermally enhanced and recyclable materials for environmental remediation through sorption processes.

  10. Advances in biodegradable nanomaterials for photothermal therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao-Feng; Wang, Shun-Hao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Shen, He-Yun; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Hui-Ling; Wang, Hai; Li, Lin-Lin; Liu, Hui-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Photothermal cancer therapy is an alternative to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. With the development of nanophotothermal agents, this therapy holds immense potential in clinical translation. However, the toxicity issues derived from the fact that nanomaterials are trapped and retained in the reticuloendothelial systems limit their biomedical application. Developing biodegradable photothermal agents is the most practical route to address these concerns. In addition to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, various internal and external stimuli play key roles on nanomaterials uptake, transport, and clearance. In this review, we summarized novel nanoplatforms for photothermal therapy; these nanoplatforms can elicit stimuli-triggered degradation. We focused on the recent innovative designs endowed with biodegradable photothermal agents under different stimuli, including enzyme, pH, and near-infrared (NIR) laser. PMID:27807498

  11. Erythrocyte membrane is an alternative coating to polyethylene glycol for prolonging the circulation lifetime of gold nanocages for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ji-Gang; Wang, Limin; Gao, Feng; You, Ye-Zi; Xiong, Yujie; Yang, Lihua

    2014-10-28

    Gold nanocages (AuNCs), which have tunable near-infrared (NIR) absorption and intrinsically high photothermal conversion efficiency, have been actively investigated as photothermal conversion agents for photothermal therapy (PTT). The short blood circulation lifetime of AuNCs, however, limits their tumor uptake and thus in vivo applications. Here we show that such a limitation can be overcome by cloaking AuNCs with red blood cell (RBC) membranes, a natural stealth coating. The fusion of RBC membranes over AuNC surface does not alter the unique porous and hollow structures of AuNCs, and the resulting RBC-membrane-coated AuNCs (RBC-AuNCs) exhibit good colloidal stability. Upon NIR laser irradiation, the RBC-AuNCs demonstrate in vitro photothermal effects and selectively ablate cancerous cells within the irradiation zone as do the pristine biopolymer-stealth-coated AuNCs. Moreover, the RBC-AuNCs exhibit significantly enhanced in vivo blood retention and circulation lifetime compared to the biopolymer-stealth-coated counterparts, as demonstrated using a mouse model. With integrated advantages of photothermal effects from AuNCs and long blood circulation lifetime from RBCs, the RBC-AuNCs demonstrate drastically enhanced tumor uptake when administered systematically, and mice that received PPT cancer treatment modulated by RBC-AuNCs achieve 100% survival over a span of 45 days. Taken together, our results indicate that the long circulating RBC-AuNCs may facilitate the in vivo applications of AuNCs, and the RBC-membrane stealth coating technique may pave the way to improved efficacy of PPT modulated by noble metal nanoparticles.

  12. Mussel-inspired gold hollow superparticles for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Shen, Shun; Feng, Jiachun; Jiang, Xingguo; Yang, Wuli

    2015-05-01

    Gold hollow superparticles are prepared taking advantage of the dopamine chemistry. The plasmon coupling of the gold nanoparticles makes the superparticles an effective photothermal conversion agent in the photothermal therapy of cancer. Moreover, the mussel-inspired assembly approach could be extremely useful for the transfer of nanomaterial science to realistic technologies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Analysis of engineering characteristics of pavement deflection trends

    SciTech Connect

    Kerali, H.R.; Lawrance, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes analysis of pavement deflection data collected by the Transport Research Laboratory at two experimental road sites in England during 1960--1985. Measurements of Benkelman beam deflections together with records of traffic loading were taken at 6 to 12 month intervals. The analysis investigates the deflection trend as a function of road base material and thickness. The deflection trend was represented by a negative exponential curve form. Engineering aspects of the curve form were extracted and statistically analyzed. The results obtained focus on the dependency of deflection progression on both road base material and thickness, which are shown to act either jointly or singly, depending on the engineering characteristic of the pavement deflection trend.

  14. Beam-beam deflections as an interaction point diagnostic for the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Bambade, P.; Erickson, R.

    1986-05-01

    A technique is described for non-destructive measurement and monitoring of the steering offset of the electron and positron beams at the interaction point of the SLC, based on using stripline beam-position monitors to measure the centroid of one beam as it is deflected by the opposing beam. This technique is also expected to provide diagnostic information related to the spot size of the micron-size beams.

  15. Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, V.

    1990-10-22

    In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Optical measurement of propeller blade deflections in a spin facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.; Meyn, Erwin H.; Mehmed, Oral; Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical system for measuring propeller blade deflections has been used in the NASA Lewis dynamic spin facility. Deflection of points at the leading and trailing edges of a blade section can be obtained with a narrow light beam from a low power helium-neon laser. A system used to measure these deflections at three spanwise locations is described. Modifications required to operate the lasers in a near-vacuum environment are also discussed.

  17. Scanning Light Sheet Would Measure Deflection Of Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Monteith, James H.; Weisenborn, Michael D.; Franke, John M.; Jordan, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning-light-sheet apparatus designed to measure linear and angular displacement or deflection of structure. Intended specifically to measure deflection of beam-shaped truss structure. Includes conventional low-powered laser, lenses, mounts, single-axis optical scanner, several photodiodes, and electronic controller. Apparatus measures motion of structure and also used to determine positions, deflections, and velocities. Besides use in aerospace field, displacement measurements have many applications in construction-equipment and automotive industries.

  18. Deflection of elastic beam with SMA wires eccentrically inserted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamian, S.; Nik Mohamed, N. A.; Ihsan, A. K. A. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Kamarudin, K. A.; Nor, N. H. Muhd

    2017-08-01

    This research is intended to investigate the ability of shape memory alloys (SMA), through its activation, in generating loads to control beam deflection. An elastic beam is formed by sandwiching eccentrically SMA wires between two elastic plates. SMA wires are activated by electrical current from the power supply. Laser displacement meter (LDM) is used to measures deflection of sample. Results show that the deflection of the beam is dependent on the temperature change. The temperature-deflection response also shows the existence of hysteresis.

  19. Photothermal degradation of ethylene/vinylacetate copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Chung, S.; Clayton, A.; Di Stefano, S.; Oda, K.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Photothermal degradation studies were conducted on a 'stabilized' formulation of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in the temperature range 25-105 C under three different oxygen environments (in open air, with limited access to O2, and in a dark closed stagnant oven). These studies were performed in order to evaluate the utility of EVA as an encapsulation material for photovoltaic modules. Results showed that at low temperature (25 C), slow photooxidation of the polymer occurred via electronic energy transfer involving the UV absorber incorporated in the polymer. However, no changes in the physical properties of the bulk polymer were detected up to 1500 hours of irradiation. At elevated temperatures, leaching and evaporation of the additives occurred, which ultimately resulted in the chemical crosslinking of the copolymer and the formation of volatile photoproducts such as acetic acid.

  20. Laser-assisted photothermal imprinting of nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Shao, D.B.; Chen, S.C.

    2004-08-30

    We report on a laser-assisted photothermal imprinting method for directly patterning carbon nanofiber-reinforced polyethylene nanocomposite. A single laser pulse from a solid state Nd:YAG laser (10 ns pluse, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths) is used to melt/soften a thin skin layer of the polymer nanocomposite. Meanwhile, a fused quartz mold with micro sized surface relief structures is pressed against the surface of the composite. Successful pattern transfer is realized upon releasing the quartz mold. Although polyethylene is transparent to the laser beam, the carbon nanofibers in the high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix absorb the laser energy and convert it into heat. Numerical heat conduction simulation shows the HDPE matrix is partially melted or softened, allowing for easier imprinting of the relief pattern of the quartz mold.

  1. Photothermal degradation of ethylene/vinylacetate copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Chung, S.; Clayton, A.; Di Stefano, S.; Oda, K.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Photothermal degradation studies were conducted on a 'stabilized' formulation of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in the temperature range 25-105 C under three different oxygen environments (in open air, with limited access to O2, and in a dark closed stagnant oven). These studies were performed in order to evaluate the utility of EVA as an encapsulation material for photovoltaic modules. Results showed that at low temperature (25 C), slow photooxidation of the polymer occurred via electronic energy transfer involving the UV absorber incorporated in the polymer. However, no changes in the physical properties of the bulk polymer were detected up to 1500 hours of irradiation. At elevated temperatures, leaching and evaporation of the additives occurred, which ultimately resulted in the chemical crosslinking of the copolymer and the formation of volatile photoproducts such as acetic acid.

  2. Deflecting light into resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Light is coupled into a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) resonant cavity using an acousto-optic modulator. The AOM allows in-coupling efficiencies in excess of 40%, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in conventional systems using a cavity mirror for in-coupling. The AOM shutoff time is shorter than the roundtrip time of the cavity. The higher light intensities lead to a reduction in shot noise, and allow the use of relatively insensitive but fast-responding detectors such as photovoltaic detectors. Other deflection devices such as electro-optic modulators or elements used in conventional Q-switching may be used instead of the AOM. The method is particularly useful in the mid-infrared, far-infrared, and ultraviolet wavelength ranges, for which moderately reflecting input mirrors are not widely available.

  3. Deflecting light into resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.

    1998-09-29

    Light is coupled into a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) resonant cavity using an acousto-optic modulator. The AOM allows in-coupling efficiencies in excess of 40%, which is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in conventional systems using a cavity mirror for in-coupling. The AOM shutoff time is shorter than the roundtrip time of the cavity. The higher light intensities lead to a reduction in shot noise, and allow the use of relatively insensitive but fast-responding detectors such as photovoltaic detectors. Other deflection devices such as electro-optic modulators or elements used in conventional Q-switching may be used instead of the AOM. The method is particularly useful in the mid-infrared, far-infrared, and ultraviolet wavelength ranges, for which moderately reflecting input mirrors are not widely available. 5 figs.

  4. Depth-resolved analytical model and correction algorithm for photothermal optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre-Landry, Maryse; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Photothermal OCT (PT-OCT) is an emerging molecular imaging technique that occupies a spatial imaging regime between microscopy and whole body imaging. PT-OCT would benefit from a theoretical model to optimize imaging parameters and test image processing algorithms. We propose the first analytical PT-OCT model to replicate an experimental A-scan in homogeneous and layered samples. We also propose the PT-CLEAN algorithm to reduce phase-accumulation and shadowing, two artifacts found in PT-OCT images, and demonstrate it on phantoms and in vivo mouse tumors. PMID:27446693

  5. Lattice parameter evolution in Pt nanoparticles during photo-thermally induced sintering and grain growth

    DOE PAGES

    Kelly, B.G.; Loether, A.; DiChiara, A. D.; ...

    2017-04-20

    An in-situ optical pump/x-ray probe technique has been used to study the size dependent lattice parameter of Pt nanoparticles subjected to picosecond duration optical laser pulses. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles exhibited a contracted lattice parameter consistent with the response of an isolated elastic sphere to a compressive surface stress. During photo-thermally induced sintering and grain growth, however, the Pt lattice parameter did not evolve with the inverse particle size dependence predicted by simple surface stress models. Lastly, the observed behavior could be attributed to the combined effects of a compressive surface/interface stress and a tensile stress arising from intergranular material.

  6. Lattice parameter evolution in Pt nanoparticles during photo-thermally induced sintering and grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, B. G.; Loether, A. B.; DiChiara, A. D.; Henning, R. W.; DeCamp, M. F.; Unruh, K. M.

    2017-09-01

    An in-situ optical pump/x-ray probe technique has been used to study the size dependent lattice parameter of Pt nanoparticles subjected to picosecond duration optical laser pulses. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles exhibited a contracted lattice parameter consistent with the response of an isolated elastic sphere to a compressive surface stress. During photo-thermally induced sintering and grain growth, however, the Pt lattice parameter did not evolve with the inverse particle size dependence predicted by simple surface stress models. The observed behavior could be attributed to the combined effects of a compressive surface/interface stress and a tensile stress arising from intergranular material.

  7. Pulsed photothermal reflectance measurement of the thermal conductivity of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yimin; Zhu Chunlin; Wang Sigen; Tian, J.Z.; Yang, D.J.; Chen, C.K.; Cheng Hao; Hing, Peter

    2004-10-15

    We report on measurements of the thermal conductivity of reactively sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with different thickness, ranging from 100 nm to 1 {mu}m, on silicon substrates. The measurements were made at room temperature using the pulsed photothermal reflectance technique. The thermal conductivities of the sample are found to be significantly lower than the single-crystal bulk AlN and increase with an increasing thickness. The thermal resistance at the interface between the AlN film and the silicon substrate is found to be about 7-8x10{sup -8} m{sup 2} K/W.

  8. Current deflection NDE for pipeline inspection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Rollo; Cawley, Peter; Nagy, Peter B.

    2016-02-01

    Failure of oil and gas pipelines can often be catastrophic, therefore routine inspection for time dependent degradation is essential. In-line inspection is the most common method used; however, this requires the insertion and retrieval of an inspection tool that is propelled by the fluid in the pipe and risks becoming stuck, so alternative methods must often be employed. This work investigates the applicability of a non-destructive evaluation technique for both the detection and growth monitoring of defects, particularly corrosion under insulation. This relies on injecting an electric current along the pipe and indirectly measuring the deflection of current around defects from perturbations in the orthogonal components of the induced magnetic flux density. An array of three orthogonally oriented anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors has been used to measure the magnetic flux density surrounding a 6'' schedule-40 steel pipe carrying 2 A quasi-DC axial current. A finite element model has been developed that predicts the perturbations in magnetic flux density caused by current deflection which has been validated by experimental results. Measurements of the magnetic flux density at 50 mm lift-off from the pipe surface are stable and repeatable to the order of 100 pT which suggests that defect detection or monitoring growth of corrosion-type defects may be possible with a feasible magnitude of injected current. Magnetic signals are additionally incurred by changes in the wall thickness of the pipe due to manufacturing tolerances, and material property variations. If a monitoring scheme using baseline subtraction is employed then the sensitivity to defects can be improved while avoiding false calls.

  9. Igniter adapter-to-igniter chamber deflection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the maximum RSRM igniter adapter-to-igniter chamber joint deflection at the crown of the inner joint primary seal. The deflection data was gathered to support igniter inner joint gasket resiliency predictions which led to launch commit criteria temperature determinations. The proximity (deflection) gage holes for the first test (Test No. 1) were incorrectly located; therefore, the test was declared a non-test. Prior to Test No. 2, test article configuration was modified with the correct proximity gage locations. Deflection data were successfully acquired during Test No. 2. However, the proximity gage deflection measurements were adversely affected by temperature increases. Deflections measured after the temperature rise at the proximity gages were considered unreliable. An analysis was performed to predict the maximum deflections based on the reliable data measured before the detectable temperature rise. Deflections to the primary seal crown location were adjusted to correspond to the time of maximum expected operating pressure (2,159 psi) to account for proximity gage bias, and to account for maximum attach and special bolt relaxation. The maximum joint deflection for the igniter inner joint at the crown of the primary seal, accounting for all significant correction factors, was 0.0031 in. (3.1 mil). Since the predicted (0.003 in.) and tested maximum deflection values were sufficiently close, the launch commit criteria was not changed as a result of this test. Data from this test should be used to determine if the igniter inner joint gasket seals are capable of maintaining sealing capability at a joint displacement of (1.4) x (0.0031 in.) = 0.00434 inches. Additional testing should be performed to increase the database on igniter deflections and address launch commit criteria temperatures.

  10. Infrared photothermal imaging of trace explosives on relevant substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Borchert, James; Byers, Jeff; McGill, R. Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We are developing a technique for the stand-off detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect small increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes on relevant substrates is critical for stand-off applications, but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes recent PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate (AN) and sucrose on relevant substrates (steel, polyethylene, glass and painted steel panels). We demonstrate that these analytes can be detected on these substrates at relevant surface mass loadings (10 μg/cm2 to 100 μg/cm2) even at the single pixel level.

  11. Photothermal and photoacoustic Raman cytometry in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated Raman-based cytometry was developed with photothermal (PT) and photoacoustic (PA) detection of Raman-induced thermal and acoustic signals in biological samples with Raman-active vibrational modes. The two-frequency, spatially and temporally overlapping pump–Stokes excitation in counterpropagating geometry was provided by a nanosecond tunable (420–2300 nm) optical parametric oscillator and a Raman shifter (639 nm) pumped by a double-pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using microscopic and fiberoptic delivery of laser radiation. The PA and PT Raman detection and imaging technique was tested in vitro with benzene, acetone, olive oil, carbon nanotubes, chylomicron phantom, and cancer cells, and in vivo in single adipocytes in mouse mesentery model. The integration of linear and nonlinear PA and PT Raman scanning and flow cytometry has the potential to enhance its chemical specificity and sensitivity including nanobubble-based amplification (up to 10- fold) for detection of absorbing and nonabsorbing targets that are important for both basic and clinically relevant studies of lymph and blood biochemistry, cancer, and fat distribution at the single-cell level. PMID:20389713

  12. Photothermal camera port accessory for microscopic thermal diffusivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escola, Facundo Zaldívar; Kunik, Darío; Mingolo, Nelly; Martínez, Oscar Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The design of a scanning photothermal accessory is presented, which can be attached to the camera port of commercial microscopes to measure thermal diffusivity maps with micrometer resolution. The device is based on the thermal expansion recovery technique, which measures the defocusing of a probe beam due to the curvature induced by the local heat delivered by a focused pump beam. The beam delivery and collecting optics are built using optical fiber technology, resulting in a robust optical system that provides collinear pump and probe beams without any alignment adjustment necessary. The quasiconfocal configuration for the signal collection using the same optical fiber sets very restrictive conditions on the positioning and alignment of the optical components of the scanning unit, and a detailed discussion of the design equations is presented. The alignment procedure is carefully described, resulting in a system so robust and stable that no further alignment is necessary for the day-to-day use, becoming a tool that can be used for routine quality control, operated by a trained technician.

  13. Biomimetic Strategies Employed in the Formation of Biotargeted Metal Nanoparticles for Optical Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Kvar Carl Lee, IV

    Diseases resistant to current treatment protocols like chemo resistant cancers and antibiotic resistant bacterial infections require treatments with novel mechanisms of action. Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have unique dielectric properties that give rise to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which causes these materials to interact strongly with light. With multifunctional surface modifications, metal NPs have the potential to diagnose and treat diseases like cancer and bacterial infections with optical imaging techniques and light-activated photothermal therapy. With the ability to interact strongly with metals and organics, versatile catecholamine molecules inspired by marine mussels can be used to synthesize metal NPs and functionalize them with a variety of molecules. With this biomimetic tool, these metal NPs can be formed and stabilized in physiological environments and functionalized to specifically target diseased cell surfaces. Herein, molecules containing catechols and amines are used to form gold and silver NPs and tune their SPR optical properties throughout the visible and near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum with shape and compositional control. A variety of chemical mechanisms including catechol redox activity are employed in the metal NP formation and functionalization to engineer robust metal-organic interfaces for biomedical applications. Antibodies are functionalized onto metal NPs to provide specific targeting to cancer and bacterial cell surfaces. For cancer, the epidermal growth factor receptor, overexpressed in a variety of cancers, is targeted in oral and breast cancer cells. For bacteria, NPs are targeted to endotoxins on gram-negative escherichia coli membranes and lipoteichoic acids in gram-positive staphylococcus epidermidis cell walls. Optical techniques including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and bright field microscopy are used to identify NPs on cells, and photothermal therapy is successfully demonstrated

  14. Boosted Hyperthermia Therapy by Combined AC Magnetic and Photothermal Exposures in Ag/Fe3O4 Nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Das, R; Rinaldi-Montes, N; Alonso, J; Amghouz, Z; Garaio, E; García, J A; Gorria, P; Blanco, J A; Phan, M H; Srikanth, H

    2016-09-28

    Over the past two decades, magnetic hyperthermia and photothermal therapy are becoming very promising supplementary techniques to well-established cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These techniques have dramatically improved their ability to perform controlled treatments, relying on the procedure of delivering nanoscale objects into targeted tumor tissues, which can release therapeutic killing doses of heat either upon AC magnetic field exposure or laser irradiation. Although an intense research effort has been made in recent years to study, separately, magnetic hyperthermia using iron oxide nanoparticles and photothermal therapy based on gold or silver plasmonic nanostructures, the full potential of combining both techniques has not yet been systematically explored. Here we present a proof-of-principle experiment showing that designing multifunctional silver/magnetite (Ag/Fe3O4) nanoflowers acting as dual hyperthermia agents is an efficient route for enhancing their heating ability or specific absorption rate (SAR). Interestingly, the SAR of the nanoflowers is increased by at least 1 order of magnitude under the application of both an external magnetic field of 200 Oe and simultaneous laser irradiation. Furthermore, our results show that the synergistic exploitation of the magnetic and photothermal properties of the nanoflowers reduces the magnetic field and laser intensities that would be required in the case that both external stimuli were applied separately. This constitutes a key step toward optimizing the hyperthermia therapy through a combined multifunctional magnetic and photothermal treatment and improving our understanding of the therapeutic process to specific applications that will entail coordinated efforts in physics, engineering, biology, and medicine.

  15. Teach Deflection Concepts with Hacksaw Blades and Rubber Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology and engineering educators can use a simple hacksaw blade to help students learn about deflection, as that which occurs in a beam. Here the beam is fixed at one end and allowed to deflect in a manner that is easy to see and measure--the hacksaw blade represents a cantilever, an overhanging structure. This simple and very inexpensive…

  16. 30 CFR 7.47 - Deflection temperature test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deflection temperature test. 7.47 Section 7.47 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.47 Deflection...

  17. Teach Deflection Concepts with Hacksaw Blades and Rubber Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology and engineering educators can use a simple hacksaw blade to help students learn about deflection, as that which occurs in a beam. Here the beam is fixed at one end and allowed to deflect in a manner that is easy to see and measure--the hacksaw blade represents a cantilever, an overhanging structure. This simple and very inexpensive…

  18. Photothermal therapy of melanoma tumor using multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Zahra; Behnam, Mohammad Ali; Emami, Farzin; Dehghanian, Amirreza; Jamhiri, Iman

    2017-01-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a therapeutic method in which photon energy is transformed into heat rapidly via different operations to extirpate cancer. Nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional optical absorbance in visible and near infrared spectra. Therefore, they could be a good converter to induce hyperthermia in PTT technique. In our study, for improving the dispersibility of multiwalled CNTs in water, the CNTs were oxidized (O-CNTs) and then polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used for wrapping the surface of nanotubes. The formation of a thin layer of PEG around the nanotubes was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results of thermogravimetric analysis showed that the amount of PEG component in the O-CNT-PEG was approximately 80% (w/w). Cell cytotoxicity study showed that O-CNT was less cytotoxic than pristine multiwalled nanotubes, and O-CNT-PEG had the lowest toxicity against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. The effect of O-CNT-PEG in reduction of melanoma tumor size after PTT was evaluated. Cancerous mice were exposed to a continuous-wave near infrared laser diode (λ=808 nm, P=2 W and I=8 W/cm(2)) for 10 minutes once in the period of the treatment. The average size of tumor in mice receiving O-CNT-PEG decreased sharply in comparison with those that received laser therapy alone. Results of animal studies indicate that O-CNT-PEG is a powerful candidate for eradicating solid tumors in PTT technique.

  19. A computational study of asymmetric glottal jet deflection during phonation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X.; Mittal, R.; Bielamowicz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to explore the mechanism for asymmetric deflection of the glottal jet during phonation. The model employs the full Navier–Stokes equations for the flow but a simple laryngeal geometry and vocal-fold motion. The study focuses on the effect of Reynolds number and glottal opening angle with a particular emphasis on examining the importance of the so-called “Coanda effect” in jet deflection. The study indicates that the glottal opening angle has no substantial effect on glottal jet deflection. Deflection in the glottal jet is always preceded by large-scale asymmetry in the downstream portion of the glottal jet. A detailed analysis of the velocity and vorticity fields shows that these downstream asymmetric vortex structures induce a flow at the glottal exit which is the primary driver for glottal jet deflection. PMID:21476669

  20. A computational study of asymmetric glottal jet deflection during phonation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Mittal, R; Bielamowicz, S

    2011-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to explore the mechanism for asymmetric deflection of the glottal jet during phonation. The model employs the full Navier-Stokes equations for the flow but a simple laryngeal geometry and vocal-fold motion. The study focuses on the effect of Reynolds number and glottal opening angle with a particular emphasis on examining the importance of the so-called "Coanda effect" in jet deflection. The study indicates that the glottal opening angle has no substantial effect on glottal jet deflection. Deflection in the glottal jet is always preceded by large-scale asymmetry in the downstream portion of the glottal jet. A detailed analysis of the velocity and vorticity fields shows that these downstream asymmetric vortex structures induce a flow at the glottal exit which is the primary driver for glottal jet deflection.

  1. Applicability of moire deflection tomography for diagnosing arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yunyun; Song Yang; He Anzhi; Li Zhenhua

    2009-01-20

    The argon arc plasma whose central temperature, 1.90x10{sup 4} K, is used as a practical example for an experiment to research the applicability of moire deflection tomography in arc plasma flow-field diagnosis. The experimental result indicates that moire deflection of the measured argon arc plasma is very small, even smaller than that of a common flame with the maximal temperature of nearly 1.80x10{sup 3} K. The refractive-index gradient in moire deflection tomography mainly contributes to the temperature gradient in essence when the probe wavelength and pressure are certain in plasma diagnosis. The applicable temperature ranges of moire deflection tomography in the argon arc plasma diagnosis are given with the probe wavelength 532 nm at 1 atm in certain measuring error requirements. In a word, the applicable temperature range of moire deflection tomography for arc plasma diagnosis is intimately related to the probe wavelength and the practical measuring requirements.

  2. Study on the causes and methods of influencing concrete deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Xiang; Tang, Jinyu

    2017-09-01

    Under the long-term effect of static load on reinforced concrete beam, the stiffness decreases and the deformation increases with time. Therefore, the calculation of deflection is more complicated. According to the domestic and foreign research results by experiment the flexural deflection of reinforced concrete, creep, age, the thickness of the protective layer, the relative slip, the combination of steel yielding factors of reinforced concrete deflection are summarized, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional direct measurement of deflection, that by increasing the beam height, increasing the moment of inertia, ncrease prestressed reinforcement ratio, arching, reduce the load, and other measures to reduce the deflection of prestressed construction, improve the reliability of structure.

  3. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  4. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Hossein; Yasssaei, Sogra; Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud Nilli

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs. Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT), nickel titanium (NiTi), and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT) archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL) brackets, active self-ligating (ASL) brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length) were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance. Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force. Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly. PMID:27148381

  5. Mission Designs for Demonstrating Gravity Tractor Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Faber, N.; Eggl, S.; Morrison, D.; Clark, A.; Frost, C.; Jaroux, B. A.; Khetawat, V.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity tractor asteroid deflection relies on the gravitational attraction between the target and a nearby spacecraft; using low-thrust propulsion to change the target's trajectory slowly but continuously. Our team, based at the NASA Ames Mission Design Center, prepared designs for a Gravity Tractor Demonstration Mission (GTDM) for the European Commission's NEOShield initiative. We found five asteroids with well-known orbits and opportunities for efficient stand-alone demonstrations in the 2020s. We selected one object, 2000 FJ10, for a detailed design analysis. Our GTDM design has a 4 kW solar-electric propulsion system and launch mass of 1150 kg. For a nominal asteroid mass of 3 x 109 kg and diameter 150 m, and a hovering altitude 125 m above the asteroid's surface, GTDM would change FJ10's semi-major axis by 10 km over 2 years. To measure the deflection clearly and to permit safe hovering by the spacecraft, several months of survey and characterization are required prior to the active tractoring phase of the mission. Accurate tracking is also required after the tractoring phase, to ensure that the asteroid has indeed been deflected as intended. The GTDM design includes both spacecraft and Earth-based observations of FJ10 to verify the deflection. The estimated cost of GTDM is $280 million. Trajectory analysis for GTDM confirmed that the outcome of a deflection of any asteroid depends on when that deflection is performed. Compared to kinetic impactor deflection, the gradual deflection from a gravity tractor produces comparable results for a given total momentum transfer. However, a gravity tractor can have greater flexibility in the direction in which the target asteroid can be deflected. Asteroid deflection scenarios must be modeled carefully on a case-to-case basis. We will review implications of the results of the GTDM study to other proposed gravity tractor demonstrations, such as that included in NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission.

  6. Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coatings using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C.J.; Yoshiyama, J.M.; Salleo, A.; Wu, Z.L.; Green, J.; Krupka, R.

    1997-12-24

    Multilayer coatings manufactured from metallic hafnium and silica sources by reactive electron beam deposition, are being developed for high fluence optics in a fusion laser with a wavelength of 1053 nm and a 3 ns pulse length. Damage threshold studies have revealed a correlation between laser damage and nodular defects, but interestingly laser damage is also present in nodule-free regions. Photothermal studies of optical coatings reveal the existence of defects with strong optical absorption in nodule-free regions of the coating. A variety of microscopic techniques were employed to characterize the effects for a better understanding of the thermal properties of nodular defects and role of thermal defects in laser damage. Photothermal microscopy, utilizing the surface thermal lensing technique, was used to map the thermal characteristics of 3 mm x 3 mm areas of the coatings. High resolution subaperture scans, with a 1 pm step size and a 3 um pump beam diameter, W= conducted on the defects to characterize their photothermal properties. Optical and atomic force microscopy was used to visually identify defects and characterize their topography. The defects were then irradiated to determine the role of nodular and thermal defects in limiting the damage threshold of the multilayer.

  7. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  8. Cu7 S4 Nanosuperlattices with Greatly Enhanced Photothermal Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiabin; Jiang, Rui; Xu, Suying; Hu, Gaofei; Wang, Leyu

    2015-09-02

    According to the simulation, the self-assembly of Cu7 S4 nanocrystals would enhance the photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) because of the localized surface plasmon resonance effects, which is highly desirable for photothermal therapy (PTT). A new strategy to synthesize Cu7 S4 nanosuperlattices with greatly enhanced PCE up to 65.7% under irradiation of 808 nm near infrared light is reported here. By tuning the surface properties of Cu7 S4 nanocrystals during the synthesis via thermolysis of a new single precursor, dispersed nanoparticles (NPs), rod-like alignments, and nanosuperlattices are obtained, respectively. To explore their PTT applications, these hydrophobic nanostructures are transferred into water by coating with home-made amphiphilic polymer while maintaining their original structures. Under identical conditions, the PCE are 48.62% and 56.32% for dispersed NPs and rod-like alignments, respectively. As expected, when the nanoparticles are self-assembled into nanosuperlattices, the PCE is greatly enhanced up to 65.7%. This strong PCE, along with their excellent photothermal stability and good biocompatibility, renders these nanosuperlattices good candidates as PTT agents. In vitro photothermal ablation performances have undoubtedly proved the excellent PCE of our Cu7 S4 nanosuperlattices. This research offers a versatile and effective solution to get PTT agents with high photothermal efficiency.

  9. Photothermal therapy of cancer cells using magnetic carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardarajan, V.; Gu, L.; Kanneganti, A.; Mohanty, S. K.; Koymen, A. R.

    2011-03-01

    Photothermal therapy offers a solution for the destruction of cancer cells without significant collateral damage to otherwise healthy cells. Several attempts are underway in using carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and nanotubes due to their excellent absorption properties in the near-infrared spectrum of biological window. However, minimizing the required number of injected nanoparticles, to ensure minimal cytotoxicity, is a major challenge. We report on the introduction of magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MCNPs) onto cancer cells, localizing them in a desired region by applying an external magnetic field and irradiating them with a near-infrared laser beam. The MCNPs were prepared in Benzene, using an electric plasma discharge, generated in the cavitation field of an ultrasonic horn. The CNPs were made ferromagnetic by use of Fe-electrodes to dope the CNPs, as confirmed by magnetometry. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the size distribution of these MCNPs to be in the range of 5-10 nm. For photothermal irradiation, a tunable continuous wave Ti: Sapphire laser beam was weakly focused on to the cell monolayer under an inverted fluorescence microscope. The response of different cell types to photothermal irradiation was investigated. Cell death in the presence of both MCNPs and laser beam was confirmed by morphological changes and propidium iodide fluorescence inclusion assay. The results of our study suggest that MCNP based photothermal therapy is a promising approach to remotely guide photothermal therapy.

  10. Light controllable surface coating for effective photothermal killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Eun Bi; Jeong, Chan Jin; Sharker, Shazid Md; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-07-22

    Although the electronic properties of conducting films have been widely explored in optoelectronic fields, the optical absorption abilities of surface-coated films for photothermal conversion have been relatively less explored in the production of antibacterial coatings. Here, we present catechol-conjugated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) sulfobetaine (PVPS) and polyaniline (PANI) tightly linked by ionic interaction (PVPS:PANI) as a novel photothermal antibacterial agent for surface coating, which can absorb broadband near-infrared (NIR) light. Taking advantage of the NIR light absorption, this coating film can release eminent photothermal heat for the rapid killing of surface bacteria. The NIR light triggers a sharp rise in photothermal heat, providing the rapid and effective killing of 99.9% of the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested within 3 min of NIR light exposure when used at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Although considerable progress has been made in the design of antibacterial coatings, the user control of NIR-irradiated rapid photothermal destruction of surface bacteria holds increasing attention beyond the traditional boundaries of typical antibacterial surfaces.

  11. Long-term deflections of reinforced concrete elements: accuracy analysis of predictions by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribniak, Viktor; Bacinskas, Darius; Kacianauskas, Rimantas; Kaklauskas, Gintaris; Torres, Lluis

    2013-08-01

    Long-term deflection response of reinforced concrete flexural members is influenced by the interaction of complex physical phenomena, such as concrete creep, shrinkage and cracking, which makes their prediction difficult. A number of approaches are proposed by design codes with different degrees of simplification and accuracy. This paper statistically investigates accuracy of long-term deflection predictions made by some of the most widely used design codes ( Eurocode 2, ACI 318, ACI 435, and the new Russian code SP 52-101) and a numerical technique proposed by the authors. The accuracy is analyzed using test data of 322 reinforced concrete members from 27 test programs reported in the literature. The predictions of each technique are discussed, and a comparative analysis is made showing the influence of different parameters, such as sustained loading duration, compressive strength of concrete, loading intensity and reinforcement ratio, on the prediction accuracy.

  12. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T; Dou, Maowei; Li, XiuJun

    2016-03-14

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.

  13. Plasmonics Resonance Enhanced Active Photothermal Effects of Aluminum and Iron Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chong, Xinyuan; Abboud, Jacques; Zhang, Zhili

    2015-03-01

    Localized Surface Plasmonics Resonance (LSPR) enhanced active photothermal effects of both aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) and iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are experimentally observed. Photothermally activated motion and ignition by low-energy xenon flash are quantitatively measured. For nanoparticles of comparable sizes, photothermally activated motion height of Fe NPs is about 60% lower than that of Al NPs, while photothermal Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) of Fe NPs is about 50% lower than that of Al NPs. Joule heating by LSPR enhanced photothermal effects among nanoparticles and subsequently triggered oxidation reactions are found responsible for the motion and ignition of the nanoparticles.

  14. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Li, XiuJun

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader. Using immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system are transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which act as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer, which also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays. PMID:26838516

  15. Longitudinal Bunch Shape Diagnostics With Coherent Radiation And a Transverse Deflecting Cavity at TTF2

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, O.; Frohlich, L.; Klose, K.; Nagl, M.; Peters, O.; Rossbach, J.; Schlarb, H.; Emma, P.J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-08-04

    At the DESY TTF2 linear accelerator three special techniques to characterize the longitudinal charge distribution of the electron bunches that drive the free-electron laser are currently under study: electro-optical sampling, far-infrared spectral analysis of coherent radiation and the use of a transverse deflecting cavity to streak the bunch. The principles and implementations of the latter two are described in this paper. Details on electro-optical sampling can be found in [1].

  16. A non-contact temperature measurement system for controlling photothermal medical laser treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ã.-zgür; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-03-01

    Photothermal medical laser treatments are extremely dependent on the generated tissue temperature. It is necessary to reach a certain temperature threshold to achieve successful results, whereas preventing to exceed an upper temperature value is required to avoid thermal damage. One method to overcome this problem is to use previously conducted dosimetry studies as a reference. Nevertheless, these results are acquired in controlled environments using uniform subjects. In the clinical environment, the optical and thermal characteristics (tissue color, composition and hydration level) vary dramatically among different patients. Therefore, the most reliable solution is to use a closed-loop feedback system that monitors the target tissue temperature to control laser exposure. In this study, we present a compact, non-contact temperature measurement system for the control of photothermal medical laser applications that is cost-efficient and simple to use. The temperature measurement is achieved using a focused, commercially available MOEMS infrared thermocouple sensor embedded in an off-axis arrangement on the laser beam delivery hand probe. The spot size of the temperature sensor is ca. 2.5 mm, reasonably smaller than the laser spot sizes used in photothermal medical laser applications. The temperature readout and laser control is realized using a microcontroller for fast operation. The utilization of the developed system may enable the adaptation of several medical laser treatments that are currently conducted only in controlled laboratory environments into the clinic. Laser tissue welding and cartilage reshaping are two of the techniques that are limited to laboratory research at the moment. This system will also ensure the safety and success of laser treatments aiming hyperthermia, coagulation and ablation, as well as LLLT and PDT.

  17. Photothermal and biodegradable polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites as drug carriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Jiachen

    2017-03-15

    To develop photothermal and biodegradable nanocarriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer, polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites had been successfully fabricated via surface initiated polymerization of aniline onto porous silicon nanoparticles in our experiments. As-prepared polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites could be well dispersed in aqueous solution without any extra hydrophilic surface coatings, and showed a robust photothermal effect under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Especially, after an intravenous injection into mice, these biodegradable porous silicon-based nanocomposites as non-toxic agents could be completely cleared in body. Moreover, these polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites as drug carriers also exhibited an efficient loading and dual pH/NIR light-triggered release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a model anticancer drug). Most importantly, assisted with NIR laser irradiation, polyaniline/PSiNPs nanocomposites with loading DOX showed a remarkable synergistic anticancer effect combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, whether in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, based on biodegradable PSiNPs-based nanocomposites, this combination approach of chemo-photothermal therapy would have enormous potential on clinical cancer treatments in the future.

  18. Band Excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; ...

    2015-03-13

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standardmore » ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. In conclusion, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.« less

  19. Polydopamine Nanoparticles for Combined Chemo- and Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhijun; Su, Ming

    2017-06-29

    Cancer therapy with two different modalities can enhance treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. This paper describes a new method for combined chemo- and photothermal therapy of cancer using poly dopamine nanoparticles (PDA-NPs), where PDA-NPs serve not only as a photothermal agent with strong near infrared absorbance and high energy conversion efficiency, but also as a carrier to deliver cisplatin via interaction between cisplatin and catechol groups on PDA-NPs. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced through Michael addition reaction to improve the stability of PDA-NPs in physiological condition. A remarkable synergistic therapeutic effect has been achieved compared with respective single treatments. This work suggests that the PDA-based nanoplatform can be a universal scaffold for combined chemo- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

  20. Polydopamine Nanoparticles for Combined Chemo- and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhijun; Su, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Cancer therapy with two different modalities can enhance treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. This paper describes a new method for combined chemo- and photothermal therapy of cancer using poly dopamine nanoparticles (PDA-NPs), where PDA-NPs serve not only as a photothermal agent with strong near infrared absorbance and high energy conversion efficiency, but also as a carrier to deliver cisplatin via interaction between cisplatin and catechol groups on PDA-NPs. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced through Michael addition reaction to improve the stability of PDA-NPs in physiological condition. A remarkable synergistic therapeutic effect has been achieved compared with respective single treatments. This work suggests that the PDA-based nanoplatform can be a universal scaffold for combined chemo- and photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:28661423

  1. Pulsed photothermal spectroscopy applied to lanthanide and actinide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.M.; Morris, D.E.; Clark, D.L.; Tait, C.D.; Woodruff, W.H. ); Ven Der Sluys, W.G. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Several key elements important for the application of laser-based photothermal spectroscopies to the study of the complexation chemistry of lanthanides and actinides in solution have been demonstrated. The sensitivity of f-f electronic transition energies and band intensities to subtle changes in complexation was illustrated through comparison of visible and near infra-red absorption spectra of well-characterized U(IV) dimers with alkoxide ligands. Significant improvements in spectroscopic band resolution and energy measurement precision for solution species were shown to be achievable through work in frozen glasses at 77 K using a very simple cryogenic apparatus. A pulsed-laser photothermal spectroscopy apparatus was constructed and shown to be sensitive to optical density changes of 10{sup {minus}5} in an aqueous Nd{sup 3+} solution. In addition, the capability of obtaining photothermal lensing spectra of dilute actinide solutions in frozen glasses at 77 K was demonstrated. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Photothermal effects in ultra-precisely stabilized tunable microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachmann, Johannes F. S.; Kaupp, Hanno; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2016-09-01

    We study the mechanical stability of a tunable high-finesse microcavity under ambient conditions and investigate light-induced effects that can both suppress and excite mechanical fluctuations. As an enabling step, we demonstrate the ultra-precise electronic stabilization of a microcavity. We then show that photothermal mirror expansion can provide high-bandwidth feedback and improve cavity stability by almost two orders of magnitude. At high intracavity power, we observe self-oscillations of mechanical resonances of the cavity. We explain the observations by a dynamic photothermal instability, leading to parametric driving of mechanical motion. For an optimized combination of electronic and photothermal stabilization, we achieve a feedback bandwidth of $500\\,$kHz and a noise level of $1.1 \\times 10^{-13}\\,$m rms.

  3. Band Excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Kalinin, Sergei; Li, Qian

    2015-03-13

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standard ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. In conclusion, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.

  4. Laser heating of metallic nanoparticles for photothermal ablation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Shan, Guangshuai; Yu, Junsheng; Yang, Wei; Ren, Zhaodi; Wang, Xiaohui; Xie, Xi; Chen, Hui-jiuan; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    In order to search for a suitable frequency and material with higher photothermal efficacy for hyperthermia application in cancer treatment, a comparative study on laser heating of Au/Ag nanoparticles and Ag nanowires has been conducted. It is found that gold nanoparticles are more photothermal efficient in comparison with silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires at 450nm and 532 nm. Gold nanoparticles are more heated by 532 nm laser than 450 nm laser. In contrast, silver nanoparticles show slightly less temperature rise at 532 nm than 450 nm laser. For silver nanowires, no significant photothermal effect has been observed. Size-dependent effect study indicates that the absorption efficiency of single gold nanoparticles of larger diameter is higher than that of smaller diameter, in the diameter range of 0-50nm. A mathematical model for describing the heating profile in the heating sample has been built. The mathematical model can be utilized to predict the optimal treatment size of tumor.

  5. Gold over Branched Palladium Nanostructures for Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Andrew J; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Cheong, Soshan; Herman, David A J; Watt, John; Henning, Anna M; Gloag, Lucy; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Tilley, Richard D

    2015-12-22

    Bimetallic nanostructures show exciting potential as materials for effective photothermal hyperthermia therapy. We report the seed-mediated synthesis of palladium-gold (Pd-Au) nanostructures containing multiple gold nanocrystals on highly branched palladium seeds. The nanostructures were synthesized via the addition of a gold precursor to a palladium seed solution in the presence of oleylamine, which acts as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent. The interaction and the electronic coupling between gold nanocrystals and between palladium and gold broadened and red-shifted the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption maximum of the gold nanocrystals into the near-infrared region, to give enhanced suitability for photothermal hyperthermia therapy. Pd-Au heterostructures irradiated with an 808 nm laser light caused destruction of HeLa cancer cells in vitro, as well as complete destruction of tumor xenographs in mouse models in vivo for effective photothermal hyperthermia.

  6. Salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Yukun; Wang, Wansheng; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jing; Dai, Zhifei; Wang, Kun; Wei, Yen; Bai, Jing; Gao, Weiping

    2016-02-28

    The challenge in photothermal therapy (PTT) is to develop biocompatible photothermal transducers that can absorb and convert near-infrared (NIR) light into heat with high efficiency. Herein, we report salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in biological media to form highly efficient and biocompatible NIR photothermal transducers for PTT and photothermal/photoacoustic (PT/PA) imaging of cancer. The GNP depots in situ formed by salt-induced aggregation of GNPs show strong NIR absorption induced by plasmonic coupling between adjacent GNPs and very high photothermal conversion efficiency (52%), enabling photothermal destruction of tumor cells. More interestingly, GNPs in situ aggregate in tumors to form GNP depots, enabling simultaneous PT/PA imaging and PTT of the tumors. These findings may provide a simple and effective way to develop a new class of intelligent and biocompatible NIR photothermal transducers with high efficiency for PT/PA imaging and PTT.

  7. Photothermal imaging through coherent infrared bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Yonat; Tepper, Michal; Harrington, James A.; Ben David, Moshe; Gannot, Israel

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to develop a photothermal imaging system through a coherent infrared bundle. This system will be used to determine the oxygenation level of various tissues, suspected malignant tissues in particular. The oxygenation estimation is preformed using a computerized algorithm. In order to evaluate the system, different bundle configurations were used for the determination of the optimal one. Bundle transmittance and the algorithm's estimation ability were measured, measurements were performed using agar phantoms consisting of varying ratios of Methylene Blue and ICG. A bundle consisting of 19 Teflon waveguides with a of 1.1mm was found to be the optimal configuration with an RMS of the error of 9.38%. At a second stage the system was validated on blood samples with varying oxygenation levels and there oxygenation levels were estimated. This stage had an RMS of the error of 10.16% for the oxygenation level estimation for samples with a 50% oxygenation level and higher. Once the basic system was validated successfully on agar phantoms and blood samples a portable system was designed and built in order to fit the system for portable use. The portable system consists of a white light illuminating source followed by filters transmitting certain wavelengths, a transmitting fiber, a thermal imaging bundle and a portable thermal camera. This portable system will be evaluated in order to have an adequate portable system for implementing the method out of the lab.

  8. Electroactive Polymer Nanoparticles Exhibiting Photothermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Travis; Rodier, Bradley; Iszard, Zachary; Kilian, Alissa; Pattani, Varun; Walsh, Kyle; Weber, Katharina; Tunnell, James; Betancourt, Tania; Irvin, Jennifer

    2016-01-08

    A method for the synthesis of electroactive polymers is demonstrated, starting with the synthesis of extended conjugation monomers using a three-step process that finishes with Negishi coupling. Negishi coupling is a cross-coupling process in which a chemical precursor is first lithiated, followed by transmetallation with ZnCl2. The resultant organozinc compound can be coupled to a dibrominated aromatic precursor to give the conjugated monomer. Polymer films can be prepared via electropolymerization of the monomer and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. Nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared via emulsion polymerization of the monomer using a two-surfactant system to yield an aqueous dispersion of the polymer NPs. The NPs are characterized using dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and UV-Vis-NIR-spectroscopy. Cytocompatibility of NPs is investigated using the cell viability assay. Finally, the NP suspensions are irradiated with a NIR laser to determine their effectiveness as potential materials for photothermal therapy (PTT).

  9. Waveguiding Actuators Based on Photothermally Responsive Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Hauser, Adam; Bende, Nakul; Kuzyk, Mark; Hayward, Ryan

    A simple means to achieve rapid and highly reversible photo-responsiveness in a hydrogel is to combine a thermally-responsive gel such as poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM), with the photothermal effect of gold nanoparticles. Relying on such composite gels, we fabricate micro-scale bilayer photoactuators by photolithographic patterning, and demonstrate their controlled bending/unbending behavior in response to visible light. In addition to actuation by flood exposure, 532 nm laser light can be waveguided through a plastic optical fiber to direct it into the photoactuator, providing the possibility for remotely controllable actuators that do not require line-of-sight access. The actuators show large magnitude responses within time-scales of ~1 s, consistent with the small dimensions of the actuators, but also exhibit smaller-scale responses over much longer times, suggesting the possibility of slow internal relaxations within the network. Based on our study on this bilayer system, we further explore fabrication methods for cylindrical actuators that are able to bend in arbitrary directions.

  10. Volumetric Optoacoustic Temperature Mapping in Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Landa, Francisco Javier Oyaga; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-08-29

    Photothermal therapy and ablation are commonplace medical procedures employed for treatment of tumors, vascular and brain abnormalities as well as other disorders that require selective destruction of tissues. Yet, accurate mapping of the dynamic temperature field distribution in the treated region represents an unmet clinical need, strongly affecting the clinical outcome of these interventions. We introduce a fast three-dimensional temperature mapping method based on real-time optoacoustic sensing of the treated region coupled with a thermal-diffusion-based model of heat distribution in tissues. Deviations of the optoacoustic temperature readings provided at 40  ms intervals remained below 10% in tissue-mimicking phantom experiments for temperature elevations above 3 °C, as validated by simultaneous thermocouple measurements. Performance of the new method to dynamically estimate the volumetric temperature distribution was further showcased in post-mortem mouse imaging experiments. The newly discovered capacity to non-invasively measure the temperature map in an entire treated volume with both high spatial and temporal resolutions holds potential for improving safety and efficacy of light-based therapeutic interventions.

  11. The Advanced Photon Source pulsed deflecting cavity RF system.

    SciTech Connect

    Cours, A.; DiMonte, N. P.; Smith, T. L.; Waldschmidt, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source Deflecting Cavity System for producing short X-ray pulses uses two multi-cell, S-band cavities to apply a deflecting voltage to the stored electron beam ahead of an undulator that supports a beamline utilizing picosecond X-rays. Two additional multi-cell cavities are then used to cancel out the perturbation and restore the electron beam to its nominal orbit. The pulsed rf system driving the deflecting cavities is described. Design tradeoffs are discussed with emphasis on topology considerations and digital control loops making use of sampling technology in a manner consistent with the present state of the art.

  12. Asteroid Deflection Mission Design Considering On-Ground Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Clemens; Lewis, Hugh G.; Atkinson, Peter

    The deflection of an Earth-threatening asteroid requires high transparency of the mission design process. The goal of such a mission is to move the projected point of impact over the face of Earth until the asteroid is on a miss trajectory. During the course of deflection operations, the projected point of impact will match regions that were less affected before alteration of the asteroid’s trajectory. These regions are at risk of sustaining considerable damage if the deflecting spacecraft becomes non-operational. The projected impact point would remain where the deflection mission put it at the time of mission failure. Hence, all regions that are potentially affected by the deflection campaign need to be informed about this risk and should be involved in the mission design process. A mission design compromise will have to be found that is acceptable to all affected parties (Schweickart, 2004). A software tool that assesses the on-ground risk due to deflection missions is under development. It will allow to study the accumulated on-ground risk along the path of the projected impact point. The tool will help determine a deflection mission design that minimizes the on-ground casualty and damage risk due to deflection operations. Currently, the tool is capable of simulating asteroid trajectories through the solar system and considers gravitational forces between solar system bodies. A virtual asteroid may be placed at an arbitrary point in the simulation for analysis and manipulation. Furthermore, the tool determines the asteroid’s point of impact and provides an estimate of the population at risk. Validation has been conducted against the solar system ephemeris catalogue HORIZONS by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Asteroids that are propagated over a period of 15 years show typical position discrepancies of 0.05 Earth radii relative to HORIZONS’ output. Ultimately, results from this research will aid in the identification of requirements for

  13. Beam loading in magnicon deflection cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hafizi, B.; Gold, S.H.

    1997-02-01

    The radio frequency (RF) source for the next linear collider (NLC) is required to generate a power of 1/2--1 GW per tube in a 200-ns pulse, or 100--200 J of energy in a pulse of up to a few {micro}s in duration, at a frequency of 10--20 GHz. A variety of RF sources are under investigation at the present time aimed at fulfilling the needs of the NLC. These include the X-band klystron, Gyroklystron, traveling-wave tube, harmonic convertor, chopper-driven traveling-wave tube, and magnicon. Here, analysis of the beam-deflection cavity interaction in a magnicon is presented and compared with experiment. For a driven cavity a dispersion relation is obtained wherein the interaction modifies the cold-cavity factor and the resonance frequency. In terms of a lumped-parameter equivalent circuit the interaction corresponds to a complex-values beam admittance Y{sub b} in parallel with the cavity admittance. The response of the gain cavities is modified by the same admittance. In a magnicon, Y{sub b} is a sensitive function of the solenoidal focusing magnetic field B{sub 0}, thus providing a convenient means of adjusting the cavity properties in experiments. When the relativistic gyrofrequency is twice the drive frequency, ImY{sub b} = 0 and the beam does not load the cavity. Analytical expressions of the variation of the detuning, instantaneous bandwidth (i.e., loaded quality factor) and gain with B{sub 0} are derived. Simulation results are presented to verify the linear analysis with ideal beams and to illustrate the modifications due to finite beam emittance. Results of the magnicon experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory are examined in the light of the analysis.

  14. Simulations of directed energy comet deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Lubin, Philip M.; Hughes, Gary B.

    2016-09-01

    Earth-crossing asteroids and comets pose a long-term hazard to life and property on Earth. Schemes to mitigate the impact threat have been studied extensively but tend to focus on asteroid diversion while neglecting the possibility of a comet threat. Such schemes often demand physically intercepting the target by spacecraft, a task feasible only for targets identified decades in advance in a restricted range of orbits. A threatening comet is unlikely to satisfy these criteria and so necessitates a fundamentally different approach for diversion. Comets are naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar heating of their surfaces which activates sublimation-driven jets. Artificial heating of a comet, such as by a high-powered laser array in Earth orbit, may supplement natural heating by the Sun to purposefully manipulate its path to avoid an impact. The effectiveness of any particular laser array for a given comet depends on the comet's heating response which varies dramatically depending on factors including nucleus size, orbit and dynamical history. These factors are incorporated into a numerical orbital model using established models of nongravitational perturbations to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of using high-powered laser arrays in Earth orbit or on the ground to deflect a variety of comets. Simulation results suggest that orbital arrays of 500m and 10GW operating for 10 min=d over 1 yr may be adequate for mitigating impacts by comets up to 500m in diameter. Continuously operating ground-based arrays of 100m and 10GW may be similarly effective when appropriately located.

  15. Quantitative characterization of traumatic bruises by combined pulsed photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Randeberg, Lise L.; Majaron, Boris

    2015-02-01

    We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) for characterization of the bruise evolution process. While DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths, the PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin). In this study, we simulate experimental DRS spectra and PPTR signals using the Monte Carlo technique and focus on characterization of a suitable fitting approach for their analysis. We find inverse Monte Carlo to be superior to the diffusion approximation approach for the inverse analysis of DRS spectra. The analysis is then augmented with information obtainable by the fitting of the PPTR signal. We show that both techniques can be coupled in a combined fitting approach. The combining of two complementary techniques improves the robustness and accuracy of the inverse analysis, enabling a comprehensive quantitative characterization of the bruise evolution dynamics.

  16. Direct visualization of carbon nanotube degradation in primary cells by photothermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Russier, Julie; Oudjedi, Laura; Piponnier, Martin; Bussy, Cyrill; Prato, Maurizio; Kostarelos, Kostas; Lounis, Brahim; Bianco, Alberto; Cognet, Laurent

    2017-04-06

    Assessment of biodegradability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a critically important aspect that needs to be solved before their translation into new biomedical tools. CNT biodegradation has been shown both in vitro and in vivo, but we are limited by the number of analytical techniques that can be used to follow the entire process. Photothermal imaging (PhI) is an innovative technique that enables the quantitative detection of nanometer-sized absorptive objects. In this study, we demonstrate that PhI allows the observation of the degradation process of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) following their internalization by primary glial cells. The absence of interference from the biological matrix components, together with the possibility to combine PhI with other detection techniques (e.g. fluorescence, light or electron microscopy) validate the potential of this method to follow the fate and behavior of carbon nanostructures in a biological environment.

  17. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Conference banner Although the roots of this scientific field go back to the end of the nineteenth century when A G Bell discovered the photoacoustic effect generated by the absorption of modulated light in a sample, major and rapid progress only occurred since the mid-1970's when the photoacoustic effect in condensed matter was put on a firm theoretical basis by A Rosencwaig and A Gersho. Since that time the fields of photoacoustics and the related fields of photothermal phenomena and laser ultrasonics have grown enormously. A multitude of ways of generating the effects has emerged using all kinds of radiation. Likewise, the diversity in methods for the detection of the generated thermal and acoustic waves has increased dramatically. One of the reasons for the popularity of the photoacoustic and photothermal field is the wide applicability of these techniques for fundamental and applied research. At this moment, the field has become really multidisciplinary and it is safe to say that it has reached a mature state with an established position in measurement technology and materials characterization. This conference as well as the ones before reflected this large diversity in the program topics and the research disciplines of the participants. This 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena was held on a campus of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium in the week of 19-23 July 2009. During the conference 15 tutorial lectures, 8 plenary lectures, 36 invited talks, 120 oral and 172 poster communications were presented. The conference was attended by 252 participants from 38 countries from all over the world. During a special session award lectures were presented by winners of the prizes of the International Photoacoustic and Photothermal Association (IPPA). Winners of the senior prize were A Mandelis, D Fournier and A C Boccara. The winner of the junior prize was T W Murray. The editors of the proceedings of this conference

  18. Intracranial hyperthermia through local photothermal heating with a fiberoptic microneedle device.

    PubMed

    Hood, R Lyle; Rossmeisl, John H; Andriani, Rudy T; Wilkinson, Ashley R; Robertson, John L; Rylander, Christopher G

    2013-03-01

    The fiberoptic microneedle device (FMD) seeks to leverage advantages of both laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to increase volumetric dispersal of locally infused chemotherapeutics through sub-lethal photothermal heat generation. This study focused on determination of photothermal damage thresholds with 1,064 nm light delivered through the FMD into in vivo rat models. FMDs capable of co-delivering laser energy and fluid agents were fabricated through a novel off-center splicing technique involving fusion of a multimode fiberoptic to light-guiding capillary tubing. FMDs were positioned at a depth of 2.5 mm within the cerebrum of male rats with fluoroptic temperature probes placed within 1 mm of the FMD tip. Irradiation (without fluid infusion) was conducted at laser powers of 0 (sham), 100, 200, 500, or 750 mW. Evans blue-serum albumin conjugated complex solution (EBA) and laser energy co-delivery were performed in a second set of preliminary experiments. Maximum, steady-state temperatures of 38.7 ± 1.6 and 42.0 ± 0.9 °C were measured for the 100 and 200 mW experimental groups, respectively. Histological investigation demonstrated needle insertion damage alone for sham and 100 mW irradiations. Photothermal damage was detected at 200 mW, although observable thermal damage was limited to a small penumbra of cerebral cortical microcavitation and necrosis that immediately surrounded the region of FMD insertion. Co-delivery of EBA and laser energy presented increased volumetric dispersal relative to infusion-only controls. Fluoroptic temperature sensing and histopathological assessments demonstrated that a laser power of 100 mW results in sub-lethal brain hyperthermia, and the optimum, sub-lethal target energy range is likely 100-200 mW. The preliminary FMD-CED experiments confirmed the feasibility of augmenting fluid dispersal using slight photothermal heat generation, demonstrating the FMD

  19. One-pot synthesis of gold nanostars using plant polyphenols for cancer photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zheng, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Huang-Hao; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-07-01

    Branched plasmonic nanostructures have been found to exhibit strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field surrounding their multi-branched petals. This feature endows them with improved performance in catalysis, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, photoacoustic imaging, and photothermal therapy. Albeit several synthesis techniques have been developed, the precisely controlled growth of highly branched nanostructures with a one-pot surfactant-free procedure is still challenging. Herein, we present a simple seedless route to synthesize gold nanostars (AuNSs) using a natural plant polyphenol, gallic acid (GA), as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The size and shape of AuNSs can be tuned by simply adjusting the amount of added GA. Under the optimum condition, the as-prepared AuNSs with diameters about 100 nm exhibit strong near-infrared absorption, good photothermal efficiency, and high biocompatibility. We demonstrate that AuNSs can be utilized for simultaneous photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in living cancer cells. This study highlights facile synthesized AuNSs could serve as a promising platform for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Photothermal Microneedle Etching: Improved Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Method for Agarose Gel for Topographical Control of Cultured Cell Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication method for agarose gel, photothermal microneedle etching (PTMNE), by means of an improved photothermal spot heating using a focused 1064 nm laser beam for melting a portion of the agarose layer at the tip of the microneedle, where a photoabsorbent chromium layer is coated to be heated. The advantage of this method is that it allows the 3D control of the melting topography within the thick agarose layer with a 2 μm resolution, whereas conventional photothermal etching can enable only two-dimensional (2D) control on the surface of the chip. By this method, we can form the spheroid clusters of particular cells from isolated single cells without any physical contact with other cells in other chambers, which is important for measuring the community effect of the cell group from isolated single cells. When we set single cancer cells in microchambers of 100 μm in diameter, formed in a 50-μm-thick agarose layer, we observed that they grew, divided, and formed spheroid clusters of cells in each microchamber. The result indicates the potential of this method to be a fundamental technique in the research of multicellular spherical clusters of cells for checking the community effect of cells in 3D structures, such as the permeabilities of chemicals and substrates into the cluster, which is complementary to conventional 2D dish cultivation and can contribute to the cell-based screening of drugs.

  1. Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-09

    An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l-dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.

  2. Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-01

    An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l -dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.

  3. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62fm/√Hz.

  5. Limitation of linear colliders from transverse rf deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Offaxis beam trajectories in a linear collider produce transverse wakefield and chromatic effects which cause emittance enlargement. One cause for non-centered trajectories in the accelerating structures is radial rf fields which produce transverse deflections. Static deflections can be compensated by static dipole magnetic fields. However, fluctuations of the rf fields cause variations in the deflections which must be managed or limited. Given the level of fluctuation of the phase and amplitude of an rf system, a limit on the allowable rf deflection can be calculated. Parameters, such as the beam emittance, lattice design, rf wavelength and the initial and final beam energies, influence the tolerances. Two tolerances are calculated: (1) one assumes that the wakefields are completely controlled, and that chromatic effects are the only enlarging mechanism (optimistic), and (2) the other assumes the limit is due to transverse wakefields without the aid of Landau damping (pessimistic).

  6. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, N.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1992-12-15

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse. 13 figs.

  7. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse.

  8. Photothermal Therapy: Metabolizable Ultrathin Bi2 Se3 Nanosheets in Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy (Small 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Xie, Hanhan; Li, Zhibin; Sun, Zhengbo; Shao, Jundong; Yu, Xue-Feng; Guo, Zhinan; Wang, Jiahong; Xiao, Quanlan; Wang, Huaiyu; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zhang, Han; Chu, Paul K

    2016-08-01

    Ultrathin Bi2 Se3 nanosheets are prepared by a solution method. As described on page 4136 by X.-F. Yu, Q.-Q. Wang, P. K. Chu, and co-workers, such ultrathin Bi2 Se3 nanosheets exhibit strong near infrared (NIR) light absorption, excellent photothermal and photoacoustic performance, enabling efficient imaging-guided photothermal therapy. Furthermore, these Bi2 Se3 nanosheets are well metabolized. These attractive properties render the Bi2 Se3 nanosheets promising as a NIR-triggered theranostic agents in cancer therapies.

  9. Pulsed photothermal depth profiling of tattoos undergoing laser removal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.

  10. A general small-deflection theory for flat sandwich plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libove, Charles; Batdorf, S B

    1948-01-01

    A small-deflection theory is developed for the elastic behavior of orthotropic flat plates in which deflections due to shear are taken into account. In this theory, which covers all types of flat sandwich construction, a plate is characterized by seven physical constants (five stiffnesses and two Poisson ratios) of which six are independent. Both the energy expression and the differential equations are developed. Boundary conditions corresponding to simply supported, clamped, and elastically restrained edges are considered.

  11. Comparison of Spinal Needle Deflection in a Ballistic Gel Model

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Ethan; Christolias, George; Visco, Christopher; R. Singh, Jaspal

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain. The success of these procedures depends on the accuracy of needle placement, which is influenced by needle size and shape. Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the deviation of commonly used spinal needles based on needle tip design and gauge, using a ballistic gel tissue simulant. Materials and Methods Six needles commonly used in spinal procedures (Quincke, Short Bevel, Chiba, Tuohy, Hustead, Whitacre) were selected for use in this study. Ballistic gel samples were made in molds of two depths, 40mm and 80 mm. Each needle was mounted in a drill press to ensure an accurate needle trajectory. Distance of deflection was recorded for each needle. Results In comparing the mean deflection of 22 gauge needles of all types at 80 mm of depth, deflection was greatest among beveled needles [Short Bevel (9.96 ± 0.77 mm), Quincke (8.89 ± 0.17 mm), Chiba (7.71 ± 1.16 mm)], moderate among epidural needles [Tuohy (7.64 ± 0.16 mm) and least among the pencil-point needles [Whitacre (0.73 ± 0.34 mm)]. Increased gauge (25 g) led to a significant increase in deflection among beveled needles. The direction of deflection was away from the bevel with Quincke, Chiba and Short Beveled needles and toward the bevel of the Tuohy and Hustead needles. Deflection of the Whitacre pencil-point needle was minimal. Conclusions There is clinical utility in knowing the relative deflection of various needle tips. When a procedure requires a needle to be steered around obstacles, or along non-collinear targets, the predictable and large amount of deflection obtained through use of a beveled spinal needle may prove beneficial. PMID:27847693

  12. Comparison of Spinal Needle Deflection in a Ballistic Gel Model.

    PubMed

    Rand, Ethan; Christolias, George; Visco, Christopher; R Singh, Jaspal

    2016-10-01

    Percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain. The success of these procedures depends on the accuracy of needle placement, which is influenced by needle size and shape. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the deviation of commonly used spinal needles based on needle tip design and gauge, using a ballistic gel tissue simulant. Six needles commonly used in spinal procedures (Quincke, Short Bevel, Chiba, Tuohy, Hustead, Whitacre) were selected for use in this study. Ballistic gel samples were made in molds of two depths, 40mm and 80 mm. Each needle was mounted in a drill press to ensure an accurate needle trajectory. Distance of deflection was recorded for each needle. In comparing the mean deflection of 22 gauge needles of all types at 80 mm of depth, deflection was greatest among beveled needles [Short Bevel (9.96 ± 0.77 mm), Quincke (8.89 ± 0.17 mm), Chiba (7.71 ± 1.16 mm)], moderate among epidural needles [Tuohy (7.64 ± 0.16 mm) and least among the pencil-point needles [Whitacre (0.73 ± 0.34 mm)]. Increased gauge (25 g) led to a significant increase in deflection among beveled needles. The direction of deflection was away from the bevel with Quincke, Chiba and Short Beveled needles and toward the bevel of the Tuohy and Hustead needles. Deflection of the Whitacre pencil-point needle was minimal. There is clinical utility in knowing the relative deflection of various needle tips. When a procedure requires a needle to be steered around obstacles, or along non-collinear targets, the predictable and large amount of deflection obtained through use of a beveled spinal needle may prove beneficial.

  13. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Norman W.; Golladay, Steven D.; Crewe, Albert V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations.

  14. Deflection and Rotation of CMEs from Active Region 11158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Christina; Gopalswamy, Nat; Xie, Hong; Yashiro, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    Between 13 and 16 February 2011, a series of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from multiple polarity inversion lines within active region 11158. For seven of these CMEs we employ the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) flux rope model to determine the CME trajectory using both Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and coronagraph images. We then use the model called Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT) for nonradial CME dynamics driven by magnetic forces to simulate the deflection and rotation of the seven CMEs. We find good agreement between ForeCAT results and reconstructed CME positions and orientations. The CME deflections range in magnitude between 10^{circ } and 30^{circ}. All CMEs are deflected to the north, but we find variations in the direction of the longitudinal deflection. The rotations range between 5^{circ} and 50^{circ} with both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations. Three of the CMEs begin with initial positions within 2^{circ} from one another. These three CMEs are all deflected primarily northward, with some minor eastward deflection, and rotate counterclockwise. Their final positions and orientations, however, differ by 20^{circ} and 30^{circ}, respectively. This variation in deflection and rotation results from differences in the CME expansion and radial propagation close to the Sun, as well as from the CME mass. Ultimately, only one of these seven CMEs yielded discernible in situ signatures near Earth, although the active region faced toward Earth throughout the eruptions. We suggest that the differences in the deflection and rotation of the CMEs can explain whether each CME impacted or missed Earth.

  15. Load-Deflection Behavior of Lime-Stabilized Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    CERL study indicated that lime sta- bdization appears "to increase the bearing capacity of the subgrade" for rigid pavements and that the soil...block number) m soil-lime pavement layers pavement load deflection response pavement behavior UJ D" " 20. ABSTRACT fCondnue on rovor«o aide II...neceaaary and Identity by block numbet; The static and dynamic load-deflection response of soil-lime pavement layers was in- vestigated, Soil-lime

  16. Design of Superconducting Parallel Bar Deflecting and Crabbing rf Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen, Haipeng Wang

    2009-05-01

    A new concept for a deflecting and crabbing rf structure based on half-wave resonant lines was introduced recently*. It offers significant advantages to existing designs and, because of it compactness, allows low frequency operation. This concept has been further refined and optimized for superconducting implementation. Results of this optimization and application to a 400 MHz crabbing cavity and a 499 MHz deflecting cavity are presented.

  17. Deflected jet experiments in a turbulent combustor flowfield. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the time-mean and turbulent flow field of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the tracjectory and spread pattern of the jet. A six-position single hot-wire technique was used to measure the velocities and turbulent stresses in nonswirling crossflow cases. In these cases, measurements confirmed that the deflected jet is symmetrical about the vertical plan passing through the crossflow axis, and the jet penetration was found to be reduced from that of comparable velocity ratio infinite crossflow cases. In the swirling crossflow cases, the flow visualization techniques enabled gross flow field characterization to be obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow.

  18. Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  19. Hubble Space Telescope measures relativistic deflection of background starlight by a nearby white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.; Anderson, Jay; Casertano, Stefano; Bond, Howard E.; Bergeron, Pierre; Nelan, Edmund P.; Pueyo, Laurent; Brown, Thomas M.; Bellini, Andrea; Levay, Zoltan G.; Dominik, Martin; Calamida, Annalisa; Kains, Noé; Sokol, Josh; Livio, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The deflection of images of background stars by curved space near the Sun during the 1919 total eclipse spectacularly confirmed Einstein’s general theory of relativity. A century later, the superb angular resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope has enabled us to measure the deflection of a background star’s position as a nearby white dwarf, Stein 2051B, passed in front of it. This allows us to determine the mass of a star using this technique of “astrometric microlensing” for the first time outside the solar system. Our measurement of the mass of Stein 2051 B—the sixth-nearest white dwarf—provides confirmation of the physics of degenerate matter, and lends support for white-dwarf evolutionary theory.

  20. A burst segmentation-deflection routing contention resolution mechanism in OBS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ai-hong; Wang, Bo-yun

    2012-01-01

    One of the key problems to hinder the realization of optical burst switching (OBS) technology in the core networks is the losses due to the contention among the bursts at the core nodes. Burst segmentation is an effective contention resolution technique used to reduce the number of packets lost due to the burst losses. In our work, a burst segmentation-deflection routing contention resolution mechanism in OBS networks is proposed. When the contention occurs, the bursts are segmented according to the lowest packet loss probability of networks firstly, and then the segmented burst is deflected on the optimum routing. An analytical model is proposed to evaluate the contention resolution mechanism. Simulation results show that high-priority bursts have significantly lower packet loss probability and transmission delay than the low-priority. And the performance of the burst lengths, in which the number of segments per burst distributes geometrically, is more effective than that of the deterministically distributed burst lengths.

  1. A multi-mirror solution for the deflection of dangerous NEOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents some recent results on the deflection of potentially dangerous near earth objects. A particular deflection technique, employing a swarm of mirrors focusing the light of the Sun on the surface of the asteroid, is described. The swarm has to fly in formation with the asteroid, or hover in close proximity. The paper describes two different designs for the mirrors, and different options to place the spacecraft in the vicinity of the asteroid. In particular the paper shows a number of periodic formation orbits. As an alternative, results are shown by placing the spacecraft at fixed points in close proximity to the asteroid, where the solar pressure and the gravity attraction balance each other.

  2. Photoacoustic and Photothermal Effects in Particulate Suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, Gerald, J.

    2009-04-30

    A summary of the research areas investigated by the author during the grant period is given. Experiments and theory have been carried out on the photoacoustic effect arising from a number of physical and chemical processes. A number of studies of the photoacoustic effect as it occurs in transient grating experiments have been completed. The research done with the Ludwig-Soret effect on the generation of shock waves is reported. Other research, such as that carried out on interferometric and beam deflection microphones, the use of microphones in vacuum as momentum flux detectors, and chemical generation of sonoluminescence is listed. A list of published research including selected publications, a complete list of journal articles, books, review articles, and reviews are given.

  3. Cantilever deflection associated with hybridization of monomolecular DNA film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Shrotriya, Pranav

    2012-04-01

    Recent experiments show that specific binding between a ligand and surface immobilized receptor, such as hybridization of single stranded DNA immobilized on a microcantilever surface, leads to cantilever deflection. The binding-induced deflection may be used as a method for detection of biomolecules, such as pathogens and biohazards. Mechanical deformation induced due to hybridization of surface-immobilized DNA strands is a commonly used system to demonstrate the efficacy of microcantilever sensors. To understand the mechanism underlying the cantilever deflections, a theoretical model that incorporates the influence of ligand/receptor complex surface distribution and empirical interchain potential is developed to predict the binding-induced deflections. The cantilever bending induced due to hybridization of DNA strands is predicted for different receptor immobilization densities, hybridization efficiencies, and spatial arrangements. Predicted deflections are compared with experimental reports to validate the modeling assumptions and identify the influence of various components on mechanical deformation. Comparison of numerical predictions and experimental results suggest that, at high immobilization densities, hybridization-induced mechanical deformation is determined, primarily by immobilization density and hybridization efficiency, whereas, at lower immobilization densities, spatial arrangement of hybridized chains need to be considered in determining the cantilever deflection.

  4. Photothermal heating as a methodology for post processing of polymeric nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura; Bochinski, Jason; Viswanath, Vidya; Maity, Somsubhra; Dong, Ju; Firestone, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles embedded within polymeric systems can be made to act as localized heat sources thereby aiding in-situ polymer processing. This is made possible by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mediated photothermal effect of metal (in this case gold) nanoparticles, wherein incident light absorbed by the nanoparticle generates a non-equilibrium electron distribution which subsequently transfers this energy into the surrounding medium, resulting in a temperature increase in the immediate region around the particle. Here we demonstrate this effect in polymer nanocomposite systems, specifically electrospun polyethylene oxide nanofibrous mats, which have been annealed at temperatures above the glass transition. A non-contact temperature measurement technique utilizing embedded fluorophores (perylene) has been used to monitor the average temperature within samples. The effect of annealing methods (conventional and photothermal) and annealing conditions (temperature and time) on the fiber morphology, overall crystallinity, and mechanical properties is discussed. This methodology is further utilized in core-sheath nanofibers to crosslink the core material, which is a pre-cured epoxy thermoset. NSF Grant CMMI-1069108.

  5. Spatial temperature mapping within polymer nanocomposites undergoing ultrafast photothermal heating via gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Xu, Chao; Tracy, Joseph B; Gundogdu, Kenan; Bochinski, Jason R; Clarke, Laura I

    2014-12-21

    Heat emanates from gold nanorods (GNRs) under ultrafast optical excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The steady state nanoscale temperature distribution formed within a polymer matrix embedded with GNRs undergoing pulsed femtosecond photothermal heating is determined experimentally using two independent ensemble optical techniques. Physical rotation of the nanorods reveals the average local temperature of the polymer melt in the immediate spatial volume surrounding each rod while fluorescence of homogeneously-distributed perylene molecules monitors temperature over sample regions at larger distances from the GNRs. Polarization-sensitive fluorescence measurements of the perylene probes provide an estimate of the average size of the quasi-molten region surrounding each nanorod (that is, the boundary between softened polymer and solid material as the temperature decreases radially away from each particle) and distinguishes the steady state temperature in the solid and melt regions. Combining these separate methods enables nanoscale spatial mapping of the average steady state temperature distribution caused by ultrafast excitation of the GNRs. These observations definitively demonstrate the presence of a steady-state temperature gradient and indicate that localized heating via the photothermal effect within materials enables nanoscale thermal manipulations without significantly altering the bulk sample temperature in these systems. These quantitative results are further verified by re-orienting nanorods within a solid polymer nanofiber without inducing any morphological changes to the highly temperature-sensitive nanofiber surface. Temperature differences of 70-90 °C were observed over a distances of ∼ 100 nm.

  6. Review of the progress toward achieving heat confinement-the holy grail of photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wangzhong; He, Sha; Seare, William J.; Almutairi, Adah

    2017-08-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) involves the application of normally benign light wavelengths in combination with efficient photothermal (PT) agents that convert the absorbed light to heat to ablate selected cancers. The major challenge in PTT is the ability to confine heating and thus direct cellular death to precisely where PT agents are located. The dominant strategy in the field has been to create large libraries of PT agents with increased absorption capabilities and to enhance their delivery and accumulation to achieve sufficiently high concentrations in the tissue targets of interest. While the challenge of material confinement is important for achieving "heat and lethality confinement," this review article suggests another key prospective strategy to make this goal a reality. In this approach, equal emphasis is placed on selecting parameters of light exposure, including wavelength, duration, power density, and total power supplied, based on the intrinsic properties and geometry of tissue targets that influence heat dissipation, to truly achieve heat confinement. This review highlights significant milestones researchers have achieved, as well as examples that suggest future research directions, in this promising technique, as it becomes more relevant in clinical cancer therapy and other noncancer applications.

  7. Spatial Temperature Mapping within Polymer Nanocomposites Undergoing Ultrafast Photothermal Heating via Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Xu, Chao; Tracy, Joseph B.; Gundogdu, Kenan; Bochinski, Jason R.; Clarke, Laura I.

    2015-01-01

    Heat emanates from gold nanorods (GNRs) under ultrafast optical excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The steady state nanoscale temperature distribution formed within a polymer matrix embedded with GNRs undergoing pulsed femtosecond photothermal heating is determined experimentally using two independent ensemble optical techniques. Physical rotation of the nanorods reveals the average local temperature of the polymer melt in the immediate spatial volume surrounding them while fluorescence of homogeneously-distributed perylene molecules monitors temperature over sample regions at larger distances from the GNRs. Polarization-sensitive fluorescence measurements of the perylene probes provide an estimate of the average size of the quasi-molten region surrounding each nanorod (that is, the boundary between softened polymer and solid material as the temperature decreases radially away from each particle) and distinguishes the steady state temperature in the solid and melt regions. Combining these separate methods enables nanoscale spatial mapping of the average steady state temperature distribution caused by ultrafast excitation of the GNRs. These observations definitively demonstrate the presence of a steady-state temperature gradient and indicate that localized heating via the photothermal effect within materials enables nanoscale thermal manipulations without significantly altering the bulk sample temperature in these systems. These quantitative results are further verified by reorienting nanorods within a solid polymer nanofiber without inducing any morphological changes to the highly temperature-sensitive nanofiber surface. Temperature differences of 70 – 90 °C were observed over a distances of ~100 nm. PMID:25379775

  8. Complex genetic, photothermal, and photoacoustic analysis of nanoparticle-plant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.; de Silva, Kanishka; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Biris, Alexandru S.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of interactions between engineered nanomaterials and plants is crucial in comprehending the impact of nanotechnology on the environment and agriculture with a focus on toxicity concerns, plant disease treatment, and genetic engineering. To date, little progress has been made in studying nanoparticle-plant interactions at single nanoparticle and genetic levels. Here, we introduce an advanced platform integrating genetic, Raman, photothermal, and photoacoustic methods. Using this approach, we discovered that multiwall carbon nanotubes induce previously unknown changes in gene expression in tomato leaves and roots, particularly, up-regulation of the stress-related genes, including those induced by pathogens and the water-channel LeAqp2 gene. A nano-bubble amplified photothermal/photoacoustic imaging, spectroscopy, and burning technique demonstrated the detection of multiwall carbon nanotubes in roots, leaves, and fruits down to the single nanoparticle and cell level. Thus, our integrated platform allows the study of nanoparticles’ impact on plants with higher sensitivity and specificity, compared to existing assays. PMID:21189303

  9. Measurements of the thermal diffusivity tensor of polymer-carbon fiber composites by photothermal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    1998-03-01

    The thermal diffusivity tensor of a polymer-carbon fiber composite with unidirectionally distributed fibers has been measured using a modulated photothermal mirage device. The thermal diffusivity along the fibers is k{sub {parallel}} = 6.0 {+-} 0.5 mm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, that perpendicular to the fibers is k{sub {perpendicular}} = 0.35 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, and that perpendicular to the sample surface is k{sub z} = 0.40 {+-} 0.15 mm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. These results have been confirmed by independent measurements on the sample by other laboratories using three other different photothermal techniques. A previous claim on anomalous results found on this sample (k{sub {parallel}} < k{sub {perpendicular}} and high thermal diffusivities) can be explained by the inappropriate use of the frequency range. The authors have also found that there is not perfect thermal contact between the fibers and the matrix, which can be characterized by the thermal contact resistance of R{sub th} = (9 {+-} 2) {times} 10{sup {minus}6} m{sup 2}{center_dot}K{center_dot}W{sup {minus}1}.

  10. Salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Yukun; Wang, Wansheng; Hu, Jin; Liu, Jing; Dai, Zhifei; Wang, Kun; Wei, Yen; Bai, Jing; Gao, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    The challenge in photothermal therapy (PTT) is to develop biocompatible photothermal transducers that can absorb and convert near-infrared (NIR) light into heat with high efficiency. Herein, we report salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in biological media to form highly efficient and biocompatible NIR photothermal transducers for PTT and photothermal/photoacoustic (PT/PA) imaging of cancer. The GNP depots in situ formed by salt-induced aggregation of GNPs show strong NIR absorption induced by plasmonic coupling between adjacent GNPs and very high photothermal conversion efficiency (52%), enabling photothermal destruction of tumor cells. More interestingly, GNPs in situ aggregate in tumors to form GNP depots, enabling simultaneous PT/PA imaging and PTT of the tumors. These findings may provide a simple and effective way to develop a new class of intelligent and biocompatible NIR photothermal transducers with high efficiency for PT/PA imaging and PTT.The challenge in photothermal therapy (PTT) is to develop biocompatible photothermal transducers that can absorb and convert near-infrared (NIR) light into heat with high efficiency. Herein, we report salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in biological media to form highly efficient and biocompatible NIR photothermal transducers for PTT and photothermal/photoacoustic (PT/PA) imaging of cancer. The GNP depots in situ formed by salt-induced aggregation of GNPs show strong NIR absorption induced by plasmonic coupling between adjacent GNPs and very high photothermal conversion efficiency (52%), enabling photothermal destruction of tumor cells. More interestingly, GNPs in situ aggregate in tumors to form GNP depots, enabling simultaneous PT/PA imaging and PTT of the tumors. These findings may provide a simple and effective way to develop a new class of intelligent and biocompatible NIR photothermal transducers with high efficiency for PT/PA imaging and PTT. Electronic supplementary

  11. Flower-like PEGylated MoS2 nanoflakes for near-infrared photothermal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Chen, Liang; Qin, Ming; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qianqian; Miao, Yingke; Qiu, Kexin; Zhang, Yanzhong; He, Chuanglong

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal cancer therapy has attracted considerable interest for cancer treatment in recent years, but the effective photothermal agents remain to be explored before this strategy can be applied clinically. In this study, we therefore develop flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes and investigate their potential for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. MoS2 nanoflakes are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and then modified with lipoic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG), endowing the obtained nanoflakes with high colloidal stability and very low cytotoxicity. Upon irradiation with near infrared (NIR) laser at 808 nm, the nanoflakes showed powerful ability of inducing higher temperature, good photothermal stability and high photothermal conversion efficiency. The in vitro photothermal effects of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes with different concentrations were also evaluated under various power densities of NIR 808-nm laser irradiation, and the results indicated that an effective photothermal killing of cancer cells could be achieved by a low concentration of nanoflakes under a low power NIR 808-nm laser irradiation. Furthermore, cancer cell in vivo could be efficiently destroyed via the photothermal effect of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes under the irradiation. These results thus suggest that the MoS2-PEG nanoflakes would be as promising photothermal agents for future photothermal cancer therapy. PMID:26632249

  12. Flower-like PEGylated MoS2 nanoflakes for near-infrared photothermal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Chen, Liang; Qin, Ming; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qianqian; Miao, Yingke; Qiu, Kexin; Zhang, Yanzhong; He, Chuanglong

    2015-12-03

    Photothermal cancer therapy has attracted considerable interest for cancer treatment in recent years, but the effective photothermal agents remain to be explored before this strategy can be applied clinically. In this study, we therefore develop flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes and investigate their potential for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. MoS2 nanoflakes are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and then modified with lipoic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG), endowing the obtained nanoflakes with high colloidal stability and very low cytotoxicity. Upon irradiation with near infrared (NIR) laser at 808 nm, the nanoflakes showed powerful ability of inducing higher temperature, good photothermal stability and high photothermal conversion efficiency. The in vitro photothermal effects of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes with different concentrations were also evaluated under various power densities of NIR 808-nm laser irradiation, and the results indicated that an effective photothermal killing of cancer cells could be achieved by a low concentration of nanoflakes under a low power NIR 808-nm laser irradiation. Furthermore, cancer cell in vivo could be efficiently destroyed via the photothermal effect of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes under the irradiation. These results thus suggest that the MoS2-PEG nanoflakes would be as promising photothermal agents for future photothermal cancer therapy.

  13. Flower-like PEGylated MoS2 nanoflakes for near-infrared photothermal cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Chen, Liang; Qin, Ming; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qianqian; Miao, Yingke; Qiu, Kexin; Zhang, Yanzhong; He, Chuanglong

    2015-12-01

    Photothermal cancer therapy has attracted considerable interest for cancer treatment in recent years, but the effective photothermal agents remain to be explored before this strategy can be applied clinically. In this study, we therefore develop flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes and investigate their potential for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. MoS2 nanoflakes are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and then modified with lipoic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG), endowing the obtained nanoflakes with high colloidal stability and very low cytotoxicity. Upon irradiation with near infrared (NIR) laser at 808 nm, the nanoflakes showed powerful ability of inducing higher temperature, good photothermal stability and high photothermal conversion efficiency. The in vitro photothermal effects of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes with different concentrations were also evaluated under various power densities of NIR 808-nm laser irradiation, and the results indicated that an effective photothermal killing of cancer cells could be achieved by a low concentration of nanoflakes under a low power NIR 808-nm laser irradiation. Furthermore, cancer cell in vivo could be efficiently destroyed via the photothermal effect of MoS2-PEG nanoflakes under the irradiation. These results thus suggest that the MoS2-PEG nanoflakes would be as promising photothermal agents for future photothermal cancer therapy.

  14. MOSFET solid state switching circuit improves the 0 to 99% rise time for framing camera deflection electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.T.; Thomas, S.

    1996-09-01

    We have improved the 0 to 99% rise time voltage on our 2 frame deflection plates from 160 to 65 nS with the addition of a peaking circuit that works in conjunction with our primary 2 frame deflection circuitry. Our peaking technique has applications to other HV pulsers including those which must drive 51 ohm loads. Generally, rise time voltages are measured between 10 and 90%. To minimize the camera image blur resulting from the dynamic influence of deflection plate potentials acting on photocathode electrons, it was necessary to design a circuit that would rise from 0 to the 99% voltage level in under 100nS. Once this voltage was reached, it was necessary to stay within 1% of the attained voltage level for a duration of 1 uS. This was accomplished with the use of MOSFET solid state switching.

  15. Laser photothermal spectroscopy of light-induced absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A

    2013-01-31

    Basic methods of laser photothermal spectroscopy, which are used to study photoinduced absorption in various media, are briefly considered. Comparative analysis of these methods is performed and the latest results obtained in this field are discussed. Different schemes and examples of their practical implementation are considered. (review)

  16. Two-Dimensional Ultrathin MXene Ceramic Nanosheets for Photothermal Conversion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han; Wang, Xingang; Yu, Luodan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-01-11

    Ceramic biomaterials have been investigated for several decades, but their potential biomedical applications in cancer therapy have been paid much less attentions, mainly due to their lack of related material functionality for combating the cancer. In this work, we report, for the first time, that MAX ceramic biomaterials exhibit the unique functionality for the photothermal ablation of cancer upon being exfoliated into ultrathin nanosheets within atomic thickness (MXene). As a paradigm, biocompatible Ti3C2 nanosheets (MXenes) were successfully synthesized based on a two-step exfoliation strategy of MAX phase Ti3AlC2 by the combined HF etching and TPAOH intercalation. Especially, the high photothermal-conversion efficiency and in vitro/in vivo photothermal ablation of tumor of Ti3C2 nanosheets (MXenes) were revealed and demonstrated, not only in the intravenous administration of soybean phospholipid modified Ti3C2 nanosheets but also in the localized intratumoral implantation of a phase-changeable PLGA/Ti3C2 organic-inorganic hybrid. This work promises the great potential of Ti3C2 nanosheets (MXenes) as a novel ceramic photothermal agent used for cancer therapy and may arouse much interest in exploring MXene-based ceramic biomaterials to benefit the biomedical applications.

  17. Enhanced photothermal conversion in vertically oriented gallium arsenide nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Walia, Jaspreet; Dhindsa, Navneet; Flannery, Jeremy; Khodabad, Iman; Forrest, James; LaPierre, Ray; Saini, Simarjeet S

    2014-10-08

    The photothermal properties of vertically etched gallium arsenide nanowire arrays are examined using Raman spectroscopy. The nanowires are arranged in square lattices with a constant pitch of 400 nm and diameters ranging from 50 to 155 nm. The arrays were illuminated using a 532 nm laser with an incident energy density of 10 W/mm(2). Nanowire temperatures were highly dependent on the nanowire diameter and were determined by measuring the spectral red-shift for both TO and LO phonons. The highest temperatures were observed for 95 nm diameter nanowires, whose top facets and sidewalls heated up to 600 and 440 K, respectively, and decreased significantly for the smaller or larger diameters studied. The diameter-dependent heating is explained by resonant coupling of the incident laser light into optical modes of the nanowires, resulting in increased absorption. Photothermal activity in a given nanowire diameter can be optimized by proper wavelength selection, as confirmed using computer simulations. This demonstrates that the photothermal properties of GaAs nanowires can be enhanced and tuned by using a photonic lattice structure and that smaller nanowire diameters are not necessarily better to achieve efficient photothermal conversion. The diameter and wavelength dependence of the optical coupling could allow for localized temperature gradients by creating arrays which consist of different diameters.

  18. Photothermal response of near-infrared-absorbing NanoGUMBOS.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Jonathan C; Qureshi, Ammar; Hamdan, Suzana; El-Zahab, Bilal; Das, Susmita; Hayes, Daniel J; Boldor, Dorin; Rupnik, Kresimir; Warner, Isiah M

    2014-01-01

    The photothermal properties of several near-infrared-absorbing nanoparticles derived from group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS) and composed of cationic dyes coupled with biocompatible anions are evaluated. These nanoparticles were synthesized using a reprecipitation method performed at various pH values: 2.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 11.0. The cations for the nanoparticles derived from GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS), [1048] and [1061], have absorbance maxima at wavelengths overlapping with human soft tissue absorbance minima. Near-infrared-absorbing nanoGUMBOS excited with a 1064 nm continuous laser led to heat generation, with an average temperature increase of 20.4 ± 2.7 °C. Although the [1061][Deoxycholate] nanoGUMBOS generated the highest temperature increase (23.7 ± 2.4 °C), it was the least photothermally efficient compound (13.0%) due to its relatively large energy band gap of 0.892 eV. The more photothermally efficient compound [1048][Ascorbate] (64.4%) had a smaller energy band gap of 0.861 eV and provided an average photothermal temperature increase of 21.0 ± 2.1 °C.

  19. Development of a Photothermal Absorbance Detector for Use with Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Patty J.; Ferguson Welch, Erin R.; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Ramsey, J. Michael; Jorgenson, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a photothermal absorbance detector for use with microfluidic devices is described. Unlike thermooptical techniques that rely on measuring refractive index changes, the solution viscosity is probed by continuously monitoring solution conductivity. Platinum electrodes microfabricated on a quartz substrate and bonded to a substrate containing the microchannels enable contact conductivity measurements. The effects of excitation frequency and voltage, electrode spacing, laser power, and laser modulation (chopping) frequency were evaluated experimentally. In the current configuration a limit of detection of 5 nM for DABSYL-tagged glucosamine was obtained using long injections (to give flat-topped peaks). This corresponds to an absorbance of 4.4 × 10−7 AU. Separation and detection of DABSYL-tagged glycine, proline, and tryptophan is also shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. In addition, simulations were used to investigate the applicability of the technique to small volume platforms. PMID:20411923

  20. The adhesive potential of dentin bonding systems assessed using cuspal deflection measurements and cervical microleakage scores.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Ahmed; Moorthy, Advan; Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-10-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage of standardized mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored with a dimethacrylate resin-based-composite (RBC) placed with one 3-step, one 2-step and three 1-step bonding systems and compared with the unbound condition. Forty-eight sound maxillary premolar teeth with standardized MOD cavities were randomly allocated to six groups. Restoration was performed in eight oblique increments using a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light curing unit (LCU) with the bonding condition as the dependent variable. Buccal and palatal cuspal deflections were recorded post-irradiation using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge at 0, 30, 60 and 180s. Following restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, immersed in a 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage assessment. The mean total cuspal deflection measurements with the one 3-step, one 2-step and three 1-step bonding systems were 11.26 (2.56), 10.95 (2.16), 10.03 (2.05) (Futurabond(®) DC SingleDose), 6.37 (1.37) (Adper™ Prompt™ L-Pop™), 8.98 (1.34) μm (All-Bond SE(®)), respectively when compared with the unbound condition (6.46 (1.88) μm) The one-way ANOVA of the total cuspal deflection measurements identified statistical differences (p<0.001) between groups. Cervical microleakage scores significantly increased (p<0.001) for the negative control (unbound condition) when compared with teeth restored with a bonding system although differences between the bonding systems were evident (p<0.001). The cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage protocol reported offers an opportunity to test the bonding technologies available to practitioners for RBCs. Poorly performing adhesives can be identified which indicated the technique may be useful as a screening tool for assessing existing and new bonding technologies which offers the potential to limit complications routinely encountered with Class II RBC restorations. Copyright

  1. Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.

    1994-03-01

    literature. The submatrices involved in the formation of the finite difference equations from the governing differential equations are generated directly by the computer program. The subroutine SOLINV using the change of variable technique illustrated elsewhere takes care of the solution of the general system. Simplicity in formulation and quick convergence are the obvious advantages of the finite difference formulation developed to compute small and large deflection analysis of thick plates in comparison with other numerical methods requiring extensive computer facilities.

  2. Cooperative Strategies for Enhancing Performance of Photothermal Therapy (PTT) Agent: Optimizing Its Photothermal Conversion and Cell Internalization Ability.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoji; Ma, Chongbo; Ding, Guanyu; Han, Xu; Li, Dan; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2017-01-23

    Photothermal conversion ability (PCA) and cell internalization ability (CIA) are two key factors for determining the performance of photothermal agents. The previous studies mostly focus on improving the PCA by exploring new photothermal nanomaterials. Herein, the authors take the hybrids of graphene and gold nanostar (GGN) as an example to investigate the gradually enhanced phototherapy effect by changing the PCA and CIA of photothermal therapy (PTT) agent simultaneously. Based on the GGN, the GGN and the reduced GGN protected by bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA-FA (folic acid) are prepared, which are named as GGNB, rGGNB, and rGGNB-FA, respectively. The rGGNB showed an enhanced PCA compared to GGNB, leading to strong cell ablation. On the other hand, the 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropan (DOTAP) can activate the endocytosis and promote the CIA of rGGNB, further help rGGNB to be more internalized into the cells. Finally, rGGNB-FA with the target ability can make itself further internalized into the cells with the aid of DOTAP, which can significantly destroy the cancer cells even at the low laser density of 0.3 W cm(-2) . Therefore, a new angle of view is brought out for researching the PTT agents of high performance.

  3. Biological imaging with nonlinear photothermal microscopy using a compact supercontinuum fiber laser source.

    PubMed

    He, Jinping; Miyazaki, Jun; Wang, Nan; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-04-20

    Nonlinear photothermal microscopy is applied in the imaging of biological tissues stained with chlorophyll and hematoxylin. Experimental results show that this type of organic molecules, which absorb light but transform dominant part of the absorbed energy into heat, may be ideal probes for photothermal imaging without photochemical toxicity. Picosecond pump and probe pulses, with central wavelengths of 488 and 632 nm, respectively, are spectrally filtered from a compact supercontinuum fiber laser source. Based on the light source, a compact and sensitive super-resolution imaging system is constructed. Further more, the imaging system is much less affected by thermal blurring than photothermal microscopes with continuous-wave light sources. The spatial resolution of nonlinear photothermal microscopy is ~ 188 nm. It is ~ 23% higher than commonly utilized linear photothermal microscopy experimentally and ~43% than conventional optical microscopy theoretically. The nonlinear photothermal imaging technology can be used in the evaluation of biological tissues with high-resolution and contrast.

  4. Deflection load characteristics of laser-welded orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Stigall, Garrett; Elshahawy, Waleed; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-07-01

    To compare the deflection load characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous joints made by laser welding using various types of orthodontic wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 inch × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel (Co-Cr-Ni), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (12 mm long each) were made by Nd:YAG laser welding. Two types of welding methods were used: two-point welding and four-point welding. Nonwelded wires were also used as a control. Deflection load (N) was measured by conducting the three-point bending test. The data (n  =  5) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P < .05). The deflection loads for control wires measured were as follows: SS: 21.7 ± 0.8 N; Co-Cr-Ni: 20.0 ± 0.3 N; β-Ti: 13.9 ± 1.3 N; and Ni-Ti: 6.6 ± 0.4 N. All of the homogeneously welded specimens showed lower deflection loads compared to corresponding control wires and exhibited higher deflection loads compared to heterogeneously welded combinations. For homogeneous combinations, Co-Cr-Ni/Co-Cr-Ni showed a significantly (P < .05) higher deflection load than those of the remaining homogeneously welded groups. In heterogeneous combinations, SS/Co-Cr-Ni and β-Ti/Ni-Ti showed higher deflection loads than those of the remaining heterogeneously welded combinations (significantly higher for SS/Co-Cr-Ni). Significance (P < .01) was shown for the interaction between the two factors (materials combination and welding method). However, no significant difference in deflection load was found between four-point and two-point welding in each homogeneous or heterogeneous combination. Heterogeneously laser-welded SS/Co-Cr-Ni and β-Ti/Ni-Ti wires provide a deflection load that is comparable to that of homogeneously welded orthodontic wires.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of CME Deflections in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Bin; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Ye, Pinzhong; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Shui; Zhao, Xuepu

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, ten CME events viewed by the STEREO twin spacecraft are analyzed to study the deflections of CMEs during their propagation in the corona. Based on the three-dimensional information of the CMEs derived by the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model (Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas in Astrophys. J. 652, 1305, 2006), it is found that the propagation directions of eight CMEs had changed. By applying the theoretical method proposed by Shen et al. ( Solar Phys. 269, 389, 2011) to all the CMEs, we found that the deflections are consistent, in strength and direction, with the gradient of the magnetic energy density. There is a positive correlation between the deflection rate and the strength of the magnetic energy density gradient and a weak anti-correlation between the deflection rate and the CME speed. Our results suggest that the deflections of CMEs are mainly controlled by the background magnetic field and can be quantitatively described by the magnetic energy density gradient (MEDG) model.

  6. Gravimagnetism, causality, and aberration of gravity in the gravitational light-ray deflection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Fomalont, Edward B.

    2007-10-01

    Experimental verification of the existence of gravimagnetic fields generated by currents of matter is important for a complete understanding and formulation of gravitational physics. Although the rotational (intrinsic) gravimagnetic field has been extensively studied and is now being measured by the Gravity Probe B, the extrinsic gravimagnetic field generated by the translational current of matter is less well studied. The present paper uses the post-Newtonian parametrized Einstein and light geodesics equations to show that the extrinsic gravimagnetic field generated by the translational current of matter can be measured by observing the relativistic time delay and/or light deflection caused by the moving mass. We prove that the extrinsic gravimagnetic field is generated by the relativistic effect of the aberration of the gravity force caused by the Lorentz transformation of the metric tensor and the Levi Civita connection. We show that the Lorentz transformation of the gravity field variables is equivalent to the technique of the retarded Lienard Wiechert gravitational potentials predicting that a light particle is deflected by gravitational field of a moving body from its retarded position so that both general-relativistic phenomena—the aberration and the retardation of gravity—are tightly connected and observing the aberration of gravity proves that gravity has a causal nature. We explain in this framework the 2002 deflection experiment of a quasar by Jupiter where the aberration of gravity from its orbital motion was measured with accuracy 20%. We describe a theory of VLBI experiment to measure the gravitational deflection of radio waves from a quasar by the Sun, as viewed by a moving observer from the geocentric frame, to improve the measurement accuracy of the aberration of gravity to a few percent.

  7. Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect enables a new method for quantitative biochemical analysis using a thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guanglei; Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Li, Xiujun

    2016-03-01

    A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays.A new biomolecular quantitation method, nanoparticle-mediated photothermal bioassay, using a common thermometer as the signal reader was developed. Using an immunoassay as a proof of concept, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) captured in the sandwich-type assay system were transformed into a near-infrared (NIR) laser-driven photothermal agent, Prussian blue (PB) NPs, which acted as a photothermal probe to convert the assay signal into heat through the photothermal effect, thus allowing sensitive biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer. This is the first report of biomolecular quantitation using a thermometer and also serves as the first attempt to introduce the nanoparticle-mediated photothermal effect for bioassays. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on FTIR characterization (Fig. S1), photothermal immunoassay of PSA in human serum samples (Table S1), and the Experimental section, including preparation of antibody-conjugated iron oxide NPs, sandwich-type immunoassay, characterization, and photothermal detection protocol. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09051b

  8. Photothermal theragnosis synergistic therapy based on bimetal sulphide nanocrystals rather than nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Ye, Kaichuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Qin, Jinbao; Zou, Rujia; Xu, Kaibing; Huang, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Zhiyin; Zhang, Wenjun; Lu, Xinwu; Hu, Junqing

    2015-02-25

    A new generation of photothermal theranostic agents is developed based on Cu3BiS3 nanocrystals. A computed tomography imaging response and photothermal effect, as well as near-infrared fluorescence emission, can be simultaneously achieved through Cu3BiS3 nanocrystals rather than frequently used nanocomposites. These results provide some insight into the synergistic effect from bimetal sulphide semiconductor compounds for photothermal theragnosis therapy.

  9. Polypyrrole Composite Nanoparticles with Morphology-Dependent Photothermal Effect and Immunological Responses.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Jianping; Tang, Shiwei; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Wuli

    2016-02-10

    Polypyrrole composite nanoparticles with controlled shape are synthesized, which exhibit a morphology-dependent photothermal effect: the raspberry-like composite nanoparticles have a much better photothermal effect than the spherical ones, and the immune responses to the nanocomposites are also dependent on their morphology. The outstanding performance of the nanocomposites promises their potential application in photothermal therapy and immunotherapy of cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Physical and thermal properties of human teeth determined by photomechanical, photothermal images to rapidly diagnose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharkawy, Yasser H.

    2009-02-01

    This paper details the current techniques for the detection of caries using non-invasive techniques, A promising option is tooth trans-illumination which is based on an increase of light scattering or light absorption in the affected tissue region. In this study trans-illumination applied to detect microscopic caries lesions was investigated using premolar teeth containing affected caries lesions. One line coincides with a carious absorption line, while the other is used as a reference. By this referencing the system is auto-calibrated continuously. Normal and carious human teeth were applied for the determination of NIR absorption by using a micro-spectrophotometer. Relative NIR absorption value for normal tooth and for carious one distributed in different quantity relating to the tooth structure, whereas the value showed much higher in enamel than in dentine. This paper suggests a way to use a commercially available system, which has the capability to carious detection. It is based on photomechanical and photothermal monitoring of teeth response. This technique is based on irradiation of the teeth with a short pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 μm, 12 ns) and monitoring the laser-induced local thermal effects. This is realized with thermal imagers that locate the heated teeth absorbing zones. The photothermal (PT) image represents a two-dimensional depth-integrated temperature distribution in the irradiated volume and correlates with the conventional optical absorption coefficients. In addition to a description as to how each of the modalities function, consideration is given to recent advances and changes in the relevant technologies, and a comparison of relative benefits and shortfalls of the systems.

  11. Constraining the parameters of binary systems through time-dependent light deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluessel, Edmund

    2008-05-01

    A theory is derived relating the configuration of the cores of active galaxies, specifically candidates for presumed super-massive black hole binaries (SMBHBs), to time-dependent changes in images of those galaxies. Three deflection quantities, resulting from the monopole term, mass quadrupole term, and spin dipole term of the core, are examined. The resulting observational technique is applied to the galaxy 3C66B. This technique is found to under idealized circumstances surpass the technique proposed by Jenet et al. in accuracy for constraining the mass of SMBHB candidates, but is exceeded in accuracy and precision by Jenet’s technique under currently understood likely conditions. The technique can also under favorable circumstances produce results measurable by currently available astronomical interferometry such as very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI).

  12. Development of pneumatic thrust-deflecting powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Improvements introduced into the Circulation Control Wing/Upper Surface Blowing (CCW/USB) STOL concept (Harris et al., 1982) are described along with results of the full-scale static ground tests and model-scale wind tunnel investigations. Tests performed on the full-scale pneumatic thrust-deflecting system installed on the NASA QSRA aircraft have demonstrated that, relative to the original baseline configuration, a doubling of incremental thrust deflection due to blowing resulted from improvements that increased the blowing span and momentum, as well as from variations in blowing slot height and geometry of the trailing edge. A CCW/Over the Wing model has been built and tested, which was shown to be equivalent to the CCW/USB system in terms of pneumatic thrust deflection and lift generation, while resolving the problem of cruise thrust loss due to exhaust scrubbing on the wing upper surface.

  13. Nanoshell-enabled photothermal cancer therapy: impending clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Lal, Surbhi; Clare, Susan E; Halas, Naomi J

    2008-12-01

    Much of the current excitement surrounding nanoscience is directly connected to the promise of new nanoscale applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Because of their strongly resonant light-absorbing and light-scattering properties that depend on shape, noble metal nanoparticles provide a new and powerful tool for innovative light-based approaches. Nanoshellsspherical, dielectric core, gold shell nanoparticleshave been central to the development of photothermal cancer therapy and diagnostics for the past several years. By manipulating nanoparticle shape, researchers can tune the optical resonance of nanoshells to any wavelength of interest. At wavelengths just beyond the visible spectrum in the near-infrared, blood and tissue are maximally transmissive. When nanoshell resonances are tuned to this region of the spectrum, they become useful contrast agents in the diagnostic imaging of tumors. When illuminated, they can serve as nanoscale heat sources, photothermally inducing cell death and tumor remission. As nanoshell-based diagnostics and therapeutics move from laboratory studies to clinical trials, this Account examines the highly promising achievements of this approach in the context of the challenges of this complex disease. More broadly, these materials present a concrete example of a highly promising application of nanochemistry to a biomedical problem. We describe the properties of nanoshells that are relevant to their preparation and use in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Specific surface chemistries are necessary for passive uptake of nanoshells into tumors and for targeting specific cell types by bioconjugate strategies. We also describe the photothermal temperature increases that can be achieved in surrogate structures known as tissue phantoms and the accuracy of models of this effect using heat transport analysis. Nanoshell-based photothermal therapy in several animal models of human tumors have produced highly promising results, and we include

  14. Novel deflecting cavity design for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2011-07-25

    To prevent significant loss of the luminosity due to large crossing angle in the future ERL based Electron Ion Collider at BNL (eRHIC), there is a demand for crab cavities. In this article, we will present a novel design of the deflecting/crabbing 181 MHz superconducting RF cavity that will fulfil the requirements of eRHIC. The quarter-wave resonator structure of the new cavity possesses many advantages, such as compact size, high R{sub t}/Q, the absence of the same order mode and lower order mode, and easy higher order mode damping. We will present the properties and characteristics of the new cavity in detail. As the accelerator systems grow in complexity, developing compact and efficient deflecting cavities is of great interest. Such cavities will benefit situations where the beam line space is limited. The future linac-ring type electron-ion collider requires implementation of a crab-crossing scheme for both beams at the interaction region. The ion beam has a long bunches and high rigidity. Therefore, it requires a low frequency, large kicking angle deflector. The frequency of the deflecting mode for the current collider design is 181 MHz, and the deflecting angle is {approx}5 mrad for each beam. At such low frequency, the previous designs of the crab cavities will have very large dimensions, and also will be confronted by typical problems of damping the Lower Order Mode (LOM), the Same Order Mode (SOM), and as usual, the Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this paper we describe how one can use the concept of a quarter-wave (QW) resonator for a deflecting/crabbing cavity, and use its fundamental mode to deflect the beam. The simplicity of the cavity geometry and the large separation between its fundamental mode and the first HOM make it very attractive.

  15. Optical caliper with compensation for specimen deflection and method

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    1997-01-01

    An optical non-contact profilometry system and method provided by an optical caliper with matched optical sensors that are arranged conjugate to each other so that the surface profile and thickness of an article can be measured without using a fixed reference surface and while permitting the article to deflect in space within the acquisition range of the optical sensors. The output signals from the two optical sensors are algebraically added to compensate for any such deflection of the article and provide a so compensated signal, the balance and sign of which provides a measurement of the actual thickness of the article at the optical sensors.

  16. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  17. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  18. Optical caliper with compensation for specimen deflection and method

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, B.E.

    1997-12-09

    An optical non-contact profilometry system and method provided by an optical caliper with matched optical sensors that are arranged conjugate to each other so that the surface profile and thickness of an article can be measured without using a fixed reference surface and while permitting the article to deflect in space within the acquisition range of the optical sensors. The output signals from the two optical sensors are algebraically added to compensate for any such deflection of the article and provide a so compensated signal, the balance and sign of which provides a measurement of the actual thickness of the article at the optical sensors. 2 figs.

  19. Deflection angle of light in an Ellis wormhole geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Koki; Asada, Hideki

    2012-05-01

    We reexamine the light deflection by an Ellis wormhole. The bending angle as a function of the ratio between the impact parameter and the throat radius of the wormhole is obtained in terms of a complete elliptic integral of the first kind. This result immediately yields asymptotic expressions in the weak field approximation. It is shown that an expression for the deflection angle derived (and used) in recent papers is valid at the leading order but it breaks down at the next order because of the nontrivial spacetime topology.

  20. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger

    2015-08-15

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the “forest of peaks” frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  1. Implementation of Resonance Tracking for Assuring Reliability in Resonance Enhanced Photothermal Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Georg; Reisenbauer, Florian; Steindl, Benedikt; Tomischko, Wolfgang; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    Photothermal-induced resonance (PTIR) is a method for optical spectroscopy that allows for infrared (IR) chemical imaging at spatial resolution below the limit of diffraction. By using the mechanical resonance of the cantilever for amplification the technique has been shown to allow sensitivity down to single monolayers. In this work, we discuss the challenges that must be overcome for performing stable resonant PTIR measurements and how imprecise experimental procedures can lead to irreproducible or even erroneous results. We also present a controller design that continuously readjusts the excitation frequency of a PTIR setup back to the resonance frequency in order to allow for accurate resonance-enhanced PTIR measurements. This controller can be used together with a broad range of atomic force microscopes. Schematics and program code for the controller are made freely available.

  2. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in less than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.

  3. Objective characterization of bruise evolution using photothermal depth profiling and Monte Carlo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of laser-induced temperature depth profiles in optically scattering layered structures. The obtained profiles provide information on spatial distribution of selected chromophores such as melanin and hemoglobin in human skin. We apply the described approach to study time evolution of incidental bruises (hematomas) in human subjects. By combining numerical simulations of laser energy deposition in bruised skin with objective fitting of the predicted and measured PPTR signals, we can quantitatively characterize the key processes involved in bruise evolution (i.e., hemoglobin mass diffusion and biochemical decomposition). Simultaneous analysis of PPTR signals obtained at various times post injury provides an insight into the variations of these parameters during the bruise healing process. The presented methodology and results advance our understanding of the bruise evolution and represent an important step toward development of an objective technique for age determination of traumatic bruises in forensic medicine.

  4. Quantitative photothermal heating and cooling measurements of engineered nanoparticles in an optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roder, Paden Bernard

    Laser tweezers and optical trapping has provided scientists and engineers a unique way to study the wealth of phenomena that materials exhibit at the micro- and nanoscale, much of which remains mysterious. Of particular interest is the interplay between light absorption and subsequent heat generation of laser-irradiated materials, especially due to recent interest in developing nanoscale materials for use as agents for photothermal cancer treatments. An introduction to optical trapping physics and laser tweezers are given in Chapter 1 and 2 of this thesis, respectively. The remaining chapters, summarized below, describe the theoretical basis of laser heating of one-dimensional nanostructures and experiments in which optically-trapped nanostructures are studied using techniques developed for a laser tweezer. In Chapter 3, we delve into the fundamentals of laser heating of one-dimensional materials by developing an analytical model of pulsed laser heating of uniform and tapered supported nanowires and compare calculations with experimental data to comment on the effects that the material's physical, optical, and thermal parameters have on its heating and cooling rates. We then consider closed-form analytical solutions for the temperature rise within infinite circular cylinders with nanometer-scale diameters irradiated at right angles by TM-polarized continuous-wave laser sources, which allows for analysis of laser-heated nanowires in a solvated environment. The infinite nanowire analysis will then be extended to the optical heating of laser-irradiated finite nanowires in the framework of a laser tweezer, which enables predictive capabilities and direct comparison with laser trapping experiments. An effective method for determining optically-trapped particle temperatures as well as the temperature gradient in the surrounding medium will be discussed in Chapter 4. By combining laser tweezer calibration techniques, forward-scattered light power spectrum analysis, and

  5. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore » than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  6. A study on thermal properties of biodegradable polymers using photothermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, A. P. L.; Poley, L. H.; Sanchez, R.; da Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    In this work is reported the use of photothermal techniques applied to the thermal characterization of biodegradable polymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family. This is a family of polymer produced by bacteria using renewable resources. It exhibits thermoplastic properties and therefore it can be an alternative product for engineering plastics, being also applied as packages for food industry and fruits. Thermal diffusivities were determined using the open photoacoustic cell (OPC) configuration. Specific heat capacity measurements were performed monitoring temperature of the samples under white light illumination against time. Typical values obtained for the thermal properties are in good agreement with those found in the literature for other polymers. Due to the incorporation of hydroxyvalerate in the monomer structure, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity increase reaching a saturation value, otherwise the specific thermal capacity decreases as the concentration of the hydroxyvalerate (HV) increases. These results can be explained by polymers internal structure and are allowing new applications of these materials.

  7. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation.

    PubMed

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the "forest of peaks" frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  8. Hollow silica nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic phthalocyanine for near-infrared photodynamic and photothermal combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lingzhi; Zhu, Xingjun; Sun, Yun; Feng, Wei; Gao, Yanhong; Wang, Liya; Li, Fuyou

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the convenience and minimal invasiveness, phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), is emerging as a powerful technique for cancer treatment. To date, however, few examples of combination PDT and PTT have been reported. Phthalocyanine (Pc) is a class of traditional photosensitizer for PDT, but its bioapplication is limited by high hydrophobicity. In this present study, hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) were employed to endow the hydrophobic phthalocyanine with water-dispersity, and the as-prepared hollow silica nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic phthalocyanine (Pc@HSNs) exhibits highly efficient dual PDT and PTT effects. In vitro and in vivo experimental results clearly indicated that the dual phototherapeutic effect of Pc@HSNs can kill cancer cells or eradicate tumor tissues. This multifunctional nanomedicine may be useful for PTT/PDT treatment of cancer.

  9. Optical characterization of hydrogenated silicon thin films using interference technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Tatiana; Ganguly, Gautam; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2000-08-01

    This work introduces an application of an "interference spectroscopy technique" (IST) for determination of absorption coefficient and refractive index spectra of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related thin film materials. The technique is based on computer analysis of measurements of optical transmission and specular reflection (T & R) of thin films (including the films on substrates) over a wide range of the incident photon energies (0.5-2.8 eV) using carefully controlled spectrometer conditions. IST is used to investigate the absorption spectrum in the sub-gap energy range (0.8-1.6 eV) of intrinsic and phosphorous-doped a-Si:H, "polymorphous-Si:H," and microcrystalline silicon films. The enhanced sensitivity of the technique over conventional analysis of T & R data results from utilization of interference to obtain absorption coefficient values at the maxima of transmission. The factors limiting the accuracy of the calculated absorption coefficient are discussed in detail. Measurement on films of thickness ranging from 0.1 to 5 μm identifies that the sub-gap absorption in these films arises from the bulk rather than the surface. A set of samples prepared under widely different conditions that appear to have overlapping (α=20 cm-1) sub-gap absorption spectra measured using photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), reveal significant differences (α=10 to 100 cm-1) using IST. Changes (factor of 2) in sub-gap absorption spectra due to light soaking are also clearly observable using IST.

  10. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Ryan Killgore, Jason P.

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  11. Pulsed Photothermal Heating of One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, Paden B.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Devaraj, Arun; Perea, Daniel E.; Davis, E. James; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2016-09-29

    Counterintuitively, increasing a conical specimen’s taper-angle is shown to lead to increases in the maximum temperature reached at the tip of the specimen. In particular, the heat source for tapered targets is affected by internal morphology-dependent cavity resonances that increase the maximum tip temperature relative to an untapered cylindrical structure. Experimental time-of-flight ion spectra for both crystalline and amorphous- silicon specimens are observed to agree with pulsed photothermal heating calculations. The results presented here will be of general use for quantifying photothermal heating in a wide range of experiments including tip-enhanced near-field scanning-probe microscopy, time-resolved electron microscopy, and also laser-assisted atom probe tomography.

  12. Multifunctional diagnostic, nanothermometer, and photothermal nano-devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Kory; Wirth, Janina; O'Connor, Megan; Lim, Shuang Fang

    2015-08-01

    Photothermal treatment is a valuable part of cancer therapies, in which the temperature of the heated region must rise to at least 40-45°C for protein destruction to occur[1, 2]. In practice, heating temperature distributions are typically non-uniform, resulting in incomplete kill of cancer cells. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) show strong absorption in the near infrared which leads to a strong plasmonic photothermal (PPT) effect. However, basic scientific understanding of AuNR local temperature and heat transfer to local surroundings has not been investigated in detail. In our study, the near infrared (NIR) excited Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-AuNR nanostructure combines the powerful diagnostic and thermal sensing capacity of UCNPs, with the known therapeutic property of AuNRs. We show enhanced upconverted emission with AuNRs coupling, improving diagnostic capacity of the construct. We demonstrate mapping of the temperature profile within tumor tissue phantom medium, at high spatial and temporal sensitivity.

  13. Photothermal Heating via Gold Nanorods within Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochinski, Jason; Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Tracy, Joseph; Clarke, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles under continuous-wave (cw) optical excitation resonant with their localized surface plasmon exhibit a photothermal effect, efficiently converting the incident light into heat originating from the particle. Gold nanorods (GNRs) dispersed within a transparent material are utilized as such remotely-controlled, nano-sized heaters, with heating properties which can be manipulated and monitored by using control of the polarization direction of the excitation and probe light fields. Steady-state average temperatures within a polymer matrix embedded with GNRs undergoing cw photothermal heating are determined in the immediate vicinity of the GNR by observing the rate of driven physical rotation of the nanorods, and simultaneously across the entire sample by using an independent fluorescence method. Comparing these two observations as the concentration of dispersed GNRs is varied reveals the interplay between local and global heating in these polymer nanocomposite materials. Support from US National Science Foundation (CMMI-0800237, CMMI-106910).

  14. Solar gravitational deflection of radio waves measured by very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Kent, S. M.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Clark, T. A.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing a four-antenna technique, simultaneous observations were made, at each end of an 845-km baseline, of the radio sources 3C279 and 3C273B, which are 10 deg apart in the sky. Differences in interferometric phases at 3.7-cm wavelength monitored near the time of the 1972 occultation of 3C279 by the sun, yielded a gravitational deflection of 0.99 plus or minus 0.03 times the value predicted by general relativity, corresponding to gamma = 0.98 plus or minus 0.06 (standard error).

  15. Noncontacting devices to indicate deflection and vibration of turbopump internal rotating parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. B.; Ensminger, D.; Grieser, D. R.; Plummer, A. M.; Saccocio, E. J.; Kissel, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported which was conducted to develop devices for measuring vibrations and deflections of parts, such as impellers, shafts, turbine wheels, and inducers in operating turbopumps. Three devices were developed to the breadboard stage: ultrasonic Doppler transducer, flash X-rays, and light-pipe reflectance. It was found that the X-ray technique is applicable to the shaft assembly and the turbine seal of the J-2 pump, and the light-pipe-reflectance device appears to be ideal for cryogenic pump sections.

  16. Solar gravitational deflection of radio waves measured by very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Kent, S. M.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Clark, T. A.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing a four-antenna technique, simultaneous observations were made, at each end of an 845-km baseline, of the radio sources 3C279 and 3C273B, which are 10 deg apart in the sky. Differences in interferometric phases at 3.7-cm wavelength monitored near the time of the 1972 occultation of 3C279 by the sun, yielded a gravitational deflection of 0.99 plus or minus 0.03 times the value predicted by general relativity, corresponding to gamma = 0.98 plus or minus 0.06 (standard error).

  17. Orthogonally interdigitated shielded serpentine travelling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E.C.; Hudson, C.L.

    1995-07-25

    A new deflection structure which deflects a beam of charged particles, such as an electron beam, includes a serpentine set for transmitting a deflection field, and a shielding frame for housing the serpentine set. The serpentine set includes a vertical serpentine deflection element and a horizontal serpentine deflection element. These deflection elements are identical, and are interdigitatedly and orthogonally disposed relative to each other, for forming a central transmission passage, through which the electron beam passes, and is deflected by the deflection field, so as to minimize drift space signal distortion. The shielding frame includes a plurality of ground blocks, and forms an internal serpentine trough within these ground blocks, for housing the serpentine set. The deflection structure further includes a plurality of feedthrough connectors which are inserted through the shielding frame, and which are electrically connected to the serpentine set. 10 figs.

  18. Orthogonally interdigitated shielded serpentine travelling wave cathod ray tube deflection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E.C.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-10-27

    This invention comprises a new deflection structure which deflects a beam of charged particles, such as an electron beam, includes a serpentine set for transmitting a deflection field, and shielding frame for housing the serpentine set. The serpentine set includes a vertical serpentine deflection element and a horizontal serpentine deflection element. These deflection elements are identical and are interdigitatedly and orthogonally disposed relative to each other, for forming a central transmission passage, through which the electron beam passes and is deflected by the deflection field to minimize drift space signal distortion. The shielding frame includes a plurality of ground blocks and forms an internal serpentine trough within these ground blocks for housing the serpentine set. The deflection structure further includes a plurality of feedthrough connectors which are inserted through the shielding frame and which are electrically connected to the serpentine set.

  19. Handbook of photothermal test data on encapsulant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, R. H.; Oda, K. L.; Chung, S. Y.; Smith, M. V.; Gupta, A.

    1983-05-01

    Laboratory tests performed to characterize candidate encapsulation materials with respect to changes in their physical and chemical properties caused by photothermal aging are described. Several key material properties relating directly to material degradation and deterioration of performance were identified and were monitored as functions of aging conditions and time. A status report on accelerated testing activities is provided and experimental data are presented. It will be updated periodically as more data become available.

  20. Direct and Quantitative Photothermal Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Particulates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    cantilever as a photothermal sensor.26–29 These cantilevers consist of two layers of materials with different thermal expansion coefficients . When a...microwire and the measurement of absorbed power for the power calibration. The theoretical spectral absorption efficiency for a uniform microwire with...coincide with ex- perimental conditions. First, a size average was performed to account for non- uniformity in the microwire. The standard deviation of this

  1. Handbook of photothermal test data on encapsulant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Oda, K. L.; Chung, S. Y.; Smith, M. V.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory tests performed to characterize candidate encapsulation materials with respect to changes in their physical and chemical properties caused by photothermal aging are described. Several key material properties relating directly to material degradation and deterioration of performance were identified and were monitored as functions of aging conditions and time. A status report on accelerated testing activities is provided and experimental data are presented. It will be updated periodically as more data become available.

  2. Effective Photothermal Chemotherapy Using Doxorubicin-Loaded Gold Nanospheres That Target EphB4 Receptors in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    You, Jian; Zhang, Rui; Xiong, Chiyi; Zhong, Meng; Melancon, Maritess; Gupta, Sanjay; Nick, Alpa M.; Sood, Anil K.; Li, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Photothermal ablation (PTA) is an emerging technique that uses near-infrared laser light-generated heat to destroy tumor cells. However, complete tumor eradication by PTA therapy alone is difficult because heterogeneous heat distribution can lead to sub-lethal thermal dose in some areas of the tumor. Successful PTA therapy requires selective delivery of photothermal conducting nanoparticles to mediate effective PTA of tumor cells, and the ability to combine PTA with other therapy modalities. Here, we synthesized multifunctional doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded hollow gold nanospheres (DOX@HAuNS) that target EphB4, a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases overexpressed on the cell membrane of multiple tumors and angiogenic blood vessels. Increased uptake of targeted nanoparticles T-DOX@HAuNS was observed in three EphB4-positive tumors both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo release of DOX from DOX@HAuNS, triggered by near-infrared laser, was confirmed by dual radiotracer technique. Treatment with T-DOX@HAuNS followed by near-infrared laser irradiation resulted in significantly decreased tumor growth when compared to treatments with non-targeted DOX@HAuNS plus laser or HAuNS plus laser. The tumors in six of the eight mice treated with T-DOX@HAuNS plus laser regressed completely with only residual scar tissue by 22 days following injection, and none of the treatment groups experienced a loss in body weight. Together, our findings demonstrate that concerted chemo-photothermal therapy with a single nanodevice capable of mediating simultaneous PTA and local drug release may have promise as a new anticancer therapy. PMID:22865457

  3. Cooperative Nanoparticle System for Photothermal Tumor Treatment without Skin Damage.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ji-Gang; Liu, Dong; Hu, Kan; Wang, Limin; Gao, Feng; Xiong, Yujie; Yang, Lihua

    2016-02-03

    How to ablate tumors without using skin-harmful high laser irradiance remains an ongoing challenge for photothermal therapy. Here, we achieve this with a cooperative nanosystem consisting of gold nanocage (AuNC) "activator" and a cationic mammalian-membrane-disruptive peptide, cTL, as photothermal antenna and anticancer agent, respectively. Specifically, this nanosystem is prepared by grafting cTL onto AuNC via a Au-S bond, followed by attachment of thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) for stealth effects. Upon NIR irradiation at skin-permissible dosage, the resulting cTL/PEG-AuNC nanoparticle effectively ablates both irradiated and nonirradiated cancer cells, likely owing to cTL being responsively unleashed by intracellular thiols exposed to cTL/PEG-AuNC via membrane damage initiated by AuNC's photothermal effects and deteriorated by the as-released cTL. When administered systematically in a mouse model, cTL/PEG-AuNC populates tumors through their porous vessels and effectively destroys them without damaging skin.

  4. Cancer treatment by photothermal, photochemical, and photobiological interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Korbelik, Mladen; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Laser tissue interactions hold great promise in cancer treatment. Photothermal interaction aims at the direct cell destruction through the increase of local tissue temperature, while photochemical interaction aims at the cell destruction using free radicals produced through the activation of photosensitizers in the target tissue. Photobiological interaction can target the immune host system to induce long-term control. Photothermal and photochemical interactions can be significantly enhanced by photobiological interaction through the use of immunoadjuvants. In our experiments, three different immunoadjuvants, complete Freund"s adjuvant (CF), incomplete Freund"s adjuvant (IF), and c-parvum (CP), were used in the treatment of metastatic mammary tumors in conjunction with photothermal interaction. In addition, a specific adjuvant, Glycated chitosan (GC), has been used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of mouse tumors. In the treatment of rat tumors, CF, IF and CP raised the cure-rates from 0% to 18%, 7% and 9%, respectively. In comparison, GC resulted in a 29% long-term survival. In the treatment of EMT6 mammary sarcoma in mice, GC of 0.5% and 1.5% concentrations increased the cure rates of Photofrin-based PDT treatment from 38% to 63% and 75%, respectively. In the treatment of Line 1 lung adenocarcinoma in mice, a 1.67% GC solution enabled a non-curative mTHPC-based PDT to cure a 37% of the tumor bearing mice.

  5. White Light Pump-Probe Photothermal Mirror Spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaing, May; Marcano, Aristides

    2016-05-01

    We develop a new kind of spectrophotometer based on the photothermal mirror effect. The absorption of a focused tunable pump light by first atomic layers of the sample's surface generates a nanometric surface distortion or bump of thermal origin. A probe beam of light of fixed wavelength and with spot dimensions much larger than the pump beam's spot is used to test this thermal distortion. Changes in the wave-front of the reflected probe beam yields changes of the diffraction pattern of the reflected beam at the far field which can be used to produce a signal proportional to the amount of released heat. Tuning of the wavelength of the pump field generates a photothermal mirror spectrum. As tunable pump source we use the light from a Xenon arc-lamp filtered using a series of interference filter. This way we generate tunable pump light in the spectral region of 370-730 nm with a HWHM of 5 nm and power density of the order of tens of microwatts per nanometer. We obtain photothermal mirror spectra of metallic surfaces and other non-transparent samples. We show that these spectra are fundamentally different from the usual reflectance spectra which measure the percentage of the total of the total energy reflected by the surface.

  6. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  7. Nonintrusive noncontacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry of caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.; Abd-Elwahab, Bassam

    2010-04-01

    Among diffusion methods, photothermal radiometry (PTR) has the ability to penetrate and yield information about an opaque medium well beyond the range of conventional optical imaging. Owing to this ability, pulsed-laser PTR has been extensively used in turbid media such as biological tissues to study the sub-surface deposition of laser radiation, a task that may be difficult or impossible for many optical methods due to excessive scattering and absorption. In this paper considers the achievements of Pulsed Photothermal Radiometry using IR camera in the investigation of physical properties of biological materials and the diagnostics of the interaction of laser radiation with biological materials. A three-dimensional heat conduction formulation with the use of three-dimensional optical diffusion is developed to derive a turbid frequency-domain PTR model. The present photo-thermal model for frequency-domain PTR may prove useful for non-contact; non-invasive, in situ evaluate the depth profilometric imaging capabilities of FDPTR in monitoring carious and artificial subsurface lesions in human teeth.

  8. Nuclear-Targeted Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haibao; Tang, Jing; Zheng, Rui; Guo, Guannan; Dong, Angang; Wang, Yajun; Yang, Wuli

    2017-01-27

    The pursuit of multifunctional, innovative, more efficient, and safer cancer treatment has gained increasing interest in the research of preclinical nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT). Cell nucleus is recognized as the ideal target for cancer treatment because it plays a central role in genetic information and the transcription machinery reside. In this work, an efficient nuclear-targeted PTT strategy is proposed using transferrin and TAT peptide (TAT: YGRKKRRQRRR) conjugated monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles, which can be readily functionalized and stabilized for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles exhibit high photothermal conversion efficiency (≈37%) and considerable photothermal stability. They also show a high magnetization value and transverse relaxivity (207.1 mm(-1) s(-1) ), which could be applied for magnetic resonance imaging. The monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptides can efficiently target the nucleus and achieve the imaging-guided function, efficient cancer cells killing ability. Therefore, this work may present a practicable strategy to develop subcellular organelle targeted PTT agents for simultaneous cancer targeting, imaging, and therapy.

  9. Development of functional gold nanorods for bioimaging and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niidome, T.

    2010-06-01

    Gold nanorods have strong surface plasmon band at near-infrared light region, and are used as a photothermal converter. Since the near-infrared light penetrates into tissues deeply, it has been expected as a contrast agent for near infrared light bioimaging, a photosensitizer for photothermal therapy, and functional device for drug delivery system responding to near-infrared light irradiation. In this study, the surface plasmon bands of intravenously injected gold nanorods were monitored in the mouse abdomen using a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere, then we determined pharmacokinetics parameters of the gold nanorods after intravenous injection. Next, the PEG-modified gold nanorods were directly injected into subcutaneous tumors in mice, then, near-infrared pulsed laser light was irradiated the tumors. Significant tumor damage and suppression of the tumor growth was observed. We constructed targeted delivery system of the gold nanorods by modifying with a thermo-responsive polymer and a peptide responding to a protease activity. These modified gold nanorods are expected as functional nanodevices for photothermal therapy and drug delivery system.

  10. Deflection of Light by Gravity: A Physical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Joshua B.

    1982-01-01

    Einstein's equivalence principle relates effects seen by an accelerating observer to those experienced by an observer in a gravitational field, providing an explanation of bending of a light beam by gravity. Because the calculations lead to results one-half the value found experimentally, obtaining the correct light deflection is discussed.…

  11. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022". However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission's preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  12. Damping of unwanted modes in SRF deflecting/crabbing cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, Graeme; Wang, Haipeng

    2014-01-01

    As deflecting and crab cavities do not use the fundamental acceleration mode for their operation, the spectrum of unwanted modes is significantly different from that of accelerating cavities. The fundamental acceleration mode is now unwanted and can cause energy spread in the beam; in addition this mode frequency is often close to or lower than that of the deflecting mode, making it difficult to damp. This is made more complex in some of the compact crab cavities as there small beampipes often attenuate the fields very sharply. In addition in some crab cavities there can be an orthogonal transverse mode similar to the deflecting mode, known as the same order mode. The degeneracy of these modes must be split by polarising the cavity and if the polarisation is not large enough, dampers should be placed at either an electric or magnetic field null of the crabbing mode to effectively damp the unwanted polarisation. Various concepts for dealing with unwanted modes in various SRF deflecting cavities will be reviewed.

  13. Deflection of Light by Gravity: A Physical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Joshua B.

    1982-01-01

    Einstein's equivalence principle relates effects seen by an accelerating observer to those experienced by an observer in a gravitational field, providing an explanation of bending of a light beam by gravity. Because the calculations lead to results one-half the value found experimentally, obtaining the correct light deflection is discussed.…

  14. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service published a proposed rule regarding eligibility for commercial flats failing...

  15. Electro-optical approach to pavement deflection management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rish, Jeff W., III; Adcock, Avery D.; Tuan, Christopher Y.; Baker, Samuel L.; Welker, Hugh W., II; Johnson, Roger F.

    1995-07-01

    A prototype continuous deflection device, referred to as a rolling weight deflectometer (RWD), has been developed as a nondestructive evaluation tool for airfield pavements. The system consists of a rigid trailer equipped with specially designed optical triangulation pavement sensors, a high-speed data acquisition system, and a high-pressure tire/load platform assembly. Pavement sensors are mounted on a rigid box beam equipped with an internal sensor system that corrects, in real time, the relative pavement height position measurements for displacements induced in the beam by mechanical vibrations, changes in temperature, or nonuniform dynamic loads at points where the beam attaches to the frame. The device produces continuous deflection profiles that show pavement response to a moving loaded wheel along the path of travel. These deflection profiles, combined with multiple passes along a lane, provide a far more detailed picture of the pavement structural integrity than has ever before been possible, because existing evaluation tools only produce response information at discrete points. Preliminary results show deflections measured by the RWD are in general agreement with the expected pavement response for various loads. A discussion of the device configuration, preliminary data, and potential as a pavement management tool is presented.

  16. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022''. However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission?s preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  17. Charge control switch responsive to cell casing deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A switch structure, adapted for sensing the state-of-charge of a rechargeable cell, includes a contact element which detects cell casing deflection that occurs as a result of an increase in gaseous pressure within the cell when the cell is returned to its fully charged state during a recharging operation.

  18. Visually Controlled Robots For Unpacking And Mounting Television Deflection Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraga, P.; Newcomb, C. V.; Lloyd, P. R.; Humphreys, D. R.; Burnett, D. J.

    1984-10-01

    There are many real factory problems that can be solved by the use of robots equipped with computer vision. Typical of these tasks are the unpacking and assembly of loosely constrained objects. This paper describes a system in which TV deflection units are unpacked from a large carton and mounted onto the necks of picture tubes. The unpacking is performed by a cartesian gantry robot carrying a TV camera equipped with parallel-projection optics. The asso-ciated vision system is used to determine the position of the deflection units in the carton. Once a deflection unit has been unpacked, it is picked up by a PUMA 560 robot and then mounted in a specific orientation onto a picture tube. The mounting system is equipped with three TV cameras to locate the deflection unit and the neck of the tube. The paper describes the structure and operation of both systems, including gray-level picture processing, camera calibration with-out operator intervention, and the use of a general purpose, robot operating system, ROBOS, to control the two tasks.

  19. Enhanced truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography with application to deep subsurface defect imaging and 3-dimensional reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakolian, Pantea; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran; Mandelis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Photothermal diffusion-wave imaging is a promising technique for non-destructive evaluation and medical applications. Several diffusion-wave techniques have been developed to produce depth-resolved planar images of solids and to overcome imaging depth and image blurring limitations imposed by the physics of parabolic diffusion waves. Truncated-Correlation Photothermal Coherence Tomography (TC-PCT) is the most successful class of these methodologies to-date providing 3-D subsurface visualization with maximum depth penetration and high axial and lateral resolution. To extend the depth range and axial and lateral resolution, an in-depth analysis of TC-PCT, a novel imaging system with improved instrumentation, and an optimized reconstruction algorithm over the original TC-PCT technique is developed. Thermal waves produced by a laser chirped pulsed heat source in a finite thickness solid and the image reconstruction algorithm are investigated from the theoretical point of view. 3-D visualization of subsurface defects utilizing the new TC-PCT system is reported. The results demonstrate that this method is able to detect subsurface defects at the depth range of ˜4 mm in a steel sample, which exhibits dynamic range improvement by a factor of 2.6 compared to the original TC-PCT. This depth does not represent the upper limit of the enhanced TC-PCT. Lateral resolution in the steel sample was measured to be ˜31 μm.

  20. Layer model for long-term deflection analysis of cracked reinforced concrete bending members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinskas, Darius; Kaklauskas, Gintaris; Gribniak, Viktor; Sung, Wen-Pei; Shih, Ming-Hsiang

    2012-05-01

    A numerical technique has been proposed for the long-term deformation analysis of reinforced concrete members subjected to a bending moment. The technique based on the layer approach in a simple and rational way deals with such complex issues as concrete cracking and tension-stiffening as well as creep and shrinkage. The approach uses the material stress-strain relationships for compressive concrete, cracked tensile concrete and steel. Such effects as linear and nonlinear creep, cracking, tension-stiffening as well as the reduction in concrete tension strength due to sustained loading have been taken into account. The shrinkage effect has been modeled by means of adequate actions of axial force and bending moment. A statistical deflection calculation analysis has been carried out for 322 experimental reinforced concrete beams reported in the literature. The comparative analysis of the experimental and the modeling results has shown that the proposed technique has well captured the time-deflection behavior of reinforced concrete flexural members. The results of the predictions by ACI 318 and Eurocode 2 design codes have been also discussed.

  1. Carbon-Coated Gold Nanorods: A Facile Route to Biocompatible Materials for Photothermal Applications.

    PubMed

    Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Chen, Chuyang; Liu, Minsu; Wang, Xiaochun; Yang, Jia Lin; Taylor, Robert Allen; Jiang, Xuchuan; Yu, Aibing

    2015-11-25

    Gold nanorods and their core-shell nanocomposites have been widely studied because of their well-defined anisotropy and unique optical properties and applications. This study demonstrates a facile hydrothermal synthesis strategy for generating carbon coating on gold nanorods (AuNRs@C) under mild conditions (<200 °C), where the carbon shell is composed of polymerized sugar molecules (glucose). The structure and composition of the produced core-shell nanocomposites were characterized using advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The functional properties, particularly the photothermal and biocompatibility properties of the produced AuNRs@C, were quantified to assess their potential in photothermal hyperthermia. These AuNRs@C were tested in vitro (under representative treatment conditions) using near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. It was found that the AuNRs produced here exhibit exemplary heat generation capability. Temperature changes of 10.5, 9, and 8 °C for AuNRs@C were observed with carbon shell thicknesses of 10, 17, and 25 nm, respectively, at a concentration of 50 μM, after 600 s of irradiation with a laser power of 0.17 W/cm(2). In addition, the synthesized AuNRs@C also exhibit good biocompatibility toward two soft tissue sarcoma cell lines (HT1080, a fibrosarcoma; and GCT, a fibrous histiocytoma). The cell viability study shows that AuNRs@C (at a concentration of <0.1 mg/mL) core-shell particles induce significantly lower cytotoxicity on both HT1080 and GCT cell lines, as compared with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped AuNRs. Furthermore, similar to PEG-modified AuNRs, they are also safe to both HT1080 and GCT cell lines. This biocompatibility results from a surface full of -OH or -COH groups, which are suitable for linking and are nontoxic Therefore, the AuNRs@C represent a viable alternative to PEG-coated AuNRs for facile synthesis and improved photothermal conversion. Overall, these findings open up a new class of carbon

  2. The Schlieren Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Andreas; Jordan, Martin

    Introduction Basic Principle Optical and Thermodynamic Interrelations Refraction Index and Temperature Field The Deflection of Light in an Inhomogeneous Medium Application of the Schlieren Technique Application to Transient Combustion Research The Schlieren Cinematography The Color Schlieren Technique Application to Fuel-Injection Systems

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Frictional Properties, Load Deflection Rate and Surface Characteristics of Different Coloured TMA Archwires - An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Aloysius, Arul Pradeep; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki; Deepika; Soundararajan, Nagachandran Kandasamy; Manohar, Vijaykumar Neelam; Khan, Nayeemullah

    2015-12-01

    During tooth movement the success of sliding mechanics is dependent upon various factors which include frictional resistance at bracket-archwire interface, surface roughness of archwire materials and elastic properties of archwires. Ion implantation techniques reduce the frictional force and allow better tooth movement clinically. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the frictional properties, load deflection rate and surface characteristics of Honey dew and Purple coloured (Ion implanted) TMA wires with uncoated TMA wires. Fifteen archwire samples were divided into three groups comprising of five samples in each group namely, Group I - Uncoated TMA wires (Control), Group II - Purple coloured TMA wires and Group III- Honey dew TMA wires. Friction and load deflection rate testing were performed with the Instron Universal testing machine and the surface characteristics of the wires were evaluated before and after sliding using Scanning Electron Microscope. The mean frictional characteristics and surface roughness for Honey dew TMA wires was lesser than Purple coloured TMA wires which was statistically significant. Both the coloured TMA wires showed low frictional characteristics and less surface roughness than uncoated TMA wires (the control). The mean load deflection rate was low for both coloured ion implanted TMA wires when compared to uncoated TMA wires which was statistically significant. Coloured ion implanted TMA wires, especially Honey dew TMA wires have low friction, low load deflection rate and improved surface finish. Hence they can be used in frictionless as well as sliding mechanics, where uncoated TMA wires are inefficient.

  4. In vivo photothermal optical coherence tomography for non-invasive imaging of endogenous absorption agents.

    PubMed

    Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2015-05-01

    In vivo photothermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated for cross-sectional imaging of endogenous absorption agents. In order to compromise the sensitivity, imaging speed, and sample motion immunity, a new photothermal detection scheme and phase processing method are developed. Phase-resolved swept-source OCT and fiber-pigtailed laser diode (providing excitation at 406 nm) are combined to construct a high-sensitivity photothermal OCT system. OCT probe and excitation beam coaxially illuminate and are focused on tissues. The photothermal excitation and detection procedure is designed to obtain high efficiency of photothermal effect measurement. The principle and method of depth-resolved cross-sectional imaging of absorption agents with photothermal OCT has been derived. The phase-resolved thermal expansion detection algorithm without motion artifact enables in vivo detection of photothermal effect. Phantom imaging with a blood phantom and in vivo human skin imaging are conducted. A phantom with guinea-pig blood as absorber has been scanned by the photothermal OCT system to prove the concept of cross-sectional absorption agent imaging. An in vivo human skin measurement is also performed with endogenous absorption agents.

  5. Physically-synthesized gold nanoparticles containing multiple nanopores for enhanced photothermal conversion and photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisoo; Kang, Heesung; Kim, Young Heon; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Tae Geol; Wi, Jung-Sub

    2016-08-25

    Physically-synthesized gold nanoparticles having a narrow size distribution and containing multiple nanopores have been utilized as photothermal converters and imaging contrast agents. Nanopores within the gold nanoparticles make it possible to increase the light-absorption cross-section and consequently exhibit distinct improvements in photothermal conversion and photoacoustic imaging efficiencies.

  6. Porous Pd nanoparticles with high photothermal conversion efficiency for efficient ablation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia-Wen; Fan, Shi-Xuan; Wang, Feng; Sun, Ling-Dong; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2014-04-21

    Nanoparticle (NP) mediated photothermal effect shows great potential as a noninvasive method for cancer therapy treatment, but the development of photothermal agents with high photothermal conversion efficiency, small size and good biocompatibility is still a big challenge. Herein, we report Pd NPs with a porous structure exhibiting enhanced near infrared (NIR) absorption as compared to Pd nanocubes with a similar size (almost two-fold enhancement with a molar extinction coefficient of 6.3 × 10(7) M(-1) cm(-1)), and the porous Pd NPs display monotonically rising absorbance from NIR to UV-Vis region. When dispersed in water and illuminated with an 808 nm laser, the porous Pd NPs give a photothermal conversion efficiency as high as 93.4%, which is comparable to the efficiency of Au nanorods we synthesized (98.6%). As the porous Pd NPs show broadband NIR absorption (650-1200 nm), this allows us to choose multiple laser wavelengths for photothermal therapy. In vitro photothermal heating of HeLa cells in the presence of porous Pd NPs leads to 100% cell death under 808 nm laser irradiation (8 W cm(-2), 4 min). For photothermal heating using 730 nm laser, 70% of HeLa cells were killed after 4 min irradiation at a relative low power density of 6 W cm(-2). These results demonstrated that the porous Pd nanostructure is an attractive photothermal agent for cancer therapy.

  7. In vivo photothermal optical coherence tomography for non-invasive imaging of endogenous absorption agents

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    In vivo photothermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated for cross-sectional imaging of endogenous absorption agents. In order to compromise the sensitivity, imaging speed, and sample motion immunity, a new photothermal detection scheme and phase processing method are developed. Phase-resolved swept-source OCT and fiber-pigtailed laser diode (providing excitation at 406 nm) are combined to construct a high-sensitivity photothermal OCT system. OCT probe and excitation beam coaxially illuminate and are focused on tissues. The photothermal excitation and detection procedure is designed to obtain high efficiency of photothermal effect measurement. The principle and method of depth-resolved cross-sectional imaging of absorption agents with photothermal OCT has been derived. The phase-resolved thermal expansion detection algorithm without motion artifact enables in vivo detection of photothermal effect. Phantom imaging with a blood phantom and in vivo human skin imaging are conducted. A phantom with guinea-pig blood as absorber has been scanned by the photothermal OCT system to prove the concept of cross-sectional absorption agent imaging. An in vivo human skin measurement is also performed with endogenous absorption agents. PMID:26137374

  8. Spatial temperature mapping within polymer nanocomposites undergoing ultrafast photothermal heating via gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Somsubhra; Wu, Wei-Chen; Xu, Chao; Tracy, Joseph B.; Gundogdu, Kenan; Bochinski, Jason R.; Clarke, Laura I.

    2014-11-01

    Heat emanates from gold nanorods (GNRs) under ultrafast optical excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The steady state nanoscale temperature distribution formed within a polymer matrix embedded with GNRs undergoing pulsed femtosecond photothermal heating is determined experimentally using two independent ensemble optical techniques. Physical rotation of the nanorods reveals the average local temperature of the polymer melt in the immediate spatial volume surrounding each rod while fluorescence of homogeneously-distributed perylene molecules monitors temperature over sample regions at larger distances from the GNRs. Polarization-sensitive fluorescence measurements of the perylene probes provide an estimate of the average size of the quasi-molten region surrounding each nanorod (that is, the boundary between softened polymer and solid material as the temperature decreases radially away from each particle) and distinguishes the steady state temperature in the solid and melt regions. Combining these separate methods enables nanoscale spatial mapping of the average steady state temperature distribution caused by ultrafast excitation of the GNRs. These observations definitively demonstrate the presence of a steady-state temperature gradient and indicate that localized heating via the photothermal effect within materials enables nanoscale thermal manipulations without significantly altering the bulk sample temperature in these systems. These quantitative results are further verified by re-orienting nanorods within a solid polymer nanofiber without inducing any morphological changes to the highly temperature-sensitive nanofiber surface. Temperature differences of 70-90 °C were observed over a distances of ~100 nm.Heat emanates from gold nanorods (GNRs) under ultrafast optical excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The steady state nanoscale temperature distribution formed within a polymer matrix embedded with GNRs undergoing pulsed

  9. Deflections from two types of human surrogates in oblique side impacts.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain time-dependent thoracic and abdominal deflections of an anthropomorphic test device, the WorldSID dummy, in oblique impact using sled tests, and compare with post mortem human subject (PMHS) data. To simulate the oblique loading vector, the load wall was configured such that the thorax and abdominal plates were offset by twenty or thirty degrees. Deflections were obtained from a chestband placed at the middle thoracic level and five internal deflection transducers. Data were compared from the chestband and the transducer located at the same level of the thorax. In addition, data were compared with deflections from similar PMHS tests obtained using chestbands placed at the level of the axilla, xyphoid process, and tenth rib, representing the upper thorax, middle thorax, and abdominal region of the biological specimen. Peak deflections ranged from 30 to 85 mm in the dummy tests. Peak deflections ranged from 60 to 115 mm in PMHS. Under both obliquities, dummy deflection-time histories at the location along the chestband in close proximity to the internal deflection transducer demonstrated similar profiles. However, the peak deflection magnitudes from the chestband were approximately 20 mm greater than those from the internal transducer. Acknowledging that the chestband measures external deflections in contrast to the transducer which records internal ribcage deformations, peak deflections match from the two sensors. Deflection time histories were also similar between the dummy and PMHS in terms of morphology, although thoracic deflection magnitudes from the dummy matched more closely with PMHS than abdominal deflection magnitudes. The dummy deformed in such a way that peak deflections occurred along the lateral vector. This was in contrast to PMHS tests wherein maximum deflections occurred along the antero-lateral direction, suggesting differing deformation responses in the two models. In addition, peak deflections occurred

  10. Deflections from two types of Human Surrogates in Oblique Side Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain time-dependent thoracic and abdominal deflections of an anthropomorphic test device, the WorldSID dummy, in oblique impact using sled tests, and compare with post mortem human subject (PMHS) data. To simulate the oblique loading vector, the load wall was configured such that the thorax and abdominal plates were offset by twenty or thirty degrees. Deflections were obtained from a chestband placed at the middle thoracic level and five internal deflection transducers. Data were compared from the chestband and the transducer located at the same level of the thorax. In addition, data were compared with deflections from similar PMHS tests obtained using chestbands placed at the level of the axilla, xyphoid process, and tenth rib, representing the upper thorax, middle thorax, and abdominal region of the biological specimen. Peak deflections ranged from 30 to 85 mm in the dummy tests. Peak deflections ranged from 60 to 115 mm in PMHS. Under both obliquities, dummy deflection-time histories at the location along the chestband in close proximity to the internal deflection transducer demonstrated similar profiles. However, the peak deflection magnitudes from the chestband were approximately 20 mm greater than those from the internal transducer. Acknowledging that the chestband measures external deflections in contrast to the transducer which records internal ribcage deformations, peak deflections match from the two sensors. Deflection time histories were also similar between the dummy and PMHS in terms of morphology, although thoracic deflection magnitudes from the dummy matched more closely with PMHS than abdominal deflection magnitudes. The dummy deformed in such a way that peak deflections occurred along the lateral vector. This was in contrast to PMHS tests wherein maximum deflections occurred along the antero-lateral direction, suggesting differing deformation responses in the two models. In addition, peak deflections occurred

  11. Temperature-feedback upconversion nanocomposite for accurate photothermal therapy at facile temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingjun; Feng, Wei; Chang, Jian; Tan, Yan-Wen; Li, Jiachang; Chen, Min; Sun, Yun; Li, Fuyou

    2016-02-04

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) at present, following the temperature definition for conventional thermal therapy, usually keeps the temperature of lesions at 42-45 °C or even higher. Such high temperature kills cancer cells but also increases the damage of normal tissues near lesions through heat conduction and thus brings about more side effects and inhibits therapeutic accuracy. Here we use temperature-feedback upconversion nanoparticle combined with photothermal material for real-time monitoring of microscopic temperature in PTT. We observe that microscopic temperature of photothermal material upon illumination is high enough to kill cancer cells when the temperature of lesions is still low enough to prevent damage to normal tissue. On the basis of the above phenomenon, we further realize high spatial resolution photothermal ablation of labelled tumour with minimal damage to normal tissues in vivo. Our work points to a method for investigating photothermal properties at nanoscale, and for the development of new generation of PTT strategy.

  12. Temperature-feedback upconversion nanocomposite for accurate photothermal therapy at facile temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xingjun; Feng, Wei; Chang, Jian; Tan, Yan-Wen; Li, Jiachang; Chen, Min; Sun, Yun; Li, Fuyou

    2016-02-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) at present, following the temperature definition for conventional thermal therapy, usually keeps the temperature of lesions at 42-45 °C or even higher. Such high temperature kills cancer cells but also increases the damage of normal tissues near lesions through heat conduction and thus brings about more side effects and inhibits therapeutic accuracy. Here we use temperature-feedback upconversion nanoparticle combined with photothermal material for real-time monitoring of microscopic temperature in PTT. We observe that microscopic temperature of photothermal material upon illumination is high enough to kill cancer cells when the temperature of lesions is still low enough to prevent damage to normal tissue. On the basis of the above phenomenon, we further realize high spatial resolution photothermal ablation of labelled tumour with minimal damage to normal tissues in vivo. Our work points to a method for investigating photothermal properties at nanoscale, and for the development of new generation of PTT strategy.

  13. Photothermal optical lock-in optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Lapierre-Landry, Maryse; Patil, Chetan A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal OCT (PTOCT) provides high sensitivity to molecular targets in tissue, and occupies a spatial imaging regime that is attractive for small animal imaging. However, current implementations of PTOCT require extensive temporal sampling, resulting in slow frame rates and a large data burden that limit its in vivo utility. To address these limitations, we have implemented optical lock-in techniques for photothermal optical lock-in OCT (poli-OCT), and demonstrated the in vivo imaging capabilities of this approach. The poli-OCT signal was assessed in tissue-mimicking phantoms containing indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA approved small molecule that has not been previously imaged in vivo with PTOCT. Then, the effects of in vivo blood flow and motion artifact were assessed and attenuated, and in vivo poli-OCT was demonstrated with both ICG and gold nanorods as contrast agents. Experiments revealed that poli-OCT signals agreed with optical lock-in theory and the bio-heat equation, and the system exhibited shot noise limited performance. In phantoms containing biologically relevant concentrations of ICG (1 µg/ml), the poli-OCT signal was significantly greater than control phantoms (p<0.05), demonstrating sensitivity to small molecules. Finally, in vivo poli-OCT of ICG identified the lymphatic vessels in a mouse ear, and also identified low concentrations (200 pM) of gold nanorods in subcutaneous injections at frame rates ten times faster than previously reported. This work illustrates that future in vivo molecular imaging studies could benefit from the improved acquisition and analysis times enabled by poli-OCT. PMID:26114045

  14. Indocyanine green-loaded gold nanostars for sensitive SERS imaging and subcellular monitoring of photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Sheng, Zonghai; Li, Penghui; Wu, Manxiang; Zhang, Nisi; Yu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Yuanwen; Hu, Dehong; Zheng, Hairong; Wang, Guo Ping

    2017-08-24

    We have demonstrated that a typical nanothermometer was incorporated in a bovine serum albumin stabilized gold nanostar-indocyanine green (denoted as GNS-ICG-BSA) nanoprobe to realize surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging-based real-time sensitive monitoring of intracellular temperature in photothermal therapy (PTT), which significantly improved the spatial resolution compared to infrared thermal imaging. Herein, an exogenous thermosensitive molecule, ICG, acting as a tri-functional agent, was selected as the Raman reporter instead of direct cellular biochemical changes. The triggering of the obtained probe was unaffected by the cellular microenvironment, so it can act as a monitor of PTT in various cell types. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used to investigate the thermosensitive mechanism of ICG. The actively targeted GNS-ICG-BSA nanotags were used to induce SERS mapping-guided in vitro PTT of U87 glioma cells. Meanwhile, small temperature variations within a cell during PTT can be precisely monitored through the SERS fingerprint information, with a spatial resolution at the subcellular level and a sensitivity of 0.37 °C. Thus, the integrated GNS-ICG-BSA nanotags can be treated as a theranostic probe, a SERS imaging probe and an intracellular thermometer. Moreover, the good biocompatibility and the low cytotoxicity of GNS-ICG-BSA nanotags, together with their superior photothermal ablation effect on U87 glioma cells have been confirmed. This suggested that the implanted nanothermometry approach would be promising for a better understanding of the biological processes at subcellular level and provide new insights into the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoplatform. Furthermore, this study revealed that the SERS-based monitoring technique can offer great potential for theranostics as an emerging strategy.

  15. Abyssal Hill Deflections at Pacific-Antarctic Ridge Transform Intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, M. B.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Almost complete shipboard multibeam bathymetry coverage at the Menard and Pitman Fracture Zones allowed us to map abyssal hill deviations along their traces. We compared the mapped abyssal hill deflections to a detailed plate motion model for the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge to test how abyssal hill curvature correlates to changes in plate motion direction, which leads to periods of transtension or transpression. To better understand the range of curvatures, we compared our observations with a model for curved cracks [Pollard and Aydin, 1984]. Spreading centers can be considered as giant cracks. The propagation path of a crack under combined loading can be predicted as a function of the stress ratio between the relative stresses required for spreading at the spreading axis (Mode I loading) and stresses resisting sliding along the transform (Mode II loading). We mapped 124 abyssal hill deflections at Menard Fracture Zone and 113 at Pitman Fracture Zone, respectively. The observations show that the amount of curvature can change rapidly over short periods of time. A high abundance of deflected abyssal hills is expected when a significant adjustment in plate motion direction occurs, which puts stress on the transform fault. This is observed, in particular, at the Pitman Fracture Zone, which experienced significant transtension since chron C5y (9.8 Ma) in response to a 17° clockwise rotation of the spreading direction azimuth. In contrast to the abyssal hill tips, which were deflected in response to the changing stress field when approaching a ridge transform intersection, we also mapped several anomalously curved abyssal hill structures. Such anomalous deflections are expected in oceanic crust formed near ridge transform intersections during periods of transpression [Sonder and Pockalny, 1999]. We mapped 19 anomalous abyssal hill deflections at Menard Fracture Zone between chrons C15o and C7 (34.9 to 24.8 Ma) and 15 at Pitman Fracture Zone between chrons C11y and C6B (30

  16. Sensitivity analysis for large-deflection and postbuckling responses on distributed-memory computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Brian C.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    A computational strategy is presented for calculating sensitivity coefficients for the nonlinear large-deflection and postbuckling responses of laminated composite structures on distributed-memory parallel computers. The strategy is applicable to any message-passing distributed computational environment. The key elements of the proposed strategy are: (1) a multiple-parameter reduced basis technique; (2) a parallel sparse equation solver based on a nested dissection (or multilevel substructuring) node ordering scheme; and (3) a multilevel parallel procedure for evaluating hierarchical sensitivity coefficients. The hierarchical sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the composite structure response to variations in three sets of interrelated parameters; namely, laminate, layer and micromechanical (fiber, matrix, and interface/interphase) parameters. The effectiveness of the strategy is assessed by performing hierarchical sensitivity analysis for the large-deflection and postbuckling responses of stiffened composite panels with cutouts on three distributed-memory computers. The panels are subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. The numerical studies presented demonstrate the advantages of the reduced basis technique for hierarchical sensitivity analysis on distributed-memory machines.

  17. A beam deflection apparatus with high resolution for monitoring TGS crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Musazzi, S.; Affinito, A.; Stenzel, C.; Fabritius, G.

    1996-12-31

    A beam deflection apparatus with a high resolution has been developed which allows monitoring of temperature and concentration gradients in the region around a TGS (triglycine sulphate) crystal growing from an aqueous solution. The developed optical setup consists of two measuring arms that allow inspection of the test region along two perpendicular directions. With a lateral position sensing device the deflection of a mildly focused laser beam traversing the medium to be tested have been measured along one inspection axis, while a two-dimensional analysis of the test region is performed in the orthogonal direction by means of a properly focused light blade and a CCD camera. Experimental verification of the technique has been performed utilizing TGS crystal growth by means of the cooled sting method. The experiment takes place in a double-wall glass cell, the temperature of the TGS crystal can be adjusted independently from the solution temperature. Systematic measurements have been performed which allow to characterize concentration gradients and thermal convection in the vicinity of the crystal. Analysis of experimental results shows the high sensitivity of this method. This technique is well suited as a diagnostic tool for monitoring and controlling crystal growth experiments in microgravity.

  18. Monte Carlo and Analytical Calculation of Lateral Deflection of Proton Beams in Homogeneous Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazianotto, Maurício T.; Inocente, Guilherme F.; da Silva, Danilo Anacleto A.; Hormaza, Joel M.

    2010-05-01

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of radiation therapy, but the avoidance of damage to critical normal tissues and the prevention of geographical tumor misses require accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient and the verification of his position demand a precise imaging technique. In proton therapy facilities, the X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) is the preferred technique for the planning treatment of patients. This situation has been changing nowadays with the development of proton accelerators for health care and the increase in the number of treated patients. In fact, protons could be more efficient than xCT for this task. One essential difficulty in pCT image reconstruction systems came from the scattering of the protons inside the target due to the numerous small-angle deflections by nuclear Coulomb fields. The purpose of this study is the comparison of an analytical formulation for the determination of beam lateral deflection, based on Molière's theory and Rutherford scattering with Monte Carlo calculations by SRIM 2008 and MCNPX codes.

  19. Monte Carlo and Analytical Calculation of Lateral Deflection of Proton Beams in Homogeneous Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Inocente, Guilherme F.; Silva, Danilo Anacleto A. d; Hormaza, Joel M.

    2010-05-21

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of radiation therapy, but the avoidance of damage to critical normal tissues and the prevention of geographical tumor misses require accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient and the verification of his position demand a precise imaging technique. In proton therapy facilities, the X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) is the preferred technique for the planning treatment of patients. This situation has been changing nowadays with the development of proton accelerators for health care and the increase in the number of treated patients. In fact, protons could be more efficient than xCT for this task. One essential difficulty in pCT image reconstruction systems came from the scattering of the protons inside the target due to the numerous small-angle deflections by nuclear Coulomb fields. The purpose of this study is the comparison of an analytical formulation for the determination of beam lateral deflection, based on Moliere's theory and Rutherford scattering with Monte Carlo calculations by SRIM 2008 and MCNPX codes.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections and Natural Frequencies of an Inflatable Fabric Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. Jefferson

    1961-01-01

    Static and vibration tests were performed on an inflatable square fabric plate supported on all edges. Lateral deflections and natural frequencies showed good agreement with calculations made using a linear small-deflection theory.