Science.gov

Sample records for photovoltaic manufacturing cost

  1. Manufacturing cost analysis for photovoltaic concentrator tracking structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, B.; Pass, N.; Blackwell, R.

    1983-11-01

    Detailed manufacturing, transportation and installation costs are developed for the current design of three different photovoltaic concentrator tracking structures at a production rate of 10 to the 5th power/sq m per year. These costs are combined with array field performance estimates to obtain cost per watt and levelized energy costs for 500 kW fields. Installed structure costs for the three arrays (including G and A and profit but not module FOB costs) range from $166 to $208/sqm, or $1.04 to $1.28/W sub ap in 1982 dollars. The pedestal tracking structure has a lower cost than the post/frame or pylon/torque tube arrays.

  2. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  3. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Whitehouse, D.; Wiedeman, S.; Catalano, A.W.; Oswald, R. )

    1991-12-01

    This report identifies steps leading to manufacturing large volumes of low-cost, large-area photovoltaic (PV) modules. Both crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon technologies were studied. Cost reductions for each step were estimated and compared to Solarex Corporation's manufacturing costs. A cost model, a simple version of the SAMICS methodology developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), projected PV selling prices. Actual costs of materials, labor, product yield, etc., were used in the cost model. The JPL cost model compared potential ways of lowering costs. Solarex identified the most difficult technical challenges that, if overcome, would reduce costs. Preliminary research plans were developed to solve the technical problems. 13 refs.

  4. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  5. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.J. )

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  6. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS Eureka'' facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the Eureka'' facility to Chronar's batch'' plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  7. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M. )

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing multiple-band-gap, multiple- junction solar cells and photovoltaic modules. Amorphous silicon alloy material is deposited (using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) on a stainless-steel substrate using a roll-to-roll process that is continuous and automated. Rapid thermal equilibration of the metal substrate allows rapid throughput of large-area devices in smaller production machines. Potential improvements in the design, deposition, and module fabrication process are described. Problems are also discussed that could impede using these potential improvements. Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) proposes cost and time estimates for investigating and solving these problems. Manufacturing modules for less than $1.00 per peak watt and stable module efficiencies of greater than 10% are near-term goals proposed by ECD. 18 refs.

  8. The Capital Intensity of Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul

    2015-10-19

    Factory capital expenditure (capex) for photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing strongly influences the per-unit cost of a c-Si module. This provides a significant opportunity to address the U.S. DOE SunShot module price target through capex innovation. Innovation options to reduce the capex of PV manufacturing include incremental and disruptive process innovation with c-Si, platform innovations, and financial approaches. and financial approaches.

  9. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Easoz, J.R.; Herlocher, R.H. )

    1991-12-01

    This report examines the cost-effective manufacture of dendritic-web-based photovoltaic modules. It explains how process changes can increase production and reduce manufacturing costs. Long-range benefits of these improved processes are also discussed. Problems are identified that could impede increasing production and reducing costs; approaches to solve these problems are presented. These approaches involve web growth throughput, cell efficiency, process yield, silicon use, process control, automation, and module efficiency. Also discussed are the benefits of bifacial module design, unique to the dendritic web process.

  10. Self Aligned Cell: Scaling Up Manufacture of a Cost Effective Cell Architecture for Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, A.; van Mierlo, F.

    2010-12-01

    Two areas of technology for fabrication of higher efficiency Si-wafer solar cells were addressed: (1) the formation of structured texturing that is an improvement over the industry-standard isotexture process for multicrystalline wafers. (2) the formation of fine line (<50 micron) metallization seed layers in a self-aligned manner where the fingers can be automatically and perfectly lined up to a selective emitter and where expensive silver screen printing paste can be mostly replaced by plating up the seed layers with silver or copper. The benefits are: a) Lower reflectivity , b) Decoupling the performance of the texture from the saw damage, thus allowing for better advances in sawing and a more robust wet process. 1366 Technologies developed 2 pilot machines for 1) deposition and patterning of low-cost resist layers to enable simultaneous Honeycomb front texturing and groove formation for multicrystalline Si wafers, and 2) fine-line dispensing of materials that are self aligned to the grooves.

  11. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  12. Solid state laser applications in photovoltaics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsky, Corey; Colville, Finlay

    2008-02-01

    Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by increasing government and societal pressure to use renewable energy as part of an overall strategy to address global warming attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. Initially supported in several countries by generous tax subsidies, solar cell manufacturers are relentlessly pushing the performance/cost ratio of these devices in a quest to reach true cost parity with grid electricity. Clearly this eventual goal will result in further acceleration in the overall market growth. Silicon wafer based solar cells are currently the mainstay of solar end-user installations with a cost up to three times grid electricity. But next-generation technology in the form of thin-film devices promises streamlined, high-volume manufacturing and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. Notwithstanding the modest conversion efficiency of thin-film devices compared to wafered silicon products (around 6-10% versus 15-20%), this cost reduction is driving existing and start-up solar manufacturers to switch to thin-film production. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. Lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. This paper examines these processes and discusses the optimization of industrial lasers to meet their specific needs.

  13. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Somberg, H. )

    1991-11-01

    This report describes existing integrated processes for solar cell manufacturing and lists as the primary opportunity for improvement the following areas: low-cost silicon sheets with improved characteristics; improved large-scale and automated solar cell processes that can lead to cell efficiencies in the range of 14% (encapsulated) for direct-cast wafers; improved handling and lamination of large-area modules for the emerging utility market. The proposed solutions can lead to finished module costs on the order of $1.55 per square meter or a selling price of less than $2.00/Watt. The problems that may be considered generic to the industry and that have been addressed in this work are as follows: gettering and passivation of silicon wafers; spray-on passivation layers; dual antireflection coatings; ink-jet printing of metallizations; and automated handling of large-area modules and associated vertical lamination. 14 refs.

  14. Progress update on the US photovoltaic manufacturing technology project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Thomas, H.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is helping the U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry extend its world leadership role in manufacturing and stimulate the commercial development of PV modules and systems. Initiated in 1990, PVMaT is being carried out in several directed and staggered phases to support industry`s continued progress. Thirteen subcontracts awarded in FY 1996 under Phase 4A emphasize improvement and cost reduction in the manufacture of full-system PV products. Areas of work in Phase 4A included, but were not limited to, issues such as improving module-manufacturing processes; system and system-component packaging, integration, manufacturing, and assembly; product manufacturing flexibility; and balance-of-system development with the goal of product manufacturing improvements. These Phase 4A, product-driven manufacturing research and development (R&D) activities are now completing their second phase. Progress under these Phase 4A and remaining Phase 2B subcontracts from the earlier PVMaT solicitation are summarized in this paper. Evaluations of the success of this project have been carried out in FY 1995 and late FY 1996. This paper examines the 1997 cost/capacity data that have been collected from active PVMaT manufacturers.

  15. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  16. PVMaT cost reductions in the EFG high volume PV manufacturing line: Annual report, 5 August 1998--4 August 1999[PhotoVoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

    1999-11-16

    This report describes work performed by ASE Americas researchers during the first year of this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology 5A2 program. Significant accomplishments in each of three task are as follows. Task 1--Manufacturing Systems: Researchers completed key node analysis, started statistical process control (SPC) charting, carried out design-of-experiment (DoE) matrices on the cell line to optimize efficiencies, performed a capacity and bottleneck study, prepared a baseline chemical waste analysis report, and completed writing of more than 50% of documentation and statistical sections of ISO 9000 procedures. A highlight of this task is that cell efficiencies in manufacturing were increased by 0.4%--0.5% absolute, to an average in excess of 14.2%, with the help of DoE and SPC methods. Task 2--Low-Cost Processes: Researchers designed, constructed, and tested a 50-cm-diameter, edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) cylinder crystal growth system to successfully produce thin cylinders up to 1.2 meters in length; completed a model for heat transfer; successfully deployed new nozzle designs and used them with a laser wafer-cutting system with the potential to decrease cutting labor costs by 75% and capital costs by 2X; achieved laser-cutting speeds of up to 8X and evaluation of this system is proceeding in production; identified laser-cutting conditions that reduce damage for both Q-switched Nd:YAG and copper-vapor lasers with the help of a breakthrough in fundamental understanding of cutting with these short-pulse-length lasers; and found that bulk EFG material lifetimes are optimized when co-firing of silicon nitride and aluminum is carried out with rapid thermal processing (RTP). Task 3--Flexible Manufacturing: Researchers improved large-volume manufacturing of 10-cm {times} 15-cm EFG wafers by developing laser-cutting fixtures, adapting carriers and fabricating adjustable racks for etching and rinsing facilities, and installing a high-speed data collection

  17. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  18. Photovoltaic Cell And Manufacturing Process

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-11-26

    Provided is a method for controlling electrical properties and morphology of a p-type material of a photovoltaic device. The p-type material, such as p-type cadmium telluride, is first subjected to heat treatment in an oxidizing environment, followed by recrystallization in an environment substantially free of oxidants. In one embodiment, the heat treatment step comprises first subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a first temperature to getter impurities, followed by second subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a second temperature, higher than the first temperature, to develop a desired oxidation gradient through the p-type material.

  19. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  20. The photovoltaic manufacturing technology project: A government/industry partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Mooney, G.D.

    1991-12-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a government/industry photovoltaic manufacturing research and development (R&D) project composed of partnerships between the federal government (through the US Department of Energy) and members of the US photovoltaic (PV) industry. It is designed to assist the US PV industry in improving manufacturing processes, accelerating manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, increasing commercial product performance, and generally laying the groundwork for a substantial scale-up of US-based PV manufacturing plant capabilities. The project is being carried out in three separate phases, each focused on a specific approach to solving the problems identified by the industrial participants. These participants are selected through competitive procurements. Furthermore, the PVMaT project has been specifically structured to ensure that these PV manufacturing R&D subcontract awards are selected with no intention of either directing funding toward specific PV technologies (e.g., amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, etc.), or spreading the awards among a number of technologies (e.g., one subcontract in each area). Each associated subcontract under any phase of this project is, and will continue to be, selected for funding on its own technical and cost merits. Phase 1, the problem identification phase, was completed early in 1991. Phase 2 is now under way. This is the solution phase of the project and addresses problems of specific manufacturers. The envisioned subcontracts under Phase 2 may be up to three years in duration and will be highly cost-shared between the US government and US industrial participants. Phase 3, is also under way. General issues related to PV module development will be studied through various teaming arrangements. 25 refs.

  1. The photovoltaic manufacturing technology project: A government/industry partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Mooney, G.D.

    1991-12-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a government/industry photovoltaic manufacturing research and development (R D) project composed of partnerships between the federal government (through the US Department of Energy) and members of the US photovoltaic (PV) industry. It is designed to assist the US PV industry in improving manufacturing processes, accelerating manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, increasing commercial product performance, and generally laying the groundwork for a substantial scale-up of US-based PV manufacturing plant capabilities. The project is being carried out in three separate phases, each focused on a specific approach to solving the problems identified by the industrial participants. These participants are selected through competitive procurements. Furthermore, the PVMaT project has been specifically structured to ensure that these PV manufacturing R D subcontract awards are selected with no intention of either directing funding toward specific PV technologies (e.g., amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, etc.), or spreading the awards among a number of technologies (e.g., one subcontract in each area). Each associated subcontract under any phase of this project is, and will continue to be, selected for funding on its own technical and cost merits. Phase 1, the problem identification phase, was completed early in 1991. Phase 2 is now under way. This is the solution phase of the project and addresses problems of specific manufacturers. The envisioned subcontracts under Phase 2 may be up to three years in duration and will be highly cost-shared between the US government and US industrial participants. Phase 3, is also under way. General issues related to PV module development will be studied through various teaming arrangements. 25 refs.

  2. Benefits from the U.S. photovoltaic manufacturing technology project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Thomas, H.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper examines the goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project and its achievements in recapturing the investment by the photovoltaic (PV) industry and the public in this research. The PVMaT project was initiated in 1990 with the goal of enhancing the world-wide competitiveness of the U.S. PV industry. Based on the authors analysis, PVMaT has contributed to PV module manufacturing process improvements, increased product value, and reductions in the price of today`s PV products. An evaluation of success in this project was conducted using data collected from 10 of the PVMaT industrial participants in late fiscal year (FY) 1995. These data indicate a reduction of 56% in the weighted average module manufacturing costs from 1992 to 1996. During this same period, U.S. module manufacturing capacity has increased by more than a factor of 6. Finally, the analysis indicates that both the public and the manufacturers will recapture the funds expended in R&D manufacturing improvements well before the year 2000.

  3. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  4. Photovoltaic industry manufacturing technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vanecek, D.; Diver, M.; Fernandez, R.

    1998-08-01

    This report contains the results of the Photovoltaic (PV) Industry Manufacturing Technology Assessment performed by the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) of the University of Texas at Arlington for the National Renewable Energy laboratory. ARRI surveyed eleven companies to determine their state-of-manufacturing in the areas of engineering design, operations management, manufacturing technology, equipment maintenance, quality management, and plant conditions. Interviews with company personnel and plant tours at each of the facilities were conducted and the information compiled. The report is divided into two main segments. The first part of the report presents how the industry as a whole conforms to ``World Class`` manufacturing practices. Conclusions are drawn from the results of a survey as to the areas that the PV industry can improve on to become more competitive in the industry and World Class. Appendix A contains the questions asked in the survey, a brief description of the benefits to performing this task and the aggregate response to the questions. Each company participating in the assessment process received the results of their own facility to compare against the industry as a whole. The second part of the report outlines opportunities that exist on the shop floor for improving Process Equipment and Automation Strategies. Appendix B contains the survey that was used to assess each of the manufacturing processes.

  5. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology report, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, A.V.; Lillington, D.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by Spectrolab, Inc., to address tasks outlined in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Letter of solicitation RC-0-10057. These tasks include the potential of making photovoltaics (PV) a more affordable energy source, as set forth in the goal of the PVMaT project. Spectrolab believes that the DOE cost goals can be met using three different types of cells: (1) silicon concentrator cells, (2) high efficiency GaAs concentrator cells, and (3) mechanically stacked multijunction cells.

  6. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  7. Silicon Film[trademark] photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bottenberg, W.R.; Hall, R.B.; Jackson, E.L.; Lampo, S.; Mulligan, W.E.; Barnett, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work on a project to develop an advanced low-cost manufacturing process for a new utility-scale flatplate module based on thin active layers of polycrystalline silicon on a low-cost substrate. This is called the Silicon-Film[trademark] process. This new power module is based on a new large solar cell that is 675 cm[sup 2] in area. Eighteen of these solar cells form a 170-W module. Twelve ofthese modules form a 2-kW array. The program has three components: (1) development of a Silicon-Film[trademark] wafer machine that can manufacture wafer 675 cm[sup 2] in size with a total product cost reductionof 70%; (2) development of an advanced solar cell manufacturing process that will turn the Silicon-Film[trademark] wafer into a 14%-efficient solar cell; and (3) development of an advanced module design based on these large-area, efficient silicon solar cells with an average power of 170 watts. The completion of these three tasks will lead to a new power module designed for utility and other power applications with asubstantially lower cost.

  8. Cost and Performance of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Davisson, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) model assists in design of Photovoltaic (PV) systems. LCP simulation of performance, cost and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. Provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of PV application.

  9. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  10. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  11. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  12. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  13. Experience Scaling Up Manufacturing of Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G. W.; Skinner, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines two important generic photovoltaic technologies at particularly revealing stages of development, i.e., the stages between R&D and stable commercial production and profitable sales. Based on two historical cases, it attempts to shed light on the difference between: (1) costs and schedules validated by actual manufacturing and market experience, and (2) estimated costs and schedules that rely on technology forecasts and engineering estimates. The amorphous Silicon case also identifies some of the costs that are incurred in meeting specific market requirements, while the Cadmium Telluride case identifies many of the operational challenges involved in transferring R&D results to production. The transition between R&D and commercial success takes a great deal of time and money for emerging energy conversion technologies in general. The experience reported here can be instructive to those managing comparable efforts, and to their investors. It can also be instructive to R&D managers responsible for positioning such new technologies for commercial success.

  14. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1. Final technical report, 1 May 1991--10 May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS ``Eureka`` facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the ``Eureka`` facility to Chronar`s ``batch`` plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  15. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH's concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. )

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH's Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  16. Multijunction photovoltaic device and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Arya, Rejeewa R.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Bennett, Murray

    1995-04-04

    A multijunction photovoltaic device includes first, second, and third amorphous silicon p-i-n photovoltaic cells in a stacked arrangement. The intrinsic layers of the second and third cells are formed of a-SiGe alloys with differing ratios of Ge such that the bandgap of the intrinsic layers respectively decrease from the first uppermost cell to the third lowermost cell. An interface layer, composed of a doped silicon compound, is disposed between the two cells and has a lower bandgap than the respective n- and p-type adjacent layers of the first and second cells. The interface layer forms an ohmic contact with the one of the adjacent cell layers of the same conductivity type, and a tunnel junction with the other of the adjacent cell layers.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  18. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  20. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  1. Development of Inorganic Precursors for Manufacturing of Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-308

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M.; Ginley, D.

    2013-06-01

    Both NREL and Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials are interested in the development of solution phase metal and semiconductive precursors for the manufacturing of photovoltaic devices. In particular, we intend to develop material sets for atmospheric deposition processes. The cooperation between these two parties will enable high value materials and processing solutions for the manufacturing of low cost, roll-to-roll photovoltaics.

  2. Recent progress in the photovoltaic manufacturing technology project (PVMaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, C.E.; Mitchell, R.L.; Thomas, H. ); Herwig, L.O. ); Ruby, D.S. ); Sellers, R.

    1994-12-09

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project was initiated in 1990 to help the US photovoltaic (PV) industry extend its world leadership role in manufacturing and commercially developing PV modules and systems. It is being conducted in several phases, staggered to support industry progress. The four most recently awarded subcontracts (Phase 2B) are now completing their first year of research. They include two subcontracts on CdTe, one on Spheral Solar[trademark] Cells, and one on cast polysilicon. These subcontracts represent new technology additions to the PVMaT Project. Subcontracts initiated in earlier phases are nearing completion, and their progress is summarized. An additional phase of PVMaT, Phase 4A, is being initiated which will emphasize product-driven manufacturing research and development. The intention of Phase 4A is to emphasize improvement and cost reduction in the manufacture of full-system PV products. The work areas may include, but are not limited to, issues such as improvement of module manufacturing processes; system and system component packaging, integration, manufacturing, and assembly; product manufacturing flexibility; and balance-of-system development with the goal of product manufacturing improvements.

  3. Capital intensity of photovoltaics manufacturing: Barrier to scale and opportunity for innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Douglas M.; Fu, Ran; Horowitz, Kelsey; Basore, Paul A.; Woodhouse, Michael; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-09-07

    In this study, using a bottom-up cost model, we assess the impact of initial factory capital expenditure (capex) on photovoltaic (PV) module minimum sustainable price (MSP) and industry-wide trends. We find capex to have two important impacts on PV manufacturing. First, capex strongly influences the per-unit MSP of a c-Si module: we calculate that the capex-related elements sum to 22% of MSP for an integrated wafer, cell, and module manufacturer. This fraction provides a significant opportunity to reduce MSP toward the U.S. DOE SunShot module price target through capex innovation.

  4. Photovoltaic system costs using local labor and materials in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, E.; Fletcher, G.; Hein, G.

    1980-01-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in countries that do not presently have high technology industrial capacity was investigated. The relative cost of integrating indigenous labor (and manufacturing where available) into the balance of the system industry of seven countries (Egypt, Haiti, the Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, and the Phillipines) was determined. The results were then generalized to other countries, at most levels of development. The results of the study imply several conclusions: (1) the cost of installing and maintaining comparable photovoltaic systems in developing countries is less than in the United States; (2) skills and some materials are available in the seven subject countries that may be applied to constructing and maintaining PV systems; (3) there is an interest in foreign countries in photovoltaics; and (4) conversations with foreign nationals suggest that photovoltaics must be introduced in foreign markets as an appropriate technology with high technology components rather than as a high technology system.

  5. Photovoltaic Czochralski silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1993--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-year, 3-phase, cost-share contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The objective of the program is to reduce costs in photovoltaic manufacturing by approximately 10% per year. The work was focused in three main areas: (1) silicon crystal growth and thin wafer technology; (2) silicon cell processing; and (3) silicon module fabrication and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this reporting period, several significant improvements were achieved. The crystal growing operation improved significantly with an increase in growth capacity due to larger crucibles, higher polysilicon packing density, and high pull speeds. Wafer processing with wire saws progressed rapidly, and the operation is completely converted to wire saw wafer processing. The wire saws yield almost 50% more wafers per inch in production, thus improving manufacturing volume by 50% without any additional expense in crystal growth. Cell processing improvements focused on better understanding the contact paste and firing processes. Module designs for lower material and labor costs began with the focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and a less costly framing technique. In addition, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) usage was completely eliminated in the Siemens manufacturing facility during this period, resulting in significant reductions in the cost of caustic waste treatment.

  6. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology, phase 2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, G.; Mackamul, K.; Metcalf, D.

    1995-01-01

    Utility Power Group (UPG), and its lower-tier subcontractor, Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) have conducted efforts in developing their manufacturing lines. UPG has focused on the automation of encapsulation and termination processes developed in Phase 1. APS has focused on completion of the encapsulation and module design tasks, while continuing the process and quality control and automation projects. The goal is to produce 55 watt (stabilized) EP50 modules in a new facility. In the APS Trenton EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Developed high throughput lamination procedures; (2) Optimized existing module designs; (3) Developed new module designs for architectural applications; (4) Developed enhanced deposition parameter control; (5) Designed equipment required to manufacture new EUREKA modules developed during Phase II; (6) Improved uniformity of thin-film materials deposition; and (7) Improved the stabilized power output of the APS EP50 EUREKA module to 55 watts. In the APS Fairfield EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Introduced the new products developed under Phase 1 into the APS Fairfield EUREKA module production line; (2) Increased the extent of automation in the production line; (3) Introduced Statistical Process Control to the module production line; and (4) Transferred-progress made in the APS Trenton facility into the APS Fairfield facility.

  7. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  8. Manufacturing cost analysis of integrated photonic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirk, Charles W.; Liu, Qin; Ball, Matthew V.

    1999-04-01

    This paper analyzes the manufacturing cost of photonic system using software that combines several methods for accurate cost accounting. Activity based costing assigns al capital equipment, material and labor costs directly to the product rather than to overheads. Cost of ownership models determine the cost of using machines under different financial and utilization scenarios. Libraries of standard machines, process steps, and process sequences facilitate rapid model building and modification. Using libraries for semiconductor and photonics fabrication, along with packaging and optomechanical assembly, we construct cost models for 2D VCSEL array communication modules. The result of the analysis is that the model cost is driven mainly by the epitaxial material cost, and laser yield limits VCSEL arrays to small scale integration.

  9. Organic photovoltaic cells: from performance improvement to manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hongseok; Park, Hui Joon; Guo, L Jay

    2015-05-20

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been pursued as a next generation power source due to their light weight, thin, flexible, and simple fabrication advantages. Improvements in OPV efficiency have attracted great attention in the past decade. Because the functional layers in OPVs can be dissolved in common solvents, they can be manufactured by eco-friendly and scalable printing or coating technologies. In this review article, the focus is on recent efforts to control nanomorphologies of photoactive layer and discussion of various solution-processed charge transport and extraction materials, to maximize the performance of OPV cells. Next, recent works on printing and coating technologies for OPVs to realize solution processing are reviewed. The review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of non-traditional lamination and transfer method towards highly efficient and fully solution-processed OPV.

  10. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 September 1996--15 January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1998-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. Solar Cells, Inc., has developed this technology and is scaling its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract supports these efforts. Activities during the third phase of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, ES and H programs, and large-scale next-generation coating-system prototype development. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film, monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  11. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  12. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  13. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  14. Development and manufacture of reactive-transfer-printed CIGS photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay; Sang, Baosheng; Lu, Dingyuan; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic (PV) companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and grabbing an increasingly larger market share from multicrystalline silicon companies. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, high-quality CIGS grains, and a fast reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable print plates in the first stage, while in the second stage, the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. High quality CIGS films with large grains were produced on a full-scale manufacturing line, and resulted in high-efficiency large-form-factor modules. With 14% cell efficiency and 12% module efficiency, HelioVolt started to commercialize the process on its first production line with 20 MW nameplate capacity.

  15. Using adhesives as a means to reduce costs and increase performance in the production of photovoltaic electricity.

    PubMed

    Thorey, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Although adhesives have been used for many years to manufacture cars in more efficient ways, their potential has not yet been fully exploited by the renewable energy industry. We argue in this article that photovoltaic module manufacturers can save costs and differentiate from competition by careful selection and use of their bonding systems. Clever adhesives can enable new, more effective product designs and can play a major role in the longevity of the complete product.

  16. The social costs of solar energy: A study of photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, T. L.

    An extensive analysis of the social costs of photovoltaic energy systems shows that there are potentially significant hazards associated with the manufacture and use of such technologies as large-crystal silicon, cadmium sulfide, and gallium arsenide solar cell arrays. The categories of applications considered were (1) decentralized residential installations, (2) decentralized neighborhood, commercial or industrial installations, and (3) central station plants. Summary and conclusion statements are presented for occupational health, public health, environmental impacts, labor, materials and energy impacts, and implications for technological development. It is thought in overview that there are reasons for optimism about the ability of photovoltaics to improve the balance of social costs and benefits in the energy sector.

  17. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  18. Efficiency enhancement in two-cell CIGS photovoltaic system with low-cost optical spectral splitter.

    PubMed

    Maragliano, Carlo; Apostoleris, Harry; Bronzoni, Matteo; Rampino, Stefano; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-01-25

    Spectrum splitting represents a valid alternative to multi-junction solar cells for broadband light-to-electricity conversion. While this concept has existed for decades, its adoption at the industrial scale is still stifled by high manufacturing costs and inability to scale to large areas. Here we report the experimental validation of a novel design that could allow the widespread adoption of spectrum splitting as a low-cost approach to high efficiency photovoltaic conversion. Our system consists of a prismatic lens that can be manufactured using the same methods employed for conventional CPV optic production, and two inexpensive CuInGaSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells having different composition and, thus, band gaps. We demonstrate a large improvement in cell efficiency under the splitter and show how this can lead to substantial increases in system output at competitive cost using existing technologies. PMID:26832577

  19. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  20. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-14

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  1. Consortia Focused on Photovoltaic R&D, Manufacturing, and Testing: A Review of Existing Models and Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Coggeshall, C.; Margolis, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program prepares to initiate a new cost-shared research and development (R&D) effort on photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, it is useful to review the experience to date with consortia focused on PV R&D, manufacturing, and testing. Information was gathered for this report by conducting interviews and accessing Web sites of 14 U.S. consortia and four European consortia, each with either a primary focus on or an emerging interest in PV technology R&D, manufacturing, or testing. Additional input was collected from several workshops held by the DOE and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which examined the practical steps -- including public-private partnerships and policy support -- necessary to enhance the United States' capacity to competitively manufacture photovoltaics. This report categorizes the 18 consortia into three groups: university-led consortia, industry-led consortia, and manufacturing and testing facilities consortia. The first section summarizes the organizations within the different categories, with a particular focus on the key benefits and challenges for each grouping. The second section provides a more detailed overview of each consortium, including the origins, goals, organization, membership, funding sources, and key contacts. This survey is a useful resource for stakeholders interested in PV manufacturing R&D, but should not imply endorsement of any of these groups.

  2. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  3. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The quality cost modeling (QCM) tool is intended to be a relatively simple-to-use device for obtaining a first-order assessment of the quality-cost relationship for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve is a plot of cost versus quality (an index indicating microstructural quality), which is unique for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve indicates the tradeoff between cost and performance, thus enabling one to evaluate affordability. Additionally, the effect of changes in process design, raw materials, and process conditions on the cost-quality relationship can be evaluated. Such results might indicate the most efficient means to obtain improved quality at reduced cost by process design refinements, the implementation of sensors and models for closed loop process control, or improvement in the properties of raw materials being fed into the process. QCM also allows alternative processes for producing the same or similar material to be compared in terms of their potential for producing competitively priced, high quality material. Aside from demonstrating the usefulness of the QCM concept, this is one of the main foci of the present research program, namely to compare processes for making continuous fiber reinforced, metal matrix composites (MMC's). Two processes, low pressure plasma spray deposition and tape casting are considered for QCM development. This document consists of a detailed look at the design of the QCM approach, followed by discussion of the application of QCM to each of the selected MMC manufacturing processes along with results, comparison of processes, and finally, a summary of findings and recommendations.

  4. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of glass encapsulation that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems are discussed. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the low-cost solar array project goals for arrays: (1) a low degradation rate, (2) high reliability, (3) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (4) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (5) a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The glass design areas discussed include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties, and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  5. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Annual subcontract report, 7 January 1994--6 January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Weisiger, D.; Albright, S.P.; Brines, J.; Thompson, R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes work performed by Golden Photon, Inc. (GPI), to conduct research under the PVMaT program, Phase 2B. The objective of the research is to advance GPI`s manufacturing technology, reduce module production costs, increase average module performance, and identify ways to expand production capacity. More specifically, the tasks established for Phase I were to design and install leasehold improvements for the 2-MW production line; to improve and develop product design, efficiency, and marketability; to ensure uninterrupted qualified supplies and raw materials for production; to address environmental, health, and safety issues encountered during production of photovoltaic modules; and to reduce the cost of manufacturing modules. During the first half of this reporting period, the development, design, and debugging of cell interconnection equipment critical to start-up was completed. During the second and third quarters, the primary focus was on the substrate deposition steps (tin oxide, cadmium sulfide, and cadmium telluride) and cell interconnection steps (division). In general, process development, engineering, and quality teams continued to focus on identifying, baselining, and improving (through redesign) actual process equipment operation parameters to meet the required PV panel specifications and improve process throughput rates and yields.

  6. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.

    1992-10-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  7. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  8. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin

  9. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's Manufacturing R&D Initiative, which supports projects aimed at developing better-performing, lower-cost solid-state lighting while encouraging engineering and manufacturing in the United States.

  10. Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

  11. Progress of the Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment totals nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  12. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  13. Low Cost Manufacturing of Composite Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Brent; Palm, Tod; Deo, Ravi; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews research and development of cryotank manufacturing conducted by Northrup Grumman. The objectives of the research and development included the development and validation of manufacturing processes and technology for fabrication of large scale cryogenic tanks, the establishment of a scale-up and facilitization plan for full scale cryotanks, the development of non-autoclave composite manufacturing processes, the fabrication of subscale tank joints for element tests, the performance of manufacturing risk reduction trials for the subscale tank, and the development of full-scale tank manufacturing concepts.

  14. Detailed cost estimate of reference residential photovoltaic designs

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.S.; Penasa, D.A.; Thomas, M.G.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents estimated installation costs for four reference residential photovoltaic designs. Installation cost estimates ranged from $1.28 to $2.12/W/sub p/ for arrays installed by union labor (4.1 to 6.07 kW/sub p/-systems), and from $1.22 to $1.83 W/sub p/ for non-union installations. Standoff mounting was found to increase costs from $1.63/W/sub p/ to $2.12/W/sub p/ for a representative case, whereas 25 kWh of battery storage capacity increased installation costs from $1.44/W/sub p/ to $2.08/W/sub p/. Overall system costs (union-based were $6000 to $7000 for a 4.1 kW array in the northeast, to approx. $9000 for a 6.07 kW/sub p/ array in the southwest. This range of installation costs, approx. $1 to $2/W/sub p/ (in 1980 dollars), is representative of current installation costs for residential PV systems. Any future cost reductions are likely to be small and can be accomplished only by optimization of mounting techniques, module efficiencies, and module reliability in toto.

  15. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH`s concentrator module. Final technical report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R.

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH`s Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  16. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade’s record of growth in the photovoltaic manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  17. US manufacturers of commercially available stand-alone photovoltaic lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, P

    1994-05-01

    This report introduces photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems, gives some specifications for ordering these systems, and provides a list of some of the manufacturers of these systems in the United States. These PV lighting systems are all commercially available. They are stand-alone systems because they are not tied to the electric utility power grid.

  18. A review of the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar array manufacturing industry costing standards model is designed to compare the cost of producing solar arrays using alternative manufacturing processes. Constructive criticism of the methodology used is intended to enhance its implementation as a practical design tool. Three main elements of the procedure include workbook format and presentation, theoretical model validity and standard financial parameters.

  19. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

  20. Practical aspects of photovoltaic technology, applications and cost (revised)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide the reader with the background, understanding, and computational tools needed to master the practical aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology, application, and cost. The focus is on stand-alone, silicon solar cell, flat-plate systems in the range of 1 to 25 kWh/day output. Technology topics covered include operation and performance of each of the major system components (e.g., modules, array, battery, regulators, controls, and instrumentation), safety, installation, operation and maintenance, and electrical loads. Application experience and trends are presented. Indices of electrical service performance - reliability, availability, and voltage control - are discussed, and the known service performance of central station electric grid, diesel-generator, and PV stand-alone systems are compared. PV system sizing methods are reviewed and compared, and a procedure for rapid sizing is described and illustrated by the use of several sample cases. The rapid sizing procedure yields an array and battery size that corresponds to a minimum cost system for a given load requirement, insulation condition, and desired level of service performance. PV system capital cost and levelized energy cost are derived as functions of service performance and insulation. Estimates of future trends in PV system costs are made.

  1. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  2. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  3. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  4. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into

  5. Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  6. Continuous roll-to-roll amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izu, M.; Ovshinsky, S. R.; Deng, X.; Krisko, A.; Ovshinsky, H. C.; Narasimhan, K. L.; Young, R.

    1994-06-01

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) has designed and constructed a 2 Megawatt (mW) manufacturing line that produces triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells in a continuous roll-to-roll process. This manufacturing line has reliably and consistently produced high efficiency solar cells. We have demonstrated the production of 4ft 2 triple-junction two band-gap a-Si alloy PV production modules with 8% stable aperture area efficiency. The production line has successfully incorporated: 1) a band-gap profiled a-Si-Ge narrow band-gap solar cell deposited in a continuous roll-to-roll process using a proprietary gas distribution manifold and cathode configuration; and 2) a textured Ag/ZnO back-reflector deposited in a continuous roll-to-roll sputtering machine with production subcell yields greater than 99%.

  7. Sensitivities of projected 1980 photovoltaic system costs to major system cost drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, L. W.; Smith, J. L.

    1984-12-01

    The sensitivity of projected 1990 photovoltaic (PV) system costs to major system cost drivers was examined. It includes: (1) module costs and module efficiencies; (2) area related balance of system (BOS) costs; (3) inverter costs and efficiencies; and (4) module marketing and distribution markups and system integration fees. Recent PV system cost experiences and the high costs of electricity from the systems are reviewed. The 1990 system costs are projected for five classes of PV systems, including four ground mounted 5-MWp systems and one residential 5-kWp system. System cost projections are derived by first projecting costs and efficiencies for all subsystems and components. Sensitivity analyses reveal that reductions in module cost and engineering and system integration fees seem to have the greatest potential for contributing to system cost reduction. Although module cost is clearly the prime candidate for fruitful PV research and development activities, engineering and system integration fees seem to be more amenable to reduction through appropriate choice of system size and market strategy. Increases in inverter and module efficiency yield significant benefits, especially for systems with high area related costs.

  8. Sensitivities of projected 1980 photovoltaic system costs to major system cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, L. W.; Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of projected 1990 photovoltaic (PV) system costs to major system cost drivers was examined. It includes: (1) module costs and module efficiencies; (2) area related balance of system (BOS) costs; (3) inverter costs and efficiencies; and (4) module marketing and distribution markups and system integration fees. Recent PV system cost experiences and the high costs of electricity from the systems are reviewed. The 1990 system costs are projected for five classes of PV systems, including four ground mounted 5-MWp systems and one residential 5-kWp system. System cost projections are derived by first projecting costs and efficiencies for all subsystems and components. Sensitivity analyses reveal that reductions in module cost and engineering and system integration fees seem to have the greatest potential for contributing to system cost reduction. Although module cost is clearly the prime candidate for fruitful PV research and development activities, engineering and system integration fees seem to be more amenable to reduction through appropriate choice of system size and market strategy. Increases in inverter and module efficiency yield significant benefits, especially for systems with high area related costs.

  9. Eco green flexible hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric solar cells with nanoimprint technology and roll-to-roll manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Choi, Sang H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the technical and commercial feasibility of nanotechnology based, high-efficiency, photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid solar cells as an environmentally-friendly, renewable energy source for residential and commercial buildings. To convert as much as possible of the usable photovoltaic (58% of the Energy Density) and thermoelectric (42% of the Energy Density) solar spectrum into electricity, a hybrid multilayer system is presented which comprises of 1) carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in conducting polymers such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3OT (poly3-octylthiophene), 2) 3D gold nanostructures exhibiting plasmonic resonances for energy conversion, 3) nanoantenna architecture to capture IR energy, 4) a composite of Bi2Te3, SiGe nanocrystals and Au nanoshells as thermoelectric energy conversion layer, 5) configuration of the above items engineered in the form of meta-material designs that by virtue of their 3D structures ensure that incident light is neither reflected nor transmitted, but is rather all absorbed, 6) a multilayer arrangement of the above layers in a fractal architecture to capture all the wavelengths from 200 to 3000 nm8 and the matching electronic interface for each layer. The roll-to-roll manufacturing method presented will enable economical large-scale production of solar panels. This potentially transformational technology has the ability to replace the Si solar cell technology by reducing costs from 0.18/KWh to 0.003/KWh while introducing a more environmentally-friendly manufacturing process.

  10. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  12. SAMICS: Input data preparation. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for estimating the price that a manufacturer would have to charge for the product of a specified manufacturing process sequence. A line-by-line explanation is given of those standard formats which describe the economically important characteristics of the manufacturing processes and the technological structure of the companies and the industry. This revision provides an updated presentation of Format A Process Description, consistent with the October 1978 version of that form. A checklist of items which should be entered on Format A as direct expenses is included.

  13. Manufacturing and Cost Considerations in Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design (Research on Mathematical Modeling of Manufacturability Factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1996-01-01

    The identification of airframe Manufacturability Factors/Cost Drivers (MFCD) and the method by which the relationships between MFCD and designer-controlled parameters could be properly modeled are described.

  14. Thick-film materials for silicon photovoltaic cell manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    Thick film technology is applicable to three areas of silicon solar cell fabrication; metallization, junction formation, and coating for protection of screened ohmic contacts, particularly wrap around contacts, interconnection and environmental protection. Both material and process parameters were investigated. Printed ohmic contacts on n- and p-type silicon are very sensitive to the processing parameters of firing time, temperature, and atmosphere. Wrap around contacts are easily achieved by first printing and firing a dielectric over the edge and subsequently applying a low firing temperature conductor. Interconnection of cells into arrays can be achieved by printing and cofiring thick film metal pastes, soldering, or with heat curing conductive epoxies on low cost substrates. Printed (thick) film vitreous protection coatings do not yet offer sufficient optical uniformity and transparency for use on silicon. A sprayed, heat curable SiO2 based resin shows promise of providing both optical matching and environmental protection.

  15. Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    ERTEN ESER

    2012-01-22

    The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

  16. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  17. Report of an exploratory study: safety and liability considerations for photovoltaic modules/panels, Low Cost Solar Array Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.S.; Meeker, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Product safety and product liability considerations are explored for photovoltaic module/array devices. A general review of photovoltaic literature was made using computerized literature searches. A literature search was also made of relevant legal material as it applies to design. Recommendations are made to minimize or eliminate perceived hazards in manufacture and use of a photovoltaic module/array. (MHR)

  18. Laser processing of organic photovoltaic cells with a roll-to-roll manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsch, Tino; Haenel, Jens; Clair, Maurice; Keiper, Bernd; Scholz, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Flexible large area organic photovoltaic (OPV) is currently one of the fastest developing areas of organic electronics. New light absorbing polymer blends combined with new transparent conductive materials provide higher power conversion efficiencies while new and improved production methods are developed to achieve higher throughput at reduced cost. A typical OPV is formed by TCO layers as the transparent front contact and polymers as active layer as well as interface layer between active layer and front contact. The several materials have to be patterned in order to allow for a row connection of the solar cell. 3D-Micromac used ultra-short pulsed lasers to evaluate the applicability of various wavelengths for the selective ablation of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and the selective ablation of the bulk hetero junction (BHJ) consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) on top of a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) without damaging the ITO. These lasers in combination with high performance galvanometer scanning systems achieve superior scribing quality without damaging the substrate. With scribing speeds of 10 m/s and up it is possible to integrate this technology into a roll-to-roll manufacturing tool. The functionality of an OPV usually also requires an annealing step, especially when using a BHJ for the active layer consisting of P3HT:PCBM, to optimize the layers structure and therewith the efficiency of the solar cell (typically by thermal treatment, e.g. oven). The process of laser annealing was investigated using a short-pulsed laser with a wavelength close to the absorption maximum of the BHJ.

  19. Cost-efficient manufacturing of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W. Tom; Davis, John G.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program is seeking research breakthroughs that will allow structures made of graphite epoxy materials to replace metals in the wings and fuselages of future aircrafts. NASA's goals are to reduce acquisition cost by 20 to 25 percent, structural weight for a resized aircraft by 40 to 50 percent, and the number of parts by half compared to current production aluminum aircraft. The innovative structural concepts, materials, and fabrication techniques emerging from the ACT program are described, and the relationship between aerospace developments and industrial, commercial, and sporting goods applications are discussed.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  1. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrates: Final technical report, July 5, 1995--December 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, F.

    2000-03-28

    Iowa Thin Film Technologies is completing a three-phase program that has increased throughput and decreased costs in nearly all aspects of its thin-film photovoltaic manufacturing process. The overall manufacturing costs have been reduced by 61 percent through implementation of the improvements developed under this program. Development of the ability to use a 1-mil substrate, rather than the standard 2-mil substrate, results in a 50 percent cost-saving for this material. Process development on a single-pass amorphous silicon deposition system has resulted in a 37 percent throughput improvement. A wide range of process and machine improvements have been implemented on the transparent conducting oxide deposition system. These include detailed parameter optimization of deposition temperatures, process gas flows, carrier gas flows, and web speeds. An overall process throughput improvement of 275 percent was achieved based on this work. The new alignment technique was developed for the laser scriber and printer systems, which improved registration accuracy from 100 microns to 10 microns. The new technique also reduced alignment time for these registration systems significantly. This resulted in a throughput increase of 75 percent on the scriber and 600 percent on the printer. Automated techniques were designed and implemented for the module assembly processes. These include automated busbar attachment, roll-based lamination, and automated die cutting of finished modules. These processes were previously done by hand labor. Throughput improvements ranged from 200 percent to 1200 percent, relative to hand labor rates. A wide range of potential encapsulation materials were evaluated for suitability in a roll lamination process and for cost-effectiveness. A combination material was found that has a cost that is only 10 percent of the standard EVA/Tefzel cost and is suitable for medium-lifetime applications. The 20-year lifetime applications still require the more expensive

  2. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

  3. Development of a High Volume Capable Process to Manufacture High Performance Photovoltaic Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-322

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basic PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.

  4. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-07-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  5. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  6. Continuous roll-to-roll amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 April 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work for this reporting period under a 3-year program to advance Energy Conversion Device`s (ECD) roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, to reduce the module production costs, to increase the stabilized module performance, and to expand commercial production capacity utilizing ECD technology. The specific 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1.00 per peak watt. Major accomplishments during this reporting period include (1) the design, construction. amd testomg of a continuous roll-to-roll multipurpose amorphous silicon alloy solar cell deposition machine that incorporates improvements necessary to obtain higher efficiency solar cells; (2) development of a photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) technique for evaluating back-reflector systems; (3) the development of an improved textured Ag/ZnO back-reflector system demonstrating 25% gain in J{sub sc} over previous textured Al back-reflector systems; and (4) the design of a serpentine web continuous roll-to-roll deposition chamber.

  7. Reducing the Manufacturing Cost of Tubular SOFC Technology

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.A.; Bessette, N.F.

    1997-12-31

    In recent years, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has made great strides in advancing tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology towards commercialization by the year 2001. In 1993, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a `MWe Class` (1-3 MWe) pressurized SOFC (PSOFC) gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power system for distributed power applications because of its: (1) ultra high efficiency (approx. 63% net AC/LHV CH{sub 4}), (2) its compatibility with a factory packaged, minimum site work philosophy, and (3) its cost effectiveness. Since then two cost studies on this market entry product performed by consultants to the U.S. Department of Energy have confirmed Westinghouse cost studies that fully installed costs of under $1300/kWe can be achieved in the early commercialization years for such small PSOFC/GT power systems. The paper will present the results of these cost studies in the areas of cell manufacturing cost, PSOFC generator manufacturing cost, balance-of-plant (BOP) cost, and system installation cost. In addition, cost of electricity calculations will be presented.

  8. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.; Gordon, B. A.; Knasel, T. M.; Malinowski, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  9. Letting the Sun Shine on Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Cappers, P.; Margolis, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) cost trends in California, which is by far the largest PV market in the United States. The findings of this work may help stakeholders to understand important trends in the California PV market, and policymakers to design more effective solar incentive programs--a particularly important objective given the recent announcement from the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) to establish an 11-year, $3.2 billion incentive program for customer-sited solar. The study statistically analyzes the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems funded by the state's two largest solar rebate programs, overseen by the California Energy Commission (CEC) [operating since 1998] and the CPUC [operating since 2001].

  10. Manufacturing costs, equipment needs and technological opportunities among small and medium-size manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, F. W.

    1984-05-01

    During a series of 54 performance evaluation interviews conducted during March and April, 1984, 15 plant representatives were chosen for a further confidential interview about their plants' overall manufacturing costs, their equipment needs, and the opportunities they envision for research, development, and technology transfer. Manufacturers' response are summarized to a series of questions designed to elicit useful information about: the factors that contribute most to their plants' manufacturing costs; the manufacturers' preferred approaches to increasing their plants' profitability; perceived management needs for new equipment, its availability, and barriers to purchasing it; plant management's attitude toward the potential for research and development (R and D) to improve product quality; and the same persons' estimates of whether the R and D will be done within five years (if needed) and by whom. In addition to summarizing that information, an analysis of the patterns which these responses reveal and observations about the priorities which they indicate are described.

  11. Toxicology of tetramethyltin and other organometals used in photovoltaic cell manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, L. D.; Medeiros, W. H.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Rybicka, K.

    1988-07-01

    In photovoltaic cell fabrication, organometals (alkyl metals) may be used in such processes as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, transparent contact oxide deposition, doping, and ion implantation. Although these compounds offer potential performance advantages over earth metals and possibly greater safety in handling than metal hydrides, they are not without risk to health and property. Most organometals can ignite spontaneously in air. Some also react violently with water. Oxidation by-products from these reactions are hazardous to health. Of the organometals used in photovoltaic cell fabrication, only the toxicology of organotins (triethyl-, trimethyl- and tetramethyltin) was studied extensively. In mammalian systems, tetramethyltin is rapidly dealkylated to trimethyltin. Although tin was classified by some investigators as an essential trace element, the effects of organotin compounds on humans are poorly known. Animal studies show that the most prominent effects of trimethyltin are on the central nervous system. Several observations of poisoning were reported; effects ranged from reversible neurologic disorders to death. Limited available data suggest that humans respond to single acute doses and more alarmingly to repeated sub-toxic doses, suggesting a cumulative effect. Toxicologic properties of diethyltelluride also were evaluated in animal experiments. The compound had toxic effects on the blood, liver, kidney, heart, and skin. Based on these studies and others of related compounds (e.g., methylmercury, tributyltin) extreme caution should be exercised in using organometal compounds in photovoltaic cell manufacturing.

  12. Study of locally manufactured motor vehicle batteries in stand alone home photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.

    1999-07-01

    Analysis of voltage, current, specific gravity, and temperature was performed on locally manufactured lead acid batteries operating in stand alone home photovoltaic (SAHPV) systems in the Dominican Republic. While voltage, charge/discharge current, and specific gravity of most batteries were within reasonable limits, there were indications of batteries spending an excessive time discharged and some incidents of overcharge. During charging above 1 amp, ambient temperatures were 6 to 13 C above the optimal operating temperature (25 C) and battery temperatures were 9 to 20 C above 25 C. Examination of worn out batteries from these SAHPV systems revealed that the majority had deteriorated positive plates and/or sulfation, while a smaller number showed signs of spalling. High temperature was determined to be a significant factor contributing to the premature failure of locally manufactured lead acid batteries operating in these systems.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of conservation upgrades in manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Conner, C.C.; Englin, J.E.; Hadley, D.L.; Lucas, R.G.; Miller, N.E.; Monroe, W.H.

    1988-09-01

    This study addresses the costs of upgrading the efficiency of electrically heated manufactured homes in the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) service territory. It was prepared by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Bonneville under a Related Services Agreement with the US Department of Energy, Contract AC06-76RLO1830. Manufactured homes (commonly called mobile homes) represent a significant lost conservation resource in the region. Manufactured homes are required to meet national energy standards that do not reflect the recent increases in energy prices, and the preemptive nature of the national standards prevents local jurisdictions from establishing stricter requirements. Bonneville has undertaken several programs to analyze the efficiency of manufactured homes and encourage the industry to produce more efficient homes and consumers to increase their demand for efficient units. This study constitutes one portion of Bonneville's overall strategy. 45 refs.

  14. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. )

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  15. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Adam

    2013-08-30

    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the

  16. Non-Epitaxial Thin-Film Indium Phosphide Photovoltaics: Growth, Devices, and Cost Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Maxwell S.

    In recent years, the photovoltaic market has grown significantly as module prices have continued to come down. Continued growth of the field requires higher efficiency modules at lower manufacturing costs. In particular, higher efficiencies reduce the area needed for a given power output, thus reducing the downstream balance of systems costs that scale with area such as mounting frames, installation, and soft costs. Cells and modules made from III-V materials have the highest demonstrated efficiencies to date but are not yet at the cost level of other thin film technologies, which has limited their large-scale deployment. There is a need for new materials growth, processing and fabrication techniques to address this major shortcoming of III-V semiconductors. Chapters 2 and 3 explore growth of InP on non-epitaxial Mo substrates by MOCVD and CSS, respectively. The results from these studies demonstrate that InP optoelectronic quality is maintained even by growth on non-epitaxial metal substrates. Structural characterization by SEM and XRD show stoichiometric InP can be grown in complete thin films on Mo. Photoluminescence measurements show peak energies and widths to be similar to those of reference wafers of similar doping concentrations. In chapter 4 the TF-VLS growth technique is introduced and cells fabricated from InP produced by this technique are characterized. The TF-VLS method results in lateral grain sizes of >500 mum and exhibits superior optoelectronic quality. First generation devices using a n-TiO2 window layer along with p-type TF-VLS grown InP have reached ˜12.1% power conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination with VOC of 692 mV, JSC of 26.9 mA/cm2, and FF of 65%. The cells are fabricated using all non-epitaxial processing. Optical measurements show the InP in these cells have the potential to support a higher VOC of ˜795 mV, which can be achieved by improved device design. Chapter 5 describes a cost analysis of a manufacturing process using an

  17. LCP- LIFETIME COST AND PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) Model was developed to assist in the assessment of Photovoltaic (PV) system design options. LCP is a simulation of the performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. LCP provides the user with substantial flexibility in specifying the technical and economic environment of the PV application. User-specified input parameters are available to describe PV system characteristics, site climatic conditions, utility purchase and sellback rate structures, discount and escalation rates, construction timing, and lifetime of the system. Such details as PV array orientation and tilt angle, PV module and balance-of-system performance attributes, and the mode of utility interconnection are user-specified. LCP assumes that the distributed PV system is utility grid interactive without dedicated electrical storage. In combination with a suitable economic model, LCP can provide an estimate of the expected net present worth of a PV system to the owner, as compared to electricity purchased from a utility grid. Similarly, LCP might be used to perform sensitivity analyses to identify those PV system parameters having significant impact on net worth. The user describes the PV system configuration to LCP via the basic electrical components. The module is the smallest entity in the PV system which is modeled. A PV module is defined in the simulation by its short circuit current, which varies over the system lifetime due to degradation and failure. Modules are wired in series to form a branch circuit. Bypass diodes are allowed between modules in the branch circuits. Branch circuits are then connected in parallel to form a bus. A collection of buses is connected in parallel to form an increment to capacity of the system. By choosing the appropriate series-parallel wiring design, the user can specify the current, voltage, and reliability characteristics of the system. LCP simulation of system performance is site

  18. Cost Estimation in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand, Yousef; Köhler, Peter; Korff-Krumm, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing the price of products must be defined during early stages of product design and during the bidding process, thus an overestimation of product development (PD) costs may lead to the loss of orders and an underestimation causes a profit loss. What many ETO systems have in common is that the products have to be developed based on different customer requirements so that each order usually results in a new variant. Furthermore, many customer requirement change-requests may arise in different phases of the PD, which is to be considered properly. Thus it is utmost important for ETO systems to have an accurate cost estimation in first stages of the product design and to be able to determine the cost of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD. This paper aims to present a cost estimation methodology as well as a cost estimation model, which estimate the cost of products by relative comparison of the attributes of new product variants with the attributes of standard product variants. In addition, as a necessity in ETO manufacturing, the cost calculation of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD is integrated in the presented method.

  19. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J

    1997-01-01

    Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

  20. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  1. Cost-effective flat-plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Work in optical trapping in thick films is extended to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. Details of the methods, techniques, and considerations that are used in the definition and analysis of light trapping photovoltaic panels are provided. Assumptions, sources of data, optical and cost modeling methods and the techniques used in the analysis are included. The ways to use light trapping are discussed, and methods are described to use simplified design and costing equations to predict performance and cost benefits. Four significant ways to use the findings presented are: a minimum design change module; an optimum packing factor module concept; roof or wall integrated panels; and modules using light trapping from cell grids. Finally, a design guide is included which shows how to construct photovoltaic modules to exploit light trapping. It is claimed that up to 20% improvements in standard module performance can be expected. (LEW)

  2. Method of Manufacturing a Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark David (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes depositing a first conductive medium within a plurality of channels of a base to form a plurality of first conductors; depositing within the plurality of channels a plurality of semiconductor substrate particles suspended in a carrier medium; forming an ohmic contact between each semiconductor substrate particle and a first conductor; converting the semiconductor substrate particles into a plurality of semiconductor diodes; depositing a second conductive medium to form a plurality of second conductors coupled to the plurality of semiconductor diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of lenses suspended in a first polymer over the plurality of diodes. In various embodiments, the depositing, forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  3. Method of manufacturing a light emitting, photovoltaic or other electronic apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes depositing a first conductive medium within a plurality of channels of a base to form a plurality of first conductors; depositing within the plurality of channels a plurality of semiconductor substrate particles suspended in a carrier medium; forming an ohmic contact between each semiconductor substrate particle and a first conductor; converting the semiconductor substrate particles into a plurality of semiconductor diodes; depositing a second conductive medium to form a plurality of second conductors coupled to the plurality of semiconductor diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of lenses suspended in a first polymer over the plurality of diodes. In various embodiments, the depositing, forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  4. Method of Manufacturing a Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes forming at least one first conductor coupled to a base; coupling a plurality of substantially spherical substrate particles to the at least one first conductor; converting the substrate particles into a plurality of substantially spherical diodes; forming at least one second conductor coupled to the substantially spherical diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of substantially spherical lenses suspended in a first polymer. The lenses and the suspending polymer have different indices of refraction. In some embodiments, the lenses and diodes have a ratio of mean diameters or lengths between about 10:1 and 2:1. In various embodiments, the forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  5. Method of Manufacturing a Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device having light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating device having photovoltaic diodes. The exemplary method includes forming at least one first conductor coupled to a base; coupling a plurality of substrate particles to the at least one first conductor; converting the plurality of substrate particles into a plurality of diodes; forming at least one second conductor coupled to the plurality of spherical diodes; and depositing or attaching a plurality of substantially spherical lenses suspended in a first polymer, with the lenses and the suspending polymer having different indices of refraction. In some embodiments, the lenses and diodes have a ratio of mean diameters or lengths between about 10:1 and 2:1. In various embodiments, the forming, coupling and converting steps are performed by or through a printing process.

  6. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT). Annual subcontract report, March 31, 1994--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Holley, W A

    1996-01-01

    This report describes work performed under a subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project. The objectives of this subcontract are to (1) define the problem of yellowing/browning of EVA-based encapsulants; (2) determine probable mechanisms and the role of various parameters such as heat, UV exposure, module construction, EVA interfaces, and EVA thickness, in the browning of EVA-based encapsulants; (3) develop stabilization strategies for various module constructions to protect the encapsulant from degradative failure; (4) conduct laboratory, accelerated outdoor, and field testing of encapsulant, laminated test coupons, and full modules to demonstrate the functional adequacy of the stabilization strategies; and (5) implement these strategies. This report summarizes the accomplishments related to the above goals for the reporting period.

  7. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  8. Low-Cost Manufacturing of High- Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    1998-01-01

    Major goals of NASA and the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative include improvements in the affordability of propulsion systems, significant increases in the thrust/weight ratio, and increases in the temperature capability of components of gas turbine engines. Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's HITEMP project worked cooperatively with Allison Advanced Development Corporation to develop a manufacturing method to produce low-cost components for gas turbine engines. Affordability for these polymer composites is defined by the savings in acquisition and life-cycle costs associated with engine weight reduction. To lower engine component costs, the Lewis/Allison team focused on chopped graphite fiber/polyimide resin composites. The high-temperature polyimide resin chosen, PMR-II-50, was developed at NASA Lewis.

  9. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Graetzel, M.

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  10. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  11. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  12. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  13. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  14. Photovoltaic device with increased light absorption and method for its manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Glatfelter, Troy; Vogeli, Craig; Call, Jon; Hammond, Ginger

    1993-07-20

    A photovoltaic cell having a light-directing optical element integrally formed in an encapsulant layer thereof. The optical element redirects light to increase the internal absorption of light incident on the photovoltaic device.

  15. Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baylon, David

    1990-05-17

    In 1988 and 1989, 150 manufactured homes were built to comply with Super Good Cents (SGC) specifications adapted from the existing specifications for site-built homes under the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP). Engineering calculations and computer simulations were used to estimate the effects of the SGC specifications on the thermal performance of the homes. These results were compared with consumer costs to establish the cost-effectiveness of individual measures. Heat loss U-factors for windows, walls, floors and ceilings were established using the standard ASHRAE parallel heat flow method. Adjustments resulted in higher U-factors for ceilings and floors than assumed at the time the homes were approved as meeting the SGC specifications. Except for those homes which included heat pumps, most of the homes did not meet the SGC compliance standards. Nonetheless these homes achieved substantial reductions in overall heat loss rate (UA) compared to UAs estimated for the same homes using the standard insulation packages provided by the manufacturers in the absence of the RCDP program. Homes with conventional electric furnaces showed a 35% reduction in total UA while homes with heat pumps had a 25% reduction. A regression analysis showed no significant relationship between climate zone, manufacturer and UA. A modified version of SUNDAY building simulation program which simulates duct and heat pump performance was used to model the thermal performance of each RCDP home as built and the same home as it would have been built without SGC specifications (base case). Standard assumptions were used for thermostat setpoint, thermal mass, internal gains and infiltration rates. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual technical progress report, 1 April 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M.

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work performed by ECD to advance its roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic manufacturing technologies; to reduce the module production costs; to increase the stabilized module performance; and to expand the commercial capacity utilizing ECD technology. The 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1/W{sub p}. Major efforts during Phase I are (1) the optimization of the high-performance back-reflector system, (2) the optimization of a-Si-Ge narrow band-gap solar cell, and (3) the optimization of the stable efficiency of the module. The goal is to achieve a stable 8% efficient 0.3-m {times} 1.2-m (1-ft {times} 4-ft) module. Also, the efforts include work on a proprietary, high-deposition-rate, microwave plasma, CVD manufacturing technology; and on the investigation of material cost reduction.

  17. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, F. )

    1991-12-01

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  18. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this three-year program is to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Two specific objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. To achieve these objectives, Solarex is working in the following technical areas: casting, wire saws, cell process, module assembly, frameless module development, and automated cell handling. Accomplishments reported include: Cast first successful larger ingot producing 73% larger volume of usable Si; Increased the size of the ingot even further and cast an ingot yielding nine 11.4 {times} 11.4 cm bricks, representing a 125% increase in usable Si from a single casting; Operated the wire-saw in a semi-operational mode, producing 459,000 wafers at 94.1% overall yield; Reduced the cost of wire-saw consumables, spare parts, and waste disposal; Developed a cost-effective back surface field process that increases cell efficiency by 5% and began production trials; Developed a plan for increasing the capacity in the module assembly area; Completed qualification testing of modules built using Spire`s automated tabbing and stringing machine; Selected, tested, and qualified a low-cost electrical termination system; Completed long-term UV testing of experimental back sheets; Qualified the structure and adhesive-tape system for mounting frameless modules; and ARRI completed a study of the fracture properties of cast polycrystalline Si wafers and provided the information necessary to calculate the maximum stresses allowable during wafer handling.

  19. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Annual subcontractor report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes work done under a 3-year program to advance ECD`s roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, to reduce the module production costs, to increase the stabilized module performance, and to expand commercial capacity utilizing ECD technology. The specific 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1.00 per peak watt. Accomplishments during Phase 1 included: (1) ECD successfully incorporated a high-performance Ag/metal-oxide back-reflector system into its continuous roll-to-roll commercial production operation. (2) High-quality a-Si-Ge narrow-band-gap solar cells were incorporated into the manufacturing. (3) ECD demonstrated the continuous roll-to-roll production of high-efficiency, triple-junction, two-band-gap solar cells consistently and uniformly throughout a 762-m (2500-ft) run with high yield. (4) ECD achieved 11.1% initial sub-cell efficiency of triple-junction, two-band-gap a-Si alloy solar cells in the production line. (5) The world`s first 0.37-m{sup 2} (4-ft{sup 2}) PV modules were produced utilizing triple-junction spectrum-splitting solar cells manufactured in the production line. (6) As a result of process optimization to reduce the layer thickness and to improve the gas utilization, ECD achieved a 77% material cost reduction for germane and 58% reduction for disilane. Additionally, ECD developed a new low-cost module that saves approximately 30% in assembly material costs.

  20. Ultrashort-pulsed laser processing and solution based coating in roll-to-roll manufacturing of organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hördemann, C.; Hirschfelder, K.; Schaefer, M.; Gillner, A.

    2015-09-01

    The breakthrough of flexible organic electronics and especially organic photovoltaics is highly dependent on cost-efficient production technologies. Roll-2-Roll processes show potential for a promising solution in terms of high throughput and low-cost production of thin film organic components. Solution based material deposition and integrated laser patterning processes offer new possibilities for versatile production lines. The use of flexible polymeric substrates brings along challenges in laser patterning which have to be overcome. One main challenge when patterning transparent conductive layers on polymeric substrates are material bulges at the edges of the ablated area. Bulges can lead to short circuits in the layer system leading to device failure. Therefore following layers have to have a sufficient thickness to cover and smooth the ridge. In order to minimize the bulging height, a study has been carried out on transparent conductive ITO layers on flexible PET substrates. Ablation results using different beam shapes, such as Gaussian beam, Top-Hat beam and Donut-shaped beam, as well as multi-pass scribing and double-pulsed ablation are compared. Furthermore, lab scale methods for cleaning the patterned layer and eliminating bulges are contrasted to the use of additional water based sacrificial layers in order to obtain an alternative procedure suitable for large scale Roll-2-Roll manufacturing. Besides progress in research, ongoing transfer of laser processes into a Roll-2-Roll demonstrator is illustrated. By using fixed optical elements in combination with a galvanometric scanner, scribing, variable patterning and edge deletion can be performed individually.

  1. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  2. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell and module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 December 1993--30 November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-y contract to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance, and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Specific objectives are to reduce manufacturing cost for polycrstalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/W and to increase manufacturing capacity by a factor of 3. Solarex is working on casting, wire saws, cell process, module assembly, frameless module development, and automated cell handling.

  3. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this three-year program is to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Two specific objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three.

  4. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 2A. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 May 1993--31 October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, G.; Mackamul, K.; Metcalf, D.; Volltrauer, H.

    1994-04-01

    Utility Power Group (UPG) and its lower-tier subcontractor, Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS), continued work to develop their manufacturing lines. UPG focused on the automation of encapsulation and termination processes developed in Phase 1. APS focused on completion of the encapsulation and module design tasks while continuing process quality control, and automation projects. The goal is to produce 55-W (stabilized) EP50 modules in a new facility.

  5. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  6. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  7. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  8. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2001-10-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

  10. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2002-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

  11. Design and manufacture of a low cost educational hexapod rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candini, Gian Paolo; Paolini, Emanuele; Piergentili, Fabrizio

    2009-08-01

    The paper deals with the design and realization of a hexapod rover prototype completely manufactured by students and researchers of the Space Robotics Group of the II Faculty of Engineering of the University of Bologna "ALMA MATER". The rover project has been developed for didactical purposes, with the aim of involving students in practical, hands-on education, pushing them to face real problems and to put in practice what they have learnt in theory during regular courses. The work done is described in the paper, highlighting its potential to test different solutions in autonomous navigation systems: low-cost sensors, innovative algorithms and different step procedures. Moreover, the mechanical and electronic solutions adopted for leg design, main controller, and remote control are discussed and depicted in the paper.

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  14. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  17. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  18. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  19. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  20. Low-cost mirror substrates: manufacturing process evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosala, Francois; Meyer, Michele; Bes de Berc, Jean-Sebastien; Roussel, Andre; Beriot, Emmanuel

    1997-12-01

    In the framework of the Megajoule Laser project driven by the French Atomic Energy Board, one of the most valuable optical programs in term of material volume as well as in term of component size, the actual glasses and production means appear to be inconsistent with the economical objectives. Corning proposed an alternative, based on the use of a low cost glass, together with an evolution of the production process. Combining its experience in quality optical glasses manufacturing and its mastery of forming processes, Corning conducted a production cost reduction program; the objective of this program was to validate the concept of large slab melting (about 2000 kg each), where blocks are cut off, versus the conventional single block (about 100 kg) melting. Economical improvements are based on a reduction of lost time (mold change) and production lead- time by increasing the feeding yield, on a better glass utilization, and a reduced number of molds. The technical issues were: increase the feeding yield maintaining a given glass quality level, reduce the glass allowance, improve the materials of the molds, reinforce the thermal process control, automatism of critical operations, especially at the start-up and at the end of the mold feeding. Despite the long production cycle, about 3 months including melting and annealing, the first results carry the technological options set-up.

  1. Low-cost mirror substrates: manufacturing process evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosala, Francois; Meyer, Michele; Bes de Berc, Jean-Sebastien; Roussel, Andre; Beriot, Emmanuel

    1996-08-01

    In the framework of the megajoule laser project driven by the french atomic energy board, one of the most valuable optical programs in terms of material volume as well as in terms of component size, the actual glasses and production means appear to be inconsistent with the economical objectives. Corning proposed an alternative, based on the use of a low cost glass, together with an evolution of the production process. Combining its experience in quality optical glasses manufacturing and its mastery of forming processes, Corning conducted a production cost reduction program; the objective of this program was to validate the concept of large slab melting, where blocks are cut off, versus the conventional single block melting. Economical improvements are based on a reduction of lost time and production lead-time by increasing the feeding yield, on a better glass utilization, and a reduced number of molds. The technical issues were: increase the feeding yield maintaining a given glass quality level, reduce the glass allowance, improve the materials of the molds, reinforce the thermal process control, automatism of critical operations, especially at the start-up and at the end of the mold feeding.

  2. Advanced photovoltaic concentrator system low-cost prototype module

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.R.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. )

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the continued development of an extruded lens and the development of a PV receiver, both of which will be used in the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation (SEA) 10X concentrator. These efforts were pare of a pre-Concentrator Initiative Program. The 10X concentrator consists of an inexpensive, extruded linear Fresnel lens which focuses on one-sun cells which are adhesive-bonded to an anodized aluminum heat sink. Module sides are planned to be molded along with the lens and are internally reflective for improved on- and off-track performance. End caps with molded-in bearings complete the module. Ten modules are mounted in a stationary frame for simple, single-axis tracking in the east-west direction. This configuration an array, is shipped completely assembled and requires only setting on a reasonably flat surface, installing 4 fasteners, and hooking up the wires. Development of the 10-inch wide extruded lens involved one new extrusion die and a series of modifications to this die. Over 76% lens transmission was measured which surpassed the program goal of 75%. One-foot long receiver sections were assembled and subjected to evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories. A first group had some problem with cell delamination and voids but a second group performed very well, indicating that a full size receiver would pass the full qualification test. Cost information was updated and presented in the report. The cost study indicated that the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation concentrator system can exceed the DOE electricity cost goals of less than 6cents per KW-hr. 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Low cost high power GaSB photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Huang, Han X.; Ye, Shi-Zhong; Hui, She; Avery, James; Ballantyne, Russell

    1997-03-01

    High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a thermophotovoltaics (TPV) system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein, we project that GaSb cells generating 2 Watts each can be made in 1 MW quantities at 4 per cell. This will allow TPV circuits to be made at 2 per Watt. At this cost, the off-grid cogeneration and self-powered furnace markets will be viable.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  5. Low Cost Manufacturing Approach of High Temperature PMC Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannmacher, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop a satisfactory sheet molding compound (SMC) of a high temperature polyimide, such as PMR-11-50, VCAP-75, or NB2-76, and to develop compression molding processing parameters for a random, chopped fiber, high temperature, sheet molding compound that will be more affordable than the traditional hand lay-up fabrication methods. Compression molding will reduce manufacturing costs of composites by: (1) minimizing the conventional machining required after fabrication due to the use of full 360 deg matched tooling, (2) reducing fabrication time by minimizing the intensive hand lay-up operations associated with individual ply fabrication techniques, such as ply orientation and ply count and (3) possibly reducing component mold time by advanced B-staging prior to molding. This program is an integral part of Allison's T406/AE engine family's growth plan, which will utilize technologies developed under NASA's Sub-sonic Transport (AST) programs, UHPTET initiatives, and internally through Allison's IR&D projects. Allison is aggressively pursuing this next generation of engines, with both commercial and military applications, by reducing the overall weight of the engine through the incorporation of advanced, lightweight, high temperature materials, such as polymer matrix composites. This infusion of new materials into the engine is also a major factor in reducing engine cost because it permits the use of physically smaller structural components to achieve the same thrust levels as the generation that it replaced. A lighter, more efficient propulsion system translates to a substantial cost and weight savings to an airframe's structure.

  6. A Composite Engine Thrust Frame Cone, Made With Novel Cost-Effective Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, T. J.; Brodsjo, A.; Kremers, M.; Cruijssen, H.; van der Bas, F.; Spanjer, D.; Groenendijk, C.

    2012-07-01

    High specific stiffness and strength of composites make them obvious materials for space structures. This is especially true for the 2nd stage in launchers. The manufacturing cost, however, is still high because of material cost and intensive use of manual labour. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the manufacturing cost of a composite engine thrust frame cone, through automated tape laying, the realisation of a tapelaying facility and the manufacturing of a technology demonstrator.

  7. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: residential photovoltaics- the New England experience builds confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station- evaluating the breakeven costs; residential photovoltaics- the lessons learned; photovoltaics for electric utility use; least-cost planning- the environmental link; photovoltaics in the distribution system; photovoltaic systems for the rural consumer; the issues of utility-intertied photovoltaics; and photovoltaics for large-scale use- costs ready to drop again.

  8. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  9. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective of the study reported was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given: a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel/motel; remote residence; and single residence. (LEW)

  10. Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

    2012-07-09

    The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

  11. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given is a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel-motel; remote residence; and single residence.

  12. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  13. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  15. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  16. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nichiolas William; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Keffer, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for

  17. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  18. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.1 Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost...

  19. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  20. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  1. A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A.

    2010-01-15

    This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

  2. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with Solar Advisor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. SAM allows users to do complex system modeling with an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). In fact, all tables and graphics for this paper are taken directly from the model GUI. This model has the capability to compare different solar technologies within the same interface, making use of similar cost and finance assumptions. Additionally, the ability to do parametric and sensitivity analysis is central to this model. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  3. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology - Phase 2A. Annual subcontract report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, G.; Mackamul, K.; Metcalf, D.

    1995-01-01

    Utility Power Group (UPG), and its lower-tier subcontractor, Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) have conducted efforts in developing their manufacturing lines. UPG has focused on the automation of encapsulation and termination processes developed in Phase I. APS has focused on completion of the encapsulation and module design tasks, while continuing the process and quality control and automation projects. The goal is to produce 55 watt (stabilized) EP50 modules in a new facility. In the APS Trenton EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Developed high throughput lamination procedures; (2) Optimized existing module designs; (3) Developed new module designs for architectural applications; (4) Developed enhanced deposition parameter control; (5) Designed equipment required to manufacture new EUREKA modules developed during Phase II; (6) Improved uniformity of thin-film materials deposition; and (7) Improved the stabilized power output of the APS EP50 EUREKA module to 55 watts. In the APS Fairfield EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Introduced the new products developed under Phase I into the APS Fairfield EUREKA module production line; (2) Increased the extent of automation in the production line; (3) Introduced Statistical Process Control to the module production line; and (4) Transferred-progress made in the APS Trenton facility into the APS Fairfield facility.

  4. Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-01-14

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  5. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G.

    2011-11-01

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  6. Methods for improving the lifetime performance of organic photovoltaics with low-costing encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Myrsini; Drakonakis, Vasileios M; Savva, Achilleas; Eleftheriou, Polyvios; Florides, Georgios; Choulis, Stelios A

    2015-04-27

    Recent years have seen considerable advances in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), most notably a significant increase in their efficiency, from around 4 % to over 10 %. The stability of these devices, however, continues to remain an issue that needs to be resolved to enable their commercialization. This review discusses the main degradation processes of OPVs and recent methods that help to increase device stability and lifetime. One of the most effective steps that can be taken to increase the lifetime of OPVs is their encapsulation, which protects them from atmospheric degradation. Efficient encapsulation is essential for long-term device performance, but it is equally important for the commercialization of OPVs to strike a balance between achieving the maximum device protection possible and using low-cost processing for their encapsulation. Various encapsulation techniques are discussed herein, with emphasis on their cost effectiveness and their overall suitability for commercial applications.

  7. Evaluation available encapsulation materials for low-cost long-life silicon photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, D. C.; Gaines, G. B.; Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Nance, G. P.; Bunk, A. R.; Brockway, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of selected encapsulation designs and materials based on an earlier study which have potential for use in low cost, long-life photovoltaic arrays are reported. The performance of candidate materials and encapsulated cells were evaluated principally for three types of encapsulation designs based on their potentially low materials and processing costs: (1) polymeric coatings, transparent conformal coatings over the cell with a structural-support substrate; (2) polymeric film lamination, cells laminated between two films or sheets of polymeric materials; and (3) glass-covered systems, cells adhesively bonded to a glass cover (superstrate) with a polymeric pottant and a glass or other substrate material. Several other design types, including those utilizing polymer sheet and pottant materials, were also included in the investigation.

  8. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  9. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  10. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  11. Cost-effective applications of photovoltaics for electric utilities: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bigger, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Cost targets for the large-scale entry of photovoltaic (PV) systems keep moving, subject to the vagaries of global oil prices and the economic health of the world. Over the last four decades since a practical PV device was announced, costs have come down by a factor of 20 or more and this downward trend is expected to continue, albeit at a slower pace. Simultaneously, conversion efficiencies have nearly tripled. There are many applications today for which PV is cost-effective. In recognition of this, utility interest in PV is increasing and this is manifested by projects such as PVUSA and Central and South West`s renewable resource development effort. While no major technical barriers for the entry of PV systems have been uncovered, several key issues such as power quality, system reliability, ramp rates, spinning reserve requirements, and misoperation of protection schemes will have to be dealt with as the penetration of this technology increases. PV is still in the evolutionary phase and is expected to grow for several decades to come. Fueled by environmental considerations, interest in PV is showing a healthy rise both in the minds of the public and in the planning realms of the electric power community. In recognition of this, the Energy Development Subcommittee of the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation Committee organized a Panel Session on photovoltaics applications at the 1993 International Joint Power Generation Conference held in Kansas City, Missouri. Summaries of the four presentations are assembled here for the benefit of the readers of this Review.

  12. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  13. Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiyong; Razavi, Haleh; Do, Jae-won; Moriwaki, Aimee; Ergen, Onur; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Leu, Paul W; Ho, Johnny C; Takahashi, Toshitake; Reichertz, Lothar A; Neale, Steven; Yu, Kyoungsik; Wu, Ming; Ager, Joel W; Javey, Ali

    2009-08-01

    Solar energy represents one of the most abundant and yet least harvested sources of renewable energy. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in developing photovoltaics that can be potentially mass deployed. Of particular interest to cost-effective solar cells is to use novel device structures and materials processing for enabling acceptable efficiencies. In this regard, here, we report the direct growth of highly regular, single-crystalline nanopillar arrays of optically active semiconductors on aluminium substrates that are then configured as solar-cell modules. As an example, we demonstrate a photovoltaic structure that incorporates three-dimensional, single-crystalline n-CdS nanopillars, embedded in polycrystalline thin films of p-CdTe, to enable high absorption of light and efficient collection of the carriers. Through experiments and modelling, we demonstrate the potency of this approach for enabling highly versatile solar modules on both rigid and flexible substrates with enhanced carrier collection efficiency arising from the geometric configuration of the nanopillars. PMID:19578336

  14. Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhiyong; Razavi, Haleh; Do, Jae-Won; Moriwaki, Aimee; Ergen, Onur; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Leu, Paul W.; Ho, Johnny C.; Takahashi, Toshitake; Reichertz, Lothar A.; Neale, Steven; Yu, Kyoungsik; Wu, Ming; Ager, Joel W.; Javey, Ali

    2009-08-01

    Solar energy represents one of the most abundant and yet least harvested sources of renewable energy. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in developing photovoltaics that can be potentially mass deployed. Of particular interest to cost-effective solar cells is to use novel device structures and materials processing for enabling acceptable efficiencies. In this regard, here, we report the direct growth of highly regular, single-crystalline nanopillar arrays of optically active semiconductors on aluminium substrates that are then configured as solar-cell modules. As an example, we demonstrate a photovoltaic structure that incorporates three-dimensional, single-crystalline n-CdS nanopillars, embedded in polycrystalline thin films of p-CdTe, to enable high absorption of light and efficient collection of the carriers. Through experiments and modelling, we demonstrate the potency of this approach for enabling highly versatile solar modules on both rigid and flexible substrates with enhanced carrier collection efficiency arising from the geometric configuration of the nanopillars.

  15. A photovoltaic industry overview - The results of a survey on photovoltaic technology industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Shimada, K.

    1981-01-01

    The National Photovoltaics Program of the United States Department of Energy has the objective of bringing photovoltaic power systems to a point where they can supply a significant portion of the United States energy requirements by the year 2000. This is planned to be accomplished through substantial research and technology development activities aimed at achieving major cost reductions and market penetration. This paper presents information derived from a limited survey performed to obtain photovoltaic industry attitudes concerning industrialization, and to determine current industry plans to meet the DOE program goals. Silicon material production, a key photovoltaic manufacturing industry, is highlighted with regards to implementation of technology improvement and silicon material supply outlook.

  16. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  17. Manufacturing costs for planar solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krist, K.; Wright, J.D.; Romero, C.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the authors calculate how much one can afford to pay for a fuel cell, and set quantitative performance and cost targets that if met, will result in SOFC technology where the performance is high enough and the cost is low enough to generate commercial interest. To do this, the authors first calculate how much one can afford to pay for a fuel cell stack in two important applications: small scale cogeneration (200 kW{sub e}) and large scale power generation (50 MW{sub e}). They then compare the cost of the materials needed to fabricate the fuel cell with the allowable cost. Finally, they use a mathematical model of fuel cell performance to quantify some of the improvements that will be needed if planar fuel cells are to operate efficiently at 800 C or below.

  18. Design and modeling of a cost-effective achromatic Fresnel lens for concentrating photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Vallerotto, Guido; Victoria, Marta; Askins, Stephen; Herrero, Rebeca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a novel Fresnel lens capable of significantly reducing chromatic aberration in solar applications. The optical performance of this achromatic lens has been analyzed through ray-tracing simulations, showing a concentration factor three times higher than that attained by a classic silicone on glass (SOG) Fresnel lens while maintaining the same acceptance angle. This should avoid the need for a secondary optical element, reducing the cost associated with its manufacturing and assembly and increasing the module reliability. The achromatic lens is made of inexpensive plastic and elastomer which allows a highly scalable and cost-competitive manufacturing process similar to the one currently used for the fabrication of SOG Fresnel lenses.

  19. Design and modeling of a cost-effective achromatic Fresnel lens for concentrating photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Vallerotto, Guido; Victoria, Marta; Askins, Stephen; Herrero, Rebeca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a novel Fresnel lens capable of significantly reducing chromatic aberration in solar applications. The optical performance of this achromatic lens has been analyzed through ray-tracing simulations, showing a concentration factor three times higher than that attained by a classic silicone on glass (SOG) Fresnel lens while maintaining the same acceptance angle. This should avoid the need for a secondary optical element, reducing the cost associated with its manufacturing and assembly and increasing the module reliability. The achromatic lens is made of inexpensive plastic and elastomer which allows a highly scalable and cost-competitive manufacturing process similar to the one currently used for the fabrication of SOG Fresnel lenses. PMID:27607727

  20. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  1. Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  2. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

  3. Cost savings for manufacturing lithium batteries in a flexible plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produce four types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles - a hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV), and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 battery packs (HEV: 100,000; PHEV10: 60,000; PHEV40: 45,000; EV: 30,000). The cost savings per battery pack calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 9% for the EV battery packs to 21% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach 714 per unit and that of the EV batteries to approach 188 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is 20-24 per m2 of cell area, averaging 21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  4. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  5. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  6. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  7. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

    2006-02-20

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

  8. In situ optical diagnostic for monitoring or control of sodium diffusion in photovoltaics manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Levi, Dean; Contreras, Miguel; Glynn, Stephen

    2015-09-15

    A method of fabricating a photovoltaic device 100, includes the steps of providing a glass substrate 102, depositing a molybdenum layer 104 on a surface of the glass substrate, directing light through the glass substrate to the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer 206, detecting an optical property of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer after interaction with the incident light 208 and determining a density of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer from the detected optical property 210. A molybdenum deposition parameter may be controlled based upon the determined density of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer 218. A non-contact method measures a density of the near-substrate region of a molybdenum layer and a deposition chamber 300.

  9. Utilization of UV Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce the Manufacturing Cost of LIB Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Gary; Arnold, John

    2015-11-30

    Previously identified novel binders and associated UV curing technology have been shown to reduce the time required to apply and finish electrode coatings from tens of minutes to less than one second. This revolutionary approach can result in dramatic increases in process speeds, significantly reduced capital (a factor of 10 to 20) and operating costs, reduced energy requirements, and reduced environmental concerns and costs due to the virtual elimination of harmful volatile organic solvents and associated solvent dryers and recovery systems. The accumulated advantages of higher speed, lower capital and operating costs, reduced footprint, lack of VOC recovery, and reduced energy cost is a reduction of 90% in the manufacturing cost of cathodes. When commercialized, the resulting cost reduction in Lithium batteries will allow storage device manufacturers to expand their sales in the market and thereby accrue the energy savings of broader utilization of HEVs, PHEVs and EVs in the U.S., and a broad technology export market is also envisioned.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  11. Design, development and manufacture of high-efficiency low-cost solar modules based on CIGS PVICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2010-02-01

    We describe the design, development and manufacture of solar power panels based on photovoltaic integrated circuits (PVICs) with high-quality high-uniformity Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) thin films produced with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based and physical vapor deposition (PVD) based nanoengineered precursor thin films and a reactive transfer printing method. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process relying on chemical reaction between two separate precursor films to form CIGS, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are brought into intimate contact and rapidly reacted under pressure in the presence of an electrostatic field while heat is applied. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. High quality CIGS with large grains on the order of several microns, and of preferred crystallographic orientation, are formed in just several minutes based on compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% have been achieved using this method. When atmospheric pressure deposition of inks is utilized for the precursor films, the approach additionally provides lower energy consumption, higher throughput, and further reduced capital equipment cost with higher uptime.

  12. Solution-deposited CIGS thin films for ultra-low-cost photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Hersh, Peter; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the production of photovoltaic modules with high-quality large-grain copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films obtained with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based precursors and a reactive transfer printing method. The proprietary metal-organic inks contain a variety of soluble Cu-, In- and Ga- multinary selenide materials; they are called metal-organic decomposition (MOD) precursors, as they are designed to decompose into the desired precursors. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process that produces CIGS through the chemical reaction between two separate precursor films, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are rapidly reacted together under pressure in the presence of heat. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. In a few minutes, the process produces high quality CIGS films, with large grains on the order of several microns, and preferred crystallographic orientation, as confirmed by compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% were achieved using this method. The atmospheric deposition processes include slot die extrusion coating, ultrasonic atomization spraying, pneumatic atomization spraying, inkjet printing, direct writing, and screen printing, and provide low capital equipment cost, low thermal budget, and high throughput.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  14. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  15. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+-n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  16. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  17. Spectroscopic ellipsometry as a process control tool for manufacturing cadmium telluride thin film photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Westcott P.

    In recent decades, there has been concern regarding the sustainability of fossil fuels. One of the more promising alternatives is Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices. Improved quality measurement techniques may aid in improving this existing technology. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a common, non-destructive technique for measuring thin films in the silicon wafer industry. SE results have also been tied to properties believed to play a role in CdTe PV device efficiency. A study assessing the potential of SE for use as a quality measurement tool had not been previously reported. Samples of CdTe devices produced by both laboratory and industrial scale processes were measured by SE and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Mathematical models of the optical characteristics of the devices were developed and fit to SE data from multiple angles and locations on each sample. Basic statistical analysis was performed on results from the automated fits to provide an initial evaluation of SE as a quantitative quality measurement process. In all cases studied, automated SE models produced average stack thickness values within 10% of the values produced by SEM, and standard deviations for the top bulk layer thickness were less than 1% of the average values.

  18. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  19. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  20. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  1. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III )

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  2. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A., III

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals.

  3. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  4. Towards cost effective metal precursor sources for future photovoltaic material synthesis: CTS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhande, A. C.; Gurav, K. V.; Jo, Eunjin; He, Mingrui; Lokhande, C. D.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-04-01

    Copper tin sulfide (CTS) is an emerging candidate for solar application due to its favorable band gap and higher optical absorption coefficient. Kuramite-Tetragonal Cu3SnS4 (CTS) monodisperse nanoparticles are prepared by hot injection technique involving cost effective sulfate metal precursor source. A protocol for controlled crystal structure has been demonstrated by variation of cationic Cu:Sn ratio. The crystal structure, size, phase purity, atomic composition, oxidation state and optical properties of the nanoparticles are confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. Hexagonal shaped particles within the size distribution of 7-9 nm with an optimal band gap of 1.28 eV are obtained. XPS study shows the Cu1+, Sn4+ and S2- oxidation states. The effects of influential factors such as metal precursor ratio, metal precursor source, reaction time, heating rate and solvents have been demonstrated systematically on the synthesis of CTS nanoparticles. The plausible mechanism of the formation of CTS nanoparticles has been proposed. The obtained results provide new insight for applying CTS nanoparticles in photovoltaic applications.

  5. Colloidal CuInSe2 nanocrystals and thin films for low-cost photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghali, M.; Elnimr, M.; Ali, Gh. F.; Yousif, B.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the synthesis of colloidal CuInSe2 nanocrystals (NCs) using simple solution-based method and its vacuum thermally evaporated films. The tetragonal phase CuInSe2 NCs grow in the shape of nanoparticles with diameter varies between 30 and 40 nm according to high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The deposited films have been annealed for different times (up to 45 min) in vacuum and at different temperatures (150-346 °C). Optical characterization of the CuInSe2 NCs films using UV-Vis-NIR absorption, transmittance, excitation and photoluminescence measurements were performed. Optical properties of the deposited CuInSe2 films were quantified using developed theoretical model based on transmission and reflectance data. We found a strong dependence of the structural, morphologies and optical absorption coefficient of the prepared films on both annealing temperatures and annealing times. A remarkable enhancement of the optical absorption coefficient (α ∼ 3 × 105 cm-1) of the formed CuInSe2 NCs films with annealing was demonstrated and suggested the potential use of colloidal CuInSe2 for low cost photovoltaics.

  6. Silicon-Film{trademark} photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual subcontract report, 15 October 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.R.; Hall, R.B.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes work to develop an advanced, low-cost manufacturing process for a now utility-scale, flat-plate module. This process starts with the production of continuous sheets of thin-film, polycrystalline silicon using the Silicon-Film{trademark} process. Sheets are cut into wafers that are nominally 15 cm on a side. Fifty-six of these wafers are then fabricated into solar cells that are strung together into a 170-W module. Twelve of these modules form a 2-kW array. The program has three main components: (1) development of a Silicon-Film{trademark} wafer machine that is capable of manufacturing waters that are 225 cm{sup 2} in size at a rate of 3.0 MW/yr, with a total product cost reduction of 70%; (2) development of an advanced solar cell manufacturing process that is capable of turning the Silicon-Film{trademark} wafer into a 3.25-W solar cell; and (3) development of an advanced module design based on these large-area silicon solar cells with an average power of 170 W for 56 solar cells and 113 W for 36 solar cells.

  7. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  8. An analysis of the benefits of photovoltaic-coated glazing on owning and operating costs of high rise commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Keith Everette

    Energy efficient glazing is necessary to reduce heat gains or losses that contribute to the high-energy use of buildings. However, high-rise commercial buildings that use energy efficient glazing are still consumptive. To reduce their energy use further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. With limited light transmittance due to their required production of electricity, photovoltaic glazed windows can be developed with thermal properties similar to Low-E coatings. Consequently, these window systems can reduce operating costs of buildings without reducing the human satisfaction of the built environment. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this study investigates the effects of photovoltaic glazed windows on energy use of large commercial buildings and includes an assessment of the overall human satisfaction of the workers within photovoltaic glazed office spaces. This study targets high-rise commercial buildings and their occupants in urban centers of the four census regions---North, Northeast, South, and Midwest. A prototypical building was used to develop the base case simulations for the DOE-2 energy simulation program and the PV F-Chart photovoltaic analysis program. By substituting the appropriate variable in the base case simulation for each site, building was simulated to evaluate the impact of the PV glazing on the building's heat loss/gaining as well as the amount of electricity that could be expected from the PV. To test for human satisfaction, a survey was performed to assess the overall preference of the subjects to the office spaces using the photovoltaic glazed windows. An analysis of the variance was also conducted to test for significantly different treatment means. Overall, the findings of this study show that photovoltaic windows significantly decrease the energy used by high-rise commercial buildings. Payback periods 11 to 20 years

  9. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  10. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  11. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  12. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  18. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  19. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+−n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5–10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method. PMID:26632759

  20. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-05-01

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  1. Manufacturing of high performance, low cost dual mirror lamp reflector modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li

    The Lamp Reflector Module (LRM) is a key component in every micro display projection system, which has played a dominant role in the large-screen display market today. The goal of this research is to (1) improve the Dual Mirror prototype's light output performance, (2) investigate the underlying principles of its slow output deterioration so as to help develop effective and efficient LRM thermal management for maximized lifetime performance, and (3) improve/enable low cost mass LRM manufacturing for the projection display market. The first part of this research addresses the prototype's low output problem. More sophisticated 3D Optical Ray Tracing (ORT) models were generated to provide the output prediction depending on the arc gap, system collection etendue, etc. It was concluded that upgrading the manufacturing processes, particularly the reflector shape, surface and cold mirror coating, could effectively improve the output performance. Additionally, these theoretical models are shown to be used to design a LRM with 16% output gain for the consumer Rear Projection display market. The second part of this research focuses on the issue of lifetime performance. The electrode, arc attachment and envelope evolution were monitored by camera systems. The upgraded ORT models confirmed the arc length insensitivity property of the Dual Mirror LRM being one of the major reasons for its longer native lifetime. The third part of this research focuses on issues related to the entire LRM manufacturing. A series of quality control tools were developed to help implement manufacturing process optimization. LRMs made with the upgraded manufacturing processes showed about 25% output gain over the previous prototypes. Based on the imaging property of the Dual Mirror LRM, a lower cost lamp reflector alignment method, called cold alignment, was developed. In this method, the etendue efficiency is maintained and a slower degrading and more stable lifetime output performance are achieved

  2. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  3. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  4. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  5. Photovoltaics, the solar electric solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, C. D.; Litka, A. H.

    Direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by photovoltaic devices (solar cells) may be the most promising solution to the current energy problem. Photovoltaic energy systems provide a clean, simple method of energy conversion, and are reliable, safe, and flexible with respect to size (modular). The federal government is trying to commercialize photovoltaics by funding research on new materials and manufacturing processes. Earliest commercialization will be in residential systems, where the power grid back-up provides for a reliable electrical system without storage costs. The Florida Solar Energy Center has been operating a 5 kW experimental residential facility since 1980. The facility showed an average solar irradiance in the 62.5 sq m panels of 264 kw-hours/day from December 1980 through February 1981. The overall system efficiency was 7%, and the inverter operated with an ac output/dc input efficiency of 85-90%, depending on input levels.

  6. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  7. A discounted-cost continuous-time flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model solved by deconvexification over time

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C.; Rothblum, U.G.

    1990-08-01

    A discounted-cost, continuous-time, infinite-horizon version of a flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model is solved. The solution procedure is to convexify the discrete operator-assignment constraints to obtain a linear program, and then to regain the discreteness and obtain an approximate manufacturing schedule by deconvexification of the solution of the linear program over time. The strong features of the model are the accommodation of linear inequality relations among the manufacturing activities and the discrete manufacturing scheduling, whereas the weak features are intra-period relaxation of inventory availability constraints, and the absence of inventory costs, setup times, and setup charges.

  8. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  9. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith; England, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  10. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, 8 December 1993--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes work done under a 3-year program to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance, and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. The accomplishments described in this report are as follows: (1) the authors designed modifications to casting stations, ceramic molds, and sizing saws to allow for casting and sizing of larger ingots; (2) they demonstrated the casting of ingots with 17% larger volume; (3) the selected and purchased a new wire saw from HCT Shaping Systems; (4) they demonstrated wafering of eight bricks (2,400 wafers or {approximately}4.4 kilowatts at the cell level) in a 6.5-h run; (5) they demonstrated 14% average cell efficiency in the laboratory using an aluminum paste back surface field; (6) the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) completed a modeling study of the Solarex module assembly process; (7) they identified and qualified three new lower-cost back sheet materials through accelerated environmental tests; and (8) they designed and built a test structure for mounting frameless modules, and selected two adhesives and began testing their ability to hold modules to the structure.

  11. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  12. Low-cost and high-throughput realization of metasurface-based absorber/emitter for thermal-photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Dexheimer, Eric; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    A thermal photovoltaic cell (TPV) is an optical heat engine that can extract energy from an emitter with elevated temperature. In theory, the efficiency of a TPV can reach to 80% by wavelength conversion, yet in practice, only 3.2% efficiency has been achieved. The main physical drawback is to maintain the device operation at very high temperature while managing total solar spectrum absorption and efficient coupling of the narrow-band thermal radiation into the photovoltaic cell. In this vein, utilizing of a nanophotonic structure to undergo the wavelength conversion of solar energy is inevitable. Furthermore, low cost, large area and high throughput realization of such a structure brings TPV beyond the research lab. Simultaneous tailoring of UV/visible and mid-infrared spectrums requires sub-100-nm feature size, which is challenging with conventional photolithography if it is not impossible. We have developed a microsphere deep-UV lithography that can produce minimum feature size of ~ 50 nm at extremely low cost and high throughput. In this work, we demonstrate a metasurface platform fabricated with this lithography technique which has omni-polarization and -angle absorption in visible spectrum and efficient emission at mid-infrared as confirmed both by FDTD simulation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurement. The developed technique is promising technology to expedite TPV in real-life energy harvesting applications.

  13. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  14. Development and manufacturing of a more cost-effective heat pipe solar water heater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, K.T. Jr.

    1984-02-01

    A one year research and development project was conducted with NMERDI and Energy Engineering, Inc. (EEI) support to improve the design, manufacturing, testing, certification, shipping and installation of the heatpipe (tm) Passive Solar Water Heater. The objectives of the project were to develop a more cost-effective heatpipe (tm) system and the machines and manufacturing processes needed to produce it in the EEI Albuquerque plan. The project included redesign of the collector frames and mounting hardware to use aluminum extrusions, redesign of the tank cover to use molded fiberglass, new polisocynaurate foam insulation for the tank covers, a new heat pipe extrusion and welding process, new shipping and crating techniques, and new system data. The test data indicates that the heatpipe (tm) system efficiency is equal to the best active systems and is significantly better than most passive solar DHW systems.

  15. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  16. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  17. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Arrieta, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    A document describes the low-cost manufacturing of C103 niobium alloy combustion chambers, and the use of a high-temperature, oxidation-resistant coating that is superior to the standard silicide coating. The manufacturing process involved low-temperature spray deposition of C103 on removable plastic mandrels produced by rapid prototyping. Thin, vapor-deposited platinum-indium coatings were shown to substantially improve oxidation resistance relative to the standard silicide coating. Development of different low-cost plastic thrust chamber mandrel materials and prototyping processes (selective laser sintering and stereolithography) yielded mandrels with good dimensional accuracy (within a couple of mils) for this stage of development. The feasibility of using the kinetic metallization cold-spray process for fabrication of free-standing C1O3 thrusters on removable plastic mandrels was also demonstrated. The ambient and elevated temperature mechanical properties of the material were shown to be reasonably good relative to conventionally processed C103, but the greatest potential benefit is that coldsprayed chambers require minimal post-process machining, resulting in substantially lower machining and material costs. The platinum-iridium coating was shown to provide greatly increased oxidation resistance over the silicide when evaluated through oxyacetylene torch testing to as high as 300 F (= 150 C). The iridium component minimizes reaction with the niobium alloy chamber at high temperatures, and provides the high-temperature oxidation resistance needed at the throat.

  18. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Peter; Shet, Sudhakar; Basnyat, Prakash

    2014-12-22

    An ever increasing demand on energy has fostered many new generation technologies, which include photovoltaics. In recent years, photovoltaic industry has grown very rapidly. The installed capacity of PV for 2013 was about 37 GW and 2014 sales are expected to be around 45 GW. However, there has been excess production for last several years, which is responsible in part for the low prices (about 60 c/W). To lower the PV energy costs further, a major strategy appears to be going to high efficiency solar cells. This approach is favored (over lower cost/lower efficiency) because cell efficiency has a very large influence on the acceptable manufacturing cost of a PV module. Hence, the PV industry is moving toward developing processes and equipment to manufacture solar cells that can yield efficiencies >20%. Therefore, further research is needed within existing technologies to accomplish these objectives. Likewise, research will continue to seek new materials and devices.

  19. PEM fuel cell cost minimization using ``Design For Manufacture and Assembly`` techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, F.D. Jr.; James, B.D.; Mooradian, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells fueled with direct hydrogen have demonstrated substantial technical potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines (ICE`s) in light duty vehicles. Such a transition to a hydrogen economy offers the potential of substantial benefits from reduced criteria and greenhouse emissions as well as reduced foreign fuel dependence. Research conducted for the Ford Motor Co. under a US Department of Energy contract suggests that hydrogen fuel, when used in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), can achieve a cost per vehicle mile less than or equal to the gasoline cost per mile when used in an ICE vehicle. However, fuel cost parity is not sufficient to ensure overall economic success: the PEM fuel cell power system itself must be of comparable cost to the ICE. To ascertain if low cost production of PEM fuel cells is feasible, a powerful set of mechanical engineering tools collectively referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) has been applied to several representative PEM fuel cell designs. The preliminary results of this work are encouraging, as presented.

  20. The costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in automotive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Punnett, L

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate application of ergonomic principles to the design of workplaces and individual jobs has adverse consequences for worker health and safety, especially in terms of strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal disorders. In addition to the human pain and suffering, other losses are externalized to workers, with adverse financial and psychosocial impacts. There are also costs to employers through workers' compensation claims, scrap, and decreased production quality, medical insurance premiums, labor turnover, and adverse impacts on labor relations, although many of these are not linked by traditional accounting methods to ergonomic problems per se. Data collected in five plants of two major U.S. automotive manufacturing companies in the last decade have been used to estimate some of the costs associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), only some of which resulted in workers compensation claims. In one plant in 1984-85, the payroll cost of all back and shoulder disorders was at least $320 per year per worker, not including workers' compensation premiums or claims paid. A large proportion of these costs were accrued by "unreported" cases, that is, cases that either had never been reported to the plant clinic or had been reported in the past and were considered administratively to have recovered. In the other four plants, annual costs associated with in-plant medical visits for MSDs in 1989-93 were almost as high as those resulting from compensation claims. At least one-half of these disorders were estimated to be attributable to physical ergonomic exposures in the workplace and thus preventable. These data are consistent with estimates by others that the real costs to employers are at least two to three times the amount paid in workers' compensation cases, and that at least 50 percent of all work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the working population could be prevented by appropriate ergonomic job design. Furthermore, recent

  1. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing geometric multicrystalline cast silicon and geometric multicrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2015-02-10

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of geometrically ordered multi-crystalline silicon may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm is provided.

  2. Low-cost small scale parabolic trough collector design for manufacturing and deployment in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Matthew; Mathaha, Paul; Tsiu, Anadola; Taele, B. M.; Mabea, Lengeta; Ntee, Marcel; Khakanyo, Makoanyane; Teker, Tamer; Stephens, Jordan; Mueller, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power is expanding its deployment on the African subcontinent, highlighting the importance of efforts to indigenize manufacturing of this technology to increase local content and therefore local economic benefits of these projects. In this study a design for manufacturing (DFM) exercise was conducted to create a locally produced parabolic trough collector (the G4 PTC). All parts were sourced or fabricated at a production facility in Lesotho, and several examples of the design were prototyped and tested with collaborators in the Government of Lesotho's Appropriate Technology Services division and the National University of Lesotho. Optical and thermal performance was simulated and experimentally validated, and pedagogical pre-commercial versions of the PTC have been distributed to higher education partners in Lesotho and Europe. The cost to produce the PTC is 180 USD/m2 for a locally manufactured heat collection element (HCE) capable of sustaining 250C operation at ~65% efficiency. A version with an imported evacuated HCE can operate at 300°C with 70% efficiency. Economically relevant applications for this locally produced PTC include industrial process heat and distributed generation scenarios where cogeneration is required.

  3. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  4. High throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1993--15 November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwisch, D W

    1995-11-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), under a 3-year subcontract to advance SCI`s PV manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase module performance, and provide the groundwork for SCI to expand its commercial production capacities. SCI will meet these objectives in three phases by designing, debugging, and operating a 20-MW/year, automated, continuous PV manufacturing line that produces 60-cm {times} 120-cm thin-film CdTe PV modules. This report describes tasks completed under Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy`s PV Manufacturing Technology program.

  5. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by electron beam and pulsed laser deposition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-04-14

    The results of this study establish a framework for evaluation of the cost impact of many performance parameters in coated conductor manufacturing systems. Since the cost and concepts are based on early developmental results and engineering judgment, the study should be updated periodically based on latest data to enhance its usefulness. The study should be expanded to include other promising processes under consideration or development for manufacture of coated conductors. Review of this study by as wide a group of experts from industry, national laboratories and universities as possible is desirable to facilitate improving accuracy of the estimates and communication on the issues involved. The results for the case of achieving the $10/kA-m goal at a J{sub c} of 10{sup 5} a/cm{sup 2} applicable to applications requiring a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of current flow may be viewed as somewhat discouraging. However, there is ample margin for improvement due to continued development and engineering that could enable meeting the goal of $10/kA-m.

  6. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes. Final report, 19 October 1994-31 March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1996-05-01

    The quality cost modeling (QCM) tool is intended to be a relatively simple-to-use device for obtaining a first-order assessment of the quality-cost relationship for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve is a plot of cost versus quality (an index indicating microstructural quality), which is unique for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve indicates the tradeoff between cost and performance, thus enabling one to evaluate affordability. Additionally, the effect of changes in process design, raw materials, and process conditions on the cost-quality relationship can be evaluated. Such results might indicate the most efficient means to obtain improved quality at reduced cost by process design refinements, the implementation of sensors and models for closed loop process control, or improvement in the properties of raw materials being fed into the process. QCM also allows alternative processes for producing the same or similar material to be compared in terms of their potential for producing competitively priced, high quality material. Aside from demonstrating the usefulness of the QCM concept, this is one of the main foci of the present research program, namely to compare processes for making continuous fiber reinforced, metal matrix composites (MMC`s). Two processes, low pressure plasma spray deposition and tape casting are considered for QCM development. This document consists of a detailed look at the design of the QCM approach, followed by discussion of the application of QCM to each of the selected MMC manufacturing processes along with results, comparison of processes, and finally, a summary of findings and recommendations.

  7. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  8. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  9. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  10. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  11. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  12. Cost-effective method of manufacturing a 3D MEMS optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Emily; Zhang, Ping; Keebaugh, Doug; Chau, Kelvin

    2009-02-01

    growth of data and video transport networks. All-optical switching eliminates the need for optical-electrical conversion offering the ability to switch optical signals transparently: independent of data rates, formats and wavelength. It also provides network operators much needed automation capabilities to create, monitor and protect optical light paths. To further accelerate the market penetration, it is necessary to identify a path to reduce the manufacturing cost significantly as well as enhance the overall system performance, uniformity and reliability. Currently, most MEMS optical switches are assembled through die level flip-chip bonding with either epoxies or solder bumps. This is due to the alignment accuracy requirements of the switch assembly, defect matching of individual die, and cost of the individual components. In this paper, a wafer level assembly approach is reported based on silicon fusion bonding which aims to reduce the packaging time, defect count and cost through volume production. This approach is successfully demonstrated by the integration of two 6-inch wafers: a mirror array wafer and a "snap-guard" wafer, which provides a mechanical structure on top of the micromirror to prevent electrostatic snap-down. The direct silicon-to-silicon bond eliminates the CTEmismatch and stress issues caused by non-silicon bonding agents. Results from a completed integrated switch assembly will be presented, which demonstrates the reliability and uniformity of some key parameters of this MEMS optical switch.

  13. Photovoltaics industry profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the U.S. photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry organized and U.S. government organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included.

  14. Low cost method for manufacturing a data acquisition system with USB connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, V.; Dobre, R. A.; Popovici, E.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of designing and manufacturing an electronic system the digital oscilloscope plays an essential role but it also represents one of the most expensive equipment present on the typical workbench. In order to make electronic design more accessible to students and hobbyists, an affordable data acquisition system was imagined. The paper extensively presents the development and testing of a low cost, medium speed, data acquisition system which can be used in a wide range of electronic measurement and debugging applications, assuring also great portability due to the small physical dimensions. Each hardware functional block and is thoroughly described, highlighting the challenges that occurred as well as the solutions to overcome them. The entire system was successfully manufactured using high quality components to assure increased reliability, and high frequency PCB materials and techniques were preferred. The measured values determined based on test signals were compared to the ones obtained using a digital oscilloscope available on the market and differences less than 1% were observed.

  15. Cost justification for an interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Many factors influence the capital investment decision. System costs and benefits are weighed by methods of financial analysis to determine the advisability of an investment. Capital, expense, and benefits as related to Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) Systems are discussed and model calculations are included. An example is treated by the simple payback method and the more sophisticated methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV and IRR approaches include in the calculation the time value of money and provide a sounder foundation on which to base the purchase decision. It is hoped that an understanding of these techniques by technical personnel will make an optimum system purchase more likely.

  16. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  17. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  18. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, F.

    1991-12-01

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  19. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrates. Annual technical progress report, July 5, 1996--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, F.

    1998-08-01

    Iowa Thin Film Technologies, Inc.`s (ITF) goal is to develop the most cost effective PV manufacturing process possible. To this end the authors have chosen a roll based manufacturing process with continuous deposition and monolithic integration. Work under this program is designed to meet this goal by improving manufacturing throughput and performance of the manufactured devices. Significant progress was made during Phase 2 of this program on a number of fronts. A new single pass tandem deposition machine was brought on line which allows greatly increased and improved throughput for rolls of tandem material. The TCO deposition process was improved resulting in an increase in throughput by 20%. A new alignment method was implemented on the printing process which improves throughput six fold while improving alignment from 100 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m. A roll based lamination procedure was developed and implemented on selected products which improves throughput from 20 sq. ft./hr. to 240 sq. ft./hr. A wide range of lower cost encapsulants were evaluated. A promising material was selected initially to be introduced in 5 year lifetime type products. The sum of these improvements bring the overall cost reduction resulting from this program to 49%.

  20. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 2: Quality assurance criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Quality assurance criteria are described for manufacturers and installers of solar photovoltaic tests and applications. Quality oriented activities are outlined to be pursued by the contractor/subcontractor to assure the physical and operational quality of equipment produced is included. In the broad sense, guidelines are provided for establishing a QA organization if none exists. Mainly, criteria is provided to be considered in any PV quality assurance plan selected as appropriate by the responsible Field Center. A framework is established for a systematic approach to ensure that photovoltaic tests and applications are constructed in a timely and cost effective manner.

  1. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  2. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activites that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A succesful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15% for flat-plate and 25% for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  3. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  4. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020—from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366’s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today’s state-of-the-art technologies. 1366’s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366’s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  5. Warranty optimisation based on the prediction of costs to the manufacturer using neural network model and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Dragan D.; Popovic, Vladimir M.

    2015-02-01

    Warranty is a powerful marketing tool, but it always involves additional costs to the manufacturer. In order to reduce these costs and make use of warranty's marketing potential, the manufacturer needs to master the techniques for warranty cost prediction according to the reliability characteristics of the product. In this paper a combination free replacement and pro rata warranty policy is analysed as warranty model for one type of light bulbs. Since operating conditions have a great impact on product reliability, they need to be considered in such analysis. A neural network model is used to predict light bulb reliability characteristics based on the data from the tests of light bulbs in various operating conditions. Compared with a linear regression model used in the literature for similar tasks, the neural network model proved to be a more accurate method for such prediction. Reliability parameters obtained in this way are later used in Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of times to failure needed for warranty cost calculation. The results of the analysis make possible for the manufacturer to choose the optimal warranty policy based on expected product operating conditions. In such a way, the manufacturer can lower the costs and increase the profit.

  6. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  7. A low-cost photovoltaic cell process based on thick film techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Pepe, A.; Bunyan, S.; Edwards, B.; Olson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The low-cost, easily automated processing for solar cell fabrication being developed at Spectrolab for the DOE LSA program is described. These processes include plasma-etching, spray-on diffusion sources and antireflective coating, thick film metallization, aluminum back contacts, laser scribing and ultrasonic soldering. The process sequence has been shown to produce solar cells having 15% conversion efficiency at AM1 which meet the cell fabrication budget required for the DOE 1986 cost goal of $0.70 per peak watt in 1980.

  8. Solar Cells and Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Stuart

    Photovoltaic solar cells are gaining wide acceptance for producing clean, renewable electricity. This has been based on more than 40 years of research that has benefited from the revolution in silicon electronics and compound semiconductors in optoelectronics. This chapter gives an introduction into the basic science of photovoltaic solar cells and the challenge of extracting the maximum amount of electrical energy from the available solar energy. In addition to the constraints of the basic physics of these devices, there are considerable challenges in materials synthesis. The latter has become more prominent with the need to reduce the cost of solar module manufacture as it enters mainstream energy production. The chapter is divided into sections dealing with the fundamentals of solar cells and then considering five very different materials systems, from crystalline silicon through to polycrystalline thin films. These materials have been chosen because they are all in production, although some are only in the early stages of production. Many more materials are being considered in research and some of the more exciting, polymer and dye-sensitised cells are mentioned in the conclusions. However, there is insufficient space to give these very active areas of research the justice they deserve. I hope the reader will feel sufficiently inspired by this topic to read further and explore one of the most exciting areas of semiconductor science. The need for high-volume production at low cost has taken the researcher along paths not normally considered in semiconductor devices and it is this that provides an exciting challenge.

  9. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  10. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K.A.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  11. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78

  12. The development of a low cost photovoltaic module using FRP molded encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sawai, H.; Shibata, A.; Takemoto, T.; Toshikawa, H.; Tsuji, T.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this development is to provide a low cost module with simple structure and good performance. The authors have developed a new type module molded into Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) plate. The FRP molded encapsulation is made of transparent plastics as a base resin and fiberglass for reinforcement. Cells embedded in the plastics are covered with soft resin for the thermal stress relief. As this type of module is made by means of molding, its fabrication process is quite simple. Further, the module has high mechanical strength and can be fabricated with more inexpensive materials. The most important factor in developing this encapsulation is to select adequate combinations of fiberglass, base resin and coating soft resin. The results of these studies lead to the realization of a low cost module with excellent performance.

  13. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Jester.

    1999-06-17

    This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.

  14. Tracking the Sun II: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen L; Wiser, Ryan; Peterman, Carla; Darghouth, Naim

    2009-10-05

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2008, 5,948 MW of PV was installed globally, up from 2,826 MW in 2007, and was dominated by grid-connected applications. The United States was the world's third largest PV market in terms of annual capacity additions in 2008, behind Spain and Germany; 335 MW of PV was added in the U.S. in 2008, 293 MW of which came in the form of grid-connected installations. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. The market for PV in the U.S. is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The present report, the second in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2008. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from more than 52,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of

  15. The Relationship between National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Weight Guidelines and Concurrent Medical Costs in a Manufacturing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feifei; Schultz, Alyssa B.; Musich, Shirley; McDonald, Tim; Hirschland, David; Edington, Dee W.

    2003-01-01

    Explored the relationship between the 1998 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) weight guidelines and concurrent medical costs among 177,971 employees, retirees, and adult dependents from a nationwide manufacturing corporation. Results indicated that the six weight groups defined by the NHLBI guidelines were consistent with concurrent…

  16. Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

    2001-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6

  17. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  19. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cm3/hr (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  20. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  1. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  2. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  3. Large area low cost processing for CIS photovoltaics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Basol; G. Norsworthy; C. Leidholm; A. Halani; R. Roe; V. Kapur

    1999-07-22

    An ink coating method was developed for CIS absorber deposition. The technique involves four processing steps: (1) preparation of a Cu-In alloy powder, (2) preparation of an ink using this powder, (3) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a precursor layer, and (4) selenization to convert the Cu-In precursor into a fused CIS film. Absorbers grown by this low-cost, large-area method were used in the fabrication of 10.5% efficient solar cells.

  4. Cost goals for a residential photovoltaic/thermal liquid collector system set in three northern locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwoodie, T. L.; Kavanaugh, J. P.

    1980-10-01

    The allowable costs for a residential PV/T liquid collector system are compared with those of both PV only and side-by-side PV and thermal collector systems. Four typs of conventional energy systems provide backup: all oil, all gas, all electric resistance, and electric resistance hot water with space heating by parallel heat pump. Electric space cooling is modeled, and the electric utility serves as backup for all electrical needs. The analysis is separated into two parts: (1) a base case study using conservative market and financial parameters for comparing PV/T economics in three northern locations; and (2) the sensitivity of PV/T economics to pertinent physical, market, and financial variables is examined. The difference in economic outlook for PV/T in retrofit applications is also estimated. It is indicated that, it for northern locations modeled, is less than that of separate (side-by-side) collector systems, at total array areas between 40-80 sq m. Below this range, allowable costs diverge, benefiting optimally sized separate collector systems.

  5. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  6. Photovoltaics - The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presened. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  7. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  8. Preliminary estimate of the manufacturing cost for lithium/metal sulfide cells for stationary and mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chilenskas, A. A.; Schaefer, J. C.; Towle, W. L.; Barney, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary estimate has been made of the manufacturing cost for lithium/iron sulfide cells for stationary energy-storage and electric-vehicle applications. This preliminary cost analysis indicated that the manufacturing cost (in 1979 dollars) is $24 to 41/kW-h for stationary energy-storage cells and $31 to 55/kW-h for electric-vehicle cells. The materials cost was found to contribute between 52 and 65% of this manufacturing cost. The most expensive materials and components were lithium (metal and compounds), $4.61 to $14.26/kW-h; BN felt, $4.00 to 8.50/kW-h; feed-through components, $2.40/kW-h; positive current collectors, $1.48 to 2.20/kW-h; and aluminum, $1.43 to 1.66/kW-h. The projected lithium requirements were determined for use in lithium/iron sulfide batteries and conventional uses to the year 2006. The results showed that the lithium requirements were about 275,000 short tons by 2006, which is equivalent to about 51% of presently known US resources. Of this amount, about 33% would be used in battery production and 67% consumed in conventional uses. It is expected that the lithium used in battery production would be recycled.

  9. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics.

  10. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics. PMID:25302332

  11. PVMaT improvements in the Solarex photovoltaic module manufacturing technology: Annual subcontract report: May 5, 1998 -- April 30, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2000-01-10

    This report describes work done by Solarex during the first year of this subcontract. The objective of this three-year PVMaT program is to continue the advancement of Solarex PV manufacturing technologies to design and implement a process that produces polycrystalline silicon PV modules that can be sold profitably for $2.00 per peak watt or less and that will increase the production capacity of the Frederick plant to at least 25 megawatts per year. Accomplishments during the first year of the program include: (1) Verification of the process to produce SiF{sub 4}, the precursor to silicon feedstock. (2) Design of a silicon feedstock pilot facility using the SiNaF process. (3) Development of and transfer to manufacturing of a process to use thinner wire in the wire saw. (4) Completion of a production trial with recycled SiC. (5) Laboratory development of a selective emitter process using rapid thermal processing. (6) Fabrication of high-efficiency polycrystalline cells using silicon nitride from three different sources. (7) Development of a new encapsulation formulation and laboratory demonstration of a 6-minute lamination cycle. (8) Implementation of an automated laminator. (9) Laboratory demonstration of automated handling of ceramics.

  12. Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-02-26

    The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

  13. Low cost and manufacturable complete microTAS for detecting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Mirer, Paul; Chatterjee, Anirban; Klapperich, Catherine M; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated lab-on-a-chip and associated instrument for the detection of bacteria from liquid samples. The system conducts bacterial lysis, nucleic acid isolation and concentration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and end-point fluorescent detection. To enable truly low-cost manufacture of the single-use disposable chip, we designed the plastic chip in a planar format without any active components to be amenable to injection molding and utilized a novel porous polymer monolith (PPM) embedded with silica that has been shown to lyse bacteria and isolate the nucleic acids from clinical samples (M. D. Kulinski, M. Mahalanabis, S. Gillers, J. Y. Zhang, S. Singh and C. M. Klapperich, Biomed. Microdevices, 2009, 11, 671-678).(1) The chip is made of Zeonex(R), a thermoplastic with a high melting temperature to allow PCR, good UV transmissibility for UV-curing of the PPM, and low auto-fluorescence for fluorescence detection of the amplicon. We have built a prototype instrument to automate control of the fluids, temperature cycling, and optical detection with the capability of accommodating various chip designs. To enable fluid control without including valves or pumps on the chip, we utilized a remote valve switching technique. To allow fluid flow rate changes on the valveless chip, we incorporated speed changing fluid reservoirs. The PCR thermal cycling was achieved with a ceramic heater and air cooling, while end-point fluorescence detection was accomplished with an optical spectrometer; all integrated in the instrument. The chip seamlessly and automatically is mated to the instrument through an interface block that presses against the chip. The interface block aligns and ensures good contact of the chip to the temperature controlled region and the optics. The integrated functionality of the chip was demonstrated using Bacillus subtilis as a model bacterial target. A Taqman assay was employed on-chip to detect the isolated bacterial DNA

  14. Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Nishino, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical cutting guides are used in mandibular reconstruction involving osteotomy of the mandible and fibula. Cutting guides produced using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies have been reported recently. These guides aim to increase the benefits to patients by improving the accuracy, shortening the operating time, and correcting occlusion. However, the availability of these advanced technologies is limited in some regions of the world. To test whether we could produce low-cost surgical cutting guides, we made surgical guides and investigated their accuracy. Methods: Using free CAD software, we designed surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual mandibular segmental osteotomies and fibula transplants in 12 model surgeries. The cutting guides were printed on a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The model surgeries were performed using 3D mandibular models and cutting guides to check their accuracy. Deviations between the virtually simulated plan and the actual model surgery were investigated. Results: CAD and CAM technologies were used to design and 3D print the cutting guides and models. The guided surgeries were performed. The deviations were about 1.3 mm for mandibular osteotomy, less than 1 mm for fibular osteotomy, and within 2.4 mm for reconstructions of the mandible. Conclusions: Without using expensive software or products, we were able to design surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual simulation of mandibular segmental osteotomy and fibular reconstruction. Model surgeries using 3D-printed surgical guides showed that the accuracy of reconstruction was within a 3-mm deviation. In circumstances where commercial CAD/CAM guides are not available, it may be possible to use CAD/CAM surgical guides in the clinic if doctors are willing to volunteer their time for the design and printing. PMID:27536484

  15. Challenges to Scaling CIGS Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, B. J.

    2011-03-01

    The challenges of scaling any photovoltaic technology to terawatts of global capacity are arguably more economic than technological or resource constraints. All commercial thin-film PV technologies are based on direct bandgap semiconductors whose absorption coefficient and bandgap alignment with the solar spectrum enable micron-thick coatings in lieu to hundreds of microns required using indirect-bandgap c-Si. Although thin-film PV reduces semiconductor materials cost, its manufacture is more capital intensive than c-Si production, and proportional to deposition rate. Only when combined with sufficient efficiency and cost of capital does this tradeoff yield lower manufacturing cost. CIGS has the potential to become the first thin film technology to achieve the terawatt benchmark because of its superior conversion efficiency, making it the only commercial thin film technology which demonstrably delivers performance comparable to the dominant incumbent, c-Si. Since module performance leverages total systems cost, this competitive advantage bears directly on CIGS' potential to displace c-Si and attract the requisite capital to finance the tens of gigawatts of annual production capacity needed to manufacture terawatts of PV modules apace with global demand growth.

  16. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  17. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  18. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... the commercialization of next generation photovoltaic systems. Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil.... Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 14, 2011, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. (``USPVMC'') has filed...

  19. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: State of the art and development opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and host utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are considered; these include: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. Theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  20. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  1. Development of a VRLA battery with improved separators, and a charge controller, for low cost photovoltaic and wind powered installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Ruddell, A. J.; Vast, N.; Esteban, J.; Estela, F.

    There are many applications and uses for which it is more advantageous to use solar installations than to extend the electrical network and connect to it. This kind of applications are numerous covering from isolated houses to telephone repeaters and the like. These kind of applications share some common characteristics like being located in remote not easy accessible areas, require relatively low power for operation, and being difficult to maintain. Up to now the use of photovoltaic systems, no matter the impressive growth they are experimenting, suffer from some drawbacks, mainly related with the life expectations and reliability of such systems, and as a consequence of the cost of these systems, when calculated on a lifetime basis. To try to contribute to solve these problems, a project partially founded by the European Commission, has been carried out, with the main objective of increasing the life of these systems, and consequently to make them more attractive from the point of view of cost on a lifetime basis for consumers. Presently, the life of PV systems is limited by its weakest component, the battery. Battery failure modes in PV applications, are related with well known phenomena like corrosion, but also due to the special nature of this installations, with other factors like corrosion and growth in the upper part of the group, induced by the development of acid stratification inside the battery, with the more prone standard flooded types now in major use, and to a lesser extent the new valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) types beginning to be used. The main objectives of this project, were: to develop a new glass microfibre separator material, capable of minimizing acid stratification inside the battery. To develop a new VRLA battery, with a life duration of 800 cycles on cycling at 60% DOD and partial state of charge (PSOC) conditions. To develop a new charge regulator, that takes into account the condition of the battery in the near term, to modify its

  2. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  3. Do photovoltaics have a future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    There is major concern as to the economic practicality of widespread terrestrial use because of the high cost of the photovoltaic arrays themselves. Based on their high efficiency, photovoltaic collectors should be one of the cheapest forms of energy generators known. Present photovoltaic panels are violating the trend of lower costs with increasing efficiency due to their reliance on expensive materials. A medium technology solution should provide electricity competitive with the existing medium to high technology energy generators such as oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fission thermal plants. Programs to reduce the cost of silicon and develop reliable thin film materials have a realistic chance of producing cost effective photovoltaic panels.

  4. Value and manufacturing costs of planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Topical report, January 1994-July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, C.A.; Wright, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    In the first part of this report, the authors analyze the economics of three different fuel cell applications, 200 kW cogeneration, 50 MW stand alone power generation, and a central power plant application of a fuel cell integrated into a 225 MW gas turbine/combined cycle power plant. In the second part of this report, the authors estimated the cost of fabricating a planar SOFC stack using a variety of manufacturing techniques. For a facility producing 200 MW/year of fuel cell systems, the authors obtained vendor equipment quotations, material cost estimates, utility requirements, and projected labor and overhead costs. The authors used a minimum after tax rate of return requirement of 20% to estimate SOFC stack costs.

  5. Polymer Hybrid Photovoltaics for Inexpensive Electricity Generation: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--30 April 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S. A.

    2006-07-01

    The project goal is to understand the operating mechanisms underlying the performance of polymer hybrid photovoltaics to enable the development of a photovoltaic with a maximum power conversion efficiency over cost ratio that is significantly greater than current PV technologies. Plastic or polymer-based photovoltaics can have significant cost advantages over conventional technologies in that they are compatible with liquid-based plastic processing and can be assembled onto plastic under atmospheric conditions (ambient temperature and pressure) using standard printing technologies, such as reel-to-reel and screen printing. Moreover, polymer-based PVs are lightweight, flexible, and largely unbreakable, which make shipping, installation, and maintenance simpler. Furthermore, a numerical simulation program was developed (in collaboration with IBM) to fully simulate the performance of multicomponent polymer photovoltaic devices, and a manufacturing method was developed (in collaboration with Add-vision) to inexpensively manufacture larger-area devices.

  6. Determination of the optimal time and cost of manufacturing flow of an assembly using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, S.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    The optimization of the parts and assembly manufacturing operation was carried out in order to minimize both the time and cost of production as appropriate. The optimization was made by using the Taguchi method. The Taguchi method is based on the plans of experiences that vary the input and outputs factors. The application of the Taguchi method in order to optimize the flow of the analyzed assembly production is made in the following: to find the optimal combination between the manufacturing operations; to choose the variant involving the use of equipment performance; to delivery operations based on automation. The final aim of the Taguchi method application is that the entire assembly to be achieved at minimum cost and in a short time. Philosophy Taguchi method of optimizing product quality is synthesized from three basic concepts: quality must be designed into the product and not he product inspected after it has been manufactured; the higher quality is obtained when the deviation from the proposed target is low or when uncontrollable factors action has no influence on it, which translates robustness; costs entailed quality are expressed as a function of deviation from the nominal value [1]. When determining the number of experiments involving the study of a phenomenon by this method, follow more restrictive conditions [2].

  7. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  8. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  9. Development of a Low-Cost Process for Manufacturing of Ti-Metal Matrix Composite by Roll-Diffusion Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testani, C.; Ferraro, F.

    2010-06-01

    Composite materials with titanium-alloy matrix are currently the class of material with the highest specific resistance at temperatures up to 800 °C. The main hurdle to their application is their final cost. Even if it is clear that the costs of constituent materials are decreasing due to volume production effects, the production processing costs remain high due to the batch production approach. Centro Sviluppo Materiali’s (CSM) efforts have focused on the manufacturing process in order to obtain an innovative solution to reduce the manufacturing costs with respect to the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process that represents the standard production process for this class of materials. The new approach can allow a cost reduction of about 40%; this result was obtained by developing an experimental “diffusion bonding” plant for co-rolling at high temperature in a superplastic rolling regime, sheets of titanium alloy and monofilament silicon carbide fabrics. The experimental pilot plant was proposed for patent with RM2006A000261 in May 2006. This paper describes the manufacturing phases and process results. Moreover, has been shown that the diffusion in the solid state was obtained in a process window that was at least 100 times faster than that of HIP. High-temperature tensile tests were carried out on specimens machined from metallic matrix composite materials produced with the roll-diffusion bonding (RDB) process. The samples produced were also submitted to electrochemical dissolution tests of the metallic matrix in order to verify the geometric integrity of the fibers inside the matrix after the bonding phase. The results achieved as well as the process knowledge acquired with the CSM pilot plant are the base for further development of industrial application of the titanium roll-diffusion bonding.

  10. Laser-assisted manufacturing of micro-optical volume elements for enhancing the amount of light absorbed by solar cells in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peharz, Gerhard; Kuna, Ladislav; Leiner, Claude

    2015-03-01

    The laser-generation of micro-optical volume elements is a promising approach to decrease the optical shadowing of front side metal contacts of solar cells. Focusing a femtosecond laser beam into the volume of the encapsulation material causes a local modification its optical constants. Suchlike fabricated micro-optical elements can be used to decrease the optical shadowing of the front side metallization of c-Si solar cells. Test samples comprising of a sandwich structure of a glass sheet with metallic grid-lines, an Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant and another glass sheet were manufactured in order to investigate the optical performance of the volume optics. Transmission measurements show that the shadowing of the metalling grid-lines is substantially decreased by the micro-optical volume elements created in the EVA bulk right above the grid-fingers. A detailed investigation of the optical properties of these volume elements was performed: (i) experimentally on the basis of goniometric measurements, as well as (ii) theoretically by applying optical modelling and optimization procedures. This resulted in a better understanding of the effectiveness of the optical volume elements in decreasing the optical shadowing of metal grid lines on the active cell surfaces. Moreover, results of photovoltaic mini-modules with incorporated micro-optical volume elements are presented. Results of optical simulation and Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) experiments show that the losses due to the grid fingers can be reduced by about 50%, when using this fs-laser structuring approach for the fabrication of micro-optical volume elements in the EVA material.

  11. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  12. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  13. Quarterly Report: Microchannel-Assisted Nanomaterial Deposition Technology for Photovoltaic Material Production

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.

    2011-04-26

    Quarterly report to ITP for Nanomanufacturing program. Report covers FY11 Q2. The primary objective of this project is to develop a nanomanufacturing process which will reduce the manufacturing energy, environmental discharge, and production cost associated with current nano-scale thin-film photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing approaches. The secondary objective is to use a derivative of this nanomanufacturing process to enable greener, more efficient manufacturing of higher efficiency quantum dot-based photovoltaic cells now under development. The work is to develop and demonstrate a scalable (pilot) microreactor-assisted nanomaterial processing platform for the production, purification, functionalization, and solution deposition of nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications. The high level task duration is shown. Phase I consists of a pilot platform for Gen II PV films along with parallel efforts aimed at Gen III PV quantum dot materials. Status of each task is described.

  14. Flexible polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. H.; Lanning, B. R.; Misra, M. S.; Kapur, V. K.; Basol, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics (PV), such as CIS and CdTe, have received considerable attention recently with respect to space power applications. Their combination of stability, efficiency, and economy from large-scale monolithic-integration of modules can have significant impact on cost and weight of PV arrays for spacecraft and planetary experiments. An added advantage, due to their minimal thickness (approximately 6 microns sans substrate), is the ability to manufacture lightweight, flexible devices (approximately 2000 W/kg) using large-volume manufacturing techniques. The photovoltaic effort at Martin Marietta and ISET is discussed, including large-area, large-volume thin-film deposition techniques such as electrodeposition and rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Progress in the development of flexible polycrystalline thin-film PV is presented, including evaluation of flexible CIS cells. In addition, progress on flexible CdTe cells is presented. Finally, examples of lightweight, flexible arrays and their potential cost and weight impact is discussed.

  15. Alpha Solarco`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Bailor, B.; Carroll, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report details the work done under Sandia`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development contract, funded jointly by Alpha Solarco and the US Department of Energy. It discusses improvements made to the cell assembly and module design of Alpha Solarco`s point-focus, high-concentration photovoltaic module. The goals of this effort were to increase the module efficiency, reduce the manufacturing cost of the cell assembly, and increase product reliability. Redesign of the secondary optical element achieved a 4 percent increase in efficiency due to better cell fill factors and offtrack performance. New, lower cost materials were identified for the secondary optical element, the optical couple between the secondary optical element and the cell, and the cell assembly electrical insulator. Manufacturing process improvements and test equipment are also discussed.

  16. Flexible polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. H.; Lanning, B. R.; Misra, M. S.; Kapur, V. K.; Basol, B. M.

    1993-05-01

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics (PV), such as CIS and CdTe, have received considerable attention recently with respect to space power applications. Their combination of stability, efficiency, and economy from large-scale monolithic-integration of modules can have significant impact on cost and weight of PV arrays for spacecraft and planetary experiments. An added advantage, due to their minimal thickness (approximately 6 microns sans substrate), is the ability to manufacture lightweight, flexible devices (approximately 2000 W/kg) using large-volume manufacturing techniques. The photovoltaic effort at Martin Marietta and ISET is discussed, including large-area, large-volume thin-film deposition techniques such as electrodeposition and rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Progress in the development of flexible polycrystalline thin-film PV is presented, including evaluation of flexible CIS cells. In addition, progress on flexible CdTe cells is presented. Finally, examples of lightweight, flexible arrays and their potential cost and weight impact is discussed.

  17. Mass manufactured secondary optics for CPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Hornung, Thorsten; Gremmelspacher, Matthias; Manns, Peter; Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The Fraunhofer Institutes for Solar Energy Systems ISE and for Mechanics of Materials IWM in cooperation with industrial partners have explored routes for highly cost effective mass manufacturing of dome lens shaped glass secondary optical elements (SOEs) for concentrating photovoltaics (CPV). This included optical design studies, design optimizations and outdoor measurements on prototypes by Fraunhofer ISE. Fraunhofer IWM has explored a short cycle molding process suitable for low-cost high volume production. SOEs of spherical shape can be a possible option for a cost-effective production.

  18. Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Elliot

    1986-11-01

    To demonstrate technical viability of photovoltaic modules in central, grid connected energy systems, ARCO Solar, Inc. has designed, installed and is operating two photovoltaic power plants on the megawatt scale. These systems use two-axis tracking. The first generation plant in Lugo (Hesperia), California, with a nominal rating of one MWpk (DC)" was installed in 1982 in the Southern California Edison Company grid. The second system, rated at 6.4 MWDk (DC), is located in the Carrisa Plain in California and connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid. Based on the cost and performance data from these installations, an assessment of the current status and future needs of large scale photovoltaic energy systems is made. With each new system, improved techniques of design, installation and system integration have been developed. Expectations have been confirmed as to the performance and adaptability of solar cells, especially the ease of incremental increases in capacity when needed. Modular photovoltaic systems have been found to be easy to build and operate, and to be highly reliable. Prologue: Technological advancement usually requires good science and logical engineering. In the main, faith, persistence and feel are also required. Rule: The balance-of-system costs for photovoltaic energy systems equal photovoltaic module costs. Photovoltaic systems have progressed to their current stage of high promise because of faith, persistence, feel and belief in this rule.

  19. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  20. Handbook of estimating data, factors, and procedures. [for manufacturing cost studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Elements to be considered in estimating production costs are discussed in this manual. Guidelines, objectives, and methods for analyzing requirements and work structure are given. Time standards for specific specfic operations are listed for machining, sheet metal working, electroplating and metal treating; painting; silk screening, etching and encapsulating; coil winding; wire preparation and wiring; soldering; and the fabrication of etched circuits and terminal boards. The relation of the various elements of cost to the total cost as proposed for various programs by various contractors is compared with government estimates.

  1. Exploring the market for third-party-owned residential photovoltaic systems: insights from lease and power-purchase agreement contract structures and costs in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010-2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time.

  2. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  3. High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Barth

    2008-02-06

    AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

  4. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  5. Computational assessment of organic photovoltaic candidate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borunda, Mario; Dai, Shuo; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are emerging as a possible renewable alternative to petroleum based resources and are needed to meet our growing demand for energy. Although not as efficient as silicon based cells, OPV cells have as an advantage that their manufacturing cost is potentially lower. The Harvard Clean Energy Project, using a cheminformatic approach of pattern recognition and machine learning strategies, has ranked a molecular library of more than 2.6 million candidate compounds based on their performance as possible OPV materials. Here, we present a ranking of the top 1000 molecules for use as photovoltaic materials based on their optical absorption properties obtained via time-dependent density functional theory. This computational search has revealed the molecular motifs shared by the set of most promising molecules.

  6. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-year contract to demonstrate significant cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects for implementation in the Siemens Solar Industries Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, California. The work was undertaken to increase the commercial viability and volume of photovoltaic manufacturing by evaluating the most significant cost categories and then lowering the cost of each item through experimentation, materials refinement, and better industrial engineering. The initial phase of the program concentrated on the areas of crystal growth; wafer technology; and environmental, safety, and health issues.

  7. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  8. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  9. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  10. A probabilistic analysis of silicon cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon materials costs represent both a cost driver and an area where improvement can be made in the manufacture of photovoltaic modules. The cost from three processes for the production of low-cost silicon being developed under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaic Program is analyzed. The approach is based on probabilistic inputs and makes use of two models developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory: SIMRAND (SIMulation of Research ANd Development) and IPEG (Improved Price Estimating Guidelines). The approach, assumptions, and limitations are detailed along with a verification of the cost analyses methodology. Results, presented in the form of cumulative probability distributions for silicon cost, indicate that there is a 55% chance of reaching the DOE target of $16/kg for silicon material. This is a technically achievable cost based on expert forecasts of the results of ongoing research and development and do not imply any market prices for a given year.

  11. Compensation of the impact of low-cost manufacturing techniques in the design of E-plane multiport waveguide junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Blas, A. A.; Roca, J. M.; Cogollos, S.; Morro, J. V.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a full-wave tool for the accurate analysis and design of compensated E-plane multiport junctions is proposed. The implemented tool is capable of evaluating the undesired effects related to the use of low-cost manufacturing techniques, which are mostly due to the introduction of rounded corners in the cross section of the rectangular waveguides of the device. The obtained results show that, although stringent mechanical effects are imposed, it is possible to compensate for the impact of the cited low-cost manufacturing techniques by redesigning the matching elements considered in the original device. Several new designs concerning a great variety of E-plane components (such as right-angled bends, T-junctions and magic-Ts) are presented, and useful design guidelines are provided. The implemented tool, which is mainly based on the boundary integral-resonant mode expansion technique, has been successfully validated by comparing the obtained results to simulated data provided by a commercial software based on the finite element method.

  12. SAMICS support study. Volume 1: Cost account catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is examining the feasibility of a new industry to produce photovoltaic solar energy collectors similar to those used on spacecraft. To do this, a standardized costing procedure was developed. The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) support study supplies the following information: (1) SAMICS critique; (2) Standard data base--cost account structure, expense item costs, inflation rates, indirect requirements relationships, and standard financial parameter values; (3) Facilities capital cost estimating relationships; (4) Conceptual plant designs; (5) Construction lead times; (6) Production start-up times; (7) Manufacturing price estimates.

  13. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  14. Method for the continuous manufacture of thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, A.M.; Baron, B.N.; Masi, J.V.; Russell, T.W.

    1982-03-09

    A technique for manufacturing durable, reliable solar cells by a continuous process suitable for large-scale manufacture involves, in substance, providing a reel of thin metal foil substrate and forming on the substrate a series of layers operative to form a photovoltaic junction, short prevention blocking layers, contacts and integral encapsulation. The foil substrate is processed as a continuous reel substantially until final testing at which point, if desired, it can be cut into individual cells for deployment. In comparison with a batch process, the continuous technique can reduce manufacturing cost by as much as a factor of two.

  15. Health costs of economic expansion: the case of manufacturing accident injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, R

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesized relationship between economic expansion and accident injuries is tested using archival economic and accident data from the Los Angeles-Long Beach, California metropolitan area. The association is measured using cross-correlation techniques after variation shared with a comparison metropolitan area (Anaheim-Santa Ana-Garden Grove) is removed. Two tests of association are conducted. The first uses the raw accident rate of the comparison metropolitan area as a control variable while the second adjusts the control variable to reflect shared industrial sectors. Findings suggest that the incidence of disabling accidents increases in the month before and during the month that the manufacturing work force expands. The impact appears strongest during the month that new workers are added. PMID:453412

  16. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices 2014

    DOE PAGES

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Peter; Shet, Sudhakar; Basnyat, Prakash

    2014-12-22

    An ever increasing demand on energy has fostered many new generation technologies, which include photovoltaics. In recent years, photovoltaic industry has grown very rapidly. The installed capacity of PV for 2013 was about 37 GW and 2014 sales are expected to be around 45 GW. However, there has been excess production for last several years, which is responsible in part for the low prices (about 60 c/W). To lower the PV energy costs further, a major strategy appears to be going to high efficiency solar cells. This approach is favored (over lower cost/lower efficiency) because cell efficiency has a verymore » large influence on the acceptable manufacturing cost of a PV module. Hence, the PV industry is moving toward developing processes and equipment to manufacture solar cells that can yield efficiencies >20%. Therefore, further research is needed within existing technologies to accomplish these objectives. Likewise, research will continue to seek new materials and devices.« less

  17. Cost-effective manufacturing of compact TDLAS sensors for hazardous area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Laderer, Mathew C.; Smith, Clinton J.; Ehid, Ryan; Dallas, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is finding ever increasing utility for industrial process measurement and control. The technique's sensitivity and selectivity benefit continuous concentration measurements of specific gas components in complex gas mixtures which are often laden with liquids or solid particulates. Tradeoff options among optical path length, absorption linestrength, linewidth, cross-interferences, and sampling methodology enable sensor designers to optimize detection for specific applications. Emerging applications are demanding increasing numbers of distributed miniaturized sensors at diminishing costs. In these applications, the TDLAS specificity is a key attribute, and its high sensitivity enables novel sampling package designs with short optical path lengths. This paper describes a miniature hermetically-sealed backscatter TDLAS transceiver package designed for high-volume production at acceptable cost. Occupying a volume less than 1in3 and weighing less than 0.06 lb, the transceiver is a key component of TDLAS sensors intended for in-situ measurements of potentially explosive gas mixtures.

  18. Low cost P/M manufacture of titanium alloy components for fatigue critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkowitz, Stanley; Abkowitz, Susan M.; Weihrauch, Paul F.; Wells, Martin G. H.

    The technology of forming near-net shapes from blended elemental titanium P/M by the cold and hot isostatic pressing (CHIP) has proven itself capable of providing fully dense components with static and dynamic mechanical properties equivalent to wrought product. The restrictive cost-performance trade-offs are largely controlled by residual chloride content of the starting elemental titanium powder. This paper describes a study to establish a comprehensive and reliable data base of the static and dynamic mechanical properties as related to chloride impurity level. This is accomplished by a designed experiment at various chloride levels. From this data, a statistical model is developed to predict these properties across all chloride levels. This model of properties along with corresponding material cost estimates will allow designers and planners to evaluate components for application of CHIP fabricated P/M titanium alloys. The model has been applied to a specific helicopter turbine engine bearing housing.

  19. Phase 2 of the Array Automated Assembly Task for the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wihl, M.; Torro, J.; Scheinine, A.; Anderson, J.

    1978-01-01

    An automated process sequence, to manufacture photovoltaic modules at a capacity of approximately 500 MW per year at a cost of approximately $0.50 per peak watt is described. Verification tests were performed and are reported along with cost predictions.

  20. Integral Airframe Structures (IAS): Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munroe, J.; Wilkins, K.; Gruber, M.; Domack, Marcia S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program investigated the feasibility of using "integrally stiffened" construction for commercial transport fuselage structure. The objective of the program was to demonstrate structural performance and weight equal to current "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. Testing evaluated mechanical properties, structural details, joint performance, repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511x extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Structural performance was evaluated with a large 7475-T7351 pressure test that included the arrest of a two-bay longitudinal crack, and a measure of residual strength for a two-bay crack centered on a broken frame. Analysis predictions for the two-bay longitudinal crack panel correlated well with the test results. Analysis activity conducted by the IAS team strongly indicates that current analysis tools predict integral structural behavior as accurately as built-up structure. The cost study results indicated that, compared to built-up fabrication methods, high-speed machining structure from aluminum plate would yield a recurring cost savings of 61%. Part count dropped from 78 individual parts on a baseline panel to just 7 parts for machined IAS structure.

  1. Make or buy analysis model based on tolerance allocation to minimize manufacturing cost and fuzzy quality loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Puspitoingrum, W.; Jauhari, W. A.; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    The specification of tolerances has a significant impact on the quality of product and final production cost. The company should carefully pay attention to the component or product tolerance so they can produce a good quality product at the lowest cost. Tolerance allocation has been widely used to solve problem in selecting particular process or supplier. But before merely getting into the selection process, the company must first make a plan to analyse whether the component must be made in house (make), to be purchased from a supplier (buy), or used the combination of both. This paper discusses an optimization model of process and supplier selection in order to minimize the manufacturing costs and the fuzzy quality loss. This model can also be used to determine the allocation of components to the selected processes or suppliers. Tolerance, process capability and production capacity are three important constraints that affect the decision. Fuzzy quality loss function is used in this paper to describe the semantic of the quality, in which the product quality level is divided into several grades. The implementation of the proposed model has been demonstrated by solving a numerical example problem that used a simple assembly product which consists of three components. The metaheuristic approach were implemented to OptQuest software from Oracle Crystal Ball in order to obtain the optimal solution of the numerical example.

  2. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included.

  3. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  4. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.

  5. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  6. Feasibility Study of Solar Dome Encapsulation of Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The technical and economic advantages of using air-supported plastic enclosures to protect flat plate photovoltaic arrays are described. Conceptual designs for a fixed, latitude-tilt array and a fully tracking array were defined. Detailed wind loads and strength analyses were performed for the fixed array. Detailed thermal and power output analyses provided array performance for typical seasonal and extreme temperature conditions. Costs of each design as used in a 200 MWe central power station were defined from manufacturing and material cost estimates. The capital cost and cost of energy for the enclosed fixed-tilt array were lower than for the enclosed tracking array. The enclosed fixed-tilt array capital investment was 38% less, and the levelized bus bar energy cost was 26% less than costs for a conventional, glass-encapsulated array design. The predicted energy cost for the enclosed fixed array was 79 mills/kW-h for direct current delivered to the power conditioning units.

  7. Photovoltaic technology and applications: Overview for the workshop on photochemistry research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    The business surrounding photovoltaic energy conversion for terrestrial applications has changed dramatically in the last several years. It is now a business that makes money. Industry is responding. with manufacturing capacity expansions, and planned expansions, that will triple U.S. annual output within the next eighteen months. The majority of this product is exported (70%) where it is proven to be a cost competitive alternative. This industry provides experience in manufacturing and reliability in fielded systems that will serve as the basis for extrapolating growth to larger-scale installations and utility systems. The largest part of the National Photovoltaic Program budget supports assisting industry in advancing manufacturing technology and stimulating applications to reduce cost and expand the evolving industry. A growing segment of society looks to photovoltaics as an alternative that may be needed to replace conventional electric generating capacity. The grand challenge for photovoltaics is to make the technology economically competitive for large scale electric power generation before real or perceived evidence of environmental damage from conventional sources dictates its use at economically disruptive costs.

  8. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  9. Engineering and economic evaluation of central-station photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J. )

    1992-12-01

    This report describes the conceptual design, design optimization, and estimated cost and performance of three 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell developed under EPRI sponsorship. The third design uses thin-film copper indium diselenide flat-plate modules mounted on fixed-tilt array structures. The design and manufacture of the photovoltaic cells and modules are described, along with selection of the photovoltaic technologies, generating and cell manufacturing plant sites. Power system simulation and revenue requirement analyses are included for all of the plant designs.

  10. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included. PMID:26178782

  11. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  13. Cost reduction and manufacture of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC module: Phase I Annual Report : 21 April 1998 -- 31 October 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, E.; Kern, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report summarizes the progress made by Ascension Technology in Phase 1 of the cost reduction and manufacturing improvements of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module. This work, conducted under NREL subcontract, is a two-phase effort consisting of investigations into improving inverter packaging, soft switching, circuit optimization, design for manufacturing, manufacturing processes, and pilot production manufacturing. The objective of this subcontract is to significantly reduce the cost of the SunSine{reg_sign} inverter, enhance its performance, and streamline and expand the manufacturing process. During Phase 1, the soft-switching topology was designed, then refined to meet stringent cost and performance goals. This design resulted in improved performance, smaller overall footprint, and reduced costs. The aluminum inverter housing was redesigned, and the decision was made to conformal coat the circuit boards, which was verified through the HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing) method. Potential international markets were identified, and the inverter is designed to be easily modified to meet the requirements of other countries. Significant cost reduction and performance improvements have been achieved in Phase I, and accomplishments during Phase I include: (1) SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module costs have been reduced enough to be able to reduce the suggested list price; (2) successful implementation of soft-switching; (3) power circuit-board size reduced 53{percent}; (4) power circuit-board component count reduced 34{percent}; (5) total inverter parts count reduced 49{percent}; (6) anticipated inverter manufacturing cost reduced 57{percent} on a $/Wp rating; (7) transformer efficiency improved 1.4{percent}; and (8) inverter efficiency improved 4.7{percent} to 91.0{percent} at 275 Wac.

  14. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  15. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  16. Functional substrates for flexible organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, M.; Ruf, D.; Bläsi, B.; Glatthaar, M.; Riede, M.; Müller, C.; Zimmermann, B.; Gombert, A.

    2005-10-01

    Along with efficiency and lifetime, costs are one of the most important aspects for the commercialization of organic solar cells. Thinking of large scale production of organic solar cells by an efficient reel-to-reel process, the materials are expected to determine the costs of the final product. Our approach is to develop functional substrates for organic solar cells which have the potential for cost effective production. The functionality is obtained by combining periodically microstructured substrates with lamellar electrode structures. Such structured substrates were fabricated by cost effective replication from masterstructures that were generated by large area interference lithography. Two cell architectures were investigated - holographic microprisms and interdigital buried nanoelectrodes. A structure period of 20 μm in combination with a 2 μm wide metal grid was chosen for the microprism cells based on the results of electrical calculations. Current-voltage curves with reasonable fill factors were measured for these devices. A significant light trapping effect was predicted from optical simulations. Interdigital buried nanoelectrodes are embedded in the photoactive layer of the solar cell. Separated interdigital metal electrodes with a sufficiently high parallel resistance were manufactured despite a small electrode distance below 400 nm. Experimental results on first photovoltaic devices will be presented. We observe an insufficient rectification of the photovoltaic device which we attribute to partial electron injection into the gold anode.

  17. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  18. Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Fabian; Muthirayan, Buvaneshwari; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Integral to photovoltaics is the need to provide improved economic viability. To achieve this goal, photovoltaic technology has to be able to harness more light at less cost. A large variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts has provided cause for pursuit. To obtain a detailed profitability analysis, a flexible evaluation is crucial for benchmarking the cost-performance of this variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts. To save time and capital, a way to estimate the cost-performance of a complete solar energy system is to use computer aided modeling. In this work a benchmark tool is introduced based on a modular programming concept. The overall implementation is done in MATLAB whereas Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) is used for ray tracing calculations. This allows for a flexible and extendable structuring of all important modules, namely an advanced source modeling including time and local dependence, and an advanced optical system analysis of various optical designs to obtain an evaluation of the figure of merit. An important figure of merit: the energy yield for a given photovoltaic system at a geographical position over a specific period, can be calculated.

  19. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  20. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  1. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  3. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  4. Lasers in energy device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, A.; Schoonderbeek, A.

    2008-02-01

    Global warming is a current topic all over the world. CO II emissions must be lowered to stop the already started climate change. Developing regenerative energy sources, like photovoltaics and fuel cells contributes to the solution of this problem. Innovative technologies and strategies need to be competitive with conventional energy sources. During the last years, the photovoltaic solar cell industry has experienced enormous growth. However, for solar cells to be competitive on the longer term, both an increase in efficiency as well as reduction in costs is necessary. An effective method to reduce costs of silicon solar cells is reducing the wafer thickness, because silicon makes up a large part of production costs. Consequently, contact free laser processing has a large advantage, because of the decrease in waste materials due to broken wafers as caused by other manufacturing processes. Additionally, many novel high efficiency solar cell concepts are only economically feasible with laser technology, e.g. for scribing silicon thin-film solar cells. This paper describes laser hole drilling, structuring and texturing of silicon wafer based solar cells and describes thin film solar cell scribing. Furthermore, different types of lasers are discussed with respect to processing quality and time.

  5. Study of Potential Cost Reductions Resulting from Super-Large-Scale Manufacturing of PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 7 August 2003--30 September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Keshner, M. S.; Arya, R.

    2004-10-01

    Hewlett Packard has created a design for a ''Solar City'' factory that will process 30 million sq. meters of glass panels per year and produce 2.1-3.6 GW of solar panels per year-100x the volume of a typical, thin-film, solar panel manufacturer in 2004. We have shown that with a reasonable selection of materials, and conservative assumptions, this ''Solar City'' can produce solar panels and hit the price target of $1.00 per peak watt (6.5x-8.5x lower than prices in 2004) as the total price for a complete and installed rooftop (or ground mounted) solar energy system. This breakthrough in the price of solar energy comes without the need for any significant new invention. It comes entirely from the manufacturing scale of a large plant and the cost savings inherent in operating at such a large manufacturing scale. We expect that further optimizations from these simple designs will lead to further improvements in cost. The manufacturing process and cost depend on the choice for the active layer that converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency by which sunlight is converted into electricity can range from 7% to 15%. This parameter has a large effect on the overall price per watt. There are other impacts, as well, and we have attempted to capture them without creating undue distractions. Our primary purpose is to demonstrate the impact of large-scale manufacturing. This impact is largely independent of the choice of active layer. It is not our purpose to compare the pro's and con's for various types of active layers. Significant improvements in cost per watt can also come from scientific advances in active layers that lead to higher efficiency. But, again, our focus is on manufacturing gains and not on the potential advances in the basic technology.

  6. A Low-Cost Computer-Controlled Arduino-Based Educational Laboratory System for Teaching the Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariadou, K.; Yiasemides, K.; Trougkakos, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present a low-cost, fully computer-controlled, Arduino-based, educational laboratory (SolarInsight) to be used in undergraduate university courses concerned with electrical engineering and physics. The major goal of the system is to provide students with the necessary instrumentation, software tools and methodology in order to learn fundamental…

  7. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Systems technology, reliability, and present and projected costs of photovoltaic systems are discussed using data derived from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with photovoltaic systems deployed with a variety of users. Operating systems in two villages, one in Upper Volta and the other in southwestern Arizona are described. Energy cost comparisons are presented for photovoltaic systems versus alternative energy sources. Based on present system technology, reliability, and costs, photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for developing nations.

  8. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-07-12

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  9. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The possible processing of semiconductor photovoltaic devices is discussed. The requirements for lunar PV cells is reviewed, and the key challenges involved in their manufacturing are investigated. A schematic diagram of a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) is presented. The possible fabrication of large photovoltaic arrays in space from lunar materials is also discussed.

  10. A sensitivity analysis of central flat-plate photovoltaic systems and implications for national photovoltaics program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosetti, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of the National Photovoltaic Research Program goals to changes in individual photovoltaic system parameters is explored. Using the relationship between lifetime cost and system performance parameters, tests were made to see how overall photovoltaic system energy costs are affected by changes in the goals set for module cost and efficiency, system component costs and efficiencies, operation and maintenance costs, and indirect costs. The results are presented in tables and figures for easy reference.

  11. Reflection-type single long-pulse solar simulator for high-efficiency crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Binxin; Li, Buyin; Zhao, Rixin; Yang, Tiechen

    2011-06-01

    Photovoltaic module measurements are predominantly taken by using pulsed solar simulators. However, significant errors can be generated when the existing simulators are applied to current high-efficiency crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel solar simulator featuring reflection-type light source and single long-pulse flash. The analysis and experimental study of the capacitance effect and the technical details of the simulator including reflection-type lamp house, xenon flash lamp power supply, and source-measure unit are introduced. The results show that the complete system achieves Class AAA performance in accordance with the international standard. The proposed simulator outperforms other similar products on the market and has been adopted by some well-known photovoltaic module manufacturers. The practical application demonstrates that this high-performance and cost-effective simulator is quite suitable for photovoltaic module production line.

  12. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  13. Economically sustainable scaling of photovoltaics to meet climate targets

    DOE PAGES

    Needleman, David Berney; Poindexter, Jeremy R.; Kurchin, Rachel C.; Peters, I. Marius; Wilson, Gregory; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-04-21

    To meet climate targets, power generation capacity from photovoltaics (PV) in 2030 will have to be much greater than is predicted from either steady state growth using today's manufacturing capacity or industry roadmaps. Analysis of whether current technology can scale, in an economically sustainable way, to sufficient levels to meet these targets has not yet been undertaken, nor have tools to perform this analysis been presented. Here, we use bottom-up cost modeling to predict cumulative capacity as a function of technological and economic variables. We find that today's technology falls short in two ways: profits are too small relative tomore » upfront factory costs to grow manufacturing capacity rapidly enough to meet climate targets, and costs are too high to generate enough demand to meet climate targets. We show that decreasing the capital intensity (capex) of PV manufacturing to increase manufacturing capacity and effectively reducing cost (e.g., through higher efficiency) to increase demand are the most effective and least risky ways to address these barriers to scale. We also assess the effects of variations in demand due to hard-to-predict factors, like public policy, on the necessary reductions in cost.Lastly, we review examples of redundant technology pathways for crystalline silicon PV to achieve the necessary innovations in capex, performance, and price.« less

  14. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW ac solar tracking sub- array for grid-connected PV power system applications. Phase 1, Annual technical report, 11 July 1995--31 July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-06-01

    The overall goal of this effort is to reduce the installed cost of utility scale grid connected photovoltaic power systems. The focus of the effort is on ``BOS`` (Balance-Of-System) component manufacturing technology, which essentially involves all PV power system engineering, manufacturing, assembly and construction tasks from the receipt of a PV module to the deliver of grid connected electricity.

  15. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  16. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  17. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  18. Data base on batteries, power-conditioning equipment, and photovoltaic arrays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, A; Kapner, M; Morse, T

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compile an up-to-date comprehensive data base for research, design, and development of photovoltaic systems, primarily in the areas of applications and battery technology, and secondarily in the area of power conditioning and photovoltaic array technology. This volume contains the data base used to develop the end-use scenarios and identify the R and D needed for batteries to be used in photovoltaic power systems. In addition to its specific application to the present study, this data base is intended to provide state-of-the-art information to manufacturers of the various components of photovoltaic power systems, system designers, and researchers in this field. An extensive literature search was conducted to obtain technical data on batteries, power conditioners, and photovoltaic arrays. The data obtained from published technical literature and direct communication with manufacturers and developers are compiled. Principles of operation, types of systems, performance characteristics, test data, and cost data are included for each of the components. (WHK)

  19. Photovoltaic Power Station with Ultracapacitors for Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Soltis, Richard F.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power station in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy is discussed. Developments in the semiconductor industry have reduced the cost and increased the attainable efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic panels; as a result, photovoltaic generation of power for diverse applications has become practical. Photovoltaic generation can provide electric power in remote locations where electric power would otherwise not be available. Photovoltaic generation can also afford independence from utility systems. Applications include supplying power to scientific instruments and medical equipment in isolated geographical regions.

  20. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  1. The future of amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R; Luft, W

    1995-06-01

    Amorphous silicon modules are commercially available. They are the first truly commercial thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices. Well-defined production processes over very large areas (>1 m{sup 2}) have been implemented. There are few environmental issues during manufacturing, deployment in the field, or with the eventual disposal of the modules. Manufacturing safety issues are well characterized and controllable. The highest measured initial efficiency to date is 13.7% for a small triple-stacked cell and the highest stabilized module efficiency is 10%. There is a consensus among researchers, that in order to achieve a 15% stabilized efficiency, a triple-junction amorphous silicon structure is required. Fundamental improvements in alloys are needed for higher efficiencies. This is being pursued through the DOE/NREL Thin-Film Partnership Program. Cost reductions through improved manufacturing processes are being pursued under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory/US Department of Energy (NREL/DOE)-sponsored research in manufacturing technology (PVMaT). Much of the work in designing a-Si devices is a result of trying to compensate for the Staebler-Wronski effect. Some new deposition techniques hold promise because they have produced materials with lower stabilized defect densities. However, none has yet produced a high efficiency device and shown it to be more stable than those from standard glow discharge deposited material.

  2. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and

  3. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  4. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    PubMed

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  5. Silicon material technology status. [assessment for electronic and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon has been the basic element for the electronic and photovoltaic industries. The use of silicon as the primary element for terrestrial photovoltaic solar arrays is projected to continue. The reasons for this projection are related to the maturity of silicon technology, the ready availability of extremely pure silicon, the performance of silicon solar cells, and the considerable present investment in technology and manufacturing facilities. The technologies for producing semiconductor grade silicon and, to a lesser extent, refined metallurgical grade silicon are considered. It is pointed out that nearly all of the semiconductor grade silicon is produced by processes based on the Siemens deposition reactor, a technology developed 26 years ago. The state-of-the-art for producing silicon by this process is discussed. It is expected that efforts to reduce polysilicon process costs will continue.

  6. Photovoltaics: From the laboratory to the marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.S.; Surek, T.; Thornton, J.

    1991-03-01

    Photovoltaics (PV), the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is experiencing significant improvements in technology performance and lowered costs. Fostering these improvements, the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports research and provides services to the US PV industry. This paper presents the recent advances and future direction of the PV project. Research areas are Fundamental and Supporting Research, Advanced Thin-Film Materials, High-Efficiency Materials, Module Development, and Systems Development. Materials of interest include amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide and related alloys, transparent conductors, antireflection coatings, substrates, and encapsulants. The PV project inherently provides technology transfer that helps industry shorten the time to bring R D advances to the marketplace. SERI annually performs over 10,000 measurements for the entire PV community, participates in collaborative research, and welcomes visiting scientists. Two specific areas of recently increased national focus are: (1) manufacturing processes for cost-effective PV modules, and (2) systems development for high-value utility applications. The SERI research approach is based on facilitating direct contact between industry, electric utilities, and others interested in PV technology. This approach heavily relies on SERI/industry partnerships. The arrangements vary to address generic and company-specific problems to improve the US industry's competitive position and accelerate greater electric utility deployment of PV systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A low-cost computer-controlled Arduino-based educational laboratory system for teaching the fundamentals of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariadou, K.; Yiasemides, K.; Trougkakos, N.

    2012-11-01

    We present a low-cost, fully computer-controlled, Arduino-based, educational laboratory (SolarInsight) to be used in undergraduate university courses concerned with electrical engineering and physics. The major goal of the system is to provide students with the necessary instrumentation, software tools and methodology in order to learn fundamental concepts of semiconductor physics by exploring the process of an experimental physics inquiry. The system runs under the Windows operating system and is composed of a data acquisition/control board, a power supply and processing boards, sensing elements, a graphical user interface and data analysis software. The data acquisition/control board is based on the Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform. The graphical user interface and communication with the Arduino are developed in C# and C++ programming languages respectively, by using IDE Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Professional, which is freely available to students. Finally, the data analysis is performed by using the open source, object-oriented framework ROOT. Currently the system supports five teaching activities, each one corresponding to an independent tab in the user interface. SolarInsight has been partially developed in the context of a diploma thesis conducted within the Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus under the co-supervision of the Physics and Electronic Computer Systems departments’ academic staff.

  8. Why silicon is and will remain the dominant photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajendra

    2009-07-01

    Rising demands of energy in emerging economies, coupled with the green house gas emissions related problems around the globe have provided a unique opportunity of exploiting the advantages offered by photovoltaic (PV) systems for green energy electricity generation. Similar to cell phones, power generated by PV systems can reach over two billion people worldwide who have no access to clean energy. Only silicon based PV devices meet the low-cost manufacturing criterion of clean energy conversion (abundance of raw material and no environmental health and safety issues). The use of larger size glass substrates and manufacturing techniques similar to the ones used by the liquid crystal display industry and the large scale manufacturing of amorphous silicon thin films based modules (~ GW per year manufacturing at a single location) can lead to installed PV system cost of $3/Wp. This will open a huge market for grid connected PV systems and related markets. With further research and development, this approach can provide $2/Wp installed PV system costs in the next few years. At this cost level, PV electricity generation is competitive with any other technology, and PV power generation can be a dominant electricity generation technology in the 21st century.

  9. Byproduct mineral commodities used for the production of photovoltaic cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2010-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel costs, environmental concerns relating to global climate change, and Government policy to signifcantly increase our Nation's energy independence have placed greater emphasis on the generation of electricity from renewable sources, such as the Sun (light and heat), water, and wind, which for all intents and purposes are inexhaustible resources. Although the total amount of electricity generated from the direct conversion of sunlight through photovoltaic cells is relatively small compared with that from other forms of renewable energy, the rate of growth in the sector is signifcant. The total value of energy of photovoltaic cells produced worldwide increased to nearly 7 gigawatts (GW) in 2008 from 45 megawatts (MW) in 1990, a compound annual growth rate of about 30 percent. In the United States, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells has grown exponentially to about 480 MW in 2008, accounting for 6 percent of world production, from less than 10 MW of photovoltaic capacity in 1990 (Benner, 2007; U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010), a compound annual growth rate of approxi-mately 23 percent. A production capacity of 1 GW of electricity [or 8,760 gigawatthours1 (GWh)] is equivalent to the annual electricity requirements for roughly 800,000 average households in the United States (U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010). This estimate does not include losses of electricity, such as during transmission through power lines.

  10. Photovoltaic industry progress through 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    The growth of the US photovoltaics (PV) industry over the past decade has been impressive. First designed to provide power for satellites using high-cost production techniques, PV is now the economical choice in many remote terrestrial applications. The remarkable growth of PV in terms of quality of cells and modules, production techniques, and system design, was initiated by a cooperative effort of the US Government and the domestic PV manufacturers. European and Japanese firms entered the PV industry later, but are also growing rapidy. The Europeans continue to supply PV systems for village electrification and water pumping to many Third World countries. The Japanese have been developing the amorphous silicon (A-Si) technology by expanding its use in consumer goods. The world PV industry saw dramatic changes in industry ownership and in the emphasis on developing new and improved technology during 1984. The objective of this report is to present information on the developments of the world PV industry and focuses on developments occurring in 1984. Information is presented on a regional basis (US, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company-confidential data. All information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of the technical literature and direct contacts with PV manufacturers. Prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those of other sources. The information contained in this report is prepared for use by the Department of Energy for their use in long-term R and D planning. However, this information should also be of interest by PV manufacturers and to those who may be contemplating entering the PV market. PV shipments for 1984, government supports for PV, and various PV market sectors are discussed.

  11. Development of the SEA Corporation Powergrid{trademark} photovoltaic concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.; Curchod, D.; Daroczi, S.; Walpert, M.; Sahagian, J.; Pepper, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report covers the three phase effort to bring the SEA Corporation`s Powergrid{trademark} from the concept stage to pilot production. The three phases of this contract covered component development, prototype module development, and pilot line production. The Powergrid is a photovoltaic concentrator that generates direct current electricity directly from sunlight using a linear Fresnel lens. Analysis has shown that the Powergrid has the potential to be very low cost in volume production. Before the start of the project, only proof of concept demonstrations of the components had been completed. During the project, SEA Corporation developed a low cost extruded Fresnel lens, a low cost receiver assembly using one sun type cells, a low cost plastic module housing, a single axis tracking system and frame structure, and pilot production equipment and techniques. In addition, an 800 kW/yr pilot production rate was demonstrated and two 40 kW systems were manufactured and installed.

  12. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  13. US photovoltaic patents: 1991-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, L.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class 'Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric' and the subclasses 'Photoelectric,' 'Testing,' and 'Applications.' The search also located patents that contained the words 'photovoltaic(s)' or 'solar cell(s)' and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  14. Manufacturing Process for Low Cost Dual Layer Blu-ray Disc Read-Only Memory Media Based on the “All Spin Method”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Eiji; Hisada, Kazuya; Ito, Eiichi; Tomekawa, Yuko; Nishikiori, Keiji; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Abe, Shinya

    2008-07-01

    To achieve low-cost Blu-ray disc (BD) media, a test line for dual layer media based on the “All Spin Method”, which we have previously proposed, was fabricated. All transparent layers (the space layer, the cover layer, and the hard coat) were made of inexpensive UV resin by spin coating. Dual-layer BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) media were manufactured with a cycle time of 4 s, and the characteristics of the media were observed. The results indicated that (1) the variation in total thickness of the transparent layers was within ±2 µm (2) tilt properties after sudden environmental change and storage at high temperatures were good; (3) reproduced signals showed good jitter values and symbol error rate (SER); (4) reproduced signals were not degraded even after a storage test of 200 h at 80 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH). We have thus confirmed that the manufacturing line employing the All Spin Method has potential for mass production of low cost BD media. The All Spin Method is adaptable not only to the manufacture of BD-ROM but also BD-R (recordable) and BD-RE (rewritable), so it can contribute to decreasing the costs of all types of BD media.

  15. Optimization of low cost, non toxic, earth abundant p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for Photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, J. J.; Patel, S.; Joshi, U. S.

    2016-09-01

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) is one of promising candidate as an absorber material for thin film solar cell. Because of relatively higher prize of Indium and hazardous environmental impact of processing of Gallium, CTS is suitable alternative candidate to Cu2SnS3 (CIGS) based solar cell as its constituent elements such as copper, tin and sulphur are abundantly available in earth's crust. CTS is ternary semiconductor and its energy band gap is 1.5eV, which is perfectly matched with solar energy spectrum for maximum transfer of solar energy into electrical energy through photovoltaic action. The primary methods for the synthesis of CTS are Thermal evaporation, electrochemical, sputtering and wet chemical methods. Here in this paper we have optimized a low cost non-vacuum solution process method for the synthesis of CTS without any external sulfurization. The X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of phase with the peaks corresponding to (112), (220) and (312) planes. Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) for the synthesis of CTS is suitable for large area deposition and it includes several routes like solvothermal methods, direct liquid coating and nano ink based technique. The metal Chloride salts and thiourea is used as a source of sulphur to synthesize CTS solution and homogeneous thin films of CTS deposited on glass substrate using spin coating method. Use of abrasive solvent like hydrazine and hydrogen sulphide gas which are used to synthesize CTS thin film have detrimental effect on environment, we report eco friendly solvent based approach to synthesize CTS at low temperature 200 °C.

  16. Photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, H.

    1982-11-01

    The utilization of photovoltaic generators in measuring and signalling installations, communication systems, water pumping, and electric power plants is discussed. The advantages of solar generators over conventional power supply equipment are outlined.

  17. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  18. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1998. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1999

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.; ZWEIBEL,K.; MOSKOWITZ,P.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the workshop ``Photovoltaics and the Environment'' was to bring together PV manufacturers and industry analysts to define EH and S issues related to the large-scale commercialization of PV technologies.

  19. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  20. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic maufacturing technology, Phase 2A. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1992--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, G.; Mackamul, K.; Metcalf, D.; Koniares, A.; Skinner, D.; Volltrauer, H.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes teamed research by Utility Power Group (UPG) and Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., (APS) to advance photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase average module performance, and increase the existing production capacity. UPG and APS conducted parallel efforts to develop their manufacturing lines. Areas of focus included encapsulation and termination, product design, process and quality control, and automation. UPG improved the existing encapsulation system by developing advanced encapsulation materials and processes, resulting in a module that does not require backing glass. UPG also developed advanced termination materials and processes. APS performed development activities centered on the EUREKA manufacturing line. Developments in the APS EUREKA encapsulation system were in addition to the UPG activity on encapsulation, and they offer an alternative approach to the problems of encapsulating large-area, thin-film modules.

  1. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr., Johney Boyd

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure,more » rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process« less

  2. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated.

  3. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated. PMID:27087582

  4. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  5. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  6. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  7. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  8. Exploring diagnostic capabilities for application to new photovoltaic technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, Kevin D.; Quintana, Enrico Carlo; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Quintana, Michael A.; Hacke, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Explosive growth in photovoltaic markets has fueled new creative approaches that promise to cut costs and improve reliability of system components. However, market demands require rapid development of these new and innovative technologies in order to compete with more established products and capture market share. Often times diagnostics that assist in R&D do not exist or have not been applied due to the innovative nature of the proposed products. Some diagnostics such as IR imaging, electroluminescence, light IV, dark IV, x-rays, and ultrasound have been employed in the past and continue to serve in development of new products, however, innovative products with new materials, unique geometries, and previously unused manufacturing processes require additional or improved test capabilities. This fast-track product development cycle requires diagnostic capabilities to provide the information that confirms the integrity of manufacturing techniques and provides the feedback that can spawn confidence in process control, reliability and performance. This paper explores the use of digital radiography and computed tomography (CT) with other diagnostics to support photovoltaic R&D and manufacturing applications.

  9. Low-cost visible-near infrared sensor for on-line monitoring of fat and fatty acids content during the manufacturing process of the milk.

    PubMed

    Villar, Alberto; Gorritxategi, Eneko; Aranzabe, Estibaliz; Fernández, Santiago; Otaduy, Deitze; Fernández, Luis A

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the calibration, validation and testing process of a low-cost on-line visible-near infrared (400-1100 nm) sensor for the monitoring of fat and fatty acids content in milk during the manufacturing process of milk. The optical, mechanical and electronic designs of the sensor have been developed in Tekniker IK4 research centre just as its manufacturing process. The measurement range of the sensor is 400-1100 nm thus it covers the visible range (400-780 nm) and the short-wave near infrared (780-1100 nm). Chemometric techniques were applied with the purpose of obtaining a predictive model for each parameter correlating the spectra obtained by the sensor with the parameters analysed in the laboratory. The models were developed by Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) obtaining one model for each parameter. The raw milk samples used in this work were provided by CAPSA (Asturias, Spain).

  10. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  11. Photovoltaic Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute through David Scheiman and Phillip Jenkins provided the Photovoltaics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with expertise in photovoltaic (PV) research, flight experiments and solar cell calibration. NASA GRC maintains the only world-class solar cell calibration and measurement facility within NASA. GRC also has a leadership role within the solar cell calibration community, and is leading the effort to develop ISO standards for solar cell calibration. OAI scientists working under this grant provided much of the expertise and leadership in this area.

  12. Photovoltaics and the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2005-09-21

    Over the past five years, solar energy usage has grown by about 43 percent a year, giving rise to a billion-dollar industry in photovoltaics (PV) or getting electricity from light. The word photovoltaics combines the Greek phos, or light, with the “volt” of electricity. PV technologies have distinct environmental advantages over conventional power technologies, such as: no noise, no emissions, no need for fuel and power lines. Compared to burning coal, a gigawatt-hour of PV-generated electricity would prevent the release of about 1,000 tons of carbon dioxide, eight of sulfur dioxide, four of nitrogen oxides, and 0.4 tons of particulates. However, manufacturing the solar cells that transform light to electricity requires the use of some toxic and flammable substances. Addressing the environmental, health, and safety concerns of the PV industry to minimize risk while ensuring economic viability and public support is the work of the National Photovoltaic Environmental Health, & Safety Assistance Center at BNL.

  13. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  14. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  15. Economic and financial analysis of residential photovoltaic systems. The impact of solar photovoltaics on utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzman, M. T.; Katzman, A. C.

    1982-02-01

    Hourly load data from El Paso Electric and Boston Edison are subjected to preliminary examination by comparison with simulated photovoltaic array output. Three utility production costing and reliability models are compared: SYSGEN, SIMSTOR, and GENCOST. All simulations suggest that photovoltaic penetration will: (1) result in economically significant fuel savings; (2) result in small reductions in capacity requirements; (3) result in total savings that are likely to exceed the costs of photovoltaic systems by the late 1980s. The value of savings per MW of photovoltaics diminishes with increased penetration.

  16. A low cost technique to evaluate usable product for small manufacturing companies: a case study on Garcia robot.

    PubMed

    An, Vatana; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique to evaluate user interfaces is introduces. The technique is effective and affordable for small manufacturing companies. By using this technique, an integration of users' feedbacks and some usability concepts, a product can be 3 times easier to use among potential users and more than 5 times easier to use among motivated users. In addition, the technique can be implemented with the company's employees as participants.

  17. Advanced manufacturing technologies for reduced cost and weight in portable ruggedized VIS-IR and multi-mode optical systems for land, sea, and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Spinazzola, Robert; Morrison, Donald; Macklin, Dennis; Marion, Jared

    2011-06-01

    Homeland security systems, special forces, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and marine patrols require low cost, high performance, multi-mode visible through infrared (VIS-IR) wavelength optical systems to identify and neutralize potential threats that often arise at long ranges and under poor visibility conditions. Long range and wide spectral performance requirements favor reflective optical system design solutions. The limited field of view of such designs can be significantly enhanced by the use of catadioptric optical solutions that utilize molded or diamond point machined VIS-IR lenses downstream from reflective objective optics. A common optical aperture that services multiple modes of field-of-view, operating wavelength, and includes laser ranging and spotting, provides the highest utility and is most ideal for size and weight. Such a design also often requires fast, highly aspheric, reflective, refractive, and sometimes diffractive surfaces using high performance and aggressively light-weighted materials that demand the finest of manufacturing technologies. Visible wavelength performance sets the bar for component optical surface irregularity on the order of 20 nm RMS and surface finishes less than 3.0 nm RMS. Aluminum mirrors and structures can also be precision machined to yield "snap together alignment" or limited compensation assembly approaches to reduce cost and enhance interchangeability. Diamond point turning, die cast and investment cast mirror substrates and structures, computerized optical polishing, mirror replication, lens molding and other advanced manufacturing technologies can all be used to minimize the cost of this type of optical equipment. This paper discusses the tradeoffs among materials and process selection for catadioptric, multi-mode systems that are under development for a variety of DoD and Homeland Security applications. Several examples are profiled to illuminate the confluence of applicable design and manufacturing

  18. Photovoltaics: Energy for the New Millenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surek, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a semiconductor-based technology that directly converts sunlight to electricity. The stimulus for terrestrial PV started more than 25 years ago in response to the oil crises of the 1970s, which resulted in major government programs in the United States, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. Ongoing concerns with the global environment, as well as the worldwide efforts to seek alternate, indigenous sources of energy, continue to drive the investment in PV research and deployment. Today, the manufacture, sale, and use of PV has become a billion-dollar industry worldwide, with nearly 200 megawatts (MW) of PV modules shipped in 1999. The twenty five years of research and development led to the discovery of new PV materials, devices, and fabrication approaches; continuing improvements in the efficiency and reliability of solar cells and modules; and lower PV module and system costs. This talk reviews the rapid progress that has occurred in PV technology from the laboratory to the marketplace, including reviews of the leading technology options, status and issues, and key industry players. New processes for fabricating PV materials and devices, and innovative PV approaches with low-cost potential are elements of an ongoing research program aimed at future advancements in PV cost and performance While major market opportunities continue to exist in the developing countries, where sizable populations are without any electricity, today's manufacturing expansions are fueled by market initiatives for grid-connected PV in residential and commercial buildings. The combinations of increased production capacities, with the attendant cost reductions as a result of economies of scale, are expected to lead to sustainable markets. A key to achieving the ultimate potential of PV is to continue to increase the sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies and translate the laboratory successes to cost-competitive products. Building a robust technology base is essential

  19. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  20. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  1. Kickbacks, courtesies or cost-effectiveness?: Application of the Medicare antikickback Law to the marketing and promotional practices of drug and medical device manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Bulleit, T N; Krause, J H

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the purposes and history of the antikickback law and describes its evolution into a potent weapon against the corruption of medical decision making in the procurement of prescription drugs and medical devices. The article also details a variety of strategies for reducing risks under the law in several key areas of importance to manufacturers. While the purposes of the law are laudable, its current broad interpretation may impede not only corruption, but also benign forms of customer relations and innovative approaches to cost-effective medical care.

  2. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  3. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein-Bonte, I.Y.; Fischer, A.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a product comprising a photovoltaic cell including a luminescent dye which will absorb radiation at a wavelength to which the cell is not significantly responsive and emit radiation at a higher wavelength at which it is responsive. The improvement described here is wherein the dye comprises a lepidopterene.

  4. Photovoltaic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  5. The new alchemy of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The work is a review. The expanding field of use of photovoltaic electric power plants includes single family homes. Solar batteries with a surface area of less than 90 square meters mounted on a roof totally or partially satisfy their daily requirement for electric power. The cost of a single family, approximately 220 square meter home built near Sante Fe and equipped with a passive solar system with a photovoltaic power plant with a power production of 6,500 kilovolthours per year is 190,000 dollars. The cost of a solar battery has been reduced to 7 to 15 dollars per watt of peak power, which is totally insufficient for buy back even over forth years. The threshold of cost, when the solar battery is competitive is 3 dollars per watt. Nevertheless, approximately 6,000 single family dwelling passive solar systems with a photovoltaic power plant are in operation in the United States. The previous opponents of the photovoltaic method, the oil companies, have become suporters of the development and production of solar energy. After the decline in 1982 as a result of the five fold reduction of government financing in works in the field of renewable energy sources, the photovoltaic industry enjoyed a new rise in popularity.

  6. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  7. Will we exceed 50% efficiency in photovoltaics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant and reliable source of energy we have to provide for the multi-terawatt challenge we are facing. Although huge, this resource is relatively dispersed. High conversion efficiency is probably necessary for cost effectiveness. Solar cell efficiencies above 40% have been achieved with multijunction (MJ) solar cells. These achievements are here described. Possible paths for improvement are hinted at including third generation photovoltaics concepts. It is concluded that it is very likely that the target of 50% will eventually be achieved. This high efficiency requires operating under concentrated sunlight, partly because concentration helps increase the efficiency but mainly because the cost of the sophisticated cells needed can only be paid by extracting as much electric power form each cell as possible. The optical challenges associated with the concentrator optics and the tools for overcoming them, in particular non-imaging optics, are briefly discussed and the results and trends are described. It is probable that optical efficiency over 90% will be possible in the future. This would lead to a module efficiency of 45%. The manufacturing of a concentrator has to be addressed at three levels of integration: module, array, and photovoltaic (PV) subfield. The PV plant as a whole is very similar than a flat module PV plant with two-axes tracking. At the module level, the development of tools for easy manufacturing and quality control is an important topic. Furthermore, they can accommodate in different position cells with different spectral sensitivities so complementing the effort in manufacturing MJ cells. At the array level, a proper definition of the nameplate watts, since the diffuse light is not used, is under discussion. The cost of installation of arrays in the field can be very much reduced by self aligning tracking control strategies. At the subfield level, aspects such as the self shadowing of arrays causes the CPV subfields to

  8. Evaluation of the technical feasibility and effective cost of various wafer thicknesses for the manufacture of solar cells. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-20

    The principal activities in the performance of this contract effort include practical evaluation of the Yasunaga YQ-100 saw in a production environment. The wafering system is a free-abrasive multiple-loop single wire machine where the number of wafers/cm is determined by the wire pitch. In addition, the effects of wire diameter and abrasive size were studied. Solar cells were manufactured from each saw run to analyze surface damage and effects varying thickness on efficiency. It was determined that surface damage was much reduced compared to fixed abrasive saws, and as little as 5 to 10 micrometers of surface removal from each side of the wafer was sufficient to obtain optimum efficiency for the particular process which was used. Since thin wafers were produced, an analysis of panel manufacture using thin cells was made with special concern for flexibility of the panels and breakage. The saw was found to be much more labor intensive than expected, and wafering system modifications are recommended which can result in effective cost reduction for the manufacture of solar cells.

  9. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  10. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: Advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Michael J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discussed. Step efficiencies particularly for differentiation, media requirements and technology choice are amongst the key process economic drivers identified for hPSCs. Progress made to address these cost drivers in hPSC bioprocessing strategies is discussed. These include improving expansion and differentiation yields in planar and bioreactor technologies, the development of xeno-free media and microcarrier coatings, identification of optimal bioprocess operating conditions to control cell fate and the development of directed differentiation protocols that reduce reliance on expensive morphogens such as growth factors and small molecules. These approaches offer methods to further optimise hPSC bioprocessing in terms of its commercial feasibility. PMID:25524780

  11. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  12. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  13. Multiple EFG silicon ribbon technology as the basis for manufacturing low-cost terrestrial solar cells. [Epitaxial Film Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B.; Kalejs, J. P.; Ho, C. T.; Wald, F. V.

    1981-01-01

    Mackintosh et al. (1978) have reported on the development of a multiple ribbon furnace based on the 'edge defined film fed growth' (EFG) process for the fabrication of silicon ribbon. It has been demonstrated that this technology can meet the requirements for a silicon substrate material to be used in the manufacture of solar panels which can meet requirements regarding a selling price of $0.70/Wp when certain goals in terms of throughput and quality are achieved. These goals for the multiple ribbon technology using 10 cm wide ribbon require simultaneous growth of 12 ribbons by one operator at average speeds of 4 to 4.5 cm/min, and 13% efficient solar cells. A description is presented of the progress made toward achieving these goals. It is concluded that the required performance levels have now been achieved. The separate aspects of technology must now be integrated into a single prototype furnace.

  14. PV Manufacturing R&D Project -- Trends in the U.S. PV Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K. E.; Mitchell, R. L.; Bower, W. I.; King, R.

    2005-01-01

    To foster continued growth in the U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMR&D) Project--a partnership with U.S. PV industry participants to perform cost-shared manufacturing research and development. Throughout FY 2004, PVMR&D managed fourteen subcontracts across the industry. The impact of PVMR&D is quantified by reductions in direct module manufacturing costs, scale-up of existing PV production capacity, and accrual of cost savings to the public and industry. An analysis of public and industry investment shows that both recaptured funds by mid-1998 based on estimated manufacturing cost savings from PVMR&D participation. Since project inception, total PV manufacturing capacity has increased from 14 MW to 201 MW at the close of 2003, while direct manufacturing costs declined from $5.55/W to $2.49/W. These results demonstrate continued progress toward the overriding goals of the PVMR&D project.

  15. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  16. Silicon wafer-based tandem cells: The ultimate photovoltaic solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent large price reductions with wafer-based cells have increased the difficulty of dislodging silicon solar cell technology from its dominant market position. With market leaders expected to be manufacturing modules above 16% efficiency at 0.36/Watt by 2017, even the cost per unit area (60-70/m2) will be difficult for any thin-film photovoltaic technology to significantly undercut. This may make dislodgement likely only by appreciably higher energy conversion efficiency approaches. A silicon wafer-based cell able to capitalize on on-going cost reductions within the mainstream industry, but with an appreciably higher than present efficiency, might therefore provide the ultimate PV solution. With average selling prices of 156 mm quasi-square monocrystalline Si photovoltaic wafers recently approaching 1 (per wafer), wafers now provide clean, low cost templates for overgrowth of thin, wider bandgap high performance cells, nearly doubling silicon's ultimate efficiency potential. The range of possible Si-based tandem approaches is reviewed together with recent results and ultimate prospects.

  17. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  18. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  19. Thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K; Ullal, H S

    1989-05-01

    Thin films are considered a potentially attractive technological approach to making cost-effective electricity by photovoltaics. Over the last twenty years, many have been investigated and some (cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, amorphous silicon) have become leading candidates for future large-scale commercialization. This paper surveys the past development of these key thin films and gives their status and future prospects. In all cases, significant progress toward cost-effective PV electricity has been made. If this progress continues, it appears that thin film PV could provide electricity that is competitive for summer daytime peaking power requirements by the middle of the 1990s; and electricity in a range that is competitive with fossil fuel costs (i.e., 6 cents/kilowatt-hour) should be available from PV around the turn of the century. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Photovoltaic Power Systems: A Tour Through the Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems are examined as potentially major energy sources, along with the economic factors that will affect their future use. Cell design, power efficiency, and manufacturing problems are also considered. (MA)

  1. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  2. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Advanced thermal management materials for concentrator photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2010-08-01

    Thermal management is a critical issue for photovoltaics (PVs), especially concentrator photovoltaic systems. Thermal management problems are similar for all semiconductors, including those used in microelectronics and other optoelectronic applications, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), detectors and displays. We divide the thermal management problem into two parts: heat dissipation and thermal stresses. Heat dissipation affects efficiency and lifetime. Thermal stresses affect manufacturing yield and lifetime. Traditional thermal management materials all have serious deficiencies. Copper and aluminum have high coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), which can cause severe thermal stresses during manufacturing and in service. Compliant attach materials, used to minimize thermal stresses, all have major drawbacks. Traditional low-CTE thermal management materials have relatively low thermal conductivities and are hard to machine. In response to these deficiencies, new thermal management materials have been, and are continuing to be developed, which have low CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times that of copper. Some are reportedly are cheaper than copper. In this paper, we survey the six categories of advanced thermal materials, including properties, state of maturity and cost. We also review a CPV application in which an advanced metal matrix composite with a tailored CTE eliminated solder joint failure and provided other benefits.

  4. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  5. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  6. Macromolecular architectures for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Popere, Bhooshan C; Della Pelle, Andrea M; Poe, Ambata; Thayumanavan, S

    2012-03-28

    Research in the field of organic photovoltaics has gained considerable momentum in the last two decades owing to the need for developing low-cost and efficient energy harvesting systems. Elegant molecular architectures have been designed, synthesized and employed as active materials for photovoltaic devices thereby leading to a better molecular structure-device property relationship understanding. In this perspective, we outline new macromolecular scaffolds that have been designed within the purview of each of the three fundamental processes involving light harvesting, charge separation and charge transport.

  7. Photovoltaic systems sizing for Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, A.H.; Driss, B.A.; Amimeur, R.; Lorenzo, E.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an optimization method applicable to stand-alone photovoltaic systems as a function of its reliability. For a given loss-of-load probability (LLP), there are many combinations of battery capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. The problem consists in determining the couple which corresponds to a minimum total system cost. The method has been applied to various areas all over Algeria taking into account various climatic zones. The parameter used to define the different climatic zones is the clearness index KT for all the considered sites. The period of the simulation system is 10 years. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Development of cost-effective manufacturing process for producing ceramic turbocharger rotors. Volume 1. Final report, October 1985-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, R.J.; Mullen, R.L.; Baker, D.E.; Yeh, H.C.

    1987-08-14

    Ceramic turbine rotors for turbochargers, because of the material's low density, offer faster turbocharger rotor acceleration which improves engine response and vehicle acceleration. Ceramics use relatively low-cost materials instead of the currently used expensive, exotic, and sometimes scarce-metal elements and, hopefully, will allow the production of less-expensive rotors. Only in the past few years have prototype ceramic rotors been produced. The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM) established a program to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a cost-effective ceramic rotor for military use with Garrett Automotive as the prime contractor and the AiResearch Casting Company (ACC) as the major subcontractor. While ACC has been able to produce small (passenger car) ceramic rotors, within the timeframe of this program, ACC was not able to produce a satisfactory large turbocharger rotor. A major goal of this program was to develop a domestic source for rotor production, but from Garrett's experience no other U.S. company was capable. Therefore, to conclude the program with demonstration hardware, a Japanese supplier of known capability (Kyocera) was asked to make the rotors.

  9. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  10. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  11. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  12. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  13. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  14. All-Oxide Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Kupfer, Benjamin; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Zaban, Arie

    2012-12-20

    Recently, a new field in photovoltaics (PV) has emerged, focusing on solar cells that are entirely based on metal oxide semiconductors. The all-oxide PV approach is very attractive due to the chemical stability, nontoxicity, and abundance of many metal oxides that potentially allow manufacturing under ambient conditions. Already today, metal oxides (MOs) are widely used as components in PV cells such as transparent conducting front electrodes or electron-transport layers, while only very few MOs have been used as light absorbers. In this Perspective, we review recent developments of all-oxide PV systems, which until today were mostly based on Cu2O as an absorber. Furthermore, ferroelectric BiFeO3-based PV systems are discussed, which have recently attracted considerable attention. The performance of all-oxide PV cells is discussed in terms of general PV principles, and directions for progress are proposed, pointing toward the development of novel metal oxide semiconductors using combinatorial methods.

  15. Flat-plate solar array project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: Ten years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, a Government-sponsored photovoltaics project, was initiated in January 1975 (previously named the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project) to stimulate the development of PV systems for widespread use. Its goal then was to develop PV modules with 10% efficiency, a 20-year lifetime, and a selling price of $0.50 per peak watt of generating capacity (1975 dollars). It was recognized that cost reduction of PV solar-cell and module manufacturing was the key achievement needed if PV power systems were to be economically competitive for large-scale terrestrial use.

  16. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  17. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  18. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  19. Photovoltaics and electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

    1981-12-01

    The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

  20. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  1. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-11-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  2. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  4. New economic cost perspectives for valuing solar technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Awerbuch, S.

    1995-12-31

    Utility planning models evaluate alternative resource options using engineering oriented, discounted-cash-flow (DCF) methodologies to find least-cost options. Although DCF has been widely used for decades, recent capital budgeting experience in manufacturing suggests that more sophisticated procedures are required for comparing passive, capital intensive solar technologies to expense-intensive fossil generation. DCF techniques, which ignore financial risk, have a dismal record for correctly valuing new manufacturing process technologies such as robotics and computer-integrated manufacturing, in part because the benefits cannot be easily measured using traditional accounting concepts. This paper illustrates the application of capital-market theory to the valuation of conventional fossil resources as well as photovoltaics (PV). The paper also explores the importance of technological progress and critically examines the widespread practice of evaluating energy technologies on the basis of their levelized costs. 73 refs., 16 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of encapsulation processing and a manufacturing productivity analysis for photovoltaic cells are discussed. The goals were: (1) to understand the relationships between both formulation variables and process variables; (2) to define conditions required for optimum performance; (3) to predict manufacturing yield; and (4) to provide documentation to industry.

  6. Design and construction of a 115 kW photovoltaic/hybrid system for Dangling Rope Marina, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    The largest photovoltaic (solar electric) renewable energy power system ever undertaken by the National Park Service is now installed and operating at the Dangling Rope Marina on Lake Powell in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The Dangling Rope photovoltaic system replaced diesel generators as the primary source of electrical power for the facility. The new system consists of a 115 KW array of advanced design large area photovoltaic modules, manufactured by ASE Americas, a 250 KW Kenetech power conditioning unit and a 2.4 Megawatt hour C and D battery storage bank. Automatic controls and software provide unmanned system operation and remote monitoring and control. Despite the remoteness of the site, which posed significant construction challenges, the system was installed on time and budget with a total installed cost below $12/watt.

  7. Emerging photovoltaic module technologies at PVUSA: A five-year assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of photovoltaic systems: new modules fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, and more mature technologies fielded as 20- to 500-kW turnkey Utility Scale (US) systems. This report summarizes experiences of the PVUSA project in operating the first six 20-kW EMT photovoltaic systems. Five systems are installed at Davis, California, and one at Kihei, Hawaii. Products selected for testing and demonstration were judged to have potential for significant technical advancement or reduction in manufacturing cost. Features leading to selection of each system and findings over the average 5 years of operation are compared in the report. Factory product qualification test experiences along with field acceptance test results are documented. Evaluation includes a broad range of performance parameters, including long-term efficiency, seasonal generation patterns, and maintenance. While some of the arrays have operated as well as any commercial system, others have fared poorly. Throughout the procurement and operation of these precommercial PV modules, PVUSA has provided feedback to vendors, critical for product improvement. The data and evaluations in this report will be of further benefit to manufacturers and provide general comparative information on a variety of technologies to researchers in utilities, government, and industry alike.

  8. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  9. Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

  10. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Lampkin, C.M.

    1981-12-08

    A photovoltaic cell has: an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide; a first layer containing a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure; a second layer forming a heterojunction with the first layer; and suitable electrodes where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amporphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  11. Potential and Innovations in Rooftop Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Ben

    2011-11-01

    Photovoltaic technology has reached a point where its cost and capability make it one of a handful of carbon-free sources of electrical energy that could meet a meaningful fraction of US energy demand. In this paper we will first compare Photovoltaics with several other carbon free energy technologies, then look at the economics of Solyndra's rooftop photovoltaic solution as an example of the current state of the art, as well as the market dynamics that have resulted in dramatically faster adoption in Germany vs. the United States.

  12. Manufacturable CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells via development of co-sputtered CuInSe{sub 2} absorber layers

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ingrid Eisgruber

    1999-03-20

    Yield and reproducibility remain issues in CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) photovoltaic module fabrication. While small-area cells (<1 cm{sup 2}) over 18% efficient have been reported, the best large-area manufactured devices (>1 ft{sup 2}) are 11% efficient with about 60% yield. If improvements in large-area manufacturing can accomplish 15% efficiency and 90% yield, the result is a doubling in throughput leading to a reduction in cost per watt of over 50%. The challenge now facing the photovoltaics industry is to bring the efficiencies of small-area cells and large-area industrial modules closer together and to raise manufacturing yields.

  13. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  14. Analysis of Electrical Characteristics of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasick, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant form of energy in many terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Often in extraterrestrial environments sunlight is the only readily available form of energy. Thus the ability to efficiently harness solar energy is one of the ultimate goals in the design of space power systems. The essential component that converts solar energy into electrical energy in a solar energy based power system is the photovoltaic cell. Traditionally, photovoltaic cells are based on a single crystal silicon absorber. While silicon is a well understood technology and yields high efficiency, there are inherent disadvantages to using single crystal materials. The requirements of weight, large planar surfaces, and high manufacturing costs make large silicon cells prohibitively expensive for use in certain applications. Because of silicon s disadvantages, there is considerable ongoing research into alternative photovoltaic technologies. In particular, thin film photovoltaic technologies exhibit a promising future in space power systems. While they are less mature than silicon, the better radiation hardness, reduced weight, ease of manufacturing, low material cost, and the ability to use virtually any exposed surface as a substrate makes thin film technologies very attractive for space applications. The research group lead by Dr. Hepp has spent several years researching copper indium disulfide as an absorber material for use in thin film photovoltaic cells. While the group has succeeded in developing a single source precursor for CuInS2 as well as a unique method of aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition, the resulting cells have not achieved adequate efficiencies. While efficiencies of 11 % have been demonstrated with CuInS2 based cells, the cells produced by this group have shown efficiencies of approximately 1 %. Thus, current research efforts are turning towards the analysis of the individual layers of these cells, as well as the junctions between

  15. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  16. Photovoltaic applications for remote-island needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, D. A.; Larson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Electric power supply options available to many of the central and south Pacific island governments are severely constrained by remoteness, limited infrastructures, a corrosive natural environment, and the high delivered costs of many conventional energy sources. Photovoltaic energy systems offer a currently available, practical, and cost-effective source of electricity for many stand-alone applications in remote areas of the Pacific. Photovoltaic system definitions and cost analyses are provided for selected applications in the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Territory of American Samoa.

  17. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance and stability of QDSSCs using surface reinforced Pt nanostructures with controllable morphology and superior electrocatalysis via cost-effective chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Srinivasa; Durga, Ikkurthi Kanaka; Kang, Tae-Su; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Punnoose, Dinah; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Eswar Reddy, Araveeti; Krishna, T N V; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-02-28

    To make quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters such as the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and fill factor (FF) must become comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies. In the present study, a novel strategy has been successfully developed for a highly efficient surface-modified platinum (Pt) counter electrode (CE) with high catalytic activity and long-term stability in a polysulfide redox electrolyte. The reinforcement of the Pt surface was performed using a thin passivating layer of CuS, NiS, or CoS by simple chemical bath deposition techniques. This method was a more efficient method for reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The optimized Pt/CuS CE shows a very low charge transfer resistance of 37.01 Ω, which is an order of magnitude lower than those of bare Pt (86.32 Ω), Pt/NiS (53.83 Ω), and Pt/CoS (73.51 Ω) CEs. Therefore, the Pt/CuS CEs show much greater catalytic activity in the polysulfide redox electrolyte than Pt, Pt/NiS and Pt/CoS CEs. As a result, under one-sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)), the Pt/CuS CE exhibits a PCE of 4.32%, which is higher than the values of 1.77%, 2.95%, and 3.25% obtained with bare Pt, Pt/CoS, and Pt/NiS CEs, respectively. The performance of the Pt/CuS CE was enhanced by the improved current density, Cu vacancies with increased S composition, and surface morphology, which enable rapid electron transport and lower the electron recombination rate for the polysulfide electrolyte redox couple. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization revealed that the hybrid CEs reduce interfacial recombination and exhibit better electrochemical and photovoltaic performance compared with a bare Pt CE. The Pt/CuS CE also shows superior stability in the polysulfide electrolyte in a working state for over 10 h, resulting in a long-term electrode stability than Pt CE. PMID:26796086

  18. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance and stability of QDSSCs using surface reinforced Pt nanostructures with controllable morphology and superior electrocatalysis via cost-effective chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Srinivasa; Durga, Ikkurthi Kanaka; Kang, Tae-Su; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Punnoose, Dinah; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Eswar Reddy, Araveeti; Krishna, T N V; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-02-28

    To make quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters such as the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and fill factor (FF) must become comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies. In the present study, a novel strategy has been successfully developed for a highly efficient surface-modified platinum (Pt) counter electrode (CE) with high catalytic activity and long-term stability in a polysulfide redox electrolyte. The reinforcement of the Pt surface was performed using a thin passivating layer of CuS, NiS, or CoS by simple chemical bath deposition techniques. This method was a more efficient method for reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The optimized Pt/CuS CE shows a very low charge transfer resistance of 37.01 Ω, which is an order of magnitude lower than those of bare Pt (86.32 Ω), Pt/NiS (53.83 Ω), and Pt/CoS (73.51 Ω) CEs. Therefore, the Pt/CuS CEs show much greater catalytic activity in the polysulfide redox electrolyte than Pt, Pt/NiS and Pt/CoS CEs. As a result, under one-sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)), the Pt/CuS CE exhibits a PCE of 4.32%, which is higher than the values of 1.77%, 2.95%, and 3.25% obtained with bare Pt, Pt/CoS, and Pt/NiS CEs, respectively. The performance of the Pt/CuS CE was enhanced by the improved current density, Cu vacancies with increased S composition, and surface morphology, which enable rapid electron transport and lower the electron recombination rate for the polysulfide electrolyte redox couple. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization revealed that the hybrid CEs reduce interfacial recombination and exhibit better electrochemical and photovoltaic performance compared with a bare Pt CE. The Pt/CuS CE also shows superior stability in the polysulfide electrolyte in a working state for over 10 h, resulting in a long-term electrode stability than Pt CE.

  19. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-15

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 {epsilon}/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  20. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.