Science.gov

Sample records for photovoltaic programme edition

  1. Europe's space photovoltaics programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogus, Klaus P.

    1994-01-01

    The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

  2. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  3. Improvement of photovoltaic pumping systems based on standard frequency converters by means of programmable logic controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ramos, Jose; Narvarte-Fernandez, Luis; Poza-Saura, Fernando

    2010-01-15

    Photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) based on standard frequency converters (SFCs) are currently experiencing a growing interest in pumping programmes implemented in remote areas because of their high performance in terms of component reliability, low cost, high power range and good availability of components virtually anywhere in the world. However, in practical applications there have appeared a number of problems related to the adaptation of the SFCs to the requirements of the photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS). Another disadvantage of dedicated PVPS is the difficulty in implementing maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper shows that these problems can be solved through the addition of a basic industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) to the system. This PLC does not increase the cost and complexity of the system, but improves the adaptation of the SFC to the photovoltaic pumping system, and increases the overall performance of the system. (author)

  4. Programmable editing of a target base in genomic DNA without double-stranded DNA cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Komor, Alexis C.; Kim, Yongjoo B.; Packer, Michael S.; Zuris, John A.; Liu, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Current genome-editing technologies introduce double-stranded (ds) DNA breaks at a target locus as the first step to gene correction.1,2 Although most genetic diseases arise from point mutations, current approaches to point mutation correction are inefficient and typically induce an abundance of random insertions and deletions (indels) at the target locus from the cellular response to dsDNA breaks.1,2 Here we report the development of base editing, a new approach to genome editing that enables the direct, irreversible conversion of one target DNA base into another in a programmable manner, without requiring dsDNA backbone cleavage or a donor template. We engineered fusions of CRISPR/Cas9 and a cytidine deaminase enzyme that retain the ability to be programmed with a guide RNA, do not induce dsDNA breaks, and mediate the direct conversion of cytidine to uridine, thereby effecting a C→T (or G→A) substitution. The resulting “base editors” convert cytidines within a window of approximately five nucleotides (nt), and can efficiently correct a variety of point mutations relevant to human disease. In four transformed human and murine cell lines, second- and third-generation base editors that fuse uracil glycosylase inhibitor (UGI), and that use a Cas9 nickase targeting the non-edited strand, manipulate the cellular DNA repair response to favor desired base-editing outcomes, resulting in permanent correction of ∼15-75% of total cellular DNA with minimal (typically ≤ 1%) indel formation. Base editing expands the scope and efficiency of genome editing of point mutations. PMID:27096365

  5. Programmable editing of a target base in genomic DNA without double-stranded DNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Komor, Alexis C; Kim, Yongjoo B; Packer, Michael S; Zuris, John A; Liu, David R

    2016-05-19

    Current genome-editing technologies introduce double-stranded (ds) DNA breaks at a target locus as the first step to gene correction. Although most genetic diseases arise from point mutations, current approaches to point mutation correction are inefficient and typically induce an abundance of random insertions and deletions (indels) at the target locus resulting from the cellular response to dsDNA breaks. Here we report the development of 'base editing', a new approach to genome editing that enables the direct, irreversible conversion of one target DNA base into another in a programmable manner, without requiring dsDNA backbone cleavage or a donor template. We engineered fusions of CRISPR/Cas9 and a cytidine deaminase enzyme that retain the ability to be programmed with a guide RNA, do not induce dsDNA breaks, and mediate the direct conversion of cytidine to uridine, thereby effecting a C→T (or G→A) substitution. The resulting 'base editors' convert cytidines within a window of approximately five nucleotides, and can efficiently correct a variety of point mutations relevant to human disease. In four transformed human and murine cell lines, second- and third-generation base editors that fuse uracil glycosylase inhibitor, and that use a Cas9 nickase targeting the non-edited strand, manipulate the cellular DNA repair response to favour desired base-editing outcomes, resulting in permanent correction of ~15-75% of total cellular DNA with minimal (typically ≤1%) indel formation. Base editing expands the scope and efficiency of genome editing of point mutations. PMID:27096365

  6. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  7. TALEored Epigenetics: A DNA-Binding Scaffold for Programmable Epigenome Editing and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Grzegorz; Summerer, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic modification of the cytosine 5-position is an important regulator of gene expression with essential roles in genome stability, development, and disease. In addition to 5-methylcytosine (mC), the oxidized mC derivatives 5-hydroxymethyl-, 5-formyl-, and 5-carboxylcytosine (hmC, fC, and caC) have recently been discovered. These are intermediates of an active demethylation pathway but might also represent new epigenetic marks with individual biological roles. This increase in chemical complexity of DNA-encoded information has created a pressing need for new approaches that allow reading and editing of this information. Transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs) are DNA-binding domains with programmable sequence selectivity that enable the direct reading of epigenetic cytosine modifications but can also guide enzymatic editing domains to genomic loci of choice. Here, we review recent advances in employing TALEs for these applications. PMID:26972580

  8. Chemical Biology Approaches to Genome Editing: Understanding, Controlling, and Delivering Programmable Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Johnny H; Davis, Kevin M; Liu, David R

    2016-01-21

    Programmable DNA nucleases have provided scientists with the unprecedented ability to probe, regulate, and manipulate the human genome. Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 system (CRISPR-Cas9) represent a powerful array of tools that can bind to and cleave a specified DNA sequence. In their canonical forms, these nucleases induce double-strand breaks at a DNA locus of interest that can trigger cellular DNA repair processes that disrupt or replace genes. The fusion of these programmable nucleases with a variety of other protein domains has led to a rapidly growing suite of tools for activating, repressing, visualizing, and modifying loci of interest. Maximizing the usefulness and therapeutic relevance of these tools, however, requires precisely controlling their activity and specificity to minimize potentially toxic side effects arising from off-target activities. This need has motivated the application of chemical biology principles and methods to genome-editing proteins, including the engineering of variants of these proteins with improved or altered specificities, and the development of genetic, chemical, optical, and protein delivery methods that control the activity of these agents in cells. Advancing the capabilities, safety, effectiveness, and therapeutic relevance of genome-engineering proteins will continue to rely on chemical biology strategies that manipulate their activity, specificity, and localization.

  9. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections. 2014 Edition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Weaver, S.; Darghouth, N.; Fu, R.; Davidson, C.; Booth, S.; Wiser, R.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the third edition from this series.

  10. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends. Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections, 2015 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Barbose, Galen; Margolis, Robert; Bolinger, Mark; Chung, Donald; Fu, Ran; Seel, Joachim; Davidson, Carolyn; Darghouth, Naïm; Wiser, Ryan

    2015-08-25

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the fourth edition from this series.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  12. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections 2015 Edition

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feldman, David; Barbose, Galen; Margolis, Robert; Bolinger, Mark; Chung, Donald; Fu, Ran; Seel, Joachim; Davidson, Carolyn; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-05-13

    This is the fourth edition in an annual briefing prepared jointly by LBNL and NREL intended to provide a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV system pricing trends in the United States. The briefing draws on several ongoing research activities at the two labs, including LBNL's annual Tracking the Sun report series, NREL's bottom-up PV cost modeling, and NREL's synthesis of PV market data and projections. The briefing examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and integrates different perspectives and methodologies for characterizing PV system pricing, in order to provide a broader perspective on underlying trends within the industry.

  13. News Editing. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westley, Bruce H.

    A revision of the first edition of "News Editing," this is a textbook for the newspaper editor. The duties of the editor are detailed, as are those of other newspaper employees. Among the basic editing skills the author includes suggestions for sentence structure, word usage, and vocabulary. Examples are given of editing for objectivity, handling…

  14. Locus-specific editing of histone modifications at endogenous enhancers using programmable TALE-LSD1 fusions

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Eric M.; Williamson, Kaylyn E.; Reyon, Deepak; Zou, James Y.; Ram, Oren; Joung, J. Keith; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian gene regulation is dependent on tissue-specific enhancers that can act across large distances to influence transcriptional activity1-3. Mapping experiments have identified hundreds of thousands of putative enhancers whose functionality is supported by cell type–specific chromatin signatures and striking enrichments for disease-associated sequence variants4-11. However, these studies did not address the in vivo functions of the putative elements or their chromatin states and could not determine which genes, if any, a given enhancer regulates. Here we present a strategy to investigate endogenous regulatory elements by selectively altering their chromatin state using programmable reagents. Transcription activator–like (TAL) effector repeat domains fused to the LSD1 histone demethylase efficiently remove enhancer-associated chromatin modifications from target loci, without affecting control regions. We find that inactivation of enhancer chromatin by these fusion proteins frequently causes down-regulation of proximal genes, revealing enhancer target genes. Our study demonstrates the potential of ‘epigenome editing’ tools to characterize an important class of functional genomic elements. PMID:24013198

  15. Never mind the content, look at the edits: fundamentals of video editing.

    PubMed

    Say, D

    1990-07-01

    There are many facets that go into the making of a good video programme. One of these is the editing, and the success of any programme very much depends upon the editing skills, a craft that can only be achieved by experience. This paper gives a brief but useful insight into some of the skills required.

  16. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  17. Photovoltaic system controller

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, K.F.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a photovoltaic system controller for utilization with a photovoltaic power system including at least a photovoltaic array, a system battery adapted to be charged by the array and a load adapted to be powered by the battery. The controller comprising a microprocessor having an erasable programmable memory. The microprocessor having means to receive input data from the array, the battery and the load. The microprocessor having means to evaluate the input data in relation to at least one predetermined setpoint, the microprocessor in response to the evaluation being adapted to disconnect the battery from the array or to disconnect the load from the battery. The setpoint being adapted to be adjusted to a second setpoint by adjustment means, and the erasable programmable memory being adapted to be changed whereby the evaluation performed by the microprocessor is also changed.

  18. Creative News Editing. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Alfred A.

    Designed to teach college students how to edit, this book provides an overview of skills required to produce the newspaper, emphasizing the editing of copy, the writing of headlines, and layout and production techniques. The author discusses several theories about how to edit newspapers; the importance of staff organization on metropolitan…

  19. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  20. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.

  1. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  2. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  3. Therapeutic genome editing: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cox, David Benjamin Turitz; Platt, Randall Jeffrey; Zhang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in the development of genome editing technologies based on programmable nucleases have substantially improved our ability to make precise changes in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Genome editing is already broadening our ability to elucidate the contribution of genetics to disease by facilitating the creation of more accurate cellular and animal models of pathological processes. A particularly tantalizing application of programmable nucleases is the potential to directly correct genetic mutations in affected tissues and cells to treat diseases that are refractory to traditional therapies. Here we discuss current progress toward developing programmable nuclease-based therapies as well as future prospects and challenges.

  4. Therapeutic Genome Editing: Prospects and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cox, David Benjamin Turitz; Platt, Randall Jeffrey; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of genome editing technologies based on programmable nucleases have significantly improved our ability to make precise changes in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Genome editing is already broadening our ability to elucidate the contribution of genetics to disease by facilitating the creation of more accurate cellular and animal models of pathological processes. A particularly tantalizing application of programmable nucleases is the potential to directly correct genetic mutations in affected tissues and cells to treat diseases that are refractory to traditional therapies. Here we discuss current progress towards developing programmable nuclease-based therapies as well as future prospects and challenges. PMID:25654603

  5. Advances in targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2012-08-01

    New technologies have recently emerged that enable targeted editing of genomes in diverse systems. This includes precise manipulation of gene sequences in their natural chromosomal context and addition of transgenes to specific genomic loci. This progress has been facilitated by advances in engineering targeted nucleases with programmable, site-specific DNA-binding domains, including zinc finger proteins and transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Recent improvements have enhanced nuclease performance, accelerated nuclease assembly, and lowered the cost of genome editing. These advances are driving new approaches to many areas of biotechnology, including biopharmaceutical production, agriculture, creation of transgenic organisms and cell lines, and studies of genome structure, regulation, and function. Genome editing is also being investigated in preclinical and clinical gene therapies for many diseases.

  6. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  7. Photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, H.

    1982-11-01

    The utilization of photovoltaic generators in measuring and signalling installations, communication systems, water pumping, and electric power plants is discussed. The advantages of solar generators over conventional power supply equipment are outlined.

  8. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  9. The Technique of Film Editing. Enlarged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Karel; Millar, Gavin

    Film editing is discussed from the point of view, not only of the person in the cutting room, but also of the person who has responsibility for the final film. Part I outlines the history of editing from the silent film to 1953. It discusses the practice of editing for action, dialogue, comedy, and montage sequences, as well as in documentaries,…

  10. Photovoltaic Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute through David Scheiman and Phillip Jenkins provided the Photovoltaics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with expertise in photovoltaic (PV) research, flight experiments and solar cell calibration. NASA GRC maintains the only world-class solar cell calibration and measurement facility within NASA. GRC also has a leadership role within the solar cell calibration community, and is leading the effort to develop ISO standards for solar cell calibration. OAI scientists working under this grant provided much of the expertise and leadership in this area.

  11. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein-Bonte, I.Y.; Fischer, A.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a product comprising a photovoltaic cell including a luminescent dye which will absorb radiation at a wavelength to which the cell is not significantly responsive and emit radiation at a higher wavelength at which it is responsive. The improvement described here is wherein the dye comprises a lepidopterene.

  12. Photovoltaic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  13. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

    This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

  14. Diesel Technology: Introduction. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane

    This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…

  15. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  16. The levels of edit, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: Coordination, Policy, Integrity, Screening, Copy Clarification, Format, Mechanical Style, Language, and Substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.

  17. Wikipedia editing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandica, Y.; Carvalho, J.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.

    2015-01-01

    A model for the probabilistic function followed in editing Wikipedia is presented and compared with simulations and real data. It is argued that the probability of editing is proportional to the editor's number of previous edits (preferential attachment), to the editor's fitness, and to an aging factor. Using these simple ingredients, it is possible to reproduce the results obtained for Wikipedia editing dynamics for a collection of single pages as well as the averaged results. Using a stochastic process framework, a recursive equation was obtained for the average of the number of edits per editor that seems to describe the editing behavior in Wikipedia.

  18. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  19. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  20. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  1. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment Report"…

  2. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: residential photovoltaics- the New England experience builds confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station- evaluating the breakeven costs; residential photovoltaics- the lessons learned; photovoltaics for electric utility use; least-cost planning- the environmental link; photovoltaics in the distribution system; photovoltaic systems for the rural consumer; the issues of utility-intertied photovoltaics; and photovoltaics for large-scale use- costs ready to drop again.

  3. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  5. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  6. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Lampkin, C.M.

    1981-12-08

    A photovoltaic cell has: an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide; a first layer containing a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure; a second layer forming a heterojunction with the first layer; and suitable electrodes where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amporphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  7. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  8. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  9. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J. F.; Lampkin, C. M.

    1981-02-03

    A photovoltaic cell is disclosed having an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide. A first layer contains a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure a second layer forms a heterojunction with the first layer suitable electrodes are provided where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, and the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amorphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  10. Digital Video Editing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.

  11. Transcultural Counseling. Second edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, John, Ed.

    New trends in transcultural theory, expanded cultural paradigms, innovative counseling techniques for working with diverse ethnic groups, and a comprehensive discussion of professional issues are presented in this second edition of a popular text. This edition is designed to support curriculum changes in counselor education programs to maximize…

  12. A Photovoltaics Module for Incoming Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and…

  13. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  14. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  15. Photovoltaic device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  16. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  17. Electromagnetism, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, I. S.; Phillips, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Electromagnetism, Second Edition is suitable for a first course in electromagnetism, whilst also covering many topics frequently encountered in later courses. The material has been carefully arranged and allows for flexi-bility in its use for courses of different length and structure. A knowledge of calculus and an elementary knowledge of vectors is assumed, but the mathematical properties of the differential vector operators are described in sufficient detail for an introductory course, and their physical significance in the context of electromagnetism is emphasised. In this Second Edition the authors give a fuller treatment of circuit analysis and include a discussion of the dispersion of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetism, Second Edition features: The application of the laws of electromagnetism to practical problems such as the behaviour of antennas, transmission lines and transformers. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding, with hints and solutions to the problems given at the end of the book. Optional "starred" sections containing more specialised and advanced material for the more ambitious reader. An Appendix with a thorough discussion of electromagnetic standards and units. Recommended by many institutions. Electromagnetism. Second Edition has also been adopted by the Open University as the

  18. Engineered Viruses as Genome Editing Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing based on sequence-specific designer nucleases, also known as programmable nucleases, seeks to modify in a targeted and precise manner the genetic information content of living cells. Delivering into cells designer nucleases alone or together with donor DNA templates, which serve as surrogate homologous recombination (HR) substrates, can result in gene knockouts or gene knock-ins, respectively. As engineered replication-defective viruses, viral vectors are having an increasingly important role as delivery vehicles for donor DNA templates and designer nucleases, namely, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 (CRISPR−Cas9) nucleases, also known as RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). We review this dual role played by engineered viral particles on genome editing while focusing on their main scaffolds, consisting of lentiviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and adenoviruses. In addition, the coverage of the growing body of research on the repurposing of viral vectors as delivery systems for genome editing tools is complemented with information regarding their main characteristics, pros, and cons. Finally, this information is framed by a concise description of the chief principles, tools, and applications of the genome editing field as a whole. PMID:26336974

  19. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future. PMID:26872163

  20. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  1. Photovoltaic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  2. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  3. CRISPR Genome Editing

    Cancer.gov

    A research article about a technique for gene editing known as CRISPR-Cas9. The technique has made it much easier and faster for cancer researchers to study mutations and test new therapeutic targets.

  4. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  5. Photovoltaics - The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presened. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  6. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  7. Photovoltaic development in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, E.M.; Duran, J.C.; Frigerio, A.; Moragues, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A critical assessment of the photovoltaic program in Argentina is presented. Research and development activities on photovoltaic cells as well as industrial and technological development are still in the initial stages. Activities accomplished by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Institute of Technology Development for the Chemical industry (INTEC) are briefly described. The evolution of photovoltaic installations in Argentina is analyzed and accumulative data up to 1993 are given. A summary of the potential market for photovoltaic systems in the short and medium term is presented.

  8. EPROM-programmer interface module for ISKRA-1256 microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Salabai, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a module for programming the K573RF21 1024 x 8 biterasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The interface module is based on a KR580IK55 programmable parallelinterface adapter. The adapter provides software control of the EPROM write and read modes. The module allows errors in data preparation to be avoided. Data are entered from a keyboard into the random-access memory of the computer, edited, and written to the EPROM.

  9. Controlling Costs. Managing Resources Module. Operational Management Programme. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayter, Roy

    This self-study unit focuses on managing resources--materials, equipment, personnel, money, energy, time, and information. The material is designed primarily for those in a supervisory or junior management position working within their company's policies and systems. The unit may be of value to the small business proprietor, as an introduction to…

  10. Communications. Supervisory Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Jackie; Bar, Theresa Diskin

    This module on communications is intended to take the hospitality supervisor or manager through the basics of everyday communications, covering the theory as well as the practical aspects of routine business activities. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in six sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the…

  11. Task Management. Supervisory Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Jan; And Others

    This module on task management is intended to help the hospitality manager or supervisor meet all the demands of the position and at the same time keep the customer happy. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in eight sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  12. Editing the epigenome: technologies for programmable transcription and epigenetic modulation.

    PubMed

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; Black, Joshua B; Hilton, Isaac B; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Gene regulation is a complex and tightly controlled process that defines cell identity, health and disease, and response to pharmacologic and environmental signals. Recently developed DNA-targeting platforms, including zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, have enabled the recruitment of transcriptional modulators and epigenome-modifying factors to any genomic site, leading to new insights into the function of epigenetic marks in gene expression. Additionally, custom transcriptional and epigenetic regulation is facilitating refined control over cell function and decision making. The unique properties of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have created new opportunities for high-throughput genetic screens and multiplexing targets to manipulate complex gene expression patterns. This Review summarizes recent technological developments in this area and their application to biomedical challenges. We also discuss remaining limitations and necessary future directions for this field.

  13. IFLA Core Programmes 1992/93. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This brochure provides information on the background, objectives, location, management, funding, and current developments in 1992-93 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) core programs. The following programs are discussed: (1) Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC (UBCIM), including work on the development of…

  14. Editing the epigenome: technologies for programmable transcription and epigenetic modulation.

    PubMed

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; Black, Joshua B; Hilton, Isaac B; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Gene regulation is a complex and tightly controlled process that defines cell identity, health and disease, and response to pharmacologic and environmental signals. Recently developed DNA-targeting platforms, including zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, have enabled the recruitment of transcriptional modulators and epigenome-modifying factors to any genomic site, leading to new insights into the function of epigenetic marks in gene expression. Additionally, custom transcriptional and epigenetic regulation is facilitating refined control over cell function and decision making. The unique properties of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have created new opportunities for high-throughput genetic screens and multiplexing targets to manipulate complex gene expression patterns. This Review summarizes recent technological developments in this area and their application to biomedical challenges. We also discuss remaining limitations and necessary future directions for this field. PMID:26820547

  15. TALEN gene editing takes aim on HIV.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ronald; Berges, Bradford K; Solis-Leal, Antonio; Igbinedion, Omoyemwen; Strong, Christy L; Schiller, Martin R

    2016-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are one of several types of programmable, engineered nucleases that bind and cleave specific DNA sequences. Cellular machinery repairs the cleaved DNA by introducing indels. In this review, we emphasize the potential, explore progress, and identify challenges in using TALENs as a therapeutic tool to treat HIV infection. TALENs have less off-target editing and can be more effective at tolerating HIV escape mutations than CRISPR/Cas-9. Scientists have explored TALEN-mediated editing of host genes such as viral entry receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) and a protein involved in proviral integration (LEDGF/p75). Viral targets include the proviral DNA, particularly focused on the long terminal repeats. Major challenges with translating gene therapy from bench to bedside are improving cleavage efficiency and delivery, while minimizing off-target editing, cytotoxicity, and immunogenicity. However, rapid improvements in TALEN technology are enhancing cleavage efficiency and specificity. Therapeutic testing in animal models of HIV infection will help determine whether TALENs are a viable HIV treatment therapy. TALENs or other engineered nucleases could shift the therapeutic paradigm from life-long antiretroviral therapy toward eradication of HIV infection.

  16. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  17. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  19. Photovoltaics industry profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the U.S. photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry organized and U.S. government organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  1. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  2. Editing graphs for maximum effect

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.W.; Rhiner, R.W.

    1991-01-08

    The paper contains over eighty rules for editing graphs, arranged under nine major headings in a logical sequence for editing all the graphs in a manuscript. It is excerpted from a monograph used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to train beginning technical editors in editing graphs; a corresponding Hypercard stack is also used in this training. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Authoritative Online Editions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is now very easy for anyone to find formerly hard-to-find books such as the works of Walt Whitman with the help of online booksellers. The author also describes the efforts made by various institutions to produce online editions of the works of major writers. One such prominent project is the archive…

  4. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  5. Newspaper Editing: English, Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Johanna

    A course designed to groom editors for the newspaper is presented. Editing copy, copyreading and proofreading, principles of headlining, responsibility of the press, libel and slander laws, and problems of censorship are covered. Course objectives include the following: (1) The student will recognize and correct all newspaper items that do not…

  6. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  7. Aerospace Bibliography. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This sixth edition of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) bibliography presents an updated list of books, references, periodicals, and other educational materials related to space flight and space science. To find materials on a particular subject and for a specific reading level, users are advised to refer first to Part…

  8. Beginning to edit physics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.W.

    1995-02-01

    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  9. Harnessing CRISPR-Cas systems for bacterial genome editing.

    PubMed

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    Manipulation of genomic sequences facilitates the identification and characterization of key genetic determinants in the investigation of biological processes. Genome editing via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high-throughput functional genomics. CRISPR-Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Although bacterial genome editing is a relatively unexplored and underrepresented application of CRISPR-Cas systems, recent studies provide valuable insights for the widespread future implementation of this technology. This review summarizes recent progress in bacterial genome editing and identifies fundamental genetic and phenotypic outcomes of CRISPR targeting in bacteria, in the context of tool development, genome homeostasis, and DNA repair.

  10. Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Elliot

    1986-11-01

    To demonstrate technical viability of photovoltaic modules in central, grid connected energy systems, ARCO Solar, Inc. has designed, installed and is operating two photovoltaic power plants on the megawatt scale. These systems use two-axis tracking. The first generation plant in Lugo (Hesperia), California, with a nominal rating of one MWpk (DC)" was installed in 1982 in the Southern California Edison Company grid. The second system, rated at 6.4 MWDk (DC), is located in the Carrisa Plain in California and connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid. Based on the cost and performance data from these installations, an assessment of the current status and future needs of large scale photovoltaic energy systems is made. With each new system, improved techniques of design, installation and system integration have been developed. Expectations have been confirmed as to the performance and adaptability of solar cells, especially the ease of incremental increases in capacity when needed. Modular photovoltaic systems have been found to be easy to build and operate, and to be highly reliable. Prologue: Technological advancement usually requires good science and logical engineering. In the main, faith, persistence and feel are also required. Rule: The balance-of-system costs for photovoltaic energy systems equal photovoltaic module costs. Photovoltaic systems have progressed to their current stage of high promise because of faith, persistence, feel and belief in this rule.

  11. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  12. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  13. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  14. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  15. LISP. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.; Horn, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    In this edition, the authors redirect the orientation of the text towards the Common LISP dialect, an amalgam of the features of the dialects which have evolved from the LISP programming language. The authors introduce discussions of procedure abstraction and data abstraction; add an introduction to message-passing and object-centred programming, and have revised the chapters on mathematical examples, natural-language interfaces, symbolic pattern matching, and rule-based expert systems.

  16. Understanding Physics, First Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Karen; Laws, Priscilla W.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick J.

    2004-03-01

    Built on the foundations of Halliday, Resnick, and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics Sixth Edition, this text is designed to work with interactive learning strategies that are increasingly being used in physics instruction (for example, microcomputer-based labs, interactive lectures, etc. ). In doing so, it incorporates new approaches based upon Physics Education Research (PER), aligns with courses that use computer-based laboratory tools, and promotes Activity Based Physics in lectures, labs, and recitations.

  17. Video Editing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, Leslie E.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a proposal for a general use system based, on the SGI IRIS workstation platform, for recording computer animation to videotape. In addition, this system would provide features for simple editing and enhancement. Described here are a list of requirements for the system, and a proposed configuration including the SGI VideoLab Integrator, VideoMedia VLAN animation controller and the Pioneer rewritable laserdisc recorder.

  18. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  19. Interactive Metro Map Editing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Peng, Wan-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Manual editing of a metro map is essential because many aesthetic and readability demands in map generation cannot be achieved by using a fully automatic method. In addition, a metro map should be updated when new metro lines are developed in a city. Considering that manually designing a metro map is time-consuming and requires expert skills, we present an interactive editing system that considers human knowledge and adjusts the layout to make it consistent with user expectations. In other words, only a few stations are controlled and the remaining stations are relocated by our system. Our system supports both curvilinear and octilinear layouts when creating metro maps. It solves an optimization problem, in which even spaces, route straightness, and maximum included angles at junctions are considered to obtain a curvilinear result. The system then rotates each edge to extend either vertically, horizontally, or diagonally while approximating the station positions provided by users to generate an octilinear layout. Experimental results, quantitative and qualitative evaluations, and user studies show that our editing system is easy to use and allows even non-professionals to design a metro map.

  20. The photovoltaic pilot projects of the European Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, W.

    The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.

  1. REDIdb: the RNA editing database.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa Maria Rosaria; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing information is available either by experimental inspection (in vitro) or by computational detection (in silico). Each record of REDIdb is organized in a specific flat-file containing a description of the main characteristics of the entry, a feature table with the editing events and related details and a sequence zone with both the genomic sequence and the corresponding edited transcript. REDIdb is a relational database in which the browsing and identification of editing sites has been simplified by means of two facilities to either graphically display genomic or cDNA sequences or to show the corresponding alignment. In both cases, all editing sites are highlighted in colour and their relative positions are detailed by mousing over. New editing positions can be directly submitted to REDIdb after a user-specific registration to obtain authorized secure access. This first version of REDIdb database stores 9964 editing events and can be freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/search.html.

  2. Practical sedimentology, Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    This book is for technical professionals in mineral exploration, environmental management, agriculture or forestry, this new edition takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a lively and detailed overview of practical sedimentology. Emphasizing application over theory, the text is streamlined for comprehension, and it features many summary tables and graphs. The ideal companion to Analytical Sedimentology, this volume updates both methodology and applications, incorporates software information and extensively covers new technical developments. Specifically designed for students and cross-functional practitioners, it requires minimal geological background.

  3. Gas dynamics. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    John, J.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The book treats the basic fundamentals of compressible flow and gas dynamics using a wide breadth of topical coverage. It emphasizes the clear, logical development of basic theory and applies theory to real engineering systems. New in this edition is a complete changeover from English units to SI units. New charts for computing flows containing conical shock waves and expanded tables for isentropic flow and normal shocks are featured. The text emphasizes one dimensional and internal flow, and contains: improved illustrations; many new homework problems; examples and problems involving current applications; and new Mollier diagrams for computing real gas effects.

  4. Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Fabian; Muthirayan, Buvaneshwari; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Integral to photovoltaics is the need to provide improved economic viability. To achieve this goal, photovoltaic technology has to be able to harness more light at less cost. A large variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts has provided cause for pursuit. To obtain a detailed profitability analysis, a flexible evaluation is crucial for benchmarking the cost-performance of this variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts. To save time and capital, a way to estimate the cost-performance of a complete solar energy system is to use computer aided modeling. In this work a benchmark tool is introduced based on a modular programming concept. The overall implementation is done in MATLAB whereas Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) is used for ray tracing calculations. This allows for a flexible and extendable structuring of all important modules, namely an advanced source modeling including time and local dependence, and an advanced optical system analysis of various optical designs to obtain an evaluation of the figure of merit. An important figure of merit: the energy yield for a given photovoltaic system at a geographical position over a specific period, can be calculated.

  5. Editing the Small Magazine. 2nd Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Rowena

    Designed for the aspiring journalist and the professional editor, this revised second edition serves as a standard reference work as well as an ideal means of keeping abreast of new trends and developments in the editing of small magazines. It describes the latest technological developments in type-setting and production; discusses and evaluates…

  6. ECORLOG computer application users' and programmers' guides

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, C.

    1984-09-01

    This document consists of two separate guides to the ECORLOG application. Sections One through Five make up the Users' Guide, while the Programmers' Guide is contained in the Appendix. The Programmers' Guide contains information that will be useful in maintaining or updating the ECORLOG application's capabilities, but is not needed for day-to-day use of the ECORLOG Job and programs. Each of the following four sections covers a separate aspect of ECORLOG. Section Two explains how data is entered into a Batch of the ECORLOG Job. In Section Three, several common data-editing operations are described. Instructions for running the three ECORLOG programs (ECORUP, ECRPT1 and ECRPT2) are given in Section Four, which also includes samples of the ECORLOG reports. Section Five concludes the Users' Guide with procedures for redirecting the output of ECORLOG reports to different printers, and for storing ECORLOG data at the end of a fiscal year.

  7. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A.; Birner, S.

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ∼5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  8. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  9. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  10. Does Your Curriculum Need Editing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Gerry

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that editing courses serve a campus-wide need for fostering better student-writers, and that editing skills provide non-English majors workaday and executive-level writing habits for jobs in commerce, industry, and the professions. Asserts that English departments should also develop internship programs for student editors. (MM)

  11. Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

  12. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The considered program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the objective to provide federal support for research and development work related to photovoltaics. According to definitions of policy in 1981, a strong emphasis is to be placed on long-term, high-risk research and development that industry could not reasonably be expected to perform using their own funds. Attention is given to the program structure, the photovoltaics program management organization, the advanced research and development subprogram, the collector research and development subprogram, flat-plate collectors, concentrator collectors, and the systems research and technology subprogram.

  13. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  14. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  15. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Bryan; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2010-02-01

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint and total volume. Our simulations demonstrate that the performance of 3D photovoltaic structures scales linearly with height, leading to volumetric energy conversion, and provides power fairly evenly throughout the day. Furthermore, we show that optimal 3D structures are not simple box-like shapes, and that design attributes such as reflectivity could be optimized using three-dimensionality.

  16. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Bryan; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint and total volume. Our simulations demonstrate that the performance of 3D photovoltaic structures scales linearly with height, leading to volumetric energy conversion, and provides power fairly evenly throughout the day. Furthermore, we show that optimal 3D shapes are not simple box-like shapes, and that design attributes such as reflectivity can be optimized in new ways using three-dimensionality.

  17. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOEpatents

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  18. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  19. Using National Instruments LabVIEW[TM] Education Edition in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butlin, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of LabVIEW[TM] Education Edition schools can now provide experience of using this widely used software. Here, a few of the many applications that students aged around 11 years and over could develop are outlined in the resulting front panel screen displays and block diagrams showing the associated graphical programmes, plus a…

  20. In Vivo Delivery Systems for Therapeutic Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luyao; Li, Fangfei; Dang, Lei; Liang, Chao; Wang, Chao; He, Bing; Liu, Jin; Li, Defang; Wu, Xiaohao; Xu, Xuegong; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic genome editing technology has been widely used as a powerful tool for directly correcting genetic mutations in target pathological tissues and cells to cure of diseases. The modification of specific genomic sequences can be achieved by utilizing programmable nucleases, such as Meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9). However, given the properties, such as large size, negative charge, low membrane penetrating ability, as well as weak tolerance for serum, and low endosomal escape, of these nucleases genome editing cannot be successfully applied unless in vivo delivery of related programmable nucleases into target organisms or cells is achieved. Here, we look back at delivery strategies having been used in the in vivo delivery of three main genome editing nucleases, followed by methodologies currently undergoing testing in clinical trials, and potential delivery strategies provided by analyzing characteristics of nucleases and commonly used vectors. PMID:27128905

  1. The emerging role of viral vectors as vehicles for DMD gene editing.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Ignazio; Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The DMD gene, spanning over 2.4 megabases along the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21.2), is the largest genetic locus known in the human genome. The size of DMD, combined with the complexity of the DMD phenotype and the extent of the affected tissues, begs for the development of novel, ideally complementary, therapeutic approaches. Genome editing based on the delivery of sequence-specific programmable nucleases into dystrophin-defective cells has recently enriched the portfolio of potential therapies under investigation. Experiments involving different programmable nuclease platforms and target cell types have established that the application of genome-editing principles to the targeted manipulation of defective DMD loci can result in the rescue of dystrophin protein synthesis in gene-edited cells. Looking towards translation into the clinic, these proof-of-principle experiments have been swiftly followed by the conversion of well-established viral vector systems into delivery agents for DMD editing. These gene-editing tools consist of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), engineered homing endoculeases (HEs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) based on clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 systems. Here, we succinctly review these fast-paced developments and technologies, highlighting their relative merits and potential bottlenecks, when used as part of in vivo and ex vivo gene-editing strategies. PMID:27215286

  2. [CRISPR/Cas system for genome editing in pluripotent stem cells].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E A; Melino, D; Barlev, N A

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing systems based on site-specific nucleases became very popular for genome editing in modern bioengineering. Human pluripotent stem cells provide a unique platform for genes function study, disease modeling, and drugs testing. Consequently, technology for fast, accurate and well controlled genome manipulation is required. CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated) system could be employed for these purposes. This system is based on site-specific programmable nuclease Cas9. Numerous advantages of the CRISPR/Cas system and its successful application to human stem cells provide wide opportunities for genome therapy and regeneration medicine. In this publication, we describe and compare the main genome editing systems based on site-specific programmable nucleases and discuss opportunities and perspectives of the CRISPR/Cas system for application to pluripotent stem cells.

  3. Graphic Arts: Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multistate Academic and Vocational Curriculum Consortium, Stillwater, OK.

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a course in graphic arts that covers the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. The course introduces basic concepts and skills necessary for entry-level employment in a graphic communication occupation. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable…

  4. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David

    This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…

  5. Introduction to Surgical Technology. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushey, Vicki; Hildebrand, Bob; Hildebrand, Dinah; Johnson, Dave; Sikes, John; Tahah, Ann; Walker, Susan; Zielsdorf, Lani

    These teacher and student editions provide instructional materials for an introduction to surgical technology course. Introductory materials in the teacher edition include information on use, instructional/task analysis, academic and workplace skill classifications and definitions, related academic and workplace skill list, and crosswalk to…

  6. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike; New, Larry

    Teacher and student editions and a student workbook for fundamentals of welding comprise the first of six in a series of competency-based instructional materials for welding programs. Introductory pages in the teacher edition are training and competency profile, instructional/task analysis, basic skills icons and classifications, basic skills…

  7. Oxyacetylene Welding and Oxyfuel Cutting. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This Oklahoma curriculum guide, which includes a teacher edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, provides three units for a course on oxyacetylene welding, oxyfuel cutting, and cutting done with alternative fuels such as MAPP, propane, and natural gas. The three units are: "Oxyacetylene Welding"; "Oxyfuel Cutting"; and "Oxyacetylene…

  8. Volcanoes, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Christopher J.

    It takes confidence to title a smallish book merely “Volcanoes” because of the impliction that the myriad facets of volcanism—chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology, hazard mitigation, and more—have been identified and addressed to some nontrivial level of detail. Robert and Barbara Decker have visited these different facets seamlessly in Volcanoes, Third Edition. The seamlessness comes from a broad overarching, interdisciplinary, professional understanding of volcanism combined with an exceptionally smooth translation of scientific jargon into plain language.The result is a book which will be informative to a very broad audience, from reasonably educated nongeologists (my mother loves it) to geology undergraduates through professional volcanologists. I bet that even the most senior professional volcanologists will learn at least a few things from this book and will find at least a few provocative discussions of subjects they know.

  9. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  10. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  11. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  12. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  13. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  14. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  15. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  17. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  18. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  19. Photovoltaics reading list

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The articles, conference papers, monographs and technical reports cited here are meant to provide a basic introduction to photovoltaics, its research, economics, and technology development. In addition to specific articles and books, several directories, bibliographies, journals, and magazines are suggested as additional sources of information.

  20. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  1. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  2. Statistical Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Statistical Physics, Second Edition develops a unified treatment of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, which emphasises the statistical nature of the laws of thermodynamics and the atomic nature of matter. Prominence is given to the Gibbs distribution, leading to a simple treatment of quantum statistics and of chemical reactions. Undergraduate students of physics and related sciences will find this a stimulating account of the basic physics and its applications. Only an elementary knowledge of kinetic theory and atomic physics, as well as the rudiments of quantum theory, are presupposed for an understanding of this book. Statistical Physics, Second Edition features: A fully integrated treatment of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. A flow diagram allowing topics to be studied in different orders or omitted altogether. Optional "starred" and highlighted sections containing more advanced and specialised material for the more ambitious reader. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding. Hints for solving the problems are given in an Appendix.

  3. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  4. Programmable, very low noise current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandurra, G.; Cannatà, G.; Giusi, G.; Ciofi, C.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new approach for the realization of very low noise programmable current sources mainly intended for application in the field of low frequency noise measurements. The design is based on a low noise Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) acting as a high impedance current source and programmability is obtained by resorting to a low noise, programmable floating voltage source that allows to set the sourced current at the desired value. The floating voltage source is obtained by exploiting the properties of a standard photovoltaic MOSFET driver. Proper filtering and a control network employing super-capacitors allow to reduce the low frequency output noise to that due to the low noise JFET down to frequencies as low as 100 mHz while allowing, at the same time, to set the desired current by means of a standard DA converter with an accuracy better than 1%. A prototype of the system capable of supplying currents from a few hundreds of μA up to a few mA demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach we propose. When delivering a DC current of about 2 mA, the power spectral density of the current fluctuations at the output is found to be less than 25 pA/√Hz at 100 mHz and less than 6 pA/√Hz for f > 1 Hz, resulting in an RMS noise in the bandwidth from 0.1 to 10 Hz of less than 14 pA.

  5. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  6. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  7. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  8. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  9. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated.

  10. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated. PMID:27087582

  11. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  12. Environmental Physics, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeker, Egbert; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2000-05-01

    Environmental Physics provides a comprehensive introduction to this increasingly important area of applied physics. Covering both atmospheric and soil physics, the reader is introduced to the physics that is needed to understand, analyse and prevent environmental problems. Whilst the rigor and methodology has been maintained in the Second Edition there has been a greater integration of physics with the natural environment throughout the text. More student exercises have been added to each chapter and more information has been provided to help the reader solve them. Some of the more challenging mathematics has been removed, and greater emphasis has been placed on the interpretation of spectra. FEATURES Carefully structured, topics are gradually introduced within each chapter, each of which conclude with student exercises and references. Thoroughly updated throughout, with more modern examples and applications, and less abstract mathematicsMore student exercises along with increased help for solving them. Greater emphasis on the interpretation of spectra. CONTENTS: |Introduction: The Essentials of Environmental Physics; Elementary Spectroscopy; The Global Climate; Energy for Human Use; Transport of Pollutants; Noise; Environmental Spectroscopy: Some Examples; The Context of Society; Gauss, Delta and Error Functions; Vector Differentiations; Physical and Numerical Constants.

  13. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  14. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  15. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  16. Photovoltaic cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  17. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOEpatents

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  18. Photocurrent of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeler, Seth; McIntyre, Max; Cossel, Raquel; Bowser, Chris; Tzolov, Marian

    Photovoltaic cells can be used to harness clean, renewable energy from light. Examined in this project were photovoltaic cells based on a bulk heterojunction between PCPDTBT and PCBM sandwiched between an ITO anode and an Al cathode. Current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectra for multiple photovoltaic devices were taken under varying DC electrical bias and different level of illumination. This data was interpreted in terms of an equivalent circuit with linear elements, e.g. capacitance, series resistance, and parallel resistance. A physical interpretation of each circuit element will be presented. The spectral response of the devices was characterized by optical transmission and photocurrent spectroscopy using a spectrometer in the spectral range from 300 to 900 nm. The DC measurements confirmed that the devices are electrically rectifying. The AC measurements allowed modeling of the devices as a dielectric between two electrodes with injection current passing through it. The characteristic peaks for both PCBDTBT and PCBM are clearly visible in both the photocurrent and transmission data. The good correlation between the photocurrent and transmission data indicates photocurrent generation due to absorption in both materials constituting the heterojunction.

  19. Photovoltaics and the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2005-09-21

    Over the past five years, solar energy usage has grown by about 43 percent a year, giving rise to a billion-dollar industry in photovoltaics (PV) or getting electricity from light. The word photovoltaics combines the Greek phos, or light, with the “volt” of electricity. PV technologies have distinct environmental advantages over conventional power technologies, such as: no noise, no emissions, no need for fuel and power lines. Compared to burning coal, a gigawatt-hour of PV-generated electricity would prevent the release of about 1,000 tons of carbon dioxide, eight of sulfur dioxide, four of nitrogen oxides, and 0.4 tons of particulates. However, manufacturing the solar cells that transform light to electricity requires the use of some toxic and flammable substances. Addressing the environmental, health, and safety concerns of the PV industry to minimize risk while ensuring economic viability and public support is the work of the National Photovoltaic Environmental Health, & Safety Assistance Center at BNL.

  20. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  1. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  2. Photovoltaics and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    For years people have been in love with the automobile. Some people just enjoy using the automobile as transportation while others also enjoy the workings and operation of this fascinating machine. The automobile is not without problems of pollution and energy consumption. These problems are changing its design and construction. New clean energy sources are being analyzed and applied to power the modern automobile. A space age energy source now being considered by some and used by others to power the automobile is photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. There are a number of devices in the modern car that are electrically powered. PV could provide a clean endless supply of electricity for air conditioning, radios and other electrical components of a car. Most people have never heard of photovoltaics (PV). There has been a great deal of research in PV among energy experts. The automobile is known the world over in both use and operation. The author describes how the merging of these two technologies will benefit mankind and without damaging the environment. 12 refs.

  3. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.; Richards, E.H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  4. Do photovoltaics have a future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    There is major concern as to the economic practicality of widespread terrestrial use because of the high cost of the photovoltaic arrays themselves. Based on their high efficiency, photovoltaic collectors should be one of the cheapest forms of energy generators known. Present photovoltaic panels are violating the trend of lower costs with increasing efficiency due to their reliance on expensive materials. A medium technology solution should provide electricity competitive with the existing medium to high technology energy generators such as oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fission thermal plants. Programs to reduce the cost of silicon and develop reliable thin film materials have a realistic chance of producing cost effective photovoltaic panels.

  5. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  6. Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Atwater, Harry A; Polman, Albert

    2010-03-01

    The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design approaches based on plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in photovoltaic devices, permitting a considerable reduction in the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers, and yielding new options for solar-cell design. In this review, we survey recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics and offer an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles.

  7. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepperd, L. W.; Richards, E. H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major U.S. photovoltaic system suppliers.

  8. Distributed computing systems programme

    SciTech Connect

    Duce, D.

    1984-01-01

    Publication of this volume coincides with the completion of the U.K. Science and Engineering Research Council's coordinated programme of research in Distributed Computing Systems (DCS) which ran from 1977 to 1984. The volume is based on presentations made at the programme's final conference. The first chapter explains the origins and history of DCS and gives an overview of the programme and its achievements. The remaining sixteen chapters review particular research themes (including imperative and declarative languages, and performance modelling), and describe particular research projects in technical areas including local area networks, design, development and analysis of concurrent systems, parallel algorithm design, functional programming and non-von Neumann computer architectures.

  9. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  10. CTD writing and editing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, C. M.

    1991-03-01

    The Computer and Telecommunication Division (CTD) recognizes that the communication of clear, accurate, reasonably complete information is essential to the success of its Laboratory mission. CTD therefore encourages all Division personnel to adhere to the principles of good writing and to the standards for grammar, usage, style, formats, and publication procedures that are described in CTD Writing and Editing Standards. We encourage CTD personnel to read CTD Writing and Editing Standards and to use it continually as a desktop reference. It will help CTD writers to produce better documents consistent with CTD standards in less time. Applying the principles specified in this document on how to write and organize technical information will speed up the editing, review, and revision processes. CTD Writing and Editing Standards complements the Argonne National Laboratory Technical Publications Guide, which serves as the basic Argonne documentation reference on issues concerning DOE orders and guidelines, NRC directives, and other sponsor requirements. However, this Laboratory-wide document does not address matters of grammar or style. Documents recommended in CTD Writing and Editing Standards are usually available for purchase at the Document Distribution Counter (Building 221, Room A-134) or through the mail (by calling extension 2-5405 and ordering copies).

  11. Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

  12. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  13. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  14. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  15. Photovoltaic tests and applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Photovoltaic Tests and Applications Project during the period April 1976 through June 1977 are summarized. Results of efforts to identify potential near-term photovoltaic applications and users are discussed, including the outcome of an extensive survey of Federal government agencies. The status of application experiments is presented. Various general engineering efforts are reported, including the design and construction of a photovoltaic Systems Test Facility. Efforts to develop a high efficiency 10 kVA self-commutated inverter and controller specifically designed for photovoltaic systems are also discussed. The results of a wide variety of activities in the area of photovoltaic measurements and standards are related. Documents generated by the Project during the reporting period are listed in an Appendix.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  17. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  18. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOEpatents

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  19. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  20. Optical waveguide enhanced photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Sven; Greenwald, Shlomit; Koren, Elad; Zaban, Arie

    2008-12-22

    Enhanced light to electric power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells with a low absorbance was achieved using waveguide integration. We present a proof of concept using a very thin dye-sensitized solar cell which absorbed only a small fraction of the light at normal incidence. The glass substrate in conjunction with the solar cells reflecting back contact formed a planar waveguide, which lead to more than four times higher conversion efficiency compared to conventional illumination at normal incidence. This illumination concept leads to a new type of multi-junction PV systems based on enforced spectral splitting along the waveguide.

  1. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  2. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Whitehouse, D.; Wiedeman, S.; Catalano, A.W.; Oswald, R. )

    1991-12-01

    This report identifies steps leading to manufacturing large volumes of low-cost, large-area photovoltaic (PV) modules. Both crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon technologies were studied. Cost reductions for each step were estimated and compared to Solarex Corporation's manufacturing costs. A cost model, a simple version of the SAMICS methodology developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), projected PV selling prices. Actual costs of materials, labor, product yield, etc., were used in the cost model. The JPL cost model compared potential ways of lowering costs. Solarex identified the most difficult technical challenges that, if overcome, would reduce costs. Preliminary research plans were developed to solve the technical problems. 13 refs.

  3. Description scheme for video editing work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiloba, Rosa I.; Joly, Philippe

    2001-03-01

    This article presents a Description Scheme (DS) to describe the audio-visual documents from the video editing work point of view. This DS is based on edition techniques used in the video edition domain. The main objective of this DS is to provide a complete, modular and extensible description of the structure of the video documents based on editing process. This VideoEditing DS is generic in the sense that it may be used in a large number of applications such as video document indexing and analysis, description of Edit Decision List and elaboration of editing patterns. It is based on accurate and complete definitions of shots and transition effects required for video document analysis applications. The VideoEditing DS allows three levels of description : analytic, synthetic and semantic. In the DS, the higher (resp. the lower) is the element of description, the more analytic (resp. synthetic) is the information. %Phil This DS allows describing the editing work made by editing boards, using more detailed descriptors of Shots and Transition DSs. These elements are provided to define editing patterns that allow several possible reconstructions of movies depending on, for example, the target audience. A part of the video description made with this DS may be automatically produced by the video to shots segmentation algorithms (analytic DSs ) or by editing software, at the same time the edition work is made. This DS gives an answer to the needs related to the exchange of editing work descriptions between editing softwares. At the same time, the same DS provide an analytic description of editing work which is complementary to existing standards for Edit Decision Lists like SMPTE or AAF.

  4. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Scott A.; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H.

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language. PMID:27171158

  5. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language. PMID:27171158

  6. A structural determinant required for RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nan; Yang, Yun; Sachsenmaier, Nora; Muggenhumer, Dominik; Bi, Jingpei; Waldsich, Christina; Jantsch, Michael F.; Jin, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNAs (ADARs) can be both specific and non-specific, depending on the substrate. Specific editing of particular adenosines may depend on the overall sequence and structural context. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying these preferences are not fully understood. Here, we show that duplex structures mimicking an editing site in the Gabra3 pre-mRNA unexpectedly fail to support RNA editing at the Gabra3 I/M site, although phylogenetic analysis suggest an evolutionarily conserved duplex structure essential for efficient RNA editing. These unusual results led us to revisit the structural requirement for this editing by mutagenesis analysis. In vivo nuclear injection experiments of mutated editing substrates demonstrate that a non-conserved structure is a determinant for editing. This structure contains bulges either on the same or the strand opposing the edited adenosine. The position of these bulges and the distance to the edited base regulate editing. Moreover, elevated folding temperature can lead to a switch in RNA editing suggesting an RNA structural change. Our results indicate the importance of RNA tertiary structure in determining RNA editing. PMID:21427087

  7. Concepts of genetics: II edition

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, W.S.; Cummings, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the molecule, and progresses logically through cellular genetics and the genetics of organisms to the larger picture of population genetics. The Second Edition features new chapters on quantitative inheritance and recombinant DNA, a new appendix with a human gene map and coverage of gene disorders, expanded coverage of bacterial and viral genetics, and consolidated coverage of sex linkage, sex determination, sex chromosome abberations, and sex differentiation. Dozens of new figures are added in this edition. All diagrams, photographs, and tables work hand-in-hand with the text to explain important concepts. Practical exercises with answers at the back of the text provide immediate feedback.

  8. Isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Ginka S; Kubelka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Isotope-edited infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying structural and dynamical properties of peptides and proteins with site-specific resolution. Labeling of selected amide carbonyls with (13)C results in detectable sidebands of amide I' vibrations, which provide information about local conformation and/or solvent exposure without structural perturbation to the protein. Incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids at specific positions is achieved by the chemical synthesis of the studied proteins. We describe the basic procedures for synthesis of (13)C isotopically edited protein samples, experimental IR spectroscopic measurements, and analysis of the site-specific structural changes from the thermal unfolding IR data.

  9. Language Editing at Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J.

    2011-07-01

    In 2002, the A&A Board of Directors voted that all articles must be written in English and decided to improve the overall quality of the language in the articles with the help of a team of language editors. This article reviews the general advantages of editing the English expression and describes both the aims of this effort and its place in the full publication process. This is followed by the Guide to language editing that has been available on the Journal's website for several years now.

  10. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This packet of instructional materials for a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and plasma arc cutting course is comprised of a teacher edition, student edition, and student workbook. The teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages. Introductory pages include training and competency profile, state duty/task crosswalk,…

  11. Gas Metal Arc Welding and Flux-Cored Arc Welding. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This packet, containing a teacher's edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, introduces students to high deposition welding and processes for "shielding" a weld. In addition to general information, the teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages, as well as unit information that corresponds to the materials in the…

  12. Diesel Technology: Workplace Skills. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, Mary

    This publication consists of instructional materials to provide secondary and postsecondary students with skills useful in pursuing a career in the diesel industry. Introductory materials in the teacher edition include information on use of the publication, competency profile, instructional/task analysis, related academic and workplace skills…

  13. Civil Technology Applications. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Karen

    Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…

  14. Program Classification Structure: Second Edition. Review Edition. Technical Report 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.

    The 1972 edition of the Program Classification Structure (PCS) is revised, using essentially the same framework but with additional categories and more detailed definitions. The PCS is a framework that permits the classification of a postsecondary education institution's resources and programs/activities as they relate to the accomplishment of…

  15. Shielded Metal Arc Pipe Welding. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This second edition of the shielded metal arc pipe welding curriculum guide presents both basic and advanced pipe welding skills. All specifications for procedure and welder qualification are presented according to national standards. The standards also include the test position for both groove and fillet pipe welding. The guide contains three…

  16. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  17. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. PMID:27020893

  18. Solar Cells and Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Stuart

    Photovoltaic solar cells are gaining wide acceptance for producing clean, renewable electricity. This has been based on more than 40 years of research that has benefited from the revolution in silicon electronics and compound semiconductors in optoelectronics. This chapter gives an introduction into the basic science of photovoltaic solar cells and the challenge of extracting the maximum amount of electrical energy from the available solar energy. In addition to the constraints of the basic physics of these devices, there are considerable challenges in materials synthesis. The latter has become more prominent with the need to reduce the cost of solar module manufacture as it enters mainstream energy production. The chapter is divided into sections dealing with the fundamentals of solar cells and then considering five very different materials systems, from crystalline silicon through to polycrystalline thin films. These materials have been chosen because they are all in production, although some are only in the early stages of production. Many more materials are being considered in research and some of the more exciting, polymer and dye-sensitised cells are mentioned in the conclusions. However, there is insufficient space to give these very active areas of research the justice they deserve. I hope the reader will feel sufficiently inspired by this topic to read further and explore one of the most exciting areas of semiconductor science. The need for high-volume production at low cost has taken the researcher along paths not normally considered in semiconductor devices and it is this that provides an exciting challenge.

  19. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  20. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  1. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  2. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  3. [An introduction on the editions of Zhang Gao's Yi shuo (Medical Narrations)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuguang; Lu, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Zhang Gao's Yi shuo (Medical Narrations) of the Southern Song Dynasty had 2 kinds of editions: domestic editions and foreign editions. The former includes 1 Song edition, 14 Ming editions, 3 Qing editions and 25 editions after the Republic of China. The latter, mainly 2 classes, the Japanese edition and Korean printing type edition. In the Ming Dynasty, the editions of Yi shuo generated 2 branches: inherited edition and supplementary edition. The inherited editions include Gu Dingfang's edition, Zhang Yaode's edition, Wu Mianxue's edition, Wu Zhongheng's edition, Wang Kentang's edition, editions from Si ku quan shu (Imperial Collection of Four), stereotype edition of the 3th year of Xuantong reign (1911) from Shanghai Civilization Bookstore, edition of the 2(nd) year of Manji of Japan etc. The supplemental editions include Zhang Zili's edition, Shen Fan's edition, Fu Feng'ao's edition, transcript of the late Ming Dynasty preserved in the Library of Peking University, and Korean printing type edition etc.

  4. [An introduction on the editions of Zhang Gao's Yi shuo (Medical Narrations)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuguang; Lu, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Zhang Gao's Yi shuo (Medical Narrations) of the Southern Song Dynasty had 2 kinds of editions: domestic editions and foreign editions. The former includes 1 Song edition, 14 Ming editions, 3 Qing editions and 25 editions after the Republic of China. The latter, mainly 2 classes, the Japanese edition and Korean printing type edition. In the Ming Dynasty, the editions of Yi shuo generated 2 branches: inherited edition and supplementary edition. The inherited editions include Gu Dingfang's edition, Zhang Yaode's edition, Wu Mianxue's edition, Wu Zhongheng's edition, Wang Kentang's edition, editions from Si ku quan shu (Imperial Collection of Four), stereotype edition of the 3th year of Xuantong reign (1911) from Shanghai Civilization Bookstore, edition of the 2(nd) year of Manji of Japan etc. The supplemental editions include Zhang Zili's edition, Shen Fan's edition, Fu Feng'ao's edition, transcript of the late Ming Dynasty preserved in the Library of Peking University, and Korean printing type edition etc. PMID:25620361

  5. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  6. 48 CFR 53.102 - Current editions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current editions. 53.102... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.102 Current editions. The form prescriptions in subpart 53.2 and the illustrations in subpart 53.3 contain current edition dates. Contracting officers shall use the current...

  7. 48 CFR 53.102 - Current editions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current editions. 53.102... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.102 Current editions. The form prescriptions in subpart 53.2 and the illustrations in subpart 53.3 contain current edition dates. Contracting officers shall use the current...

  8. 48 CFR 53.102 - Current editions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current editions. 53.102... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.102 Current editions. The form prescriptions in subpart 53.2 and the illustrations in subpart 53.3 contain current edition dates. Contracting officers shall use the current...

  9. 48 CFR 53.102 - Current editions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current editions. 53.102... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.102 Current editions. The form prescriptions in subpart 53.2 and the illustrations in subpart 53.3 contain current edition dates. Contracting officers shall use the current...

  10. 48 CFR 53.102 - Current editions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current editions. 53.102... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.102 Current editions. The form prescriptions in subpart 53.2 and the illustrations in subpart 53.3 contain current edition dates. Contracting officers shall use the current...

  11. Teaching Students to Self-Edit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Dana

    1995-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for students to develop their editing skills. This article suggests that teachers and students should concentrate on major error patterns, and teachers should personalize editing instruction. Attention should also be given to the most frequent and glaring errors. Students who followed this editing approach significantly reduced…

  12. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  13. A Writer's Reference. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Diana

    Designed to save the user time and packaged in a compact size which lies flat, this book is easy to consult while revising and editing a written draft. The book's "main menu," just inside the front cover, displays the contents as briefly and simply as possible. Each of the 12 sections in the book's main menu leads the user to a tabbed divider, on…

  14. Strengthening Family Resilience, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Froma

    2006-01-01

    In a fully revised, updated, and expanded second edition, this informative clinical resource and text presents Froma Walsh's family resilience framework for intervention and prevention with clients dealing with adversity. Drawing on extensive research and clinical experience, the author describes key processes in resilience for practitioners to…

  15. The Foundation Directory, Edition 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marianna O., Ed.; Bowers, Patricia, Ed.

    The fourth edition of "The Foundation Directory" lists and describes 5,454 foundations and surveys their grants. The directory was prepared from foundation reports and government records. The foundations listed either have assets of $500.00 or made grants totally at least $25,000.00 in the year of record. Education is the leading beneficiary of…

  16. Biology Teachers' Handbook, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinckmann, Evelyn; And Others

    This is the second edition of the handbook written for teachers using the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) materials. Section one describes the historical background, aims and emphases of the BSCS materials and includes behavioral objectives for teaching inquiry processes. Section two includes 44 "Invitations to Enquiry." Section three,…

  17. When Writers Read. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jane

    When writers read, they evaluate all the time. This book is about what students can do to become better evaluators of themselves as writers and readers--and how the teacher can help. The book has been extensively revised in this second edition which is organized around five concepts that are central to an effective writing-reading program: voices,…

  18. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  19. Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Bill; Diamond, Linda; Gutlohn, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The "Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference about reading instruction. Organized according to the elements of explicit instruction (what? why? when? and how?), the "Sourcebook" includes both a research-informed knowledge base and practical sample lesson models. It teaches the key elements of an effective reading…

  20. Money and Schools. Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.; Crampton, Faith E.; Wood, R. Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the new edition of this essential, all-inclusive text, the authors provide more important research for future principals and others enrolled in graduate-level school finance courses. Written in a style that is highly readable, the book offers strong connections to real-world experiences. Readers get both a broad overview of funding concepts and…

  1. Unlocking Mathematics Teaching. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Valsa, Ed.; Murray, Jean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Now in a fully updated second edition, "Unlocking Mathematics Teaching" is a comprehensive guide to teaching mathematics in the primary school. Combining theory and practice, selected experts outline the current context of mathematics education. They suggest strategies, activities and examples to help develop readers understanding and confidence…

  2. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  3. The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

  4. The Horizon Report. 2006 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…

  5. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  6. Programming in Prolog. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Clocksin, W.F.; Mellish, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Prolog is a computer programming language that is used for solving problems that involve objects and the relationships between objects. This edition provides an improved presentation but its principal aim is still that of teaching the language. Contents: Using data structures. Backtracking and ''cut''. Built-in predicates. More example programs. Using Prolog grammar rules. The relation of Prolog to logic. Index.

  7. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  8. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  9. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  10. Dynamically reconfigurable photovoltaic system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-05-31

    A PV system composed of sub-arrays, each having a group of PV cells that are electrically connected to each other. A power management circuit for each sub-array has a communications interface and serves to connect or disconnect the sub-array to a programmable power grid. The power grid has bus rows and bus columns. A bus management circuit is positioned at a respective junction of a bus column and a bus row and is programmable through its communication interface to connect or disconnect a power path in the grid. As a result, selected sub-arrays are connected by selected power paths to be in parallel so as to produce a low system voltage, and, alternately in series so as to produce a high system voltage that is greater than the low voltage by at least a factor of ten.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 Platforms for Genome Editing in Plants: Developments and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingliang; Zhu, Qinlong; Chen, Yuanling; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein9 (Cas9) genome editing system (CRISPR/Cas9) is adapted from the prokaryotic type II adaptive immunity system. The CRISPR/Cas9 tool surpasses other programmable nucleases, such as ZFNs and TALENs, for its simplicity and high efficiency. Various plant-specific CRISPR/Cas9 vector systems have been established for adaption of this technology to many plant species. In this review, we present an overview of current advances on applications of this technology in plants, emphasizing general considerations for establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 vector platforms, strategies for multiplex editing, methods for analyzing the induced mutations, factors affecting editing efficiency and specificity, and features of the induced mutations and applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants. In addition, we provide a perspective on the challenges of CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its significance for basic plant research and crop genetic improvement.

  12. Programmable telemetry test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadiana, J. M.

    A portable programmable telemetry test system was designed to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The test system accurately simulates any missile in the current Navy inventory, and provides test and calibration signals to verify telemetry systems. The total test system weighs just over 15 lbs and occupies less than 1 cubic foot. Internal batteries allow testing or calibration of RF front ends out on weather decks. The modulation section consists of an FM/PAM/PCM simulator and simple control circuitry, and is programmable via an Intel 2715 EPROM, the frame format memory. A second EPROM provides a wave-form library.

  13. Thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K; Ullal, H S

    1989-05-01

    Thin films are considered a potentially attractive technological approach to making cost-effective electricity by photovoltaics. Over the last twenty years, many have been investigated and some (cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, amorphous silicon) have become leading candidates for future large-scale commercialization. This paper surveys the past development of these key thin films and gives their status and future prospects. In all cases, significant progress toward cost-effective PV electricity has been made. If this progress continues, it appears that thin film PV could provide electricity that is competitive for summer daytime peaking power requirements by the middle of the 1990s; and electricity in a range that is competitive with fossil fuel costs (i.e., 6 cents/kilowatt-hour) should be available from PV around the turn of the century. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Reliability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of photovoltaic modules, four categories of known array failure and degradation mechanisms are discussed, and target reliability allocations have been developed within each category based on the available technology and the life-cycle-cost requirements of future large-scale terrestrial applications. Cell-level failure mechanisms associated with open-circuiting or short-circuiting of individual solar cells generally arise from cell cracking or the fatigue of cell-to-cell interconnects. Power degradation mechanisms considered include gradual power loss in cells, light-induced effects, and module optical degradation. Module-level failure mechanisms and life-limiting wear-out mechanisms are also explored.

  15. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  16. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  17. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  18. Photovoltaics and electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

    1981-12-01

    The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

  19. Polycrystalline photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Lampkin, C.M.

    1983-10-25

    A photovoltaic cell is disclosed, having an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide; a first layer containing a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure; a second layer forming a heterojunction with the first layer; and suitable electrodes where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amorphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 /SUB u/ thick) of underlying polycrystalline semiconductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  20. Photovoltaic solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  1. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  2. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  3. All-Oxide Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Kupfer, Benjamin; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Zaban, Arie

    2012-12-20

    Recently, a new field in photovoltaics (PV) has emerged, focusing on solar cells that are entirely based on metal oxide semiconductors. The all-oxide PV approach is very attractive due to the chemical stability, nontoxicity, and abundance of many metal oxides that potentially allow manufacturing under ambient conditions. Already today, metal oxides (MOs) are widely used as components in PV cells such as transparent conducting front electrodes or electron-transport layers, while only very few MOs have been used as light absorbers. In this Perspective, we review recent developments of all-oxide PV systems, which until today were mostly based on Cu2O as an absorber. Furthermore, ferroelectric BiFeO3-based PV systems are discussed, which have recently attracted considerable attention. The performance of all-oxide PV cells is discussed in terms of general PV principles, and directions for progress are proposed, pointing toward the development of novel metal oxide semiconductors using combinatorial methods.

  4. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Panitz, Janda K. G.; Sharp, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  5. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    These teacher and student editions on steering and suspension are part of the diesel mechanics series of instructional materials. The series aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the…

  6. Diesel Technology: Safety Skills. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, Mary

    Teacher and student editions of this document are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for diesel technology programs. The series aligns with the medium/heavy diesel duty truck task list used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the certification of medium/heavy duty truck technicians. Introductory…

  7. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, James; Mathieson, Keith; Kamins, Ted; Wang, Lele; Galambos, Ludwig; Huie, Philip; Sher, Alexander; Harris, James; Palanker, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight to patients suffering from retinal degenerative disorders. Implanted electrode arrays apply patterned electrical stimulation to surviving retinal neurons, producing visual sensations. All current designs employ inductively coupled coils to transmit power and/or data to the implant. We present here the design and initial testing of a photovoltaic retinal prosthesis fabricated with a pixel density of up to 177 pixels/mm2. Photodiodes within each pixel of the subretinal array directly convert light to stimulation current, avoiding the use of bulky coil implants, decoding electronics, and wiring, and thereby reducing surgical complexity. A goggles-mounted camera captures the visual scene and transmits the data stream to a pocket processor. The resulting images are projected into the eyes by video goggles using pulsed, near infrared (~900 nm) light. Prostheses with three pixel densities (15, 55, and 177 pix/mm2) are being fabricated, and tests indicate a charge injection limit of 1.62 mC/cm2 at 25Hz. In vitro tests of the photovoltaic retinal stimulation using a 512-element microelectrode array have recorded stimulated spikes from the ganglion cells, with latencies in the 1-100ms range, and with peak irradiance stimulation thresholds varying from 0.1 to 1 mW/mm2. With 1ms pulses at 25Hz the average irradiance is more than 100 times below the IR retinal safety limit. Elicited retinal response disappeared upon the addition of synaptic blockers, indicating that the inner retina is stimulated rather than the ganglion cells directly, and raising hopes that the prosthesis will preserve some of the retina's natural signal processing.

  8. Photovoltaic System Performance

    1989-09-25

    PVFORM4.0 is used to design a photovoltaic (PV) system using a set of design parameters which optimize the system's economic potential for the proposed location and the expected operating conditions. PVFORM3.3 has been used to determine PV system size and optimum mounting configuration. The anticipated electrical load determines the system size and the weather and the mounting configuration affect the system output. PVFORM4.0 uses program-supplied default values or their user-supplied equivalents for each of amore » large number of parameters describing the system and time-series data describing the environment to perform a series of hourly calculations to simulate the physical (photovoltaic) performance of a PV system for a one-year period. These iterative calculations sample the performance of the PV system throughout a simulated 365-day year of system operation. Within any simulated day on which system performance is sampled, the calculations are done hourly. The number of days sampled and the interval between them is determined by an input parameter. The results of these calculations are summarized on a monthly basis in output tables and an optional plot file. The program is applicable to grid interactive or stand-alone flat-plate systems. The grid interactive system is assumed to use power purchased from a local utility to supply that portion of the load not met by the simulated PV array. If the array produces more energy than can be consumed by the load, the excess energy is assumed to be sold back to the utility at a constant energy sellback price. If a stand-alone system is being modeled, the program assumes that all energy produced by the simulated PV array is first applied to the external load, and any excess is then used to charge the battery bank. Energy not consumed by the load or the batteries is considered to be wasted.« less

  9. SQTTEXT. Tool For Editing Structured Query Language Text Within ORACLE Forms Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, P.F.; Singley, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    SQTTEXT is an ORACLE SQL*Forms application that allows a programmer to view and edit all the Structured Query Language (SQL) text for a given application on one screen. This application is an outgrowth of the prototyping of an on-line system dictionary for the Worldwide Household Goods Information system for Transportation-Modernization decision support system being prototyped by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, but it can be applied to all SQL*Forms software development, debugging, and maintenance.

  10. Tool For Editing Structured Query Language Text Within ORACLE Forms Applications

    1991-02-01

    SQTTEXT is an ORACLE SQL*Forms application that allows a programmer to view and edit all the Structured Query Language (SQL) text for a given application on one screen. This application is an outgrowth of the prototyping of an on-line system dictionary for the Worldwide Household Goods Information system for Transportation-Modernization decision support system being prototyped by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, but it can be applied to all SQL*Forms software development, debugging, and maintenance.

  11. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  12. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  13. Statistical Physics Approaches to RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The central dogma of molecular Biology states that DNA is transcribed base by base into RNA which is in turn translated into proteins. However, some organisms edit their RNA before translation by inserting, deleting, or substituting individual or short stretches of bases. In many instances the mechanisms by which an organism recognizes the positions at which to edit or by which it performs the actual editing are unknown. One model system that stands out by its very high rate of on average one out of 25 bases being edited are the Myxomycetes, a class of slime molds. In this talk we will show how the computational methods and concepts from statistical Physics can be used to analyze DNA and protein sequence data to predict editing sites in these slime molds and to guide experiments that identified previously unknown types of editing as well as the complete set of editing events in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum.

  14. Programmable, very low noise current source.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, G; Cannatà, G; Giusi, G; Ciofi, C

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new approach for the realization of very low noise programmable current sources mainly intended for application in the field of low frequency noise measurements. The design is based on a low noise Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) acting as a high impedance current source and programmability is obtained by resorting to a low noise, programmable floating voltage source that allows to set the sourced current at the desired value. The floating voltage source is obtained by exploiting the properties of a standard photovoltaic MOSFET driver. Proper filtering and a control network employing super-capacitors allow to reduce the low frequency output noise to that due to the low noise JFET down to frequencies as low as 100 mHz while allowing, at the same time, to set the desired current by means of a standard DA converter with an accuracy better than 1%. A prototype of the system capable of supplying currents from a few hundreds of μA up to a few mA demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach we propose. When delivering a DC current of about 2 mA, the power spectral density of the current fluctuations at the output is found to be less than 25 pA/√Hz at 100 mHz and less than 6 pA/√Hz for f > 1 Hz, resulting in an RMS noise in the bandwidth from 0.1 to 10 Hz of less than 14 pA. PMID:25554328

  15. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Programmable ECG Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Le Huy, P.; Yvroud, E.; Gilgenkrantz, J.M.; Baille, N.; Aliot, E.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the simulation of an electrocardiogram using a CMOS microprocessor is described. The programmability has been made accessible to every user. All inherent parameters of different waves in an ECG, such as amplitude, slope, duration can be independently modified by software. Thus, the testing of some sophisticated devices may be easily performed.

  18. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  19. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  20. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  1. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  2. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  3. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  4. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  5. LOGSIM programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A programmer's manual is reported for a Logic Simulator (LOGSIM) computer program that is a large capacity event simulator with the capability to accurately simulate the effects of certain unknown states, rise and fall times, and floating nodes in large scale metal oxide semiconductor logic circuits. A detailed description of the software with flow charts is included within the report.

  6. Sedimentary petrology. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, H.

    1992-01-01

    The second edition of Sedimentary Petrology is extensively revised and updated; much effort has been expended to strengthen the weaknesses of the earlier edition, and much of this effort has been successful. It consists of sixteen chapters. Following two introductory chapters (occurrence of sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils), eleven chapters cover the various sedimentary rock types. Coverage is allocated in proportion to their relative abundance and relative ease of study -- three chapters on conglomerates and sandstones (textures and structures, composition, and diagenesis); one on mud rocks; three on carbonates (limestone textures, structures, and environments; limestone mineralogy and diagenesis; and dolostones); and one each on evaporites, cherts, iron-rich rocks, and phosphorites. A novel and useful chapter on paleogeothermometry rounds out the discussion of rocks, followed by chapters on The Development of a Research Project'' and common laboratory methods.

  7. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  8. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  9. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  10. Particle Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, B. R.; Shaw, G.

    1998-01-01

    Particle Physics, Second Edition is a concise and lucid account of the fundamental constituents of matter. The standard model of particle physics is developed carefully and systematically, without heavy mathematical formalism, to make this stimulating subject accessible to undergraduate students. Throughout, the emphasis is on the interpretation of experimental data in terms of the basic properties of quarks and leptons, and extensive use is made of symmetry principles and Feynman diagrams, which are introduced early in the book. The Second Edition brings the book fully up to date, including the discovery of the top quark and the search for the Higgs boson. A final short chapter is devoted to the continuing search for new physics beyond the standard model. Particle Physics, Second Edition features: * A carefully structured and written text to help students understand this exciting and demanding subject. * Many worked examples and problems to aid student learning. Hints for solving the problems are given in an Appendix. * Optional "starred" sections and appendices, containing more specialised and advanced material for the more ambitious reader.

  11. RNA Editing in Plant Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Wissinger, Bernd; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel

    1989-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  12. A photovoltaics module for incoming science, technology, engineering and mathematics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-05-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors to physical phenomena, to develop quantitative literacy and communication skills, and to increase the students' interest in physics. The students investigated the performance of commercially available silicon semiconductors through experiments they designed, carried out and analysed. They fabricated and tested organic dye-based solar cells. This article describes the programme, the solar cell module, and presents some experimental results obtained by the students.

  13. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  14. Photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1991-05-16

    This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  15. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  16. All-Oxide Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Kupfer, Benjamin; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Zaban, Arie

    2012-12-20

    Recently, a new field in photovoltaics (PV) has emerged, focusing on solar cells that are entirely based on metal oxide semiconductors. The all-oxide PV approach is very attractive due to the chemical stability, nontoxicity, and abundance of many metal oxides that potentially allow manufacturing under ambient conditions. Already today, metal oxides (MOs) are widely used as components in PV cells such as transparent conducting front electrodes or electron-transport layers, while only very few MOs have been used as light absorbers. In this Perspective, we review recent developments of all-oxide PV systems, which until today were mostly based on Cu2O as an absorber. Furthermore, ferroelectric BiFeO3-based PV systems are discussed, which have recently attracted considerable attention. The performance of all-oxide PV cells is discussed in terms of general PV principles, and directions for progress are proposed, pointing toward the development of novel metal oxide semiconductors using combinatorial methods. PMID:26291107

  17. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Solar Energy program, the US Department of Energy is now engaged in the development of technically feasible, low cost candidate component and system technologies to the point where technical readiness can be demonstrated by 1982. The overall strategy is to pursue parallel options that continue to show promise of meeting the program goals, thus increasing the probability that at least one technology will be successful. Included in technology development are both flat plate solar collectors and concentrator solar collectors, as well as the balance of system components, such as structures, power conditioning, power controls, protection, and storage. Generally, these last items are common to both flat plate and concentrator systems, but otherwise there is considerable disparity in design philosophy, photovoltaic cell requirements, and possible applications between the two systems. Objectives for research activities at NASA Lewis for stand alone applications, and at Sandia Laboratories where intermediate load center applications are addressed, are highlighted as well as college projects directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and international applications managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute. Joint DOD/DOE effects for military applications are also summarized.

  18. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  19. A programmable artificial retina

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, T.M. ); Zavidovique, B.Y. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Perception System Lab., Arcueil ); Devos, F.J. . Dept. of Integrated Circuits and Systems)

    1993-07-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm[sup 2] CMOS 2-[mu]m circuit are presented.

  20. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  1. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  2. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  3. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  4. Programmable mechanical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin; van Hecke, Martin

    2014-10-24

    We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, nonmonotonic, and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multistability and giant hysteresis.

  5. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  6. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  7. An agent based model of genotype editing

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L. M.; Huang, C. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents our investigation on an agent-based model of Genotype Editing. This model is based on several characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. The incorporation of editing mechanisms in an evolutionary agent-based model provides a means for evolving agents with heterogenous post-transcriptional processes. The study of this agent-based genotype-editing model has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing as well as established an advantageous evolutionary computation algorithm for machine learning. We expect that our proposed model may both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in agent-based optimization.

  8. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  9. Survey of Facilities for Testing Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    42-page report describes facilities capable of testing complete photovoltaic systems, subsystems, or components. Compilation includes facilities and capabilities of five field centers of national photovoltaics program, two state-operated agencies, and five private testing laboratories.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  11. Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

  12. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  13. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  14. The new alchemy of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The work is a review. The expanding field of use of photovoltaic electric power plants includes single family homes. Solar batteries with a surface area of less than 90 square meters mounted on a roof totally or partially satisfy their daily requirement for electric power. The cost of a single family, approximately 220 square meter home built near Sante Fe and equipped with a passive solar system with a photovoltaic power plant with a power production of 6,500 kilovolthours per year is 190,000 dollars. The cost of a solar battery has been reduced to 7 to 15 dollars per watt of peak power, which is totally insufficient for buy back even over forth years. The threshold of cost, when the solar battery is competitive is 3 dollars per watt. Nevertheless, approximately 6,000 single family dwelling passive solar systems with a photovoltaic power plant are in operation in the United States. The previous opponents of the photovoltaic method, the oil companies, have become suporters of the development and production of solar energy. After the decline in 1982 as a result of the five fold reduction of government financing in works in the field of renewable energy sources, the photovoltaic industry enjoyed a new rise in popularity.

  15. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  16. RNA Editing Dynamically Rewrites the Cancer Code

    PubMed Central

    Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Harjanto, Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Global analyses of cancer transcriptomes demonstrate that ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific)-mediated RNA editing dynamically contributes to genetic alterations in cancer, and directly correlates with progression and prognosis. RNA editing is abundant and frequently elevated in cancer, and affects functionally and clinically relevant sites in both coding and non-coding regions of the transcriptome. Therefore, ADAR and differentially edited transcripts may be promising biomarkers or targets for therapy.

  17. RNA Editing Dynamically Rewrites the Cancer Code

    PubMed Central

    Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Harjanto, Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Global analyses of cancer transcriptomes demonstrate that ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific)-mediated RNA editing dynamically contributes to genetic alterations in cancer, and directly correlates with progression and prognosis. RNA editing is abundant and frequently elevated in cancer, and affects functionally and clinically relevant sites in both coding and non-coding regions of the transcriptome. Therefore, ADAR and differentially edited transcripts may be promising biomarkers or targets for therapy. PMID:27695712

  18. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  19. Image Editing Via Searching Source Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Han; Deng, Liang-Jian

    Image editing has important applications by changing the image texture, illumination, target location, etc. As an important application of Poisson equation, Poisson image editing processes images on the gradient domain and has been applied to seamless clone, selection editing, image denoising, etc. In this paper, we present a new application of Poisson image editing, which is based on searching source image. The main feature of the new application is all modifying information comes from the source image. Experimental results show that the proposed application performs well.

  20. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  1. Editing in Technical Communication: Theory and Practice in Editing Processes at the Graduate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Roger E.

    At New Mexico State University, technical communication teachers have developed a course to teach editing processes to graduate students who take the advanced workshop in technical and professional communication. In this seminar group, students work on writing processes; editing processes; written, edited, and tested products; and oral processes…

  2. Photovoltaics, the solar electric solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, C. D.; Litka, A. H.

    Direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by photovoltaic devices (solar cells) may be the most promising solution to the current energy problem. Photovoltaic energy systems provide a clean, simple method of energy conversion, and are reliable, safe, and flexible with respect to size (modular). The federal government is trying to commercialize photovoltaics by funding research on new materials and manufacturing processes. Earliest commercialization will be in residential systems, where the power grid back-up provides for a reliable electrical system without storage costs. The Florida Solar Energy Center has been operating a 5 kW experimental residential facility since 1980. The facility showed an average solar irradiance in the 62.5 sq m panels of 264 kw-hours/day from December 1980 through February 1981. The overall system efficiency was 7%, and the inverter operated with an ac output/dc input efficiency of 85-90%, depending on input levels.

  3. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  4. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  5. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  6. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  7. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  8. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  9. Single-edition quadrangle maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    In August 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service signed an Interagency Agreement to begin a single-edition joint mapping program. This agreement established the coordination for producing and maintaining single-edition primary series topographic maps for quadrangles containing National Forest System lands. The joint mapping program saves money by eliminating duplication of effort by the agencies and results in a more frequent revision cycle for quadrangles containing national forests. Maps are revised on the basis of jointly developed standards and contain normal features mapped by the USGS, as well as additional features required for efficient management of National Forest System lands. Single-edition maps look slightly different but meet the content, accuracy, and quality criteria of other USGS products. The Forest Service is responsible for the land management of more than 191 million acres of land throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, including 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These areas make up the National Forest System lands and comprise more than 10,600 of the 56,000 primary series 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (15-minute in Alaska) covering the United States. The Forest Service has assumed responsibility for maintaining these maps, and the USGS remains responsible for printing and distributing them. Before the agreement, both agencies published similar maps of the same areas. The maps were used for different purposes, but had comparable types of features that were revised at different times. Now, the two products have been combined into one so that the revision cycle is stabilized and only one agency revises the maps, thus increasing the number of current maps available for National Forest System lands. This agreement has improved service to the public by requiring that the agencies share the same maps and that the maps meet a

  10. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  11. Pediatric surgical pathology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dehner, L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The edition provides view of congenital, hereditary, infectious, and inflammatory neoplastic diseases occurring during the first two decades of life, with special reference to clinical, laboratory, and roentgenographic features. Material includes observations from some of the major national studies on Wilms' tumor and rhabdomyosarcomas, the new classification of pediatric malignant lymphomas, a discussion of the role of immunocytochemistry as it applies to the diagnosis of childhood infections and neoplasms, an examination of graft-versus-host disease in the liver and intestinal tract and more.

  12. Biocommunication and natural genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Witzany, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The biocommunicative approach investigates communication processes within and among cells, tissues, organs and organisms as sign-mediated interactions, and nucleotide sequences as code, i.e. language-like text, which follows in parallel three kinds of rules: combinatorial (syntactic), context-sensitive (pragmatic), and content-specific (semantic). Natural genome editing from a biocommunicative perspective is competent agent-driven generation and integration of meaningful nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. PMID:21537469

  13. NASA Pocket Statistics: 1997 Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    POCKET STATISTICS is published by the NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA). Included in each edition is Administrative and Organizational information, summaries of Space Flight Activity including the NASA Major Launch Record, Aeronautics and Space Transportation and NASA Procurement, Financial and Workforce data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Launch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. All Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.

  14. Optimization of scarless human stem cell genome editing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luhan; Guell, Marc; Byrne, Susan; Yang, Joyce L; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Briggs, Adrian W; Rios, Xavier; Huang, Po-Yi; Daley, George; Church, George

    2013-10-01

    Efficient strategies for precise genome editing in human-induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) will enable sophisticated genome engineering for research and clinical purposes. The development of programmable sequence-specific nucleases such as Transcription Activator-Like Effectors Nucleases (TALENs) and Cas9-gRNA allows genetic modifications to be made more efficiently at targeted sites of interest. However, many opportunities remain to optimize these tools and to enlarge their spheres of application. We present several improvements: First, we developed functional re-coded TALEs (reTALEs), which not only enable simple one-pot TALE synthesis but also allow TALE-based applications to be performed using lentiviral vectors. We then compared genome-editing efficiencies in hiPSCs mediated by 15 pairs of reTALENs and Cas9-gRNA targeting CCR5 and optimized ssODN design in conjunction with both methods for introducing specific mutations. We found Cas9-gRNA achieved 7-8× higher non-homologous end joining efficiencies (3%) than reTALENs (0.4%) and moderately superior homology-directed repair efficiencies (1.0 versus 0.6%) when combined with ssODN donors in hiPSCs. Using the optimal design, we demonstrated a streamlined process to generated seamlessly genome corrected hiPSCs within 3 weeks. PMID:23907390

  15. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  16. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flat plate solar arrays is reported. Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver films can eliminate most of the present problems with silver conductors. The objectives are to: (1) identify and characterize suitable MO compounds; (2) develop generic synthesis procedures for the MO compounds; (3) develop generic fabrication procedures to screen printable MOD silver inks; (4) optimize processing conditions to produce grid patterns and photovoltaic cells; and (5) develop a model which describes the adhesion between the fired silver film and the silicon surface.

  17. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  18. Photovoltaic water pumping for Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Post, H.N.; Garvison, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the design, installation and performance of photovoltaically-powered water pumping systems which provide potable water to residents of three villages in the Altiplano region of Bolivia. The installation of these systems during August 1986 was the culmination of a cooperative effort between The World Bank, US Department of Energy and the Bolivian government. This project was configured to demonstrate, through pilot systems, the many potential benefits of using photovoltaic water pumping in developing countries. The lessons learned through the procurement and installation of these systems are discussed and the resulting benefits of the project to international lending institutions, US industry, and the Bolivian participants are examined.

  19. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  20. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  1. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  2. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  3. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  4. Trends in Space Photovoltaic Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The current status of silicon and gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell technology is described, and anticipated near and far term projections of photovoltaic cell performance are provided. It is shown that current ultrathin silicon and near term GaAs solar cells provide substantial enhancement of planar solar array performance. The advantages of utililizing GaAs cells in high concentration arrays is discussed. Evidence is provided to support the view that photovoltaic offers a viable means of supporting long term space objectives.

  5. Macromolecular architectures for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Popere, Bhooshan C; Della Pelle, Andrea M; Poe, Ambata; Thayumanavan, S

    2012-03-28

    Research in the field of organic photovoltaics has gained considerable momentum in the last two decades owing to the need for developing low-cost and efficient energy harvesting systems. Elegant molecular architectures have been designed, synthesized and employed as active materials for photovoltaic devices thereby leading to a better molecular structure-device property relationship understanding. In this perspective, we outline new macromolecular scaffolds that have been designed within the purview of each of the three fundamental processes involving light harvesting, charge separation and charge transport.

  6. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications. PMID:27676312

  7. Photovoltaic systems sizing for Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, A.H.; Driss, B.A.; Amimeur, R.; Lorenzo, E.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an optimization method applicable to stand-alone photovoltaic systems as a function of its reliability. For a given loss-of-load probability (LLP), there are many combinations of battery capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. The problem consists in determining the couple which corresponds to a minimum total system cost. The method has been applied to various areas all over Algeria taking into account various climatic zones. The parameter used to define the different climatic zones is the clearness index KT for all the considered sites. The period of the simulation system is 10 years. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  9. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  10. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  11. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  12. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  13. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  14. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  15. Photovoltaic Systems Test Facilities: Existing capabilities compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.

    1982-01-01

    A general description of photovoltaic systems test facilities (PV-STFs) operated under the U.S. Department of Energy's photovoltaics program is given. Descriptions of a number of privately operated facilities having test capabilities appropriate to photovoltaic hardware development are given. A summary of specific, representative test capabilities at the system and subsystem level is presented for each listed facility. The range of system and subsystem test capabilities available to serve the needs of both the photovoltaics program and the private sector photovoltaics industry is given.

  16. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  17. Photovoltaic Power Station with Ultracapacitors for Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Soltis, Richard F.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power station in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy is discussed. Developments in the semiconductor industry have reduced the cost and increased the attainable efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic panels; as a result, photovoltaic generation of power for diverse applications has become practical. Photovoltaic generation can provide electric power in remote locations where electric power would otherwise not be available. Photovoltaic generation can also afford independence from utility systems. Applications include supplying power to scientific instruments and medical equipment in isolated geographical regions.

  18. The Technique of Editing 16mm. Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burder, John

    For professionals and advanced amateurs, this book covers all aspects of editing 16 millimeter film. Beginning with basic matters of film gauge, equipment, and editing facilities, it covers the mechanics of the subject using a how-to-do-it approach. The techniques discussed include preparation of the sound track, cutting, mixing, choice of pace…

  19. Novel modes of RNA editing in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Sandrine; Valach, Matus; Aoulad-Aissa, Mohamed; Otto, Christian; Burger, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria. PMID:27001515

  20. Applications of genome editing in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in inse...

  1. New Edition of Chinese Biochemistry Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian-Chuan, Ma

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the four previous editions of the biochemistry medical textbooks called the "Nationwide Unified Textbooks." Notes the new (1989) edition is much smaller, is organized differently, has new material, has a reorganized Dynamic Biochemistry core, and shows great importance to clinical biochemistry. (MVL)

  2. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  3. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    edition_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition"> The mission of National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of EPA's ...

  4. Teaching Visually Impaired Children. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.

    2004-01-01

    In this exceptional new third edition, the author has retained much of the practical "how to" approach of the previous editions, but adds depth in two dimensions: learning theory and the educational process. This book is "so comprehensive in scope and complete in detail that it would be the most likely recommended" (from the foreword by Dr.…

  5. Current Views of Error and Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda

    1987-01-01

    Inexperienced writers, including both basic writers and learning disabled, commit errors that often follow a discernible pattern due to applying erroneous or incomplete rules. Techniques for teaching editing skills are described, including textual analyses of students' writing, interviews with students, structuring the editing task, and providing…

  6. Profs, Professionals Agree about Students' Editing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Frank; Russial, John; Auman Ann

    2003-01-01

    Considers where journalism educators should focus when they design editing curriculum. Examines what professors say is important for students to know about editing. Compares what professors at accredited programs say about necessary skills with what professional copy editors say is important. Concludes that professors and professionals are largely…

  7. Educational Assessment of Students. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitko, Anthony J.

    This text offers teachers and education majors practical, step-by-step guidance on how to create and use assessments. It can serve as the textbook for an undergraduate or first graduate course in educational assessment. This third edition focuses more clearly on classroom assessment than the previous editions. Each chapter has been revised with…

  8. Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 203 NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition (Online Subscription)   WTT - Professional Edition, a Web version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables, represents a complete collection of critically evaluated thermodynamic property data primarily for pure organic compounds. As of Nov. 2011, WTT contains information on 23999 compounds.

  9. Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Lite Edition

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 202 NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Lite Edition (Online Subscription)   WTT - Lite Edition, a Web version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables, represents a collection of critically evaluated thermodynamic property data for 150 commonly-used (primarily organic) pure compounds.

  10. Accounting for Independent Schools. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1969 publication, "Accounting for Independent Schools," a guide that attempted to codify basic accounting principles and practices for specific application to independent schools. The focus of the second edition is more on refining practices than on initiating them, and more on extending the managerial…

  11. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  12. Non-GMO genetically edited crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Viola, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein with guide RNA into plant cells, as opposed to plasmid-mediated delivery, displays high efficiency and reduced off-target effects. Following regeneration from edited cells, the ensuing plant is also likely to bypass genetically modified organism (GMO) legislation as the genome editing complex is degraded in the recipient cells. PMID:25978870

  13. Non-GMO genetically edited crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Viola, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein with guide RNA into plant cells, as opposed to plasmid-mediated delivery, displays high efficiency and reduced off-target effects. Following regeneration from edited cells, the ensuing plant is also likely to bypass genetically modified organism (GMO) legislation as the genome editing complex is degraded in the recipient cells.

  14. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  15. Exploring the RNA editing potential of RNA-Seq data by ExpEdit.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Mattia; Picardi, Ernesto; Castrignanò, Tiziana; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Revealing the impact of A-to-I RNA editing in RNA-Seq experiments is relevant in humans because RNA editing can influence gene expression. In addition, its deregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases. Exploiting the RNA editing potential in complete RNA-Seq datasets, however, is a challenging task. Indeed, no dedicated software is available, and sometimes deep computational skills and appropriate hardware resources are required. To explore the impact of known RNA editing events in massive transcriptome sequencing experiments, we developed the ExpEdit web service application. In the present work, we provide an overview of ExpEdit as well as methodologies to investigate known RNA editing in human RNA-Seq datasets.

  16. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  17. Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Variation in RNA Editing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Braun, Robert E; Churchill, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing.

  18. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Both front and back surface metallizations should have good adhesion, low contact resistance, low sheet resistance, long term stability, and their deposition methods should not degrade the n-p junction. Advantages and disadvantages of different deposition methods are discussed.

  19. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2012-04-23

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  20. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2016-07-12

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  1. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  2. Terminal System for Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Quick-connect terminal system provides electrical contact and physical alinement between adjacent photovoltaic modules. Dual-ended plugs connect adjacent modules; single-ended plugs connect bus cables. No tools required to insert plugs and no live terminals exposed before, during, or after connection.

  3. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  4. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  5. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  6. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  7. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K.A.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  8. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  9. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, A.M.; Catalano, A.W.; Dalal, V.L.; Hall, R.B.; Masi, J.V.; Meakin, J.D.

    1984-10-16

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  10. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  11. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  12. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  14. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  15. Programmable Image Processing Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversole, W. L.; Salzman, J. F.; Taylor, F. V.; Harland, W. L.

    1982-07-01

    The algorithmic solution to many image-processing problems frequently uses sums of products where each multiplicand is an input sample (pixel) and each multiplier is a stored coefficient. This paper presents a large-scale integrated circuit (LSIC) implementation that provides accumulation of nine products and discusses its evolution from design through application 'A read-only memory (ROM) accumulate algorithm is used to perform the multiplications and is the key to one-chip implementation. The ROM function is actually implemented with erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) to allow reprogramming of the circuit to a variety of different functions. A real-time brassboard is being constructed to demonstrate four different image-processing operations on TV images.

  16. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  17. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  18. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed Designed for Calibrating Photovoltaic Devices in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the performance of solar arrays in space requires that the cells be tested in comparison with a space-flown standard. Recognizing that improvements in future solar cell technology will require an ever-increasing fidelity of standards, the Photovoltaics and Space Environment Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the Ohio Aerospace Institute, designed a prototype facility to allow routine calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells on the International Space Station, and then the return of the cells to Earth for laboratory use. For solar cell testing, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) site provides a true air-mass-zero (AM0) solar spectrum. This allows solar cells to be accurately calibrated using the full spectrum of the Sun.

  19. Changing genetic information through RNA editing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, S.; Rich, A.

    2000-01-01

    RNA editing, the post-transcriptional alteration of a gene-encoded sequence, is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes. As a consequence of RNA editing, functionally distinct proteins can be produced from a single gene. The molecular mechanisms involved include single or multiple base insertions or deletions as well as base substitutions. In mammals, one type of substitutional RNA editing, characterized by site-specific base-modification, was shown to modulate important physiological processes. The underlying reaction mechanism of substitutional RNA editing involves hydrolytic deamination of cytosine or adenosine bases to uracil or inosine, respectively. Protein factors have been characterized that are able to induce RNA editing in vitro. A supergene family of RNA-dependent deaminases has emerged with the recent addition of adenosine deaminases specific for tRNA. Here we review the developments that have substantially increased our understanding of base-modification RNA editing over the past few years, with an emphasis on mechanistic differences, evolutionary aspects and the first insights into the regulation of editing activity.

  20. Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Larry; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Alfonzo, Juan D.; Maslov, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Two different RNA editing systems have been described in the kinetoplast-mitochondrion of trypanosomatid protists. The first involves the precise insertion and deletion of U residues mostly within the coding regions of maxicircle-encoded mRNAs to produce open reading frames. This editing is mediated by short overlapping complementary guide RNAs encoded in both the maxicircle and the minicircle molecules and involves a series of enzymatic cleavage-ligation steps. The second editing system is a C34 to U34 modification in the anticodon of the imported tRNATrp, thereby permitting the decoding of the UGA stop codon as tryptophan. U-insertion editing probably originated in an ancestor of the kinetoplastid lineage and appears to have evolved in some cases by the replacement of the original pan-edited cryptogene with a partially edited cDNA. The driving force for the evolutionary fixation of these retroposition events was postulated to be the stochastic loss of entire minicircle sequence classes and their encoded guide RNAs upon segregation of the single kinetoplast DNA network into daughter cells at cell division. A large plasticity in the relative abundance of minicircle sequence classes has been observed during cell culture in the laboratory. Computer simulations provide theoretical evidence for this plasticity if a random distribution and segregation model of minicircles is assumed. The possible evolutionary relationship of the C to U and U-insertion editing systems is discussed. PMID:10860961

  1. Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Simpson, L; Thiemann, O H; Savill, N J; Alfonzo, J D; Maslov, D A

    2000-06-20

    Two different RNA editing systems have been described in the kinetoplast-mitochondrion of trypanosomatid protists. The first involves the precise insertion and deletion of U residues mostly within the coding regions of maxicircle-encoded mRNAs to produce open reading frames. This editing is mediated by short overlapping complementary guide RNAs encoded in both the maxicircle and the minicircle molecules and involves a series of enzymatic cleavage-ligation steps. The second editing system is a C(34) to U(34) modification in the anticodon of the imported tRNA(Trp), thereby permitting the decoding of the UGA stop codon as tryptophan. U-insertion editing probably originated in an ancestor of the kinetoplastid lineage and appears to have evolved in some cases by the replacement of the original pan-edited cryptogene with a partially edited cDNA. The driving force for the evolutionary fixation of these retroposition events was postulated to be the stochastic loss of entire minicircle sequence classes and their encoded guide RNAs upon segregation of the single kinetoplast DNA network into daughter cells at cell division. A large plasticity in the relative abundance of minicircle sequence classes has been observed during cell culture in the laboratory. Computer simulations provide theoretical evidence for this plasticity if a random distribution and segregation model of minicircles is assumed. The possible evolutionary relationship of the C to U and U-insertion editing systems is discussed.

  2. Outreach Programmes for Education and Training: Contributions from the International Cartographic Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, W. E.; Fairbairn, D.

    2012-07-01

    Organisations like the International Cartographic Association champion programmes that develop and deliver education and training to cartographers and geospatial scientists, globally. This can be in the form of traditional university and training college programmes, short courses for professional and technical members of mapping agencies and as outreach initiatives to transfer knowledge about the discipline and its contemporary practices. Through its international community, the ICA undertakes the transfer of knowledge about cartography and GI Science by publishing books and special editions of journals and running workshops. Colleagues from the ICA community conduct these workshops on a volunteer basis, generally with the support of the national member organisation of ICA or the national mapping body. For example, the ICA promotes the generation of extensive publications, generally through its Commissions and Working Groups. The publications include books, journals and the ICA Newsletter. Outreach activities are especially pertinent to up skill colleagues from developing countries. Specialist programmes can be offered for professional and 'everyday' map users (from adults to children). The ICA can assist with its current programmes, designed to embrace professional and non-professional cartographers alike. This paper will address how education and outreach programmes can be supported by international associations, by offering programmes independently, or in partnership with sister associations and national and regional organisations and societies. As well, the paper will address the need to deliver education and outreach programmes not to just the professional international community, but also to map users and citizen map publishers.

  3. [Evaluation of health promotion programmes].

    PubMed

    Berkowska, M; Sito, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of definitions of evaluation and discusses the need to evaluate health promotion programmes. The classification of types of evaluation is presented. It is aimed to create a common language of communication between evaluation and the common understanding of terms. The relation between evaluation of health promotion programmes and quality assurance, best practice and evidence based health promotion are discussed.

  4. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  5. NRP 7th Edition: Are You Prepared?

    PubMed

    Zaichkin, Jeanette; Mccarney, Linda; Weiner, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Heart Association Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) materials must be in use by January 1, 2017. As in previous editions, changes in resuscitation science are based on an international review and consensus of current resuscitation science. The seventh edition NRP materials also include enhancements to training materials aimed at improving the quality of NRP instruction and providing the opportunity for ongoing education. A standardized approach to instructor training, an online Instructor Toolkit, eSim cases, and a new learning management system are among the new resources. PMID:27461196

  6. CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing: progress, implications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wen, Yan; Guo, Xiong

    2014-09-15

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system provides a robust and multiplexable genome editing tool, enabling researchers to precisely manipulate specific genomic elements, and facilitating the elucidation of target gene function in biology and diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 comprises of a nonspecific Cas9 nuclease and a set of programmable sequence-specific CRISPR RNA (crRNA), which can guide Cas9 to cleave DNA and generate double-strand breaks at target sites. Subsequent cellular DNA repair process leads to desired insertions, deletions or substitutions at target sites. The specificity of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage requires target sequences matching crRNA and a protospacer adjacent motif locating at downstream of target sequences. Here, we review the molecular mechanism, applications and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and clinical therapeutic potential of CRISPR/Cas9 in future.

  7. Research Techniques Made Simple: The Application of CRISPR-Cas9 and Genome Editing in Investigative Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Joan Ramon; Johnson, Jodi L; Chien, Wade W

    2016-09-01

    Designer nucleases have gained widespread attention for their ability to precisely modify genomic DNA in a programmable manner. These genome-editing nucleases make double-stranded breaks at specified loci, and desired changes can be made to modify, ablate, or excise target genes. This technology has been used widely to develop human disease models in laboratory animals and to study gene functions by silencing, activating, or modifying them. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a bacterially derived programmable nuclease termed clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has revolutionized the field because of its versatility and wide applicability. In this article, we discuss various modalities used to achieve genome editing with an emphasis on CRISPR-Cas9. We discuss genome-editing strategies to either repair or ablate target genes, with emphasis on their applications for investigating dermatological diseases. Additionally, we highlight preclinical studies showing the potential of genome editing as a therapy for congenital blistering diseases and as an antimicrobial agent, and we discuss limitations and future directions of this technology. PMID:27542298

  8. Research Techniques Made Simple: The Application of CRISPR-Cas9 and Genome Editing in Investigative Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Guitart, Joan Ramon; Johnson, Jodi L.; Chien, Wade W.

    2016-01-01

    Designer nucleases have gained widespread attention for their ability to precisely modify genomic DNA in a programmable manner. These genome-editing nucleases make double-stranded breaks at specified loci, and desired changes can be made to modify, ablate, or excise target genes. This technology has been used widely to develop human disease models in laboratory animals and to study gene functions by silencing, activating, or modifying them. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a bacterially derived programmable nuclease termed clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has revolutionized the field because of its versatility and wide applicability. In this article, we discuss various modalities used to achieve genome editing with an emphasis on CRISPR-Cas9. We discuss genome-editing strategies to either repair or ablate target genes, with emphasis on their applications for investigating dermatological diseases. Additionally, we highlight preclinical studies showing the potential of genome editing as a therapy for congenital blistering diseases and as an antimicrobial agent, and we discuss limitations and future directions of this technology. PMID:27542298

  9. Microprogrammed coupling system for photovoltaic generators with multiple receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumain, G.; Barlaud, M.; Rouan, P.; Requier, Jp.

    The organization, operational guidelines, and storage recommendations for an impedance adaptor-equipped photovoltaic array power system are outlined. The possibility of power losses through defective cells by maintaining the electrical independence of each module and installing automatic power-tracking device controls for each module. The overall distribution is handled by a microprocessor. A chopper is added for dc generator systems, together with a programmable receptor with a static performance adapted to the generator. Impedance adaptation is achieved by a governing algorithm in the microprocessor which adjusts the output in reference to ideal IV curves stored in memory. Storage is used in both a buffer mode, to take care of power transients, and to compensate for the changing nature of renewable energy sources. The system presented is also recommended for use with wind turbines and other electricity generation equipment.

  10. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. US photovoltaic patents: 1991-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, L.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class 'Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric' and the subclasses 'Photoelectric,' 'Testing,' and 'Applications.' The search also located patents that contained the words 'photovoltaic(s)' or 'solar cell(s)' and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. Marketing/Planning Library and Information Services. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    In the first edition of this book, the concepts of marketing and planning library and information services were presented as effective managerial strategies. Several paragraphs from the introduction to the first edition are reproduced, with author commentary, in this edition as an affirmation that the message is still true. In this second edition,…

  13. Single carbon nanotube photovoltaic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkelid, M.; Zwiller, V.

    2013-10-01

    Here we present photocurrent measurements on a single suspended carbon nanotube p-n junction. The p-n junction was induced by electrostatic doping by local gates, and the E11 and E22 resonances in the nanotube could be probed using photocurrent spectroscopy. Current-voltage characteristics were recorded, revealing an enhanced optoelectronic response on resonance. The internal power conversion efficiency for the nanotube diode was extracted on and off resonance with the E11 and E22, and a large internal power conversion efficiency was observed. An internal efficiency of up to 23% is reported for the E11, showing the potential of carbon nanotubes to be used as the active element in photovoltaic devices. Finally, a photovoltaic device is proposed which exploits this enhanced efficiency.

  14. Photovoltaic/thermal hybrid projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kush, E. A.

    1980-03-01

    Systems which utilize a combination of photovoltaic and thermal collection in the same solar collectors (PV/T Systems) can have advantages over PV or thermal only systems in that the cost effectiveness of the collectors and their support structure may be improved, active cooling may allow the cells to run at lower temperatures-hence higher conversion efficiency, and space limitations on side by side collectors can be avoided. Evaluation of such systems requires formulation and assessment of collector concepts, power conditioning, storage, and control strategies, and their interactions when combined into a total system. Systems with flat plate PV/T collectors and vapor compression heat pump driven by the photovoltaic electric output are considered along with PV/T concentrating collectors and their potential applications, particularly to solar driven absorption chillers.

  15. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  16. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOEpatents

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  17. Bimolecular recombination in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Girish; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    The recombination of electrons and holes is a major loss mechanism in photovoltaic devices that controls their performance. We review scientific literature on bimolecular recombination (BR) in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices to bring forward existing ideas on the origin and nature of BR and highlight both experimental and theoretical work done to quantify its extent. For these systems, Langevin theory fails to explain BR, and recombination dynamics turns out to be dependent on mobility, temperature, electric field, charge carrier concentration, and trapped charges. Relationships among the photocurrent, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and morphology are discussed. Finally, we highlight the recent emergence of a molecular-level picture of recombination, taking into account the spin and delocalization of charges. Together with the macroscopic picture of recombination, these new insights allow for a comprehensive understanding of BR and provide design principles for future materials and devices.

  18. Microprocessor control of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present low power CMOS microprocessor controller for photovoltaic power systems possesses three programs, which are respectively intended for (1) conventional battery-charging systems with state-of-charge estimation and sequential shedding of subarrays and loads, (2) maximum power-controlled battery-charging systems, and (3) variable speed dc motor drives. Attention is presently given to the development of this terrestrial equipment for spacecraft use.

  19. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  20. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  2. Recent progress in space photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Key issues and opportunities in space photovoltaic research and technology relative to future NASA mission requirements and drivers are addressed. Examples are given of space missions and/or operational capabilities on NASA's planning horizon presenting major technology challenges to the use of photovoltaic power generation in space. The status of cell R and D and the performance goals to be met by space photovoltaic power systems to remain competitive are described.

  3. Photovoltaics: Program overview, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The US DOE`s Photovoltaics program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in the laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. This document is divided into the following sections: 1992 PV program accomplishments, expanding markets for photovoltaic systems, developing today`s systems with utilities and industry, working with industry to advance the technology, cooperative research to improve materials and devices, selected achievements in cooperative R and D, and PV program services. Figs, tabs.

  4. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  5. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  6. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  7. Space power technology 21: Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The Space Power needs for the 21st Century and the program in photovoltaics needed to achieve it are discussed. Workshops were conducted in eight different power disciplines involving industry and other government agencies. The Photovoltaics Workshop was conducted at Aerospace Corporation in June 1987. The major findings and recommended program from this workshop are discussed. The major finding is that a survivable solar power capability is needed in photovoltaics for critical Department of Defense missions including Air Force and Strategic Defense Initiative. The tasks needed to realize this capability are described in technical, not financial, terms. The second finding is the need for lightweight, moderately survivable planar solar arrays. High efficiency thin III-V solar cells can meet some of these requirements. Higher efficiency, longer life solar cells are needed for application to both future planar and concentrator arrays with usable life up to 10 years. Increasing threats are also anticipated and means for avoiding prolonged exposure, retraction, maneuvering and autonomous operation are discussed.

  8. Resolution in Photovoltaic Potential Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking the orientation, tilt and position into consideration. Different sky visibility map has been created for direct and diffuse radiation and only the effect of resolution of the factors has been explored here. The following four resolutions are considered: 1. temporal resolution (1, 10, 60 minutes time interval for calculating visibility of sun), 2. object surface resolution (0.01, 0.1, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 m2 as maximum triangle size of a surface to be considered), 3. blocking obstacle resolution (number of triangles from LoD1, LoD2, or LoD3 CityGML building models), and 4. sky resolution (ranging from 150 to 600 sky-patches used to divide the sky-dome). Higher resolutions result in general in more precise estimation of the photovoltaic potential, but also the computation time is increasing, especially as realizes that this computation has to be done for every building with its object surface (both roofs and façades). This paper is the first in depth analysis ever of the effect of resolution and will help to configure the proper settings for effective photovoltaic potential computations.

  9. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS Eureka'' facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the Eureka'' facility to Chronar's batch'' plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  10. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  11. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  12. Molecular photovoltaics in nanoscale dimension.

    PubMed

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V

    2011-01-05

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures.

  13. Nanochemistry and nanomaterials for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanying; Seo, Jangwon; Yang, Chunhui; Prasad, Paras N

    2013-11-01

    Nanochemistry and nanomaterials provide numerous opportunities for a new generation of photovoltaics with high solar energy conversion efficiencies at low fabrication cost. Quantum-confined nanomaterials and polymer-inorganic nanocomposites can be tailored to harvest sun light over a broad range of the spectrum, while plasmonic structures offer effective ways to reduce the thickness of light-absorbing layers. Multiple exciton generation, singlet exciton fission, photon down-conversion, and photon up-conversion realized in nanostructures, create significant interest for harvesting underutilized ultraviolet and currently unutilized infrared photons. Nanochemical interface engineering of nanoparticle surfaces and junction-interfaces enable enhanced charge separation and collection. In this review, we survey these recent advances employed to introduce new concepts for improving the solar energy conversion efficiency, and reduce the device fabrication cost in photovoltaic technologies. The review concludes with a summary of contributions already made by nanochemistry. It then describes the challenges and opportunities in photovoltaics where the chemical community can play a vital role.

  14. RNA editing generates cellular subsets with diverse sequence within populations

    PubMed Central

    Harjanto, Dewi; Papamarkou, Theodore; Oates, Chris J.; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Papavasiliou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a mutational mechanism that specifically alters the nucleotide content in transcribed RNA. However, editing rates vary widely, and could result from equivalent editing amongst individual cells, or represent an average of variable editing within a population. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian model that quantifies the variance of editing rates at specific sites using RNA-seq data from both single cells, and a cognate bulk sample to distinguish between these two possibilities. The model predicts high variance for specific edited sites in murine macrophages and dendritic cells, findings that we validated experimentally by using targeted amplification of specific editable transcripts from single cells. The model also predicts changes in variance in editing rates for specific sites in dendritic cells during the course of LPS stimulation. Our data demonstrate substantial variance in editing signatures amongst single cells, supporting the notion that RNA editing generates diversity within cellular populations. PMID:27418407

  15. The Bilingual Edition in Translation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Lance

    1993-01-01

    Looks closely at the nature of the bilingual edition and the specific problems that it presents to the translation theorist. Examines publishers' strategies, the translator's introduction and notes, and reading strategies. Comments on the importance of the translation process. (SR)

  16. An Automatic Editing Algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-03-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires (1) the use of P code pseudorange data and (2) a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. The latter requirement can be relaxed if the analysis software incorporates ambiguity resolution techniques to estimate unresolved cycle slip parameters. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips. Analyst intervention was required on 1% of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  17. An automatic editing algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification, and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires the use of P code pseudorange data and a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips.Analyst intervention was required on 1 percent of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  18. International photovoltaic program. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses conducted in preparation of an international photovoltaic marketing plan are summarized. Included are compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about the how US government actions could affect this market;international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  19. Thin film photovoltaics -- Strategy of Eurec Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Bloss, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    European activities in the field of thin film photovoltaics are coordinated in a network by Eurec Agency (European Renewable Energy Centres Agency). Main emphasis lies in the development of an appropriate production technology of CIS and CdTe based photovoltaic modules in an industrial scale. These efforts are supported by a research program on relevant materials, structures and processes for thin film photovoltaics. Substantial progress has been achieved during the last years which opens new perspectives for future trends. Joint efforts in research and development based on CIS are coordinated by the network EUROCIS. A screening program on natural minerals with relevance to photovoltaic performance provides the basis for further strategic steps.

  20. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, John F.; Albright, Scot P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  1. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  2. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  3. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  4. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  5. ESO's Astronomy Education Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce-Price, D. P. I.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.

    2006-08-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, has operated a programme of astronomy education for some years, with a dedicated Educational Office established in 2001. We organise a range of activities, which we will highlight and discuss in this presentation. Many are run in collaboration with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), such as the "Catch a Star!" competition for schools, now in its fourth year. A new endeavour is the ALMA Interdisciplinary Teaching Project (ITP). In conjunction with the EAAE, we are creating a set of interdisciplinary teaching materials based around the Atacama Large Millimeter Array project. The unprecedented astronomical observations planned with ALMA, as well as the uniqueness of its site high in the Atacama Desert, offer excellent opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching that also encompass physics, engineering, earth sciences, life sciences, and culture. Another ongoing project in which ESO takes part is the "Science on Stage" European science education festival, organised by the EIROforum - the group of seven major European Intergovernmental Research Organisations, of which ESO is a member. This is part of the European Science Teaching Initiative, along with Science in School, a newly-launched European journal for science educators. Overviews of these projects will be given, including results and lessons learnt. We will also discuss possibilities for a future European Astronomy Day project, as a new initiative for European-wide public education.

  6. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. PMID:25129425

  7. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  8. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections 2013 Edition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Barbose, G.; Dargouth, N.; Weaver, S.; Wiser, R.

    2013-09-01

    This briefing provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV system pricing trends in the United States, drawing on several ongoing research activities from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods. These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  9. Applications of genome editing in insects.

    PubMed

    Reid, William; O'Brochta, David A

    2016-02-01

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in insects to date have been technical in nature but this is rapidly changing. Functional genomics and genetics-based insect control efforts will be major beneficiaries of the application of contemporary gene editing technologies. Engineered endonucleases like Cas9 make it possible to create powerful and effective gene drive systems that could be used to reduce or even eradicate specific insect populations. 'Best practices' for using Cas9-based editing are beginning to emerge making it easier and more effective to design and use but gene editing technologies still require traditional means of delivery in order to introduce them into somatic and germ cells of insects-microinjection of developing embryos. This constrains the use of these technologies by insect scientists. Insects created using editing technologies challenge existing governmental regulatory structures designed to manage genetically modified organisms.

  10. On the evaluation of segmentation editing tools

    PubMed Central

    Heckel, Frank; Moltz, Jan H.; Meine, Hans; Geisler, Benjamin; Kießling, Andreas; D’Anastasi, Melvin; dos Santos, Daniel Pinto; Theruvath, Ashok Joseph; Hahn, Horst K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Efficient segmentation editing tools are important components in the segmentation process, as no automatic methods exist that always generate sufficient results. Evaluating segmentation editing algorithms is challenging, because their quality depends on the user’s subjective impression. So far, no established methods for an objective, comprehensive evaluation of such tools exist and, particularly, intermediate segmentation results are not taken into account. We discuss the evaluation of editing algorithms in the context of tumor segmentation in computed tomography. We propose a rating scheme to qualitatively measure the accuracy and efficiency of editing tools in user studies. In order to objectively summarize the overall quality, we propose two scores based on the subjective rating and the quantified segmentation quality over time. Finally, a simulation-based evaluation approach is discussed, which allows a more reproducible evaluation without the need for human input. This automated evaluation complements user studies, allowing a more convincing evaluation, particularly during development, where frequent user studies are not possible. The proposed methods have been used to evaluate two dedicated editing algorithms on 131 representative tumor segmentations. We show how the comparison of editing algorithms benefits from the proposed methods. Our results also show the correlation of the suggested quality score with the qualitative ratings. PMID:26158063

  11. Applications of genome editing in insects.

    PubMed

    Reid, William; O'Brochta, David A

    2016-02-01

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in insects to date have been technical in nature but this is rapidly changing. Functional genomics and genetics-based insect control efforts will be major beneficiaries of the application of contemporary gene editing technologies. Engineered endonucleases like Cas9 make it possible to create powerful and effective gene drive systems that could be used to reduce or even eradicate specific insect populations. 'Best practices' for using Cas9-based editing are beginning to emerge making it easier and more effective to design and use but gene editing technologies still require traditional means of delivery in order to introduce them into somatic and germ cells of insects-microinjection of developing embryos. This constrains the use of these technologies by insect scientists. Insects created using editing technologies challenge existing governmental regulatory structures designed to manage genetically modified organisms. PMID:27436552

  12. Soils and Geomorphology, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Suzanne Prestrud

    In accepting the Kirk Bryan Award in 1988 from the Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology Division of the Geological Society of America, Pete Birkeland commented that he was passing the soil geomorphology baton on to the next generation. Fortunately for us, the hand-off is still incomplete, as evidenced by the publication of a new third edition of his award winning book, Soils and Geomorphology.Birkeland's book is notable for being a survey of soil science from a geological perspective. Thus the focus is on field aspects of soil science, particularly on pedology the study of soil genesis. The book is studded with field examples, drawn from the literature and from his own nearly forty years of fieldwork in the American West and around the world. The issues he addresses are often geological in nature: dating landforms, reading past climates from information in soils, and using soils as stratigraphic markers. His philosophy is that the principles of soil genesis must be learned and understood before one can interpret the geological record in soils.

  13. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  14. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  15. Fabrication of plasmonic crystals using programmable nanoreplica molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longju; Badshah, Mohsin A.; Kim, Seok-min; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    The development of many photonic devices, such as photonic integrated circuit, optical sensors, and photovoltaic devices, demands low-cost and reliable fabrication technologies to fabricate sub-wavelength features. Here, we report a programmable nanoreplica molding process, which is capable of producing photonic devices with a variety of submicrometer patterns. The process utilizes a stretchable plastic mold to generate the desired periodic pattern using a UVcurable polymer on plastic substrates. During the replica molding process, a uniaxial force is applied to the mold and results in changes of the periodic structure, which locates on the surface of the mold. The geometry of the replicated pattern, including the lattice constant and arrangement, is determined by the magnitude and direction of the force. As an example, we present a plasmonic crystal device with surface plasmon resonances carefully tuned by using the uniaxial force. This unique process offers an inexpensive route to generate various periodic nanostructures rapidly.

  16. RNA-dependent DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the CRISPR system: Holy Grail of genome editing?

    PubMed

    Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2013-11-01

    Tailor-made nucleases for precise genome modification, such as zinc finger or TALE nucleases, currently represent the state-of-the-art for genome editing. These nucleases combine a programmable protein module which guides the enzyme to the target site with a nuclease domain which cuts DNA at the addressed site. Reprogramming of these nucleases to cut genomes at specific locations requires major protein engineering efforts. RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 of the type II (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) CRISPR-Cas system uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) as a guide to locate the DNA target and the Cas9 protein to cut DNA. Easy programmability of the Cas9 endonuclease using customizable RNAs brings unprecedented flexibility and versatility for targeted genome modification. We highlight the potential of the Cas9 RNA-guided DNA endonuclease as a novel tool for genome surgery, and discuss possible constraints and future prospects.

  17. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  18. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Al Marhi, Muhammad Okba; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. PMID:25414592

  19. Biological Science: An Ecological Approach. BSCS Green Version. Teacher's Edition. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This book is the teacher's edition to the 1987 edition of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Green Version textbook. It contains directions for teaching with this version, a description of the accompanying materials, teaching strategies by chapters, lists of useful software, safety guidelines, a materials list, chemical safety information,…

  20. Residential Wiring. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    Residential Wiring, the second publication in a series of three wiring publications, prepares students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Instructional materials include a teacher edition, student guide, and student workbook. The teacher edition begins with introductory pages, including a training and competency profile,…

  1. Improving Student Revising and Editing Skills through the Use of Peer Editing and Writing Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolling, Ann

    This report describes instructional strategies that will improve the revising and editing skills of sixth grade students during the writing process. The literature review suggested improved instruction and evaluation through a writer's workshop approach, which would include a positive environment, mini-lessons, teacher modeling, peer editing, and…

  2. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  3. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-07-12

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  4. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  5. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  6. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  7. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices.

  8. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The possible processing of semiconductor photovoltaic devices is discussed. The requirements for lunar PV cells is reviewed, and the key challenges involved in their manufacturing are investigated. A schematic diagram of a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) is presented. The possible fabrication of large photovoltaic arrays in space from lunar materials is also discussed.

  9. Pre-school intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Reader, L

    1984-01-01

    This paper re-examines the rationale for pre-school intervention programmes and the results from a variety of programmes are reviewed. The distinction is drawn between programmes for the socially disadvantaged and for the handicapped. The importance of parental involvement in such programmes is discussed, both with regard to advantages for the child and for the family. The wide variety of pre-school programmes that are possible are examined with consideration given to the population served, the geographical area, the theoretical basis and delivery systems. Considerable attention is paid to the difficulty of evaluating any pre-school intervention programme. With these points in mind, home visiting, a popular form of pre-school intervention with practitioners, is examined and advantages and disadvantages of this form of intervention are enumerated. The paper ends with a cautionary note, and attention paid to authors who feel that early intervention can have dangers. The conclusion drawn is that better documentation of the work going on in the field is the only way to overcome gaps in our knowledge and to individualize services to parents and to children. PMID:6236911

  10. RNA editing of nuclear transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA editing is a transcript-based layer of gene regulation. To date, no systemic study on RNA editing of plant nuclear genes has been reported. Here, a transcriptome-wide search for editing sites in nuclear transcripts of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was performed. Results MPSS (massively parallel signature sequencing) and PARE (parallel analysis of RNA ends) data retrieved from public databases were utilized, focusing on one-base-conversion editing. Besides cytidine (C)-to-uridine (U) editing in mitochondrial transcripts, many nuclear transcripts were found to be diversely edited. Interestingly, a sizable portion of these nuclear genes are involved in chloroplast- or mitochondrion-related functions, and many editing events are tissue-specific. Some editing sites, such as adenosine (A)-to-U editing loci, were found to be surrounded by peculiar elements. The editing events of some nuclear transcripts are highly enriched surrounding the borders between coding sequences (CDSs) and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), suggesting site-specific editing. Furthermore, RNA editing is potentially implicated in new start or stop codon generation, and may affect alternative splicing of certain protein-coding transcripts. RNA editing in the precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) of ath-miR854 family, resulting in secondary structure transformation, implies its potential role in microRNA (miRNA) maturation. Conclusions To our knowledge, the results provide the first global view of RNA editing in plant nuclear transcripts. PMID:21143795

  11. Training in the Retail Trade in the United Kingdom. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toye, Janet; And Others

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in the United Kingdom's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social…

  12. Training in the Retail Sector in Germany. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnlein, Gertrud

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Germany's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  13. Training in the Retail Trade in France. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baret, Christophe; Bertrand, Olivier

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in France's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  14. Training in the Retail Trade in the Netherlands. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Tillaart, Harry

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in the Netherlands' retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  15. Leadership and Motivation. Supervisory Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Peter

    This module on leadership and motivation is intended to explain the many aspects of both leadership and motivation and demonstrate how they relate to each other in a hospitality setting. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in four sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved…

  16. Training in the Retail Trade in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Ireland's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  17. Training in the Retail Trade in Italy. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Patrizia; And Others

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Italy's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  18. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Deirdre; And Others

    The food and beverage industry is of overwhelming strategic importance to the Irish economy. It is also one of the fastest changing sectors. Recent trends in this largely indigenous industry in recent years include the following: globalization, large and accelerating capital outlay, company consolidation, added value product, enhanced quality…

  19. Training in the Retail Sector. A Survey for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Wilfried; And Others

    Training in the retail sector throughout the 12 European Community (EC) member countries was examined through in-depth case studies of 55 retail firms that were selected as representing a wide range of firm types (19 multinational, 36 national, 4 cooperative, 7 family-owned firms), forms of retailing (department stores, supermarkets, and chain and…

  20. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  1. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  2. Future trends in space photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Kristen; Marvin, Dean

    1994-12-01

    The Air Force, NASA, NRL and the commercial sector are all using small spacecraft to a greater extent in order to provide more cost-effective access to space. This paper discusses the generic photovoltaic technologies which are being studied and/or developed to support these smaller spacecraft, and identifies several specific examples. The unique requirements of these mission types include lower power arrays, arrays with lower mass and stowed volume which will be more compatible with small launch vehicles, and power systems with lower fabrication costs.

  3. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  4. Photovoltaic Cell And Manufacturing Process

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-11-26

    Provided is a method for controlling electrical properties and morphology of a p-type material of a photovoltaic device. The p-type material, such as p-type cadmium telluride, is first subjected to heat treatment in an oxidizing environment, followed by recrystallization in an environment substantially free of oxidants. In one embodiment, the heat treatment step comprises first subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a first temperature to getter impurities, followed by second subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a second temperature, higher than the first temperature, to develop a desired oxidation gradient through the p-type material.

  5. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  6. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.J. )

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  7. Photovoltaics - Where are we going?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The directions that will be followed for solar cell development, production and marketing are projected on the basis of experiences gained during the JPL's Flat-Plate Solar Array project. It is thought that a billion dollar market for Si ribbons can be established by 1990. Thin film technology will yield a product at $2 U.S./W at the end of the 1980s. R&D is growing more focused on central station photovoltaic generators, although the residential market may be the more suitable goal. The intermediate markets, e.g., schools, hospitals and shopping centers may be developed before the central stations.

  8. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems is presented. This particular application is for a solar cell power system demonstration project designed to provide electric power requirements for remote villages. The techniques utilized involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  9. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  10. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  11. Photovoltaic Power for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Mars is a challenging environment for the use of solar power. The implications of the low temperatures and low light intensity, solar spectrum modified by dust and changing with time of day and year, indirect sunlight, dust storms, deposited dust, wind, and corrosive peroxide-rich soil are discussed with respect to potential photovoltaic power systems. The power systems addressed include a solar-powered rover vehicle and a human base. High transportation costs dictate high efficiency solar cells or alternatively, a 'thin film' solar cell deposited on a lightweight plastic or thin metal foil.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity: third edition Quantum Gravity: third edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    The request by Classical and Quantum Gravity to review the third edition of Claus Kiefer's 'Quantum Gravity' puts me in a slightly awkward position. This is a remarkably good book, which every person working in quantum gravity should have on the shelf. But in my opinion quantum gravity has undergone some dramatic advances in the last few years, of which the book makes no mention. Perhaps the omission only attests to the current vitality of the field, where progress is happening fast, but it is strange for me to review a thoughtful, knowledgeable and comprehensive book on my own field of research, which ignores what I myself consider the most interesting results to date. Kiefer's book is unique as a broad introduction and a reliable overview of quantum gravity. There are numerous books in the field which (often notwithstanding titles) focus on a single approach. There are also countless conference proceedings and article collections aiming to be encyclopaedic, but offering disorganized patchworks. Kiefer's book is a careful and thoughtful presentation of all aspects of the immense problem of quantum gravity. Kiefer is very learned, and brings together three rare qualities: he is pedagogical, he is capable of simplifying matter to the bones and capturing the essential, and he offers a serious and balanced evaluation of views and ideas. In a fractured field based on a major problem that does not yet have a solution, these qualities are precious. I recommend Kiefer's book to my students entering the field: to work in quantum gravity one needs a vast amount of technical knowledge as well as a grasp of different ideas, and Kiefer's book offers this with remarkable clarity. This novel third edition simplifies and improves the presentation of several topics, but also adds very valuable new material on quantum gravity phenomenology, loop quantum cosmology, asymptotic safety, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, analogue gravity, the holographic principle, and more. This is a testament

  13. Mediated plastid RNA editing in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    García-Andrade, Javier; Ramírez, Vicente; López, Ana; Vera, Pablo

    2013-10-01

    Plant regulatory circuits coordinating nuclear and plastid gene expression have evolved in response to external stimuli. RNA editing is one of such control mechanisms. We determined the Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded homeodomain-containing protein OCP3 is incorporated into the chloroplast, and contributes to control over the extent of ndhB transcript editing. ndhB encodes the B subunit of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) involved in cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I. In ocp3 mutant strains, ndhB editing efficiency decays, CEF is impaired and disease resistance to fungal pathogens substantially enhanced, a process recapitulated in plants defective in editing plastid RNAs encoding NDH complex subunits due to mutations in previously described nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide-related proteins (i.e. CRR21, CRR2). Furthermore, we observed that following a pathogenic challenge, wild type plants respond with editing inhibition of ndhB transcript. In parallel, rapid destabilization of the plastidial NDH complex is also observed in the plant following perception of a pathogenic cue. Therefore, NDH complex activity and plant immunity appear as interlinked processes.

  14. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  15. Biomolecular Photovoltaics and Artificial Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Kuritz, Tanya; Lee, Ida; Owens, Elizabeth T.; Humayun, Mark

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project is insertion of purified Photosystem I (PSI) reaction centers or other photoactive agents into retinal cells where they will restore photoreceptor function to people who suffer from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP), diseases that are the leading causes of blindness world-wide. Although the neural ``wiring'' from eye to brain is intact, these patients lack photoreceptor activity. It is the ultimate goal of this project to restore photoreceptor activity to these patients using PSI as the optical trigger. In principle, the approach should work. PSI is a robust integral membrane molecular photovoltaic device. Depending on orientation, it can depolarize or hyperpolarize the cell membrane with sufficient voltage to trigger an action potential. The first objective of this work, reported here, is to impart photoreceptor activity to mammalian cells using the previously determined molecular photovoltaic properties of isolated Photosystem I reaction centers. Incubation of WERI-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells with functional PSI reaction centers that were isolated from spinach leaves and reconstituted into proteoliposomes resulted in a light-induced PSI-dependent increase in intracellular Ca^2+. The increase, due to Ca^2+ uptake, was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca^2+ ions.

  16. Molecular Photovoltaics and Artificial Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this project is insertion of purified Photosystem I (PSI) reaction centers or other photoactive agents into retinal cells where they will restore photoreceptor function to people who suffer from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP), diseases that are the leading causes of blindness world-wide. Although the neural ``wiring'' from eye to brain is intact, these patients lack photoreceptor activity. It is the ultimate goal of this project to restore photoreceptor activity to these patients using PSI as the optical trigger. In principle, the approach should work. PSI is a robust integral membrane molecular photovoltaic device. Depending on orientation, it can depolarize or hyperpolarize the cell membrane with sufficient voltage to trigger an action potential. The first objective of this work, reported here, is to impart photoreceptor activity to mammalian cells using the previously determined molecular photovoltaic properties of isolated Photosystem I reaction centers. Incubation of WERI-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells with functional PSI reaction centers that were isolated from spinach leaves and reconstituted into proteoliposomes resulted in a light-induced PSI-dependent increase in intracellular Ca^2+. The increase, due to Ca^2+ uptake, was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca^2+ ions.

  17. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Rupnowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    As the global energy needs grow, there is increasing interest in the generation of electricity by photovoltaics (PVs) devices or solar cells - devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Solar industry has seen an enormous growth during the last decade. The sale of PV modules has exceeded 27 GW in 2011, with significant contributions to the market share from all technologies. While the silicon technology continues to have the dominant share, the other thin film technologies (CdTe, CIGS, a-Si, and organic PV) are experiencing fast growth. Increased production of silicon modules has led to a very rapid reduction in their price and remains as benchmark for other technologies. The PV industry is in full gear to commercialize new automated equipment for solar cell and module production, instrumentation for process monitoring technologies, and for implementation of other cost-reduction approaches, and extensive research continues to be carried out in many laboratories to improve the efficiency of solar cells and modules without increasing the production costs. A large variety of solar cells, which differ in the material systems used, design, PV structure, and even the principle of PV conversion, are designed to date. This special issue contains peer-reviewed papers in the recent developments in research related to broad spectrum of photovoltaic materials and devices. It contains papers on many aspects of solar cells-the growth and deposition, characterization, and new material development.

  18. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  19. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid. PMID:18409654

  20. Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, Annick; Dileo, Roberta; Schauerman, Chris; Landi, Brian; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being investigated for optical absorption, exciton dissociation, and carrier transport in polymer photovoltaic devices. In the present work, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by an Alexandrite pulsed laser vaporization reactor at standard conditions and purified based upon our previously reported TOP procedure. The SWNTs were dispersed in polymer composites for pure MEH-PPV, pure P3HT, and [C60]-PCBM-P3HT (1:1 by weight) as a function of nanotube weight loading (0.1 -- 5% w/w). The AM0 current-voltage measurements for structures sandwiched between PEDOT/PSS coated ITO substrates and an evaporated aluminum contact demonstrate the dramatic effect of SWNT content on the short circuit current density, with conversions efficiencies consistently greater than 1%. The temperature coefficient for nanotube-containing polymer photovoltaics has been compared to conventional PCBM-P3HT devices, and the general relationship of increasing efficiency with increasing temperature is observed. However, the necessity to control nanotube percolation to prevent device shunting has led to recent developments which focus on controlling nanotube length through oxidative cutting, the deposition of intrinsic polymer layers, and the use of aligned carbon nanotube arrays for preferential charge transport.

  1. Composition of the editing complex of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Stuart, K; Panigrahi, A K; Schnaufer, A; Drozdz, M; Clayton, C; Salavati, R

    2002-01-29

    The RNA editing that produces most functional mRNAs in trypanosomes is catalysed by a multiprotein complex. This complex catalyses the endoribonucleolytic cleavage, uridylate addition and removal, and RNA ligation steps of the editing process. Enzymatic and in vitro editing analyses reveal that each catalytic step contributes to the specificity of the editing and, together with the interaction between gRNA and the mRNA, results in precisely edited mRNAs. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the genes for several components of biochemically purified editing complexes. Their identity and presence in the editing complex were confirmed using immunochemical analyses utilizing mAbs specific to the editing complex components. The genes for two RNA ligases were identified. Genetic studies show that some, but not all, of the components of the complex are essential for editing. The TbMP52 RNA ligase is essential for editing while the TbMP48 RNA ligase is not. Editing was found to be essential in bloodstream form trypanosomes. This is surprising because mutants devoid of genes encoding RNAs that become edited survive as bloodstream forms but encouraging since editing complex components may be targets for chemotherapy. PMID:11839184

  2. Photovoltaic water pumps, an attractive tool for rural drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect

    Posorski, R.

    1996-10-01

    Photovoltaic water pumps (PVP) are an attractive tool for a rural drinking water supply. An international field testing programme verified the technical maturity of PVP and their reliable field operation. Within well defined site selection criteria, the PVP are competitive with or the least-cost option for replacing small diesel-driven pumps. Introduced to the users through an appropriate community participation concept, the PVP achieved a high level of acceptance by the users, as evidenced by their willingness to pay for the consumed water. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Editing the Mouse Genome Using the CRISPR-Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Adam; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The ability to modify the murine genome is perhaps one of the most important developments in modern biology. However, traditional methods of genomic engineering are costly and relatively clumsy in their approach. The use of programmable nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases significantly improved the precision of genome-editing technology, but the design and use of these nucleases remains cumbersome and prohibitively expensive. The CRISPR-Cas9 system is the next installment in the line of programmable nucleases; it provides highly efficient and precise genome-editing capabilities using reagents that are simple to design and inexpensive to generate. Furthermore, with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, it is possible to move from a hypothesis to an in vivo mouse model in less than a month. The simplicity, cost effectiveness, and speed of the CRISPR-Cas9 system allows researchers to tackle questions that otherwise would not be technically or financially viable. In this introduction, we discuss practical considerations for the use of Cas9 in genome engineering in mice.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 Platforms for Genome Editing in Plants: Developments and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingliang; Zhu, Qinlong; Chen, Yuanling; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein9 (Cas9) genome editing system (CRISPR/Cas9) is adapted from the prokaryotic type II adaptive immunity system. The CRISPR/Cas9 tool surpasses other programmable nucleases, such as ZFNs and TALENs, for its simplicity and high efficiency. Various plant-specific CRISPR/Cas9 vector systems have been established for adaption of this technology to many plant species. In this review, we present an overview of current advances on applications of this technology in plants, emphasizing general considerations for establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 vector platforms, strategies for multiplex editing, methods for analyzing the induced mutations, factors affecting editing efficiency and specificity, and features of the induced mutations and applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants. In addition, we provide a perspective on the challenges of CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its significance for basic plant research and crop genetic improvement. PMID:27108381

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  6. Volcanoes of the World, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Charles A.

    How do you review an indispensable classic? In 1981, Tom Simkin and colleagues at the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Project (GVP) published Volcanoes of the World. This was the first complete modern English language listing of volcanoes and their eruptions, and it became the fundamental reference for such information. In 1994, Simkin and Lee Siebert published a second edition, which adds 170 volcanoes, 2322 eruptions, and hundreds of references and corrections to the first edition. The value of this compilation is indicated by the fact that even though it is now 6 years old, it warrants a review in Eos!

  7. Real options analysis for photovoltaic project under climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Sejong; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2016-08-01

    The decision on photovoltaic project depends on the level of climate environments. Changes in temperature and insolation affect photovoltaic output. It is important for investors to consider future climate conditions for determining investments on photovoltaic projects. We propose a real options-based framework to assess economic feasibility of photovoltaic project under climate change. The framework supports investors to evaluate climate change impact on photovoltaic projects under future climate uncertainty.

  8. Genome-editing technologies for gene correction of hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Yong; Lee, Dongjin R; Sung, Jin Jea; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Hemophilia is caused by various mutations in blood coagulation factor genes, including factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX), that encode key proteins in the blood clotting pathway. Although the addition of therapeutic genes or infusion of clotting factors may be used to remedy hemophilia's symptoms, no permanent cure for the disease exists. Moreover, patients often develop neutralizing antibodies or experience adverse effects that limit the therapy's benefits. However, targeted gene therapy involving the precise correction of these mutated genes at the genome level using programmable nucleases is a promising strategy. These nucleases can induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) on genomes, and repairs of such induced DSBs by the two cellular repair systems enable a targeted gene correction. Going beyond cultured cell systems, we are now entering the age of direct gene correction in vivo using various delivery tools. Here, we describe the current status of in vivo and ex vivo genome-editing technology related to potential hemophilia gene correction and the prominent issues surrounding its application in patients with monogenic diseases.

  9. A systematic study of genetic algorithms with genotype editing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C. F.; Rocha, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents our systematic study on an RNA-editing computational model of Genetic Algorithms (GA). This model is constructed based on several genetic editing characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. We have expanded the traditional Genetic Algorithm with artificial editing mechanisms as proposed by [15]. The incorporation of editing mechanisms provides a means for artificial agents with genetic descriptions to gain greater phenotypic plasticity, which may be environmentally regulated. The systematic study of this RNA-editing model has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing and how to select proper RNA editors for design of more robust GAS. The results will also show promising applications to complex real-world problems. We expect that the framework proposed will both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in Evolutionary Computation.

  10. B cell receptor editing in tolerance and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Luning Prak, Eline T; Monestier, Marc; Eisenberg, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Receptor editing is the process of ongoing antibody gene rearrangement in a lymphocyte that already has a functional antigen receptor. The expression of a functional antigen receptor will normally terminate further rearrangement (allelic exclusion). However, lymphocytes with autoreactive receptors have a chance at escaping negative regulation by "editing" the specificities of their receptors with additional antibody gene rearrangements. As such, editing complicates the Clonal Selection Hypothesis because edited cells are not simply endowed for life with a single, invariant antigen receptor. Furthermore, if the initial immunoglobulin gene is not inactivated during the editing process, allelic exclusion is violated and the B cell can exhibit two specificities. Here, we describe the discovery of editing, the pathways of receptor editing at the heavy (H) and light (L) chain loci, and current evidence regarding how and where editing happens and what effects it has on the antibody repertoire.

  11. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  12. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  13. Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Carbon Arc Cutting--Air. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This document contains the teacher and student texts and student workbook for a secondary-level course in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and carbon arc cutting that consists of units on the following topics: SMAW safety; SMAW equipment, applications, and techniques; hardfacing; and carbon arc cutting--air. The teacher edition includes the…

  14. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    US DOE's Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the RR and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accoplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included. (DLC)

  15. Potential and Innovations in Rooftop Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Ben

    2011-11-01

    Photovoltaic technology has reached a point where its cost and capability make it one of a handful of carbon-free sources of electrical energy that could meet a meaningful fraction of US energy demand. In this paper we will first compare Photovoltaics with several other carbon free energy technologies, then look at the economics of Solyndra's rooftop photovoltaic solution as an example of the current state of the art, as well as the market dynamics that have resulted in dramatically faster adoption in Germany vs. the United States.

  16. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Eleventh Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at NASA Lewis Research Center from May 7 to 9, 1991. The papers and workshop summaries presented here report remarkable progress on a wide variety of approaches in space photovoltaics, both near and far term applications. Papers were presented in a variety of technical areas, including multijunction cell technology, GaAs and InP cells, system studies, cell and array development, and photovoltaics for conversion of laser radiation. Three workshops were held to discuss thin film cell development, III-V cell development, and space environmental effects.

  17. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  18. Economic and financial analysis of residential photovoltaic systems. The impact of solar photovoltaics on utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzman, M. T.; Katzman, A. C.

    1982-02-01

    Hourly load data from El Paso Electric and Boston Edison are subjected to preliminary examination by comparison with simulated photovoltaic array output. Three utility production costing and reliability models are compared: SYSGEN, SIMSTOR, and GENCOST. All simulations suggest that photovoltaic penetration will: (1) result in economically significant fuel savings; (2) result in small reductions in capacity requirements; (3) result in total savings that are likely to exceed the costs of photovoltaic systems by the late 1980s. The value of savings per MW of photovoltaics diminishes with increased penetration.

  19. A photovoltaic industry overview - The results of a survey on photovoltaic technology industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Shimada, K.

    1981-01-01

    The National Photovoltaics Program of the United States Department of Energy has the objective of bringing photovoltaic power systems to a point where they can supply a significant portion of the United States energy requirements by the year 2000. This is planned to be accomplished through substantial research and technology development activities aimed at achieving major cost reductions and market penetration. This paper presents information derived from a limited survey performed to obtain photovoltaic industry attitudes concerning industrialization, and to determine current industry plans to meet the DOE program goals. Silicon material production, a key photovoltaic manufacturing industry, is highlighted with regards to implementation of technology improvement and silicon material supply outlook.

  20. 45 CFR 73.735-705 - Writing and editing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Writing and editing. 73.735-705 Section 73.735-705... Outside Activities § 73.735-705 Writing and editing. (a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise...