Science.gov

Sample records for phylogenetic inference depends

  1. Orthologous repeats and mammalian phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Ali; Ye, Chun; Price, Alkes L.; Bafna, Vineet

    2005-01-01

    Determining phylogenetic relationships between species is a difficult problem, and many phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, even among eutherian mammals. Repetitive elements provide excellent markers for phylogenetic analysis, because their mode of evolution is predominantly homoplasy-free and unidirectional. Historically, phylogenetic studies using repetitive elements have relied on biological methods such as PCR analysis, and computational inference is limited to a few isolated repeats. Here, we present a novel computational method for inferring phylogenetic relationships from partial sequence data using orthologous repeats. We apply our method to reconstructing the phylogeny of 28 mammals, using more than 1000 orthologous repeats obtained from sequence data available from the NISC Comparative Sequencing Program. The resulting phylogeny has robust bootstrap numbers, and broadly matches results from previous studies which were obtained using entirely different data and methods. In addition, we shed light on some of the debatable aspects of the phylogeny. With rapid expansion of available partial sequence data, computational analysis of repetitive elements holds great promise for the future of phylogenetic inference. PMID:15998912

  2. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  3. The evolution of HIV: Inferences using phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Burton, Gregory F.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized the study of not only evolution but also disparate fields such as genomics, bioinformatics, epidemiology, ecology, microbiology, molecular biology and biochemistry. Particularly significant are its achievements in population genetics as a result of the development of coalescent theory, which have contributed to more accurate model-based parameter estimation and explicit hypothesis testing. The study of the evolution of many microorganisms, and HIV in particular, have benefited from these new methodologies. HIV is well suited for such sophisticated population analyses because of its large population sizes, short generation times, high substitution rates and relatively small genomes. All these factors make HIV an ideal and fascinating model to study molecular evolution in real time. Here we review the significant advances made in HIV evolution through the application of phylogenetic approaches. We first examine the relative roles of mutation and recombination on the molecular evolution of HIV and its adaptive response to drug therapy and tissue allocation. We then review some of the fundamental questions in HIV evolution in relation to its origin and diversification and describe some of the insights gained using phylogenies. Finally, we show how phylogenetic analysis has advanced our knowledge of HIV dynamics (i.e., phylodynamics). PMID:22138161

  4. Phylogeny, phylogenetic inference, and cranial evolution in pitheciids and Aotus.

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, Alexander; Soligo, Christophe; Elton, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Pitheciids, one of the major radiations of New World monkeys endemic to South and Central America, are distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, and include Callicebus, Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia. Molecular phylogenetics strongly support pitheciid monophyly, whereas morphological analyses infer a range of phylogenies including a sister relationship between Aotus and Callicebus. We collected geometric morphometric cranial data from pitheciids and Aotus, and used cranial data for distance-based phylogenetic analysis and tests of phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetic analyses of pitheciids were repeated with Lagothrix, Callimico, and Saimiri outgroups for Procrustes shape with and without Aotus based on the whole cranium and six anatomical regions. All phylogenetic signal tests were significant, and tree lengths were shortest and had the least morphological change over the phylogeny for Procrustes residuals from the cranial base and palate. The majority of phylogenetic analyses of Procrustes shape for pitheciids without Aotus supported the molecular phylogeny, and with Aotus included the majority inferred an Aotus-Callicebus clade, although three analyses with Callimico as outgroup supported the molecular phylogeny. The morphological similarity of Aotus and Callicebus is likely a mix of plesiomorphy, allometry, and homoplasy, and future phylogenetic inference of living and extinct platyrrhine taxa should consider the impact of these factors alongside outgroup selection and cranial region.

  5. Verification of phylogenetic inference programs using metamorphic testing.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Md Shaik; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ho, Joshua W K; Charleston, Michael A; Chen, T Y

    2011-12-01

    Many phylogenetic inference programs are available to infer evolutionary relationships among taxa using aligned sequences of characters, typically DNA or amino acids. These programs are often used to infer the evolutionary history of species. However, in most cases it is impossible to systematically verify the correctness of the tree returned by these programs, as the correct evolutionary history is generally unknown and unknowable. In addition, it is nearly impossible to verify whether any non-trivial tree is correct in accordance to the specification of the often complicated search and scoring algorithms. This difficulty is known as the oracle problem of software testing: there is no oracle that we can use to verify the correctness of the returned tree. This makes it very challenging to test the correctness of any phylogenetic inference programs. Here, we demonstrate how to apply a simple software testing technique, called Metamorphic Testing, to alleviate the oracle problem in testing phylogenetic inference programs. We have used both real and randomly generated test inputs to evaluate the effectiveness of metamorphic testing, and found that metamorphic testing can detect failures effectively in faulty phylogenetic inference programs with both types of test inputs.

  6. Inference of Transmission Network Structure from HIV Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Giardina, Federica; Romero-Severson, Ethan Obie; Albert, Jan; Britton, Tom; Leitner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is an attractive means to reconstruct transmission histories and epidemics. However, there is not a perfect correspondence between transmission history and virus phylogeny. Both node height and topological differences may occur, depending on the interaction between within-host evolutionary dynamics and between-host transmission patterns. To investigate these interactions, we added a within-host evolutionary model in epidemiological simulations and examined if the resulting phylogeny could recover different types of contact networks. To further improve realism, we also introduced patient-specific differences in infectivity across disease stages, and on the epidemic level we considered incomplete sampling and the age of the epidemic. Second, we implemented an inference method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to discriminate among three well-studied network models and jointly estimate both network parameters and key epidemiological quantities such as the infection rate. Our ABC framework used both topological and distance-based tree statistics for comparison between simulated and observed trees. Overall, our simulations showed that a virus time-scaled phylogeny (genealogy) may be substantially different from the between-host transmission tree. This has important implications for the interpretation of what a phylogeny reveals about the underlying epidemic contact network. In particular, we found that while the within-host evolutionary process obscures the transmission tree, the diversification process and infectivity dynamics also add discriminatory power to differentiate between different types of contact networks. We also found that the possibility to differentiate contact networks depends on how far an epidemic has progressed, where distance-based tree statistics have more power early in an epidemic. Finally, we applied our ABC inference on two different outbreaks from the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic.

  7. Inference of Transmission Network Structure from HIV Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Tom; Leitner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is an attractive means to reconstruct transmission histories and epidemics. However, there is not a perfect correspondence between transmission history and virus phylogeny. Both node height and topological differences may occur, depending on the interaction between within-host evolutionary dynamics and between-host transmission patterns. To investigate these interactions, we added a within-host evolutionary model in epidemiological simulations and examined if the resulting phylogeny could recover different types of contact networks. To further improve realism, we also introduced patient-specific differences in infectivity across disease stages, and on the epidemic level we considered incomplete sampling and the age of the epidemic. Second, we implemented an inference method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to discriminate among three well-studied network models and jointly estimate both network parameters and key epidemiological quantities such as the infection rate. Our ABC framework used both topological and distance-based tree statistics for comparison between simulated and observed trees. Overall, our simulations showed that a virus time-scaled phylogeny (genealogy) may be substantially different from the between-host transmission tree. This has important implications for the interpretation of what a phylogeny reveals about the underlying epidemic contact network. In particular, we found that while the within-host evolutionary process obscures the transmission tree, the diversification process and infectivity dynamics also add discriminatory power to differentiate between different types of contact networks. We also found that the possibility to differentiate contact networks depends on how far an epidemic has progressed, where distance-based tree statistics have more power early in an epidemic. Finally, we applied our ABC inference on two different outbreaks from the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic. PMID:28085876

  8. Inferring Epidemic Contact Structure from Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; von Wyl, Viktor; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing. PMID:22412361

  9. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Gabriel E; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; Wyl, Viktor von; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  10. Indel Reliability in Indel-Based Phylogenetic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Cohen, Ofir; Pupko, Tal; Huchon, Dorothée

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that it is unlikely that the same insertion or deletion (indel) event occurred at the same position in two independent evolutionary lineages, and thus, indel-based inference of phylogeny should be less subject to homoplasy compared with standard inference which is based on substitution events. Indeed, indels were successfully used to solve debated evolutionary relationships among various taxonomical groups. However, indels are never directly observed but rather inferred from the alignment and thus indel-based inference may be sensitive to alignment errors. It is hypothesized that phylogenetic reconstruction would be more accurate if it relied only on a subset of reliable indels instead of the entire indel data. Here, we developed a method to quantify the reliability of indel characters by measuring how often they appear in a set of alternative multiple sequence alignments. Our approach is based on the assumption that indels that are consistently present in most alternative alignments are more reliable compared with indels that appear only in a small subset of these alignments. Using simulated and empirical data, we studied the impact of filtering and weighting indels by their reliability scores on the accuracy of indel-based phylogenetic reconstruction. The new method is available as a web-server at http://guidance.tau.ac.il/RELINDEL/. PMID:25409663

  11. Inferring the evolutionary history of Mo-dependent nitrogen fixation from phylogenetic studies of nifK and nifDK.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Linda S; Barnum, Susan R

    2010-07-01

    The ability to fix nitrogen is widely, but sporadically distributed among the Bacteria and Archaea suggesting either a vertically inherited, ancient function with widespread loss across genera or an adaptive feature transferred laterally between co-inhabitants of nitrogen-poor environments. As previous phylogenetic studies of nifH and nifD have not completely resolved the evolutionary history of nitrogenase, sixty nifD, nifK, and combined nifDK genes were analyzed using Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony algorithms to determine whether the individual and combined datasets could provide additional information. The results show congruence between the 16S and nifDK phylogenies at the phyla level and generally support vertical descent with loss. However, statistically significant differences between tree topographies suggest a complex evolutionary history with the underlying pattern of vertical descent obscured by recurring lateral transfer events and different patterns of evolution between the genes. Results support inheritance from the Last Common ancestor or an ancient lateral transfer of the nif genes between Bacteria and Archaea, ongoing gene transfer between cohabitants of similar biogeographic regions, acquisition of nitrogen-fixing capability via symbiosis islands, possible xenologous displacement of one gene in the operon, and possible retention of ancestral genes in heterocystous cyanobacteria. Analyses support the monophyly of the Cyanobacteria, alphabetagamma-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (Frankia) and provide strong support for the placement of Frankia nif genes at the base of combined the Cyanobacteria/Proteobacteria clades.

  12. Phylogenetic inference of Indian malaria vectors from multilocus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Jyotsana; Srivastava, Hemlata; Sharma, Meenu; Das, Manoj K; Singh, O P; Raghavendra, K; Nanda, Nutan; Dash, Aditya P; Saksena, D N; Das, Aparup

    2010-08-01

    Inferences on the taxonomic positions, phylogenetic interrelationships and divergence time among closely related species of medical importance is essential to understand evolutionary patterns among species, and based on which, disease control measures could be devised. To this respect, malaria is one of the important mosquito borne diseases of tropical and sub-tropical parts of the globe. Taxonomic status of malaria vectors has been so far documented based on morphological, cytological and few molecular genetic features. However, utilization of multilocus DNA sequences in phylogenetic inferences are still in dearth. India contains one of the richest resources of mosquito species diversity but little molecular taxonomic information is available in Indian malaria vectors. We herewith utilized the whole genome sequence information of An. gambiae to amplify and sequence three orthologous nuclear genetic regions in six Indian malaria vector species (An. culicifacies, An. minimus, An. sundaicus, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. stephensi). Further, we utilized the previously published DNA sequence information on the COII and ITS2 genes in all the six species, making the total number of loci to five. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic study of Indian anophelines and An. gambiae was conducted at each individual genetic region using Neighbour Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian approaches. Although tree topologies with COII, and ITS2 genes were similar, for no other three genetic regions similar tree topologies were observed. In general, the reconstructed phylogenetic status of Indian malaria vectors follows the pattern based on morphological and cytological classifications that was reconfirmed with COII and ITS2 genetic regions. Further, divergence times based on COII gene sequences were estimated among the seven Anopheles species which corroborate the earlier hypothesis on the radiation of different species of the Anopheles

  13. Inferring the phylogenetic position of Boa constrictor among the Boinae.

    PubMed

    Burbrink, Frank T

    2005-01-01

    Snakes of the subfamily Boinae are found in Madagascar, the Papuan-Pacific Islands, and the Neotropics. It has been suggested that genera within each of these particular areas do not form monophyletic groups. Further, it was proposed that the New World Boa constrictor is more closely related to boine genera in Madagascar than to boines in the Neotropics. Along with inferring the relationship of all boine genera using data from the cytochrome b gene and morphology, the placement of Boa was also examined. Phylogenetic inferences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian (BI) methods for combined data analyses and separate analyses of DNA sequence and morphological data were conducted. Priors, parametric bootstraps, and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test were used to examine the previously proposed placement of Boa with Madagascan taxa using these DNA data. DNA data and combined data analyses strongly reject the hypothesis that Boa is more closely related to Old World genera than to other New World genera. Additionally, strong tree support suggests that all species within Madagascar, the Papuan-Pacific Islands, and the Neotropics each form a monophyletic group with respect to their geographic region.

  14. Do we need many genes for phylogenetic inference?

    PubMed

    Aleshin, V V; Konstantinova, A V; Mikhailov, K V; Nikitin, M A; Petrov, N B

    2007-12-01

    Fifty-six nuclear protein coding genes from Taxonomically Broad EST Database and other databases were selected for phylogenomic-based examination of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses concerning intergroup relationship between multicellular animals (Metazoa) and other representatives of Opisthokonta. The results of this work support sister group relationship between Metazoa and Choanoflagellata. Both of these groups form the taxon Holozoa along with the monophyletic Ichthyosporea or Mesomycetozoea (a group that includes Amoebidium parasiticum, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Capsaspora owczarzaki). These phylogenetic hypotheses receive high statistical support both when utilizing whole alignment and when only 5000 randomly selected alignment positions are used. The presented results suggest subdivision of Fungi into Eumycota and lower fungi, Chytridiomycota. The latter form a monophyletic group that comprises Chytridiales+Spizellomycetales+Blastocladiales (Batrachochytrium, Spizellomyces, Allomyces, Blastocladiella), contrary to the earlier reports based on the analysis of 18S rRNA and a limited set of protein coding genes. The phylogenetic distribution of genes coding for a ubiquitin-fused ribosomal protein S30 implies at least three independent cases of gene fusion: in the ancestors of Holozoa, in heterotrophic Heterokonta (Oomycetes and Blastocystis) and in the ancestors of Cryptophyta and Glaucophyta. Ubiquitin-like sequences fused with ribosomal protein S30 outside of Holozoa are not FUBI orthologs. Two independent events of FUBI replacement by the ubiquitin sequence were detected in the lineage of C. owczarzaki and in the monophyletic group of nematode worms Tylenchomorpha+Cephalobidae. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchoidoidea) retains a state typical of the rest of the Metazoa. The data emphasize the fact that the reliability of phylogenetic reconstructions depends on the number of analyzed genes to a lesser extent than on our ability to recognize

  15. Detection of implausible phylogenetic inferences using posterior predictive assessment of model fit.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremy M

    2014-05-01

    Systematic phylogenetic error caused by the simplifying assumptions made in models of molecular evolution may be impossible to avoid entirely when attempting to model evolution across massive, diverse data sets. However, not all deficiencies of inference models result in unreliable phylogenetic estimates. The field of phylogenetics lacks a direct method to identify cases where model specification adversely affects inferences. Posterior predictive simulation is a flexible and intuitive approach for assessing goodness-of-fit of the assumed model and priors in a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Here, I propose new test statistics for use in posterior predictive assessment of model fit. These test statistics compare phylogenetic inferences from posterior predictive data sets to inferences from the original data. A simulation study demonstrates the utility of these new statistics. The new tests reject the plausibility of inferred tree lengths or topologies more often when data/model combinations produce biased inferences. I also apply this approach to exemplar empirical data sets, highlighting the value of the novel assessments.

  16. Model inadequacy and mistaken inferences of trait-dependent speciation.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Goldberg, Emma E

    2015-03-01

    Species richness varies widely across the tree of life, and there is great interest in identifying ecological, geographic, and other factors that affect rates of species proliferation. Recent methods for explicitly modeling the relationships among character states, speciation rates, and extinction rates on phylogenetic trees- BiSSE, QuaSSE, GeoSSE, and related models-have been widely used to test hypotheses about character state-dependent diversification rates. Here, we document the disconcerting ease with which neutral traits are inferred to have statistically significant associations with speciation rate. We first demonstrate this unfortunate effect for a known model assumption violation: shifts in speciation rate associated with a character not included in the model. We further show that for many empirical phylogenies, characters simulated in the absence of state-dependent diversification exhibit an even higher Type I error rate, indicating that the method is susceptible to additional, unknown model inadequacies. For traits that evolve slowly, the root cause appears to be a statistical framework that does not require replicated shifts in character state and diversification. However, spurious associations between character state and speciation rate arise even for traits that lack phylogenetic signal, suggesting that phylogenetic pseudoreplication alone cannot fully explain the problem. The surprising severity of this phenomenon suggests that many trait-diversification relationships reported in the literature may not be real. More generally, we highlight the need for diagnosing and understanding the consequences of model inadequacy in phylogenetic comparative methods.

  17. Inference of phylogenetic distances from DNA-walk divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licinio, P.; Caligiorne, R. B.

    2004-10-01

    A formalism for the analysis of DNA-sequences is presented. It develops the concept of a composition vector potential which incorporates intrinsic double-strand and four-base symmetries. The vector potential allows for straightforward coarse graining and graphical representation of whole genomes. Its projections are mapped onto DNA-walks. It is shown that distances due to mutation between sequences can be estimated from mean square differences between walks. A computer program for global alignment of sequences (DNAWD) is thus developed and applied to a set of toy sequences representing evolution under mutation. The distance matrix output of DNAWD is shown to provide a good estimate of the associated phylogenetic tree.

  18. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of some species of the Dendropsophus microcephalus group (Anura, Hylidae) in the light of phylogenetic inferences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    observe that the number of telocentric chromosomes is useful to distinguish among valid species in some cases, although it is unchanged in species that are not necessarily closely related phylogenetically. Therefore, inferences based on this chromosomal character must be made with caution; a proper evolutionary analysis of the karyotypic variation in Dendropsophus depends on further characterization of the telocentric chromosomes found in this group. PMID:23822759

  19. Phylogenetic analysis in Myrcia section Aulomyrcia and inferences on plant diversity in the Atlantic rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Forest, Félix; Lucas, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Myrcia section Aulomyrcia includes ∼120 species that are endemic to the Neotropics and disjunctly distributed in the moist Amazon and Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. This paper presents the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group and this phylogeny is used as a basis to evaluate recent classification systems and to test alternative hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. Methods Fifty-three taxa were sampled out of the 120 species currently recognized, plus 40 outgroup taxa, for one nuclear marker (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF, trnQ-rpS16 and ndhF). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Additionally, a likelihood approach, ‘geographic state speciation and extinction’, was used to estimate region- dependent rates of speciation, extinction and dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable areas (refugia) and unstable areas. Key Results Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Myrcia and Marlierea are polyphyletic, and the internal groupings recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Amazonian and north-eastern species and between north-eastern and south-eastern species. Lower extinction rates within glacial refugia suggest that these areas were important in maintaining diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. Conclusions This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important ecological questions for Myrcia s.l. within an evolutionary context, and supports the need to unite taxonomically the two traditional genera Myrcia and Marlierea in an expanded Myrcia s.l. Furthermore, this study offers valuable insights into the diversification of plant species in the highly impacted Atlantic forest of South America; evidence is presented that the lowest extinction rates are found inside

  20. Some limitations of public sequence data for phylogenetic inference (in plants).

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Cody E; Smith, Stephen Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The GenBank database contains essentially all of the nucleotide sequence data generated for published molecular systematic studies, but for the majority of taxa these data remain sparse. GenBank has value for phylogenetic methods that leverage data-mining and rapidly improving computational methods, but the limits imposed by the sparse structure of the data are not well understood. Here we present a tree representing 13,093 land plant genera--an estimated 80% of extant plant diversity--to illustrate the potential of public sequence data for broad phylogenetic inference in plants, and we explore the limits to inference imposed by the structure of these data using theoretical foundations from phylogenetic data decisiveness. We find that despite very high levels of missing data (over 96%), the present data retain the potential to inform over 86.3% of all possible phylogenetic relationships. Most of these relationships, however, are informed by small amounts of data--approximately half are informed by fewer than four loci, and more than 99% are informed by fewer than fifteen. We also apply an information theoretic measure of branch support to assess the strength of phylogenetic signal in the data, revealing many poorly supported branches concentrated near the tips of the tree, where data are sparse and the limiting effects of this sparseness are stronger. We argue that limits to phylogenetic inference and signal imposed by low data coverage may pose significant challenges for comprehensive phylogenetic inference at the species level. Computational requirements provide additional limits for large reconstructions, but these may be overcome by methodological advances, whereas insufficient data coverage can only be remedied by additional sampling effort. We conclude that public databases have exceptional value for modern systematics and evolutionary biology, and that a continued emphasis on expanding taxonomic and genomic coverage will play a critical role in developing

  1. Geometric ergodicity of a hybrid sampler for Bayesian inference of phylogenetic branch lengths.

    PubMed

    Spade, David A; Herbei, Radu; Kubatko, Laura S

    2015-10-01

    One of the fundamental goals in phylogenetics is to make inferences about the evolutionary pattern among a group of individuals, such as genes or species, using present-day genetic material. This pattern is represented by a phylogenetic tree, and as computational methods have caught up to the statistical theory, Bayesian methods of making inferences about phylogenetic trees have become increasingly popular. Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees requires sampling from intractable probability distributions. Common methods of sampling from these distributions include Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, and one way that both of these methods can proceed is by first simulating a tree topology and then taking a sample from the posterior distribution of the branch lengths given the tree topology and the data set. In many MCMC methods, it is difficult to verify that the underlying Markov chain is geometrically ergodic, and thus, it is necessary to rely on output-based convergence diagnostics in order to assess convergence on an ad hoc basis. These diagnostics suffer from several important limitations, so in an effort to circumvent these limitations, this work establishes geometric convergence for a particular Markov chain that is used to sample branch lengths under a fairly general class of nucleotide substitution models and provides a numerical method for estimating the time this Markov chain takes to converge.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) inferred from partial sequences of the wingless gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brower, A V

    2000-01-01

    A cladistic analysis was performed on a 378 bp region of the wingless gene from 103 nymphalid species and three pierid outgroups in order to infer higher level patterns of relationship among nymphalid subfamilies and tribes. Although the data are highly homoplastic, in many instances the most parsimonious cladograms corroborate traditionally recognized groups. The results suggest that this short gene region provides a useful source of data for phylogenetic inference, provided that adequate effort is made to sample a diversity of taxa. PMID:10902686

  3. Site-specific time heterogeneity of the substitution process and its impact on phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Model violations constitute the major limitation in inferring accurate phylogenies. Characterizing properties of the data that are not being correctly handled by current models is therefore of prime importance. One of the properties of protein evolution is the variation of the relative rate of substitutions across sites and over time, the latter is the phenomenon called heterotachy. Its effect on phylogenetic inference has recently obtained considerable attention, which led to the development of new models of sequence evolution. However, thus far focus has been on the quantitative heterogeneity of the evolutionary process, thereby overlooking more qualitative variations. Results We studied the importance of variation of the site-specific amino-acid substitution process over time and its possible impact on phylogenetic inference. We used the CAT model to define an infinite mixture of substitution processes characterized by equilibrium frequencies over the twenty amino acids, a useful proxy for qualitatively estimating the evolutionary process. Using two large datasets, we show that qualitative changes in site-specific substitution properties over time occurred significantly. To test whether this unaccounted qualitative variation can lead to an erroneous phylogenetic tree, we analyzed a concatenation of mitochondrial proteins in which Cnidaria and Porifera were erroneously grouped. The progressive removal of the sites with the most heterogeneous CAT profiles across clades led to the recovery of the monophyly of Eumetazoa (Cnidaria+Bilateria), suggesting that this heterogeneity can negatively influence phylogenetic inference. Conclusion The time-heterogeneity of the amino-acid replacement process is therefore an important evolutionary aspect that should be incorporated in future models of sequence change. PMID:21235782

  4. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Junha; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life-Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota-suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co-inheritance analysis

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.

  6. Calibrated birth-death phylogenetic time-tree priors for bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J

    2015-05-01

    Here we introduce a general class of multiple calibration birth-death tree priors for use in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. All tree priors in this class separate ancestral node heights into a set of "calibrated nodes" and "uncalibrated nodes" such that the marginal distribution of the calibrated nodes is user-specified whereas the density ratio of the birth-death prior is retained for trees with equal values for the calibrated nodes. We describe two formulations, one in which the calibration information informs the prior on ranked tree topologies, through the (conditional) prior, and the other which factorizes the prior on divergence times and ranked topologies, thus allowing uniform, or any arbitrary prior distribution on ranked topologies. Although the first of these formulations has some attractive properties, the algorithm we present for computing its prior density is computationally intensive. However, the second formulation is always faster and computationally efficient for up to six calibrations. We demonstrate the utility of the new class of multiple-calibration tree priors using both small simulations and a real-world analysis and compare the results to existing schemes. The two new calibrated tree priors described in this article offer greater flexibility and control of prior specification in calibrated time-tree inference and divergence time dating, and will remove the need for indirect approaches to the assessment of the combined effect of calibration densities and tree priors in Bayesian phylogenetic inference.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

    2012-09-01

    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  8. Inferring epidemiological parameters from phylogenetic information for the HIV-1 epidemic among MSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quax, Rick; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Frentz, Dineke; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Europe is primarily sustained by a dynamic topology of sexual interactions among MSM who have individual immune systems and behavior. This epidemiological process shapes the phylogeny of the virus population. Both fields of epidemic modeling and phylogenetics have a long history, however it remains difficult to use phylogenetic data to infer epidemiological parameters such as the structure of the sexual network and the per-act infectiousness. This is because phylogenetic data is necessarily incomplete and ambiguous. Here we show that the cluster-size distribution indeed contains information about epidemiological parameters using detailed numberical experiments. We simulate the HIV epidemic among MSM many times using the Monte Carlo method with all parameter values and their ranges taken from literature. For each simulation and the corresponding set of parameter values we calculate the likelihood of reproducing an observed cluster-size distribution. The result is an estimated likelihood distribution of all parameters from the phylogenetic data, in particular the structure of the sexual network, the per-act infectiousness, and the risk behavior reduction upon diagnosis. These likelihood distributions encode the knowledge provided by the observed cluster-size distrbution, which we quantify using information theory. Our work suggests that the growing body of genetic data of patients can be exploited to understand the underlying epidemiological process.

  9. Improving phylogenetic inference of mushrooms with RPB1 and RPB2 nucleotide sequences (Inocybe; Agaricales).

    PubMed

    Matheny, P Brandon

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3000 bp across 84 taxa have been analyzed for variable regions of RPB1, RPB2, and nLSU-rDNA to infer phylogenetic relationships in the large ectomycorrhizal mushroom genus Inocybe (Agaricales; Basidiomycota). This study represents the first effort to combine variable regions of RPB1 and RPB2 with nLSU-rDNA for low-level phylogenetic studies in mushroom-forming fungi. Combination of the three loci increases non-parametric bootstrap support, Bayesian posterior probabilities, and resolution for numerous clades compared to separate gene analyses. These data suggest the evolution of at least five major lineages in Inocybe-the Inocybe clade, the Mallocybe clade, the Auritella clade, the Inosperma clade, and the Pseudosperma clade. Additionally, many clades nested within each major lineage are strongly supported. These results also suggest the family Crepiodataceae sensu stricto is sister to Inocybe. Recognition of Inocybe at the family level, the Inocybaceae, is recommended.

  10. The Reliability and Stability of an Inferred Phylogenetic Tree from Empirical Data.

    PubMed

    Katsura, Yukako; Stanley, Craig E; Kumar, Sudhir; Nei, Masatoshi

    2017-01-18

    The reliability of a phylogenetic tree obtained from empirical data is usually measured by the bootstrap probability (Pb) of interior branches of the tree. If the bootstrap probability is high for most branches, the tree is considered to be reliable. If some interior branches show relatively low bootstrap probabilities, we are not sure that the inferred tree is really reliable. Here, we propose another quantity measuring the reliability of the tree called the stability of a subtree. This quantity refers to the probability of obtaining a subtree (Ps) of an inferred tree obtained. We then show that if the tree is to be reliable, both Pb and Ps must be high. We also show that Ps is given by a bootstrap probability of the subtree with the closest outgroup sequence, and computer program RESTA for computing the Pb and Ps values will be presented.

  11. Iteratively Refined Guide Trees Help Improving Alignment and Phylogenetic Inference in the Mushroom Family Bolbitiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Annamária; Hausknecht, Anton; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G.

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling traditional classifications, morphology, and the phylogenetic relationships of brown-spored agaric mushrooms has proven difficult in many groups, due to extensive convergence in morphological features. Here, we address the monophyly of the Bolbitiaceae, a family with over 700 described species and examine the higher-level relationships within the family using a newly constructed multilocus dataset (ITS, nrLSU rDNA and EF1-alpha). We tested whether the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences can be accurately aligned across the family, by comparing the outcome of two iterative alignment refining approaches (an automated and a manual) and various indel-treatment strategies. We used PRANK to align sequences in both cases. Our results suggest that – although PRANK successfully evades overmatching of gapped sites, referred previously to as alignment overmatching – it infers an unrealistically high number of indel events with natively generated guide-trees. This 'alignment undermatching' could be avoided by using more rigorous (e.g. ML) guide trees. The trees inferred in this study support the monophyly of the core Bolbitiaceae, with the exclusion of Panaeolus, Agrocybe, and some of the genera formerly placed in the family. Bolbitius and Conocybe were found monophyletic, however, Pholiotina and Galerella require redefinition. The phylogeny revealed that stipe coverage type is a poor predictor of phylogenetic relationships, indicating the need for a revision of the intrageneric relationships within Conocybe. PMID:23418526

  12. Streamlining and Large Ancestral Genomes in Archaea Inferred with a Phylogenetic Birth-and-Death Model

    PubMed Central

    Miklós, István

    2009-01-01

    Homologous genes originate from a common ancestor through vertical inheritance, duplication, or horizontal gene transfer. Entire homolog families spawned by a single ancestral gene can be identified across multiple genomes based on protein sequence similarity. The sequences, however, do not always reveal conclusively the history of large families. To study the evolution of complete gene repertoires, we propose here a mathematical framework that does not rely on resolved gene family histories. We show that so-called phylogenetic profiles, formed by family sizes across multiple genomes, are sufficient to infer principal evolutionary trends. The main novelty in our approach is an efficient algorithm to compute the likelihood of a phylogenetic profile in a model of birth-and-death processes acting on a phylogeny. We examine known gene families in 28 archaeal genomes using a probabilistic model that involves lineage- and family-specific components of gene acquisition, duplication, and loss. The model enables us to consider all possible histories when inferring statistics about archaeal evolution. According to our reconstruction, most lineages are characterized by a net loss of gene families. Major increases in gene repertoire have occurred only a few times. Our reconstruction underlines the importance of persistent streamlining processes in shaping genome composition in Archaea. It also suggests that early archaeal genomes were as complex as typical modern ones, and even show signs, in the case of the methanogenic ancestor, of an extremely large gene repertoire. PMID:19570746

  13. Iteratively refined guide trees help improving alignment and phylogenetic inference in the mushroom family Bolbitiaceae.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Annamária; Hausknecht, Anton; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling traditional classifications, morphology, and the phylogenetic relationships of brown-spored agaric mushrooms has proven difficult in many groups, due to extensive convergence in morphological features. Here, we address the monophyly of the Bolbitiaceae, a family with over 700 described species and examine the higher-level relationships within the family using a newly constructed multilocus dataset (ITS, nrLSU rDNA and EF1-alpha). We tested whether the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences can be accurately aligned across the family, by comparing the outcome of two iterative alignment refining approaches (an automated and a manual) and various indel-treatment strategies. We used PRANK to align sequences in both cases. Our results suggest that--although PRANK successfully evades overmatching of gapped sites, referred previously to as alignment overmatching--it infers an unrealistically high number of indel events with natively generated guide-trees. This 'alignment undermatching' could be avoided by using more rigorous (e.g. ML) guide trees. The trees inferred in this study support the monophyly of the core Bolbitiaceae, with the exclusion of Panaeolus, Agrocybe, and some of the genera formerly placed in the family. Bolbitius and Conocybe were found monophyletic, however, Pholiotina and Galerella require redefinition. The phylogeny revealed that stipe coverage type is a poor predictor of phylogenetic relationships, indicating the need for a revision of the intrageneric relationships within Conocybe.

  14. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Lartillot, Nicolas; Moore, Brian R; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.].

  15. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language

    PubMed Central

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com. [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:27235697

  16. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals. PMID:25691955

  17. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes in Diplura (hexapoda, arthropoda): taxon sampling is crucial for phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Jun; Koch, Markus; Mallatt, Jon M; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Two-pronged bristletails (Diplura) are traditionally classified into three major superfamilies: Campodeoidea, Projapygoidea, and Japygoidea. The interrelationships of these three superfamilies and the monophyly of Diplura have been much debated. Few previous studies included Projapygoidea in their phylogenetic considerations, and its position within Diplura still is a puzzle from both morphological and molecular points of view. Until now, no mitochondrial genome has been sequenced for any projapygoid species. To fill in this gap, we determined and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Octostigma sinensis (Octostigmatidae, Projapygoidea), and of three more dipluran species, one each from the Campodeidae, Parajapygidae, and Japygidae. All four newly sequenced dipluran mtDNAs encode the same set of genes in the same gene order as shared by most crustaceans and hexapods. Secondary structure truncations have occurred in trnR, trnC, trnS1, and trnS2, and the reduction of transfer RNA D-arms was found to be taxonomically correlated, with Campodeoidea having experienced the most reduction. Partitioned phylogenetic analyses, based on both amino acids and nucleotides of the protein-coding genes plus the ribosomal RNA genes, retrieve significant support for a monophyletic Diplura within Pancrustacea, with Projapygoidea more closely related to Campodeoidea than to Japygoidea. Another key finding is that monophyly of Diplura cannot be recovered unless Projapygoidea is included in the phylogenetic analyses; this explains the dipluran polyphyly found by past mitogenomic studies. Including Projapygoidea increased the sampling density within Diplura and probably helped by breaking up a long-branch-attraction artifact. This finding provides an example of how proper sampling is significant for phylogenetic inference.

  18. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included.

  19. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  20. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals.

  1. The phylogenetic status of arthropods, as inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M; Pfeifer, D M; Field, K G; Raff, R A

    1991-09-01

    Partial 18S rRNA sequences of five chelicerate arthropods plus a crustacean, myriapod, insect, chordate, echinoderm, annelid, and platyhelminth were compared. The sequence data were used to infer phylogeny by using a maximum-parsimony method, an evolutionary-distance method, and the evolutionary-parsimony method. The phylogenetic inferences generated by maximum-parsimony and distance methods support both monophyly of the Arthropoda and monophyly of the Chelicerata within the Arthropoda. These results are congruent with phylogenies based on rigorous cladistic analyses of morphological characters. Results support the inclusion of the Arthropoda within a spiralian or protostome coelomate clade that is the sister group of a deuterostome clade, refuting the hypothesis that the arthropods represent the "primitive" sister group of a protostome coelomate clade. Bootstrap analyses and consideration of all trees within 1% of the length of the most parsimonious tree suggest that relationships between the nonchelicerate arthropods and relationships within the chelicerate clade cannot be reliably inferred with the partial 18S rRNA sequence data. With the evolutionary-parsimony method, support for monophyly of the Arthropoda is found in the majority of the combinations analyzed if the coelomates are used as "outgroups." Monophyly of the Chelicerata is supported in most combinations assessed. Our analyses also indicate that the evolutionary-parsimony method, like distance and parsimony, may be biased by taxa with long branches. We suggest that a previous study's inference of the Arthropoda as paraphyletic may be the result of (a) having two few arthropod taxa available for analysis and (b) including long-branched taxa.

  2. Streptococcus massiliensis in the human mouth: a phylogenetic approach for the inference of bacterial habitats.

    PubMed

    Póntigo, F; Silva, C; Moraga, M; Flores, S V

    2015-12-29

    Streptococcus is a diverse bacterial lineage. Species of this genus occupy a myriad of environments inside humans and other animals. Despite the elucidation of several of these habitats, many remain to be identified. Here, we explore a methodological approach to reveal unknown bacterial environments. Specifically, we inferred the phylogeny of the Mitis group by analyzing the sequences of eight genes. In addition, information regarding habitat use of species belonging to this group was obtained from the scientific literature. The oral cavity emerged as a potential, previously unknown, environment of Streptococcus massiliensis. This phylogeny-based prediction was confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. We propose employing a similar approach, i.e., use of bibliographic data and molecular phylogenetics as predictive methods, and species-specific PCR as confirmation, in order to reveal other unknown habitats in further bacterial taxa.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of beta-papillomaviruses as inferred from nucleotide and amino acid sequence data.

    PubMed

    Gottschling, Marc; Köhler, Anja; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta-group seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Papillomaviruses are host specific and are considered closely co-evolving with their hosts. Evolutionary incongruence between early genes and late genes has been reported among oncogenic genital alpha-papillomaviruses and considerably challenge phylogenetic reconstructions. We investigated the relationships of 29 beta-HPV (25 types plus four putative new types, subtypes, or variants) as inferred from codon aligned and amino acid sequence data of the genes E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2 using likelihood, distance, and parsimony approaches. An analysis of a L1 fragment included additional nucleotide and amino acid sequences from seven non-human beta-papillomaviruses. Early genes and late genes evolution did not conflict significantly in beta-papillomaviruses based on partition homogeneity tests (p > or = 0.001). As inferred from the complete genome analyses, beta-papillomaviruses were monophyletic and segregated into four highly supported monophyletic assemblages corresponding to the species 1, 2, 3, and fused 4/5. They basically split into the species 1 and the remainder of beta-papillomaviruses, whose species 3, 4, and 5 constituted the sistergroup of species 2. beta-Papillomaviruses have been isolated from humans, apes, and monkeys, and phylogenetic analyses of the L1 fragment showed non-human papillomaviruses highly polyphyletic nesting within the HPV species. Thus, host and virus phylogenies were not congruent in beta-papillomaviruses, and multiple invasions across species borders may contribute (additionally to host-linked evolution) to their diversification.

  4. The effect of model choice on phylogenetic inference using mitochondrial sequence data: lessons from the scorpions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Martin; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Fet, Victor; Blaxter, Mark

    2007-05-01

    Chelicerates are a diverse group of arthropods, with around 65,000 described species occupying a wide range of habitats. Many phylogenies describing the relationships between the various chelicerate orders have been proposed. While some relationships are widely accepted, others remain contentious. To increase the taxonomic sampling of species available for phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial genomes we produced the nearly complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Mesobuthus gibbosus. Mitochondrial gene order in M. gibbosus largely mirrors that in Limulus polyphemus but tRNA secondary structures are truncated. A recent analysis argued that independent reversal of mitochondrial genome strand-bias in several groups of arthropods, including spiders and scorpions, could compromise phylogenetic reconstruction and proposed an evolutionary model that excludes mutational events caused by strand-bias (Neutral Transitions Excluded, NTE). An arthropod dataset of six mitochondrial genes, when analyzed under NTE, yields strong support for scorpions as sister taxon to the rest of Chelicerata. We investigated the robustness of this result by exploring the effect of adding additional chelicerate genes and taxa and comparing the phylogenies obtained under different models. We find evidence that (1) placement of scorpions arising at the base of the Chelicerata is an artifact of model mis-specification and scorpions are strongly supported as basal arachnids and (2) an expanded chelicerate dataset finds support for several proposed interordinal relationships (ticks plus mites [Acari] and spiders plus whip spiders plus whip scorpions [Araneae+Pedipalpi]). Mitochondrial sequence data are subject to systematic bias that is positively misleading for evolutionary inference and thus extreme methodological care must be taken when using them to infer phylogenies.

  5. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the dung beetle genus Onthophagus inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Breeschoten, Thijmen; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Tarasov, Sergei; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of dung beetles in the tribe Onthophagini, including the species-rich, cosmopolitan genus Onthophagus, were inferred using whole mitochondrial genomes. Data were generated by shotgun sequencing of mixed genomic DNA from >100 individuals on 50% of an Illumina MiSeq flow cell. Genome assembly of the mixed reads produced contigs of 74 (nearly) complete mitogenomes. The final dataset included representatives of Onthophagus from all biogeographic regions, closely related genera of Onthophagini, and the related tribes Onitini and Oniticellini. The analysis defined four major clades of Onthophagini, which was paraphyletic for Oniticellini, with Onitini as sister group to all others. Several (sub)genera considered as members of Onthophagus in the older literature formed separate deep lineages. All New World species of Onthophagus formed a monophyletic group, and the Australian taxa are confined to a single or two closely related clades, one of which forms the sister group of the New World species. Dating the tree by constraining the basal splits with existing calibrations of Scarabaeoidea suggests an origin of Onthophagini sensu lato in the Eocene and a rapid spread from an African ancestral stock into the Oriental region, and secondarily to Australia and the Americas at about 20-24 Mya. The successful assembly of mitogenomes and the well-supported tree obtained from these sequences demonstrates the power of shotgun sequencing from total genomic DNA of species pools as an efficient tool in genus-level phylogenetics.

  6. The Interrelationships of Placental Mammals and the Limits of Phylogenetic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Tarver, James E.; dos Reis, Mario; Mirarab, Siavash; Moran, Raymond J.; Parker, Sean; O’Reilly, Joseph E.; King, Benjamin L.; O’Connell, Mary J.; Asher, Robert J.; Warnow, Tandy; Peterson, Kevin J.; Donoghue, Philip C.J.; Pisani, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Placental mammals comprise three principal clades: Afrotheria (e.g., elephants and tenrecs), Xenarthra (e.g., armadillos and sloths), and Boreoeutheria (all other placental mammals), the relationships among which are the subject of controversy and a touchstone for debate on the limits of phylogenetic inference. Previous analyses have found support for all three hypotheses, leading some to conclude that this phylogenetic problem might be impossible to resolve due to the compounded effects of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and a rapid radiation. Here we show, using a genome scale nucleotide data set, microRNAs, and the reanalysis of the three largest previously published amino acid data sets, that the root of Placentalia lies between Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria. Although we found evidence for ILS in early placental evolution, we are able to reject previous conclusions that the placental root is a hard polytomy that cannot be resolved. Reanalyses of previous data sets recover Atlantogenata + Boreoeutheria and show that contradictory results are a consequence of poorly fitting evolutionary models; instead, when the evolutionary process is better-modeled, all data sets converge on Atlantogenata. Our Bayesian molecular clock analysis estimates that marsupials diverged from placentals 157–170 Ma, crown Placentalia diverged 86–100 Ma, and crown Atlantogenata diverged 84–97 Ma. Our results are compatible with placental diversification being driven by dispersal rather than vicariance mechanisms, postdating early phases in the protracted opening of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26733575

  7. The Interrelationships of Placental Mammals and the Limits of Phylogenetic Inference.

    PubMed

    Tarver, James E; Dos Reis, Mario; Mirarab, Siavash; Moran, Raymond J; Parker, Sean; O'Reilly, Joseph E; King, Benjamin L; O'Connell, Mary J; Asher, Robert J; Warnow, Tandy; Peterson, Kevin J; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide

    2016-01-05

    Placental mammals comprise three principal clades: Afrotheria (e.g., elephants and tenrecs), Xenarthra (e.g., armadillos and sloths), and Boreoeutheria (all other placental mammals), the relationships among which are the subject of controversy and a touchstone for debate on the limits of phylogenetic inference. Previous analyses have found support for all three hypotheses, leading some to conclude that this phylogenetic problem might be impossible to resolve due to the compounded effects of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and a rapid radiation. Here we show, using a genome scale nucleotide data set, microRNAs, and the reanalysis of the three largest previously published amino acid data sets, that the root of Placentalia lies between Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria. Although we found evidence for ILS in early placental evolution, we are able to reject previous conclusions that the placental root is a hard polytomy that cannot be resolved. Reanalyses of previous data sets recover Atlantogenata + Boreoeutheria and show that contradictory results are a consequence of poorly fitting evolutionary models; instead, when the evolutionary process is better-modeled, all data sets converge on Atlantogenata. Our Bayesian molecular clock analysis estimates that marsupials diverged from placentals 157-170 Ma, crown Placentalia diverged 86-100 Ma, and crown Atlantogenata diverged 84-97 Ma. Our results are compatible with placental diversification being driven by dispersal rather than vicariance mechanisms, postdating early phases in the protracted opening of the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Phylogenetic Inferences Reveal a Large Extent of Novel Biodiversity in Chemically Rich Tropical Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekera, Sarath P.; Gerwick, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic marine cyanobacteria are known for their prolific biosynthetic capacities to produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites with biomedical application and their ability to form cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. In an effort to provide taxonomic clarity to better guide future natural product drug discovery investigations and harmful algal bloom monitoring, this study investigated the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical natural product-producing marine cyanobacteria on the basis of their evolutionary relatedness. Our phylogenetic inferences of marine cyanobacterial strains responsible for over 100 bioactive secondary metabolites revealed an uneven taxonomic distribution, with a few groups being responsible for the vast majority of these molecules. Our data also suggest a high degree of novel biodiversity among natural product-producing strains that was previously overlooked by traditional morphology-based taxonomic approaches. This unrecognized biodiversity is primarily due to a lack of proper classification systems since the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical, benthic marine cyanobacteria has only recently been analyzed by phylogenetic methods. This evolutionary study provides a framework for a more robust classification system to better understand the taxonomy of tropical and subtropical marine cyanobacteria and the distribution of natural products in marine cyanobacteria. PMID:23315747

  9. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff A; Brown, Joseph W; Fuchs, Jérôme; Mindell, David P

    2016-12-01

    New World Vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family Cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in North and South America. No study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) DNA loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup taxa) and coalescent-based species tree (2 outgroup taxa) analyses. We also included an additional four nuclear loci (2578bp) for the species tree analysis to explore changes in nodal support values. Although the stem lineage is inferred to have originated ∼69 million years ago (Ma; 74.5-64.9 credible interval), a more recent basal split within Cathartidae was recovered at ∼14Ma (17.1-11.1 credible interval). Two primary clades were identified: (1) Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) together with the three Cathartes species (Lesser C. burrovianus and Greater C. melambrotus Yellow-headed Vultures, and Turkey Vulture C. aura), and (2) King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), California (Gymnogyps californianus) and Andean (Vultur gryphus) Condors. Support for taxon relationships within the two basal clades were inconsistent between analyses with the exception of Black Vulture sister to a monophyletic Cathartes clade. Increased support for a yellow-headed vulture clade was recovered in the species tree analysis using the four additional nuclear loci. Overall, these results are in agreement with cathartid life history (e.g. olfaction ability and behavior) and contrasting habitat affinities among sister taxa with overlapping geographic distributions. More research is needed using additional molecular loci to further resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the two basal cathartid clades, as speciation appeared to have occurred in a relatively short period of time.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

    2013-08-01

    Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gerardo A.; Cabrera, Lidia I.; Madriñán, Santiago; Chase, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Phylogenetic relationships of subtribes Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae, two diverse groups of neotropical terrestrial orchids, are not satisfactorily understood. A previous molecular phylogenetic study supported monophyly for Cranichidinae, but Prescottiinae consisted of two clades not sister to one another. However, that analysis included only 11 species and eight genera of these subtribes. Here, plastid and nuclear DNA sequences are analysed for an enlarged sample of genera and species of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae with the aim of clarifying their relationships, evaluating the phylogenetic position of the monospecific genera Exalaria, Ocampoa and Pseudocranichis and examining the value of various structural traits as taxonomic markers. Methods Approx. 6000 bp of nucleotide sequences from nuclear ribosomal (ITS) and plastid DNA (rbcL, matK-trnK and trnL-trnF) were analysed with cladistic parsimony and Bayesian inference for 45 species/14 genera of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae (plus suitable outgroups). The utility of flower orientation, thickenings of velamen cell walls, hamular viscidium and pseudolabellum to mark clades recovered by the molecular analysis was assessed by tracing these characters on the molecular trees. Key Results Spiranthinae, Cranichidinae, paraphyletic Prescottia (with Pseudocranichis embedded), and a group of mainly Andean ‘prescottioid’ genera (the ‘Stenoptera clade’) were strongly supported. Relationships among these clades were unresolved by parsimony but the Bayesian tree provided moderately strong support for the resolution (Spiranthinae–(Stenoptera clade-(Prescottia/Pseudocranichis–Cranichidinae))). Three of the four structural characters mark clades on the molecular trees, but the possession of a pseudolabellum is variable in the polyphyletic Ponthieva. Conclusions No evidence was found for monophyly of Prescottiinae and the reinstatement of Cranichidinae s.l. (including the genera of

  12. Inferring Cell Differentiation Processes Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of Genome-Wide Epigenetic Information: Hematopoiesis as a Model Case

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Kanako O.

    2015-01-01

    How cells divide and differentiate is a fundamental question in organismal development; however, the discovery of differentiation processes in various cell types is laborious and sometimes impossible. Phylogenetic analysis is typically used to reconstruct evolutionary processes based on inherent characters. It could also be used to reconstruct developmental processes based on the developmental changes that occur during cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, DNA methylation information from differentiated hematopoietic cells was used to perform phylogenetic analyses. The results were assessed for their validity in inferring hierarchical differentiation processes of hematopoietic cells and DNA methylation processes of differentiating progenitor cells. Overall, phylogenetic analyses based on DNA methylation information facilitated inferences regarding hematopoiesis. PMID:25638259

  13. Modelling heterotachy in phylogenetic inference by reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Mark; Meade, Andrew

    2008-12-27

    The rate at which a given site in a gene sequence alignment evolves over time may vary. This phenomenon--known as heterotachy--can bias or distort phylogenetic trees inferred from models of sequence evolution that assume rates of evolution are constant. Here, we describe a phylogenetic mixture model designed to accommodate heterotachy. The method sums the likelihood of the data at each site over more than one set of branch lengths on the same tree topology. A branch-length set that is best for one site may differ from the branch-length set that is best for some other site, thereby allowing different sites to have different rates of change throughout the tree. Because rate variation may not be present in all branches, we use a reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to identify those branches in which reliable amounts of heterotachy occur. We implement the method in combination with our 'pattern-heterogeneity' mixture model, applying it to simulated data and five published datasets. We find that complex evolutionary signals of heterotachy are routinely present over and above variation in the rate or pattern of evolution across sites, that the reversible-jump method requires far fewer parameters than conventional mixture models to describe it, and serves to identify the regions of the tree in which heterotachy is most pronounced. The reversible-jump procedure also removes the need for a posteriori tests of 'significance' such as the Akaike or Bayesian information criterion tests, or Bayes factors. Heterotachy has important consequences for the correct reconstruction of phylogenies as well as for tests of hypotheses that rely on accurate branch-length information. These include molecular clocks, analyses of tempo and mode of evolution, comparative studies and ancestral state reconstruction. The model is available from the authors' website, and can be used for the analysis of both nucleotide and morphological data.

  14. The impact of rate heterogeneity on inference of phylogenetic models of trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Chira, A M; Thomas, G H

    2016-12-01

    Rates of trait evolution are known to vary across phylogenies; however, standard evolutionary models assume a homogeneous process of trait change. These simple methods are widely applied in small-scale phylogenetic studies, whereas models of rate heterogeneity are not, so the prevalence and patterns of potential rate variation in groups up to hundreds of species remain unclear. The extent to which trait evolution is modelled accurately on a given phylogeny is also largely unknown because studies typically lack absolute model fit tests. We investigated these issues by applying both rate-static and variable-rates methods on (i) body mass data for 88 avian clades of 10-318 species, and (ii) data simulated under a range of rate-heterogeneity scenarios. Our results show that rate heterogeneity is present across small-scaled avian clades, and consequently applying only standard single-process models prompts inaccurate inferences about the generating evolutionary process. Specifically, these approaches underestimate rate variation, and systematically mislabel temporal trends in trait evolution. Conversely, variable-rates approaches have superior relative fit (they are the best model) and absolute fit (they describe the data well). We show that rate changes such as single internal branch variations, rate decreases and early bursts are hard to detect, even by variable-rates models. We also use recently developed absolute adequacy tests to highlight misleading conclusions based on relative fit alone (e.g. a consistent preference for constrained evolution when isolated terminal branch rate increases are present). This work highlights the potential for robust inferences about trait evolution when fitting flexible models in conjunction with tests for absolute model fit.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary traits in Ranunculus s.l. (Ranunculaceae) inferred from ITS sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hörandl, Elvira; Paun, Ovidiu; Johansson, Jan T; Lehnebach, Carlos; Armstrong, Tristan; Chen, Lixue; Lockhart, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Ranunculus is a large genus with a worldwide distribution. Phylogenetic analyses of c. 200 species of Ranunculus s.l. based on sequences of the nrITS using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference yielded high congruence with previous cpDNA restriction site analyses, but strongly contradict previous classifications. A large core clade including Ranunculus subg. Ranunculus, subg. Batrachium, subg. Crymodes p.p., Ceratocephala, Myosurus, and Aphanostemma is separated from R. subg. Ficaria, subg. Pallasiantha, subg. Coptidium, subg. Crymodes p.p., Halerpestes, Peltocalathos, Callianthemoides, and Arcteranthis. Within the core clade, 19 clades can be described with morphological and karyological features. Several sections are not monophyletic. Parallel evolution of morphological characters in adaptation to climatic conditions may be a reason for incongruence of molecular data and morphology-based classifications. In some mountainous regions, groups of closely related species may have originated from adaptive radiation and rapid speciation. Split decomposition analysis indicated complex patterns of relationship and suggested hybridization in the apomictic R. auricomus complex, R. subg. Batrachium, and the white-flowering European alpines. The evolutionary success of the genus might be due to a combination of morphological plasticity and adaptations, hybridization and polyploidy as important factors for regional diversification, and a broad range of reproductive strategies.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of seven palearctic members of the maculipennis complex inferred from ITS2 sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, M; Romi, R; Mancini, P; Di Luca, M; Severini, C

    1999-11-01

    The sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were determined from seven palearctic mosquitoes species belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis species complex, namely An. atroparvus, An. labranchiae, An. maculipennis, An. messeae, An. melanoon, An. sacharovi and An. martinius. The length of the ITS2 ranged from 280 to 300 bp, with a GC content of 49.4-54.1%. With the exception of An. messeae, negligible levels of intraspecific polymorphism and no intrapopulation variation were observed. The phylogenetic relationships among the members of the maculipennis complex were inferred by maximum-parsimony analysis of the PAUP program and the neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood analysis of the PHYLIP program. All of the trees obtained were almost identical in topology, although the relationships among three species, i.e. An. maculipennis, An. messeae and An. melanoon, remained unresolved. The phylogenies were in good agreement with the previous gene-enzyme and polytene chromosome banding pattern studies.

  17. Conflicting genomic signals affect phylogenetic inference in four species of North American pines

    PubMed Central

    Koralewski, Tomasz E.; Mateos, Mariana; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive evolutionary processes in plants may be accompanied by episodes of introgression, parallel evolution and incomplete lineage sorting that pose challenges in untangling species evolutionary history. Genus Pinus (pines) is one of the most abundant and most studied groups among gymnosperms, and a good example of a lineage where these phenomena have been observed. Pines are among the most ecologically and economically important plant species. Some, such as the pines of the southeastern USA (southern pines in subsection Australes), are subjects of intensive breeding programmes. Despite numerous published studies, the evolutionary history of Australes remains ambiguous and often controversial. We studied the phylogeny of four major southern pine species: shortleaf (Pinus echinata), slash (P. elliottii), longleaf (P. palustris) and loblolly (P. taeda), using sequences from 11 nuclear loci and maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our analysis encountered resolution difficulties similar to earlier published studies. Although incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are two phenomena presumptively underlying our results, the phylogenetic inferences seem to be also influenced by the genes examined, with certain topologies supported by sets of genes sharing common putative functionalities. For example, genes involved in wood formation supported the clade echinata–taeda, genes linked to plant defence supported the clade echinata–elliottii and genes linked to water management properties supported the clade echinata–palustris. The support for these clades was very high and consistent across methods. We discuss the potential factors that could underlie these observations, including incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization and parallel or adaptive evolution. Our results likely reflect the relatively short evolutionary history of the subsection that is thought to have begun during the middle Miocene and has been influenced by climate fluctuations. PMID

  18. Conflicting genomic signals affect phylogenetic inference in four species of North American pines.

    PubMed

    Koralewski, Tomasz E; Mateos, Mariana; Krutovsky, Konstantin V

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive evolutionary processes in plants may be accompanied by episodes of introgression, parallel evolution and incomplete lineage sorting that pose challenges in untangling species evolutionary history. Genus Pinus (pines) is one of the most abundant and most studied groups among gymnosperms, and a good example of a lineage where these phenomena have been observed. Pines are among the most ecologically and economically important plant species. Some, such as the pines of the southeastern USA (southern pines in subsection Australes), are subjects of intensive breeding programmes. Despite numerous published studies, the evolutionary history of Australes remains ambiguous and often controversial. We studied the phylogeny of four major southern pine species: shortleaf (Pinus echinata), slash (P. elliottii), longleaf (P. palustris) and loblolly (P. taeda), using sequences from 11 nuclear loci and maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our analysis encountered resolution difficulties similar to earlier published studies. Although incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are two phenomena presumptively underlying our results, the phylogenetic inferences seem to be also influenced by the genes examined, with certain topologies supported by sets of genes sharing common putative functionalities. For example, genes involved in wood formation supported the clade echinata-taeda, genes linked to plant defence supported the clade echinata-elliottii and genes linked to water management properties supported the clade echinata-palustris The support for these clades was very high and consistent across methods. We discuss the potential factors that could underlie these observations, including incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization and parallel or adaptive evolution. Our results likely reflect the relatively short evolutionary history of the subsection that is thought to have begun during the middle Miocene and has been influenced by climate fluctuations.

  19. Bears in a forest of gene trees: phylogenetic inference is complicated by incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Verena E; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L; Fain, Steven R; Janke, Axel

    2014-08-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal.

  20. Bears in a Forest of Gene Trees: Phylogenetic Inference Is Complicated by Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Verena E.; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L.; Fain, Steven R.; Janke, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal. PMID:24903145

  1. Gene sampling can bias multi-gene phylogenetic inferences: the relationship between red algae and green plants as a case study.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuji; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The monophyly of Plantae including glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants (green algae plus land plants) has been recovered in recent phylogenetic analyses of large multi-gene data sets (e.g., those including >30,000 amino acid [aa] positions). On the other hand, Plantae monophyly has not been stably reconstructed in inferences from multi-gene data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions. An analysis of 5,216 aa positions in Nozaki et al. (Nozaki H, Iseki M, Hasegawa M, Misawa K, Nakada T, Sasaki N, Watanabe M. 2007. Phylogeny of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes as deduced from slowly evolving nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1592-1595.) strongly rejected the monophyly of Plantae, whereas Hackett et al. (Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Li S, Reyes-Prieto A, Rummele SE, Bhattacharya D. 2007. Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolates. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1702-1713.) robustly recovered the Plantae clade in an analysis of 6,735 aa positions. We suspected that the significant incongruity observed between the two studies was attributable to a bias generally overlooked in multi-gene phylogenetic estimation, rather than data size, taxon sampling, or methods for tree reconstruction. Although glaucophytes were excluded from our analyses due to a shortage of sequence data, we found that the recovery of a sister-group relationship between red algae and green plants primarily depends on gene sampling in phylogenetic inferences from <10,000 aa positions. Phylogenetic analyses of data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions, which can be prepared without large-scale sequencing (e.g., expressed sequence tag analyses), are practical in challenging various unresolved issues in eukaryotic evolution. However, our results indicate that severe biases can arise from gene sampling in multi-gene inferences from <10,000 aa positions. We also address the validity of fast-evolving gene exclusion in multi

  2. Molecular phylogenetic study of the Ranunculaceae: utility of the nuclear 26S ribosomal DNA in inferring intrafamilial relationships.

    PubMed

    Ro, K E; Keener, C S; McPheron, B A

    1997-10-01

    There are only a small number of molecular markers currently proven to be useful for phylogenetic inference within the flowering plants. We demonstrate that the 5' end of the 26S ribosomal DNA (ca. 1100 bp) is of great value for investigating generic to subfamilial relationships. We analyzed DNA sequences from 31 species of the Ranunculaceae and four species of the Berberidaceae to test phylogenetic relationships within the Ranunculaceae. The inferred phylogeny strongly supports the concept that the Thalictrum chromosome group is not monophyletic, but consists of three independent lineages: (1) Hydrastis, (2) Xanthorhiza and Coptis, and (3) Thalictrum, Aquilegia, and Enemion. Based on comparison with conventional taxonomic characters, we propose a hypothesis that the third group also includes the rest of the Thalictrum chromosome taxa that have a base chromosome number of seven. For the Ranunculus chromosome group, our study suggests several relationships that have not been recognized by conventional systematics. The inferred 26S rDNA topology is compared with results from two previously published molecular data sets: DNA sequences from rbcL, atpB, and 18S rDNA genes and restriction fragment length polymorphism data from chloroplast DNA. The three topologies are highly congruent and agree with karyological characters, but not with fruit type, both of which have often been used for the higher classification of the Ra- nunculaceae.

  3. Learning Probabilistic Inference through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity123

    PubMed Central

    Pecevski, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Numerous experimental data show that the brain is able to extract information from complex, uncertain, and often ambiguous experiences. Furthermore, it can use such learnt information for decision making through probabilistic inference. Several models have been proposed that aim at explaining how probabilistic inference could be performed by networks of neurons in the brain. We propose here a model that can also explain how such neural network could acquire the necessary information for that from examples. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity in combination with intrinsic plasticity generates in ensembles of pyramidal cells with lateral inhibition a fundamental building block for that: probabilistic associations between neurons that represent through their firing current values of random variables. Furthermore, by combining such adaptive network motifs in a recursive manner the resulting network is enabled to extract statistical information from complex input streams, and to build an internal model for the distribution p* that generates the examples it receives. This holds even if p* contains higher-order moments. The analysis of this learning process is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation. Furthermore, we show that the network can use the learnt internal model immediately for prediction, decision making, and other types of probabilistic inference. PMID:27419214

  4. Learning Probabilistic Inference through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Pecevski, Dejan; Maass, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous experimental data show that the brain is able to extract information from complex, uncertain, and often ambiguous experiences. Furthermore, it can use such learnt information for decision making through probabilistic inference. Several models have been proposed that aim at explaining how probabilistic inference could be performed by networks of neurons in the brain. We propose here a model that can also explain how such neural network could acquire the necessary information for that from examples. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity in combination with intrinsic plasticity generates in ensembles of pyramidal cells with lateral inhibition a fundamental building block for that: probabilistic associations between neurons that represent through their firing current values of random variables. Furthermore, by combining such adaptive network motifs in a recursive manner the resulting network is enabled to extract statistical information from complex input streams, and to build an internal model for the distribution p (*) that generates the examples it receives. This holds even if p (*) contains higher-order moments. The analysis of this learning process is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation. Furthermore, we show that the network can use the learnt internal model immediately for prediction, decision making, and other types of probabilistic inference.

  5. Computerized assessment of communication for cognitive stimulation for people with cognitive decline using spectral-distortion measures and phylogenetic inference.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan D; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Truong, Cong-Thang; Okamoto, Kazushi; Futaba, Terufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Masahide; Lampe, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline.

  6. Phylogenetic incongruence inferred with two mitochondrial genes in Mepraia spp. and Triatoma eratyrusiformis(Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Solari, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely used to clarify phylogenetic relationships among and within species, and to determine population structure. Due to the linked nature of mtDNA genes it is expected that different genes will show similar results. Phylogenetic incongruence using mtDNA genes may result from processes such as heteroplasmy, nuclear integration of mitochondrial genes, polymerase errors, contamination, and recombination. In this study we used sequences from two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) from the wild vectors of Chagas disease, Triatoma eratyrusiformis and Mepraia species to test for topological congruence. The results showed some cases of phylogenetic incongruence due to misplacement of four haplotypes of four individuals. We discuss the possible causes of such incongruence and suggest that the explanation is an intra-individual variation likely due to heteroplasmy. This phenomenon is an independent evidence of common ancestry between these taxa. PMID:26500444

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of extant zokors (Myospalacinae) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Su, Junhu; Ji, Weihong; Wang, Jing; Gleeson, Dianne M; Zhou, Janwei; Hua, Limin; Wei, Yanming

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we use three mitochondrial markers, cytochrome b gene (Cyt b), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and control region (D-loop) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of extant zokor species in Mysopalacinae. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on Cyt b strongly supports the monophyly genera Eospalax and Myospalax with E. fontanierii being the most ancient species in Eospalax. Further phylogenetic analyses of four species of Eospalax based on ND4 and D-loop sequences revealed two clades that correspond to two geographical distributions. The basal clade includes E. cansus which is mainly found on Loess Plateau (LP) and another clade including E. baileyi, E. smithii and E. rufescens that inhabits areas above 2000 m on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Qinling Mountains. Geographical events of QTP and LP may have played a major role in the diversification and evolution of Mysopalacinae.

  8. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Genus Trichosporon Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swarajit Kumar; Wang, Li; Yokoyama, Koji; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) genes of 42 strains representing 23 species of the genus Trichosporon were partially sequenced to determine their molecular phylogenetic relationships. Almost half of the 22 strains investigated (from 11 different species) contained introns in their sequences. Analysis of a 396-bp coding sequence from each strain of Trichosporon under investigation showed a total of 141 (35.6%) variable nucleotide sites. A phylogenetic tree based on the cyt b gene sequences revealed that all species of Trichosporon except Trichosporon domesticum and Trichosporon montevideense had species-specific cyt b genes. Trichosporon sp. strain CBS 5581 was identified as Trichosporon pullulans, and one clinical isolate, IFM 48794, was identified as Trichosporon faecale. Analysis of 132-bp deduced amino acid sequences showed a total of 34 (25.75%) variable amino acid sites. T. domesticum and T. montevideense, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon asteroides, and Trichosporon gracile and Trichosporon guehoae had identical amino acid sequences. A phylogenetic tree constructed with the ascomycetes Saccharomyces douglasii and Candida glabrata taken as outgroup species and including representative species from closely related genera species of Trichosporon clustered with other basidiomycetous yeasts that contain xylose in their cell wall compositions. These results indicate the effectiveness of mitochondrial cyt b gene sequences for both species identification and the phylogenetic analysis of Trichosporon species. PMID:16207980

  9. Phylogenetic approach for inferring the origin and functional evolution of bacterial ADP-ribosylation superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Sakthishree, S; Bharathi, M

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases (BADPRTs) are extensively contributed to determine the strain-specific virulence state and pathogenesis in human hosts. Understanding molecular evolution and functional diversity of the BADPRTs is an important standpoint to describe the fundamental behind in the vaccine designing for bacterial infections. In the present study, we have evaluated the origin and functional evolution of conserved domains within the BADPRTs by analyzing their sequence-function relationship. To represent the evolution history of BADPRTs, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on their protein sequence, structure and conserved domains using different evolutionary programs. Sequence divergence and genetic diversity were studied herein to deduce the functional evolution of conserved domains across the family and superfamily. The results of sequence similarity search have shown that three hypothetical proteins (above 90%) were identical to the members of BADPRTs and their functions were annotated by phylogenetic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of this study has revealed the family members of BADPRTs were phylogenetically related to one another, functionally diverged within the same family, and dispersed into closely related bacteria. The presence of core substitution pattern in the conserved domains would determine the family-specific function of BADPRTs. Functional diversity of the BADPRTs was exclusively distinguished by Darwinian positive selection (diphtheria toxin C and pertussis toxin S) and neutral selection (arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase, enterotoxin A and binary toxin A) acting on the existing domains. Many of the family members were sharing their sequence-specific features from members in the arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase family. Conservative functions of members in the BADPRTs have shown to be expanded only within closely related families, and retained as such in pathogenic bacteria by evolutionary process (domain duplication or

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic inferences of Dermanyssus gallinae isolates in Italy within an European framework.

    PubMed

    Marangi, M; Cantacessi, C; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A; Giangaspero, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the genetic relationships between Dermanyssus gallinae (Metastigmata: Dermanyssidae) (de Geer) isolates from poultry farms in Italy and other European countries, phylogenetic analysis was performed using a portion of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the mitochondrial DNA and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. A total of 360 cox1 sequences and 360 ITS+ sequences were obtained from mites collected on 24 different poultry farms in 10 different regions of Northern and Southern Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences resulted in the clustering of two groups (A and B), whereas phylogenetic analysis of the ITS+ resulted in largely unresolved clusters. Knowledge of the genetic make-up of mite populations within countries, together with comparative analyses of D. gallinae isolates from different countries, will provide better understanding of the population dynamics of D. gallinae. This will also allow the identification of genetic markers of emerging acaricide resistance and the development of alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of infestations.

  11. Multilocus phylogenetic inference in subfamily Chlorogaloideae and related genera of Agavaceae - informing questions in taxonomy at multiple ranks.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Jenny K; Kephart, Susan R; Theiss, Kathryn E; Petrosky, Anna L; Culley, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    A series of taxonomic questions at the subfamilial, generic, and intrageneric levels have remained within subfamily Chlorogaloideae s.s. (comprising Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, and Schoenolirion) and relatives in Agavaceae. We present the first phylogenetic hypotheses focused on Chlorogaloideae that are based on multiple independent loci and include a wide sampling of outgroups across Agavaceae. In addition to chloroplast regions ndhF and trnL-trnF, we used nrDNA ITS for phylogenetic inference. Incomplete concerted evolution of the latter is indicated by intra-individual site polymorphisms for nearly half of the individuals. Comparisons of four coding and analysis methods for these characters indicate that the region remains phylogenetically informative. Our results confirm that Chlorogaloideae s.s. is not monophyletic, due to the close relationship of Schoenolirion with Hesperaloe and Hesperoyucca, as well as the likely sister relationship between Hesperocallis and core Chlorogaloideae (Camassia, Chlorogalum, and Hastingsia). Chlorogalum is also not monophyletic, being divided with strong support into vespertine and diurnal clades. This study produced the first phylogenetic hypotheses across Hesperaloe, allowing initial tests of several taxonomic disagreements within this genus. Our results reveal the lack of cohesion of H. funifera, indicating that H. funifera ssp. funifera may be more closely related to H. campanulata than to H. funifera ssp. chiangii (=H. chiangii). With potential gene flow between many members of Hesperaloe and a possible hybrid origin for H. campanulata, the genetic relationships within this genus appear complex. Further population-level investigation of many of the taxa in Chlorogaloideae s.l. would benefit our understanding of the evolution and taxonomy of these groups; Camassia and Hastingsia are the current focus of ongoing study.

  12. Phylogenetic positions of insectivora in eutheria inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene.

    PubMed

    Onuma, M; Kusakabe, T; Kusakabe, S

    1998-02-01

    For the elucidation of the phylogenetic position of insectivora in eutheria, we have sequenced the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene of mitochondria for three insectivoran species [musk screw (Suncus murinus), shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), Japanese mole (Mogera wogura)] and analyzed these amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining (NJ) method and maximum likelihood (ML) method. NJ analysis shows polyphyly of Insectivora and Chiroptera. Assuming that each of Primates, Ferungulata, Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia is a monophyletic group, ML analysis suggests that Chiroptera is a sister group of Insectivora and that Ferungulata is the closest outgroup to the (Insectivora and Chiroptera) clade.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of softshell turtles (Testudines: Trionychidae) inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Liu, Juanjuan; Xiong, Lei; Zhang, Huanhuan; Zhou, Huaxing; Yin, Huazong; Jing, Wanxing; Li, Jun; Shi, Qiong; Wang, Yuqin; Liu, Jianjun; Nie, Liuwang

    2017-03-15

    The softshell turtles (Trionychidae) are one of the most widely distributed reptile groups in the world, and fossils have been found on all continents except Antarctica. The phylogenetic relationships among members of this group have been previously studied; however, there are disagreements regarding its taxonomy, its phylogeography and divergence times are still poorly understood as well. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of softshell turtles. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 10 softshell turtles, in addition to the GenBank sequence of Dogania subplana, Lissemys punctata, Trionyx triunguis, which cover all extant genera within Trionychidae except for Cyclanorbis and Cycloderma. These data were combined with other mitogenomes of turtles for phylogenetic analyses. Divergence time-calibration and ancestral reconstruction were calculated using BEAST and RASP software, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Trionychidae is the sister taxon of Carettochelyidae, and support the monophyly of Trionychinae and Cyclanorbinae, which is consistent with morphological data and molecular analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses have established a sister taxon relationship between the Asian Rafetus and the Asian Palea + Pelodiscus + Dogania + Nilssonia + Amyda, whereas a previous study grouped the Asian Rafetus with the American Apalone. The results of divergence time estimates and area ancestral reconstruction show that extant Trionychidae originated in Asia at around 108 million years ago (MA), and radiations mainly occurred during two warm periods, namely, Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene and Oligocene. By combining the estimateddivergence time and the reconstructed ancestral area of softshell turtles, we determined that the dispersal of softshell turtles out of Asia may have taken three routes. Furthermore, the times of dispersal seem to be in agreement with the time of the India-Asia collision and opening of the Bering Strait, which

  14. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wei Wang, Mi Sun

    2009-01-01

    Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups. PMID:24031394

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Zieria (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Zieria Sm. (Rutaceae, Boronieae) is predominantly native to eastern Australia except for one species, which is endemic to New Caledonia. For this study, sequence data of two non-coding chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, and rpl32-trnL), one nuclear region (ITS region) and various morphological characters, based on Armstrong’s (2002) taxonomic revision of Zieria, from 32 of the 42 described species of Zieria were selected to study the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. Zieria was supported as a monophyletic group in both independent and combined analyses herein (vs. Armstrong). On the basis of Armstrong’s (2002) non-molecular phylogenetic study, six major taxon groups were defined for Zieria. The Maximum-parsimony and the Bayesian analyses of the combined morphological and molecular datasets indicate a lack of support for any of these six major taxon groups. On the basis of the combined Bayesian analysis consisting of molecular and morphological characters, eight major taxon groups are described for Zieria: 1. Zieria cytisoides group, 2. Zieria granulata group, 3. Zieria laevigata group, 4. Zieria smithii group, 5. Zieria aspalathoides group, 6. Zieria furfuracea group, 7. Zieria montana group, and 8. Zieria robusta group. These informal groups, except for of the groups Zieria robusta and Zieria cytisoides, correspond to the clades with posterior probability values of 100. PMID:25698892

  16. Phylogenetic relationships in Peniocereus (Cactaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa; Arreola-Nava, Hilda J; Vázquez-Sánchez, Monserrat; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2005-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Peniocereus (Cactaceae) species were studied using parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data. The plastid rpl16 and trnL-F regions were sequenced for 98 taxa including 17 species of Peniocereus, representatives from all genera of tribe Pachycereeae, four genera of tribe Hylocereeae, as well as from three additional outgroup genera of tribes Calymmantheae, Notocacteae, and Trichocereeae. Phylogenetic analyses support neither the monophyly of Peniocereus as currently circumscribed, nor the monophyly of tribe Pachycereeae since species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are embedded within tribe Hylocereeae. Furthermore, these results show that the eight species of Peniocereus subgenus Peniocereus (Peniocereus sensu stricto) form a well-supported clade within subtribe Pachycereinae; P. serpentinus is also a member of this subtribe, but is sister to Bergerocactus. Moreover, Nyctocereus should be resurrected as a monotypic genus. Species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are positioned among species of Acanthocereus within tribe Hylocereeae, indicating that they may be better classified within that genus. A number of morphological and anatomical characters, especially related to the presence or absence of dimorphic branches, are discussed to support these relationships.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of Hypoxidaceae--evidence from plastid DNA data and inferences on morphology and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Kocyan, Alexander; Snijman, Deirdre A; Forest, Félix; Devey, Dion S; Freudenstein, John V; Wiland-Szymańska, Justyna; Chase, Mark W; Rudall, Paula J

    2011-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the monocot family Hypoxidaceae (Asparagales), which occurs mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, were reconstructed using four plastid DNA regions (rbcL, trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, and trnS-G intergenic spacer) for 56 ingroup taxa including all currently accepted genera and seven species of the closely related families Asteliaceae, Blandfordiaceae, and Lanariaceae. Data were analyzed by applying parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The intergenic spacer trnS-G--only rarely used in monocot research--contributed a substantial number of potentially parsimony informative characters. Hypoxidaceae consist of three well-supported major clades, but their interrelationships remain unresolved. Our data indicate that in the Pauridia clade one long-distance dispersal event occurred from southern Africa to Australia. Long-distance dispersal scenarios may also be likely for the current distribution of Hypoxis, which occurs on four continents. In the Curculigo clade, the present distribution of Curculigo s.s. on four continents could support a Gondwanan origin, but the level of divergence is too low for this hypothesis to be likely. The main clades correspond well with some floral characters, habit and palynological data, whereas chromosomal data exhibit plasticity and probably result from polyploidization and subsequent dysploidy and/or aneuploidy. Evolutionary flexibility is also suggested by the number of reported pollination syndromes: melittophily, myophily, sapromyophily, and cantharophily. Based on our phylogenetic results, we suggest cautious nomenclatural reorganization to generate monophyly at the generic level.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dudu, A; Costache, M

    2011-10-31

    The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other primitive breeds, including Exmoor, Icelandic Pony, Sorraia, Przewalski Horse, Mongolian Wild Horse, Konik, and Shetland Pony, as well as with Arabian, Akhal Teke and Caspian Pony. The sequences were truncated to 247 bp to accommodate short sequence data for the other species. Eighty horses were analyzed; 35 polymorphic sites representing 33 haplotypes were observed. The mean percentage of polymorphic sites was 14.2% for this mtDNA fragment. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura two-parameter distances and the Network 3.111 software was used for phylogenetic analysis. The Hucul horse was classified separately from all other primitive breeds. It is possible that the Hucul horse is not part of the pony class, as it segregated apart from all primitive pony breeds. We found multiple origins in the maternal lineage of domestic horse breeds and demonstrated the uniqueness of the Hucul breed; its origins remain unclear.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Zieria (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    Zieria Sm. (Rutaceae, Boronieae) is predominantly native to eastern Australia except for one species, which is endemic to New Caledonia. For this study, sequence data of two non-coding chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, and rpl32-trnL), one nuclear region (ITS region) and various morphological characters, based on Armstrong's (2002) taxonomic revision of Zieria, from 32 of the 42 described species of Zieria were selected to study the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. Zieria was supported as a monophyletic group in both independent and combined analyses herein (vs. Armstrong). On the basis of Armstrong's (2002) non-molecular phylogenetic study, six major taxon groups were defined for Zieria. The Maximum-parsimony and the Bayesian analyses of the combined morphological and molecular datasets indicate a lack of support for any of these six major taxon groups. On the basis of the combined Bayesian analysis consisting of molecular and morphological characters, eight major taxon groups are described for Zieria: 1. Zieriacytisoides group, 2. Zieriagranulata group, 3. Zierialaevigata group, 4. Zieriasmithii group, 5. Zieriaaspalathoides group, 6. Zieriafurfuracea group, 7. Zieriamontana group, and 8. Zieriarobusta group. These informal groups, except for of the groups Zieriarobusta and Zieriacytisoides, correspond to the clades with posterior probability values of 100.

  20. PHYLOViZ Online: web-based tool for visualization, phylogenetic inference, analysis and sharing of minimum spanning trees

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Francisco, Alexandre P.; Vaz, Cátia; Ramirez, Mário; Carriço, João André

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods generated allele and single nucleotide polymorphism information for thousands of bacterial strains that are publicly available in online repositories and created the possibility of generating similar information for hundreds to thousands of strains more in a single study. Minimum spanning tree analysis of allelic data offers a scalable and reproducible methodological alternative to traditional phylogenetic inference approaches, useful in epidemiological investigations and population studies of bacterial pathogens. PHYLOViZ Online was developed to allow users to do these analyses without software installation and to enable easy accessing and sharing of data and analyses results from any Internet enabled computer. PHYLOViZ Online also offers a RESTful API for programmatic access to data and algorithms, allowing it to be seamlessly integrated into any third party web service or software. PHYLOViZ Online is freely available at https://online.phyloviz.net. PMID:27131357

  1. Spiral cleavage and early embryology of a loxosomatid entoproct and the usefulness of spiralian apical cross patterns for phylogenetic inferences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the four major bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia, Acoelomorpha, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa, the latter shows an astonishing diversity of bodyplans. While the largest lophotrochozoan assemblage, the Spiralia, which at least comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Entoprocta, Platyhelminthes, and Nemertea, show a spiral cleavage pattern, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida (the Lophophorata) cleave radially. Despite a vast amount of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, the interrelationships of lophotrochozoan phyla remain largely unresolved. Thereby, Entoprocta play a key role, because they have frequently been assigned to the Ectoprocta, despite their differently cleaving embryos. However, developmental data on entoprocts employing modern methods are virtually non-existent and the data available rely exclusively on sketch drawings, thus calling for thorough re-investigation. Results By applying fluorescence staining in combination with confocal microscopy and 3D-imaging techniques, we analyzed early embryonic development of a basal loxosomatid entoproct. We found that cleavage is asynchronous, equal, and spiral. An apical rosette, typical for most spiralian embryos, is formed. We also identified two cross-like cellular arrangements that bear similarities to both, a "molluscan-like" as well as an "annelid-like" cross, respectively. Conclusions A broad comparison of cleavage types and apical cross patterns across Lophotrochozoa shows high plasticity of these character sets and we therefore argue that these developmental traits should be treated and interpreted carefully when used for phylogenetic inferences. PMID:22458754

  2. Novel Approaches for Phylogenetic Inference from Morphological Data and Total-Evidence Dating in Squamate Reptiles (Lizards, Snakes, and Amphisbaenians).

    PubMed

    Pyron, R Alexander

    2016-08-11

    Here, I combine previously underutilized models and priors to perform more biologically realistic phylogenetic inference from morphological data, with an example from squamate reptiles. When coding morphological characters, it is often possible to denote ordered states with explicit reference to observed or hypothetical ancestral conditions. Using this logic, we can integrate across character-state labels and estimate meaningful rates of forward and backward transitions from plesiomorphy to apomorphy. I refer to this approach as MkA, for "asymmetric." The MkA model incorporates the biological reality of limited reversal for many phylogenetically informative characters, and significantly increases likelihoods in the empirical data sets. Despite this, the phylogeny of Squamata remains contentious. Total-evidence analyses using combined morphological and molecular data and the MkA approach tend toward recent consensus estimates supporting a nested Iguania. However, support for this topology is not unambiguous across data sets or analyses, and no mechanism has been proposed to explain the widespread incongruence between partitions, or the hidden support for various topologies in those partitions. Furthermore, different morphological data sets produced by different authors contain both different characters and different states for the same or similar characters, resulting in drastically different placements for many important fossil lineages. Effort is needed to standardize ontology for morphology, resolve incongruence, and estimate a robust phylogeny. The MkA approach provides a preliminary avenue for investigating morphological evolution while accounting for temporal evidence and asymmetry in character-state changes. [Congruence; convergence; dating; molecular discordance; morphological phylogenetics; reversals; Squamata; total evidence.].

  3. Molecular phylogenetic inference from saber-toothed cat fossils of Rancho La Brea.

    PubMed Central

    Janczewski, D N; Yuhki, N; Gilbert, D A; Jefferson, G T; O'Brien, S J

    1992-01-01

    A method for the successful extraction of sequestered cellular DNA from 14,000-year-old fossil bones was developed and applied to asphalt-preserved specimens of the extinct saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis. Two distinct gene segments, the mitochondrial gene for 12S rRNA and nuclear FLA-I (the feline class I major histocompatibility complex gene), from three different individual fossil specimens were cloned and sequenced after PCR amplification. Comparison of fossil-derived DNA sequences to homologous regions in 15 living carnivorous species, including 9 species of Felidae and 6 nonfelids, affirmed the phylogenetic placement of Smilodon within the modern radiation of Felidae distinct from the Miocene paleofelid (Nimravidae) saber-toothed "cat" species. These results raise the prospect of obtaining genetically informative DNA from preserved bones of extinct fossil species, particularly among the 2 million specimens excavated from the asphaltic sediments at Rancho La Brea in metropolitan Los Angeles. PMID:1409696

  4. Data Requirement for Phylogenetic Inference from Multiple Loci: A New Distance Method.

    PubMed

    Dasarathy, Gautam; Nowak, Robert; Roch, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the evolutionary history of a set of species (phylogeny or species tree) from several genes. It is known that the evolutionary history of individual genes (gene trees) might be topologically distinct from each other and from the underlying species tree, possibly confounding phylogenetic analysis. A further complication in practice is that one has to estimate gene trees from molecular sequences of finite length. We provide the first full data-requirement analysis of a species tree reconstruction method that takes into account estimation errors at the gene level. Under that criterion, we also devise a novel reconstruction algorithm that provably improves over all previous methods in a regime of interest.

  5. Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Janko, K; Kotlík, P; Ráb, P

    2003-11-01

    Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages undermines their suitability as models for the studies of evolutionary consequences of sexual reproduction. Using molecular tools we addressed the origin, age and maternal ancestry of diploid and triploid asexual lineages arisen through the hybridization between spiny loaches Cobitis elongatoides, C. taenia and C. tanaitica. Reconstructions of the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, revealed by sequence analyses, suggest that both hybrid complexes (C. elongatoides-taenia and C. elongatoides-tanaitica) contained several asexual lineages of independent origin. Cobitis elongatoides was the exclusive maternal ancestor of all the C. elongatoides-tanaitica hybrids, whereas within the C. elongatoides-taenia complex, hybridization was reciprocal. In both complexes the low haplotype divergences were consistent with a recent origin of asexual lineages. Combined mtDNA and allozyme data suggest that the triploids arose through the incorporation of a haploid sperm genome into unreduced ova produced by diploid hybrids.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Antrodia species and Antrodia camphorata inferred from internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    The species of Antrodia are one of the difficult-to-classify and obscure groups of poroid Aphyllophorales based on morphological appearance. However, it is becoming increasingly important to reliably identify the entire suite of Antrodia camphorata strains and Antrodia species due to the potential pharmaceutical value of their biologically active ingredients. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed in a number of Antrodia fungal species and strains. ITS amplicons from the Antrodia species tested ranged in size from 543 to 610 bp; the size of the ITS of A. camphorata strains ranged from 592 to 596 bp. The overall sizes of ITS2 and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene of all A. camphorata strains tested in this study were shown to be 217 and 158 bp, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS data generated, which included sequences of 11 A. camphorata strains and nine other Antrodia species, showed three clearly distinct groups. Group 1 includes A. camphorata, Antrodia salmonea, and Antrodia carbinca strains. Within Group 2, Antrodia sinuosa and Antrodia xantha were clustered together. Group 3 contained Antrodia albida, A. heteromorpha, A. serialis, and A. malicola. The observed sequence diversity among ITS alleles provided an effective tool for differentiating strains of A. camphorata, A. salmonea, A. xantha, A. sinuosa, or A. serialis. Polymorphisms arising within the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region can provide practical markers for establishing a foundation for the further expansion of an ITS sequence database of medically important fungi.

  7. Phylogenetic Gaussian process model for the inference of functionally important regions in protein tertiary structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Fei; Golding, G Brian

    2014-01-01

    A critical question in biology is the identification of functionally important amino acid sites in proteins. Because functionally important sites are under stronger purifying selection, site-specific substitution rates tend to be lower than usual at these sites. A large number of phylogenetic models have been developed to estimate site-specific substitution rates in proteins and the extraordinarily low substitution rates have been used as evidence of function. Most of the existing tools, e.g. Rate4Site, assume that site-specific substitution rates are independent across sites. However, site-specific substitution rates may be strongly correlated in the protein tertiary structure, since functionally important sites tend to be clustered together to form functional patches. We have developed a new model, GP4Rate, which incorporates the Gaussian process model with the standard phylogenetic model to identify slowly evolved regions in protein tertiary structures. GP4Rate uses the Gaussian process to define a nonparametric prior distribution of site-specific substitution rates, which naturally captures the spatial correlation of substitution rates. Simulations suggest that GP4Rate can potentially estimate site-specific substitution rates with a much higher accuracy than Rate4Site and tends to report slowly evolved regions rather than individual sites. In addition, GP4Rate can estimate the strength of the spatial correlation of substitution rates from the data. By applying GP4Rate to a set of mammalian B7-1 genes, we found a highly conserved region which coincides with experimental evidence. GP4Rate may be a useful tool for the in silico prediction of functionally important regions in the proteins with known structures.

  8. Interspecific phylogenetic analysis enhances intraspecific phylogeographical inference: a case study in Pinus lambertiana.

    PubMed

    Liston, Aaron; Parker-Defeniks, Mariah; Syring, John V; Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Pinus lambertiana (sugar pine) is an economically and ecologically important conifer with a 1600-km latitudinal range extending from Oregon, USA, to northern Baja California, Mexico. Like all North American white pines (subsect. Strobus), sugar pine is highly susceptible to white pine blister rust, a disease caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola. We conducted a chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) survey of Pinus subsect. Strobus with comprehensive geographical sampling of P. lambertiana. Sequence analysis of 12 sugar pine individuals revealed strong geographical differentiation for two chloroplast haplotypes. A diagnostic restriction site survey of an additional 72 individuals demarcated a narrow 150-km contact zone in northeastern California. In the contact zone, maternal (megagametophtye) and paternal (embryo) haplotypes were identified in 31 single seeds, demonstrating bidirectional pollen flow extending beyond the range of maternal haplotypes. The frequencies of the Cr1 allele for white pine blister rust major gene resistance, previously determined for 41 seed zones, differ significantly among seed zones that are fixed for the alternate haplotypes, or contain a mixture of both haplotypes. Interspecific phylogenetic analysis reveals that the northern sugar pine haplotype belongs to a clade that includes Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and all of the East Asian white pines. Furthermore, there is little cpDNA divergence between northern sugar pine and whitebark pine (dS = 0.00058). These results are consistent with a Pleistocene migration of whitebark pine into North America and subsequent chloroplast introgression from whitebark pine to sugar pine. This study demonstrates the importance of placing phylogeographical results in a broader phylogenetic context.

  9. Clarification of the Phylogenetic Framework of the Tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) Inferred from Multiple Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoling; Chiba, Hideyuki; Huang, Zhenfu; Fei, Wen; Wang, Min; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Members of the skipper tribe Baorini generally resemble each other and are characterized by dark brown wings with hyaline white spots. These shared characteristics have caused difficulties with revealing the relationships among genera and species in the group, and some conflicting taxonomic views remain unresolved. The present study aims to infer a more comprehensive phylogeny of the tribe using molecular data, to test the monophyly of the tribe as well as the genera it includes in order to clarify their taxonomic status, and finally to revise the current classification of the group. In order to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree, the mitochondrial COI-COII and 16S genes as well as the nuclear EF-1α and 28S genes were analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The analysis included 67 specimens of 41 species, and we confirmed the monophyly of Baorini, and revealed that 14 genera are well supported. The genus Borbo is separated into three clades: Borbo, Pseudoborbo, and Larsenia gen. nov. We confirmed that Polytremis is polyphyletic and separated into three genera: Polytremis, Zinaida, and Zenonoida gen. nov., and also confirmed that the genus Prusiana is a member of the tribe. Relationships among some genera were strongly supported. For example, Zenonia and Zenonoida were found to be sister taxa, closely related to Zinaida and Iton, while Pelopidas and Baoris were also found to cluster together. PMID:27463803

  10. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly.

  11. The phylogenetic position of eriophyoid mites (superfamily Eriophyoidea) in Acariformes inferred from the sequences of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Dong, Yan; Deng, Wei; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2017-04-01

    Eriophyoid mites (superfamily Eriophyoidea) comprise >4400 species worldwide. Despite over a century of study, the phylogenetic position of these mites within Acariformes is still poorly resolved. Currently, Eriophyoidea is placed in the order Trombidiformes. We inferred the high-level phylogeny of Acari with the mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences of 110 species including four eriophyoid species, and the nuclear small subunit (18S) rRNA gene sequences of 226 species including 25 eriophyoid species. Maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum parsimony (MP) methods were used to analyze the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated for major lineages of Acari using Bayesian approaches. Our analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eriophyoidea but rejected the monophyly of Trombidiformes. The eriophyoid mites were grouped with the sarcoptiform mites, or were the sister group of sarcoptiform mites+non-eriophyoid trombidiform mites, depending on data partition strategies. Eriophyoid mites diverged from other mites in the Devonian (384Mya, 95% HPD, 352-410Mya). The origin of eriophyoid mites was dated to the Permian (262Mya, 95% HPD 230-307Mya), mostly prior to the radiation of gymnosperms (Triassic-Jurassic) and angiosperms (early Cretaceous). We propose that the placement of Eriophyoidea in the order Trombidiformes under the current classification system should be reviewed.

  12. Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jason A.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Raaum, Ryan L.; Disotell, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins and the divergence times of the most basal lineages within primates have been difficult to resolve mainly due to the incomplete sampling of early fossil taxa. The main source of contention is related to the discordance between molecular and fossil estimates: while there are no crown primate fossils older than 56 Ma, most molecule-based estimates extend the origins of crown primates into the Cretaceous. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of primates. We assembled 87 mammalian mitochondrial genomes, including 62 primate species representing all the families of the order. We newly sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes, including eight Old World monkeys and three strepsirrhines. Phylogenetic analyses support a strong topology, confirming the monophyly for all the major primate clades. In contrast to previous mitogenomic studies, the positions of tarsiers and colugos relative to strepsirrhines and anthropoids are well resolved. In order to improve our understanding of how fossil calibrations affect age estimates within primates, we explore the effect of seventeen fossil calibrations across primates and other mammalian groups and we select a subset of calibrations to date our mitogenomic tree. The divergence date estimates of the Strepsirrhine/Haplorhine split support an origin of crown primates in the Late Cretaceous, at around 74 Ma. This result supports a short fuse model of primate origins, whereby relatively little time passed between the origin of the order and the diversification of its major clades. It also suggests that the early primate fossil record is likely poorly sampled. PMID:24583291

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis inferred from leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Seng-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2011-06-01

    The species differentiation between Chamaecyparis formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, and C. obtusa, based on the composition of the leaf essential oils, was studied. The characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses showed remarkable differences between these three essential oils. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal-component analysis (PCA) distinguished three groups of essential oils. The C. formosensis oil was dominated by α-pinene while those isolated from C. obtusa var. formosana and C. obtusa were characterized by high levels of (-)-thujopsene and α-terpinyl acetate, respectively. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis were in agreement with previous findings based on morphological and molecular evidence. In addition, the essential oils from C. obtusa var. formosana could be classified into three chemical types, according to their different characteristic main compounds (β-elemol, (-)-thujopsene, and cis-thujopsenal). The biochemical correlations between the major constituents of the Chamaecyparis species were examined and their relationship is discussed.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Indian caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) inferred from mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark; A Sheps, Jonathan; Oommen, Oommen V; Cohen, Bernard L

    2002-06-01

    India has a diverse caecilian fauna, including representatives of three of the six currently recognized families, the Caeciliidae, Ichthyophiidae, the endemic Uraeotyphlidae, but previous molecular phylogenetic studies of caecilians have not included sequences for any Indian caecilians. Partial 12S and 16S mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained for a single representative of each of the caecilian families found in India and aligned against previously reported sequences for 13 caecilian species. The resulting alignment (16 taxa, 1200 sites, of which 288 cannot be aligned unambiguously) was analyzed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and distance methods. As judged by bootstrap proportions, decay indices, and leaf stabilities, well-supported relationships of the Indian caecilians are recovered from the alignment. The data (1) corroborate the hypothesis, based on morphology, that the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae are sister taxa, (2) recover a monophyletic Ichthyophiidae, including Indian and South East Asian representatives, and (3) place the Indian caeciliid Gegeneophis ramaswamii as the sister group of the caeciliid caecilians of the Seychelles. Rough estimates of divergence times suggest an origin of the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae while India was isolated from Laurasia and Africa and are most consistent with an Indian origin of these families and subsequent dispersal of ichthyophiids into South East Asia.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of conifers inferred from partial 28S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Stefanoviac, S; Jager, M; Deutsch, J; Broutin, J; Masselot, M

    1998-05-01

    The conifers, which traditionally comprise seven families, are the largest and most diverse group of living gymnosperms. Efforts to systematize this diversity without a cladistic phylogenetic framework have often resulted in the segregation of certain genera and/or families from the conifers. In order to understand better the relationships between the families, we performed cladistic analyses using a new data set obtained from 28S rRNA gene sequences. These analyses strongly support the monophyly of conifers including Taxaceae. Within the conifers, the Pinaceae are the first to diverge, being the sister group of the rest of conifers. A recently discovered Australian genus Wollemia is confirmed to be a natural member of the Araucariaceae. The Taxaceae are nested within the conifer clade, being the most closely related to the Cephalotaxaceae. The Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae together form a monophyletic group. Sciadopitys should be considered as constituting a separate family. These relationships are consistent with previous cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular (18S rRNA, rbcL) data. Furthermore, the well-supported clade linking the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, which has not been previously reported, suggests that the common ancestor of these families, both having the greatest diversity in the Southern Hemisphere, inhabited Gondwanaland.

  16. Inferring cell type innovations by phylogenetic methods-concepts, methods, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Kin, Koryu

    2015-12-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of distinct cell types that have specific roles in the body. Each cell type is a product of two kinds of historical processes-development and evolution. Although the concept of a cell type is difficult to define, the cell type concept based on the idea of the core regulatory network (CRN), a gene regulatory network that determines the identity of a cell type, illustrates the essential aspects of the cell type concept. The first step toward elucidating cell type evolution is to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of cell types, or the cell type tree. The sister cell type model assumes that a new cell type evolves through divergence from a multifunctional ancestral cell type, creating tree-like evolutionary relationships between cell types. The process of generating a cell type tree can also be understood as the sequential addition of a new branching point on an ancestral cell differentiation hierarchy in evolution. A cell type tree thus represents an intertwined history of cell type evolution and development. Cell type trees can be reconstructed from high-throughput sequencing data, and the reconstruction of a cell type tree leads to the discovery of genes that are functionally important for a cell type. Although many issues including the lack of cross-species comparisons and the lack of a proper model for cell type evolution remain, the study of the origin of a new cell type using phylogenetic methods offers a promising new research avenue in developmental evolution. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 653-661, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phylogenetic position of the coral symbiont Ostreobium (Ulvophyceae) inferred from chloroplast genome data.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Marcelino, Vanessa R; Guiry, Michael D; Cremen, M Chiela M; Jackson, Christopher J

    2017-04-10

    The green algal genus Ostreobium is an important symbiont of corals, playing roles in reef decalcification and providing photosynthates to the coral during bleaching events. A chloroplast genome of a cultured strain of Ostreobium was available, but low taxon sampling and Ostreobium's early-branching nature left doubt about its phylogenetic position. Here we generate and describe chloroplast genomes from four Ostreobium strains as well as Avrainvillea mazei and Neomeris sp., strategically sampled early-branching lineages in the Bryopsidales and Dasycladales, respectively. At 80,584 bp, the chloroplast genome of Ostreobium sp. HV05042 is the most compact yet found in the Ulvophyceae. The Avrainvillea chloroplast genome is ca. 94 kbp and contains introns in infA and cysT that have nearly complete sequence identity except for an ORF in infA that is not present in cysT. In line with other bryopsidalean species, it also contains regions with possibly bacteria-derived ORFs. The Neomeris data did not assemble into a canonical circular chloroplast genome but a large number of contigs containing fragments of chloroplast genes and showing evidence of long introns and intergenic regions, and the Neomeris chloroplast genome size was estimated to exceed 1.87 Mb. Chloroplast phylogenomics and 18S nrDNA data showed strong support for the Ostreobium lineage being sister to the remaining Bryopsidales. There were differences in branch support when outgroups were varied, but the overall support for the placement of Ostreobium was strong. These results permitted us to validate two suborders and introduce a third, the Ostreobineae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Central European wolf spiders (Araneae: lycosidae) inferred from 12S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zehethofer, K; Sturmbauer, C

    1998-12-01

    We have analyzed a sequence dataset of a portion of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of the ribosomal small subunit for 27 species of the family Lycosidae (wolf spiders) from Central Europe, belonging to six genera (Alopecosa, Arctosa, Pardosa, Pirata, Trochosa, and Xerolycosa) and four subfamilies (Evippinae, Lycosinae, Pardosinae and Venoniinae). Phylogenetic analyses were performed in two steps and corroborate the monophyly of all the genera analyzed with strong bootstrap support. In the first step focusing on the most ancestral splits the genus Pirata consistently emerged as the most ancestral branch, followed by the two genera Arctosa and Xerolycosa, with conflicting branching order, however. The second step of analysis placed Xerolycosa more ancestral than Arctosa. Arctosa appeared as sister group to the genera Alopecosa, Trochosa, and Pardosa. The palearctic genus Xerolycosa was not yet included in previous studies derived from morphological characters, but its placement based on mtDNA sequences is in good agreement to that according to current diagnostic morphological features. Further, the single representative of the genus Arctosa examined in our study was placed at a more ancestral position than in a previous investigation based on phenotypic characters. The superimposition of the currently used diagnostic phenotypic characters on the DNA-based phylogeny shows that both character sets are widely congruent; only 3 out of 16 phenotypic characters were resolved as homoplasious, suggesting their parallel evolution and/or reversal. Among the three different styles of predation found in the Lycosids, tube builders appear to be the most ancestral from which burrow dwellers descended and from which two groups of vagrant hunters evolved in parallel.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in European Ceriporiopsis species inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tomšovský, Michal; Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify taxonomy and examine evolutionary relationships within European Ceriporiopsis species using a combined analysis of the large subunit (nLSU) nuclear rRNA and small subunit (mtSSU) mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences. Data from the ITS region were applied to enhance the view of the phylogenetic relationships among different species. The studied samples grouped into four complex clades, suggesting that the genus Ceriporiopsis is polyphyletic. The generic type Ceriporiopsis gilvescens formed a separate group together with Ceriporiopsis guidella and Phlebia spp. in the phlebioid clade. In this clade, the closely related species Ceriporiopsis resinascens and Ceriporiopsis pseudogilvescens grouped together with Ceriporiopsis aneirina. C. resinascens and C. pseudogilvescens have identical LSU and SSU sequences but differ in ITS. Ceriporiopsis pannocincta also fell in the phlebioid clade, but showed closer proximity to Gloeoporus dichrous than to C. gilvescens or C. aneirina-C. pseudogilvescens-C. resinascens group. Another clade was composed of a Ceriporiopsis balaenae-Ceriporiopsis consobrina group and was found to be closely related to Antrodiella and Frantisekia, with the overall clade highly reminiscent of the residual polyporoid clade. The monotypic genus Pouzaroporia, erected in the past for Ceriporiopsis subrufa due to its remarkable morphological differences, also fell within the residual polyporoid clade. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora held an isolated position from the other species of the genus. Therefore, the previously proposed name Gelatoporia subvermispora has been adopted for this species. Physisporinus rivulosus appeared unrelated to two other European Physisporinus species. Moreover, Ceriporiopsis (=Skeletocutis) jelicii grouped in a separate clade, distinct from Ceriporiopsis species. Finally, the ITS data demonstrated the proximity of some Ceriporiopsis species (Ceriporiopsis portcrosensis and Ceriporiopsis

  20. Chromosomal instability in Afrotheria: fragile sites, evolutionary breakpoints and phylogenetic inference from genome sequence assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Robinson, Terence J

    2007-01-01

    Background Extant placental mammals are divided into four major clades (Laurasiatheria, Supraprimates, Xenarthra and Afrotheria). Given that Afrotheria is generally thought to root the eutherian tree in phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets, the study of the organization of the genomes of afrotherian species provides new insights into the dynamics of mammalian chromosomal evolution. Here we test if there are chromosomal bands with a high tendency to break and reorganize in Afrotheria, and by analyzing the expression of aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites in three afrotherian species, whether these are coincidental with recognized evolutionary breakpoints. Results We described 29 fragile sites in the aardvark (OAF) genome, 27 in the golden mole (CAS), and 35 in the elephant-shrew (EED) genome. We show that fragile sites are conserved among afrotherian species and these are correlated with evolutionary breakpoints when compared to the human (HSA) genome. Inddition, by computationally scanning the newly released opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and chicken sequence assemblies for use as outgroups to Placentalia, we validate the HSA 3/21/5 chromosomal synteny as a rare genomic change that defines the monophyly of this ancient African clade of mammals. On the other hand, support for HSA 1/19p, which is also thought to underpin Afrotheria, is currently ambiguous. Conclusion We provide evidence that (i) the evolutionary breakpoints that characterise human syntenies detected in the basal Afrotheria correspond at the chromosomal band level with fragile sites, (ii) that HSA 3p/21 was in the amniote ancestor (i.e., common to turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilians, birds and mammals) and was subsequently disrupted in the lineage leading to marsupials. Its expansion to include HSA 5 in Afrotheria is unique and (iii) that its fragmentation to HSA 3p/21 + HSA 5/21 in elephant and manatee was due to a fission within HSA 21 that is probably shared by all

  1. Conservation of biotrophy in Hygrophoraceae inferred from combined stable isotope and phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Seitzman, Brian H; Ouimette, Andrew; Mixon, Rachel L; Hobbie, Erik A; Hibbett, David S

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional modes of genera in Hygrophoraceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), apart from the ectomycorrhizal Hygrophorus and lichen-forming taxa, are uncertain. New δ(15)N and δ(13)C values were obtained from 15 taxa under Hygrophoraceae collected in central Massachusetts and combined with isotopic datasets from five prior studies including a further 12 species using a data standardization method to allow cross-site comparison. Based on these data, we inferred the probable nutritional modes for species of Hygrophorus, Hygrocybe, Humidicutis, Cuphophyllus and Gliophorus. A phylogeny of Hygrophoraceae was constructed by maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear ribosomal 28S and 5.8S sequences and standardized δ(15)N and δ(13)C values were used for parsimony optimization on this phylogeny. Our results supported a mode of biotrophy in Hygrocybe, Humidicutis, Cuphophyllus and Gliophorus quantitatively unlike that in more than 450 other fungal taxa sampled in the present and prior studies. Parsimony optimization of stable isotope data suggests moderate conservation of nutritional strategies in Hygrophoraceae and a single switch to a predominantly ectomycorrhizal life strategy in the lineage leading to Hygrophorus. We conclude that Hygrophoraceae of previously unknown nutritional status are unlikely to be saprotrophs and are probably in symbiosis with bryophytes or other understory plants.

  2. Inferring functional constraints and divergence in protein families using 3D mapping of phylogenetic information

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Christian; Boucher, Yan; Roger, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis has been used to study specific questions about the structure and function of proteins for many years. Here we propose a knowledge-based framework in which the maximum likelihood rate of evolution is used to quantify the level of constraint on the identity of a site. We demonstrate that site-rate mapping on 3D structures using datasets of rhodopsin-like G-protein receptors and α- and β-tubulins provides an excellent tool for pinpointing the functional features shared between orthologous and paralogous proteins. In addition, functional divergence within protein families can be inferred by examining the differences in the site rates, the differences in the chemical properties of the side chains or amino acid usage between aligned sites. Two novel analytical methods are introduced to characterize rate- independent functional divergence. These are tested using a dataset of two classes of HMG-CoA reductases for which only one class can perform both the forward and reverse reaction. We show that functionally divergent sites occur in a cluster of sites interacting with the catalytic residues and that this information should facilitate the design of experimental strategies to directly test functional properties of residues. PMID:12527789

  3. Inferring functional constraints and divergence in protein families using 3D mapping of phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Christian; Boucher, Yan; Roger, Andrew J

    2003-01-15

    Comparative sequence analysis has been used to study specific questions about the structure and function of proteins for many years. Here we propose a knowledge-based framework in which the maximum likelihood rate of evolution is used to quantify the level of constraint on the identity of a site. We demonstrate that site-rate mapping on 3D structures using datasets of rhodopsin-like G-protein receptors and alpha- and beta-tubulins provides an excellent tool for pinpointing the functional features shared between orthologous and paralogous proteins. In addition, functional divergence within protein families can be inferred by examining the differences in the site rates, the differences in the chemical properties of the side chains or amino acid usage between aligned sites. Two novel analytical methods are introduced to characterize rate- independent functional divergence. These are tested using a dataset of two classes of HMG-CoA reductases for which only one class can perform both the forward and reverse reaction. We show that functionally divergent sites occur in a cluster of sites interacting with the catalytic residues and that this information should facilitate the design of experimental strategies to directly test functional properties of residues.

  4. Fomitiporia castilloi sp. nov. and multiple clades around F. apiahyna and F. texana in Meso- and South America evidenced by multiloci phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Amalfi, Mario; Decock, Cony

    2013-01-01

    Fomitiporia castilloi sp. nov. from the lowland rainforest in French Guyana is described, illustrated and its phylogenetic affinities are discussed. This species is characterized by pileate basidiomata, a plicate margin, abundant, variably shaped hymenial setae and basidiospores averaging ≅ 6 × 5 μm. In phylogenetic inferences based on a DNA sequence dataset of four loci (5' end of the LSU, ITS-5.8S, partial tef1 and rpb2), F. castilloi occupies an isolated position, basal to a clade that is composed exclusively of Neotropical species with resupinate basidiomata. The phylogenetic inferences also provide evidence of an unreported complexity within the Neotropical taxa, with multiple clades closely related to F. apiahyna and F. texana, representing additional potential species.

  5. Phylogenetic inference of colony isolates comprising seasonal Microcystis blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Otten, Timothy G; Paerl, Hans W

    2011-11-01

    Blooms of the toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis spp., are an increasingly prevalent water quality problem and health hazard worldwide. China's third largest lake, Lake Taihu, has been experiencing progressively more severe Microcystis blooms over the past three decades. In 2009 and 2010, individual Microcystis colonies, consisting of four different morphospecies, were isolated and genotyped using a whole-cell multiplex PCR assay. The 16S-23S rDNA-ITS sequences were aligned based on Bayesian inference and indicated that one morphospecies was genetically unique (Microcystis wesenbergii) and three were indistinguishable (Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis flos-aquae, and Microcystis ichthyoblabe). Microcystin (mcyB) genes were detected intermittently in two of the morphospecies while the other two morphospecies lacked the mcyB gene in all samples. Water temperature was found to influence bloom formation and morphotype prevalence, and chlorophyll a and temperature were positively and significantly correlated with microcystin concentration. Cooler water temperatures promoted toxigenic strains of Microcystis. Wind appeared to influence the distribution of morphotypes across the lake, with M. aeruginosa and M. ichthyoblabe being more susceptible to wind stress than M. wesenbergii and M. flos-aquae. The results of this study indicated that the blooms were composed of a variety of Microcystis morphospecies, with more genotypes observed than can be attributed to individual morphotypes. We conclude that morphology is not a reliable indicator of toxigenicity in Lake Taihu, and caution should be exercised when the M. aeruginosa morphotype is present because it is capable of producing MC-LR, the most toxic microcystin isoform.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the genus Algansea Girard (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) of central Mexico inferred from molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; de León, Gerardo Pérez Ponce; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Background The genus Algansea is one of the most representative freshwater fish groups in central Mexico due to its wide geographic distribution and unusual level of endemicity. Despite the small number of species, this genus has had an unsettled taxonomic history due to high levels of intraspecific morphological variation. Moreover, several phylogenetic hypotheses among congeners have been proposed but have had the following shortcomings: the use of homoplasious morphological characters, the use of character codification and polarisation methods that lacked objectivity, and incomplete taxonomic sampling. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis among species of Algansea is presented. This analysis is based upon two molecular markers, the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the first intron of the ribosomal protein S7 gene. Results Bayesian analysis based on a combined matrix (cytochrome b and first intron S7) showed that Algansea is a monophyletic group and that Agosia chrysogaster is the sister group. Divergence times dated the origin of the genus around 16.6 MYA, with subsequent cladogenetic events occurring between 6.4 and 2.8 MYA. When mapped onto the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis, the character states of three morphological characters did not support previous hypotheses on the evolution of morphological traits in the genus Algansea, whereas the character states of the remaining six characters partially corroborated those hypotheses. Conclusion Monophyly of the genus Algansea was corroborated in this study. Tree topology shows the genus consists of three main lineages: Central-Eastern, Western, and Southern clades. However, the relationships among these clades remained unresolved. Congruence found between the available geological and climatic history and the divergence times made it possible to infer the biogeographical history of Algansea, which suggested that vicariance events were responsible for the evolutionary history of the genus. Interestingly, this

  7. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae): systematics, divergence times, and biogeography inferred from nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, Charilaos; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N; Russell, Stephen J; Klitgaard, Bente B

    2008-10-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from nuclear ribosomal (nrITS) and plastid (trnL, trnL-F and matK) DNA sequence data using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Divergence times are estimated using a Bayesian method assuming a relaxed molecular clock (multidivtime). Within the Pterocarpus clade, new sister relationships are recovered: Pterocarpus + Etaballia, Inocarpus + Tipuana and Paramachaerium + Maraniona. Our results support monophyly of Platymiscium, which is resolved into three major clades, each with distinct geographic ranges and ecological preferences. Diversification in Platymiscium has been driven by habitat fragmentation, invasion of novel geographic regions, and ecological diversification, revealing general patterns of diversification in the neotropics. We hypothesize that Platymiscium arose in dry habitats of South America and radiated northward. The Amazon basin was invaded twice both within the last 5.6 My and Central America twice before the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Divergence times of the P. pubescens complex, restricted to seasonally dry tropical forests of South America, support pre-Pleistocene divergence in this biome.

  8. Molecular inference of phylogenetic relationships among Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) with special focus on the squid order Oegopsida.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Annie R

    2010-07-01

    Squids, cuttlefish and bobtail squids comprise the molluscan superorder Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Although these animals exemplify the morphological and ecological diversity seen in Cephalopoda, no previous study has focused resolving decapodiform relationships, particularly within Oegopsida, a large order comprised of pelagic squid. To further clarify the phylogenetic history of Decapodiformes, and Oegopsida in particular, molecular data for five genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, 16S rRNA, COI) was collected for 90 taxa representing all major lineages and families and evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Although ordinal relationships were sensitive to analytical method, several conclusions can be inferred: the pelagic order Myopsida is closely related to the benthic sepioids, whose relationships were ambiguous, and Bathyteuthoidea is distinct from Oegopsida. Within Oegopsida several clades are consistently recovered, some with previous morphological support (e.g. chiroteuthid, lepidoteuthid, histioteuthid families) while others suggest novel relationships (e.g. Architeuthidae+Neoteuthidae). This study, with its broad coverage of taxa, provides the first in-depth analysis of Decapodiformes with special focus on the morphologically and biogeographically diverse Oegopsida, confirms several sister-taxon relationships, and provides new hypotheses of cephalopod evolution in the open ocean.

  9. Phylogenetic inference rejects sporophyte based classification of the Funariaceae (Bryophyta): rapid radiation suggests rampant homoplasy in sporophyte evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The moss family Funariaceae, which includes the model systems Funaria hygrometrica and Physcomitrella patens, comprises 15 genera, of which three accommodate approximately 95% of the 250-400 species. Generic concepts are drawn primarily from patterns in the diversity of morphological complexity of the sporophyte. Phylogenetic inferences from ten loci sampled across the three genomic compartments yield a hypothesis that is incompatible with the current circumscription of two of the speciose genera of the Funariaceae. The single clade, comprising exemplars of Funaria with a compound annulus, is congruent with the systematic concept proposed by Fife (1985). By contrast, Entosthodon and Physcomitrium are resolved as polyphyletic entities, and even the three species of Physcomitrella are confirmed to have diverged from distinct ancestors. Although the backbone relationships within the core clade of the Funariaceae remain unresolved, the polyphyly of these genera withstands alternative hypothesis testing. Consequently, the sporophytic characters that define these lineages are clearly homoplasious suggesting that selective pressures (or their relaxation) are in fact driving the diversification rather than the conservation of sporophytic architecture in the Funariaceae.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among Octopodidae species in coastal waters of China inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Lü, Z M; Cui, W T; Liu, L Q; Li, H M; Wu, C W

    2013-09-19

    Octopus in the family Octopodidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) has been generally recognized as a "catch-all" genus. The monophyly of octopus species in China's coastal waters has not yet been studied. In this paper, we inferred the phylogeny of 11 octopus species (family Octopodidae) in China's coastal waters using nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA. Sequence analysis of both genes revealed that the 11 species of Octopodidae fell into four distinct groups, which were genetically distant from one another and exhibited identical phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenies indicated strongly that the genus Octopus in China's coastal waters is also not monophyletic, and it is therefore clear that the Octopodidae systematics in this area requires major revision. It is demonstrated that partial sequence information of both the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI could be used as diagnostic molecular markers in the identification and resolution of the taxonomic ambiguity of Octopodidae species.

  11. Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenetic Inference with Selection on Protein Folding Stability.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Miguel; Sánchez-Cobos, Agustin; Bastolla, Ugo

    2015-08-01

    Despite intense work, incorporating constraints on protein native structures into the mathematical models of molecular evolution remains difficult, because most models and programs assume that protein sites evolve independently, whereas protein stability is maintained by interactions between sites. Here, we address this problem by developing a new mean-field substitution model that generates independent site-specific amino acid distributions with constraints on the stability of the native state against both unfolding and misfolding. The model depends on a background distribution of amino acids and one selection parameter that we fix maximizing the likelihood of the observed protein sequence. The analytic solution of the model shows that the main determinant of the site-specific distributions is the number of native contacts of the site and that the most variable sites are those with an intermediate number of native contacts. The mean-field models obtained, taking into account misfolded conformations, yield larger likelihood than models that only consider the native state, because their average hydrophobicity is more realistic, and they produce on the average stable sequences for most proteins. We evaluated the mean-field model with respect to empirical substitution models on 12 test data sets of different protein families. In all cases, the observed site-specific sequence profiles presented smaller Kullback-Leibler divergence from the mean-field distributions than from the empirical substitution model. Next, we obtained substitution rates combining the mean-field frequencies with an empirical substitution model. The resulting mean-field substitution model assigns larger likelihood than the empirical model to all studied families when we consider sequences with identity larger than 0.35, plausibly a condition that enforces conservation of the native structure across the family. We found that the mean-field model performs better than other structurally constrained

  12. How does habitat filtering affect the detection of conspecific and phylogenetic density dependence?

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Swenson, Nathan G; Brown, Calum; Zhang, Caicai; Yang, Jie; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Sha, Liqing; Cao, Min; Lin, Luxiang

    2016-05-01

    Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) has been recognized as a key mechanism underlying species coexistence, especially in tropical forests. Recently, some studies have reported that seedling survival is also negatively correlated with the phylogenetic relatedness between neighbors and focal individuals, termed phylogenetic negative density dependence (PNDD). In contrast to CNDD or PNDD, shared habitat requirements between closely related individuals are thought to be a cause of observed positive effects of closely related neighbors, which may affect the strength and detectability of CNDD or PNDD. In order to investigate the relative importance of these mechanisms for tropical tree seedling survival, we used generalized linear mixed models to analyze how the survival of more than 10 000 seedlings of woody plant species related to neighborhood and habitat variables in a tropical rainforest in southwest China. By comparing models with and without habitat variables, we tested how habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD and PNDD. The best-fitting model suggested that CNDD and habitat filtering played key roles in seedling survival; but that, contrary to our expectations, phylogenetic positive density dependence (PPDD) had a distinct and important effect. While habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD by decreasing its apparent strength, it did not explain the positive effects of closely related neighbors. Our results demonstrate that a failure to control for habitat variables and phylogenetic relationships may obscure the importance of conspecific and heterospecific neighbor densities for seedling survival.

  13. Phylogenetic Diversity of the Enteric Pathogen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Inferred from Genome-Wide Reference-Free SNP Characters

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Ruth E.; Pettengill, James B.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Wehnes, Chris; Van Kessel, JoAnn S.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    The enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica is one of the leading causes of foodborne illness in the world. The species is extremely diverse, containing more than 2,500 named serovars that are designated for their unique antigen characters and pathogenicity profiles—some are known to be virulent pathogens, while others are not. Questions regarding the evolution of pathogenicity, significance of antigen characters, diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, among others, will remain elusive until a strong evolutionary framework is established. We present the first large-scale S. enterica subsp. enterica phylogeny inferred from a new reference-free k-mer approach of gathering single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole genomes. The phylogeny of 156 isolates representing 78 serovars (102 were newly sequenced) reveals two major lineages, each with many strongly supported sublineages. One of these lineages is the S. Typhi group; well nested within the phylogeny. Lineage-through-time analyses suggest there have been two instances of accelerated rates of diversification within the subspecies. We also found that antigen characters and CRISPR loci reveal different evolutionary patterns than that of the phylogeny, suggesting that a horizontal gene transfer or possibly a shared environmental acquisition might have influenced the present character distribution. Our study also shows the ability to extract reference-free SNPs from a large set of genomes and then to use these SNPs for phylogenetic reconstruction. This automated, annotation-free approach is an important step forward for bacterial disease tracking and in efficiently elucidating the evolutionary history of highly clonal organisms. PMID:24158624

  14. Phylogenetic inference and SSR characterization of tropical woody bamboos tribe Bambuseae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on complete plastid genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Dos Anjos, Karina Goulart; Faoro, Helisson; Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de Freitas; Greco, Thiago Machado; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Rogalski, Marcelo; de Souza, Robson Francisco; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2016-05-01

    The complete plastome sequencing is an efficient option for increasing phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary studies, as well as may greatly facilitate the use of plastid DNA markers in plant population genetic studies. Merostachys and Guadua stand out as the most common and the highest potential utilization bamboos indigenous of Brazil. Here, we sequenced the complete plastome sequences of the Brazilian Guadua chacoensis and Merostachys sp. to perform full plastome phylogeny and characterize the occurrence, type, and distribution of SRRs using 20 Bambuseae species. The determined plastome sequence of Merostachys sp. and G. chacoensis is 136,334 and 135,403 bp in size, respectively, with an identical gene content and typical quadripartite structure consisting of a pair of IRs separated by the LSC and SSC regions. The Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses produced phylogenomic trees identical in topology. These trees supported monophyly of Paleotropical and Neotropical Bamboos clades. The Neotropical bamboos segregated into three well-supported lineages, Chusqueinae, Guaduinae, and Arthrostylidiinae, with the last two forming a well-supported sister relationship. Paleotropical bamboos segregated into two well-supported lineages, Hickeliinae and Bambusinae + Melocanninae. We identified 141.8 cpSSR in Bambuseae plastomes and an inferior value (38.15) for plastome coding sequences. Among them, we identified 16 polymorphic SSR loci, with number of alleles varying from 3 to 10. These 16 polymorphic cpSSR loci in Bambuseae plastome can be assessed for the intraspecific level of polymorphism, leading to innovative highly sensitive phylogeographic and population genetics studies for this tribe.

  15. Large-scale inference of gene function through phylogenetic annotation of Gene Ontology terms: case study of the apoptosis and autophagy cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Feuermann, Marc; Gaudet, Pascale; Mi, Huaiyu; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Thomas, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a paradigm for large-scale phylogenomic analysis of gene families that takes advantage of the large corpus of experimentally supported Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. This ‘GO Phylogenetic Annotation’ approach integrates GO annotations from evolutionarily related genes across ∼100 different organisms in the context of a gene family tree, in which curators build an explicit model of the evolution of gene functions. GO Phylogenetic Annotation models the gain and loss of functions in a gene family tree, which is used to infer the functions of uncharacterized (or incompletely characterized) gene products, even for human proteins that are relatively well studied. Here, we report our results from applying this paradigm to two well-characterized cellular processes, apoptosis and autophagy. This revealed several important observations with respect to GO annotations and how they can be used for function inference. Notably, we applied only a small fraction of the experimentally supported GO annotations to infer function in other family members. The majority of other annotations describe indirect effects, phenotypes or results from high throughput experiments. In addition, we show here how feedback from phylogenetic annotation leads to significant improvements in the PANTHER trees, the GO annotations and GO itself. Thus GO phylogenetic annotation both increases the quantity and improves the accuracy of the GO annotations provided to the research community. We expect these phylogenetically based annotations to be of broad use in gene enrichment analysis as well as other applications of GO annotations. Database URL: http://amigo.geneontology.org/amigo PMID:28025345

  16. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Jamie; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  17. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among phrynosomatid lizards as inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences: substitutional bias and information content of transitions relative to transversions.

    PubMed

    Reeder, T W

    1995-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among 40 species, representing all genera, within the North American lizard family Phrynosomatidae were inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Cladistic analysis of the DNA sequence data (779 bp; 162 informative characters) supported the monophyly of the sand lizards (Callisaurus, Cophosaurus, Holbrookia, and Uma), Petrosaurus, Phrynosoma, Urosaurus, and Uta. All the species of Sceloporus, except S. variabilis and S. chrysostictus, formed a clade. Except for a sand lizard + Phrynosoma clade, the intergeneric relationships inferred from the mtDNA were largely incongruent with recent cladistic analyses based on morphology. Sceloporus group monophyly was not supported, with Petrosaurus being a member of a clade containing Sator, Sceloporus, and Urosaurus, to the exclusion of Uta. The phylogenetic placement of Uta was ambiguous. The substitutional bias in the phrynosomatid mitochondrial rDNA sequences was examined, as well as the phylogenetic information content of transitions relative to transversions. There appeared to be a lower transition bias than observed in other vertebrate sequences, with some classes of transversions occurring as frequently as G <-> A transitions. Transitions were no less informative for phylogeny reconstruction than transversions. Therefore, transitions should not be down-weighted in phylogenetic analysis, as is often done.

  19. Simple statistical inference algorithms for task-dependent wellness assessment.

    PubMed

    Kailas, A; Chong, C-C; Watanabe, F

    2012-07-01

    Stress is a key indicator of wellness in human beings and a prime contributor to performance degradation and errors during various human tasks. The overriding purpose of this paper is to propose two algorithms (probabilistic and non-probabilistic) that iteratively track stress states to compute a wellness index in terms of the stress levels. This paper adopts the physiological view-point that high stress is accompanied with large deviations in biometrics such as body temperature, heart rate, etc., and the proposed algorithms iteratively track these fluctuations to compute a personalized wellness index that is correlated to the engagement levels of the tasks performed by the user. In essence, this paper presents a quantitative relationship between temperature, occupational stress, and wellness during different tasks. The simplicity of the statistical inference algorithms make them favorable candidates for implementation on mobile platforms such as smart phones in the future, thereby providing users an inexpensive application for self-wellness monitoring for a healthier lifestyle.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of the species-rich angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) inferred from nine chloroplast DNA regions: Synapomorphies and putative correlated evolutionary changes in fruit and seed morphology.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-11-01

    A phylogenetic study of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) is presented using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, with 65 species sampled (48.5% of the genus) based on sequences of nine chloroplast DNA regions (11,214 aligned positions). The resultant phylogeny clearly indicates that Goniothalamus is monophyletic. Preliminary research initially focused on identifying synapomorphies and estimating the phylogenetic signal of selected morphological characters based on parsimony and likelihood ancestral character state reconstructions. This prescreening of characters enabled 40 to be selected for further study, and of these 15 are shown here to demonstrate significant phylogenetic signal and to provide clear synapomorphies for several infrageneric clades. Although floral structure in Goniothalamus is comparatively uniform, suggesting a common basic pattern of pollination ecology, fruit and seed morphology in the genus is very diverse and is presumably associated with different patterns of frugivory. The present study assesses correlations amongst fruit and seed characters which are putatively of functional importance with regard to frugivory and dispersal. One-way phylogenetic ANOVA indicates significant phylogenetically independent correlation between the following fruit and seed characters: fruits borne on older branches and/or on the main trunk have larger monocarps than fruits borne on young branches; and monocarps that contain seeds with a hairy testa are larger than those with glabrous seeds. We discuss fruit morphologies and potential explanations for the inferred correlations, and suggest that they may be the result of adaptation to different frugivores (birds, larger non-volant animal and primate seed dispersers, respectively).

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes with analyses of gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Mayden, Richard L; Zhang, Jia-Bo; Yu, Dan; Tang, Qiong-Ying; Deng, Xin; Liu, Huan-Zhang

    2012-10-15

    The superfamily Cobitoidea of the order Cypriniformes is a diverse group of fishes, inhabiting freshwater ecosystems across Eurasia and North Africa. The phylogenetic relationships of this well-corroborated natural group and diverse clade are critical to not only informing scientific communities of the phylogeny of the order Cypriniformes, the world's largest freshwater fish order, but are key to every area of comparative biology examining the evolution of traits, functional structures, and breeding behaviors to their biogeographic histories, speciation, anagenetic divergence, and divergence time estimates. In the present study, two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI, ND4+5) and four single-copy nuclear gene segments (RH1, RAG1, EGR2B, IRBP) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea as reconstructed from maximum likelihood (ML) and partitioned Bayesian Analysis (BA). Analyses of the combined mitochondrial/nuclear gene datasets revealed five strongly supported monophyletic Cobitoidea families and their sister-group relationships: Botiidae+(Vaillantellidae+(Cobitidae+(Nemacheilidae+Balitoridae))). These recovered relationships are in agreement with previous systematic studies on the order Cypriniformes and/or those focusing on the superfamily Cobitoidea. Using these relationships, our analyses revealed pattern lineage- or ecological-group-specific evolution of these genes for the Cobitoidea. These observations and results corroborate the hypothesis that these group-specific-ancestral ecological characters have contributed in the diversification and/or adaptations within these groups. Positive selections were detected in RH1 of nemacheilids and in RAG1 of nemacheilids and genus Vaillantella, which indicated that evolution of RH1 (related to eye's optic sense) and RAG1 (related to immunity) genes appeared to be important for the diversification of these groups. The balitorid lineage (those species inhabiting fast-flowing riverine habitats) had

  2. Outcome- and auxiliary-dependent subsampling and its statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wu, Yougui; Zhou, Haibo

    2009-11-01

    The performance of a biomarker predicting clinical outcome is often evaluated in a large prospective study. Due to high costs associated with bioassay, investigators need to select a subset from all available patients for biomarker assessment. We consider an outcome- and auxiliary-dependent subsampling (OADS) scheme, in which the probability of selecting a patient into the subset depends on the patient's clinical outcome and an auxiliary variable. We proposed a semiparametric empirical likelihood method to estimate the association between biomarker and clinical outcome. Asymptotic properties of the estimator are given. Simulation study shows that the proposed method outperforms alternative methods.

  3. Dependency-dependent interference: NPI interference, agreement attraction, and global pragmatic inferences.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming; Grove, Julian; Giannakidou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistics studies have shown that when forming a long distance dependency in online processing, the parser sometimes accepts a sentence even though the required grammatical constraints are only partially met. A mechanistic account of how such errors arise sheds light on both the underlying linguistic representations involved and the processing mechanisms that put such representations together. In the current study, we contrast the negative polarity items (NPI) interference effect, as shown by the acceptance of an ungrammatical sentence like "The bills that democratic senators have voted for will ever become law," with the well-known phenomenon of agreement attraction ("The key to the cabinets are … "). On the surface, these two types of errors look alike and thereby can be explained as being driven by the same source: similarity based memory interference. However, we argue that the linguistic representations involved in NPI licensing are substantially different from those of subject-verb agreement, and therefore the interference effects in each domain potentially arise from distinct sources. In particular, we show that NPI interference at least partially arises from pragmatic inferences. In a self-paced reading study with an acceptability judgment task, we showed NPI interference was modulated by participants' general pragmatic communicative skills, as quantified by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Baron-Cohen et al., 2001), especially in offline tasks. Participants with more autistic traits were actually less prone to the NPI interference effect than those with fewer autistic traits. This result contrasted with agreement attraction conditions, which were not influenced by individual pragmatic skill differences. We also show that different NPI licensors seem to have distinct interference profiles. We discuss two kinds of interference effects for NPI licensing: memory-retrieval based and pragmatically triggered.

  4. Dependency-dependent interference: NPI interference, agreement attraction, and global pragmatic inferences

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ming; Grove, Julian; Giannakidou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistics studies have shown that when forming a long distance dependency in online processing, the parser sometimes accepts a sentence even though the required grammatical constraints are only partially met. A mechanistic account of how such errors arise sheds light on both the underlying linguistic representations involved and the processing mechanisms that put such representations together. In the current study, we contrast the negative polarity items (NPI) interference effect, as shown by the acceptance of an ungrammatical sentence like “The bills that democratic senators have voted for will ever become law,” with the well-known phenomenon of agreement attraction (“The key to the cabinets are … ”). On the surface, these two types of errors look alike and thereby can be explained as being driven by the same source: similarity based memory interference. However, we argue that the linguistic representations involved in NPI licensing are substantially different from those of subject-verb agreement, and therefore the interference effects in each domain potentially arise from distinct sources. In particular, we show that NPI interference at least partially arises from pragmatic inferences. In a self-paced reading study with an acceptability judgment task, we showed NPI interference was modulated by participants' general pragmatic communicative skills, as quantified by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Baron-Cohen et al., 2001), especially in offline tasks. Participants with more autistic traits were actually less prone to the NPI interference effect than those with fewer autistic traits. This result contrasted with agreement attraction conditions, which were not influenced by individual pragmatic skill differences. We also show that different NPI licensors seem to have distinct interference profiles. We discuss two kinds of interference effects for NPI licensing: memory-retrieval based and pragmatically triggered. PMID:24109468

  5. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    PubMed

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  6. Local dependence in random graph models: characterization, properties and statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Michael; Handcock, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Dependent phenomena, such as relational, spatial and temporal phenomena, tend to be characterized by local dependence in the sense that units which are close in a well-defined sense are dependent. In contrast with spatial and temporal phenomena, though, relational phenomena tend to lack a natural neighbourhood structure in the sense that it is unknown which units are close and thus dependent. Owing to the challenge of characterizing local dependence and constructing random graph models with local dependence, many conventional exponential family random graph models induce strong dependence and are not amenable to statistical inference. We take first steps to characterize local dependence in random graph models, inspired by the notion of finite neighbourhoods in spatial statistics and M-dependence in time series, and we show that local dependence endows random graph models with desirable properties which make them amenable to statistical inference. We show that random graph models with local dependence satisfy a natural domain consistency condition which every model should satisfy, but conventional exponential family random graph models do not satisfy. In addition, we establish a central limit theorem for random graph models with local dependence, which suggests that random graph models with local dependence are amenable to statistical inference. We discuss how random graph models with local dependence can be constructed by exploiting either observed or unobserved neighbourhood structure. In the absence of observed neighbourhood structure, we take a Bayesian view and express the uncertainty about the neighbourhood structure by specifying a prior on a set of suitable neighbourhood structures. We present simulation results and applications to two real world networks with 'ground truth'.

  7. Local dependence in random graph models: characterization, properties and statistical inference

    PubMed Central

    Schweinberger, Michael; Handcock, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dependent phenomena, such as relational, spatial and temporal phenomena, tend to be characterized by local dependence in the sense that units which are close in a well-defined sense are dependent. In contrast with spatial and temporal phenomena, though, relational phenomena tend to lack a natural neighbourhood structure in the sense that it is unknown which units are close and thus dependent. Owing to the challenge of characterizing local dependence and constructing random graph models with local dependence, many conventional exponential family random graph models induce strong dependence and are not amenable to statistical inference. We take first steps to characterize local dependence in random graph models, inspired by the notion of finite neighbourhoods in spatial statistics and M-dependence in time series, and we show that local dependence endows random graph models with desirable properties which make them amenable to statistical inference. We show that random graph models with local dependence satisfy a natural domain consistency condition which every model should satisfy, but conventional exponential family random graph models do not satisfy. In addition, we establish a central limit theorem for random graph models with local dependence, which suggests that random graph models with local dependence are amenable to statistical inference. We discuss how random graph models with local dependence can be constructed by exploiting either observed or unobserved neighbourhood structure. In the absence of observed neighbourhood structure, we take a Bayesian view and express the uncertainty about the neighbourhood structure by specifying a prior on a set of suitable neighbourhood structures. We present simulation results and applications to two real world networks with ‘ground truth’. PMID:26560142

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of the Culicomorpha inferred from 18S and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences. (Diptera:Nematocera).

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Crabtree, M B; Savage, H M

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the evolutionary origins of the mosquito family Culicidae by examination of 18S and 5.8S ribosomal gene sequence divergence. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that within the infraorder Culicomorpha, taxa in the families Corethrellidae, Chaoboridae and Culicidae formed a monophyletic group; there was support for a sister relationship between this lineage and a representative of the Chironomidae. A chaoborid midge was the closest relative of the mosquitoes. Taxa from four genera of mosquitoes formed a monophyletic group; lack of a spacer in the 5.8S gene was unique to members of the Culicidae. A member of the genus Anopheles formed the most basal lineage among the mosquitoes analysed. Phylogenetic relationships were unresolved for representatives in the families Dixidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Gyrodactylus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) inferred from rDNA ITS region: subgenera versus species groups.

    PubMed

    Matejusová, I; Gelnar, M; Verneau, O; Cunningham, C O; Littlewood, D T J

    2003-12-01

    Analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of representatives of major taxa of Monopisthocotylea were performed to identify the sister group of Gyrodactylus. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were used to infer phylogeny of 37 Gyrodactylus species and Gyrodactyloides bychowskii, Macrogyrodactylus polypteri and Gyrdicotylus gallieni, using maximum likelihood, parsimony and Bayesian inference. The genus Gyrodactylus appeared to be a monophyletic group in all analyses, based on the present data set. Within the genus, there were 3 major groups recognized by high bootstrap values and posterior probabilities. None of the 6 subgenera appeared to be monophyletic, and the most basal subgenus G. (Gyrodactylus) was paraphyletic. Characteristics of the excretory system of Gyrodactylus do not seem to be conservative enough to reveal subgenera within Gyrodactylus and we suggest abandoning existing subgenera as indicators of phylogeny. The grouping of species based on the morphology of the ventral bar and marginal hooks seems to have sufficient power to infer relationships between the Gyrodactylus species.

  10. 5S ribosomal RNA genes in six species of Mediterranean grey mullets: genomic organization and phylogenetic inference.

    PubMed

    Gornung, Ekaterina; Colangelo, Paolo; Annesi, Flavia

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a study of the 5S ribosomal RNA genes (5S rDNA) in a group of 6 species belonging to 4 genera of Mugilidae. In these 6 species, the relatively short 5S rDNA repeat units, generated by PCR and ranging in size from 219 to 257 bp, show a high level of intragenomic homogeneity of both coding and spacer regions (NTS-I). Phylogenetic reconstructions based on this data set highlight the greater phylogenetic and genetic diversity of Mugil cephalus and Oedalechilus labeo compared with the genera Liza and Chelon. Comparative sequence analysis revealed significant conservation of the short 5S rDNA repeat units across Chelon and Liza. Moreover, a second size class of 5S rDNA repeat units, ranging from roughly 800 to 1100 bp, was produced in the Liza and Chelon samples. Only short 5S rDNA repeat units were found in M. cephalus and O. labeo. The sequences of the long 5S rDNA repeat units, obtained in Chelon labrosus and Liza ramada, differ owing to the presence of 2 large insertion/deletions (indels) in the spacers (NTS-II) and show considerable sequence identity with NTS-I spacers. Interspecific sequence variation of NTS-II spacers, excluding the indels, is low. Southern-blot hybridization patterns suggest an intermixed arrangement of short and long repeat units within a single chromosome locus.

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Rhodotorula and related basidiomycetous yeasts inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S K; Yokoyama, K; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    2001-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of basidiomycetous yeasts, especially of the genus Rhodotorula, were studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The results demonstrated that the basidiomycetous yeasts under investigation distributed into two main clusters: one containing Tremellales, Filobasidiales and their anamorphs and the other containing Ustilaginales, Sporidiales and their anamorphs. This clustering in turn correlates with cell wall biochemistry, presence or absence of xylose, and septal ultrastructure, dolipore or simple pore. Bullera, Bulleromyces, Filobasidiella, Cryptococcus and Trichosporon, yeasts of the former cluster, contain xylose in the cell wall and have dolipore septa. In contrast yeasts of the latter cluster, which included Bensingtonia, Erythrobasidium, Leucosporidium, Malassezia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporidiobolus, Sporobolomyces and Ustilago, have no xylose in the cell wall and have a simple pore septum. Yeasts of the latter group could be further divided into four clades (A-D). Species of Rhodotorula were distributed in all of these clades, indicating the polyphyletic nature of the genus. A limited number of Rhodotorula species demonstrated identical sequences, for example Rhodotorula bacarum and Rhodotorula foliorum, Rhodotorula fujisanensis and Rhodotorula futronensis, Rhodotorula glutinis var. dairenensis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. However, all the other test species of the genus Rhodotorula were well separated based on their 396 bp nucleotide sequences. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of cytochrome b sequences for both species identification and the study of phylogenetic relationships among basidiomycetous yeasts.

  12. Taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships between neotropical species of ticks from genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) inferred from second internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, M T; Souza, L F; Marques, R C; Labruna, M B; Matioli, S R; Tonon, A P; Ribolla, P E M; Marinotti, O; Schumaker, T T S

    2007-03-01

    The accurate specific identification of ticks is essential for the study, control and prevention of tick-borne diseases. Herein, we determined ribosomal nucleotide sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of 15 Neotropical hard tick species of the genus Amblyomma Koch found in Brazil. Most of the studied ticks accidentally parasite humans and potentially act as vectors of zoonoses. Lengths of the ITS2 sequences ranged from 956 to 1,207 bp, whereas GC content varied from 62.4 to 66.9%. A matrix of ITS2 divergence was calculated with the ITS2 sequence data obtained showing divergence levels varying from 1.5 to 28.8%. The analysis indicated that this molecular marker can be useful for Amblyomma-specific identification. Phylogenetic inferences based on the ITS2 sequences were used to assess some issues in subgenus taxonomy.

  13. Cryptic patterns of diversification of a widespread Amazonian woodcreeper species complex (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) inferred from multilocus phylogenetic analysis: implications for historical biogeography and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Neves, Tiago; Aleixo, Alexandre; Sequeira, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Inferring evolutionary relationships between recently diverged taxa is still challenging, especially taking into account the likely occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. The Xiphorhynchus pardalotus/ocellatus species complex includes between two to three polytypic species and eight to nine subspecies distributed throughout most of lowland Amazonia and the foothills of the eastern Andes. To understand its historical diversification and address the main unsettled issues of phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy, we apply several approaches using data from two mitochondrial (Cyt b and ND2) and three nuclear genes (β-fibint7, CPZint3 and CRYAAint1) for all described species and most subspecies of this complex. We compared single gene trees with a multilocus concatenated tree and Bayesian species tree inferred under a coalescent framework ((*)BEAST). Our results showed a general pattern of incongruence among gene trees and multilocus trees. Despite of this, the coalescent-based species tree analysis supports the sister-taxa relationship of X. ocellatus and X. chunchotambo, while X. pardalotus comes out as the basal taxon. With exception of the last, our results revealed within both X. ocellatus and X. chunchotambo high levels of genetic differentiation (p-distances 0.5-5.5%) with well-supported lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses showed several incongruences with current subspecies taxonomy, revealing that X. o. ocellatus is paraphyletic relative to X. o. perplexus, and the currently recognized subspecies X. c. napensis corresponds to two distinct evolutionary lineages, which are not supported as sister-lineages. In addition, the deep level of genetic divergence between X. o. beauperthuysii and the extant subspecies of X. ocellatus is more consistent with species-level differences found in this complex. Divergence time estimates were consistent with a historical scenario of intense population subdivision and speciation during the Early

  14. Assessing colour-dependent occupation statistics inferred from galaxy group catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Duncan; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Hearin, Andrew; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Berlind, Andreas; Mo, H. J.; Tinker, Jeremy; Yang, Xiaohu

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the ability of current implementations of galaxy group finders to recover colour-dependent halo occupation statistics. To test the fidelity of group catalogue inferred statistics, we run three different group finders used in the literature over a mock that includes galaxy colours in a realistic manner. Overall, the resulting mock group catalogues are remarkably similar, and most colour-dependent statistics are recovered with reasonable accuracy. However, it is also clear that certain systematic errors arise as a consequence of correlated errors in group membership determination, central/satellite designation, and halo mass assignment. We introduce a new statistic, the halo transition probability (HTP), which captures the combined impact of all these errors. As a rule of thumb, errors tend to equalize the properties of distinct galaxy populations (i.e. red versus blue galaxies or centrals versus satellites), and to result in inferred occupation statistics that are more accurate for red galaxies than for blue galaxies. A statistic that is particularly poorly recovered from the group catalogues is the red fraction of central galaxies as a function of halo mass. Group finders do a good job in recovering galactic conformity, but also have a tendency to introduce weak conformity when none is present. We conclude that proper inference of colour-dependent statistics from group catalogues is best achieved using forward modelling (i.e. running group finders over mock data) or by implementing a correction scheme based on the HTP, as long as the latter is not too strongly model dependent.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Erika Sendra; Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sérgio Luiz; Miyaki, Cristina Yumi

    2006-06-01

    Previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical parrots were based on limited taxon sampling and lacked support for most internal nodes. In this study we increased the number of taxa (29 species belonging to 25 of the 30 genera) and gene sequences (6388 base pairs of RAG-1, cyt b, NADH2, ATPase 6, ATPase 8, COIII, 12S rDNA, and 16S rDNA) to obtain a stronger molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for this group of birds. Analyses of the combined gene sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a well-supported phylogeny and indicated that amazons and allies are a sister clade to macaws, conures, and relatives, and these two clades are in turn a sister group to parrotlets. Key morphological and behavioral characters used in previous classifications were mapped on the molecular tree and were phylogenetically uninformative. We estimated divergence times of taxa using the molecular tree and Bayesian and penalized likelihood methods that allow for rate variation in DNA substitutions among sites and taxa. Our estimates suggest that the Neotropical parrots shared a common ancestor with Australian parrots 59 Mya (million of years ago; 95% credibility interval (CrI) 66, 51 Mya), well before Australia separated from Antarctica and South America, implying that ancestral parrots were widespread in Gondwanaland. Thus, the divergence of Australian and Neotropical parrots could be attributed to vicariance. The three major clades of Neotropical parrots originated about 50 Mya (95% CrI 57, 41 Mya), coinciding with periods of higher sea level when both Antarctica and South America were fragmented with transcontinental seaways, and likely isolated the ancestors of modern Neotropical parrots in different regions in these continents. The correspondence between major paleoenvironmental changes in South America and the diversification of genera in the clade of amazons and allies between 46 and 16 Mya suggests they diversified exclusively in South

  16. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of

  17. Evolutionary history of trypanosomes from South American caiman (Caiman yacare) and African crocodiles inferred by phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes.

    PubMed

    Viola, L B; Almeida, R S; Ferreira, R C; Campaner, M; Takata, C S A; Rodrigues, A C; Paiva, F; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-01-01

    In this study, using a combined data set of SSU rDNA and gGAPDH gene sequences, we provide phylogenetic evidence that supports clustering of crocodilian trypanosomes from the Brazilian Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) and Trypanosoma grayi, a species that circulates between African crocodiles (Crocodilydae) and tsetse flies. In a survey of trypanosomes in Caiman yacare from the Brazilian Pantanal, the prevalence of trypanosome infection was 35% as determined by microhaematocrit and haemoculture, and 9 cultures were obtained. The morphology of trypomastigotes from caiman blood and tissue imprints was compared with those described for other crocodilian trypanosomes. Differences in morphology and growth behaviour of caiman trypanosomes were corroborated by molecular polymorphism that revealed 2 genotypes. Eight isolates were ascribed to genotype Cay01 and 1 to genotype Cay02. Phylogenetic inferences based on concatenated SSU rDNA and gGAPDH sequences showed that caiman isolates are closely related to T. grayi, constituting a well-supported monophyletic assemblage (clade T. grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts.

  18. Evolutionary history of the Afro-Madagascan Ixora species (Rubiaceae): species diversification and distribution of key morphological traits inferred from dated molecular phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, J.; Dessein, S.; Buerki, S.; Groeninckx, I.; Mouly, A.; Bremer, B.; Smets, E. F.; De Block, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous work on the pantropical genus Ixora has revealed an Afro-Madagascan clade, but as yet no study has focused in detail on the evolutionary history and morphological trends in this group. Here the evolutionary history of Afro-Madagascan Ixora spp. (a clade of approx. 80 taxa) is investigated and the phylogenetic trees compared with several key morphological traits in taxa occurring in Madagascar. Methods Phylogenetic relationships of Afro-Madagascan Ixora are assessed using sequence data from four plastid regions (petD, rps16, rpoB-trnC and trnL-trnF) and nuclear ribosomal external transcribed spacer (ETS) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The phylogenetic distribution of key morphological characters is assessed. Bayesian inference (implemented in BEAST) is used to estimate the temporal origin of Ixora based on fossil evidence. Key Results Two separate lineages of Madagascan taxa are recovered, one of which is nested in a group of East African taxa. Divergence in Ixora is estimated to have commenced during the mid Miocene, with extensive cladogenesis occurring in the Afro-Madagascan clade during the Pliocene onwards. Conclusions Both lineages of Madagascan Ixora exhibit morphological innovations that are rare throughout the rest of the genus, including a trend towards pauciflorous inflorescences and a trend towards extreme corolla tube length, suggesting that the same ecological and selective pressures are acting upon taxa from both Madagascan lineages. Novel ecological opportunities resulting from climate-induced habitat fragmentation and corolla tube length diversification are likely to have facilitated species radiation on Madagascar. PMID:24142919

  19. Assortative mating between two sympatric closely-related specialists: inferred from molecular phylogenetic analysis and behavioral data.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huai-Jun; Li, Wen-Zhu; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-06-25

    Host plant shifting of phytophagous insects can lead to the formation of host associated differentiation and ultimately speciation. In some cases, host plant specificity alone acts as a nearly complete pre-mating isolating barrier among insect populations. We here test whether effective pre-mating isolation and host-independent behavioral isolation have evolved under the condition of extreme host specilization using two sympatric flea beetles with incomplete post-mating isolation under laboratory conditions. Phylogenetic analysis and coalescent simulation results showed that there is a limited interspecific gene flow, indicating effctive isolation between these species. Three types of mating tests in the absence of host plant cues showed that strong host-independent behavioral isolation has evolved between them. We conclude that almost perfect assortative mating between these two extreme host specialists results from a combination of reduced encounter rates due to differential host preference and strong sexual isolation.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of puffer fish inferred from partial sequences of cytochrome b gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Wen; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2004-06-30

    Phylogenetic relationships among puffer fish were investigated by comparing cytochrome b gene sequences and restriction endonuclease assays of 16 species from Taiwan. DNA was prepared for sequencing by PCR. No variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. Direct estimates of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence divergence among 16 puffer fish were from 3.41 to 31.78%. Different restriction patterns were found among 16 puffer fish with 10 restriction endonucleases, whereas no variation in patterns was detected among individuals within each species. The polymorphisms obtained by RFLP have provided a new set of genetic markers for the accurate identification of sibling puffer species. It is the first molecularly based study of puffer diversity and sheds light on the evolution and taxonomy of this major puffer fish family.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hamamelidaceae inferred from sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Bogle, A L; Klein, A S

    1999-07-01

    Intergeneric relationships in the Hamamelidaceae have long been controversial. In this study, sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeny for the Hamamelidaceae. Three major clades were recognized in the ITS-based phylogenetic tree: (1) Mytilaria-Exbucklandia-Rhodoleia, (2) Disanthus, and (3) the Hamamelidoideae. Within the Hamamelidoideae there were three well-supported lineages: (1) Corylopsis-Loropetalum-Tetrathyrium-Maingaya-Matudaea, (2) Eustigmateae sensu Endress, plus Molinadendron-Dicoryphinae, and (3) Hamamelis-Fothergilleae sensu Endress, excluding Matudaea and Molinadendron. The Exbucklandioideae sensu Endress were not monophyletic, nor were the tribes in the Hamamelidoideae in their current circumscriptions except for the Corylopsideae. Strap-shaped petals, apetaly, and wind pollination have evolved three times independently in the Hamamelidaceae s.s. (Hamamelidaceae minus Altingioideae), suggesting that homoplasy should be considered in future classifications of the family.

  2. Assortative mating between two sympatric closely-related specialists: inferred from molecular phylogenetic analysis and behavioral data

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Huai-Jun; Li, Wen-Zhu; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Host plant shifting of phytophagous insects can lead to the formation of host associated differentiation and ultimately speciation. In some cases, host plant specificity alone acts as a nearly complete pre-mating isolating barrier among insect populations. We here test whether effective pre-mating isolation and host-independent behavioral isolation have evolved under the condition of extreme host specilization using two sympatric flea beetles with incomplete post-mating isolation under laboratory conditions. Phylogenetic analysis and coalescent simulation results showed that there is a limited interspecific gene flow, indicating effctive isolation between these species. Three types of mating tests in the absence of host plant cues showed that strong host-independent behavioral isolation has evolved between them. We conclude that almost perfect assortative mating between these two extreme host specialists results from a combination of reduced encounter rates due to differential host preference and strong sexual isolation. PMID:24961567

  3. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of all the Saimiri taxa (Cebidae, Primates) inferred from mt COI and COII gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Luengas-Villamil, Kelly; Leguizamon, Norberto; de Thoisy, Benoit; Gálvez, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Some previous genetic studies have been performed to resolve the molecular phylogenetics of the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). However, these studies did not show consensus in how many taxa are within this genus and what the relationships among them are. For this reason, we sequenced 2,237 base pairs of the mt COI and COII genes in 218 Saimiri individuals. All, less 12 S. sciureus sciureus from French Guyana, were sampled in the wild. These samples represented all the living Saimiri taxa recognized. There were four main findings of this study. (1) Our analysis detected 17 different Saimiri groups: albigena, cassiquiarensis, five polyphyletic macrodon groups, three polyphyletic ustus groups, sciureus, collinsi, boliviensis, peruviensis, vanzolinii, oerstedii and citrinellus. Four different phylogenetic trees showed the Central American squirrel monkey (S. oerstedii) as the most differentiated taxon. In contrast, albigena was indicated to be the most recent taxon. (2) There was extensive hybridization and/or historical introgression among albigena, different macrodon groups, peruviensis, sciureus and collinsi. (3) Different tests showed that our maximum likelihood tree was consistent with two species of Saimiri: S. oerstedii and S. sciureus. If no cases of hybridization were detected implicating S. vanzolinii, this could be a third recognized species. (4) We also estimated that the first temporal splits within this genus occurred around 1.4-1.6 million years ago, which indicates that the temporal split events within Saimiri were correlated with Pleistocene climatic changes. If the biological species concept is applied because, in this case, it is operative due to observed hybridization in the wild, the number of species within this genus is probably more limited than recently proposed by other authors. The Pleistocene was the fundamental epoch when the mitochondrial Saimiri diversification process occurred.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among Phytophthora species inferred from sequence analysis of mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase I and II genes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frank N; Tooley, Paul W

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 51 isolates representing 27 species of Phytophthora were assessed by sequence alignment of 568 bp of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase II gene. A total of 1299 bp of the cytochrome oxidase I gene also were examined for a subset of 13 species. The cox II gene trees constructed by a heuristic search, based on maximum parsimony for a bootstrap 50% majority-rule consensus tree, revealed 18 species grouping into seven clades and nine species unaffiliated with a specific clade. The phylogenetic relationships among species observed on cox II gene trees did not exhibit consistent similarities in groupings for morphology, pathogenicity, host range or temperature optima. The topology of cox I gene trees, constructed by a heuristic search based on maximum parsimony for a bootstrap 50% majority-rule consensus tree for 13 species of Phytophthora, revealed 10 species grouping into three clades and three species unaffiliated with a specific clade. The groupings in general agreed with what was observed in the cox II tree. Species relationships observed for the cox II gene tree were in agreement with those based on ITS regions, with several notable exceptions. Some of these differences were noted in species in which the same isolates were used for both ITS and cox II analysis, suggesting either a differential rate of evolutionary divergence for these two regions or incorrect assumptions about alignment of ITS sequences. Analysis of combined data sets of ITS and cox II sequences generated a tree that did not differ substantially from analysis of ITS data alone, however, the results of a partition homogeneity test suggest that combining data sets may not be valid.

  5. Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) based on rbcL and matK Sequences of Chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Uchoi, Ajit; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Choudhary, Ravish; Kumar, Susheel; Rohini, M R; Pal, Digvender; Ercisli, Sezai; Chaudhury, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) with other important Citrus species have been inferred through sequence analyses of rbcL and matK gene region of chloroplast DNA. The study was based on 23 accessions of Citrus genotypes representing 15 taxa of Indian Citrus, collected from wild, semi-wild, and domesticated stocks. The phylogeny was inferred using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. Both MP and NJ trees separated all the 23 accessions of Citrus into five distinct clusters. The chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis based on rbcL and matK sequence data carried out in Indian taxa of Citrus was useful in differentiating all the true species and species/varieties of probable hybrid origin in distinct clusters or groups. Sequence analysis based on rbcL and matK gene provided unambiguous identification and disposition of true species like C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata, and related hybrids/cultivars. The separation of C. maxima, C. medica, and C. reticulata in distinct clusters or sub-clusters supports their distinctiveness as the basic species of edible Citrus. However, the cpDNA sequence analysis of rbcL and matK gene could not find any clear cut differentiation between subgenera Citrus and Papeda as proposed in Swingle's system of classification.

  6. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  7. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  8. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  9. Dynamic Dependence Analysis : Modeling and Inference of Changing Dependence Among Multiple Time-Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    In this dissertation we investigate the problem of reasoning over evolving structures which describe the dependence among multiple, possibly vector... dependence structures. In the absence of training data, such reasoning is challenging for several reasons. If one is solely interested in the structure of... dependence as described by a graphical model, there is the question of how to account for unknown parameters. Additionally the set of possible

  10. Phylogenetic relationships between Vorticella convallaria and other species inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Fang, Jie; Asai, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    Vorticellid ciliates generally dwell in freshwater. In nature, the species have up until now been identified by comparison with previous descriptions. It is difficult to identify between species of the genus Vorticella, because the morphological markers of vorticellid ciliates described in reports are limited and variable. Unfortunately, culturing them has only succeeded with certain species such as Vorticella convallaria, but many others have been impossible to culture. To find out whether the sequence of a small subunit rRNA gene was an appropriate marker to identify vorticellid ciliates, the gene was aligned and compared. Finding a new convenient method will contribute to research on vorticellid ciliates. In strains of V. convallaria, classified morphologically, some varieties of the SSrRNA gene sequences were recognized, but there were large variations within the same species. According to the phylogenetic tree, these strains are closely related. However, the difference was not as big as between Vorticella and Carchesium. In addition, Carchesium constructed a distinct clade from the genus Vorticella and Epistylis. These results show the possibility that the SSrRNA gene is one of the important markers to identify species of Vorticella. This study is first to approach and clarify the complicated taxa in the genus Vorticella.

  11. Myo-anatomy of juvenile and adult loxosomatid Entoprocta and the use of muscular body plans for phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Wanninger, Andreas

    2004-08-01

    The anatomy of the muscle bauplan in juvenile buds and adult specimens of the solitary loxosomatid entoprocts Loxosoma nielseni and L. annelidicola was studied by means of fluorescence staining of F-actin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the general myo-anatomy of the body wall shows numerous similarities, both species express significant variations in the arrangement of their pedal muscles. In addition, L. annelidicola alone shows a distinct pair of rectum retractor muscles. Circular muscles are absent in the entire body wall of both species, as well as in previously investigated colonial taxa, which is therefore regarded as basal for Entoprocta. This is in striking contrast to the conditions found in other spiralian or lophotrochozoan taxa. The simple morphology of entoproct tentacle muscles, however, coincides with the phoronid-ectoproct condition and may be due to functional constraints of a simple filter-feeding system. This work shows that variations in the muscular anatomy provide useful characters for systematic analyses on species as well as phylum level and thus allow significant insight regarding metazoan body plan evolution. The phenomenon of phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for phylogenetic interpretations, however, must be carefully considered.

  12. Phylogenetic position of Mediterranean Astereae and character evolution of daisies (Bellis, Asteraceae) inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Fiz, Omar; Valcárcel, Virginia; Vargas, Pablo

    2002-10-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of nrITS sequences of Asteraceae revealed that the Bellis group is a natural assemblage comprising all the species of Bellis and Bellium, but not Rhynchospermum. In contrast, we propose to include the genera Bellis, Bellium, and Bellidastrum in the subtribe Bellidinae in the interest of circumscribing natural groups. Our results also suggest an early diversification in the western Mediterranean Basin of two monophyletic lineages, Bellis and Bellium. Three major groups can be distinguished within BELLIS: (1) the B. perennis group, containing five annual and perennial species with three ploidy levels (diploid, octoploid, and decaploid), which are distributed throughout the Mediterranean Basin despite lack of pappus; (2) the Bellis sylvestris group, with five annual and perennial species primarily from the western Mediterranean, in which there are five ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid, octoploid, and decaploid); and (3) a basal grade consisting of three diploid, perennial species which displays remarkable diversification of morphologies. Striking characteristics, such as an annual life form, polyploidy, and loss of pappus, seem to have occurred in parallel several times and in different geographical areas during the early diversification of Bellis species in the western Mediterranean. Character evolution reconstructions allow us to describe a putative ancestor of the genus Bellis (proto-Bellis).

  13. Time scale for cyclostome evolution inferred with a phylogenetic diagnosis of hagfish and lamprey cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The Cyclostomata consists of the two orders Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzoniformes (lampreys), and its monophyly has been unequivocally supported by recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Under this updated vertebrate phylogeny, we performed in silico evolutionary analyses using currently available cDNA sequences of cyclostomes. We first calculated the GC-content at four-fold degenerate sites (GC(4)), which revealed that an extremely high GC-content is shared by all the lamprey species we surveyed, whereas no striking pattern in GC-content was observed in any of the hagfish species surveyed. We then estimated the timing of diversification in cyclostome evolution using nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We obtained divergence times of 470-390 million years ago (Mya) in the Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Periods for the interordinal split between Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes; 90-60 Mya in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Periods for the split between the two hagfish subfamilies, Myxininae and Eptatretinae; 280-220 Mya in the Permian-Triassic Periods for the split between the two lamprey subfamilies, Geotriinae and Petromyzoninae; and 30-10 Mya in the Tertiary Period for the split between the two lamprey genera, Petromyzon and Lethenteron. This evolutionary configuration indicates that Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes diverged shortly after the common ancestor of cyclostomes split from the future gnathostome lineage. Our results also suggest that intra-subfamilial diversification in hagfish and lamprey lineages (especially those distributed in the northern hemisphere) occurred in the Cretaceous or Tertiary Periods.

  14. Phylogenetic position of tetraodontiform fishes within the higher teleosts: Bayesian inferences based on 44 whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Matsuura, Keiichi; Yagishita, Naoki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Sakai, Harumi; Katoh, Masaya; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Tetraodontiformes includes approximately 350 species assigned to nine families, sharing several reduced morphological features of higher teleosts. The order has been accepted as a monophyletic group by many authors, although several alternative hypotheses exist regarding its phylogenetic position within the higher teleosts. To date, acanthuroids, zeiforms, and lophiiforms have been proposed as sister-groups of the tetraodontiforms. The monophyly and sister-group status was investigated using whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 44 purposefully-chosen species (26 sequences newly-determined during the study) that fully represent the major tetraodontiform lineages plus all the groups that have been hypothesized as being close relatives. Partitioned Bayesian analyses were conducted with the three datasets that comprised concatenated nucleotide sequences from 13 protein-coding genes (with and without, or with RY-coding, 3rd codon positions), plus 22 transfer RNA and two ribosomal RNA genes. The resultant trees were well resolved and largely congruent, with most internal branches being supported by high posterior probabilities. Mitogenomic data strongly supported the monophyly of tetraodontiform fishes, placing them as a sister-group of either Lophiiformes plus Caproidei or Caproidei only. The sister-group relationship between Acanthuroidei and Tetraodontiformes was statistically rejected using Bayes factors. These results were confirmed by a reanalysis of the previously published nuclear RAG1 gene sequences using the Bayesian method. Within the Tetraodontiformes, however, monophylies of the three superfamilies were not recovered and further taxonomic sampling and subsequent efforts should clarify these relationships.

  15. Outcome-Dependent Sampling Design and Inference for Cox’s Proportional Hazards Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jichang; Liu, Yanyan; Cai, Jianwen; Sandler, Dale P.; Zhou, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective outcome-dependent sampling design for the failure time data and develop an efficient inference procedure for data collected with this design. To account for the biased sampling scheme, we derive estimators from a weighted partial likelihood estimating equation. The proposed estimators for regression parameters are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. A criteria that can be used to optimally implement the ODS design in practice is proposed and studied. The small sample performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies. The proposed design and inference procedure is shown to be statistically more powerful than existing alternative designs with the same sample sizes. We illustrate the proposed method with an existing real data from the Cancer Incidence and Mortality of Uranium Miners Study. PMID:28090134

  16. Arthropod Phylogenetics in Light of Three Novel Millipede (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) Mitochondrial Genomes with Comments on the Appropriateness of Mitochondrial Genome Sequence Data for Inferring Deep Level Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Michael S.; Swafford, Lynn; Spruill, Chad L.; Bond, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Arthropods are the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, but their phylogenetic relationships are poorly understood. Herein, we describe three mitochondrial genomes representing orders of millipedes for which complete genomes had not been characterized. Newly sequenced genomes are combined with existing data to characterize the protein coding regions of myriapods and to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships within the Myriapoda and Arthropoda. Results The newly sequenced genomes are similar to previously characterized millipede sequences in terms of synteny and length. Unique translocations occurred within the newly sequenced taxa, including one half of the Appalachioria falcifera genome, which is inverted with respect to other millipede genomes. Across myriapods, amino acid conservation levels are highly dependent on the gene region. Additionally, individual loci varied in the level of amino acid conservation. Overall, most gene regions showed low levels of conservation at many sites. Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships suffered from questionable relationships and low support values. Analyses of phylogenetic informativeness show the lack of signal deep in the trees (i.e., genes evolve too quickly). As a result, the myriapod tree resembles previously published results but lacks convincing support, and, within the arthropod tree, well established groups were recovered as polyphyletic. Conclusions The novel genome sequences described herein provide useful genomic information concerning millipede groups that had not been investigated. Taken together with existing sequences, the variety of compositions and evolution of myriapod mitochondrial genomes are shown to be more complex than previously thought. Unfortunately, the use of mitochondrial protein-coding regions in deep arthropod phylogenetics appears problematic, a result consistent with previously published studies. Lack of phylogenetic signal renders the

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear) from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the

  18. General functions to transform associate data to host data, and their use in phylogenetic inference from sequences with intra-individual variability

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Amongst the most commonly used molecular markers for plant phylogenetic studies are the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Intra-individual variability of these multicopy regions is a very common phenomenon in plants, the causes of which are debated in literature. Phylogenetic reconstruction under these conditions is inherently difficult. Our approach is to consider this problem as a special case of the general biological question of how to infer the characteristics of hosts (represented here by plant individuals) from features of their associates (represented by cloned sequences here). Results Six general transformation functions are introduced, covering the transformation of associate characters to discrete and continuous host characters, and the transformation of associate distances to host distances. A pure distance-based framework is established in which these transformation functions are applied to ITS sequences collected from the angiosperm genera Acer, Fagus and Zelkova. The formulae are also applied to allelic data of three different loci obtained from Rosa spp. The functions are validated by (1) phylogeny-independent measures of treelikeness; (2) correlation with independent host characters; (3) visualization using splits graphs and comparison with published data on the test organisms. The results agree well with these three measures and the datasets examined as well as with the theoretical predictions and previous results in the literature. High-quality distance matrices are obtained with four of the six transformation formulae. We demonstrate that one of them represents a generalization of the Sørensen coefficient, which is widely applied in ecology. Conclusion Because of their generality, the transformation functions may be applied to a wide range of biological problems that are interpretable in terms of hosts and associates. Regarding cloned sequences, the formulae have a high potential to accurately reflect evolutionary

  19. Molecular detection, identification and phylogenetic inference of Leishmania spp. in some desert lizards from Northwest China by using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Rong; Guo, Xian-Guang; Liu, Jin-Long; Zhou, Tian-He; Gong, Xiong; Chen, Da-Li; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania is still endemic in Northwest China. It has been thought that reptiles could be a reservoir for mammalian leishmaniasis. However, data are still scarce on natural infection of lizards with Leishmania spp. in China. The present study deals with detection, identification and phylogenetic inference of Leishmania parasites at species and intraspecies levels isolated from six desert lizard species from 10 geographical locations in Northwest China using amplification and sequencing of ITS-rDNA. In total, 83 haplotypes were found among 137 ITS1 sequences obtained from up to 64.6% of all captured lizards. Representative sequences of Leishmania available in GenBank were compiled for comparison with the obtained haplotypes. Tree-based species delimitation was achieved by using Bayesian phylogenitc analyses and maximum parsimony approach. Phylogenetic trees congruently supported that the haplotypes were found to belong to three Leishmania species including L. (sauroleishmania) sp., Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani complex. A network approach revealed paraphyletic populations of L. (sauroleishmania) sp. and L. tropica at intraspecies level regarding geographical origin and low host specificity. Chinese L. tropica from lizards showed significant heterogeneity as the obtained haplotypes were distributed in different clusters from other countries. Common ancestry was observed between some sequences of L. tropica from lizards and other sequence types from clinical samples from other countries. This may lend support to the potential reservoir role of lizards for human leishmaniasis. Our results appear to be the first molecular evidence for natural infection of lizards in Northwest China with reptilian Leishmania and mammalian Leishmania species. Desert lizards may be considered as putative reservoir hosts for Leishmania in China. Further studies on persistence of the Leishmania parasites in lizards and sandflies are recommended for the

  20. Congopain genes diverged to become specific to Savannah, Forest and Kilifi subgroups of Trypanosoma congolense, and are valuable for diagnosis, genotyping and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Adriana C; Ortiz, Paola A; Costa-Martins, André G; Neves, Luis; Garcia, Herakles A; Alves, João M P; Camargo, Erney P; Alfieri, Silvia C; Gibson, Wendy; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2014-04-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is the most important agent of nagana, a wasting livestock trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa. This species is a complex of three subgroups (Savannah, Forest and Kilifi) that differ in virulence, pathogenicity, drug resistance, vectors, and geographical distribution. Congopain, the major Cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (CP2) of T. congolense, has been extensively investigated as a pathogenic factor and target for drugs and vaccines, but knowledge about this enzyme is mostly restricted to the reference strain IL3000, which belongs to the Savannah subgroup. In this work we compared sequences of congopain genes from IL3000 genome database and isolates of the three subgroups of T. congolense. Results demonstrated that the congopain genes diverged into three subclades consistent with the three subgroups within T. congolense. Laboratory and field isolates of Savannah exhibited a highly polymorphic repertoire both inter- and intra-isolates: sequences sharing the archetypical catalytic triad clustered into SAV1-SAV3 groups, whereas polymorphic sequences that, in general, exhibited unusual catalytic triad (variants) assigned to SAV4 or not assigned to any group. Congopain homologous genes from Forest and Kilifi isolates showed, respectively, moderate and limited diversity. In the phylogenetic tree based on congopain and homologues, Savannah was closer to Forest than to Kilifi. All T. congolense subgroup nested into a single clade, which together with the sister clade formed by homologues from Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma godfreyi formed a clade supporting the subgenus Nannomonas. A single PCR targeting congopain sequences was developed for the diagnosis of T. congolense isolates of the three subgroups. Our findings demonstrated that congopain genes are valuable targets for the diagnosis, genotyping, and phylogenetic and taxonomic inferences among T. congolense isolates and other members of the subgenus Nannomonas.

  1. The evolutionary transition from subsocial to eusocial behaviour in Dictyoptera: phylogenetic evidence for modification of the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis with a new subsocial cockroach.

    PubMed

    Pellens, Roseli; D'Haese, Cyrille A; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Legendre, Frédéric; Wheeler, Ward C; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Cockroaches have always been used to understand the first steps of social evolution in termites because they are close relatives with less complex and integrated social behaviour. Termites are all eusocial and ingroup comparative analysis would be useless to infer the origin of their social behaviour. The cockroach genus Cryptocercus was used as a so-called "prototermite" model because it shows key-attributes similar to the termites (except Termitidae): wood-feeding, intestinal flagellates and subsocial behaviour. In spite of these comparisons between this subsocial cockroach and eusocial termites, the early and remote origin of eusocial behaviour in termites is not well understood yet and the study of other relevant "prototermite" models is however needed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to validate a new "prototermite" model, Parasphaeria boleiriana which shows a peculiar combination of these key-attributes. It shows that these attributes of Parasphaeria boleiriana have an independent origin from those of other wood-eating cockroaches and termites. The case of P. boleiriana suggests that a short brood care was selected for with life on an ephemeral wood resource, even with the need for transmission of flagellates. These new phylogenetic insights modify evolutionary hypotheses, contradicting the assumption made with Cryptocercus model that a long brood care is necessary for cooperation between broods in the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis. An ephemeral wood resource is suggested to prompt generation overlap and the evolution of cooperation, even if brood care is shortened.

  2. Molecular systematics of the Simulium jenningsi species group (Diptera: Simuliidae), with three new fast-evolving nuclear genes for phylogenetic inference.

    PubMed

    Senatore, G L; Alexander, E A; Adler, P H; Moulton, J K

    2014-06-01

    A molecular phylogeny was inferred for the 22 nominal species of black flies in the Simulium jenningsi species group, which includes major pests of humans and livestock in North America. Females are structurally monomorphic, presenting a problem for identification of the pests. For each species, we sequenced approximately two kilobases from the mitochondrial genome (ND2, Cox I, proximal one-half of Cox II) and about six kilobases from the nuclear genome (ca. 2 kilobases each from 3 rapidly evolving nuclear genes: big zinc finger [BZF], "5-intron gene" [5intG], and elongation complex protein 1 [ECP1]) and analyzed them phylogenetically using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The three nuclear loci have not previously been used in phylogenetic studies. The mitochondrial region recovered 6 group members as monophyletic. BZF, 5intG, and ECP1 sequences each permitted identification of 13 species and recovered the S. fibrinflatum and S. taxodium subgroups. Simulium aranti Stone and Snoddy and S. luggeri Nicholson and Mickel were consistently recovered at the base of the group. Simulium ozarkense Moulton and Adler, S. dixiense Stone and Snoddy, S. krebsorum Moulton and Adler, and S. haysi Stone and Snoddy branched off before two well-supported sister groups of the remaining species. This remainder consisted of species occupying slow, sandy lowland streams-S. definitum Moulton and Adler, S. jonesi Stone and Snoddy, and the S. taxodium subgroup (S. taxodium Snoddy and Beshear, S. chlorum Moulton and Adler, S. confusum Moulton and Adler, and S. lakei Snoddy)-as sister to two clades of species inhabiting swift, rocky upland streams-the S. fibrinflatum subgroup (S. fibrinflatum Twinn, S. notiale Stone and Snoddy, and S. snowi Stone and Snoddy) and a clade comprised of S. anchistinum Moulton and Adler, S. jenningsi Malloch, and S. nyssa Stone and Snoddy, plus species having cocoons without anterolateral apertures (S. infenestrum Moulton and Adler, S. podostemi Snoddy, S

  3. Sites Inferred by Metabolic Background Assertion Labeling (SIMBAL): adapting the Partial Phylogenetic Profiling algorithm to scan sequences for signatures that predict protein function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics methods such as phylogenetic profiling can mine powerful inferences from inherently noisy biological data sets. We introduce Sites Inferred by Metabolic Background Assertion Labeling (SIMBAL), a method that applies the Partial Phylogenetic Profiling (PPP) approach locally within a protein sequence to discover short sequence signatures associated with functional sites. The approach is based on the basic scoring mechanism employed by PPP, namely the use of binomial distribution statistics to optimize sequence similarity cutoffs during searches of partitioned training sets. Results Here we illustrate and validate the ability of the SIMBAL method to find functionally relevant short sequence signatures by application to two well-characterized protein families. In the first example, we partitioned a family of ABC permeases using a metabolic background property (urea utilization). Thus, the TRUE set for this family comprised members whose genome of origin encoded a urea utilization system. By moving a sliding window across the sequence of a permease, and searching each subsequence in turn against the full set of partitioned proteins, the method found which local sequence signatures best correlated with the urea utilization trait. Mapping of SIMBAL "hot spots" onto crystal structures of homologous permeases reveals that the significant sites are gating determinants on the cytosolic face rather than, say, docking sites for the substrate-binding protein on the extracellular face. In the second example, we partitioned a protein methyltransferase family using gene proximity as a criterion. In this case, the TRUE set comprised those methyltransferases encoded near the gene for the substrate RF-1. SIMBAL identifies sequence regions that map onto the substrate-binding interface while ignoring regions involved in the methyltransferase reaction mechanism in general. Neither method for training set construction requires any prior experimental

  4. Probabilistic Inference: Task Dependency and Individual Differences of Probability Weighting Revealed by Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Moritz; Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities) by two (likelihoods) design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behavior. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted) S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model's success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modeling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision. PMID:27303323

  5. Moving pieces in a taxonomic puzzle: venom 2D-LC/MS and data clustering analyses to infer phylogenetic relationships in some scorpions from the Buthidae family (Scorpiones).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Danielle G; Rates, Breno; Santos, Daniel M; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Dutra, Alexandre A A; Biondi, Ilka; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie France; De Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M C

    2006-05-01

    The Buthidae is the most clinically important scorpion family, with over 500 species distributed worldwide. Taxonomical positions and phylogenetic relationships concerning the representative genera and species of this family have been mostly inferred based upon comparisons between morphological characters. Yet, some authors have performed such inferences by comparing some structural properties of a few selected molecules found in the venoms from these scorpions. Here, we propose a novel methodology pipeline designed to address these issues. We have analyzed the whole venoms from some species that exemplify peculiar cases in the Buthidae family (Tityus stigmurus, Tityus serrulatus, Tityus bahiensis, Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus and Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus), by means of a proteomic approach using a 2D-LC/MS technique. The molecules found in these venoms were clustered according to their physicochemical properties (molecular mass and hydrophobicity), by using the machine learning-based Weka software. The clusters assessment, along with the number of molecules found in a given cluster for each scorpion, which assigns for the venom and structural family complexities, respectively, was used to generate a phenetic correlation tree for positioning these species. Our results were in accordance with the classical taxonomy viewpoint, which places T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus as very close species, T. bahiensis as a less related species in the Tityus genus and L. q. quinquestriatus and L. q. hebraeus with small differences within the same species (L. quinquestriatus). Therefore, we believe that this is a well-suited method to determine venom complexities that reflect the scorpions' evolutionary history, which can be crucial to reconstruct their phylogeny through the molecular evolution of their venoms.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within Taenia taeniaeformis variants and other taeniid cestodes inferred from the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Bessho, Y; Kamiya, M; Kurosawa, T; Horii, T

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variations in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (391 bp) were examined within seven species of the genus Taenia and two species of the genus Echinococcus, including ten isolates of T. taeniaeformis and six isolates of E. multilocularis. More than a 12% rate of nucleotide differences between taeniid species was found, allowing the species to be distinguished. In E. multilocularis, no sequence variation was observed among isolates, regardless of the host (gray red-backed vole, tundra vole, pig, Norway rat) or area (Japan, Alaska) from which each metacestode had been isolated. In contrast, six distinct sequences were detected among the ten T. taeniaeformis isolates examined. The level of nucleotide variation in the COI gene within T. taeniaeformis isolates except for one isolate from the gray red-backed vole (TtACR), which has been proposed as a distinct strain or a different species, was about 0.3%-4.1%, whereas the COI gene sequence for TtACR differed from those of the other isolates, with levels being 9.0%-9.5%. Phylogenetic trees were then inferred from these sequence data using two different algorithms.

  7. Contrasting nuclear and cytoplasmic exchanges between phylogenetically distant oak species (Quercus suber L. and Q. ilex L.) in Southern France: inferring crosses and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mir, C; Jarne, P; Sarda, V; Bonin, A; Lumaret, R

    2009-03-01

    Gene flow is particularly frequent in the genus Quercus (oaks), especially between closely related species. We focus here on Quercus ilex and the cork-producing Quercus suber, which occasionally hybridize although they are phylogenetically markedly separated. Morphological observations were combined with both allozymic and chloroplastic diagnostic markers to characterize hybridization and introgression and to infer their dynamics in two French regions (French Catalonia and Provence), which are separated by several hundred kilometres. Some hybrids were found in both regions, indicating recent hybridization events. As expected from previous studies, most hybrids resulted from female symbol Q. ilex x male symbol Q. suber crosses, but our data showed that the reciprocal cross is also possible. Partial independence between nuclear and chloroplastic introgression was observed in the two species. Nuclear introgression was limited in both species and both regions, with no preferred direction. In Provence, chloroplastic introgression was very rare in both species. Conversely, all Q. suber individuals from French Catalonia were introgressed by Q. ilex chlorotypes. This might be explained by introgression in the Iberian Peninsula antedating the first occurrence of the two species in French Catalonia. We also observed a new chlorotype that was created locally, and was exchanged between the two species. However, the two species still remain genetically differentiated. The dynamics and complexity of exchanges and the factors determining them (including human management of Q. suber) are discussed.

  8. MLE and Bayesian inference of age-dependent sensitivity and transition probability in periodic screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongfeng; Rosner, Gary L; Broemeling, Lyle

    2005-12-01

    This article extends previous probability models for periodic breast cancer screening examinations. The specific aim is to provide statistical inference for age dependence of sensitivity and the transition probability from the disease free to the preclinical state. The setting is a periodic screening program in which a cohort of initially asymptomatic women undergo a sequence of breast cancer screening exams. We use age as a covariate in the estimation of screening sensitivity and the transition probability simultaneously, both from a frequentist point of view and within a Bayesian framework. We apply our method to the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York study of female breast cancer and give age-dependent sensitivity and transition probability density estimates. The inferential methodology we develop is also applicable when analyzing studies of modalities for early detection of other types of progressive chronic diseases.

  9. Statistical inferences for data from studies conducted with an aggregated multivariate outcome-dependent sample design.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsui-Shan; Longnecker, Matthew P; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-03-15

    Outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) scheme is a cost-effective sampling scheme where one observes the exposure with a probability that depends on the outcome. The well-known such design is the case-control design for binary response, the case-cohort design for the failure time data, and the general ODS design for a continuous response. While substantial work has been carried out for the univariate response case, statistical inference and design for the ODS with multivariate cases remain under-developed. Motivated by the need in biological studies for taking the advantage of the available responses for subjects in a cluster, we propose a multivariate outcome-dependent sampling (multivariate-ODS) design that is based on a general selection of the continuous responses within a cluster. The proposed inference procedure for the multivariate-ODS design is semiparametric where all the underlying distributions of covariates are modeled nonparametrically using the empirical likelihood methods. We show that the proposed estimator is consistent and developed the asymptotically normality properties. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator is more efficient than the estimator obtained using only the simple-random-sample portion of the multivariate-ODS or the estimator from a simple random sample with the same sample size. The multivariate-ODS design together with the proposed estimator provides an approach to further improve study efficiency for a given fixed study budget. We illustrate the proposed design and estimator with an analysis of association of polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to hearing loss in children born to the Collaborative Perinatal Study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Comparative assessment of performance and genome dependence among phylogenetic profiling methods

    PubMed Central

    Snitkin, Evan S; Gustafson, Adam M; Mellor, Joseph; Wu, Jie; DeLisi, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing speed with which genome sequence data can be generated will be accompanied by an exponential increase in the number of sequenced eukaryotes. With the increasing number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes comes a need for bioinformatic techniques to aid in functional annotation. Ideally, genome context based techniques such as proximity, fusion, and phylogenetic profiling, which have been so successful in prokaryotes, could be utilized in eukaryotes. Here we explore the application of phylogenetic profiling, a method that exploits the evolutionary co-occurrence of genes in the assignment of functional linkages, to eukaryotic genomes. Results In order to evaluate the performance of phylogenetic profiling in eukaryotes, we assessed the relative performance of commonly used profile construction techniques and genome compositions in predicting functional linkages in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. When predicting linkages in E. coli with a prokaryotic profile, the use of continuous values constructed from transformed BLAST bit-scores performed better than profiles composed of discretized E-values; the use of discretized E-values resulted in more accurate linkages when using S. cerevisiae as the query organism. Extending this analysis by incorporating several eukaryotic genomes in profiles containing a majority of prokaryotes resulted in similar overall accuracy, but with a surprising reduction in pathway diversity among the most significant linkages. Furthermore, the application of phylogenetic profiling using profiles composed of only eukaryotes resulted in the loss of the strong correlation between common KEGG pathway membership and profile similarity score. Profile construction methods, orthology definitions, ontology and domain complexity were explored as possible sources of the poor performance of eukaryotic profiles, but with no improvement in results. Conclusion Given the current set of completely sequenced eukaryotic

  11. Whatever the cost? Information integration in memory-based inferences depends on cognitive effort.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Castela, Marta; Pohl, Rüdiger F; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2015-05-01

    One of the most prominent models of probabilistic inferences from memory is the simple recognition heuristic (RH). The RH theory assumes that judgments are based on recognition in isolation, such that other information is ignored. However, some prior research has shown that available knowledge is not generally ignored. In line with the notion of adaptive strategy selection--and, thus, a trade-off between accuracy and effort--we hypothesized that information integration crucially depends on how easily accessible information beyond recognition is, how much confidence decision makers have in this information, and how (cognitively) costly it is to acquire it. In three experiments, we thus manipulated (a) the availability of information beyond recognition, (b) the subjective usefulness of this information, and (c) the cognitive costs associated with acquiring this information. In line with the predictions, we found that RH use decreased substantially, the more easily and confidently information beyond recognition could be integrated, and increased substantially with increasing cognitive costs.

  12. Inference of stress and texture from angular dependence of ultrasonic plate mode velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. B.; Smith, J. F.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory for the angular dependence of the ultrasonic wave velocity in a symmetry plane of an orthorhombic, stressed material is presented. The two waves having polarizations in this plane are shown to have velocities which can be estimated from measurements of the SH sub 0 and S sub 0 guided modes of a thin plate: the relationship being exact for the SH sub 0 mode and requiring a 10% correction for the S sub 0 mode at long wavelength. It is then shown how stress and texture can be independently inferred from various features of the angular dependence of these two velocities. From the SH sub 0 data, the ability to determine the directions and differences in magnitudes of principal stresses is described and supported by experimental data on several materials. From a combination of the SH sub 0 and S sub 0 data, a procedure is proposed for determining the coefficients W sub 400, W sub 420 and W sub 440 of an expansion of the crystallite orientation distribution function in terms of generalized Legendre functions. Possible applications in process control are indicated.

  13. Directional biases in phylogenetic structure quantification: a Mediterranean case study

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Roquet, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing effort to incorporate phylogenetic hypotheses to the study of community assembly processes. The incorporation of such evolutionary information has been eased by the emergence of specialized software for the automatic estimation of partially resolved supertrees based on published phylogenies. Despite this growing interest in the use of phylogenies in ecological research, very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential biases related to the use of partially resolved phylogenies and to branch length accuracy, and no work has examined how tree shape may affect inference of community phylogenetic metrics. In this study, using a large plant community and elevational dataset, we tested the influence of phylogenetic resolution and branch length information on the quantification of phylogenetic structure; and also explored the impact of tree shape (stemminess) on the loss of accuracy in phylogenetic structure quantification due to phylogenetic resolution. For this purpose, we used 9 sets of phylogenetic hypotheses of varying resolution and branch lengths to calculate three indices of phylogenetic structure: the mean phylogenetic distance (NRI), the mean nearest taxon distance (NTI) and phylogenetic diversity (stdPD) metrics. The NRI metric was the less sensitive to phylogenetic resolution, stdPD showed an intermediate sensitivity, and NTI was the most sensitive one; NRI was also less sensitive to branch length accuracy than NTI and stdPD, the degree of sensitivity being strongly dependent on the dating method and the sample size. Directional biases were generally towards type II errors. Interestingly, we detected that tree shape influenced the accuracy loss derived from the lack of phylogenetic resolution, particularly for NRI and stdPD. We conclude that well-resolved molecular phylogenies with accurate branch length information are needed to identify the underlying phylogenetic structure of communities, and also that

  14. Statistical inference for the additive hazards model under outcome-dependent sampling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jichang; Liu, Yanyan; Sandler, Dale P; Zhou, Haibo

    2015-09-01

    Cost-effective study design and proper inference procedures for data from such designs are always of particular interests to study investigators. In this article, we propose a biased sampling scheme, an outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) design for survival data with right censoring under the additive hazards model. We develop a weighted pseudo-score estimator for the regression parameters for the proposed design and derive the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator. We also provide some suggestions for using the proposed method by evaluating the relative efficiency of the proposed method against simple random sampling design and derive the optimal allocation of the subsamples for the proposed design. Simulation studies show that the proposed ODS design is more powerful than other existing designs and the proposed estimator is more efficient than other estimators. We apply our method to analyze a cancer study conducted at NIEHS, the Cancer Incidence and Mortality of Uranium Miners Study, to study the risk of radon exposure to cancer.

  15. Coevolutionary Landscape Inference and the Context-Dependence of Mutations in Beta-Lactamase TEM-1

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, Matteo; Jacquier, Hervé; Schug, Alexander; Tenaillon, Oliver; Weigt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of mutational landscapes is a task of outstanding importance in evolutionary and medical biology: It is, for example, of central importance for our understanding of the phenotypic effect of mutations related to disease and antibiotic drug resistance. Here we develop a novel inference scheme for mutational landscapes, which is based on the statistical analysis of large alignments of homologs of the protein of interest. Our method is able to capture epistatic couplings between residues, and therefore to assess the dependence of mutational effects on the sequence context where they appear. Compared with recent large-scale mutagenesis data of the beta-lactamase TEM-1, a protein providing resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics, our method leads to an increase of about 40% in explicative power as compared with approaches neglecting epistasis. We find that the informative sequence context extends to residues at native distances of about 20 Å from the mutated site, reaching thus far beyond residues in direct physical contact. PMID:26446903

  16. Statistical inference for the additive hazards model under outcome-dependent sampling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jichang; Liu, Yanyan; Sandler, Dale P.; Zhou, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective study design and proper inference procedures for data from such designs are always of particular interests to study investigators. In this article, we propose a biased sampling scheme, an outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) design for survival data with right censoring under the additive hazards model. We develop a weighted pseudo-score estimator for the regression parameters for the proposed design and derive the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator. We also provide some suggestions for using the proposed method by evaluating the relative efficiency of the proposed method against simple random sampling design and derive the optimal allocation of the subsamples for the proposed design. Simulation studies show that the proposed ODS design is more powerful than other existing designs and the proposed estimator is more efficient than other estimators. We apply our method to analyze a cancer study conducted at NIEHS, the Cancer Incidence and Mortality of Uranium Miners Study, to study the risk of radon exposure to cancer. PMID:26379363

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data and their molecular identification via FUSARIUM-ID and Fusarium MLST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We constructed several multilocus Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence datasets to assess the phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria, especially focusing on those housed in the Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF), and to facilitate molecular identifica...

  18. Entropy-based approach for selecting informative regions in the L1 gene of bovine papillomavirus for phylogenetic inference and primer design.

    PubMed

    Batista, M V A; Freitas, A C; Balbino, V Q

    2013-02-08

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) cause many benign and malignant lesions in cattle and other animals. Twelve BPV types have been identified so far, and several putative novel BPV types have been detected based on the analysis of L1 gene fragments, generated by FAP59/64 and MY11/09 primers. Phylogenetic trees are important in studies that describe novel BPV types. However, topological mistakes could be a problem in such studies. Therefore, we made use of entropy to find phylogenetic informative regions in the BPV L1 gene sequences from all 12 BPVs. Six data sets were created and phylogenetically compared to each other using neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We found two major regions in the L1 gene, using an entropy-based approach, which selects regions with low information complexity. More robust phylogenetic trees were obtained with these regions, when compared to the ones obtained with FAP59/64 and MY11/09 primers. More robust phylogenetic trees are important to accurately position novel BPV types, subtypes and variants. We conclude that an entropy-based approach is a good methodology for selecting regions of the L1 gene of BPVs that could be used to design more specific and sensitive degenerate primers, for the development of improved diagnostic methods.

  19. Phylogenetic and Metagenomic Analyses of Substrate-Dependent Bacterial Temporal Dynamics in Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Husen; Chen, Xi; Braithwaite, Daniel; He, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the microbial community structure and genetic potential of anode biofilms is key to improve extracellular electron transfers in microbial fuel cells. We investigated effect of substrate and temporal dynamics of anodic biofilm communities using phylogenetic and metagenomic approaches in parallel with electrochemical characterizations. The startup non-steady state anodic bacterial structures were compared for a simple substrate, acetate, and for a complex substrate, landfill leachate, using a single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell. Principal coordinate analysis showed that distinct community structures were formed with each substrate type. The bacterial diversity measured as Shannon index decreased with time in acetate cycles, and was restored with the introduction of leachate. The change of diversity was accompanied by an opposite trend in the relative abundance of Geobacter-affiliated phylotypes, which were acclimated to over 40% of total Bacteria at the end of acetate-fed conditions then declined in the leachate cycles. The transition from acetate to leachate caused a decrease in output power density from 243±13 mW/m2 to 140±11 mW/m2, accompanied by a decrease in Coulombic electron recovery from 18±3% to 9±3%. The leachate cycles selected protein-degrading phylotypes within phylum Synergistetes. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing showed that leachate-fed communities had higher cell motility genes including bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, and increased gene abundance related to metal resistance, antibiotic resistance, and quorum sensing. These differentially represented genes suggested an altered anodic biofilm community in response to additional substrates and stress from the complex landfill leachate. PMID:25202990

  20. Molecular phylogenetic inference of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, based on complete sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Noro, M; Masuda, R; Dubrovo, I A; Yoshida, M C; Kato, M

    1998-03-01

    Complete sequences of cytochrome b (1,137 bases) and 12S ribosomal RNA (961 bases) genes in mitochondrial DNA were successfully determined from the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). From these sequence data, phylogenetic relationships among three genera were examined. Molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed by the neighbor-joining and the maximum parsimony methods provided an identical topology both for cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes. These results support the "Mammuthus-Loxodonta" clade, which is contrary to some previous morphological reports that Mammuthus is more closely related to Elephas than to Loxodonta.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene family in Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) and combined analyses of Adh and nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequences for inferring species relationships.

    PubMed

    Roalson, Eric H; Friar, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    We analyzed sequence variation for the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene family in Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) to reconstruct Adh gene trees for Acrocystis species and to characterize the structure of the Adh gene family in Carex. Two Adh loci were included with ITS and ETS sequences in a combined Bayesian inference analysis of Carex section Acrocystis to gain a better understanding of species relationships in the section. In addition, we comment on how the results presented here contribute to our knowledge of the birth-death process of the Adh gene family in angiosperms. It appears that the structure of the Adh gene family in Carex is complex with possibly six loci present in the gene family. Additionally, variation among Acrocystis species within loci is quite low, and there is little phylogenetic resolution in the individual datasets. Bayesian inference analysis of the combined ITS, ETS, Adh1, and Adh2 datasets resulted in a moderately well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships in the section which is discussed in relation to previous hypotheses of relationships.

  2. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution.

  3. Phylogenetic utility of nuclear nitrate reductase: a multi-locus comparison of nuclear and chloroplast sequence data for inference of relationships among American Lycieae (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Levin, Rachel A; Blanton, Jessica; Miller, Jill S

    2009-03-01

    There has been considerable interest and research into the benefits of multiple low-copy nuclear regions for phylogenetic studies at low taxonomic levels. In this study, the phylogenetic utility of DNA sequence data from two low-copy nuclear genes, nitrate reductase (NIA) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), was compared with data from nuclear ribosomal ITS and the cpDNA spacers trnT-trnF and trnD-trnT across 33 closely related taxa in tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae). The NIA data (introns 1-2) had the most parsimony-informative characters, with over twice the number provided by GBSSI, but NIA also had greater homoplasy. Although gene trees were generally concordant across the four regions, there were some notable areas of incongruence, suggesting both incomplete lineage sorting as well as possible reticulate origins.

  4. Cryptosporidium is more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia as shown by phylogenetic analysis of apicomplexan parasites inferred using small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Carreno, R A; Martin, D S; Barta, J R

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic placement of gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa: Gregarinasina) within the Apicomplexa was derived by comparison of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Gregarine sequences were obtained from Gregarina niphandrodes Clopton, Percival, and Janovy, 1991, and Monocystis agilis Stein, 1848 (Eugregarinorida Léger 1900), as well as from Ophriocystis elektroscirrha McLaughlin and Myers, 1970 (Neogregarinorida Grassé 1953). The sequences were aligned with several other gregarine and apicomplexan sequences from GenBank and the resulting data matrix analyzed by parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. The gregarines form a monophyletic clade that is a sister group to Cryptosporidium spp. The gregarine/ Cryptosporidium clade is separate from the other major apicomplexan clade containing the coccidia, adeleids, piroplasms, and haemosporinids. The trees indicate that the genus Cryptosporidium has a closer phylogenetic affinity with the gregarines than with the coccidia. These results do not support the present classification of the Cryptosporidiidae in the suborder Eimerioirina Léger, 1911.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Stewart, Donald T

    2007-07-01

    The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear marker (short interspersed elements or SINEs) for resolving phylogenetic relationships, we constructed an inter-SINE fingerprint for nine putative species of the genus Sorex. In addition, we analyzed 1011 nucleotides of the cytochrome b gene. Traditional neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses were applied to the individual cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data sets, along with Bayesian analysis to the combined data sets. We found inter-SINE fingerprinting to be an effective species level marker; however, we were unable to reconstruct deeper branching patterns within the Sorex genus using these data. The combined data analyzed under a Bayesian analysis showed higher levels of structuring within the Otisorex subgenus, most notably recognizing a monophyletic group consisting of sister-taxa S. palustris and S. monticolus, S. cinereus and S. haydeni, and S. hoyi. An additional noteworthy result was the detection of an historic mitochondrial introgression event between S. monticolus and S. palustris. When combining disparate data sets, we emphasize researcher diligence as certain types of data and processes may overly influence the analysis. However, there is considerable phylogenetic potential stemming from inter-SINE fingerprinting.

  6. Genetic characterization of Echinostoma revolutum and Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Thailand and phylogenetic relationships with other isolates inferred by ITS1 sequence.

    PubMed

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2011-03-01

    Echinostomatidae are common, widely distributed intestinal parasites causing significant disease in both animals and humans worldwide. In spite of their importance, the taxonomy of these echinostomes is still controversial. The taxonomic status of two species, Echinostoma revolutum and Echinoparyphium recurvatum, which commonly infect poultry and other birds, as well as human, is problematical. Previous phylogenetic analyses of Southeast Asian strains indicate that these species cluster as sister taxa. In the present study, the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequence was used for genetic characterization and to examine the phylogenetic relationships between an isolate from Thailand with other isolates available from GenBank database. Interspecies differences in ITS1 sequence between E. revolutum and E. recurvatum were detected at 6 (3%) of the 203 alignment positions. Of these, nucleotide deletion at positions 25, 26, and 27, pyrimidine transition at 50, 189, and pyrimidine transversion at 118 were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that E. recurvatum from Thailand clustered as a sister taxa with E. revolutum and not with other members of the genus Echinoparyphium. Interestingly, this result confirms a previous report based on allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA that E. revolutum and E. recurvatum in Southeast Asia are sister species. Hence, the taxonomic status of E. recurvatum in Thailand, as well as in Southeast Asian countries needs to be confirmed and revised using more comprehensive analyses based on morphology and other molecular techniques.

  7. Host defense peptides from Lithobates forreri, Hylarana luctuosa, and Hylarana signata (Ranidae): phylogenetic relationships inferred from primary structures of ranatuerin-2 and brevinin-2 peptides.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Mechkarska, Milena; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nielsen, Per F; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2014-03-01

    The primary structures of host-defense peptides present in frog skin secretions constitute useful molecular markers for establishing taxonomic classifications and investigating phylogenetic relationships between species within a particular genus. Peptidomic analysis has led to the characterization of multiple host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of three species of frogs from the family Ranidae: Lithobates forreri (Boulenger, 1883), Hylarana luctuosa (Peters, 1871), and Hylarana signata (Günther, 1872). The L. forreri secretions contain ranatuerin-2 (2 peptides), brevinin-1 (4 peptides), and temporin (1 peptide). The H. luctuosa secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), esculentin-1 (1 peptide), esculentin-2 (1 peptide), palustrin-2 (2 peptides), and temporin (2 peptides). The H. signata secretions contain brevinin-2 (4 peptides), brevinin-1 (5 peptides), palustrin-2 (1 peptide), and temporin (2 peptides). Cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 44 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 20 Lithobates species indicates a close phylogenetic relationship between L. forreri, Lithobates onca, and Lithobates yavapaiensis. A similar cladistic analysis based upon the primary structures of 27 brevinin-2 peptides from 8 Hylarana species provides support for a close phylogenetic relationship between H. signata and Hylarana picturata, while showing that the species are not conspecific, with H. luctuosa more distantly related.

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of the hummingbird genus Coeligena.

    PubMed

    Parra, Juan Luis; Remsen, J V; Alvarez-Rebolledo, Mauricio; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the understanding of biological radiations along tropical mountains depend on the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we present a species-level molecular phylogeny based on a multilocus dataset for the Andean hummingbird genus Coeligena. We compare this phylogeny to previous hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and use it as a framework to understand patterns in the evolution of sexual dichromatism and in the biogeography of speciation within the Andes. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based mostly on similarities in coloration conflicted with our molecular phylogeny, emphasizing the unreliability of color characters for phylogenetic inference. Two major clades, one monochromatic and the other dichromatic, were found in Coeligena. Closely related species were either allopatric or parapatric on opposite mountain slopes. No sister lineages replaced each other along an elevational gradient. Our results indicate the importance of geographic isolation for speciation in this group and the potential interaction between isolation and sexual selection to promote diversification.

  9. A multi-locus analysis of phylogenetic relationships within grass subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae) inferred from sequences of nuclear single copy gene regions compared with plastid DNA.

    PubMed

    Hochbach, Anne; Schneider, Julia; Röser, Martin

    2015-06-01

    To investigate phylogenetic relationships within the grass subfamily Pooideae we studied about 50 taxa covering all recognized tribes, using one plastid DNA (cpDNA) marker (matK gene-3'trnK exon) and for the first time four nuclear single copy gene loci. DNA sequence information from two parts of the nuclear genes topoisomerase 6 (Topo6) spanning the exons 8-13 and 17-19, the exons 9-13 encoding plastid acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (Acc1) and the partial exon 1 of phytochrome B (PhyB) were generated. Individual and nuclear combined data were evaluated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. All of the phylogenetic results show Brachyelytrum and the tribe Nardeae as earliest diverging lineages within the subfamily. The 'core' Pooideae (Hordeeae and the Aveneae/Poeae tribe complex) are also strongly supported, as well as the monophyly of the tribes Brachypodieae, Meliceae and Stipeae (except PhyB). The beak grass tribe Diarrheneae and the tribe Duthieeae are not monophyletic in some of the analyses. However, the combined nuclear DNA (nDNA) tree yields the highest resolution and the best delimitation of the tribes, and provides the following evolutionary hypothesis for the tribes: Brachyelytrum, Nardeae, Duthieeae, Meliceae, Stipeae, Diarrheneae, Brachypodieae and the 'core' Pooideae. Within the individual datasets, the phylogenetic trees obtained from Topo6 exon 8-13 shows the most interesting results. The divergent positions of some clone sequences of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Trikeraia pappiformis, for instance, may indicate a hybrid origin of these stipoid taxa.

  10. Phylogenetic position of phylum Nemertini, inferred from 18S rRNA sequences: molecular data as a test of morphological character homology.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M; Field, K G; Raff, R A

    1992-03-01

    Partial 18S rRNA sequence of the nemertine Cerebratulus lacteus was obtained and compared with those of coelomate metazoans and acoelomate platyhelminths to test whether nemertines share a most recent common ancestor with the platyhelminths, as traditionally has been implied, or whether nemertines lie within a protostome coelomate clade, as suggested by more recent morphological analyses. Maximum-parsimony analysis supports the inclusion of the nemertine within a protostome-coelomate clade that falls within a more inclusive coelomate clade. Bootstrap analysis indicates strong support for a monophyletic Coelomata composed of a deuterostome and protostome-coelomate clade. Support for a monophyletic protostome Coelomata is weak. Inference by distance analysis is consistent with that of maximum parsimony. Analysis of down-weighted paired sites by maximum parsimony reveals variation in topology only within the protostome-coelomate clade. The relationships among the protostome coelomates cannot be reliably inferred from the partial sequences, suggesting that coelomate protostomes diversified rapidly. Results with evolutionary parsimony are consistent with the inclusion of the nemertine in a coelomate clade. The molecular inference corroborates recent morphological character analyses that reveal no synapomorphies of nemertines and flatworms but instead suggest that the circulatory system and rhynchocoel of nemertines are homologous to coelomic cavities of protostome coelomates, thus supporting the corresponding hypothesis that nemertines belong within a protostome-coelomate clade. The sequence data provide an independent test of morphological character homology.

  11. Phylogenetics of tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) based on combined DNA matrices: inferences regarding timing of diversification and evolution of pollination syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Inda, Luis A.; Pimentel, Manuel; Chase, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) comprises around 62 mostly terrestrial genera, which are well represented in the Northern Temperate Zone and less frequently in tropical areas of both the Old and New Worlds. Phylogenetic relationships within this tribe have been studied previously using only nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, nrITS). However, different parts of the phylogenetic tree in these analyses were weakly supported, and integrating information from different plant genomes is clearly necessary in orchids, where reticulate evolution events are putatively common. The aims of this study were to: (1) obtain a well-supported and dated phylogenetic hypothesis for tribe Orchideae, (ii) assess appropriateness of recent nomenclatural changes in this tribe in the last decade, (3) detect possible examples of reticulate evolution and (4) analyse in a temporal context evolutionary trends for subtribe Orchidinae with special emphasis on pollination systems. Methods The analyses included 118 samples, belonging to 103 species and 25 genera, for three DNA regions (nrITS, mitochondrial cox1 intron and plastid rpl16 intron). Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods were used to construct a well-supported and dated tree. Evolutionary trends in the subtribe were analysed using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods of character evolution. Key Results The dated phylogenetic tree strongly supported the recently recircumscribed generic concepts of Bateman and collaborators. Moreover, it was found that Orchidinae have diversified in the Mediterranean basin during the last 15 million years, and one potential example of reticulate evolution in the subtribe was identified. In Orchidinae, pollination systems have shifted on numerous occasions during the last 23 million years. Conclusions The results indicate that ancestral Orchidinae were hymenopteran-pollinated, food-deceptive plants and that these traits have been

  12. Inferring causal metabolic signals that regulate the dynamic TORC1-dependent transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Paula; Dimopoulos, Sotiris; Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Christen, Stefan; Dechant, Reinhard; Falter, Laura; Haghir Chehreghani, Morteza; Jozefczuk, Szymon; Ludwig, Christina; Rudroff, Florian; Schulz, Juliane Caroline; González, Asier; Soulard, Alexandre; Stracka, Daniele; Aebersold, Ruedi; Buhmann, Joachim M; Hall, Michael N; Peter, Matthias; Sauer, Uwe; Stelling, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cells react to nutritional cues in changing environments via the integrated action of signaling, transcriptional, and metabolic networks. Mechanistic insight into signaling processes is often complicated because ubiquitous feedback loops obscure causal relationships. Consequently, the endogenous inputs of many nutrient signaling pathways remain unknown. Recent advances for system-wide experimental data generation have facilitated the quantification of signaling systems, but the integration of multi-level dynamic data remains challenging. Here, we co-designed dynamic experiments and a probabilistic, model-based method to infer causal relationships between metabolism, signaling, and gene regulation. We analyzed the dynamic regulation of nitrogen metabolism by the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway in budding yeast. Dynamic transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic measurements along shifts in nitrogen quality yielded a consistent dataset that demonstrated extensive re-wiring of cellular networks during adaptation. Our inference method identified putative downstream targets of TORC1 and putative metabolic inputs of TORC1, including the hypothesized glutamine signal. The work provides a basis for further mechanistic studies of nitrogen metabolism and a general computational framework to study cellular processes. PMID:25888284

  13. [Phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of flatfish species (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes) inferred from the primary nucleotide sequence of cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1)].

    PubMed

    Sharina, S N; Kartavtsev, Iu F

    2010-03-01

    Seventeen nucleotide sequences of Co-1 gene from 13 Pleuronectiformes species and 2 Perciformes species served as the outgroup were examined. For divergence comparison, the initial stage involved calculation of pairwise p-distances for all investigated sequences. This allowed to evaluate the nucleotide diversity on four phylogenetically different levels: (1) intraspecific, (2) intrageneric, (3) intrafamilial, and (4) intraordinal. The values of p-distances for the Co-1 gene for the four mentioned categories were (1) 0.93 +/- 0.73%, (2) 11.72 +/- 1.86%, (3) 12.10 +/- 1.10%, and (4) 20.20 +/- 0.22%, respectively. An increase in the level of genetic divergence along with an enhancement in taxon rank was previously reported for different species, which might be explained by prevalence of geographic speciation model in nature. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using four approaches: maximum parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining. These trees demonstrated similar results confirming the monophyletic origin of the families studied. The examined representatives of the flatfish species and genera were shown to be sufficiently divergent genetically.

  14. Phylogenetic placement of the spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Araneoidea) inferred from rRNA and MaSp1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Zhou, Kai-Ya; Song, Da-Xiang; Qiu, Yang

    2004-03-01

    The family status of the genus Nephila, which belongs to Tetragnathidae currently but Araneidae formerly, was reexamined based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. In the present study, 12S and 18S rRNA gene fragments of eight species of spiders were amplified and sequenced. In addition, 3'-end partial cDNA of major ampullate spidroin-1 (MaSp1) gene of Argiope amoena was cloned and sequenced, and the 3'-end non-repetitive region's cDNA sequence of MaSp1 gene and the predicted amino acid sequence of C-terminal non-repetitive region of MaSp1 were aligned with some previously known sequences. The resulting phylogeny showed that Araneidae and Tetragnathidae are not a sister group in the superfamily Araneoidea, and the genus Nephila is closer to the genera of the family Araneidae rather than to those of Tetragnathidae. We suggest that the genus Nephila should be transferred back to Araneidae. Or the subfamily Nephilinae might be elevated to family level after it was redefined and redelimited. Furthermore, the study showed that 3'-end non-repetitive region's cDNA sequence of MaSp1 gene and C-terminal non-repetitive region's amino acid sequence of MaSp1 are useful molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis of spiders.

  15. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Phytolaccaceae sensu lato inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Park, S H; Ali, M A

    2013-02-28

    The phylogeny of a phylogenetically poorly known family, Phytolaccaceae sensu lato (s.l.), was constructed for resolving conflicts concerning taxonomic delimitations. Cladistic analyses were made based on 44 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 11 families (Aizoaceae, Basellaceae, Didiereaceae, Molluginaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Phytolaccaceae s.l., Polygonaceae, Portulacaceae, Sarcobataceae, Tamaricaceae, and Nepenthaceae) of the order Caryophyllales. The maximum parsimony tree from the analysis resolved a monophyletic group of the order Caryophyllales; however, the members, Agdestis, Anisomeria, Gallesia, Gisekia, Hilleria, Ledenbergia, Microtea, Monococcus, Petiveria, Phytolacca, Rivinia, Schindleria, Seguieria, Stegnosperma, and Trichostigma, which belong to the family Phytolaccaceae s.l., did not cluster under a single clade, demonstrating that Phytolaccaceae is polyphyletic.

  16. A putative insect intracellular endosymbiont stem clade, within the Enterobacteriaceae, infered from phylogenetic analysis based on a heterogeneous model of DNA evolution.

    PubMed

    Charles, H; Heddi, A; Rahbe, Y

    2001-05-01

    Insect intracellular symbiotic bacteria (intracellular endosymbionts, or endocytobionts) were positioned within the gamma 3-Proteobacteria using a non-homogeneous model of DNA evolution, allowing for rate variability among sites, for GC content heterogeneity among sequences, and applied to a maximum likelihood framework. Most of them were found to be closely related within the Enterobacteriaceae family, located between Proteus and Yersinia. These results suggest that such a bacterial group might possess several traits allowing for insect infection and the stable establishment of symbiotic relationships and that this could represent a stem clade for numerous insect endocytobionts. Based on the estimations of the equilibrium GC content and branch lengths in the phylogenetic tree, we have made comparisons of the relative ages of these different symbioses.

  17. Waxy genes from spelt wheat: new alleles for modern wheat breeding and new phylogenetic inferences about the origin of this species

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Carlos; Caballero, Leonor; Martín, Luis M.; Alvarez, Juan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Waxy proteins are responsible for amylose synthesis in wheat seeds, being encoded by three waxy genes (Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1) in hexaploid wheat. In addition to their role in starch quality, waxy loci have been used to study the phylogeny of wheat. The origin of European spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) is not clear. This study compared waxy gene sequences of a Spanish spelt collection with their homologous genes in emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum), durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum), together with other Asian and European spelt that could be used to determine the origin of European spelt. Methods waxy genes were amplified and sequenced. Geneious Pro software, DNAsp and MEGA5 were used for sequence, nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Key Results Three, four and three new alleles were described for the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci, respectively. Spelt accessions were classified into two groups based on the variation in Wx-B1, which suggests that there were two different origins for the emmer wheat that has been found to be part of the spelt genetic make-up. One of these groups was only detected in Iberian material. No differences were found between the rest of the European spelt and the Asiatic spelt, which suggested that the Iberian material had a different origin from the other spelt sources. Conclusions The results suggested that the waxy gene variability present in wheat is undervalued. The evaluation of this variability has permitted the detection of ten new waxy alleles that could affect starch quality and thus could be used in modern wheat breeding. In addition, two different classes of Wx-B1 were detected that could be used for evaluating the phylogenetic relationships and the origins of different types of wheat. PMID:22984164

  18. A smaller Macadamia from a more vagile tribe: inference of phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and diaspore evolution in Macadamia and relatives (tribe Macadamieae; Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    Mast, Austin R; Willis, Crystal L; Jones, Eric H; Downs, Katherine M; Weston, Peter H

    2008-07-01

    Tribe Macadamieae (91 spp., 16 genera; Proteaceae) is widespread across the southern hemisphere on all major fragments of Gondwana except New Zealand and India. Macadamia is cultivated outside its natural range as a "nut" crop (notably in Hawaii, where it is the principal orchard crop). We sampled seven DNA regions and 53 morphological characters from the tribe to infer its phylogeny and address the common assumption that the distribution of the extant diversity of the tribe arose by the rafting of ancestors on Gondwanan fragments. Macadamia proves to be paraphyletic with respect to the African genus Brabejum, the South American genus Panopsis, and the Australian species Orites megacarpus. We erect two new generic names, Nothorites and Lasjia, to produce monophyly at that rank. The earliest disjunctions in the tribe are inferred to be the result of long-distance dispersal out of Australia (with one possible exception), rather than vicariance. Evolution of tardy fruit dehiscence is correlated with these dispersals, and the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) precedes them. We suggest that the ancestors of extant diversity arrived on their respective continents via the ACC, and we recognize that this is a mechanism precluded, rather than facilitated, by Gondwana's terrestrial continuity.

  19. Including parameter dependence in the data and covariance for cosmological inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil

    2015-12-01

    The final step of most large-scale structure analyses involves the comparison of power spectra or correlation functions to theoretical models. It is clear that the theoretical models have parameter dependence, but frequently the measurements and the covariance matrix depend upon some of the parameters as well. We show that a very simple interpolation scheme from an unstructured mesh allows for an efficient way to include this parameter dependence self-consistently in the analysis at modest computational expense. We describe two schemes for covariance matrices. The scheme which uses the geometric structure of such matrices performs roughly twice as well as the simplest scheme, though both perform very well.

  20. Analysis of kinetoplast cytochrome b gene of 16 Leishmania isolates from different foci of China: different species of Leishmania in China and their phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania species belong to the family Trypanosomatidae and cause leishmaniasis, a geographically widespread disease that infects humans and other vertebrates. This disease remains endemic in China. Due to the large geographic area and complex ecological environment, the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationship of Chinese Leishmania isolates remain uncertain. A recent internal transcribed spacer 1 and cytochrome oxidase II phylogeny of Chinese Leishmania isolates has challenged some aspects of their traditional taxonomy as well as cladistics hypotheses of their phylogeny. The current study was designed to provide further disease background and sequence analysis. Methods We systematically analyzed 50 cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences of 19 isolates (16 from China, 3 from other countries) sequenced after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a special primer for cyt b as well as 31 sequences downloaded from GenBank. After alignment, the data were analyzed using the maximum parsimony, Bayesian and netwok methods. Results Sequences of six haplotypes representing 10 Chinese isolates formed a monophyletic group and clustered with Leishmania tarentolae. The isolates GS1, GS7, XJ771 of this study from China clustered with other isolates of Leishmania donovani complex. The isolate JS1 was a sister to Leishmania tropica, which represented an L. tropica complex instead of clustering with L. donovani complex or with the other 10 Chinese isolates. The isolates KXG-2 and GS-GER20 formed a monophyletic group with Leishmania turanica from central Asia. In the different phylogenetic trees, all of the Chinese isolates occurred in at least four groups regardless of geographic distribution. Conclusions The undescribed Leishmania species of China, which are clearly causative agents of canine leishmaniasis and human visceral leishmaniasis and are related to Sauroleishmania, may have evolved from a common ancestral parasite that came from the Americas and may have

  1. A new myco-heterotrophic genus, Yunorchis, and the molecular phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Calypsoeae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Ming-He; Su, Yong-Yu; Chen, Li-Jun; Lan, Si-Ren; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2015-01-01

    We identified a new holomycotrophic orchid that is related to the myco-heterotrophic Calypsoeae. Because chloroplast genes are primarily lacking or are highly divergent, key morphological characters are either reduced or lost from many myco-heterotrophs, and the phylogenetic relationships of weakly supported paraphyletic Calypsoeae within Epidendroideae have been poorly understood in previous molecular systematic studies. Using chloroplast rbcL, psaB, and matK and nuclear Xdh and ITS sequences, we determined the circumscription and systematic positions of the new orchid and the tribe. The results indicate that the epidendroid taxa include most of the clades that are successively sister to the grade of clades representing previously recognized tribes. Calypsoeae comprising four well-supported clades with 12 genera (except for the previous temporarily placed Wullschlaegelia) is supported as a monophyletic and sister clade to Epidendreae (excluding Coeliinae). The new orchid is nested in Calypsoeae and is a sister to Dactylostalix and/or Calypso. This new holomycotrophic orchid presents a subumbel inflorescence that grows underground, and flower with a long pedicel reputing the ground to open and two fragments at the base of the hook, which are obviously morphologically different from those of Calypsoeae. To accommodate this species in the current generic circumscription, a new genus Yunorchis was created.

  2. A New Myco-Heterotrophic Genus, Yunorchis, and the Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of the Tribe Calypsoeae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) Inferred from Plastid and Nuclear DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yong-Yu; Chen, Li-Jun; Lan, Si-Ren; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2015-01-01

    We identified a new holomycotrophic orchid that is related to the myco-heterotrophic Calypsoeae. Because chloroplast genes are primarily lacking or are highly divergent, key morphological characters are either reduced or lost from many myco-heterotrophs, and the phylogenetic relationships of weakly supported paraphyletic Calypsoeae within Epidendroideae have been poorly understood in previous molecular systematic studies. Using chloroplast rbcL, psaB, and matK and nuclear Xdh and ITS sequences, we determined the circumscription and systematic positions of the new orchid and the tribe. The results indicate that the epidendroid taxa include most of the clades that are successively sister to the grade of clades representing previously recognized tribes. Calypsoeae comprising four well-supported clades with 12 genera (except for the previous temporarily placed Wullschlaegelia) is supported as a monophyletic and sister clade to Epidendreae (excluding Coeliinae). The new orchid is nested in Calypsoeae and is a sister to Dactylostalix and/or Calypso. This new holomycotrophic orchid presents a subumbel inflorescence that grows underground, and flower with a long pedicel reputing the ground to open and two fragments at the base of the hook, which are obviously morphologically different from those of Calypsoeae. To accommodate this species in the current generic circumscription, a new genus Yunorchis was created. PMID:25902264

  3. The phylogenetic relationships of insectivores with special reference to the lesser hedgehog tenrec as inferred from the complete sequence of their mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Cao, Ying; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi was determined in this study. It is an endemic African insectivore that is found specifically in Madagascar. The tenrec's back is covered with hedgehog-like spines. Unlike other spiny mammals, such as spiny mice, spiny rats, spiny dormice and porcupines, lesser hedgehog tenrecs look amazingly like true hedgehogs (Erinaceidae). However, they are distinguished morphologically from hedgehogs by the absence of a jugal bone. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec and analyzed the results phylogenetically to determine the relationships between the tenrec and other insectivores (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), as well as the relationships between the tenrec and endemic African mammals, classified as Afrotheria, that have recently been shown by molecular analysis to be close relatives of the tenrec. Our data confirmed the afrotherian status of the tenrec, and no direct relation was recovered between the tenrec and the hedgehog. Comparing our data with those of others, we found that within-species variations in the mitochondrial DNA of lesser hedgehog tenrecs appear to be the largest recognized to date among mammals, apart from orangutans, which might be interesting from the view point of evolutionary history of tenrecs on Madagascar.

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of Alchemilla, Aphanes and Lachemilla (Rosaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear intron and spacer DNA sequences, with comments on generic classification.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, B; Bräuchler, C; Romoleroux, K; Lundberg, M; Heubl, G; Eriksson, T

    2008-06-01

    Alchemilla (the lady's mantles) is a well known but inconspicuous group in the Rosaceae, notable for its ornamental leaves and pharmaceutical properties. The systematics of Alchemilla has remained poorly understood, most likely due to confusion resulting from apomixis, polyploidisation and hybridisation, which are frequently observed in the group, and which have led to the description of a large number of (micro-) species. A molecular phylogeny of the genus, including all sections of Alchemilla and Lachemilla as well as five representatives of Aphanes, based on the analysis of the chloroplast trnL-trnF and the nuclear ITS regions is presented here. Gene phylogenies reconstructed from the nuclear and chloroplast sequence data were largely congruent. Limited conflict between the data partitions was observed with respect to a small number of taxa. This is likely to be the result of hybridisation/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting. Four distinct clades were resolved, corresponding to major geographical division and life forms: Eurasian Alchemilla, annual Aphanes, South American Lachemilla and African Alchemilla. We argue for a wider circumscription of the genus Alchemilla, including Lachemilla and Aphanes, based on the morphology and the phylogenetic relationships between the different clades.

  5. Phylogenetic position of the endemic large carpenter bee of the Ogasawara Islands, Xylocopa ogasawarensis (Matsumura, 1912) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), inferred from four genes.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Kazuhide; Kawakita, Atsushi; Sugiura, Shinji; Kato, Makoto

    2008-08-01

    The Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands are oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean about 1,000 km south of the Japanese mainland. A large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) ogasawarensis, is endemic to the islands but its closest relative is unknown. The Ogasawara Islands are geographically closest to the Japanese Archipelago, but this area is inhabited only by species of a different subgenus, Alloxylocopa. Thus, X. ogasawarensis is commonly thought to have originated from other members of Koptortosoma, which is widely distributed in the Oriental tropical region. In this study, we investigated the origin of X. ogasawarensis using a phylogenetic analysis of Xylocopa based on four genes: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b), and nuclear elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). A combined analysis of the four genes strongly suggests that Koptortosoma is a large, polyphyletic group, within which Alloxylocopa is embedded. Xylocopa ogasawarensis emerged as the species most closely related to Alloxylocopa and not to Oriental species of Koptortosoma. Contrary to previous views of the origin of X. ogasawarensis, our results suggest that X. ogasawarensis and Alloxylocopa share a common origin and diverged after they colonized the island regions of East Asia.

  6. Natural History of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inferred from Phylogenetic Analysis of the Attachment (G) Glycoprotein with a 60-Nucleotide Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Alfonsina; Viegas, Mariana; Galiano, Mónica; Videla, Cristina; Carballal, Guadalupe; Mistchenko, Alicia S.; Melero, José A.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 47 clinical samples were identified during an active surveillance program of respiratory infections in Buenos Aires (BA) (1999 to 2004) that contained sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) with a 60-nucleotide duplication in the attachment (G) protein gene. This duplication was analogous to that previously described for other three viruses also isolated in Buenos Aires in 1999 (A. Trento et al., J. Gen. Virol. 84:3115-3120, 2003). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BA sequences with that duplication shared a common ancestor (dated about 1998) with other HRSV G sequences reported worldwide after 1999. The duplicated nucleotide sequence was an exact copy of the preceding 60 nucleotides in early viruses, but both copies of the duplicated segment accumulated nucleotide substitutions in more recent viruses at a rate apparently higher than in other regions of the G protein gene. The evolution of the viruses with the duplicated G segment apparently followed the overall evolutionary pattern previously described for HRSV, and this genotype has replaced other prevailing antigenic group B genotypes in Buenos Aires and other places. Thus, the duplicated segment represents a natural tag that can be used to track the dissemination and evolution of HRSV in an unprecedented setting. We have taken advantage of this situation to reexamine the molecular epidemiology of HRSV and to explore the natural history of this important human pathogen. PMID:16378999

  7. Phylogenetic relationships within Chamaecrista sect. Xerocalyx (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) inferred from the cpDNA trnE-trnT intergenic spacer and nrDNA ITS sequences

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Davi Coe; Lima, João Paulo Matos Santos; Fernandes, Afrânio Gomes; Nunes, Edson Paula; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Chamaecrista belongs to subtribe Cassiinae (Caesalpinioideae), and it comprises over 330 species, divided into six sections. The section Xerocalyx has been subjected to a profound taxonomic shuffling over the years. Therefore, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis using a cpDNA trnE-trnT intergenic spacer and nrDNA ITS/5.8S sequences from Cassiinae taxa, in an attempt to elucidate the relationships within this section from Chamaecrista. The tree topology was congruent between the two data sets studied in which the monophyly of the genus Chamaecrista was strongly supported. Our analyses reinforce that new sectional boundaries must be defined in the Chamaecrista genus, especially the inclusion of sections Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx in sect. Chamaecrista, considered here paraphyletic. The section Xerocalyx was strongly supported as monophyletic; however, the current data did not show C. ramosa (microphyllous) and C. desvauxii (macrophyllous) and their respective varieties in distinct clades, suggesting that speciation events are still ongoing in these specimens. PMID:21734825

  8. Multisensory Bayesian Inference Depends on Synapse Maturation during Training: Theoretical Analysis and Neural Modeling Implementation.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

    2017-03-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference. The model consists of two chains of unisensory neurons (auditory and visual) topologically organized. They receive the corresponding input through a plastic receptive field and reciprocally exchange plastic cross-modal synapses, which encode the spatial co-occurrence of visual-auditory inputs. A third chain of multisensory neurons performs a simple sum of auditory and visual excitations. The work includes a theoretical part and a computer simulation study. We show how a simple rule for synapse learning (consisting of Hebbian reinforcement and a decay term) can be used during training to shrink the receptive fields and encode the unisensory likelihood functions. Hence, after training, each unisensory area realizes a maximum likelihood estimate of stimulus position (auditory or visual). In cross-modal conditions, the same learning rule can encode information on prior probability into the cross-modal synapses. Computer simulations confirm the theoretical results and show that the proposed network can realize a maximum likelihood estimate of auditory (or visual) positions in unimodal conditions and a Bayesian estimate, with moderate deviations from optimality, in cross-modal conditions. Furthermore, the model explains the ventriloquism illusion and, looking at the activity in the multimodal neurons, explains the automatic reweighting of auditory and visual inputs

  9. Temperature dependent spin transport properties of platinum inferred from spin Hall magnetoresistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Sibylle Althammer, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-06-16

    We study the temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet/platinum hybrid structures via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance measurements. Our experiments show a decrease of the SMR magnitude with decreasing temperature. Using the sensitivity of the SMR to the spin transport properties of the normal metal, we interpret our data in terms of a decrease of the spin Hall angle in platinum from 0.11 at room temperature to 0.075 at 10 K, while the spin diffusion length and the spin mixing conductance of the ferrimagnetic insulator/normal metal interface remain almost constant.

  10. Stress dependence of fracturing-stimulated permeability inferred from microseismic signatures. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S. A.; Hummel, N.

    2013-12-01

    For developments of hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs knowledge of the hydraulic transport is of importance. A substantial contribution in understanding of the permeability evolution as an anisotropic function of stress can be obtained from the evolution of stimulation-induced seismicity in space and time. We focus on analyzing spatio-temporal characteristics of seismicity recorded during different hydraulic fracturing treatments in tight hydrocarbon reservoirs. Pore pressure diffusion based on a power-law pressure dependence of permeability frequently explains well corresponding spatio-temporal features of induced seismicity. We show that in hydraulically anisotropic shale a model of the factorized anisotropic pressure-dependent permeability is in agreement with the microseismic data. Hydraulic stimulation of rocks is accompanied by microseismic activity not only during but also after termination of the fluid injection. The evolution of the growing from the injection borehole seismic quiescence zone (which is enveloped by the so-called back-front of the induced seismicity) yields additional information on the permeability dependence on stress. We observe that under some conditions a power-law pressure dependence of the stimulated permeability can well explain this evolution. However, frequently an exponential pressure dependence of the permeability seems to be more adequate. To explain these different observations we compare the behavior of permeability and elastic properties of rocks as functions of the tectonic stress and pore pressure. We propose that different parts of the pore and fracture space differently contribute to a control of these two types of physical properties of rocks. The stress dependence of elastic moduli of drained rocks is mainly controlled by deformations of the compliant part of the pore (including fractures) space. This leads to saturating exponential functions expressing load dependencies of seismic velocities and of related seismic

  11. Bayesian Inference for Growth Mixture Models with Latent Class Dependent Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Zhenqiu Laura; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lubke, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    "Growth mixture models" (GMMs) with nonignorable missing data have drawn increasing attention in research communities but have not been fully studied. The goal of this article is to propose and to evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate the GMMs with latent class dependent missing data. An extended GMM is first presented in which class…

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin

    PubMed Central

    Sanjur, Oris I.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Andres, Thomas C.; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. PMID:11782554

  14. Molecular evolution inferred from small subunit rRNA sequences: what does it tell us about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the parabasalids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viscogliosi, E.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Gerbod, D.; Noel, C.; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P.; Sogin, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Parabasala are a primitive group of protists divided into two classes: the trichomonads and the hypermastigids. Until recently, phylogeny and taxonomy of parabasalids were mainly based on the comparative analysis of morphological characters primarily linked to the development of their cytoskeleton. Recent use of molecular markers, such as small subunit (SSU) rRNA has led to now insights into the systematics of the Parabasala and other groups of prolists. An updated phylogeny based on SSU rRNA is provided and compared to that inferred from ultrastructural data. The SSU rRNA phylogeny contradicts the dogma equating simple characters with pumitive characters. Hypermastigids, possessing a hyperdeveloped cytoskeleton, exhibit the most basal emergence in the parabasalid lineage. Other observations emerge from the SSU rRNA analysis, such as the secondary loss of some cytoskeleton structures in all representatives of the Monocercomonadidae, the existence of secondarily free living taxa (reversibility of parasitism) and the evidence against the co-evolution of the endobiotic parabasalids and their animal hosts. According to phylogenies based on SSU rRNA, all the trichomonad families are not monophyletic groups, putting into question the validity of current taxonomic assignments. The precise branching order of some taxa remains unclear, but this issue can possibly be addressed by the molecular analysis of additional parabasalids. The goal of such additional analyses would be to propose, in a near future, a revision of the taxonomy of this group of protists that takes into account both molecular and morphological data.

  15. Simultaneously estimating evolutionary history and repeated traits phylogenetic signal: applications to viral and host phenotypic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Vrancken, Bram; Lemey, Philippe; Rambaut, Andrew; Bedford, Trevor; Longdon, Ben; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic signal quantifies the degree to which resemblance in continuously-valued traits reflects phylogenetic relatedness. Measures of phylogenetic signal are widely used in ecological and evolutionary research, and are recently gaining traction in viral evolutionary studies. Standard estimators of phylogenetic signal frequently condition on data summary statistics of the repeated trait observations and fixed phylogenetics trees, resulting in information loss and potential bias. To incorporate the observation process and phylogenetic uncertainty in a model-based approach, we develop a novel Bayesian inference method to simultaneously estimate the evolutionary history and phylogenetic signal from molecular sequence data and repeated multivariate traits. Our approach builds upon a phylogenetic diffusion framework that model continuous trait evolution as a Brownian motion process and incorporates Pagel’s λ transformation parameter to estimate dependence among traits. We provide a computationally efficient inference implementation in the BEAST software package. We evaluate the synthetic performance of the Bayesian estimator of phylogenetic signal against standard estimators, and demonstrate the use of our coherent framework to address several virus-host evolutionary questions, including virulence heritability for HIV, antigenic evolution in influenza and HIV, and Drosophila sensitivity to sigma virus infection. Finally, we discuss model extensions that will make useful contributions to our flexible framework for simultaneously studying sequence and trait evolution. PMID:25780554

  16. Bayesian Inference on the Effect of Density Dependence and Weather on a Guanaco Population from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Colchero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in South America. We evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. The population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km2, with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 25 years; however, in the last 10 years the population has shown large fluctuations, suggesting that it might have reached its carrying capacity. We used a Bayesian state-space framework and model selection to determine the effect of density and environmental variables on guanaco population dynamics. Our results show that the population is under density dependent regulation and that it is currently fluctuating around an average carrying capacity of 45,000 guanacos. We also found a significant positive effect of previous winter temperature while sheep density has a strong negative effect on the guanaco population growth. We conclude that there are significant density dependent processes and that climate as well as competition with domestic species have important effects determining the population size of guanacos, with important implications for management and conservation. PMID:25514510

  17. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine

  18. Profiling phylogenetic informativeness.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2007-04-01

    The resolution of four controversial topics in phylogenetic experimental design hinges upon the informativeness of characters about the historical relationships among taxa. These controversies regard the power of different classes of phylogenetic character, the relative utility of increased taxonomic versus character sampling, the differentiation between lack of phylogenetic signal and a historical rapid radiation, and the design of taxonomically broad phylogenetic studies optimized by taxonomically sparse genome-scale data. Quantification of the informativeness of characters for resolution of phylogenetic hypotheses during specified historical epochs is key to the resolution of these controversies. Here, such a measure of phylogenetic informativeness is formulated. The optimal rate of evolution of a character to resolve a dated four-taxon polytomy is derived. By scaling the asymptotic informativeness of a character evolving at a nonoptimal rate by the derived asymptotic optimum, and by normalizing so that net phylogenetic informativeness is equivalent for all rates when integrated across all of history, an informativeness profile across history is derived. Calculation of the informativeness per base pair allows estimation of the cost-effectiveness of character sampling. Calculation of the informativeness per million years allows comparison across historical radiations of the utility of a gene for the inference of rapid adaptive radiation. The theory is applied to profile the phylogenetic informativeness of the genes BRCA1, RAG1, GHR, and c-myc from a muroid rodent sequence data set. Bounded integrations of the phylogenetic profile of these genes over four epochs comprising the diversifications of the muroid rodents, the mammals, the lobe-limbed vertebrates, and the early metazoans demonstrate the differential power of these genes to resolve the branching order among ancestral lineages. This measure of phylogenetic informativeness yields a new kind of information

  19. The phylogenetic diversity of metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; Eisen, Jonathan A; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity--patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities--provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context.

  20. Bayesian inference of cosmic density fields from non-linear, scale-dependent, and stochastic biased tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Metin; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Müller, Volker

    2015-02-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm to generate unbiased samples of the underlying dark matter field from halo catalogues. Our new contribution consists of implementing a non-Poisson likelihood including a deterministic non-linear and scale-dependent bias. In particular we present the Hamiltonian equations of motions for the negative binomial (NB) probability distribution function. This permits us to efficiently sample the posterior distribution function of density fields given a sample of galaxies using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique implemented in the ARGO code. We have tested our algorithm with the Bolshoi N-body simulation at redshift z = 0, inferring the underlying dark matter density field from subsamples of the halo catalogue with biases smaller and larger than one. Our method shows that we can draw closely unbiased samples (compatible within 1-σ) from the posterior distribution up to scales of about k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1 in terms of power-spectra and cell-to-cell correlations. We find that a Poisson likelihood including a scale-dependent non-linear deterministic bias can yield reconstructions with power spectra deviating more than 10 per cent at k = 0.2 h Mpc-1. Our reconstruction algorithm is especially suited for emission line galaxy data for which a complex non-linear stochastic biasing treatment beyond Poissonity becomes indispensable.

  1. The phylogenetic likelihood library.

    PubMed

    Flouri, T; Izquierdo-Carrasco, F; Darriba, D; Aberer, A J; Nguyen, L-T; Minh, B Q; Von Haeseler, A; Stamatakis, A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Phylogenetic Likelihood Library (PLL), a highly optimized application programming interface for developing likelihood-based phylogenetic inference and postanalysis software. The PLL implements appropriate data structures and functions that allow users to quickly implement common, error-prone, and labor-intensive tasks, such as likelihood calculations, model parameter as well as branch length optimization, and tree space exploration. The highly optimized and parallelized implementation of the phylogenetic likelihood function and a thorough documentation provide a framework for rapid development of scalable parallel phylogenetic software. By example of two likelihood-based phylogenetic codes we show that the PLL improves the sequential performance of current software by a factor of 2-10 while requiring only 1 month of programming time for integration. We show that, when numerical scaling for preventing floating point underflow is enabled, the double precision likelihood calculations in the PLL are up to 1.9 times faster than those in BEAGLE. On an empirical DNA dataset with 2000 taxa the AVX version of PLL is 4 times faster than BEAGLE (scaling enabled and required). The PLL is available at http://www.libpll.org under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

  2. Impact of the model-building strategy on inference about nonlinear and time-dependent covariate effects in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Wynant, Willy; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2014-08-30

    Cox's proportional hazards (PH) model assumes constant-over-time covariate effects. Furthermore, most applications assume linear effects of continuous covariates on the logarithm of the hazard. Yet, many prognostic factors have time-dependent (TD) and/or nonlinear (NL) effects, that is, violate these conventional assumptions. Detection of such complex effects could affect prognosis and clinical decisions. However, assessing the effects of each of the multiple, often correlated, covariates in flexible multivariable analyses is challenging. In simulations, we investigated the impact of the approach used to build the flexible multivariable model on inference about the TD and NL covariate effects. Results demonstrate that the conclusions regarding the statistical significance of the TD/NL effects depend heavily on the strategy used to decide which effects of the other covariates should be adjusted for. Both a failure to adjust for true TD and NL effects of relevant covariates and inclusion of spurious effects of covariates that conform to the PH and linearity assumptions increase the risk of incorrect conclusions regarding other covariates. In this context, iterative backward elimination of nonsignificant NL and TD effects from the multivariable model, which initially includes all these effects, may help discriminate between true and spurious effects. The practical importance of these issues was illustrated in an example that reassessed the predictive ability of selected biomarkers for survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. In conclusion, a careful model-building strategy and flexible modeling of multivariable survival data can yield new insights about predictors' roles and improve the validity of analyses.

  3. Is it possible to infer the frequency-dependent seismic attenuation of fractured materials from high-strain creep tests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mallet, celine; quintal, beatriz; caspari, eva; holliger, klaus

    2016-04-01

    The seismic and hydraulic characterization of fractured rocks is an important objective for reservoir development in general and the production of geothermal energy in particular. The attenuation of seismic waves in saturated fractured media is governed by local displacements of the fluid relative to the solid induced by the compressions and extensions associated with the passing wavefield. This phenomenon is generally referred to as wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF). Recent evidence suggests that this energy dissipation mechanism is sensitive to the interconnectivity of the fractures, which offers the perspective of linking seismic observations to the hydraulic properties of fractured rocks. Here, we consider the results of laboratory experiments, which are referred to as creep tests. Such tests consist of applying a constant stress to a water-saturated thermally cracked glass sample and recording the resulting strain response as a function of time. The primary advantages of the considered material are (i) that the fracture network is well documented and (ii) that the homogeneous and non-porous glass matrix limits WIFF to the fracture network. Due to the high stress levels as well as other technical issues, creep tests are not commonly used for laboratory-based measurements of energy dissipation. Therefore, an objective of this study is to explore whether and to what extent such data can be interpreted in terms of the seismic attenuation characteristics of the probed samples, as this might open access to a vast reservoir of corresponding data, notably for cracked materials. Transforming the observed time-dependent stress-strain relation into the Fourier domain, allows us to infer the corresponding frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics, which we then seek to interpret through numerical simulations based on Biot's quasi-static poroelastic equations. The 2D geometry of the fracture network considered in these simulations is derived from a scanning electron

  4. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P.

    2015-01-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate. PMID:25504656

  5. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P

    2015-02-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate.

  6. Habitat species pools for phylogenetic structure in microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne; Shen, Ji

    2013-06-01

    The processes underlying the phylogenetic structure of the biotic communities are typically scale-dependent and thus often poorly resolved. Illustrated by the study of macroorganisms, it is suggested that the relative influence of ecological processes on the phylogenetic structure of the communities can be inferred by the geographical definition of the species pools. However, given the high dispersal ability of microbes, the spatial delineation of the species pool may not be that practical for microbial taxa. This idea is supported by the observational data on bacteria along an elevational gradient. Significant negative values of standardized effect size of the mean nearest taxon distance were consistently observed for different sized species pools considered. Reviewing the reports on microbial phylogenetic structure so far, we suggested that the 'habitat species pools' are perhaps more important for microbes than spatial delineated 'regional species pools'.

  7. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  8. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  9. Automated Masking of AFLP Markers Improves Reliability of Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gimnich, France

    2012-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method has become an attractive tool in phylogenetics due to the ease with which large numbers of characters can be generated. In contrast to sequence-based phylogenetic approaches, AFLP data consist of anonymous multilocus markers. However, potential artificial amplifications or amplification failures of fragments contained in the AFLP data set will reduce AFLP reliability especially in phylogenetic inferences. In the present study, we introduce a new automated scoring approach, called “AMARE” (AFLP MAtrix REduction). The approach is based on replicates and makes marker selection dependent on marker reproducibility to control for scoring errors. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach we record error rate estimations, resolution scores, PCoA and stemminess calculations. As in general the true tree (i.e. the species phylogeny) is not known, we tested AMARE with empirical, already published AFLP data sets, and compared tree topologies of different AMARE generated character matrices to existing phylogenetic trees and/or other independent sources such as morphological and geographical data. It turns out that the selection of masked character matrices with highest resolution scores gave similar or even better phylogenetic results than the original AFLP data sets. PMID:23152859

  10. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  11. Do freshwater fishes diversify faster than marine fishes? A test using state-dependent diversification analyses and molecular phylogenetics of new world silversides (atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Bloom, Devin D; Weir, Jason T; Piller, Kyle R; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2013-07-01

    Freshwater habitats make up only ∼0.01% of available aquatic habitat and yet harbor 40% of all fish species, whereas marine habitats comprise >99% of available aquatic habitat and have only 60% of fish species. One possible explanation for this pattern is that diversification rates are higher in freshwater habitats than in marine habitats. We investigated diversification in marine and freshwater lineages in the New World silverside fish clade Menidiinae (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae). Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and a state-dependent speciation-extinction framework, we determined the frequency and timing of habitat transitions in Menidiinae and tested for differences in diversification parameters between marine and freshwater lineages. We found that Menidiinae is an ancestrally marine lineage that independently colonized freshwater habitats four times followed by three reversals to the marine environment. Our state-dependent diversification analyses showed that freshwater lineages have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine lineages. Net diversification rates were higher (but not significant) in freshwater than marine environments. The marine lineage-through time (LTT) plot shows constant accumulation, suggesting that ecological limits to clade growth have not slowed diversification in marine lineages. Freshwater lineages exhibited an upturn near the recent in their LTT plot, which is consistent with our estimates of high background extinction rates. All sequence data are currently being archived on Genbank and phylogenetic trees archived on Treebase.

  12. An Optimization-Based Sampling Scheme for Phylogenetic Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Navodit; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R.; Schwartz, Russell

    Much modern work in phylogenetics depends on statistical sampling approaches to phylogeny construction to estimate probability distributions of possible trees for any given input data set. Our theoretical understanding of sampling approaches to phylogenetics remains far less developed than that for optimization approaches, however, particularly with regard to the number of sampling steps needed to produce accurate samples of tree partition functions. Despite the many advantages in principle of being able to sample trees from sophisticated probabilistic models, we have little theoretical basis for concluding that the prevailing sampling approaches do in fact yield accurate samples from those models within realistic numbers of steps. We propose a novel approach to phylogenetic sampling intended to be both efficient in practice and more amenable to theoretical analysis than the prevailing methods. The method depends on replacing the standard tree rearrangement moves with an alternative Markov model in which one solves a theoretically hard but practically tractable optimization problem on each step of sampling. The resulting method can be applied to a broad range of standard probability models, yielding practical algorithms for efficient sampling and rigorous proofs of accurate sampling for some important special cases. We demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of the method in an analysis of uncertainty in tree inference over varying input sizes. In addition to providing a new practical method for phylogenetic sampling, the technique is likely to prove applicable to many similar problems involving sampling over combinatorial objects weighted by a likelihood model.

  13. Ecological Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  14. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Bushnell, Brian; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Bowers, Robert M; Levy, Asaf; Gies, Esther A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hallam, Steven J; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, high-throughput short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has eclipsed clone-dependent long-read Sanger sequencing for microbial community profiling. The transition to new technologies has provided more quantitative information at the expense of taxonomic resolution with implications for inferring metabolic traits in various ecosystems. We applied single-molecule real-time sequencing for microbial community profiling, generating full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences at high throughput, which we propose to name PhyloTags. We benchmarked and validated this approach using a defined microbial community. When further applied to samples from the water column of meromictic Sakinaw Lake, we show that while community structures at the phylum level are comparable between PhyloTags and Illumina V4 16S rRNA gene sequences (iTags), variance increases with community complexity at greater water depths. PhyloTags moreover allowed less ambiguous classification. Last, a platform-independent comparison of PhyloTags and in silico generated partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated significant differences in community structure and phylogenetic resolution across multiple taxonomic levels, including a severe underestimation in the abundance of specific microbial genera involved in nitrogen and methane cycling across the Lake's water column. Thus, PhyloTags provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to cost-effective iTags, enabling more accurate phylogenetic resolution of microbial communities and predictions on their metabolic potential. PMID:26859772

  15. Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

  16. Satellite-Based Evidence of Wavelength-Dependent Aerosol Absorption in Biomass Burning Smoke Inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, H.; Torres, O.

    2012-01-01

    We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005-2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV), it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September). Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols.

  17. Genomic biodiversity, phylogenetics, and coevolution in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, David D

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling of genomic biodiversity is fast becoming a reality for some genomic regions and complete organelle genomes. Genomic biodiversity is defined as large genomic sequences from many species, and here some recent work is reviewed that demonstrates the potential benefits of genomic biodiversity for molecular evolutionary analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. This work shows that using likelihood-based approaches, taxon addition can dramatically improve phylogenetic reconstruction. Features or dynamics of the evolutionary process are much more easily inferred with large numbers of taxa, and large numbers are essential for discriminating differences in evolutionary patterns between sites. Accurate prediction of site-specific patterns can improve phylogenetic reconstruction by an amount equivalent to quadrupling sequence length. Genomic biodiversity is particularly central to research relating patterns of evolution, adaptation and coevolution to structural and functional features of proteins. Research on detecting coevolution between amino acid residues in proteins demonstrates a clear need for much greater numbers of closely related taxa to better discriminate site-specific patterns of interaction, and to allow more detailed analysis of coevolutionary interactions between subunits in protein complexes. It is argued that parsing out coevolutionary and other context-dependent substitution probabilities is essential for discriminating between coevolution and adaptation, and for more realistically modelling the evolution of proteins. Also reviewed is research that argues for increasing the efficiency of acquiring genomic biodiversity, and suggests that this might be done by simultaneously shotgun cloning and sequencing genomic mixtures from many species. Increased efficiency is a prerequisite if genomic biodiversity levels are to rapidly increase by orders of magnitude, and thus lead to dramatically improved understanding of interactions between

  18. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  19. The dependence of PGA and PGV on distance and magnitude inferred from Northern California ShakeMap data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Bundock, H.; Luetgert, J.; Seekins, L.; Gee, L.; Lombard, P.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze peak ground velocity (PGV) and peak ground acceleration (PGA) data from 95 moderate (3.5 ??? M 100 km, the peak motions attenuate more rapidly than a simple power law (that is, r-??) can fit. Instead, we use an attenuation function that combines a fixed power law (r-0.7) with a fitted exponential dependence on distance, which is estimated as expt(-0.0063r) and exp(-0.0073r) for PGV and PGA, respectively, for moderate earthquakes. We regress log(PGV) and log(PGA) as functions of distance and magnitude. We assume that the scaling of log(PGV) and log(PGA) with magnitude can differ for moderate and large earthquakes, but must be continuous. Because the frequencies that carry PGV and PGA can vary with earthquake size for large earthquakes, the regression for large earthquakes incorporates a magnitude dependence in the exponential attenuation function. We fix the scaling break between moderate and large earthquakes at M 5.5; log(PGV) and log(PGA) scale as 1.06M and 1.00M, respectively, for moderate earthquakes and 0.58M and 0.31M for large earthquakes.

  20. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-02-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  1. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  2. Variation of repeating earthquake activities depending on their focal depths as inferred from 3-D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyoshi, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hino, R.; Hasegawa, A.; Hori, T.; Kaneda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated depth dependence of the slip velocity of small repeating earthquakes using 3-D numerical simulations for a subduction zone involving large and small asperities based on a rate- and state-dependent friction law. In this study, we examined slip at small asperity located at depth of 5, 10 and 15 km. Our results reveal that the postseismic slip of a large earthquake trigger 'slow' slip (with slip velocity lower than that of the spontaneous rupture of the small asperity) rupture of the small asperity located at a depth of 15 km, whereas 'rapid' slip (with higher slip velocity) one at a depth of 5 km where the small asperity usually occur slow repeating earthquakes. In case of the small asperity at a depth of 10 km, all of events are seismic and recurrence intervals are temporally shorter in the passage of postseismic slip. Uchida et al. [2003; GRL] showed that the repeating earthquakes in the NE Japan subduction zones occur constantly, conforming with the rate of the plate convergence in the depth range of > ~40 km. On the other hand, shallow (< ~10 km) focus repeating earthquakes tend to be activated only in the postseismic period of nearby large interplate earthquakes and cumulative slip estimated from them is less than that expected from the plate convergence rate. In general, asperities in the shallower part are more stable than deeper ones because of low effective normal stress. Thus, most of the observed shallow repeating earthquakes may be 'rapid' slip events triggered by the postseismic slip of the neighboring large asperities, and the corresponding small asperities give rise to (aseismic) slow slip events usually.

  3. Molecular phylogenetics: testing evolutionary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David A; Sharma, Adrian K

    2009-01-01

    A common approach for investigating evolutionary relationships between genes and organisms is to compare extant DNA or protein sequences and infer an evolutionary tree. This methodology is known as molecular phylogenetics and may be the most informative means for exploring phage evolution, since there are few morphological features that can be used to differentiate between these tiny biological entities. In addition, phage genomes can be mosaic, meaning different genes or genomic regions can exhibit conflicting evolutionary histories due to lateral gene transfer or homologous recombination between different phage genomes. Molecular phylogenetics can be used to identify and study such genome mosaicism. This chapter provides a general introduction to the theory and methodology used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships from molecular data. Also included is a discussion on how the evolutionary history of different genes within the same set of genomes can be compared, using a collection of T4-type phage genomes as an example. A compilation of programs and packages that are available for conducting phylogenetic analyses is supplied as an accompanying appendix.

  4. Gravity wave activity in the thermosphere inferred from GOCE data, and its dependence on solar flux conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Bruinsma, Sean; Doornbos, Eelco; Massarweh, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on the effect of solar flux conditions on the dynamics of Gravity Waves (GW) in thermosphere. Air density and cross-wind in situ estimates from the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometers are analyzed for the whole mission duration. The analysis was performed in the Fourier spectral domain averaging spectral results over periods of 2 months close to solstices. First the Amplitude Spectral Density (ASD) and the Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC) of physical parameters are linked to local gravity waves. Then, a new GW marker (called Cf3) was introduced here to constrain GWs activity under Low, Medium and High solar flux conditions, showing a clear solar dumping effect on GW activity. Most of GW signal has been found in a spectral range above 8 mHz in GOCE data, meaning a maximum horizontal wavelength around 1000 km. The level GW activity at GOCE altitude is strongly decreasing with increasing solar flux. Furthermore, a shift in the dominant frequency with solar flux conditions has been noted, leading to a larger horizontal wavelengths (from 200 to 500 km) during high solar flux conditions. The influence of correlated error sources, between air density and cross-winds, is discussed. Consistency of the spectral domain results has been verified in time-domain with a global mapping of high frequency perturbations along GOCE orbit. This analysis shows a clear dependence with geomagnetic latitude with strong perturbations at magnetic poles, and an extension to lower latitudes favoured by low solar activity conditions. Various possible causes of this spatial trend are discussed.

  5. Mechanistic Inferences from the Binding of Ligands to LpxC, a Metal-Dependent Deacetylase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gennadios, Heather A.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Li, Xuechen; Fierke, Carol A.; Christianson, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The metal-dependent deacetylase LpxC catalyzes the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, LpxC is an attractive target for the development of inhibitors that may serve as potential new antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here, we report the 2.7 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with the substrate analogue inhibitor, TU-514, and the 2.0 Å resolution structure of LpxC complexed with imidazole. The X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with TU-514 allows for a detailed examination of the coordination geometry of the catalytic zinc ion and other enzyme-inhibitor interactions in the active site. The hydroxamate group of TU-514 forms a bidentate chelate complex with the zinc ion and makes hydrogen bond interactions with conserved active site residues E78, H265, and T191. The inhibitor C-4 hydroxyl group makes direct hydrogen bond interactions with E197 and H58. Finally, the C-3 myristate moiety of the inhibitor binds in the hydrophobic tunnel of the active site. These intermolecular interactions provide a foundation for understanding structural aspects of enzyme-substrate and enzyme-inhibitor affinity. Comparison of the TU-514 complex with cacodylate and imidazole complexes suggests a possible substrate diphosphate binding site and highlights residues that may stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate and its flanking transition states in catalysis. Evidence is also presented for a catalytic zinc ion in the native zinc enzyme coordinated by H79, H238, D242, and two water molecules with square pyramidal geometry. These results suggest that the native state of this metallohydrolase may contain a pentacoordinate zinc ion, which contrasts with the native states of archetypical zinc hydrolases such as thermolysin and carboxypeptidase A. PMID:16800620

  6. Cancer evolution: mathematical models and computational inference.

    PubMed

    Beerenwinkel, Niko; Schwarz, Roland F; Gerstung, Moritz; Markowetz, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a somatic evolutionary process characterized by the accumulation of mutations, which contribute to tumor growth, clinical progression, immune escape, and drug resistance development. Evolutionary theory can be used to analyze the dynamics of tumor cell populations and to make inference about the evolutionary history of a tumor from molecular data. We review recent approaches to modeling the evolution of cancer, including population dynamics models of tumor initiation and progression, phylogenetic methods to model the evolutionary relationship between tumor subclones, and probabilistic graphical models to describe dependencies among mutations. Evolutionary modeling helps to understand how tumors arise and will also play an increasingly important prognostic role in predicting disease progression and the outcome of medical interventions, such as targeted therapy.

  7. Cancer Evolution: Mathematical Models and Computational Inference

    PubMed Central

    Beerenwinkel, Niko; Schwarz, Roland F.; Gerstung, Moritz; Markowetz, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a somatic evolutionary process characterized by the accumulation of mutations, which contribute to tumor growth, clinical progression, immune escape, and drug resistance development. Evolutionary theory can be used to analyze the dynamics of tumor cell populations and to make inference about the evolutionary history of a tumor from molecular data. We review recent approaches to modeling the evolution of cancer, including population dynamics models of tumor initiation and progression, phylogenetic methods to model the evolutionary relationship between tumor subclones, and probabilistic graphical models to describe dependencies among mutations. Evolutionary modeling helps to understand how tumors arise and will also play an increasingly important prognostic role in predicting disease progression and the outcome of medical interventions, such as targeted therapy. PMID:25293804

  8. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-09-02

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.

  9. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  10. Extreme gender flexibility: using a phylogenetic framework to infer the evolution of variation in sex allocation, phylogeography, and speciation in a genus of bidirectional sex changing fishes(Lythrypnus, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Jessica M; Van Tassell, James L; St Mary, Colette M; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Crow, Karen D

    2012-09-01

    The genus Lythrypnus is a group of marine gobies that exhibit extreme gender flexibility as bidirectional sex changers. The genus consists of 20 described species and several undescribed species that are distributed in the Americas. Five species have been characterized with respect to sex allocation and gonad morphology. The hormonal, morphological, and behavioral aspects of sex change have been studied extensively for one species, L. dalli. These data, however, have not been interpreted in an evolutionary context because a phylogenetic hypothesis has not previously been proposed for the genus Lythrypnus. We propose the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on molecular data from three mitochondrial genes (12s, ND2, and Cytb), one nuclear gene (Rag1) and one nuclear intron (S7). We also include three previously undescribed Lythrypnus species. Our results support the monophyly of the genus with L. heterochroma, an Atlantic species, as the basal taxon. After the divergence of L. heterochroma, there are two main clades, one comprised of species distributed in the Atlantic, the other comprised of species distributed in the Pacific. These data indicate an Atlantic origin for the genus, followed by divergence after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Our data also support the monophyly of three previously described species complexes, the L. rhizophora complex and L. dalli complex in the Pacific, and the L. mowbrayi complex in the Atlantic. We mapped patterns of sex allocation within this genus onto the fully resolved and supported topology, and found that sexual plasticity and gender flexibility is likely a synapomorphy for the genus. Overall our results create a well-supported framework to understand the phylogeography of the genus, and to interpret the evolution of sex allocation in Lythrypnus gobies.

  11. Perceptual inference.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C

    2015-08-01

    Perceptual inference refers to the ability to infer sensory stimuli from predictions that result from internal neural representations built through prior experience. Methods of Bayesian statistical inference and decision theory model cognition adequately by using error sensing either in guiding action or in "generative" models that predict the sensory information. In this framework, perception can be seen as a process qualitatively distinct from sensation, a process of information evaluation using previously acquired and stored representations (memories) that is guided by sensory feedback. The stored representations can be utilised as internal models of sensory stimuli enabling long term associations, for example in operant conditioning. Evidence for perceptual inference is contributed by such phenomena as the cortical co-localisation of object perception with object memory, the response invariance in the responses of some neurons to variations in the stimulus, as well as from situations in which perception can be dissociated from sensation. In the context of perceptual inference, sensory areas of the cerebral cortex that have been facilitated by a priming signal may be regarded as comparators in a closed feedback loop, similar to the better known motor reflexes in the sensorimotor system. The adult cerebral cortex can be regarded as similar to a servomechanism, in using sensory feedback to correct internal models, producing predictions of the outside world on the basis of past experience.

  12. Apparent Dependence of Rate- and State-Dependent Friction Parameters on Loading Velocity and Cumulative Displacement Inferred from Large-Scale Biaxial Friction Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yumi; Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Noda, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the constitutive parameters in the rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) law by conducting numerical simulations, using the friction data from large-scale biaxial rock friction experiments for Indian metagabbro. The sliding surface area was 1.5 m long and 0.5 m wide, slid for 400 s under a normal stress of 1.33 MPa at a loading velocity of either 0.1 or 1.0 mm/s. During the experiments, many stick-slips were observed and those features were as follows. (1) The friction drop and recurrence time of the stick-slip events increased with cumulative slip displacement in an experiment before which the gouges on the surface were removed, but they became almost constant throughout an experiment conducted after several experiments without gouge removal. (2) The friction drop was larger and the recurrence time was shorter in the experiments with faster loading velocity. We applied a one-degree-of-freedom spring-slider model with mass to estimate the RSF parameters by fitting the stick-slip intervals and slip-weakening curves measured based on spring force and acceleration of the specimens. We developed an efficient algorithm for the numerical time integration, and we conducted forward modeling for evolution parameters (b) and the state-evolution distances (L_{c} ), keeping the direct effect parameter (a) constant. We then identified the confident range of b and L_{c} values. Comparison between the results of the experiments and our simulations suggests that both b and L_{c} increase as the cumulative slip displacement increases, and b increases and L_{c} decreases as the loading velocity increases. Conventional RSF laws could not explain the large-scale friction data, and more complex state evolution laws are needed.

  13. Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications inferred by mitochondrial intergenic region analyses and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Beauveria are cosmopolitan with a variety of different insect hosts. The two most important species, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, have already been used as biological control agents of pests in agriculture and as models for the study of insect host - pathogen interactions. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes, due to their properties to evolve faster than the nuclear DNA, to contain introns and mobile elements and to exhibit extended polymorphisms, are ideal tools to examine genetic diversity within fungal populations and genetically identify a species or a particular isolate. Moreover, mt intergenic region can provide valuable phylogenetic information to study the biogeography of the fungus. Results The complete mt genomes of B. bassiana (32,263 bp) and B. brongniartii (33,920 bp) were fully analysed. Apart from a typical gene content and organization, the Beauveria mt genomes contained several introns and had longer intergenic regions when compared with their close relatives. The phylogenetic diversity of a population of 84 Beauveria strains -mainly B. bassiana (n = 76) - isolated from temperate, sub-tropical and tropical habitats was examined by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of two mt intergenic regions (atp6-rns and nad3-atp9) and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 domain. Mt sequences allowed better differentiation of strains than the ITS region. Based on mt and the concatenated dataset of all genes, the B. bassiana strains were placed into two main clades: (a) the B. bassiana s. l. and (b) the "pseudobassiana". The combination of molecular phylogeny with criteria of geographic and climatic origin showed for the first time in entomopathogenic fungi, that the B. bassiana s. l. can be subdivided into seven clusters with common climate characteristics. Conclusions This study indicates that mt genomes and in particular intergenic regions provide molecular phylogeny tools that combined with criteria of geographic and

  14. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Repo, Susanna T.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2009-07-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called "phylogenomics") is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  15. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Repo, Susanna T; Brenner, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called “phylogenomics”) is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods. PMID:20664722

  16. TREEFINDER: a powerful graphical analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Jobb, Gangolf; von Haeseler, Arndt; Strimmer, Korbinian

    2004-01-01

    Background Most analysis programs for inferring molecular phylogenies are difficult to use, in particular for researchers with little programming experience. Results TREEFINDER is an easy-to-use integrative platform-independent analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics. In this paper the main features of TREEFINDER (version of April 2004) are described. TREEFINDER is written in ANSI C and Java and implements powerful statistical approaches for inferring gene tree and related analyzes. In addition, it provides a user-friendly graphical interface and a phylogenetic programming language. Conclusions TREEFINDER is a versatile framework for analyzing phylogenetic data across different platforms that is suited both for exploratory as well as advanced studies. PMID:15222900

  17. Revisiting the Acanthamoeba species that form star-shaped cysts (genotypes T7, T8, T9, and T17): characterization of seven new Brazilian environmental isolates and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Ana C M; Teixeira, Marta M G; Alfieri, Silvia C

    2012-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the agents of both opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections and are frequently isolated from the environment. Of the 17 genotypes (T1-T17) identified thus far, 4 (T7, T8, T9, and T17) accommodate the rarely investigated species of morphological group I, those that form large, star-shaped cysts. We report the isolation and characterization of 7 new Brazilian environmental Acanthamoeba isolates, all assigned to group I. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial (~1200 bp) SSU rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the robustly supported clade composed of the species of morphological group I. One of the Brazilian isolates is closely related to A. comandoni (genotype T9), while the other 6, together with 2 isolates recently assigned to genotype T17, form a homogeneous, well-supported group (2·0% sequence divergence) that likely represents a new Acanthamoeba species. Thermotolerance, osmotolerance, and cytophatic effects, features often associated with pathogenic potential, were also examined. The results indicated that all 7 Brazilian isolates grow at temperatures up to 40°C, and resist under hyperosmotic conditions. Additionally, media conditioned by each of the new Acanthamoeba isolates induced the disruption of SIRC and HeLa cell monolayers.

  18. A mitochondrial genome phylogeny of owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea), and examination of the utility of mitochondrial genomes for lepidopteran phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiushuai; Cameron, Stephen L; Lees, David C; Xue, Dayong; Han, Hongxiang

    2015-04-01

    A phylogenetic hypothesis for the lepidopteran superfamily Noctuoidea was inferred based on the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 12 species (six newly sequenced). The monophyly of each noctuoid family in the latest classification was well supported. Novel and robust relationships were recovered at the family level, in contrast to previous analyses using nuclear genes. Erebidae was recovered as sister to (Nolidae+(Euteliidae+Noctuidae)), while Notodontidae was sister to all these taxa (the putatively basalmost lineage Oenosandridae was not included). In order to improve phylogenetic resolution using mt genomes, various analytical approaches were tested: Bayesian inference (BI) vs. maximum likelihood (ML), excluding vs. including RNA genes (rRNA or tRNA), and Gblocks treatment. The evolutionary signal within mt genomes had low sensitivity to analytical changes. Inference methods had the most significant influence. Inclusion of tRNAs positively increased the congruence of topologies, while inclusion of rRNAs resulted in a range of phylogenetic relationships varying depending on other analytical factors. The two Gblocks parameter settings had opposite effects on nodal support between the two inference methods. The relaxed parameter (GBRA) resulted in higher support values in BI analyses, while the strict parameter (GBDH) resulted in higher support values in ML analyses.

  19. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden "jewels" in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  20. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden “jewels” in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Russian far eastern flatfish (Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae) based on two mitochondrial gene sequences, Co-1 and Cyt-b, with inferences in order phylogeny using complete mitogenome data.

    PubMed

    Kartavtsev, Yuri Phedorovich; Sharina, Svetlana N; Saitoh, Kenji; Imoto, Junichi M; Hanzawa, Naoto; Redin, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    The systematics and phylogeny of flatfish is investigated on the complete sequence of nucleotides at subunit 1 cytochrome c oxidase (Co-1) and cytochrome b (Cyt-b) genes. In total 17 species from our collection and some species from GenBank were analyzed. Four types of trees were built: Bayesian (BA), maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and neighbor joining (NJ). These trees showed similar topology. Two separate clusters on the trees support subfamily Hippoglossoidinae and Hippoglossinae subdivision and monophyletic status of these taxa. The subfamily Pleuronectinae also can be considered monophyletic, if the tribe Microstomini is excluded from it and genus Lepidopsetta is moved into the tribe Pleuronectini. Mitogenomes represented by 25 complete sequences from NCBI GenBank were analyzed. After alignment two sets of nucleotide sequences were formed and investigated independently. One set included 13 structural genes (14,886 bp), the second set comprised by the mtDNA without ND6 gene (10,457 bp). Both data sets give congruent phylogenetic signal that agreed with conventional views on the taxonomy of the order Pleuronectiformes; however, the first set gives better topology. In BA gene tree there are two well supported nodes which include the representatives of suborders Pleuronectoidei and Psettoidei. Within Pleuronectoidei two superfamilies, Pleuronectoidea and Soleidea are highly supported in BA but in all four kinds of gene trees (BA, ML, MP and NJ) the only superfamily Pleuronectoidea is well supported. At the top of hierarchy, all flatfishes belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes forming also a monophyletic clade in our data, with support level of 100% but in BA tree only. The monophyly of the family Pleuronectidae is well supported both by single gene data and by complete mtDNA sequences.

  2. Not all non-natives are equally unequal: reductions in herbivore β-diversity depend on phylogenetic similarity to native plant community.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Karin T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    Effects of host plant α- and β-diversity often confound studies of herbivore β-diversity, hindering our ability to predict the full impact of non-native plants on herbivores. Here, while controlling host plant diversity, we examined variation in herbivore communities between native and non-native plants, focusing on how plant relatedness and spatial scale alter the result. We found lower absolute magnitudes of β-diversity among tree species and among sites on non-natives in all comparisons. However, lower relative β-diversity only occurred for immature herbivores on phylogenetically distinct non-natives vs. natives. Locally in that comparison, non-native gardens had lower host specificity; while among sites, the herbivores supported were a redundant subset of species on natives. Therefore, when phylogenetically distinct non-natives replace native plants, the community of immature herbivores is likely to be homogenised across landscapes. Differences in communities on closely related non-natives were subtler, but displayed community shifts and increased generalisation on non-natives within certain feeding guilds.

  3. A global phylogenetic analysis in order to determine the host species and geography dependent features present in the evolution of avian H9N2 influenza hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir

    2014-01-01

    A complete phylogenetic analysis of all of the H9N2 hemagglutinin sequences that were collected between 1966 and 2012 was carried out in order to build a picture of the geographical and host specific evolution of the hemagglutinin protein. To improve the quality and applicability of the output data the sequences were divided into subsets based upon location and host species. The phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin reveals that the protein has distinct lineages between China and the Middle East, and that wild birds in both regions retain a distinct form of the H9 molecule, from the same lineage as the ancestral hemagglutinin. The results add further evidence to the hypothesis that the current predominant H9N2 hemagglutinin lineage might have originated in Southern China. The study also shows that there are sampling problems that affect the reliability of this and any similar analysis. This raises questions about the surveillance of H9N2 and the need for wider sampling of the virus in the environment. The results of this analysis are also consistent with a model where hemagglutinin has predominantly evolved by neutral drift punctuated by occasional selection events. These selective events have produced the current pattern of distinct lineages in the Middle East, Korea and China. This interpretation is in agreement with existing studies that have shown that there is widespread intra-country sequence evolution. PMID:25374791

  4. Primate molecular phylogenetics in a genomic era.

    PubMed

    Ting, Nelson; Sterner, Kirstin N

    2013-02-01

    A primary objective of molecular phylogenetics is to use molecular data to elucidate the evolutionary history of living organisms. Dr. Morris Goodman founded the journal Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution as a forum where scientists could further our knowledge about the tree of life, and he recognized that the inference of species trees is a first and fundamental step to addressing many important evolutionary questions. In particular, Dr. Goodman was interested in obtaining a complete picture of the primate species tree in order to provide an evolutionary context for the study of human adaptations. A number of recent studies use multi-locus datasets to infer well-resolved and well-supported primate phylogenetic trees using consensus approaches (e.g., supermatrices). It is therefore tempting to assume that we have a complete picture of the primate tree, especially above the species level. However, recent theoretical and empirical work in the field of molecular phylogenetics demonstrates that consensus methods might provide a false sense of support at certain nodes. In this brief review we discuss the current state of primate molecular phylogenetics and highlight the importance of exploring the use of coalescent-based analyses that have the potential to better utilize information contained in multi-locus data.

  5. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided.

  7. Evolution of prokaryote and eukaryote lines inferred from sequence evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. T.; George, D. G.; Yeh, L.-S.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of prokaryotes and early eukaryotes, including their symbiotic relationships, as inferred from phylogenetic trees of bacterial ferredoxin, 5S ribosomal RNA, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase large chain, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase polypeptide II.

  8. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of honey bee behavioral evolution.

    PubMed

    Raffiudin, Rika; Crozier, Ross H

    2007-05-01

    DNA sequences from three mitochondrial (rrnL, cox2, nad2) and one nuclear gene (itpr) from all 9 known honey bee species (Apis), a 10th possible species, Apis dorsata binghami, and three outgroup species (Bombus terrestris, Melipona bicolor and Trigona fimbriata) were used to infer Apis phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian analysis. The dwarf honey bees were confirmed as basal, and the giant and cavity-nesting species to be monophyletic. All nodes were strongly supported except that grouping Apis cerana with A. nigrocincta. Two thousand post-burnin trees from the phylogenetic analysis were used in a Bayesian comparative analysis to explore the evolution of dance type, nest structure, comb structure and dance sound within Apis. The ancestral honey bee species was inferred with high support to have nested in the open, and to have more likely than not had a silent vertical waggle dance and a single comb. The common ancestor of the giant and cavity-dwelling bees is strongly inferred to have had a buzzing vertical directional dance. All pairwise combinations of characters showed strong association, but the multiple comparisons problem reduces the ability to infer associations between states between characters. Nevertheless, a buzzing dance is significantly associated with cavity-nesting, several vertical combs, and dancing vertically, a horizontal dance is significantly associated with a nest with a single comb wrapped around the support, and open nesting with a single pendant comb and a silent waggle dance.

  10. Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks. PMID:24916411

  11. Phylogenetic Diversification of the Globin Gene Superfamily in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Opazo, Juan C.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phylogenetic reconstructions provide a means of inferring the branching relationships among members of multigene families that have diversified via successive rounds of gene duplication and divergence. Such reconstructions can illuminate the pathways by which particular expression patterns and protein functions evolved. For example, phylogenetic analyses can reveal cases in which similar expression patterns or functional properties evolved independently in different lineages, either through convergence, parallelism, or evolutionary reversals. The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust phylogenetic framework for interpreting experimental data and for generating hypotheses about the functional evolution of globin proteins in chordate animals. To do this we present a consensus phylogeny of the chordate globin gene superfamily. We document the relative roles of gene duplication and whole-genome duplication in fueling the functional diversification of vertebrate globins, and we unravel patterns of shared ancestry among globin genes from representatives of the three chordate subphyla (Craniata, Urochordata, and Cephalochordata). Our results demonstrate the value of integrating phylogenetic analyses with genomic analyses of conserved synteny to infer the duplicative origins and evolutionary histories of globin genes. We also discuss a number of case studies that illustrate the importance of phylogenetic information when making inferences about the evolution of globin gene expression and protein function. Finally, we discuss why the globin gene superfamily presents special challenges for phylogenetic analysis, and we describe methodological approaches that can be used to meet those challenges. PMID:21557448

  12. Use of phylogenetics in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary studies of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Hon, Chung-Chau; Tang, Julian W

    2010-01-01

    Since DNA sequencing techniques first became available almost 30 years ago, the amount of nucleic acid sequence data has increased enormously. Phylogenetics, which is widely applied to compare and analyze such data, is particularly useful for the analysis of genes from rapidly evolving viruses. It has been used extensively to describe the molecular epidemiology and transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the origins and subsequent evolution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SCoV), and, more recently, the evolving epidemiology of avian influenza as well as seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses. Recent advances in phylogenetic methods can infer more in-depth information about the patterns of virus emergence, adding to the conventional approaches in viral epidemiology. Examples of this information include estimations (with confidence limits) of the actual time of the origin of a new viral strain or its emergence in a new species, viral recombination and reassortment events, the rate of population size change in a viral epidemic, and how the virus spreads and evolves within a specific population and geographical region. Such sequence-derived information obtained from the phylogenetic tree can assist in the design and implementation of public health and therapeutic interventions. However, application of many of these advanced phylogenetic methods are currently limited to specialized phylogeneticists and statisticians, mainly because of their mathematical basis and their dependence on the use of a large number of computer programs. This review attempts to bridge this gap by presenting conceptual, technical, and practical aspects of applying phylogenetic methods in studies of influenza, HIV, and SCoV. It aims to provide, with minimal mathematics and statistics, a practical overview of how phylogenetic methods can be incorporated into virological studies by clinical and laboratory specialists.

  13. Reticulate Phylogenetics of Wild Potato Polyploids Inferred From Multilocus Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 190 wild potato (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72), as well as a few rare triploids and pentaploids. Previous studies using nuclear ortholog DNA sequences GBSSI (waxy) and nitrate reductase (NIA) indicated that the polyploids may have au...

  14. Inferring Bounded Evolution in Phenotypic Characters from Phylogenetic Comparative Data.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Florian C; Démery, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of phenotypic evolution over macroevolutionary timescales largely relies on the use of stochastic models for the evolution of continuous traits over phylogenies. The two most widely used models, Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process, differ in that the latter includes constraints on the variance that a trait can attain in a clade. The OU model explicitly models adaptive evolution toward a trait optimum and has thus been widely used to demonstrate the existence of stabilizing selection on a trait. Here we introduce a new model for the evolution of continuous characters on phylogenies: Brownian motion between two reflective bounds, or Bounded Brownian Motion (BBM). This process also models evolutionary constraints, but of a very different kind. We provide analytical expressions for the likelihood of BBM and present a method to calculate the likelihood numerically, as well as the associated R code. Numerical simulations show that BBM achieves good performance: parameter estimation is generally accurate but more importantly BBM can be very easily discriminated from both BM and OU. We then analyze climatic niche evolution in diprotodonts and find that BBM best fits this empirical data set, suggesting that the climatic niches of diprotodonts are bounded by the climate available in Australia and the neighboring islands but probably evolved with little additional constraints. We conclude that BBM is a valuable addition to the macroevolutionary toolbox, which should enable researchers to elucidate whether the phenotypic traits they study are evolving under hard constraints between bounds.

  15. Inferring Pedigree Graphs from Genetic Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takeyuki; Ito, Hiro

    In this paper, we study a problem of inferring blood relationships which satisfy a given matrix of genetic distances between all pairs of n nodes. Blood relationships are represented by our proposed graph class, which is called a pedigree graph. A pedigree graph is a directed acyclic graph in which the maximum indegree is at most two. We show that the number of pedigree graphs which satisfy the condition of given genetic distances may be exponential, but they can be represented by one directed acyclic graph with n nodes. Moreover, an O(n3) time algorithm which solves the problem is also given. Although phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks are similar data structures to pedigree graphs, it seems that inferring methods for phylogenetic trees and networks cannot be applied to infer pedigree graphs since nodes of phylogenetic trees and networks represent species whereas nodes of pedigree graphs represent individuals. We also show an O(n2) time algorithm which detects a contradiction between a given pedigreee graph and distance matrix of genetic distances.

  16. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Leaché, Adam D; Banbury, Barbara L; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  17. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Leaché, Adam D.; Banbury, Barbara L.; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  18. LSHPlace: fast phylogenetic placement using locality-sensitive hashing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel G; Truszkowski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of phylogenetic placement, in which large numbers of sequences (often next-generation sequencing reads) are placed onto an existing phylogenetic tree. We adapt our recent work on phylogenetic tree inference, which uses ancestral sequence reconstruction and locality-sensitive hashing, to this domain. With these ideas, new sequences can be placed onto trees with high fidelity in strikingly fast runtimes. Our results are two orders of magnitude faster than existing programs for this domain, and show a modest accuracy tradeoff. Our results offer the possibility of analyzing many more reads in a next-generation sequencing project than is currently possible.

  19. Inverse Ising inference with correlated samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel

    2014-12-01

    Correlations between two variables of a high-dimensional system can be indicative of an underlying interaction, but can also result from indirect effects. Inverse Ising inference is a method to distinguish one from the other. Essentially, the parameters of the least constrained statistical model are learned from the observed correlations such that direct interactions can be separated from indirect correlations. Among many other applications, this approach has been helpful for protein structure prediction, because residues which interact in the 3D structure often show correlated substitutions in a multiple sequence alignment. In this context, samples used for inference are not independent but share an evolutionary history on a phylogenetic tree. Here, we discuss the effects of correlations between samples on global inference. Such correlations could arise due to phylogeny but also via other slow dynamical processes. We present a simple analytical model to address the resulting inference biases, and develop an exact method accounting for background correlations in alignment data by combining phylogenetic modeling with an adaptive cluster expansion algorithm. We find that popular reweighting schemes are only marginally effective at removing phylogenetic bias, suggest a rescaling strategy that yields better results, and provide evidence that our conclusions carry over to the frequently used mean-field approach to the inverse Ising problem.

  20. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  1. Phylogenetically Distant Viruses Use the Same BH3-Only Protein Puma to Trigger Bax/Bak-Dependent Apoptosis of Infected Mouse and Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papaianni, Emanuela; El Maadidi, Souhayla; Schejtman, Andrea; Neumann, Simon; Maurer, Ulrich; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Borner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can trigger apoptosis of infected host cells if not counteracted by cellular or viral anti-apoptotic proteins. These protective proteins either inhibit the activation of caspases or they act as Bcl-2 homologs to prevent Bax/Bak-mediated outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The exact mechanism by which viruses trigger MOMP has however remained enigmatic. Here we use two distinct types of viruses, a double stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to show that the BH3-only protein Puma is the major mediator of virus-induced Bax/Bak activation and MOMP induction. Indeed, when Puma was genetically deleted or downregulated by shRNA, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and IL-3-dependent monocytes as well as human colon carcinoma cells were as resistant to virus-induced apoptosis as their Bax/Bak double deficient counterparts (Bax/Bak-/-). Puma protein expression started to augment after 2 h postinfection with both viruses. Puma mRNA levels increased as well, but this occurred after apoptosis initiation (MOMP) because it was blocked in cells lacking Bax/Bak or overexpressing Bcl-xL. Moreover, none of the classical Puma transcription factors such as p53, p73 or p65 NFκB were involved in HSV-1-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that viruses use a Puma protein-dependent mechanism to trigger MOMP and apoptosis in host cells. PMID:26030884

  2. Phylogenetically Distant Viruses Use the Same BH3-Only Protein Puma to Trigger Bax/Bak-Dependent Apoptosis of Infected Mouse and Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Papaianni, Emanuela; El Maadidi, Souhayla; Schejtman, Andrea; Neumann, Simon; Maurer, Ulrich; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Borner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can trigger apoptosis of infected host cells if not counteracted by cellular or viral anti-apoptotic proteins. These protective proteins either inhibit the activation of caspases or they act as Bcl-2 homologs to prevent Bax/Bak-mediated outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The exact mechanism by which viruses trigger MOMP has however remained enigmatic. Here we use two distinct types of viruses, a double stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to show that the BH3-only protein Puma is the major mediator of virus-induced Bax/Bak activation and MOMP induction. Indeed, when Puma was genetically deleted or downregulated by shRNA, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and IL-3-dependent monocytes as well as human colon carcinoma cells were as resistant to virus-induced apoptosis as their Bax/Bak double deficient counterparts (Bax/Bak-/-). Puma protein expression started to augment after 2 h postinfection with both viruses. Puma mRNA levels increased as well, but this occurred after apoptosis initiation (MOMP) because it was blocked in cells lacking Bax/Bak or overexpressing Bcl-xL. Moreover, none of the classical Puma transcription factors such as p53, p73 or p65 NFκB were involved in HSV-1-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that viruses use a Puma protein-dependent mechanism to trigger MOMP and apoptosis in host cells.

  3. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure.

  4. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomophthoromycota Humber is one of five major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular st...

  5. Maximum parsimony, substitution model, and probability phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Weng, J F; Thomas, D A; Mareels, I

    2011-01-01

    The problem of inferring phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) is one of the main problems in computational biology. There are three main methods for inferring phylogenies-Maximum Parsimony (MP), Distance Matrix (DM) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), of which the MP method is the most well-studied and popular method. In the MP method the optimization criterion is the number of substitutions of the nucleotides computed by the differences in the investigated nucleotide sequences. However, the MP method is often criticized as it only counts the substitutions observable at the current time and all the unobservable substitutions that really occur in the evolutionary history are omitted. In order to take into account the unobservable substitutions, some substitution models have been established and they are now widely used in the DM and ML methods but these substitution models cannot be used within the classical MP method. Recently the authors proposed a probability representation model for phylogenetic trees and the reconstructed trees in this model are called probability phylogenetic trees. One of the advantages of the probability representation model is that it can include a substitution model to infer phylogenetic trees based on the MP principle. In this paper we explain how to use a substitution model in the reconstruction of probability phylogenetic trees and show the advantage of this approach with examples.

  6. Effect of medium dependent binding energies on inferring the temperatures and freeze-out density of disassembling hot nuclear matter from cluster yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomo, S.; Röpke, G.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Bonasera, A.

    2009-03-01

    We explore the abundance of light clusters in asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation density. With increasing density, binding energies and wave functions are modified due to medium effects. The method of Albergo, Costa, Costanzo, and Rubbino (ACCR) for determining the temperature and free nucleon density of a disassembling hot nuclear source from fragment yields is modified to include, in addition to Coulomb effects and flow, also effects of medium modifications of cluster properties, which become of importance when the nuclear matter density is above 10-3fm-3. We show how the analysis of cluster yields, to infer temperature and nucleon densities, is modified if the shifts in binding energies of in medium clusters are included. Although, at low densities, the temperature calculated from given yields changes only modestly if medium effects are taken into account, larger discrepancies are observed when the nucleon densities are determined from measured yields.

  7. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nikaido, Masato; Hamilton, Healy; Goto, Mutsuo; Kato, Hidehiro; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis; Cao, Ying; Fordyce, R; Hasegawa, Masami; Okada, Norihiro

    2005-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among baleen whales (Order: Cetacea) remain uncertain despite extensive research in cetacean molecular phylogenetics and a potential morphological sample size of over 2 million animals harvested. Questions remain regarding the number of species and the monophyly of genera, as well as higher order relationships. Here, we approach mysticete phylogeny with complete mitochondrial genome sequence analysis. We determined complete mtDNA sequences of 10 extant Mysticeti species, inferred their phylogenetic relationships, and estimated node divergence times. The mtDNA sequence analysis concurs with previous molecular studies in the ordering of the principal branches, with Balaenidae (right whales) as sister to all other mysticetes base, followed by Neobalaenidae (pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (gray whale), and finally Balaenopteridae (rorquals + humpback whale). The mtDNA analysis further suggests that four lineages exist within the clade of Eschrichtiidae + Balaenopteridae, including a sister relationship between the humpback and fin whales, and a monophyletic group formed by the blue, sei, and Bryde's whales, each of which represents a newly recognized phylogenetic relationship in Mysticeti. We also estimated the divergence times of all extant mysticete species, accounting for evolutionary rate heterogeneity among lineages. When the mtDNA divergence estimates are compared with the mysticete fossil record, several lineages have molecular divergence estimates strikingly older than indicated by paleontological data. We suggest this discrepancy reflects both a large amount of ancestral polymorphism and long generation times of ancestral baleen whale populations.

  8. A taxonomic and phylogenetic re-appraisal of the genus Curvularia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Curvularia are important plant and human pathogens worldwide. In this study, the genus Curvularia is re-assessed based on molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphological observations of available isolates and specimens. A multi-gene phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS, TEF and GPDH gene...

  9. The rapidly changing landscape of insect phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Maddison, David R

    2016-12-01

    Insect phylogenetics is being profoundly changed by many innovations. Although rapid developments in genomics have center stage, key progress has been made in phenomics, field and museum science, digital databases and pipelines, analytical tools, and the culture of science. The importance of these methodological and cultural changes to the pace of inference of the hexapod Tree of Life is discussed. The innovations have the potential, when synthesized and mobilized in ways as yet unforeseen, to shine light on the million or more clades in insects, and infer their composition with confidence. There are many challenges to overcome before insects can enter the 'phylocognisant age', but because of the promise of genomics, phenomics, and informatics, that is now an imaginable future.

  10. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive

  11. Phylogenetic signal in bone microstructure of sauropsids.

    PubMed

    Cubo, J; Ponton, F; Laurin, M; de Margerie, E; Castanet, J

    2005-08-01

    In spite of the fact that the potential usefulness of bone histology in systematics has been discussed for over one and a half centuries, the presence of a phylogenetic signal in the variation of histological characters has rarely been assessed. A quantitative assessment of phylogenetic signal in bone histological characters could provide a justification for performing optimizations of these traits onto independently generated phylogenetic trees (as has been done in recent years). Here we present an investigation on the quantification of the phylogenetic signal in the following bone histological, microanatomical, and morphological traits in a sample of femora of 35 species of sauropsids: vascular density, vascular orientation, index of Haversian remodeling, cortical thickness, and cross-sectional area (bone size). For this purpose, we use two methods, regressions on distance matrices tested for significance using permutations (a Mantel test) and random tree length distribution. Within sauropsids, these bone microstructural traits have an optimal systematic value in archosaurs. In this taxon, a Mantel test shows that the phylogeny explains 81.8% of the variation of bone size and 86.2% of the variation of cortical thickness. In contrast, a Mantel test suggests that the phylogenetic signal in histological traits is weak: although the phylogeny explains 18.7% of the variation of vascular density in archosaurs, the phylogenetic signal is not significant either for vascular orientation or for the index of Haversian remodeling. However, Mantel tests seem to underestimate the proportion of variance of the dependent character explained by the phylogeny, as suggested by a PVR (phylogenetic eigenvector) analysis. We also deal with some complementary questions. First, we evaluate the functional dependence of bone vascular density on bone size by using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Second, we perform a variation partitioning analysis and show that the phylogenetic

  12. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  13. Molecular phylogenetics before sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Mark A; Bernard, Guillaume; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2014-01-01

    From 1971 to 1985, Carl Woese and colleagues generated oligonucleotide catalogs of 16S/18S rRNAs from more than 400 organisms. Using these incomplete and imperfect data, Carl and his colleagues developed unprecedented insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the large RNA components of the translational apparatus. They recognized a third domain of life, revealed the phylogenetic backbone of bacteria (and its limitations), delineated taxa, and explored the tempo and mode of microbial evolution. For these discoveries to have stood the test of time, oligonucleotide catalogs must carry significant phylogenetic signal; they thus bear re-examination in view of the current interest in alignment-free phylogenetics based on k-mers. Here we consider the aims, successes, and limitations of this early phase of molecular phylogenetics. We computationally generate oligonucleotide sets (e-catalogs) from 16S/18S rRNA sequences, calculate pairwise distances between them based on D2 statistics, compute distance trees, and compare their performance against alignment-based and k-mer trees. Although the catalogs themselves were superseded by full-length sequences, this stage in the development of computational molecular biology remains instructive for us today. PMID:24572375

  14. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    the shared morphological characters in these groups are plesiomorphies, originated in the branch leading to Medusozoa. The expansion of mitogenomic data along with improvements in phylogenetic inference methods and use of additional nuclear markers will further enhance our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and character evolution within Cnidaria. PMID:23302374

  15. Evolutionary inference via the Poisson Indel Process.

    PubMed

    Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre; Jordan, Michael I

    2013-01-22

    We address the problem of the joint statistical inference of phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments from unaligned molecular sequences. This problem is generally formulated in terms of string-valued evolutionary processes along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. The classic evolutionary process, the TKF91 model [Thorne JL, Kishino H, Felsenstein J (1991) J Mol Evol 33(2):114-124] is a continuous-time Markov chain model composed of insertion, deletion, and substitution events. Unfortunately, this model gives rise to an intractable computational problem: The computation of the marginal likelihood under the TKF91 model is exponential in the number of taxa. In this work, we present a stochastic process, the Poisson Indel Process (PIP), in which the complexity of this computation is reduced to linear. The Poisson Indel Process is closely related to the TKF91 model, differing only in its treatment of insertions, but it has a global characterization as a Poisson process on the phylogeny. Standard results for Poisson processes allow key computations to be decoupled, which yields the favorable computational profile of inference under the PIP model. We present illustrative experiments in which Bayesian inference under the PIP model is compared with separate inference of phylogenies and alignments.

  16. Moment inference from tomograms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.

    2007-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Student interpretations of phylogenetic trees in an introductory biology course.

    PubMed

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, to measure the prevalence of correct taxa-relatedness interpretations, and to determine how student reasoning and correctness change in response to instruction and over time. Counting synapomorphies and nodes between taxa were the most common forms of incorrect reasoning, which presents a pedagogical dilemma concerning labeled synapomorphies on phylogenetic trees. Students also independently generated an alternative form of correct reasoning using monophyletic groups, the use of which decreased in popularity over time. Approximately half of all students were able to correctly interpret taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, and many memorized correct reasoning without understanding its application. Broad initial instruction that allowed students to generate inferences on their own contributed very little to phylogenetic tree understanding, while targeted instruction on evolutionary relationships improved understanding to some extent. Phylogenetic trees, which can directly affect student understanding of evolution, appear to offer introductory biology instructors a formidable pedagogical challenge.

  18. Refuting phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bucknam, James; Boucher, Yan; Bapteste, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic methods are philosophically grounded, and so can be philosophically biased in ways that limit explanatory power. This constitutes an important methodologic dimension not often taken into account. Here we address this dimension in the context of concatenation approaches to phylogeny. Results We discuss some of the limits of a methodology restricted to verificationism, the philosophy on which gene concatenation practices generally rely. As an alternative, we describe a software which identifies and focuses on impossible or refuted relationships, through a simple analysis of bootstrap bipartitions, followed by multivariate statistical analyses. We show how refuting phylogenetic relationships could in principle facilitate systematics. We also apply our method to the study of two complex phylogenies: the phylogeny of the archaea and the phylogeny of the core of genes shared by all life forms. While many groups are rejected, our results left open a possible proximity of N. equitans and the Methanopyrales, of the Archaea and the Cyanobacteria, and as well the possible grouping of the Methanobacteriales/Methanoccocales and Thermosplasmatales, of the Spirochaetes and the Actinobacteria and of the Proteobacteria and firmicutes. Conclusion It is sometimes easier (and preferable) to decide which species do not group together than which ones do. When possible topologies are limited, identifying local relationships that are rejected may be a useful alternative to classical concatenation approaches aiming to find a globally resolved tree on the basis of weak phylogenetic markers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Mark Ragan, Eugene V Koonin and J Peter Gogarten. PMID:16956399

  19. A phylogenetic approach to disentangling the role of competition and habitat filtering in community assembly of Neotropical forest birds.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Gustavo A; Brumfield, Robb T; Tello, José G; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2010-11-01

    1. Methods that assess patterns of phylogenetic relatedness, as well as character distribution and evolution, allow one to infer the ecological processes involved in community assembly. Assuming niche conservatism, assemblages should shift from phylogenetic clustering to evenness with decreasing geographic scale because the relative importance of mechanisms that shape assemblages is hypothesized to be scale-dependent. Whereas habitat filtering is more likely to act at regional scales because of increased habitat heterogeneity that allows sorting of ecologically similar species in contrasting environments, competition is more likely to act at local scales because low habitat heterogeneity provides few opportunities for niche partitioning. 2. We used species lists to assess assemblage composition, data on ecologically-relevant traits, and a molecular phylogeny, to examine the phylogenetic structure of antbird (Thamnophilidae) assemblages at three different geographical scales: regional (ecoregions), intermediate (100-ha plots) and local (mixed-flocks). In addition, we used patterns of phylogenetic beta diversity and beta diversity to separate the factors that structure antbird assemblages at regional scales. 3. Contrary to previous findings, we found a shift from phylogenetic evenness to clustering with decreasing geographical scale. We argue that this does not reject the hypothesis that habitat filtering is the predominant force in regional community assembly, because analyses of trait evolution and structure indicated a lack of niche conservatism in antbirds. 4. In some cases, phylogenetic evenness at regional scales can be an effect of historical biogeographic processes instead of niche-based processes. However, regional patterns of beta diversity and phylogenetic beta diversity suggested that phylogenetic structure in our study cannot be explained by the history of speciation and dispersal of antbirds, further supporting the habitat-filtering hypothesis. 5. Our

  20. Quantifying Age-dependent Extinction from Species Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Helen K.; Lambert, Amaury; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Several ecological factors that could play into species extinction are expected to correlate with species age, i.e., time elapsed since the species arose by speciation. To date, however, statistical tools to incorporate species age into likelihood-based phylogenetic inference have been lacking. We present here a computational framework to quantify age-dependent extinction through maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on phylogenetic trees, assuming species lifetimes are gamma distributed. Testing on simulated trees shows that neglecting age dependence can lead to biased estimates of key macroevolutionary parameters. We then apply this method to two real data sets, namely a complete phylogeny of birds (class Aves) and a clade of self-compatible and -incompatible nightshades (Solanaceae), gaining initial insights into the extent to which age-dependent extinction may help explain macroevolutionary patterns. Our methods have been added to the R package TreePar. PMID:26405218

  1. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Alexei J.; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth–death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the ‘morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences

  2. The power of phylogenetic approaches to detect horizontally transferred genes

    PubMed Central

    Poptsova, Maria S; Gogarten, J Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in evolution because it sometimes allows recipient lineages to adapt to new ecological niches. High genes transfer frequencies were inferred for prokaryotic and early eukaryotic evolution. Does horizontal gene transfer also impact phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of genomes and organisms? The answer to this question depends at least in part on the actual gene transfer frequencies and on the ability to weed out transferred genes from further analyses. Are the detected transfers mainly false positives, or are they the tip of an iceberg of many transfer events most of which go undetected by current methods? Results Phylogenetic detection methods appear to be the method of choice to infer gene transfers, especially for ancient transfers and those followed by orthologous replacement. Here we explore how well some of these methods perform using in silico transfers between the terminal branches of a gamma proteobacterial, genome based phylogeny. For the experiments performed here on average the AU test at a 5% significance level detects 90.3% of the transfers and 91% of the exchanges as significant. Using the Robinson-Foulds distance only 57.7% of the exchanges and 60% of the donations were identified as significant. Analyses using bipartition spectra appeared most successful in our test case. The power of detection was on average 97% using a 70% cut-off and 94.2% with 90% cut-off for identifying conflicting bipartitions, while the rate of false positives was below 4.2% and 2.1% for the two cut-offs, respectively. For all methods the detection rates improved when more intervening branches separated donor and recipient. Conclusion Rates of detected transfers should not be mistaken for the actual transfer rates; most analyses of gene transfers remain anecdotal. The method and significance level to identify potential gene transfer events represent a trade-off between the frequency of erroneous

  3. Phylogenetics of Lophodermium from pine.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-García, Sol; Gernandt, David S; Stone, Jeffrey K; Johnston, Peter R; Chapela, Ignacio H; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2003-01-01

    Lophodermium comprises ascomycetous fungi that are both needle-cast pathogens and asymptomatic endophytes on a diversity of plant hosts. It is distinguished from other genera in the family Rhytismataceae by its filiform ascospores and ascocarps that open by a longitudinal slit. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within Lophodermium. Twenty-nine sequences from approximately 11 species of Lophodermium were analyzed together with eight sequences from isolates thought to represent six other genera of Rhytismataceae: Elytroderma, Lirula, Meloderma, Terriera, Tryblidiopsis and Colpoma. Two putative Meloderma desmazieresii isolates occurred within the Lophodermium clade but separate from one another, one grouped with L. indianum and the other with L. nitens. An isolate of Elytroderma deformans also occurred within the Lophodermium clade but on a solitary branch. The occurrence of these genera within the Lophodermium clade might be due to problems in generic concepts in Rhytismataceae, such as emphasis on spore morphology to delimit genera, to difficulty of isolating Rhytismataceae needle pathogens from material that also is colonized by Lophodermium or to a combination of both factors. We also evaluated the congruence of host distribution and several morphological characters on the ITS phylogeny. Lophodermium species from pine hosts formed a monophyletic sister group to Lophodermium species from more distant hosts from the southern hemisphere, but not to L. piceae from Picea. The ITS topology indicated that Lophodermium does not show strict cospeciation with pines at deeper branches, although several closely related isolates have closely related hosts. Pathogenic species occupy derived positions in the pine clade, suggesting that pathogenicity has evolved from endophytism. A new combination is proposed, Terriera minor (Tehon) P.R. Johnst.

  4. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  5. Multiple Instance Fuzzy Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    INFERENCE A novel fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The...fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The framework introduces a...or learned from data. In multiple instance problems, the training data is ambiguously labeled. Instances are grouped into bags, labels of bags are

  6. Entanglement, Invariants, and Phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, J. G.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis develops and expands upon known techniques of mathematical physics relevant to the analysis of the popular Markov model of phylogenetic trees required in biology to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of taxonomic units from biomolecular sequence data. The techniques of mathematical physics are plethora and have been developed for some time. The Markov model of phylogenetics and its analysis is a relatively new technique where most progress to date has been achieved by using discrete mathematics. This thesis takes a group theoretical approach to the problem by beginning with a remarkable mathematical parallel to the process of scattering in particle physics. This is shown to equate to branching events in the evolutionary history of molecular units. The major technical result of this thesis is the derivation of existence proofs and computational techniques for calculating polynomial group invariant functions on a multi-linear space where the group action is that relevant to a Markovian time evolution. The practical results of this thesis are an extended analysis of the use of invariant functions in distance based methods and the presentation of a new reconstruction technique for quartet trees which is consistent with the most general Markov model of sequence evolution.

  7. Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia.

    PubMed

    Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-18

    Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process.

  8. Reconstructible Phylogenetic Networks: Do Not Distinguish the Indistinguishable

    PubMed Central

    Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are indistinguishable. This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks. PMID:25849429

  9. Reconstructible phylogenetic networks: do not distinguish the indistinguishable.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2015-04-01

    Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are "indistinguishable". This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks.

  10. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Pascale; Livstone, Michael S; Lewis, Suzanna E; Thomas, Paul D

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the Gene Ontology (GO) project is to provide a uniform way to describe the functions of gene products from organisms across all kingdoms of life and thereby enable analysis of genomic data. Protein annotations are either based on experiments or predicted from protein sequences. Since most sequences have not been experimentally characterized, most available annotations need to be based on predictions. To make as accurate inferences as possible, the GO Consortium's Reference Genome Project is using an explicit evolutionary framework to infer annotations of proteins from a broad set of genomes from experimental annotations in a semi-automated manner. Most components in the pipeline, such as selection of sequences, building multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, retrieving experimental annotations and depositing inferred annotations, are fully automated. However, the most crucial step in our pipeline relies on software-assisted curation by an expert biologist. This curation tool, Phylogenetic Annotation and INference Tool (PAINT) helps curators to infer annotations among members of a protein family. PAINT allows curators to make precise assertions as to when functions were gained and lost during evolution and record the evidence (e.g. experimentally supported GO annotations and phylogenetic information including orthology) for those assertions. In this article, we describe how we use PAINT to infer protein function in a phylogenetic context with emphasis on its strengths, limitations and guidelines. We also discuss specific examples showing how PAINT annotations compare with those generated by other highly used homology-based methods.

  11. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-02-05

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences.

  12. A molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the manakins (Aves: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    McKay, Bailey D; Barker, F Keith; Mays, Herman L; Doucet, Stéphanie M; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the 14 manakin genera were inferred from DNA sequence data obtained from both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in a well-supported hypothesis that corroborates a sister relationship between tyrant-manakins and the "core" manakins (Antilophia, Chiroxiphia, Corapipo, Dixiphia, Heterocercus, Ilicura, Lepidothrix, Manacus, Masius, Machaeropterus, Pipra, and Xenopipo). Our data strongly support these core manakin genera as a monophyletic group. Consistent with previous work, we find two major clades within the core manakins, although the placement of the genus Xenopipo with regards to these two clades is ambiguous. Generic relationships within these clades are generally well resolved. Although we find some concordance between our study and a previous manakin phylogeny based on syringeal characters, we note several fundamental differences between the phylogenies. Thus, we offer a new phylogenetic hypothesis for Pipridae.

  13. One Tree to Link Them All: A Phylogenetic Dataset for the European Tetrapoda

    PubMed Central

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty. PMID:25685620

  14. Exploration of phylogenetic data using a global sequence analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Chapus, Charles; Dufraigne, Christine; Edwards, Scott; Giron, Alain; Fertil, Bernard; Deschavanne, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Molecular phylogenetic methods are based on alignments of nucleic or peptidic sequences. The tremendous increase in molecular data permits phylogenetic analyses of very long sequences and of many species, but also requires methods to help manage large datasets. Results Here we explore the phylogenetic signal present in molecular data by genomic signatures, defined as the set of frequencies of short oligonucleotides present in DNA sequences. Although violating many of the standard assumptions of traditional phylogenetic analyses – in particular explicit statements of homology inherent in character matrices – the use of the signature does permit the analysis of very long sequences, even those that are unalignable, and is therefore most useful in cases where alignment is questionable. We compare the results obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods to those inferred by the signature method for two genes: RAG1, which is easily alignable, and 18S RNA, where alignments are often ambiguous for some regions. We also apply this method to a multigene data set of 33 genes for 9 bacteria and one archea species as well as to the whole genome of a set of 16 γ-proteobacteria. In addition to delivering phylogenetic results comparable to traditional methods, the comparison of signatures for the sequences involved in the bacterial example identified putative candidates for horizontal gene transfers. Conclusion The signature method is therefore a fast tool for exploring phylogenetic data, providing not only a pretreatment for discovering new sequence relationships, but also for identifying cases of sequence evolution that could confound traditional phylogenetic analysis. PMID:16280081

  15. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction.

  16. Inferring Evolutionary Scenarios for Protein Domain Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenhoeft, John; Krause, Roland; Eulenstein, Oliver

    Essential cellular processes are controlled by functional interactions of protein domains, which can be inferred from their evolutionary histories. Methods to reconstruct these histories are challenged by the complexity of reconstructing macroevolutionary events. In this work we model these events using a novel network-like structure that represents the evolution of domain combinations, called plexus. We describe an algorithm to find a plexus that represents the evolution of a given collection of domain histories as phylogenetic trees with the minimum number of macroevolutionary events, and demonstrate its effectiveness in practice.

  17. Incompletely resolved phylogenetic trees inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism.

    PubMed

    Davies, T Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J B; Salamin, Nicolas; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    The tendency for more closely related species to share similar traits and ecological strategies can be explained by their longer shared evolutionary histories and represents phylogenetic conservatism. How strongly species traits co-vary with phylogeny can significantly impact how we analyze cross-species data and can influence our interpretation of assembly rules in the rapidly expanding field of community phylogenetics. Phylogenetic conservatism is typically quantified by analyzing the distribution of species values on the phylogenetic tree that connects them. Many phylogenetic approaches, however, assume a completely sampled phylogeny: while we have good estimates of deeper phylogenetic relationships for many species-rich groups, such as birds and flowering plants, we often lack information on more recent interspecific relationships (i.e., within a genus). A common solution has been to represent these relationships as polytomies on trees using taxonomy as a guide. Here we show that such trees can dramatically inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism quantified using S. P. Blomberg et al.'s K statistic. Using simulations, we show that even randomly generated traits can appear to be phylogenetically conserved on poorly resolved trees. We provide a simple rarefaction-based solution that can reliably retrieve unbiased estimates of K, and we illustrate our method using data on first flowering times from Thoreau's woods (Concord, Massachusetts, USA).

  18. A phylogenetic blueprint for a modern whale.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, John; Geisler, Jonathan H; Chang, Joseph; Buell, Carl; Berta, Annalisa; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S; McGowen, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The emergence of Cetacea in the Paleogene represents one of the most profound macroevolutionary transitions within Mammalia. The move from a terrestrial habitat to a committed aquatic lifestyle engendered wholesale changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The results of this remarkable transformation are extant whales that include the largest, biggest brained, fastest swimming, loudest, deepest diving mammals, some of which can detect prey with a sophisticated echolocation system (Odontoceti - toothed whales), and others that batch feed using racks of baleen (Mysticeti - baleen whales). A broad-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary remodeling that culminated in extant cetaceans has not yet been based on integration of genomic and paleontological information. Here, we first place Cetacea relative to extant mammalian diversity, and assess the distribution of support among molecular datasets for relationships within Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including Cetacea). We then merge trees derived from three large concatenations of molecular and fossil data to yield a composite hypothesis that encompasses many critical events in the evolutionary history of Cetacea. By combining diverse evidence, we infer a phylogenetic blueprint that outlines the stepwise evolutionary development of modern whales. This hypothesis represents a starting point for more detailed, comprehensive phylogenetic reconstructions in the future, and also highlights the synergistic interaction between modern (genomic) and traditional (morphological+paleontological) approaches that ultimately must be exploited to provide a rich understanding of evolutionary history across the entire tree of Life.

  19. Phylogenetic constraints on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Dominique; Bell, Thomas; Barbera, Claire; Combe, Marine; Pommier, Thomas; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is consensus that biodiversity losses will result in declining ecosystem functioning if species have different functional traits. Phylogenetic diversity has recently been suggested as a predictor of ecosystem functioning because it could approximate the functional complementarity among species. Here we describe an experiment that takes advantage of the rapid evolutionary response of bacteria to disentangle the role of phylogenetic and species diversity. We impose a strong selection regime on marine bacterial lineages and assemble the ancestral and evolved lines in microcosms of varying lineage and phylogenetic diversity. We find that the relationship between phylogenetic diversity and productivity is strong for the ancestral lineages but brakes down for the evolved lineages. Our results not only emphasize the potential of using phylogeny to evaluate ecosystem functioning, but also they warn against using phylogenetics as a proxy for functional diversity without good information on species evolutionary history.

  20. Many hexapod groups originated earlier and withstood extinction events better than previously realized: inferences from supertrees.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert B; Baldauf, Sandra L; Mayhew, Peter J

    2010-05-22

    Comprising over half of all described species, the hexapods are central to understanding the evolution of global biodiversity. Direct fossil evidence suggests that new hexapod orders continued to originate from the Jurassic onwards, and diversity is presently higher than ever. Previous studies also suggest that several shifts in net diversification rate have occurred at higher taxonomic levels. However, their inferred timing is phylogeny dependent. We re-examine these issues using the supertree approach to provide, to our knowledge, the first composite estimates of hexapod order-level phylogeny. The Purvis matrix representation with parsimony method provides the most optimal supertree, but alternative methods are considered. Inferring ghost ranges shows richness of terminal lineages in the order-level phylogeny to peak just before the end-Permian extinction, rather than the present day, indicating that at least 11 more lineages survived this extinction than implied by fossils alone. The major upshift in diversification is associated with the origin of wings/wing folding and for the first time, to our knowledge, significant downshifts are shown associated with the origin of species-poor taxa (e.g. Neuropterida, Zoraptera). Polyneopteran phylogeny, especially the position of Zoraptera, remains important resolve because this influences findings regarding shifts in diversification. Our study shows how combining fossil with phylogenetic information can improve macroevolutionary inferences.

  1. Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-Z; Wang, Q-M; Göker, M; Groenewald, M; Kachalkin, A V; Lumbsch, H T; Millanes, A M; Wedin, M; Yurkov, A M; Boekhout, T; Bai, F-Y

    2015-06-01

    Families and genera assigned to Tremellomycetes have been mainly circumscribed by morphology and for the yeasts also by biochemical and physiological characteristics. This phenotype-based classification is largely in conflict with molecular phylogenetic analyses. Here a phylogenetic classification framework for the Tremellomycetes is proposed based on the results of phylogenetic analyses from a seven-genes dataset covering the majority of tremellomycetous yeasts and closely related filamentous taxa. Circumscriptions of the taxonomic units at the order, family and genus levels recognised were quantitatively assessed using the phylogenetic rank boundary optimisation (PRBO) and modified general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) tests. In addition, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis on an expanded LSU rRNA (D1/D2 domains) gene sequence dataset covering as many as available teleomorphic and filamentous taxa within Tremellomycetes was performed to investigate the relationships between yeasts and filamentous taxa and to examine the stability of undersampled clades. Based on the results inferred from molecular data and morphological and physiochemical features, we propose an updated classification for the Tremellomycetes. We accept five orders, 17 families and 54 genera, including seven new families and 18 new genera. In addition, seven families and 17 genera are emended and one new species name and 185 new combinations are proposed. We propose to use the term pro tempore or pro tem. in abbreviation to indicate the species names that are temporarily maintained.

  2. The power and pitfalls of HIV phylogenetics in public health.

    PubMed

    Brooks, James I; Sandstrom, Paul A

    2013-07-25

    Phylogenetics is the application of comparative studies of genetic sequences in order to infer evolutionary relationships among organisms. This tool can be used as a form of molecular epidemiology to enhance traditional population-level communicable disease surveillance. Phylogenetic study has resulted in new paradigms being created in the field of communicable diseases and this commentary aims to provide the reader with an explanation of how phylogenetics can be used in tracking infectious diseases. Special emphasis will be placed upon the application of phylogenetics as a tool to help elucidate HIV transmission patterns and the limitations to these methods when applied to forensic analysis. Understanding infectious disease epidemiology in order to prevent new transmissions is the sine qua non of public health. However, with increasing epidemiological resolution, there may be an associated potential loss of privacy to the individual. It is within this context that we aim to promote the discussion on how to use phylogenetics to achieve important public health goals, while at the same time protecting the rights of the individual.

  3. Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X.-Z.; Wang, Q.-M.; Göker, M.; Groenewald, M.; Kachalkin, A.V.; Lumbsch, H.T.; Millanes, A.M.; Wedin, M.; Yurkov, A.M.; Boekhout, T.; Bai, F.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Families and genera assigned to Tremellomycetes have been mainly circumscribed by morphology and for the yeasts also by biochemical and physiological characteristics. This phenotype-based classification is largely in conflict with molecular phylogenetic analyses. Here a phylogenetic classification framework for the Tremellomycetes is proposed based on the results of phylogenetic analyses from a seven-genes dataset covering the majority of tremellomycetous yeasts and closely related filamentous taxa. Circumscriptions of the taxonomic units at the order, family and genus levels recognised were quantitatively assessed using the phylogenetic rank boundary optimisation (PRBO) and modified general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) tests. In addition, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis on an expanded LSU rRNA (D1/D2 domains) gene sequence dataset covering as many as available teleomorphic and filamentous taxa within Tremellomycetes was performed to investigate the relationships between yeasts and filamentous taxa and to examine the stability of undersampled clades. Based on the results inferred from molecular data and morphological and physiochemical features, we propose an updated classification for the Tremellomycetes. We accept five orders, 17 families and 54 genera, including seven new families and 18 new genera. In addition, seven families and 17 genera are emended and one new species name and 185 new combinations are proposed. We propose to use the term pro tempore or pro tem. in abbreviation to indicate the species names that are temporarily maintained. PMID:26955199

  4. ImOSM: intermittent evolution and robustness of phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Thi Nguyen, Minh Anh; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-02-01

    Among the criteria to evaluate the performance of a phylogenetic method, robustness to model violation is of particular practical importance as complete a priori knowledge of evolutionary processes is typically unavailable. For studies of robustness in phylogenetic inference, a utility to add well-defined model violations to the simulated data would be helpful. We therefore introduce ImOSM, a tool to imbed intermittent evolution as model violation into an alignment. Intermittent evolution refers to extra substitutions occurring randomly on branches of a tree, thus changing alignment site patterns. This means that the extra substitutions are placed on the tree after the typical process of sequence evolution is completed. We then study the robustness of widely used phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and a distance-based method (BIONJ) to various scenarios of model violation. Violation of rates across sites (RaS) heterogeneity and simultaneous violation of RaS and the transition/transversion ratio on two nonadjacent external branches hinder all the methods recovery of the true topology for a four-taxon tree. For an eight-taxon balanced tree, the violations cause each of the three methods to infer a different topology. Both ML and MP fail, whereas BIONJ, which calculates the distances based on the ML estimated parameters, reconstructs the true tree. Finally, we report that a test of model homogeneity and goodness of fit tests have enough power to detect such model violations. The outcome of the tests can help to actually gain confidence in the inferred trees. Therefore, we recommend using these tests in practical phylogenetic analyses.

  5. Consensus Protein Design Without Phylogenetic Bias

    PubMed Central

    Jäckel, Christian; Bloom, Jesse D; Kast, Peter; Arnold, Frances H; Hilvert, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Consensus design is an appealing strategy for the stabilization of proteins. It exploits amino acid conservation in sets of homologous proteins to identify likely beneficial mutations. Nevertheless, its success depends on the phylogenetic diversity of the sequence set available. Here we show that randomization of a single protein represents a reliable alternative source of sequence diversity essentially free of phylogenetic bias. A small number of functional protein sequences selected from binary-patterned libraries suffices as input for consensus design of active enzymes that are easier to produce and substantially more stable than individual members of the starting data set. Although catalytic activity correlates less consistently with sequence conservation in these extensively randomized proteins, less extreme mutagenesis strategies might be adopted in practice to augment stability while maintaining function. PMID:20433850

  6. Phylogenetic metrics of community similarity.

    PubMed

    Ives, Anthony R; Helmus, Matthew R

    2010-11-01

    We derive a new metric of community similarity that takes into account the phylogenetic relatedness among species. This metric, phylogenetic community dissimilarity (PCD), can be partitioned into two components, a nonphylogenetic component that reflects shared species between communities (analogous to Sørensen' s similarity metric) and a phylogenetic component that reflects the evolutionary relationships among nonshared species. Therefore, even if a species is not shared between two communities, it will increase the similarity of the two communities if it is phylogenetically related to species in the other community. We illustrate PCD with data on fish and aquatic macrophyte communities from 59 temperate lakes. Dissimilarity between fish communities associated with environmental differences between lakes often has a phylogenetic component, whereas this is not the case for macrophyte communities. With simulations, we then compare PCD with two other metrics of phylogenetic community similarity, II(ST) and UniFrac. Of the three metrics, PCD was best at identifying environmental drivers of community dissimilarity, showing lower variability and greater statistical power. Thus, PCD is a statistically powerful metric that separates the effects of environmental drivers on compositional versus phylogenetic components of community structure.

  7. Memory-Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hidehito; Matsuka, Toshihiko; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-20

    Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task. We conducted competitive tests of binary choice inference models representing simple heuristics (fluency and familiarity heuristics) and knowledge-based inference models. We found that a simple heuristic model (especially a familiarity heuristic model) explained inference patterns for subjectively difficult inference tasks, and that a knowledge-based inference model explained subjectively easy inference tasks. These results were consistent with the predictions of the attribute substitution framework. Issues on usage of simple heuristics and psychological processes are discussed.

  8. [Phylogeny of protostome moulting animals (Ecdysozoa) inferred from 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaia, N S

    2005-01-01

    Reliability of reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within a group of protostome moulting animals was evaluated by means of comparison of 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences sets both taken separately and combined. Reliability of reconstructions was evaluated by values of the bootstrap support of major phylogenetic tree nodes and by degree of congruence of phylogenetic trees inferred by various methods. By both criteria, phylogenetic trees reconstructed from the combined 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences were better than those inferred from 18 and 28S sequences taken separately. Results obtained are consistent with phylogenetic hypothesis separating protostome animals into two major clades, moulting Ecdysozoa (Priapulida + Kinorhyncha, Nematoda + Nematomorpha, Onychophora + Tardigrada, Myriapoda + Chelicerata, Crustacea + Hexapoda) and unmoulting Lophotrochozoa (Plathelminthes, Nemertini, Annelida, Mollusca, Echiura, Sipuncula). Clade Cephalorhyncha does not include nematomorphs (Nematomorpha). Conclusion was taken that it is necessary to use combined 18 and 28S data in phylogenetic studies.

  9. Phylogeny and species delimitations in European Dicranum (Dicranaceae, Bryophyta) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annick S; Bocksberger, Gaëlle; Stech, Michael

    2015-11-01

    DNA sequences have been widely used for taxonomy, inferring phylogenetic relationships and identifying species boundaries. Several specific methods to define species delimitations based on molecular phylogenies have appeared recently, with the generalized mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) method being most popular. However, only few studies on land plants have been published so far and GMYC analyses of bryophytes are missing. Dicranum is a large genus of mosses whose (morpho-)species are partly ill-defined and frequently confused. To infer molecular species delimitations, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on five chloroplast markers and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences from 27 out of 30 species occurring in Europe. We applied the species delimitation methods GMYC and Poisson tree processes (PTP) in order to compare their discriminatory power with species boundaries inferred from the molecular phylogenetic reconstructions and with the morphological species concept. Phylogenetic circumscriptions were congruent with the morphological concept for 19 species, while eight species were molecularly not well delimited, mostly forming closely related species pairs. The automated species delimitation methods achieved similar results but tended to overestimate the number of potential species and exposed several incongruences between the morphological concept and inference from molecular phylogenetic reconstructions. It is concluded that GMYC and PTP methods potentially provide a useful and objective way of delimiting bryophyte species, but studies on further bryophyte data sets are necessary to infer whether incongruences might ensue from evolutionary processes and to test the suitability of these approaches.

  10. Phylogenetics and the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome is the ensemble of genes in the microbes that live inside and on the surface of humans. Because microbial sequencing information is now much easier to come by than phenotypic information, there has been an explosion of sequencing and genetic analysis of microbiome samples. Much of the analytical work for these sequences involves phylogenetics, at least indirectly, but methodology has developed in a somewhat different direction than for other applications of phylogenetics. In this article, I review the field and its methods from the perspective of a phylogeneticist, as well as describing current challenges for phylogenetics coming from this type of work. PMID:25102857

  11. Phylogenetics and the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Matsen, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome is the ensemble of genes in the microbes that live inside and on the surface of humans. Because microbial sequencing information is now much easier to come by than phenotypic information, there has been an explosion of sequencing and genetic analysis of microbiome samples. Much of the analytical work for these sequences involves phylogenetics, at least indirectly, but methodology has developed in a somewhat different direction than for other applications of phylogenetics. In this article, I review the field and its methods from the perspective of a phylogeneticist, as well as describing current challenges for phylogenetics coming from this type of work.

  12. [Foundations of the new phylogenetics].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary idea is the core of the modern biology. Due to this, phylogenetics dealing with historical reconstructions in biology takes a priority position among biological disciplines. The second half of the 20th century witnessed growth of a great interest to phylogenetic reconstructions at macrotaxonomic level which replaced microevolutionary studies dominating during the 30s-60s. This meant shift from population thinking to phylogenetic one but it was not revival of the classical phylogenetics; rather, a new approach emerged that was baptized The New Phylogenetics. It arose as a result of merging of three disciplines which were developing independently during 60s-70s, namely cladistics, numerical phyletics, and molecular phylogenetics (now basically genophyletics). Thus, the new phylogenetics could be defined as a branch of evolutionary biology aimed at elaboration of "parsimonious" cladistic hypotheses by means of numerical methods on the basis of mostly molecular data. Classical phylogenetics, as a historical predecessor of the new one, emerged on the basis of the naturphilosophical worldview which included a superorganismal idea of biota. Accordingly to that view, historical development (the phylogeny) was thought an analogy of individual one (the ontogeny) so its most basical features were progressive parallel developments of "parts" (taxa), supplemented with Darwinian concept of monophyly. Two predominating traditions were diverged within classical phylogenetics according to a particular interpretation of relation between these concepts. One of them (Cope, Severtzow) belittled monophyly and paid most attention to progressive parallel developments of morphological traits. Such an attitude turned this kind of phylogenetics to be rather the semogenetics dealing primarily with evolution of structures and not of taxa. Another tradition (Haeckel) considered both monophyletic and parallel origins of taxa jointly: in the middle of 20th century it was split into

  13. Why the Phylogenetic Species Concept?—Elementary

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Quentin D.

    1999-01-01

    Although species play a number of unique and necessary roles in biology, none are more important than as the elements of phylogeny, nomenclature, and biodiversity study. Species are not divisible into any smaller units among which shared derived characters can be recognized with fidelity. Biodiversity inventory, assessment, and conservation are dependent upon a uniformly applicable species concept. Species are the fundamental units in formal Linnaean classification and zoological nomenclature. The Biological Species Concept, long given nominal support by most zoologists, forced an essentialy taxonomic problem (what are species?) into a population genetics framework (why are there species?). Early efforts at a phylogenetic species concept focused on correcting problems in the Biological Species Concept associated with ancestral populations, then applying phylogenetic logic to species themselves. Subsequently, Eldredge and Cracraft, and Nelson and Platnick, each proposed essentially identical and truly phylogenetic species concepts that permitted the rigorous recognition of species prior to and for the purposes of phylogenetic analysis, yet maintained the integrity of the Phylogenetic Species Concept outside of cladistic analysis. Such phylogenetic elements have many benefits, including giving to biology a unit species concept applicable across all kinds of living things including sexual and asexual forms. This is possible because the Phylogenetic Species Concept is based on patterns of character distributions and is therefore consistent with the full range of possible evolutionary processes that contribute to species formation, including both biotic and abiotic (even random) factors. PMID:19270883

  14. Phylogenetics: bats united, microbats divided.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S

    2013-11-18

    Phylogenetic analyses on four new bat genomes provide convincing support for the placement of bats relative to other placental mammals, suggest that microbats are an unnatural group, and have important implications for understanding the evolution of echolocation.

  15. Phylogenetic inconsistency caused by ancient sex-biased gene migration.

    PubMed

    Osada, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Inferences of ancient sex-biased migration patterns using sex-linked genetic markers are usually difficult because of a stochastic process of allele fixation. Nevertheless, incongruent phylogenetic trees between different sex-linked markers and between sex-linked and autosomal markers are frequently interpreted as a signature of sex-biased migration without further statistical evaluation. I investigated the types of incongruent phylogenetic trees from which past sex-biased migration events can be statistically supported under the coalescent model. In the case of mammals, detecting a sex-biased migration pattern is not guaranteed by comparing the phylogenetic pattern of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal loci. Likewise, evidence of introgression at a mitochondrial locus, but not at autosomal loci, does not support the hypothesis of an ancient female-biased migration pattern with statistical significance. In contrast, evidence of introgression at ≥ 5 unlinked autosomal loci, but not at a Y-chromosomal locus, would reject the null hypothesis of a sexually equal migration rate with statistical significance. A similar argument can be made to infer a male-biased migration pattern. Furthermore, the investigation of many recombining sex-biased markers such as X-chromosomal loci in mammals has the potential to efficiently detect ancient sex-biased demographic patterns.

  16. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  17. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general

  18. Inferring Ancestral Recombination Graphs from Bacterial Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Timothy G.; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J.; Biggs, Patrick J.; George, Tessy; French, Nigel P.

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a central feature of bacterial evolution, yet it confounds traditional phylogenetic methods. While a number of methods specific to bacterial evolution have been developed, none of these permit joint inference of a bacterial recombination graph and associated parameters. In this article, we present a new method which addresses this shortcoming. Our method uses a novel Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to perform phylogenetic inference under the ClonalOrigin model. We demonstrate the utility of our method by applying it to ribosomal multilocus sequence typing data sequenced from pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O157 and O26 isolates collected in rural New Zealand. The method is implemented as an open source BEAST 2 package, Bacter, which is available via the project web page at http://tgvaughan.github.io/bacter. PMID:28007885

  19. Combinatorics of distance-based tree inference

    PubMed Central

    Pardi, Fabio; Gascuel, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Several popular methods for phylogenetic inference (or hierarchical clustering) are based on a matrix of pairwise distances between taxa (or any kind of objects): The objective is to construct a tree with branch lengths so that the distances between the leaves in that tree are as close as possible to the input distances. If we hold the structure (topology) of the tree fixed, in some relevant cases (e.g., ordinary least squares) the optimal values for the branch lengths can be expressed using simple combinatorial formulae. Here we define a general form for these formulae and show that they all have two desirable properties: First, the common tree reconstruction approaches (least squares, minimum evolution), when used in combination with these formulae, are guaranteed to infer the correct tree when given enough data (consistency); second, the branch lengths of all the simple (nearest neighbor interchange) rearrangements of a tree can be calculated, optimally, in quadratic time in the size of the tree, thus allowing the efficient application of hill climbing heuristics. The study presented here is a continuation of that by Mihaescu and Pachter on branch length estimation [Mihaescu R, Pachter L (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:13206–13211]. The focus here is on the inference of the tree itself and on providing a basis for novel algorithms to reconstruct trees from distances. PMID:23012403

  20. Combinatorics of distance-based tree inference.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Fabio; Gascuel, Olivier

    2012-10-09

    Several popular methods for phylogenetic inference (or hierarchical clustering) are based on a matrix of pairwise distances between taxa (or any kind of objects): The objective is to construct a tree with branch lengths so that the distances between the leaves in that tree are as close as possible to the input distances. If we hold the structure (topology) of the tree fixed, in some relevant cases (e.g., ordinary least squares) the optimal values for the branch lengths can be expressed using simple combinatorial formulae. Here we define a general form for these formulae and show that they all have two desirable properties: First, the common tree reconstruction approaches (least squares, minimum evolution), when used in combination with these formulae, are guaranteed to infer the correct tree when given enough data (consistency); second, the branch lengths of all the simple (nearest neighbor interchange) rearrangements of a tree can be calculated, optimally, in quadratic time in the size of the tree, thus allowing the efficient application of hill climbing heuristics. The study presented here is a continuation of that by Mihaescu and Pachter on branch length estimation [Mihaescu R, Pachter L (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:13206-13211]. The focus here is on the inference of the tree itself and on providing a basis for novel algorithms to reconstruct trees from distances.

  1. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  2. On the phylogenetic position of a rare Iberian endemic mammal, the Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus).

    PubMed

    Cabria, María Teresa; Rubines, Jonathan; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín; Zardoya, Rafael

    2006-06-21

    The nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genome and nine partial nuclear genes of the Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) were determined in order to establish the relative phylogenetic position of this species at different taxonomic levels within the placental tree. Phylogenetic relationships of desman within the family Talpidae were inferred based on complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene nucleotide sequence data. The Pyrenean desman was unambiguously recovered as sister group of the Russian desman (Desmana moschata) confirming the monophyly of the subfamily Desmaninae. However, phylogenetic relationships among major lineages within the Talpidae could not be confidently resolved. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (at the amino acid level) and nuclear (at the nucleotide level) sequence data sets confidently placed desman within the Eulipotyphla (that also included moles, shrews, and hedgehogs), and partially recovered placental interordinal relationships. The monophyly of Laurasiatheria (including Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera, Carnivora, Pholidota, Perissodactyla, and Cetartiodactyla) was strongly supported. Mitochondrial amino acid sequences of Pholidota (pangolins) were found to bias phylogenetic inferences due to long-branch attraction effects. A Bayesian inference based on a combined mitochondrial and nuclear data set without Pholidota arrived at an almost fully resolved tree that supported the basal position of Eulipotyphla within Laurasiatheria.

  3. A critical appraisal of the use of microRNA data in phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Robert C.; Plachetzki, David C.; Mahler, D. Luke; Moore, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in resolving the tree of life continues to expose relationships that resist resolution, which drives the search for novel sources of information to solve these difficult phylogenetic problems. A recent example, the presence and absence of microRNA families, has been vigorously promoted as an ideal source of phylogenetic data and has been applied to several perennial phylogenetic problems. The utility of such data for phylogenetic inference hinges critically both on developing stochastic models that provide a reasonable description of the process that give rise to these data, and also on the careful validation of those models in real inference scenarios. Remarkably, however, the statistical behavior and phylogenetic utility of microRNA data have not yet been rigorously characterized. Here we explore the behavior and performance of microRNA presence/absence data under a variety of evolutionary models and reexamine datasets from several previous studies. We find that highly heterogeneous rates of microRNA gain and loss, pervasive secondary loss, and sampling error collectively render microRNA-based inference of phylogeny difficult. Moreover, our reanalyses fundamentally alter the conclusions for four of the five studies that we reexamined. Our results indicate that the capacity of miRNA data to resolve the tree of life has been overstated, and we urge caution in their application and interpretation. PMID:25071211

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Hydnum peroxydatum support the synonymy of Hydnochaete with Hymenochaete (Hymenochaetaceae, Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Juliano M; Pildain, María Belén; Gorjón, Sergio P; da Silveira, Rosa Mara B; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A combined dataset of rDNA ITS and LSU sequences was used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Hydnochaete peroxydata (≡ Hydnum peroxydatum), the type species of Hydnochaete. The species was retrieved nested within the Hymenochaete s. str. clade; therefore Hydnochaete is regarded as a synonym of Hymenochaete and the new combination Hymenochaete peroxydata is proposed.

  5. Trait vs. phylogenetic diversity as predictors of competition and community composition in herbivorous marine amphipods.

    PubMed

    Best, R J; Caulk, N C; Stachowicz, J J

    2013-01-01

    Field studies of community assembly patterns increasingly use phylogenetic relatedness as a surrogate for traits. Recent experiments appear to validate this approach by showing effects of correlated trait and phylogenetic distances on coexistence. However, traits governing resource use in animals are often labile. To test whether feeding trait or phylogenetic diversity can predict competition and production in communities of grazing amphipods, we manipulated both types of diversity independently in mesocosms. We found that increasing the feeding trait diversity of the community increased the number of species coexisting, reduced dominance and changed food availability. In contrast, phylogenetic diversity had no effect, suggesting that whatever additional ecological information it represents was not relevant in this context. Although community phylogenetic structure in the field may result from multiple traits with potential for phylogenetic signal, phylogenetic effects on species interactions in controlled experiments may depend on the lability of fewer key traits.

  6. Using directed phylogenetic networks to retrace species dispersal history.

    PubMed

    Layeghifard, Mehdi; Peres-Neto, Pedro R; Makarenkov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Methods designed for inferring phylogenetic trees have been widely applied to reconstruct biogeographic history. Because traditional phylogenetic methods used in biogeographic reconstruction are based on trees rather than networks, they follow the strict assumption in which dispersal among geographical units have occurred on the basis of single dispersal routes across regions and are, therefore, incapable of modelling multiple alternative dispersal scenarios. The goal of this study is to describe a new method that allows for retracing species dispersal by means of directed phylogenetic networks obtained using a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) detection method as well as to draw parallels between the processes of HGT and biogeographic reconstruction. In our case study, we reconstructed the biogeographic history of the postglacial dispersal of freshwater fishes in the Ontario province of Canada. This case study demonstrated the utility and robustness of the new method, indicating that the most important events were south-to-north dispersal patterns, as one would expect, with secondary faunal interchange among regions. Finally, we showed how our method can be used to explore additional questions regarding the commonalities in dispersal history patterns and phylogenetic similarities among species.

  7. Inference as Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Inference, or decision making, is seen in curriculum documents as the final step in a statistical investigation. For a formal statistical enquiry this may be associated with sophisticated tests involving probability distributions. For young students without the mathematical background to perform such tests, it is still possible to draw informal…

  8. Culture observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis on the blooming green alga Chaetomorpha valida (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Zhan, Zifeng; Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Huang, Bingxin

    2013-05-01

    The marine green alga Chaetomorpha valida fouls aquaculture ponds along the coastal cities of Dalian and Rongcheng, China. Unialgal cultures were observed under a microscope to determine the developmental morphological characters of C. valida. Results reveal that gametophytic filaments often produce lateral branches under laboratory culture conditions, suggesting an atypical heteromorphic life cycle of C. valida between unbranched sporophytes and branched gametophytes, which differs from typical isomorphic alternation of Chaetomorpha species. The shape of the basal attachment cell, an important taxonomic character within the genus, was found variable depending on environmental conditions. The 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were used to explore the phylogenetic affinity of the taxa. Inferred trees from 18S rDNA sequences revealed a close relationship between C. valida and Chaetomorpha moniligera. These results would enrich information in general biology and morphological plasticity of C. valida and provided a basis for future identification of green tide forming algae.

  9. The evolution of tumour phylogenetics: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Russell; Schäffer, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing and a growing realization of the importance of evolutionary theory to cancer genomics have led to a proliferation of phylogenetic studies of tumour progression. These studies have yielded not only new insights but also a plethora of experimental approaches, sometimes reaching conflicting or poorly supported conclusions. Here, we consider this body of work in light of the key computational principles underpinning phylogenetic inference, with the goal of providing practical guidance on the design and analysis of scientifically rigorous tumour phylogeny studies. We survey the range of methods and tools available to the researcher, their key applications, and the various unsolved problems, closing with a perspective on the prospects and broader implications of this field.

  10. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of Acanthamoeba isolates associated with keratitis.

    PubMed

    Risler, Arnaud; Coupat-Goutaland, Bénédicte; Pélandakis, Michel

    2013-11-01

    We examined a partial SSU-rDNA sequence from 20 Acanthamoeba isolates associated with keratitis infections. The phylogenetic tree inferred from this partial sequence allowed to assign isolates to genotypes. Among the 20 isolates examined, 16 were found to be of the T4 genotype, 2 were T3, 1 was a T5, and 1 was a T2, confirming the predominance of T4 in infections. However, the study highlighted other genotypes more rarely associated with infections, particularly the T2 genotype. Our study is the second one to detect that this genotype is associated with keratitis. Additionally, the phylogenetic analyses showed five main emerging clusters, T4/T3/T11, T2/T6, T10/T12/T14, T13/T16, and T7/T8/T9/T17, regularly obtained whichever method was used. A similar branching pattern was found when the full rDNA sequence was investigated.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic study on the origin and evolution of Mustelidae.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Takahiro; Nikaido, Masato; Kohno, Naoki; Fukumoto, Yukio; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2007-07-01

    The family Mustelidae, which consists of Mustelinae, Lutrinae, Melinae, and Taxidiinae, is the largest family among Carnivora and is a highly diverse group. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have clarified the phylogenetic relations among Mustelidae, but there remain several unresolved problems, particularly concerning the deep branchings. Whereas many studies support the monophyly of Mustelidae+Procyonidae among Musteloidea, the relations between Mustelidae+Procyonidae, Ailuridae, and Miphitidae are still unclear. To address these problems, we inferred a tree on the basis of the sequences of mitochondrial genomes and of multiple nuclear genes using the maximum likelihood method. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that the Taxidiinae branched at first, followed by the branching of the Melinae. After that, Mustelinae diversified, and Lutrinae evolved within Mustelinae. With respect to the deep branchings in Musteloidea, the Ailuridae/Mephitidae monophyly tree and the Mephitidae-basal tree are indistinguishable in log-likelihood score, and this problem remains unresolved.

  12. The MOSDEF Survey: Metallicity Dependence of PAH Emission at High Redshift and Implications for 24 μm Inferred IR Luminosities and Star Formation Rates at z ∼ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Siana, Brian; Kriek, Mariska; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L.; Freeman, William R.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Zick, Tom

    2017-03-01

    We present results on the variation of 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in galaxies spanning a wide range in metallicity at z ∼ 2. For this analysis, we use rest-frame optical spectra of 476 galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 2.61 from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey to infer metallicities and ionization states. Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm observations are used to derive rest-frame 7.7 μm luminosities ({L}7.7) and total IR luminosities ({L}{IR}), respectively. We find significant trends between the ratio of {L}7.7 to {L}{IR} (and to dust-corrected star formation rate [SFR]) and both metallicity and [O iii]/[O ii] ({{{O}}}32) emission line ratio. The latter is an empirical proxy for the ionization parameter. These trends indicate a paucity of PAH emission in low-metallicity environments with harder and more intense radiation fields. Additionally, {L}7.7/{L}{IR} is significantly lower in the youngest quartile of our sample (ages of ≲500 Myr) compared to older galaxies, which may be a result of the delayed production of PAHs by AGB stars. The relative strength of {L}7.7 to {L}{IR} is also lower by a factor of ∼2 for galaxies with masses {M}* < {10}10 {M}ȯ , compared to the more massive ones. We demonstrate that commonly used conversions of {L}7.7 (or 24 μm flux density, f 24) to {L}{IR} underestimate the IR luminosity by more than a factor of 2 at {M}* ∼ {10}9.6{--10.0} {M}ȯ . We adopt a mass-dependent conversion of {L}7.7 to {L}{IR} with {L}7.7/{L}{IR} = 0.09 and 0.22 for {M}* ≤slant {10}10 and > {10}10 {M}ȯ , respectively. Based on the new scaling, the SFR–M * relation has a shallower slope than previously derived. Our results also suggest a higher IR luminosity density at z ∼ 2 than previously measured, corresponding to a ∼30% increase in the SFR density.

  13. "Comments on Slavin": Synthesizing Causal Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2008-01-01

    When causal inferences are to be synthesized across multiple studies, efforts to establish the magnitude of a causal effect should be balanced by an effort to evaluate the generalizability of the effect. The evaluation of generalizability depends on two factors that are given little attention in current syntheses: construct validity and external…

  14. apex: phylogenetics with multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Jombart, Thibaut; Archer, Frederick; Schliep, Klaus; Kamvar, Zhian; Harris, Rebecca; Paradis, Emmanuel; Goudet, Jérome; Lapp, Hilmar

    2017-01-01

    Genetic sequences of multiple genes are becoming increasingly common for a wide range of organisms including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes. While such data may sometimes be treated as a single locus, in practice, a number of biological and statistical phenomena can lead to phylogenetic incongruence. In such cases, different loci should, at least as a preliminary step, be examined and analysed separately. The r software has become a popular platform for phylogenetics, with several packages implementing distance-based, parsimony and likelihood-based phylogenetic reconstruction, and an even greater number of packages implementing phylogenetic comparative methods. Unfortunately, basic data structures and tools for analysing multiple genes have so far been lacking, thereby limiting potential for investigating phylogenetic incongruence. In this study, we introduce the new r package apex to fill this gap. apex implements new object classes, which extend existing standards for storing DNA and amino acid sequences, and provides a number of convenient tools for handling, visualizing and analysing these data. In this study, we introduce the main features of the package and illustrate its functionalities through the analysis of a simple data set.

  15. Evaluating phylogenetic informativeness and data-type usage for new protein-coding genes across Vertebrata.

    PubMed

    Fong, Jonathan J; Fujita, Matthew K

    2011-11-01

    As a resource for vertebrate phylogenetics, we developed 75 new protein-coding genes using a combination of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available in Genbank, and targeted amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA). In addition, we performed three additional analyses in order to assess the utility of our approach. First, we profiled the phylogenetic informativeness of these new markers using the online program PhyDesign. Next, we compared the utility of four different data-types used in phylogenetics: nucleotides (NUCL), amino acids (AA), 1st and 2nd codon positions only (N12), and modified sequences to account for codon degeneracy (DEGEN1; Regier et al., 2010). Lastly, we use these new markers to construct a vertebrate phylogeny and address the uncertain relationship between higher-level mammal groups: monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. Our results show that phylogenetic informativeness of the 75 new markers varies, both in the amount of phylogenetic signal and optimal timescale. When comparing the four data-types, we find that the NUCL data-type, due to the high level of phylogenetic signal, performs the best across all divergence times. The remaining three data-types (AA, N12, DEGEN1) are less subject to homoplasy, but have greatly reduced levels of phylogenetic signal relative to NUCL. Our phylogenetic inference supports the Theria hypothesis of mammalian relationships, with marsupials and placentals being sister groups.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp) of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata) was sequenced. All protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from the same strand. Flustra shares long intergenic sequences with the cheilostomate ectoproct Bugula, which might be a synapomorphy of these taxa. Further synapomorphies might be the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA L(UUR), the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA S(UCN) and the unique anticodon sequence GAG of the tRNA L(CUN). The gene order of the mitochondrial genome of Flustra differs strongly from that of the other known ectoprocts. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial nucleotide and amino acid data sets show that the lophophorate lineages are more closely related to trochozoan phyla than to deuterostomes or ecdysozoans confirming the Lophotrochozoa hypothesis. Furthermore, they support the monophyly of Cheilostomata and Ectoprocta. However, the relationships of the lophophorate lineages within Lophotrochozoa differ strongly depending on the data set and the used method. Different approaches for reducing heterogeneity in nucleotide and amino acid data sets and saturation did not result in a more robust resolution of lophotrochozoan relationships. Conclusion The contradictory and usually weakly supported phylogenetic

  17. Geometric morphometric character suites as phylogenetic data: extracting phylogenetic signal from gastropod shells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ursula E; Hendricks, Jonathan R

    2013-05-01

    . In 33-45% of the test cases (depending upon the approach used for measuring success), it was possible to place the pseudofossil taxon into the correct regions of the phylogeny using only the morphometric characters. This suggests that the incorporation of extinct Conus taxa into phylogenetic hypotheses will be possible, permitting a wide range of macroevolutionary questions to be addressed within this genus. This methodology also has potential to contribute to phylogenetic reconstructions for other major components of the fossil record that lack numerous discrete characters.

  18. Difficult phylogenetic questions: more data, maybe; better methods, certainly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Contradicting the prejudice that endosymbiosis is a rare phenomenon, Husník and co-workers show in BMC Biology that bacterial endosymbiosis has occured several times independently during insect evolution. Rigorous phylogenetic analyses, in particular using complex models of sequence evolution and an original site removal procedure, allow this conclusion to be established after eschewing inference artefacts that usually plague the positioning of highly divergent endosymbiont genomic sequences. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/87 PMID:22206462

  19. Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Christopher A.

    A review of crocodylian phylogeny reveals a more complex history than might have been anticipated from a direct reading of the fossil record without consideration of phylogenetic relationships. The three main extant crocodylian lineagesGavialoidea, Alligatoroidea, Crocodyloideaare known from fossils in the Late Cretaceous, and the group is found nearly worldwide during the Cenozoic. Some groups have distributions that are best explained by the crossing of marine barriers during the Tertiary. Early Tertiary crocodylian faunas are phylogenetically composite, and clades tend to be morphologically uniform and geographically widespread. Later in the Tertiary, Old World crocodylian faunas are more endemic. Crocodylian phylogeneticists face numerous challenges, the most important being the phylogenetic relationships and time of divergence of the two living gharials (Gavialis gangeticus and Tomistoma schlegelii), the relationships among living true crocodiles (Crocodylus), and the relationships among caimans.

  20. Specimen-level phylogenetics in paleontology using the Fossilized Birth-Death model with sampled ancestors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian phylogenetic methods integrating simultaneously morphological and stratigraphic information have been applied increasingly among paleontologists. Most of these studies have used Bayesian methods as an alternative to the widely-used parsimony analysis, to infer macroevolutionary patterns and relationships among species-level or higher taxa. Among recently introduced Bayesian methodologies, the Fossilized Birth-Death (FBD) model allows incorporation of hypotheses on ancestor-descendant relationships in phylogenetic analyses including fossil taxa. Here, the FBD model is used to infer the relationships among an ingroup formed exclusively by fossil individuals, i.e., dipnoan tooth plates from four localities in the Ain el Guettar Formation of Tunisia. Previous analyses of this sample compared the results of phylogenetic analysis using parsimony with stratigraphic methods, inferred a high diversity (five or more genera) in the Ain el Guettar Formation, and interpreted it as an artifact inflated by depositional factors. In the analysis performed here, the uncertainty on the chronostratigraphic relationships among the specimens was included among the prior settings. The results of the analysis confirm the referral of most of the specimens to the taxa Asiatoceratodus, Equinoxiodus, Lavocatodus and Neoceratodus, but reject those to Ceratodus and Ferganoceratodus. The resulting phylogeny constrained the evolution of the Tunisian sample exclusively in the Early Cretaceous, contrasting with the previous scenario inferred by the stratigraphically-calibrated topology resulting from parsimony analysis. The phylogenetic framework also suggests that (1) the sampled localities are laterally equivalent, (2) but three localities are restricted to the youngest part of the section; both results are in agreement with previous stratigraphic analyses of these localities. The FBD model of specimen-level units provides a novel tool for phylogenetic inference among fossils but also

  1. Specimen-level phylogenetics in paleontology using the Fossilized Birth-Death model with sampled ancestors.

    PubMed

    Cau, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian phylogenetic methods integrating simultaneously morphological and stratigraphic information have been applied increasingly among paleontologists. Most of these studies have used Bayesian methods as an alternative to the widely-used parsimony analysis, to infer macroevolutionary patterns and relationships among species-level or higher taxa. Among recently introduced Bayesian methodologies, the Fossilized Birth-Death (FBD) model allows incorporation of hypotheses on ancestor-descendant relationships in phylogenetic analyses including fossil taxa. Here, the FBD model is used to infer the relationships among an ingroup formed exclusively by fossil individuals, i.e., dipnoan tooth plates from four localities in the Ain el Guettar Formation of Tunisia. Previous analyses of this sample compared the results of phylogenetic analysis using parsimony with stratigraphic methods, inferred a high diversity (five or more genera) in the Ain el Guettar Formation, and interpreted it as an artifact inflated by depositional factors. In the analysis performed here, the uncertainty on the chronostratigraphic relationships among the specimens was included among the prior settings. The results of the analysis confirm the referral of most of the specimens to the taxa Asiatoceratodus, Equinoxiodus, Lavocatodus and Neoceratodus, but reject those to Ceratodus and Ferganoceratodus. The resulting phylogeny constrained the evolution of the Tunisian sample exclusively in the Early Cretaceous, contrasting with the previous scenario inferred by the stratigraphically-calibrated topology resulting from parsimony analysis. The phylogenetic framework also suggests that (1) the sampled localities are laterally equivalent, (2) but three localities are restricted to the youngest part of the section; both results are in agreement with previous stratigraphic analyses of these localities. The FBD model of specimen-level units provides a novel tool for phylogenetic inference among fossils but also

  2. Data supporting phylogenetic reconstructions of the Neotropical clade Gymnotiformes

    PubMed Central

    Tagliacollo, Victor A.; Bernt, Maxwell J.; Craig, Jack M.; Oliveira, Claudio; Albert, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented in support of model-based total evidence (MBTE) phylogenetic reconstructions of the Neotropical clade of Gymnotiformes “Model-based total evidence phylogeny of Neotropical electric knifefishes (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes)” (Tagliacollo et al., 2016) [1]). The MBTE phylogenies were inferred using a comprehensive dataset comprised of six genes (5277 bp) and 223 morphological characters for an ingroup taxon sample of 120 of 218 valid species and 33 of the 34 extant genera. The data in this article include primer sequences for gene amplification and sequencing, voucher information and GenBank accession numbers, descriptions of morphological characters, morphological synapomorphies for the recognized clades of Gymnotiformes, a supermatrix comprised of concatenated molecular and morphological data, and computer scripts to replicate MBTE inferences. We also included here Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian topologies, which support two main gymnotiform clades: Gymnotidae and Sternopygoidei, the latter comprised of Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae+Hypopomidae) and Sinusoidea (Sternopygidae+Apteronotidae). PMID:26955648

  3. Bayesian inference for radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, Michelle; Natarajan, Iniyan; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.; Smirnov, Oleg; Bassett, Bruce A.; Oozeer, Nadeem; Kunz, Martin

    2015-06-01

    New telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will push into a new sensitivity regime and expose systematics, such as direction-dependent effects, that could previously be ignored. Current methods for handling such systematics rely on alternating best estimates of instrumental calibration and models of the underlying sky, which can lead to inadequate uncertainty estimates and biased results because any correlations between parameters are ignored. These deconvolution algorithms produce a single image that is assumed to be a true representation of the sky, when in fact it is just one realization of an infinite ensemble of images compatible with the noise in the data. In contrast, here we report a Bayesian formalism that simultaneously infers both systematics and science. Our technique, Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations (BIRO), determines all parameters directly from the raw data, bypassing image-making entirely, by sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. This enables it to derive both correlations and accurate uncertainties, making use of the flexible software MEQTREES to model the sky and telescope simultaneously. We demonstrate BIRO with two simulated sets of Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope data sets. In the first, we perform joint estimates of 103 scientific (flux densities of sources) and instrumental (pointing errors, beamwidth and noise) parameters. In the second example, we perform source separation with BIRO. Using the Bayesian evidence, we can accurately select between a single point source, two point sources and an extended Gaussian source, allowing for `super-resolution' on scales much smaller than the synthesized beam.

  4. Quantum Inference on Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Theodore; Low, Guang Hao; Chuang, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    Because quantum physics is naturally probabilistic, it seems reasonable to expect physical systems to describe probabilities and their evolution in a natural fashion. Here, we use quantum computation to speedup sampling from a graphical probability model, the Bayesian network. A specialization of this sampling problem is approximate Bayesian inference, where the distribution on query variables is sampled given the values e of evidence variables. Inference is a key part of modern machine learning and artificial intelligence tasks, but is known to be NP-hard. Classically, a single unbiased sample is obtained from a Bayesian network on n variables with at most m parents per node in time (nmP(e) - 1 / 2) , depending critically on P(e) , the probability the evidence might occur in the first place. However, by implementing a quantum version of rejection sampling, we obtain a square-root speedup, taking (n2m P(e) -1/2) time per sample. The speedup is the result of amplitude amplification, which is proving to be broadly applicable in sampling and machine learning tasks. In particular, we provide an explicit and efficient circuit construction that implements the algorithm without the need for oracle access.

  5. Dimensional Reduction for the General Markov Model on Phylogenetic Trees.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jeremy G

    2017-03-01

    We present a method of dimensional reduction for the general Markov model of sequence evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We show that taking certain linear combinations of the associated random variables (site pattern counts) reduces the dimensionality of the model from exponential in the number of extant taxa, to quadratic in the number of taxa, while retaining the ability to statistically identify phylogenetic divergence events. A key feature is the identification of an invariant subspace which depends only bilinearly on the model parameters, in contrast to the usual multi-linear dependence in the full space. We discuss potential applications including the computation of split (edge) weights on phylogenetic trees from observed sequence data.

  6. Optical Inference Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-27

    de olf nessse end Id e ;-tl Sb ieeI smleo) ,Optical Artificial Intellegence ; Optical inference engines; Optical logic; Optical informationprocessing...common. They arise in areas such as expert systems and other artificial intelligence systems. In recent years, the computer science language PROLOG has...cal processors should in principle be well suited for : I artificial intelligence applications. In recent years, symbolic logic processing. , the

  7. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.

  8. Evolutionary Phylogenetic Networks: Models and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhleh, Luay

    Phylogenetic networks are special graphs that generalize phylogenetic trees to allow for modeling of non-treelike evolutionary histories. The ability to sequence multiple genetic markers from a set of organisms and the conflicting evolutionary signals that these markers provide in many cases, have propelled research and interest in phylogenetic networks to the forefront in computational phylogenetics. Nonetheless, the term 'phylogenetic network' has been generically used to refer to a class of models whose core shared property is tree generalization. Several excellent surveys of the different flavors of phylogenetic networks and methods for their reconstruction have been written recently. However, unlike these surveys, this chapte focuses specifically on one type of phylogenetic networks, namely evolutionary phylogenetic networks, which explicitly model reticulate evolutionary events. Further, this chapter focuses less on surveying existing tools, and addresses in more detail issues that are central to the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic networks.

  9. Quality of computationally inferred gene ontology annotations.

    PubMed

    Skunca, Nives; Altenhoff, Adrian; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2012-05-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) has established itself as the undisputed standard for protein function annotation. Most annotations are inferred electronically, i.e. without individual curator supervision, but they are widely considered unreliable. At the same time, we crucially depend on those automated annotations, as most newly sequenced genomes are non-model organisms. Here, we introduce a methodology to systematically and quantitatively evaluate electronic annotations. By exploiting changes in successive releases of the UniProt Gene Ontology Annotation database, we assessed the quality of electronic annotations in terms of specificity, reliability, and coverage. Overall, we not only found that electronic annotations have significantly improved in recent years, but also that their reliability now rivals that of annotations inferred by curators when they use evidence other than experiments from primary literature. This work provides the means to identify the subset of electronic annotations that can be relied upon-an important outcome given that >98% of all annotations are inferred without direct curation.

  10. A novel approach to phylogenetic tree construction using stochastic optimization and clustering

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Chen, Yixin; Pan, Yi; Chen, Ling

    2006-01-01

    Background The problem of inferring the evolutionary history and constructing the phylogenetic tree with high performance has become one of the major problems in computational biology. Results A new phylogenetic tree construction method from a given set of objects (proteins, species, etc.) is presented. As an extension of ant colony optimization, this method proposes an adaptive phylogenetic clustering algorithm based on a digraph to find a tree structure that defines the ancestral relationships among the given objects. Conclusion Our phylogenetic tree construction method is tested to compare its results with that of the genetic algorithm (GA). Experimental results show that our algorithm converges much faster and also achieves higher quality than GA. PMID:17217517

  11. Phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to Glires is attributed to fast evolution rate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiannan; Chen, Guangfeng; Gu, Liang; Shen, Yuefeng; Zheng, Meizhu; Zheng, Weisheng; Hu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaobai; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-02-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses have led to incongruent evolutionary relationships between tree shrews and other suborders of Euarchontoglires. What caused the incongruence remains elusive. In this study, we identified 6845 orthologous genes between seventeen placental mammals. Tree shrews and Primates were monophyletic in the phylogenetic trees derived from the first or/and second codon positions whereas tree shrews and Glires formed a monophyly in the trees derived from the third or all codon positions. The same topology was obtained in the phylogeny inference using the slowly and fast evolving genes, respectively. This incongruence was likely attributed to the fast substitution rate in tree shrews and Glires. Notably, sequence GC content only was not informative to resolve the controversial phylogenetic relationships between tree shrews, Glires, and Primates. Finally, estimation in the confidence of the tree selection strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation of tree shrews to Primates as a monophyly.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among Maloideae species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maloideae is a highly diverse sub-family of the Rosaceae containing several agronomically important species (Malus sp. and Pyrus sp.) and their wild relatives. Previous phylogenetic work within the group has revealed extensive intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization. In order to develop...

  13. Synaptic Computation Underlying Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Alireza; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose that synapses may be the workhorse of neuronal computations that underlie probabilistic reasoning. We built a neural circuit model for probabilistic inference when information provided by different sensory cues needs to be integrated, and the predictive powers of individual cues about an outcome are deduced through experience. We found that bounded synapses naturally compute, through reward-dependent plasticity, the posterior probability that a choice alternative is correct given that a cue is presented. Furthermore, a decision circuit endowed with such synapses makes choices based on the summated log posterior odds and performs near-optimal cue combination. The model is validated by reproducing salient observations of, and provide insights into, a monkey experiment using a categorization task. Our model thus suggests a biophysical instantiation of the Bayesian decision rule, while predicting important deviations from it similar to ‘base-rate neglect’ observed in human studies when alternatives have unequal priors. PMID:20010823

  14. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  15. Inferring learners' knowledge from their actions.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; LaMar, Michelle M; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-04-01

    Watching another person take actions to complete a goal and making inferences about that person's knowledge is a relatively natural task for people. This ability can be especially important in educational settings, where the inferences can be used for assessment, diagnosing misconceptions, and providing informative feedback. In this paper, we develop a general framework for automatically making such inferences based on observed actions; this framework is particularly relevant for inferring student knowledge in educational games and other interactive virtual environments. Our approach relies on modeling action planning: We formalize the problem as a Markov decision process in which one must choose what actions to take to complete a goal, where choices will be dependent on one's beliefs about how actions affect the environment. We use a variation of inverse reinforcement learning to infer these beliefs. Through two lab experiments, we show that this model can recover people's beliefs in a simple environment, with accuracy comparable to that of human observers. We then demonstrate that the model can be used to provide real-time feedback and to model data from an existing educational game.

  16. Efficient algorithms for knowledge-enhanced supertree and supermatrix phylogenetic problems.

    PubMed

    Wehe, André; Burleigh, J Gordon; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is a computationally difficult problem, and constructing high-quality phylogenies that can build upon existing phylogenetic knowledge and synthesize insights from new data remains a major challenge. We introduce knowledge-enhanced phylogenetic problems for both supertree and supermatrix phylogenetic analyses. These problems seek an optimal phylogenetic tree that can only be assembled from a user-supplied set of, possibly incompatible, phylogenetic relationships. We describe exact polynomial time algorithms for the knowledge-enhanced versions of the NP-hard Robinson Foulds, gene duplication, duplication and loss, and deep coalescence supertree problems. Further, we demonstrate that our algorithms can rapidly improve upon results of local search heuristics for these problems. Finally, we introduce a knowledge-enhanced search heuristic that can be applied to any discrete character data set using the maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic problem. Although this approach is not guaranteed to find exact solutions, we show that it also can improve upon solutions from commonly used MP heuristics.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that habitat filtering is structuring marine bacterial communities across the globe.

    PubMed

    Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Tunlid, Anders; Lundberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    The phylogenetic structure and community composition were analysed in an existing data set of marine bacterioplankton communities to elucidate the evolutionary and ecological processes dictating the assembly. The communities were sampled from coastal waters at nine locations distributed worldwide and were examined through the use of comprehensive clone libraries of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The analyses show that the local communities are phylogenetically different from each other and that a majority of them are phylogenetically clustered, i.e. the species (operational taxonomic units) were more related to each other than expected by chance. Accordingly, the local communities were assembled non-randomly from the global pool of available bacterioplankton. Further, the phylogenetic structures of the communities were related to the water temperature at the locations. In agreement with similar studies, including both macroorganisms and bacteria, these results suggest that marine bacterial communities are structured by “habitat filtering”, i.e. through non-random colonization and invasion determined by environmental characteristics. Different bacterial types seem to have different ecological niches that dictate their survival in different habitats. Other eco-evolutionary processes that may contribute to the observed phylogenetic patterns are discussed. The results also imply a mapping between phenotype and phylogenetic relatedness which facilitates the use of community phylogenetic structure analysis to infer ecological and evolutionary assembly processes.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of American willows (Salix L., Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E; Argus, George W; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns.

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of American Willows (Salix L., Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Argus, George W.; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns. PMID:25880993

  20. Visual Inference Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Timucin, Dogan; Rabbette, Maura; Curry, Charles; Allan, Mark; Lvov, Nikolay; Clanton, Sam; Pilewskie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The goal of visual inference programming is to develop a software framework data analysis and to provide machine learning algorithms for inter-active data exploration and visualization. The topics include: 1) Intelligent Data Understanding (IDU) framework; 2) Challenge problems; 3) What's new here; 4) Framework features; 5) Wiring diagram; 6) Generated script; 7) Results of script; 8) Initial algorithms; 9) Independent Component Analysis for instrument diagnosis; 10) Output sensory mapping virtual joystick; 11) Output sensory mapping typing; 12) Closed-loop feedback mu-rhythm control; 13) Closed-loop training; 14) Data sources; and 15) Algorithms. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  1. morePhyML: improving the phylogenetic tree space exploration with PhyML 3.

    PubMed

    Criscuolo, Alexis

    2011-12-01

    PhyML is a widely used Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree inference software based on a standard hill-climbing method. Starting from an initial tree, the version 3 of PhyML explores the tree space by using "Nearest Neighbor Interchange" (NNI) or "Subtree Pruning and Regrafting" (SPR) tree swapping techniques in order to find the ML phylogenetic tree. NNI-based local searches are fast but can often get trapped in local optima, whereas it is expected that the larger (but slower to cover) SPR-based neighborhoods will lead to trees with higher likelihood. Here, I verify that PhyML infers more likely trees with SPRs than with NNIs in almost all cases. However, I also show that the SPR-based local search of PhyML often does not succeed at locating the ML tree. To improve the tree space exploration, I deliver a script, named morePhyML, which allows escaping from local optima by performing character reweighting. This ML tree search strategy, named ratchet, often leads to higher likelihood estimates. Based on the analysis of a large number of amino acid and nucleotide data, I show that morePhyML allows inferring more accurate phylogenetic trees than several other recently developed ML tree inference softwares in many cases.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of nonmarine picocyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Callieri, Cristiana; Coci, Manuela; Corno, Gianluca; Macek, Miroslav; Modenutti, Beatriz; Balseiro, Esteban; Bertoni, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    We studied the phylogenetic diversity of nonmarine picocyanobacteria broadening the sequence data set with 43 new sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. The sequences were derived from monoclonal strains isolated from four volcanic high-altitude athalassohaline lakes in Mexico, five glacial ultraoligotrophic North Patagonian lakes and six Italian lakes of glacial, volcanic and morenic origin. The new sequences fall into a number of both novel and previously described clades within the phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene. The new cluster of Lake Nahuel Huapi (North Patagonia) forms a sister clade to the subalpine cluster II and the marine Synechococcus subcluster 5.2. Our finding of the novel clade of 'halotolerants' close to the marine subcluster 5.3 (Synechococcus RCC307) constitutes an important demonstration that euryhaline and marine strains affiliate closely. The intriguing results obtained shed new light on the importance of the nonmarine halotolerants in the phylogenesis of picocyanobacteria.

  3. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia.

  4. Extended molecular phylogenetics and revised systematics of Malagasy scincine lizards.

    PubMed

    Erens, Jesse; Miralles, Aurélien; Glaw, Frank; Chatrou, Lars W; Vences, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Among the endemic biota of Madagascar, skinks are a diverse radiation of lizards that exhibit a striking ecomorphological variation, and could provide an interesting system to study body-form evolution in squamate reptiles. We provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis for Malagasy skinks of the subfamily Scincinae based on an extended molecular dataset comprising 8060bp from three mitochondrial and nine nuclear loci. Our analysis also increases taxon sampling of the genus Amphiglossus by including 16 out of 25 nominal species. Additionally, we examined whether the molecular phylogenetic patterns coincide with morphological differentiation in the species currently assigned to this genus. Various methods of inference recover a mostly strongly supported phylogeny with three main clades of Amphiglossus. However, relationships among these three clades and the limb-reduced genera Grandidierina, Voeltzkowia and Pygomeles remain uncertain. Supported by a variety of morphological differences (predominantly related to the degree of body elongation), but considering the remaining phylogenetic uncertainty, we propose a redefinition of Amphiglossus into three different genera (Amphiglossus sensu stricto, Flexiseps new genus, and Brachyseps new genus) to remove the non-monophyly of Amphiglossus sensu lato and to facilitate future studies on this fascinating group of lizards.

  5. Phylogenetic incongruence arising from fragmented speciation in enteric bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Retchless, Adam C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among species are often assumed to be fundamentally unambiguous, where genes within a genome are thought to evolve in concert and phylogenetic incongruence between individual orthologs is attributed to idiosyncrasies in their evolution. We have identified substantial incongruence between the phylogenies of orthologous genes in Escherichia, Salmonella, and Citrobacter, or E. coli, E. fergusonii, and E. albertii. The source of incongruence was inferred to be recombination, because individual genes support conflicting topology more robustly than expected from stochastic sequence homoplasies. Clustering of phylogenetically informative sites on the genome indicated that the regions of recombination extended over several kilobases. Analysis of phylogenetically distant taxa resulted in consensus among individual gene phylogenies, suggesting that recombination is not ongoing; instead, conflicting relationships among genes in descendent taxa reflect recombination among their ancestors. Incongruence could have resulted from random assortment of ancestral polymorphisms if species were instantly created from the division of a recombining population. However, the estimated branch lengths in alternative phylogenies would require ancestral populations with far more diversity than is found in extant populations. Rather, these and previous data collectively suggest that genome-wide recombination rates decreased gradually, with variation in rate among loci, leading to pluralistic relationships among their descendent taxa. PMID:20534528

  6. The importance of replicating genomic analyses to verify phylogenetic signal for recently evolved lineages.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; McGaughran, Angela; Chuah, Aaron; Waters, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Genomewide SNP data generated by nontargeted methods such as RAD and GBS are increasingly being used in phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. When these methods are used in the absence of a reference genome, however, little is known about the locations and evolution of the SNPs. In using such data to address phylogenetic questions, researchers risk drawing false conclusions, particularly if a representative number of SNPs is not obtained. Here, we empirically test the robustness of phylogenetic inference based on SNP data for closely related lineages. We conducted a genomewide analysis of 75 712 SNPs, generated via GBS, of southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea). Durvillaea chathamensis co-occurs with D. antarctica on Chatham Island, but the two species have previously been found to be so genetically similar that the status of the former has been questioned. Our results show that D. chathamensis, which differs from D. antarctica ecologically as well as morphologically, is indeed a reproductively isolated species. Furthermore, our replicated analyses show that D. chathamensis cannot be reliably distinguished phylogenetically from closely related D. antarctica using subsets (ranging in size from 400 to 10 000 sites) of the 40 912 parsimony-informative SNPs in our data set and that bootstrap values alone can give misleading impressions of the strength of phylogenetic inferences. These results highlight the importance of independently replicating SNP analyses to verify that phylogenetic inferences based on nontargeted SNP data are robust. Our study also demonstrates that modern genomic approaches can be used to identify cases of recent or incipient speciation that traditional approaches (e.g. Sanger sequencing of a few loci) may be unable to detect or resolve.

  7. Point estimates in phylogenetic reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Philipp; Bačák, Miroslav; Bourguignon, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The construction of statistics for summarizing posterior samples returned by a Bayesian phylogenetic study has so far been hindered by the poor geometric insights available into the space of phylogenetic trees, and ad hoc methods such as the derivation of a consensus tree makeup for the ill-definition of the usual concepts of posterior mean, while bootstrap methods mitigate the absence of a sound concept of variance. Yielding satisfactory results with sufficiently concentrated posterior distributions, such methods fall short of providing a faithful summary of posterior distributions if the data do not offer compelling evidence for a single topology. Results: Building upon previous work of Billera et al., summary statistics such as sample mean, median and variance are defined as the geometric median, Fréchet mean and variance, respectively. Their computation is enabled by recently published works, and embeds an algorithm for computing shortest paths in the space of trees. Studying the phylogeny of a set of plants, where several tree topologies occur in the posterior sample, the posterior mean balances correctly the contributions from the different topologies, where a consensus tree would be biased. Comparisons of the posterior mean, median and consensus trees with the ground truth using simulated data also reveals the benefits of a sound averaging method when reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Availability and implementation: We provide two independent implementations of the algorithm for computing Fréchet means, geometric medians and variances in the space of phylogenetic trees. TFBayes: https://github.com/pbenner/tfbayes, TrAP: https://github.com/bacak/TrAP. Contact: philipp.benner@mis.mpg.de PMID:25161244

  8. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Maxwell, Peter; Huttley, Gavin A

    2005-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational processes, DNA repair and

  9. Genotyping-by-sequencing as a tool to infer phylogeny and ancestral hybridization: a case study in Carex (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Escudero, Marcial; Eaton, Deren A R; Hahn, Marlene; Hipp, Andrew L

    2014-10-01

    Determining phylogenetic relationships among very closely related species has remained a challenge for evolutionary biologists due to interlocus phylogenetic discordance and the difficulty of obtaining variable markers. Here, we used a Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) approach to sample a reduced representation genomic data set and infer the phylogeny of seven closely related species in the genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Past attempts to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among these species produced conflicting and poorly-supported results. We inferred a robust phylogeny based on >3000 GBS loci and >1300 SNPs (with a minimum sequence depth within individuals of 10) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. We also tested for historical introgression using the D-statistic test. We compared these analyses with partitioned RAD analysis, which is designed to identify suboptimal trees reflecting secondary phylogenetic signal that may be obscured by the dominant signal in the data. Phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved trees with high support. We found two main clades, one grouping Carex scoparia populations and C. waponahkikensis, and a second clade grouping C. longii, C. vexans, C. suberecta and C. albolutescens. We detected marginally significant signals of introgression between C. scoparia and C. suberecta or C. albolutescens, and we rejected a hybrid origin hypothesis for C. waponahkikensis. Our results demonstrate the power of NGS data sets for resolving some of the most difficult phylogenetic challenges where traditional phylogenetic markers have failed.

  10. The evolution of respiratory O2/NO reductases: an out-of-the-phylogenetic-box perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; van Lis, Robert; Baymann, Frauke; Russell, Michael J.; Nitschke, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Complex life on our planet crucially depends on strong redox disequilibria afforded by the almost ubiquitous presence of highly oxidizing molecular oxygen. However, the history of O2-levels in the atmosphere is complex and prior to the Great Oxidation Event some 2.3 billion years ago, the amount of O2 in the biosphere is considered to have been extremely low as compared with present-day values. Therefore the evolutionary histories of life and of O2-levels are likely intricately intertwined. The obvious biological proxy for inferring the impact of changing O2-levels on life is the evolutionary history of the enzyme allowing organisms to tap into the redox power of molecular oxygen, i.e. the bioenergetic O2 reductases, alias the cytochrome and quinol oxidases. Consequently, molecular phylogenies reconstructed for this enzyme superfamily have been exploited over the last two decades in attempts to elucidate the interlocking between O2 levels in the environment and the evolution of respiratory bioenergetic processes. Although based on strictly identical datasets, these phylogenetic approaches have led to diametrically opposite scenarios with respect to the history of both the enzyme superfamily and molecular oxygen on the Earth. In an effort to overcome the deadlock of molecular phylogeny, we here review presently available structural, functional, palaeogeochemical and thermodynamic information pertinent to the evolution of the superfamily (which notably also encompasses the subfamily of nitric oxide reductases). The scenario which, in our eyes, most closely fits the ensemble of these non-phylogenetic data, sees the low O2-affinity SoxM- (or A-) type enzymes as the most recent evolutionary innovation and the high-affinity O2 reductases (SoxB or B and cbb3 or C) as arising independently from NO-reducing precursor enzymes. PMID:24968694

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among clonal groups of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli as assessed by multi-locus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Owens, Krista L; Clabots, Connie R; Weissman, Scott J; Cannon, Steven B

    2006-06-01

    The evolutionary origins of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) remain uncertain despite these organisms' relevance to human disease. A valid understanding of ExPEC phylogeny is needed as a framework against which the observed distribution of virulence factors and clinical associations can be analyzed. Accordingly, phylogenetic relationships were defined by multi-locus sequence analysis among 44 representatives of selected ExPEC clonal groups and the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection. Recombination, which significantly obscured the phylogenetic signal for several strains, was dealt with by excluding strains or specific sequences. Conflicting overall phylogenies, and internal phylogenies for virulence-associated phylogenetic group B2, were inferred depending on the specific dataset (i.e., how extensively purged of recombination), outgroup (Salmonella enterica and/or Escherichia fergusonii), and analysis method (neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, or Bayesian likelihood). Nonetheless, the major E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, and B2 were consistently well resolved, as was a major sub-component of group D and an ECOR 37-O157:H7 clade. Moreover, nine important ExPEC clonal groups within groups B2 and D, characterized by serotypes O6:K2:H1, O18:K1:H7, O6:H31, and O4:K+:H+ (from group B2), and O1:K1:H-, O7:K1:H-, O157:K+:H (non-7), O15:K52:H1, and O11/17/77:K52:H18 ("clonal group A") (from group D), were consistently well resolved, regardless of clinical background (cystitis, pyelonephritis, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, or fecal), host group, geographical origin, and virulence profile. Among the group B2-derived clonal groups the O6:K2:H1 clade appeared basal. Within group D, "clonal group A" and the O15:K52:H1 clonal group were consistently placed with ECOR 47 and ECOR 44, respectively, as nearest neighbors. These findings clarify phylogenetic relationships among key ExPEC clonal groups but also emphasize that recombination

  12. Bayesian modelling of compositional heterogeneity in molecular phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Sarah E; Nye, Tom M W; Boys, Richard J; Williams, Tom A; Embley, T Martin

    2014-10-01

    In molecular phylogenetics, standard models of sequence evolution generally assume that sequence composition remains constant over evolutionary time. However, this assumption is violated in many datasets which show substantial heterogeneity in sequence composition across taxa. We propose a model which allows compositional heterogeneity across branches, and formulate the model in a Bayesian framework. Specifically, the root and each branch of the tree is associated with its own composition vector whilst a global matrix of exchangeability parameters applies everywhere on the tree. We encourage borrowing of strength between branches by developing two possible priors for the composition vectors: one in which information can be exchanged equally amongst all branches of the tree and another in which more information is exchanged between neighbouring branches than between distant branches. We also propose a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for posterior inference which uses data augmentation of substitutional histories to yield a simple complete data likelihood function that factorises over branches and allows Gibbs updates for most parameters. Standard phylogenetic models are not informative about the root position. Therefore a significant advantage of the proposed model is that it allows inference about rooted trees. The position of the root is fundamental to the biological interpretation of trees, both for polarising trait evolution and for establishing the order of divergence among lineages. Furthermore, unlike some other related models from the literature, inference in the model we propose can be carried out through a simple MCMC scheme which does not require problematic dimension-changing moves. We investigate the performance of the model and priors in analyses of two alignments for which there is strong biological opinion about the tree topology and root position.

  13. The Effects of an Inference-Making Strategy Taught with and without Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Lynn, Devon

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of a strategy for making text-dependent inferences--with and without embedded self-regulation skills--on the reading comprehension of 24 middle-grade students with disabilities. Classes were randomly assigned to receive the inference intervention only (IO), inference + individual goal setting…

  14. Tanglegrams: a Reduction Tool for Mathematical Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Matsen, Frederick; Billey, Sara; Kas, Arnold; Konvalinka, Matjaz

    2016-10-03

    Many discrete mathematics problems in phylogenetics are defined in terms of the relative labeling of pairsof leaf-labeled trees. These relative labelings are naturally formalized as tanglegrams, which have previously been an object of study in coevolutionary analysis. Although there has been considerable work on planar drawings of tanglegrams, they have not been fully explored as combinatorial objects until recently. In this paper, we describe how many discrete mathematical questions on trees "factor" through a problem on tanglegrams, and how understanding that factoring can simplify analysis. Depending on the problem, it may be useful to consider a unordered version of tanglegrams, and/or their unrooted counterparts. For all of these definitions, we show how the isomorphism types of tanglegrams can be understood in terms of double cosets of the symmetric group, and we investigate their automorphisms. Understanding tanglegrams better will isolate the distinct problems on leaf-labeled pairs of trees and reveal natural symmetries of spaces associated with such problems.

  15. BIE: Bayesian Inference Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bayesian Inference Engine (BIE) is an object-oriented library of tools written in C++ designed explicitly to enable Bayesian update and model comparison for astronomical problems. To facilitate "what if" exploration, BIE provides a command line interface (written with Bison and Flex) to run input scripts. The output of the code is a simulation of the Bayesian posterior distribution from which summary statistics e.g. by taking moments, or determine confidence intervals and so forth, can be determined. All of these quantities are fundamentally integrals and the Markov Chain approach produces variates heta distributed according to P( heta|D) so moments are trivially obtained by summing of the ensemble of variates.

  16. Bayesian inference in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.

  17. Continental scale patterns and predictors of fern richness and phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Nagalingum, Nathalie S; Knerr, Nunzio; Laffan, Shawn W; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Miller, Joseph T; Mishler, Brent D

    2015-01-01

    Because ferns have a wide range of habitat preferences and are widely distributed, they are an ideal group for understanding how diversity is distributed. Here we examine fern diversity on a broad-scale using standard and corrected richness measures as well as phylogenetic indices; in addition we determine the environmental predictors of each diversity metric. Using the combined records of Australian herbaria, a dataset of over 60,000 records was obtained for 89 genera to infer richness. A molecular phylogeny of all the genera was constructed and combined with the herbarium records to obtain phylogenetic diversity patterns. A hotspot of both taxic and phylogenetic diversity occurs in the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia. Although considerable diversity is distributed along the eastern coast, some important regions of diversity are identified only after sample-standardization of richness and through the phylogenetic metric. Of all of the metrics, annual precipitation was identified as the most explanatory variable, in part, in agreement with global and regional fern studies. However, precipitation was combined with a different variable for each different metric. For corrected richness, precipitation was combined with temperature seasonality, while correlation of phylogenetic diversity to precipitation plus radiation indicated support for the species-energy hypothesis. Significantly high and significantly low phylogenetic diversity were found in geographically separate areas. These separate areas correlated with different climatic conditions such as seasonality in precipitation. The phylogenetic metrics identified additional areas of significant diversity, some of which have not been revealed using traditional taxonomic analyses, suggesting that different ecological and evolutionary processes have operated over the continent. Our study demonstrates that it is possible and vital to incorporate evolutionary metrics when inferring biodiversity hotspots from large

  18. Continental scale patterns and predictors of fern richness and phylogenetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Nagalingum, Nathalie S.; Knerr, Nunzio; Laffan, Shawn W.; González-Orozco, Carlos E.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Miller, Joseph T.; Mishler, Brent D.

    2015-01-01

    Because ferns have a wide range of habitat preferences and are widely distributed, they are an ideal group for understanding how diversity is distributed. Here we examine fern diversity on a broad-scale using standard and corrected richness measures as well as phylogenetic indices; in addition we determine the environmental predictors of each diversity metric. Using the combined records of Australian herbaria, a dataset of over 60,000 records was obtained for 89 genera to infer richness. A molecular phylogeny of all the genera was constructed and combined with the herbarium records to obtain phylogenetic diversity patterns. A hotspot of both taxic and phylogenetic diversity occurs in the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia. Although considerable diversity is distributed along the eastern coast, some important regions of diversity are identified only after sample-standardization of richness and through the phylogenetic metric. Of all of the metrics, annual precipitation was identified as the most explanatory variable, in part, in agreement with global and regional fern studies. However, precipitation was combined with a different variable for each different metric. For corrected richness, precipitation was combined with temperature seasonality, while correlation of phylogenetic diversity to precipitation plus radiation indicated support for the species-energy hypothesis. Significantly high and significantly low phylogenetic diversity were found in geographically separate areas. These separate areas correlated with different climatic conditions such as seasonality in precipitation. The phylogenetic metrics identified additional areas of significant diversity, some of which have not been revealed using traditional taxonomic analyses, suggesting that different ecological and evolutionary processes have operated over the continent. Our study demonstrates that it is possible and vital to incorporate evolutionary metrics when inferring biodiversity hotspots from large

  19. Comparison of tree-child phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Gabriel; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. While much progress has been made to find practical algorithms for reconstructing a phylogenetic network from a set of sequences, all attempts to endorse a class of phylogenetic networks (strictly extending the class of phylogenetic trees) with a well-founded distance measure have, to the best of our knowledge and with the only exception of the bipartition distance on regular networks, failed so far. In this paper, we present and study a new meaningful class of phylogenetic networks, called tree-child phylogenetic networks, and we provide an injective representation of these networks as multisets of vectors of natural numbers, their path multiplicity vectors. We then use this representation to define a distance on this class that extends the well-known Robinson-Foulds distance for phylogenetic trees and to give an alignment method for pairs of networks in this class. Simple polynomial algorithms for reconstructing a tree-child phylogenetic network from its path multiplicity vectors, for computing the distance between two tree-child phylogenetic networks and for aligning a pair of tree-child phylogenetic networks, are provided. They have been implemented as a Perl package and a Java applet, which can be found at http://bioinfo.uib.es/~recerca/phylonetworks/mudistance/.

  20. Assessing Parameter Identifiability in Phylogenetic Models Using Data Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Ponciano, José Miguel; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Braun, Edward L.; Taper, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The success of model-based methods in phylogenetics has motivated much research aimed at generating new, biologically informative models. This new computer-intensive approach to phylogenetics demands validation studies and sound measures of performance. To date there has been little practical guidance available as to when and why the parameters in a particular model can be identified reliably. Here, we illustrate how Data Cloning (DC), a recently developed methodology to compute the maximum likelihood estimates along with their asymptotic variance, can be used to diagnose structural parameter nonidentifiability (NI) and distinguish it from other parameter estimability problems, including when parameters are structurally identifiable, but are not estimable in a given data set (INE), and when parameters are identifiable, and estimable, but only weakly so (WE). The application of the DC theorem uses well-known and widely used Bayesian computational techniques. With the DC approach, practitioners can use Bayesian phylogenetics software to diagnose nonidentifiability. Theoreticians and practitioners alike now have a powerful, yet simple tool to detect nonidentifiability while investigating complex modeling scenarios, where getting closed-form expressions in a probabilistic study is complicated. Furthermore, here we also show how DC can be used as a tool to examine and eliminate the influence of the priors, in particular if the process of prior elicitation is not straightforward. Finally, when applied to phylogenetic inference, DC can be used to study at least two important statistical questions: assessing identifiability of discrete parameters, like the tree topology, and developing efficient sampling methods for computationally expensive posterior densities. PMID:22649181

  1. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  2. Efficient Bayesian inference for ARFIMA processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, T.; Gramacy, R. B.; Franzke, C. L. E.; Watkins, N. W.

    2015-03-01

    Many geophysical quantities, like atmospheric temperature, water levels in rivers, and wind speeds, have shown evidence of long-range dependence (LRD). LRD means that these quantities experience non-trivial temporal memory, which potentially enhances their predictability, but also hampers the detection of externally forced trends. Thus, it is important to reliably identify whether or not a system exhibits LRD. In this paper we present a modern and systematic approach to the inference of LRD. Rather than Mandelbrot's fractional Gaussian noise, we use the more flexible Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) model which is widely used in time series analysis, and of increasing interest in climate science. Unlike most previous work on the inference of LRD, which is frequentist in nature, we provide a systematic treatment of Bayesian inference. In particular, we provide a new approximate likelihood for efficient parameter inference, and show how nuisance parameters (e.g. short memory effects) can be integrated over in order to focus on long memory parameters, and hypothesis testing more directly. We illustrate our new methodology on the Nile water level data, with favorable comparison to the standard estimators.

  3. Double jeopardy in inferring cognitive processes

    PubMed Central

    Fific, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Inferences we make about underlying cognitive processes can be jeopardized in two ways due to problematic forms of aggregation. First, averaging across individuals is typically considered a very useful tool for removing random variability. The threat is that averaging across subjects leads to averaging across different cognitive strategies, thus harming our inferences. The second threat comes from the construction of inadequate research designs possessing a low diagnostic accuracy of cognitive processes. For that reason we introduced the systems factorial technology (SFT), which has primarily been designed to make inferences about underlying processing order (serial, parallel, coactive), stopping rule (terminating, exhaustive), and process dependency. SFT proposes that the minimal research design complexity to learn about n number of cognitive processes should be equal to 2n. In addition, SFT proposes that (a) each cognitive process should be controlled by a separate experimental factor, and (b) The saliency levels of all factors should be combined in a full factorial design. In the current study, the author cross combined the levels of jeopardies in a 2 × 2 analysis, leading to four different analysis conditions. The results indicate a decline in the diagnostic accuracy of inferences made about cognitive processes due to the presence of each jeopardy in isolation and when combined. The results warrant the development of more individual subject analyses and the utilization of full-factorial (SFT) experimental designs. PMID:25374545

  4. Annals of morphology. Atavisms: phylogenetic Lazarus?

    PubMed

    Zanni, Ginevra; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    Dedication: with highest respect and affection to Prof. Giovanni Neri on the eve of his official administrative retirement as Chair of the Institute of Medical Genetics of the Università Cattolica of Rome for leadership in medical genetics and medical science and friendship for decades. The concept "atavism," reversion, throwback, Rückschlag remains an epistemological challenge in biology; unwise or implausible over-interpretation of a given structure as such has led some to almost total skepticism as to its existence. Originating in botany in the 18th century it became applied to zoology (and humans) with increasing frequency over the last two centuries such that the very concept became widely discredited. Presently, atavisms have acquired a new life and reconsideration given certain reasonable criteria, including: Homology of structure of the postulated atavism to that of ancestral fossils or collateral species with plausible soft tissue reconstructions taking into account relationships of parts, obvious sites of origin and insertion of muscles, vascular channels, etc. Most parsimonious, plausible phylogenetic assumptions. Evident rudimentary or vestigial anatomical state in prior generations or in morphogenesis of a given organism. Developmental instability in prior generations, that is, some closely related species facultatively with or without the trait. Genetic identity or phylogenomic similarity inferred in ancestors and corroborated in more or less closely related species. Fluctuating asymmetry may be the basis for the striking evolutionary diversification and common atavisms in limbs; however, strong selection and developmental constraints would make atavisms in, for example, cardiac or CNS development less likely. Thus, purported atavisms must be examined critically in light of the above criteria.

  5. RWTY (R We There Yet): An R package for examining convergence of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Warren, Dan L; Geneva, Anthony J; Lanfear, Robert

    2017-01-12

    Bayesian inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) has become one of the primary methods used to infer phylogenies from sequence data. Assessing convergence is a crucial component of these analyses, as it establishes the reliability of the posterior distribution estimates of the tree topology and model parameters sampled from the MCMC. Numerous tests and visualizations have been developed for this purpose, but many of the most popular methods are implemented in ways that make them inconvenient to use for large data sets. RWTY is an R package that implements established and new methods for diagnosing phylogenetic MCMC convergence in a single convenient interface.

  6. Deep-time phylogenetic clustering of extinctions in an evolutionarily dynamic clade (Early Jurassic ammonites).

    PubMed

    Hardy, Clotilde; Fara, Emmanuel; Laffont, Rémi; Dommergues, Jean-Louis; Meister, Christian; Neige, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Conservation biologists and palaeontologists are increasingly investigating the phylogenetic distribution of extinctions and its evolutionary consequences. However, the dearth of palaeontological studies on that subject and the lack of methodological consensus hamper our understanding of that major evolutionary phenomenon. Here we address this issue by (i) reviewing the approaches used to quantify the phylogenetic selectivity of extinctions and extinction risks; (ii) investigating with a high-resolution dataset whether extinctions and survivals were phylogenetically clustered among early Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) ammonites; (iii) exploring the phylogenetic and temporal maintenance of this signal. We found that ammonite extinctions were significantly clumped phylogenetically, a pattern that prevailed throughout the 6.6 Myr-long early Pliensbachian interval. Such a phylogenetic conservatism did not alter--or may even have promoted--the evolutionary success of this major cephalopod clade. However, the comparison of phylogenetic autocorrelation among studies remains problematic because the notion of phylogenetic conservatism is scale-dependent and the intensity of the signal is sensitive to temporal resolution. We recommend a combined use of Moran's I, Pearson's ϕ and Fritz and Purvis' D statistics because they highlight different facets of the phylogenetic pattern of extinctions and/or survivals.

  7. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    PubMed

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  8. Phylogenetic placement of the Spirosomaceae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Maloy, S.; Mandelco, L.; Raj, H. D.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequences shows that the family Spirosomaceae belongs within the eubacterial phylum defined by the flavobacteria and bacteriodes. Its constituent genera, Spirosoma, Flectobacillus, and Runella form a monophyletic grouping therein. The phylogenetic assignment is based not only upon evolutionary distance analysis, but also upon sequence signatures and higher order structural synapomorphies in 16S rRNA. Another genus peripherally associated with the Spirosomaceae, Ancylobacter ("Microcyclus"), does not cluster with the flavobacteria and their relatives, but rather belongs to the alpha subdivision of the purple bacteria.

  9. Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of akaike information criterion and bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests.

    PubMed

    Posada, David; Buckley, Thomas R

    2004-10-01

    Model selection is a topic of special relevance in molecular phylogenetics that affects many, if not all, stages of phylogenetic inference. Here we discuss some fundamental concepts and techniques of model selection in the context of phylogenetics. We start by reviewing different aspects of the selection of substitution models in phylogenetics from a theoretical, philosophical and practical point of view, and summarize this comparison in table format. We argue that the most commonly implemented model selection approach, the hierarchical likelihood ratio test, is not the optimal strategy for model selection in phylogenetics, and that approaches like the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian methods offer important advantages. In particular, the latter two methods are able to simultaneously compare multiple nested or nonnested models, assess model selection uncertainty, and allow for the estimation of phylogenies and model parameters using all available models (model-averaged inference or multimodel inference). We also describe how the relative importance of the different parameters included in substitution models can be depicted. To illustrate some of these points, we have applied AIC-based model averaging to 37 mitochondrial DNA sequences from the subgenus Ohomopterus(genus Carabus) ground beetles described by Sota and Vogler (2001).

  10. Analysis of the secondary structure of ITS1 in Pectinidae: implications for phylogenetic reconstruction and structural evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Jingjie

    2007-01-01

    It is at present difficult to accurately position gaps in sequence alignment and to determine substructural homology in structure alignment when reconstructing phylogenies based on highly divergent sequences. Therefore, we have developed a new strategy for inferring phylogenies based on highly divergent sequences. In this new strategy, the whole secondary structure presented as a string in bracket notation is used as phylogenetic characters to infer phylogenetic relationships. It is no longer necessary to decompose the secondary structure into homologous substructural components. In this study, reliable phylogenetic relationships of eight species in Pectinidae were inferred from the structure alignment, but not from sequence alignment, even with the aid of structural information. The results suggest that this new strategy should be useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships based on highly divergent sequences. Moreover, the structural evolution of ITS1 in Pectinidae was also investigated. The whole ITS1 structure could be divided into four structural domains. Compensatory changes were found in all four structural domains. Structural motifs in these domains were identified further. These motifs, especially those in D2 and D3, may have important functions in the maturation of rRNAs.

  11. Phylogenetic Reconstruction as a Broadly Applicable Teaching Tool in the Biology Classroom: The Value of Data in Estimating Likely Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Matthew L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2006-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to a fundamental tool in evolutionary biology--phylogenetic inference. Students are required to create a data set via observation and through mining preexisting data sets. These student data sets are then used to develop and compare competing hypotheses of vertebrate phylogeny. The exercise uses readily…

  12. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-10-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR), since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e., standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and nonrandom spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that, for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD.

  13. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity-area relationships at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Renaud, Julien; Guilhaumon, François; Mouillot, David; Gravel, Dominique; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the species-area relationship (SAR), one of the few laws in Ecology, the phylogenetic diversity-area relationship (PDAR) describes the tendency of phylogenetic diversity (PD) to increase with area. Although investigating PDAR has the potential to unravel the underlying processes shaping assemblages across spatial scales and to predict PD loss through habitat reduction, it has been little investigated so far. Focusing on PD has noticeable advantages compared to species richness (SR) since PD also gives insights on processes such as speciation/extinction, assembly rules and ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate the universality and pervasiveness of the PDAR at continental scale using terrestrial mammals as study case. We define the relative robustness of PD (compared to SR) to habitat loss as the area between the standardized PDAR and standardized SAR (i.e. standardized by the diversity of the largest spatial window) divided by the area under the standardized SAR only. This metric quantifies the relative increase of PD robustness compared to SR robustness. We show that PD robustness is higher than SR robustness but that it varies among continents. We further use a null model approach to disentangle the relative effect of phylogenetic tree shape and non random spatial distribution of evolutionary history on the PDAR. We find that for most spatial scales and for all continents except Eurasia, PDARs are not different from expected by a model using only the observed SAR and the shape of the phylogenetic tree at continental scale. Interestingly, we detect a strong phylogenetic structure of the Eurasian PDAR that can be predicted by a model that specifically account for a finer biogeographical delineation of this continent. In conclusion, the relative robustness of PD to habitat loss compared to species richness is determined by the phylogenetic tree shape but also depends on the spatial structure of PD. PMID:26649401

  14. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  15. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  16. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  17. Phylogenetic Conservatism in Plant Phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Salamin, Nicolas; Allen, Jenica M.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Mazer, Susan J.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Pau, Stephanie; Regetz, Jim; Schwartz, Mark D.; Travers, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Phenological events defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism the tendency for closely related species to share similar ecological and biological attributes in phenological traits across flowering plants. We aggregated published and unpublished data on timing of first flower and first leaf, encompassing 4000 species at 23 sites across the Northern Hemisphere. We reconstructed the phylogeny for the set of included species, first, using the software program Phylomatic, and second, from DNA data. We then quantified phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology within and across sites. We show that more closely related species tend to flower and leaf at similar times. By contrasting mean flowering times within and across sites, however, we illustrate that it is not the time of year that is conserved, but rather the phenological responses to a common set of abiotic cues. Our findings suggest that species cannot be treated as statistically independent when modelling phenological responses.Closely related species tend to resemble each other in the timing of their life-history events, a likely product of evolutionarily conserved responses to environmental cues. The search for the underlying drivers of phenology must therefore account for species' shared evolutionary histories.

  18. Estimating Bayesian Phylogenetic Information Content

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul O.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Kuo, Lynn; Lewis, Louise A.; Fučíková, Karolina; Neupane, Suman; Wang, Yu-Bo; Shi, Daoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the phylogenetic information content of data has a long history in systematics. Here we explore a Bayesian approach to information content estimation. The entropy of the posterior distribution compared with the entropy of the prior distribution provides a natural way to measure information content. If the data have no information relevant to ranking tree topologies beyond the information supplied by the prior, the posterior and prior will be identical. Information in data discourages consideration of some hypotheses allowed by the prior, resulting in a posterior distribution that is more concentrated (has lower entropy) than the prior. We focus on measuring information about tree topology using marginal posterior distributions of tree topologies. We show that both the accuracy and the computational efficiency of topological information content estimation improve with use of the conditional clade distribution, which also allows topological information content to be partitioned by clade. We explore two important applications of our method: providing a compelling definition of saturation and detecting conflict among data partitions that can negatively affect analyses of concatenated data. [Bayesian; concatenation; conditional clade distribution; entropy; information; phylogenetics; saturation.] PMID:27155008

  19. Social Inference Through Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulasvirta, Antti

    Awareness cues are computer-mediated, real-time indicators of people’s undertakings, whereabouts, and intentions. Already in the mid-1970 s, UNIX users could use commands such as “finger” and “talk” to find out who was online and to chat. The small icons in instant messaging (IM) applications that indicate coconversants’ presence in the discussion space are the successors of “finger” output. Similar indicators can be found in online communities, media-sharing services, Internet relay chat (IRC), and location-based messaging applications. But presence and availability indicators are only the tip of the iceberg. Technological progress has enabled richer, more accurate, and more intimate indicators. For example, there are mobile services that allow friends to query and follow each other’s locations. Remote monitoring systems developed for health care allow relatives and doctors to assess the wellbeing of homebound patients (see, e.g., Tang and Venables 2000). But users also utilize cues that have not been deliberately designed for this purpose. For example, online gamers pay attention to other characters’ behavior to infer what the other players are like “in real life.” There is a common denominator underlying these examples: shared activities rely on the technology’s representation of the remote person. The other human being is not physically present but present only through a narrow technological channel.

  20. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    PubMed

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity).

  1. AST: an automated sequence-sampling method for improving the taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php.

  2. AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php. PMID:24892935

  3. Molecular Phylogenetics: Concepts for a Newcomer.

    PubMed

    Ajawatanawong, Pravech

    2016-10-26

    Molecular phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms using molecular sequence data. The aim of this review is to introduce the important terminology and general concepts of tree reconstruction to biologists who lack a strong background in the field of molecular evolution. Some modern phylogenetic programs are easy to use because of their user-friendly interfaces, but understanding the phylogenetic algorithms and substitution models, which are based on advanced statistics, is still important for the analysis and interpretation without a guide. Briefly, there are five general steps in carrying out a phylogenetic analysis: (1) sequence data preparation, (2) sequence alignment, (3) choosing a phylogenetic reconstruction method, (4) identification of the best tree, and (5) evaluating the tree. Concepts in this review enable biologists to grasp the basic ideas behind phylogenetic analysis and also help provide a sound basis for discussions with expert phylogeneticists.

  4. Influence of environmental variability on phylogenetic diversity and trait diversity within Calligonum communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Yang, Hong-Lan; Wang, Xi-Yong; Shi, Wei; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Since phylogenetic data provide the evolutionary history of the species and traits are the result of adaptation to the environmental conditions, joint analysis of these two aspects and ecological data may illuminate that how ecological processes affect the evolution of species and assembly of communities. In this study, we compared the community structure of sibling communities in order to illuminate the influence of environmental variability. We chose different Calligonum communities as research subjects which grow in active sand dunes and stabilized sand fields. Our results show that species which co-occurred in C. rubicundum community have greater phylogenetic evenness compared to species in other communities where co-occurring plants had similar traits. Soil variability might legitimately explain this result. Based on the similarity between the pattern of trait diversity and the pattern of phylogenetic diversity, we inferred that the evolution of traits is conservative and species of all but C. rubicundum communities are under more intense selection pressure.

  5. Using multiple analytical methods to improve phylogenetic hypotheses in Minaria (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Luz; Rapini, Alessandro; Silva, Uiara Catharina Soares E; Berg, Cássio van den

    2012-12-01

    Metastelmatinae is a neotropical subtribe of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), comprising 13 genera and around 260 species whose phylogenetic relationships are often unresolved or incongruent between plastid and nuclear datasets. The genus Minaria is one of the first lineages to emerge in the Metastelmatinae and is highly supported based on plastid markers. It comprises 21 species, most of which are endemic to small areas with open vegetation in the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In the work presented here, we use plastid (rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG, and trnD-trnT) and nuclear (ITS and ETS) datasets to investigate the relationships within Minaria. We show that the three methods mostly used in phylogenetic studies, namely, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference, have different performances and that a pluralistic analytical approach combining results from them can increase tree resolution and clade confidence, providing valuable phylogenetic information.

  6. Nuclear and mitochondrial genes for inferring Trichuris phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Rocío; Cutillas, Cristina; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene (624 bp) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) gene (520 bp) were obtained by PCR and evaluated for utility in inferring the phylogenetic relationships among Trichuris species. Published sequences of one other nuclear gene (18S or SSU rRNA, 1816-1846 bp) and one additional mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene (cytochrome oxidase 1, cox1, 342 bp) were also analyzed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to infer phylogenies for each gene separately but also for the combined mitochondrial data (two genes), the combined nuclear data (two genes), and the total evidence (four gene) dataset. Few Trichuris clades were uniformly resolved across separate analyses of individual genes. For the mtDNA, the cob gene trees had greater phylogenetic resolution and tended to have higher support values than the cox1 analyses. For nuclear genes, the SSU gene trees had slightly greater resolution and support values than the TPI analyses, but TPI was the only gene with reliable support for the deepest nodes in the tree. Combined analyses of genes yielded strongly supported clades in most cases, with the exception of the relationship among Trichuris clades 1, 2, and 3, which showed conflicting results between nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Both the TPI and cob genes proved valuable for inferring Trichuris relationships, with greatest resolution and support values achieved through combined analysis of multiple genes. Based on the phylogeny of the combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, parsimony mapping of definitive host utilization depicts artiodactyls as the ancestral hosts for these Trichuris, with host-shifts into primates, rodents, and Carnivora.

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of Pelecaniformes (Aves) Based on Osteological Data: Implications for Waterbird Phylogeny and Fossil Calibration Studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    molecular phylogenies than previously assumed, though notable conflicts remain. The phylogenetic position of the Plotopteridae implies that wing-propelled diving evolved independently in plotopterids and penguins, representing a remarkable case of convergent evolution. Despite robust support for the placement of fossil taxa representing key calibration points, the successive outgroup relationships of several “stem fossil + crown family” clades are variable and poorly supported across recent studies of avian phylogeny. Thus, the impact these fossils have on inferred patterns of temporal diversification depends heavily on the resolution of deep nodes in avian phylogeny. PMID:20976229

  8. An entropy-based approach for the identification of phylogenetically informative genomic regions of Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Batista, Marcus V A; Ferreira, Tiago A E; Freitas, Antonio C; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2011-12-01

    The papillomaviruses form a highly diverse group that infect mammals, birds and reptiles. We know little about their genetic diversity and therefore the evolutionary mechanisms that drive the diversity of these viruses. Genomic sequences of papillomaviruses are highly divergent and so it is important to develop methods that select the most phylogenetic informative sites. This study aimed at making use of a novel approach based on entropy to select suitable genomic regions from which to infer the phylogeny of papillomavirus. Comparative genomic analyzes were performed to assess the genetic variability of each gene of Papillomaviridae family members. Regions with low entropy were selected to reconstruct papillomavirus phylogenetic trees based on four different methods. This methodology allowed us to identify regions that are conserved among papillomaviruses that infect different hosts. This is important because, despite the huge variation among all papillomaviruses genomes, we were able to find regions that are clearly shared among them, presenting low complexity levels of information from which phylogenetic predictions can be made. This approach allowed us to obtain robust topologies from relatively small datasets. The results indicate that the entropy approach can successfully select regions of the genome that are good markers from which to infer phylogenetic relationships, using less computational time, making the estimation of large phylogenies more accessible.

  9. Alu elements and hominid phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Salem, Abdel-Halim; Ray, David A; Xing, Jinchuan; Callinan, Pauline A; Myers, Jeremy S; Hedges, Dale J; Garber, Randall K; Witherspoon, David J; Jorde, Lynn B; Batzer, Mark A

    2003-10-28

    Alu elements have inserted in primate genomes throughout the evolution of the order. One particular Alu lineage (Ye) began amplifying relatively early in hominid evolution and continued propagating at a low level as many of its members are found in a variety of hominid genomes. This study represents the first conclusive application of short interspersed elements, which are considered nearly homoplasy-free, to elucidate the phylogeny of hominids. Phylogenetic analysis of Alu Ye5 elements and elements from several other subfamilies reveals high levels of support for monophyly of Hominidae, tribe Hominini and subtribe Hominina. Here we present the strongest evidence reported to date for a sister relationship between humans and chimpanzees while clearly distinguishing the chimpanzee and human lineages.

  10. Visual exploration of parameter influence on phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Hess, Martin; Bremm, Sebastian; Weissgraeber, Stephanie; Hamacher, Kay; Goesele, Michael; Wiemeyer, Josef; von Landesberger, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships between organisms are frequently derived as phylogenetic trees inferred from multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). The MSA parameter space is exponentially large, so tens of thousands of potential trees can emerge for each dataset. A proposed visual-analytics approach can reveal the parameters' impact on the trees. Given input trees created with different parameter settings, it hierarchically clusters the trees according to their structural similarity. The most important clusters of similar trees are shown together with their parameters. This view offers interactive parameter exploration and automatic identification of relevant parameters. Biologists applied this approach to real data of 16S ribosomal RNA and protein sequences of ion channels. It revealed which parameters affected the tree structures. This led to a more reliable selection of the best trees.

  11. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  12. The phylogenetic distribution of ultraviolet sensitivity in birds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colour vision in birds can be categorized into two classes, the ultraviolet (UVS) and violet sensitive (VS). Their phylogenetic distributions have traditionally been regarded as highly conserved. However, the complicated nature of acquiring spectral sensitivities from cone photoreceptors meant that until recently, only a few species had actually been studied. Whether birds are UVS or VS can nowadays be inferred from a wide range of species via genomic sequencing of the UV/violet SWS1 cone opsin gene. Results We present genomic sequencing results of the SWS1 gene from 21 avian orders. Amino acid residues signifying UV sensitivity are found in the two most important spectral tuning sites 86 and 90 of Pteroclidiformes and Coraciiformes, in addition to the major clades, Palaeognathae, Charadriiformes, Trogoniformes, Psittaciformes and Passeriformes, where they where previously known to occur. We confirm that the presumed UVS-conferring amino acid combination F86, C90 and M93 is common to Palaeognathae and unique to this clade, despite available spectrometric evidence showing the ostrich retina to be VS. Conclusions By mapping our results together with data from previous studies on a molecular phylogeny we show that avian colour vision shifted between VS and UVS at least 14 times. Single nucleotide substitutions can explain all these shifts. The common ancestor of birds most likely had a VS phenotype. However, the ancestral state of the avian SWS1 opsin’s spectral tuning sites cannot be resolved, since the Palaeognathae are F86, C90 while the Neognathae are ancestrally S86, S90. The phylogenetic distribution of UVS and VS colour vision in birds is so complex that inferences of spectral sensitivities from closely related taxa should be used with caution. PMID:23394614

  13. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.

  14. Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Lemurs Inferred with Recent and Ancient Fossils in the Tree.

    PubMed

    Herrera, James P; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-09-01

    Paleontological and neontological systematics seek to answer evolutionary questions with different data sets. Phylogenies inferred for combined extant and extinct taxa provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of life. Primates have an extensive, diverse fossil record and molecular data for living and extinct taxa are rapidly becoming available. We used two models to infer the phylogeny and divergence times for living and fossil primates, the tip-dating (TD) and fossilized birth-death process (FBD). We collected new morphological data, especially on the living and extinct endemic lemurs of Madagascar. We combined the morphological data with published DNA sequences to infer near-complete (88% of lemurs) time-calibrated phylogenies. The results suggest that primates originated around the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, slightly earlier than indicated by the fossil record and later than previously inferred from molecular data alone. We infer novel relationships among extinct lemurs, and strong support for relationships that were previously unresolved. Dates inferred with TD were significantly older than those inferred with FBD, most likely related to an assumption of a uniform branching process in the TD compared with a birth-death process assumed in the FBD. This is the first study to combine morphological and DNA sequence data from extinct and extant primates to infer evolutionary relationships and divergence times, and our results shed new light on the tempo of lemur evolution and the efficacy of combined phylogenetic analyses.

  15. Bayesian Inference of Galaxy Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Weinberg, M.; Katz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable inference on galaxy morphology from quantitative analysis of ensemble galaxy images is challenging but essential ingredient in studying galaxy formation and evolution, utilizing current and forthcoming large scale surveys. To put galaxy image decomposition problem in broader context of statistical inference problem and derive a rigorous statistical confidence levels of the inference, I developed a novel galaxy image decomposition tool, GALPHAT (GALaxy PHotometric ATtributes) that exploits recent developments in Bayesian computation to provide full posterior probability distributions and reliable confidence intervals for all parameters. I will highlight the significant improvements in galaxy image decomposition using GALPHAT, over the conventional model fitting algorithms and introduce the GALPHAT potential to infer the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological structures, using ensemble posteriors of galaxy morphological parameters from the entire galaxy population that one studies.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among onychophora from Australasia inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D M; Rowell, D M; Tait, N N; Briscoe, D A; Higgins, A V

    1998-10-01

    Nucleotide sequence variation in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (456 bp) was examined for 26 onychophorans representing 15 genera of the family Peripatopsidae from Australasia. Sequence analysis revealed high intergeneric COI sequence divergence (up to 20.6% corrected) but low amino acid substitution rates, with high levels of transitional saturation evident. Among unambiguously alignable sequences, parsimony and distance analyses revealed a broadly congruent tree topology, robust to various algorithms and statistical analysis. There are two major groupings. One, largely unresolved, consists entirely of Australian mainland taxa. The other, for which there is convincing support, includes all of the New Zealand and Tasmanian taxa together with one mainland Australian species. In respect of the two major groupings, this topology is consistent with previous morphologically based phylogenies and provides further evidence for an ancient radiation within the mainland Australian Onychophora. The biogeographic implications of the close affinities revealed between the Tasmanian and New Zealand taxa are discussed.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships within the Alcidae (Charadriiformes: Aves) inferred from total molecular evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, V.L.; Baker, Allan J.; Piatt, John F.

    1996-01-01

    The Alcidae is a unique assemblage of Northern Hemisphere seabirds that forage by "flying" underwater. Despite obvious affinities among the species, their evolutionary relationships are unclear. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of 1,045 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and allelic profiles for 37 allozyme loci in all 22 extant species. Trees were constructed on independent and combined data sets using maximum parsimony and distance methods that correct for superimposed changes. Alternative methods of analysis produced only minor differences in relationships that were supported strongly by bootstrapping or standard error tests. Combining sequence and allozyme data into a single analysis provided the greatest number of relationships receiving strong support. Addition of published morphological and ecological data did not improve support for any additional relationship. All analyses grouped species into six distinct lineages: (1) the dovekie (Alle alle) and auks, (2) guillemots, (3) brachyramphine murrelets, (4) synthliboramphine murrelets, (5) true auklets, and (6) the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and puffins. The two murres (genus Uria) were sister taxa, and the black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) was basal to the other guillemots. The Asian subspecies of the marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus perdix) was the most divergent brachyramphine murrelet, and two distinct lineages occurred within the synthliboramphine murrelets. Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and the rhinoceros auklet were basal to the other auklets and puffins, respectively, and the Atlantic (Fratercula arctica) and horned (Fratercula corniculata) puffins were sister taxa. Several relationships among tribes, among the dovekie and auks, and among the auklets could not be resolved but resembled "star" phylogenies indicative of adaptive radiations at different depths within the trees.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae) has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) and various morphological characters, based on Mziray's taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Vepris (Rutaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear, and morphological data

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Toddalieae Hook. F. (Rutaceae) has been controversial since its inception by Bentham and Hooker. The nine taxa examined, Acronychia J.R. & G.Foster, Diphasia Pierre, Diphasiopsis Mendonca, Fagaropsis Mildbr.ex. Siebenl., Oricia Pierre, Teclea Delile, Toddaliopsis Engl., Toddalia Juss. and Vepris Comm. ex. A. Juss, have been recognized under the tribe Toddalieae or Tribes Acronychia, Phellodendron and Toddalia. More recently Araliopsis Engl., Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, and Toddaliopsis have been incorporated into the genus Vepris, while Toddalia and Fagaropsis have continued to be recognized as closely related. For this study, sequence data of one non-coding chloroplast region (trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) and various morphological characters, based on Mziray’s taxonomic studies were examined to try to elucidate these relationships. This study found that the taxa Diphasia, Diphasiopsis, Oricia, Teclea, Toddaliopsis, Vepris, Toddalia eugeniifolia Engl. and Toddalia glomerata F. Hoffm. form a monophyletic group. Due to the amount of intrageneric and intraspecific variation, species delimitations were difficult to determine; however, these genera should be united into Vepris. The analyses also confirmed that Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Zanthoxylon sp. and Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H.M. Gardner are the closest relatives to this group. PMID:28273098

  20. Late Proterozoic rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration inferred from phylogenetic and sulphur-isotope studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; Teske, A.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria was contemporaneous with a large shift in the isotopic composition of biogenic sedimentary sulphides between 0.64 and 1.05 billion years ago. Both events were probably driven by a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations to greater than 5-18% of present levels--a change that may also have triggered the evolution of animals.

  1. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of zoothamnium (ciliophora, peritrichia, sessilida).

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C; Williams, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The gene coding for 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in seven free-living, marine species of the sessiline peritrich genus Zoothamnium. These were Zoothamnium niveum, Zoothamnium alternans, Zoothamnium pelagicum, and four unidentified species. The ssu rRNA gene also was sequenced in Vorticella convallaria, Vorticella microstoma, and in an unidentified, freshwater species of Vorticella. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using these new sequences to test a previously published phylogenetic association between Zoothamnium arbuscula, currently in the family Zoothamniidae, and peritrichs in the family Vorticellidae. Trees constructed by means of neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods all had similar topologies. The seven new sequences of Zoothamnium species grouped into three well-supported clades, each of which contained a diversity of morphological types. The three clades formed a poorly supported, larger clade that was deeply divergent from Z. arbuscula, which remained more closely associated with vorticellid peritrichs. It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation, involving both morphological and molecular data and a wider selection of species, will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny. A greater amount of molecular diversity than is predicted by morphological data exists within all major clades of sessiline peritrichs that have been included in molecular phylogenies, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of phylum Actinobacteria based on whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Lal, Devi; Kaur, Jaspreet; Saxena, Anjali; Kaur, Jasvinder; Anand, Shailly; Lal, Rup

    2013-09-01

    Actinobacteria constitute one of the largest and ancient taxonomic phylum within the domain bacteria and are well known for their secondary metabolites. Considerable variation in the metabolic properties, genome size and GC content of the members of this phylum has been observed. Therefore, the placement of new or existing species based on 16S rRNA gene sometimes becomes problematic due to the low congruence level. In the present study, phylogeny of ninety actinobacterial genomes was reconstructed using single gene and whole genome based data. Where alignment-free phylogenetic method was found to be more robust, the concatenation of 94 proteins improved the resolution which all single gene based phylogenies failed to resolve. The comprehensive analysis of 94 conserved proteins resulted in a total of 42,447 informative sites, which is so far the largest meta-alignment obtained for this phylum. But the ultimate resolved phylogeny was obtained by generating a consensus tree by combining the information from single gene and genome based phylogenies. The present investigation clearly revealed that the consensus approach is a useful tool for phylogenetic inference and the taxonomic affiliations must be based on this approach. The consensus approach suggested that there is a need for taxonomic amendments of the orders Frankiales and Micrococcales.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Rhizoctonia fungi within the Cantharellales

    PubMed Central

    Gónzalez, Dolores; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Boekhout, Teun; Stalpers, Joost; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Nakatani, Andreia K.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Cubeta, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Rhizoctonia fungi within the order Cantharellales were studied using sequence data from portions of the ribosomal DNA cluster regions ITS-LSU, rpb2, tef1 and atp6 for 50 taxa, and public sequence data from the rpb2 locus for 165 taxa. Data sets were analyzed individually and combined using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference methods. All analyses supported the monophyly of the family Ceratobasidiaceae, which comprises the genera Ceratobasidium and Thanatephorus. Multi-locus analysis revealed 10 well supported monophyletic groups that were consistent with previous separation into anastomosis groups based on hyphal fusion criteria. This analysis coupled with analyses of a larger sample of 165 rpb2 sequences of fungi in the Cantharellales supported a sister relationship between the Botryobasidiaceae and Ceratobasidiaceae and a sister relationship of the Tulasnellaceae with the rest of the Cantharellales. The inclusion of additional sequence data did not clarify incongruences observed in previous studies of Rhizoctonia fungi in the Cantharellales based on analyses of a single or multiple genes. The diversity of ecological and morphological characters associated with these fungi requires further investigation on character evolution for re-evaluating homologous and homoplasious characters. PMID:27020160

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of sculpins of the subfamily Oligocottinae (Cottidae).

    PubMed

    Buser, Thaddaeus J; Andrés López, J

    2015-05-01

    The sculpin subfamily Oligocottinae includes 18-20 species of nearshore benthic fishes with a diverse array of reproductive strategies. As a first step toward understanding the evolution of that diversity, we conducted a phylogenetic study based on DNA sequences from eight genomic regions from 31 sculpin species aimed at testing monophyly and relationships of the Oligocottinae. Representatives from the perciform families Agonidae, Cottidae, Hemitripteridae, Hexagrammidae, Psychrolutidae, and Rhamphocottidae served as outgroups. The sequence data were analyzed in maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference frameworks. Results of these analyses show that a systematic revision of the group is warranted. The genus Clinocottus is a polyphyletic assemblage of three distinct lineages, which should be indicated by resurrection of the subgenera Blennicottus, Clinocottus, and Oxycottus; Leiocottus hirundo is more closely related to Clinocottus analis than C. analis is related to any other member of Clinocottus; the composition of the tribe Oligocottini should be revised to include only the genera Oligocottus, Clinocottus, and Orthonopias; and the genus Sigmistes should be removed from the subfamily Oligocottinae.

  5. Statistical Inference in Graphical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-17

    Probabilistic Network Library ( PNL ). While not fully mature, PNL does provide the most commonly-used algorithms for inference and learning with the efficiency...of C++, and also offers interfaces for calling the library from MATLAB and R 1361. Notably, both BNT and PNL provide learning and inference algorithms...mature and has been used for research purposes for several years, it is written in MATLAB and thus is not suitable to be used in real-time settings. PNL

  6. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  7. Bayesian Inference: with ecological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William A.; Barker, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference with relevant examples that will be of interest to biologists working in the fields of ecology, wildlife management and environmental studies as well as students in advanced undergraduate statistics.. This text opens the door to Bayesian inference, taking advantage of modern computational efficiencies and easily accessible software to evaluate complex hierarchical models.

  8. Inferring the Why in Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    images. To our knowledge, this challenging problem has not yet been extensively explored in computer vision. We present a novel learning based...automatically infers why people are performing actions in images by learning from visual data and written language. ∗denotes equal contribution 1 Report...explored in computer vision. We present a novel learning based framework that uses high-level visual recognition to infer why people are performing

  9. Causal inference in biology networks with integrated belief propagation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rui; Karr, Jonathan R; Schadt, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    Inferring causal relationships among molecular and higher order phenotypes is a critical step in elucidating the complexity of living systems. Here we propose a novel method for inferring causality that is no longer constrained by the conditional dependency arguments that limit the ability of statistical causal inference methods to resolve causal relationships within sets of graphical models that are Markov equivalent. Our method utilizes Bayesian belief propagation to infer the responses of perturbation events on molecular traits given a hypothesized graph structure. A distance measure between the inferred response distribution and the observed data is defined to assess the 'fitness' of the hypothesized causal relationships. To test our algorithm, we infer causal relationships within equivalence classes of gene networks in which the form of the functional interactions that are possible are assumed to be nonlinear, given synthetic microarray and RNA sequencing data. We also apply our method to infer causality in real metabolic network with v-structure and feedback loop. We show that our method can recapitulate the causal structure and recover the feedback loop only from steady-state data which conventional method cannot.

  10. Disjunctive illusory inferences and how to eliminate them.

    PubMed

    Khemlani, Sangeet; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2009-07-01

    The mental model theory of reasoning postulates that individuals construct mental models of the possibilities in which the premises of an inference hold and that these models represent what is true but not what is false. An unexpected consequence of this assumption is that certain premises should yield systematically invalid inferences. This prediction is unique among current theories of reasoning, because no alternative theory, whether based on formal rules of inference or on probabilistic considerations, predicts these illusory inferences. We report three studies of novel illusory inferences that depend on embedded disjunctions-for example, premises of this sort: A or else (B or else C). The theory distinguishes between those embedded disjunctions that should yield illusions and those that should not. In Experiment 1, we corroborated this distinction. In Experiment 2, we extended the illusory inferences to a more stringently controlled set of problems. In Experiment 3, we established a novel method for reducing illusions by calling for participants to make auxiliary inferences.

  11. Genealogical Working Distributions for Bayesian Model Testing with Phylogenetic Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Baele, Guy; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Marginal likelihood estimates to compare models using Bayes factors frequently accompany Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Approaches to estimate marginal likelihoods have garnered increased attention over the past decade. In particular, the introduction of path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone sampling (SS) into Bayesian phylogenetics has tremendously improved the accuracy of model selection. These sampling techniques are now used to evaluate complex evolutionary and population genetic models on empirical data sets, but considerable computational demands hamper their widespread adoption. Further, when very diffuse, but proper priors are specified for model parameters, numerical issues complicate the exploration of the priors, a necessary step in marginal likelihood estimation using PS or SS. To avoid such instabilities, generalized SS (GSS) has recently been proposed, introducing the concept of "working distributions" to facilitate--or shorten--the integration process that underlies marginal likelihood estimation. However, the need to fix the tree topology currently limits GSS in a coalescent-based framework. Here, we extend GSS by relaxing the fixed underlying tree topology assumption. To this purpose, we introduce a "working" distribution on the space of genealogies, which enables estimating marginal likelihoods while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty. We propose two different "working" distributions that help GSS to outperform PS and SS in terms of accuracy when comparing demographic and evolutionary models applied to synthetic data and real-world examples. Further, we show that the use of very diffuse priors can lead to a considerable overestimation in marginal likelihood when using PS and SS, while still retrieving the correct marginal likelihood using both GSS approaches. The methods used in this article are available in BEAST, a powerful user-friendly software package to perform Bayesian evolutionary analyses.

  12. Phylogenetic comparisons of bacterial communities from serpentine and nonserpentine soils.

    PubMed

    Oline, David K

    2006-11-01

    I present the results of a culture-independent survey of soil bacterial communities from serpentine soils and adjacent nonserpentine comparator soils using a variety of newly developed phylogenetically based statistical tools. The study design included site-based replication of the serpentine-to-nonserpentine community comparison over a regional scale ( approximately 100 km) in Northern California and Southern Oregon by producing 16S rRNA clone libraries from pairs of samples taken on either side of the serepentine-nonserpentine edaphic boundary at three geographical sites. At the division level, the serpentine and nonserpentine communities were similar to each other and to previous data from forest soils. Comparisons of both richness and Shannon diversity produced no significant differences between any of the libraries, but the vast majority of phylogenetically based tests were significant, even with only 50 sequences per library. These results suggest that most samples were distinct, consisting of a collection of lineages generally not found in other samples. The pattern of results showed that serpentine communities tended to be more similar to each other than they were to nonserpentine communities, and these differences were at a lower taxonomic scale. Comparisons of two nonserpentine communities generally showed differences, and some results suggest that the geographical site may control community composition as well. These results show the power of phylogenetic tests to discern differences between 16S rRNA libraries compared to tests that discard DNA data to bin sequences into operational taxonomic units, and they stress the importance of replication at larger scales for inferences regarding microbial biogeography.

  13. Phylogenetic informativeness reconciles ray-finned fish molecular divergence times

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discordance among individual molecular age estimates, or between molecular age estimates and the fossil record, is observed in many clades across the Tree of Life. This discordance is attributed to a variety of variables including calibration age uncertainty, calibration placement, nucleotide substitution rate heterogeneity, or the specified molecular clock model. However, the impact of changes in phylogenetic informativeness of individual genes over time on phylogenetic inferences is rarely analyzed. Using nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data for ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) as an example, we extend the utility of phylogenetic informativeness profiles to predict the time intervals when nucleotide substitution saturation results in discordance among molecular ages estimated. Results We demonstrate that even with identical calibration regimes and molecular clock methods, mitochondrial based molecular age estimates are systematically older than those estimated from nuclear sequences. This discordance is most severe for highly nested nodes corresponding to more recent (i.e., Jurassic-Recent) divergences. By removing data deemed saturated, we reconcile the competing age estimates and highlight that the older mtDNA based ages were driven by nucleotide saturation. Conclusions Homoplasious site patterns in a DNA sequence alignment can systematically bias molecular divergence time estimates. Our study demonstrates that PI profiles can provide a non-arbitrary criterion for data exclusion to mitigate the influence of homoplasy on time calibrated branch length estimates. Analyses of actinopterygian molecular clocks demonstrate that scrutiny of the time scale on which sequence data is informative is a fundamental, but generally overlooked, step in molecular divergence time estimation. PMID:25103329

  14. Phylogenetic Comparisons of Bacterial Communities from Serpentine and Nonserpentine Soils▿

    PubMed Central

    Oline, David K.

    2006-01-01

    I present the results of a culture-independent survey of soil bacterial communities from serpentine soils and adjacent nonserpentine comparator soils using a variety of newly developed phylogenetically based statistical tools. The study design included site-based replication of the serpentine-to-nonserpentine community comparison over a regional scale (∼100 km) in Northern California and Southern Oregon by producing 16S rRNA clone libraries from pairs of samples taken on either side of the serepentine-nonserpentine edaphic boundary at three geographical sites. At the division level, the serpentine and nonserpentine communities were similar to each other and to previous data from forest soils. Comparisons of both richness and Shannon diversity produced no significant differences between any of the libraries, but the vast majority of phylogenetically based tests were significant, even with only 50 sequences per library. These results suggest that most samples were distinct, consisting of a collection of lineages generally not found in other samples. The pattern of results showed that serpentine communities tended to be more similar to each other than they were to nonserpentine communities, and these differences were at a lower taxonomic scale. Comparisons of two nonserpentine communities generally showed differences, and some results suggest that the geographical site may control community composition as well. These results show the power of phylogenetic tests to discern differences between 16S rRNA libraries compared to tests that discard DNA data to bin sequences into operational taxonomic units, and they stress the importance of replication at larger scales for inferences regarding microbial biogeography. PMID:16950906

  15. Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.

  16. Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Eric A; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Ganesh, Omjoy K

    2008-02-07

    Biosignatures and structures in the geological record indicate that microbial life has inhabited Earth for the past 3.5 billion years or so. Research in the physical sciences has been able to generate statements about the ancient environment that hosted this life. These include the chemical compositions and temperatures of the early ocean and atmosphere. Only recently have the natural sciences been able to provide experimental results describing the environments of ancient life. Our previous work with resurrected proteins indicated that ancient life lived in a hot environment. Here we expand the timescale of resurrected proteins to provide a palaeotemperature trend of the environments that hosted life from 3.5 to 0.5 billion years ago. The thermostability of more than 25 phylogenetically dispersed ancestral elongation factors suggest that the environment supporting ancient life cooled progressively by 30 degrees C during that period. Here we show that our results are robust to potential statistical bias associated with the posterior distribution of inferred character states, phylogenetic ambiguity, and uncertainties in the amino-acid equilibrium frequencies used by evolutionary models. Our results are further supported by a nearly identical cooling trend for the ancient ocean as inferred from the deposition of oxygen isotopes. The convergence of results from natural and physical sciences suggest that ancient life has continually adapted to changes in environmental temperatures throughout its evolutionary history.

  17. Integrating fossils with molecular phylogenies improves inference of trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J; Harmon, Luke J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Comparative biologists often attempt to draw inferences about tempo and mode in evolution by comparing the fit of evolutionary models to phylogenetic comparative data consisting of a molecular phylogeny with branch lengths and trait measurements from extant taxa. These kinds of approaches ignore historical evidence for evolutionary pattern and process contained in the fossil record. In this article, we show through simulation that incorporation of fossil information dramatically improves our ability to distinguish among models of quantitative trait evolution using comparative data. We further suggest a novel Bayesian approach that allows fossil information to be integrated even when explicit phylogenetic hypotheses are lacking for extinct representatives of extant clades. By applying this approach to a comparative dataset comprising body sizes for caniform carnivorans, we show that incorporation of fossil information not only improves ancestral state estimates relative to those derived from extant taxa alone, but also results in preference of a model of evolution with trend toward large body size over alternative models such as Brownian motion or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Our approach highlights the importance of considering fossil information when making macroevolutionary inference, and provides a way to integrate the kind of sparse fossil information that is available to most evolutionary biologists.

  18. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics☆

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others – during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions – both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then – in principle – they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa. PMID:25957007

  19. Active inference, communication and hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Frith, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    Hermeneutics refers to interpretation and translation of text (typically ancient scriptures) but also applies to verbal and non-verbal communication. In a psychological setting it nicely frames the problem of inferring the intended content of a communication. In this paper, we offer a solution to the problem of neural hermeneutics based upon active inference. In active inference, action fulfils predictions about how we will behave (e.g., predicting we will speak). Crucially, these predictions can be used to predict both self and others--during speaking and listening respectively. Active inference mandates the suppression of prediction errors by updating an internal model that generates predictions--both at fast timescales (through perceptual inference) and slower timescales (through perceptual learning). If two agents adopt the same model, then--in principle--they can predict each other and minimise their mutual prediction errors. Heuristically, this ensures they are singing from the same hymn sheet. This paper builds upon recent work on active inference and communication to illustrate perceptual learning using simulated birdsongs. Our focus here is the neural hermeneutics implicit in learning, where communication facilitates long-term changes in generative models that are trying to predict each other. In other words, communication induces perceptual learning and enables others to (literally) change our minds and vice versa.

  20. Causal inference and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael

    2010-11-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether the risk factor actually causes outcomes. Random assignment is not possible in many instances, and for that reason, psychologists must rely on observational studies. Such studies identify associations, and causal interpretation of such associations requires additional assumptions. Research in developmental psychology generally has relied on various forms of linear regression, but this methodology has limitations for causal inference. Fortunately, methodological developments in various fields are providing new tools for causal inference-tools that rely on more plausible assumptions. This article describes the limitations of regression for causal inference and describes how new tools might offer better causal inference. This discussion highlights the importance of properly identifying covariates to include (and exclude) from the analysis. This discussion considers the directed acyclic graph for use in accomplishing this task. With the proper covariates having been chosen, many of the available methods rely on the assumption of "ignorability." The article discusses the meaning of ignorability and considers alternatives to this assumption, such as instrumental variables estimation. Finally, the article considers the use of the tools discussed in the context of a specific research question, the effect of family structure on child development.

  1. Quality of Computationally Inferred Gene Ontology Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Škunca, Nives; Altenhoff, Adrian; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) has established itself as the undisputed standard for protein function annotation. Most annotations are inferred electronically, i.e. without individual curator supervision, but they are widely considered unreliable. At the same time, we crucially depend on those automated annotations, as most newly sequenced genomes are non-model organisms. Here, we introduce a methodology to systematically and quantitatively evaluate electronic annotations. By exploiting changes in successive releases of the UniProt Gene Ontology Annotation database, we assessed the quality of electronic annotations in terms of specificity, reliability, and coverage. Overall, we not only found that electronic annotations have significantly improved in recent years, but also that their reliability now rivals that of annotations inferred by curators when they use evidence other than experiments from primary literature. This work provides the means to identify the subset of electronic annotations that can be relied upon—an important outcome given that >98% of all annotations are inferred without direct curation. PMID:22693439

  2. Causal inference in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Franks, P W; Atabaki-Pasdar, N

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine. Addressing this is important, as the prevention and treatment of any disease requires that interventions focus on causal risk factors. Disease prediction, although not dependent on knowing the causes, is nevertheless enhanced by such knowledge. Here, we provide an overview of some of the barriers to causal inference in obesity research and discuss analytical approaches, such as Mendelian randomization, that can help to overcome these obstacles. In a systematic review of the literature in this field, we found: (i) probable causal relationships between adiposity and bone health/disease, cancers (colorectal, lung and kidney cancers), cardiometabolic traits (blood pressure, fasting insulin, inflammatory markers and lipids), uric acid concentrations, coronary heart disease and venous thrombosis (in the presence of pulmonary embolism), (ii) possible causal relationships between adiposity and gray matter volume, depression and common mental disorders, oesophageal cancer, macroalbuminuria, end-stage renal disease, diabetic kidney disease, nuclear cataract and gall stone disease, and (iii) no evidence for causal relationships between adiposity and Alzheimer's disease, pancreatic cancer, venous thrombosis (in the absence of pulmonary embolism), liver function and periodontitis.

  3. Insect phylogenetics in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christopher H; Dmitriev, Dmitry A

    2016-12-01

    Insect systematists have long used digital data management tools to facilitate phylogenetic research. Web-based platforms developed over the past several years support creation of comprehensive, openly accessible data repositories and analytical tools that support large-scale collaboration, accelerating efforts to document Earth's biota and reconstruct the Tree of Life. New digital tools have the potential to further enhance insect phylogenetics by providing efficient workflows for capturing and analyzing phylogenetically relevant data. Recent initiatives streamline various steps in phylogenetic studies and provide community access to supercomputing resources. In the near future, automated, web-based systems will enable researchers to complete a phylogenetic study from start to finish using resources linked together within a single portal and incorporate results into a global synthesis.

  4. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg), Papaveraceae (opium poppy), Cactaceae (peyote), Convolvulaceae (morning glory), Solanaceae (tobacco), Lamiaceae (mints), Apocynaceae (dogbane) have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence). However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants suggests

  5. The dawn of open access to phylogenetic data.

    PubMed

    Magee, Andrew F; May, Michael R; Moore, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    The scientific enterprise depends critically on the preservation of and open access to published data. This basic tenet applies acutely to phylogenies (estimates of evolutionary relationships among species). Increasingly, phylogenies are estimated from increasingly large, genome-scale datasets using increasingly complex statistical methods that require increasing levels of expertise and computational investment. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic data provide an explicit historical perspective that critically informs research in a vast and growing number of scientific disciplines. One such use is the study of changes in rates of lineage diversification (speciation--extinction) through time. As part of a meta-analysis in this area, we sought to collect phylogenetic data (comprising nucleotide sequence alignment and tree files) from 217 studies published in 46 journals over a 13-year period. We document our attempts to procure those data (from online archives and by direct request to corresponding authors), and report results of analyses (using Bayesian logistic regression) to assess the impact of various factors on the success of our efforts. Overall, complete phylogenetic data for [Formula: see text] of these studies are effectively lost to science. Our study indicates that phylogenetic data are more likely to be deposited in online archives and/or shared upon request when: (1) the publishing journal has a strong data-sharing policy; (2) the publishing journal has a higher impact factor, and; (3) the data are requested from faculty rather than students. Importantly, our survey spans recent policy initiatives and infrastructural changes; our analyses indicate that the positive impact of these community initiatives has been both dramatic and immediate. Although the results of our study indicate that the situation is dire, our findings also reveal tremendous recent progress in the sharing and preservation of phylogenetic data.

  6. Neural substrates of cognitive biases during probabilistic inference

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Alireza; Khorsand, Peyman; Guo, Clara; Farashahi, Shiva; Liu, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Decision making often requires simultaneously learning about and combining evidence from various sources of information. However, when making inferences from these sources, humans show systematic biases that are often attributed to heuristics or limitations in cognitive processes. Here we use a combination of experimental and modelling approaches to reveal neural substrates of probabilistic inference and corresponding biases. We find systematic deviations from normative accounts of inference when alternative options are not equally rewarding; subjects' choice behaviour is biased towards the more rewarding option, whereas their inferences about individual cues show the opposite bias. Moreover, inference bias about combinations of cues depends on the number of cues. Using a biophysically plausible model, we link these biases to synaptic plasticity mechanisms modulated by reward expectation and attention. We demonstrate that inference relies on direct estimation of posteriors, not on combination of likelihoods and prior. Our work reveals novel mechanisms underlying cognitive biases and contributions of interactions between reward-dependent learning, decision making and attention to high-level reasoning. PMID:27116102

  7. Neural substrates of cognitive biases during probabilistic inference.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Alireza; Khorsand, Peyman; Guo, Clara; Farashahi, Shiva; Liu, Janet

    2016-04-26

    Decision making often requires simultaneously learning about and combining evidence from various sources of information. However, when making inferences from these sources, humans show systematic biases that are often attributed to heuristics or limitations in cognitive processes. Here we use a combination of experimental and modelling approaches to reveal neural substrates of probabilistic inference and corresponding biases. We find systematic deviations from normative accounts of inference when alternative options are not equally rewarding; subjects' choice behaviour is biased towards the more rewarding option, whereas their inferences about individual cues show the opposite bias. Moreover, inference bias about combinations of cues depends on the number of cues. Using a biophysically plausible model, we link these biases to synaptic plasticity mechanisms modulated by reward expectation and attention. We demonstrate that inference relies on direct estimation of posteriors, not on combination of likelihoods and prior. Our work reveals novel mechanisms underlying cognitive biases and contributions of interactions between reward-dependent learning, decision making and attention to high-level reasoning.

  8. SUNPLIN: Simulation with Uncertainty for Phylogenetic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative analyses usually rely on a single consensus phylogenetic tree in order to study evolutionary processes. However, most phylogenetic trees are incomplete with regard to species sampling, which may critically compromise analyses. Some approaches have been proposed to integrate non-molecular phylogenetic information into incomplete molecular phylogenies. An expanded tree approach consists of adding missing species to random locations within their clade. The information contained in the topology of the resulting expanded trees can be captured by the pairwise phylogenetic distance between species and stored in a matrix for further statistical analysis. Thus, the random expansion and processing of multiple phylogenetic trees can be used to estimate the phylogenetic uncertainty through a simulation procedure. Because of the computational burden required, unless this procedure is efficiently implemented, the analyses are of limited applicability. Results In this paper, we present efficient algorithms and implementations for randomly expanding and processing phylogenetic trees so that simulations involved in comparative phylogenetic analysis with uncertainty can be conducted in a reasonable time. We propose algorithms for both randomly expanding trees and calculating distance matrices. We made available the source code, which was written in the C++ language. The code may be used as a standalone program or as a shared object in the R system. The software can also be used as a web service through the link: http://purl.oclc.org/NET/sunplin/. Conclusion We compare our implementations to similar solutions and show that significant performance gains can be obtained. Our results open up the possibility of accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty in evolutionary and ecological analyses of large datasets. PMID:24229408

  9. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of Hispaniolan and Bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group).

    PubMed

    Geneva, Anthony J; Hilton, Jared; Noll, Sabina; Glor, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and to use this dataset to infe